Samadi, N; Sharifan, A; Emam-Djomeh, Z; Sormaghi, M H Salehi
Hamburgers with high nutrient supply and a loosely-packed structure present favourable conditions for microbial growth. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora and its potential application as a natural preservative in reducing the indigenous microbial population of hamburgers were investigated. Carvacrol, thymol and linalool were found to be the most abundant constituents of the essential oil using GC-MS analysis. The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Addition of Z. multiflora essential oil in concentrations higher than MIC values influenced the microbial population of hamburgers stored at 25°C, 4°C and -12°C. The significant results of this study are our observations that the use of Z. multiflora essential oil at 0.05% v/w increases the time needed for the natural microflora of hamburgers to reach concentrations able to produce a perceivable spoilage at refrigerator and room temperatures without any inverse effect on their sensory attributes. Freezing of essential oil-treated hamburgers may also reduce the risk of diseases associated with consumption of under-cooked hamburgers through significant microbial reduction by more than 3 log.
Mahboubi, M; HeidaryTabar, R; Mahdizadeh, E
Dermtophytes are a group of pathogenic fungi and the major cause of dermatophytosis in humans and animals. Fighting dermatophytes by natural essential oils is one important issue in new researches. In this investigation, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of three samples of Z. multiflora essential oils against dermatophytes along with analysis of chemical compositions of the essential oils and their anti-elastase activities on elastase production in dermatophytes. Carvacrol (1.5-34.4%), thymol (25.8-41.2%), carvacrol methyl ether (1.9-28.3%) and p-cymene (2.3-8.3%) were the main components of Z. multiflora essential oils. Z. multiflora essential oils (100ppm) inhibited the mycelium growth of dermatophytes (6±1.7-47.0±1.4%) and had the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.03-0.25μl/ml against dermatophytes. Essential oils inhibited elastase produced in dermatophytes and pure porcine elastase. Z. multiflora essential oils can be used as natural anti-dermatophyte agent for fighting dermatophytes in further preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nasseri, Mahboobeh; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Arouiee, Hossein; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Neamati, Hossein
The aim of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO). In this study, Z. multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (ZE-SLNs) were prepared to improve its efficiency in controlling some fungal pathogens. SLNs containing Z. multiflora essential oil were prepared by high shear homogenization and ultra sound technique. ZEO-SLNs contained 0.03% ZEO in 5% of lipid phase (Glyceryl monostearate-GMS and Precirol® ATO 5). Tween 80 and Poloxamer 188 (2.5% w/v) were used as surfactant in the aqueous phase. The antifungal efficacy of ZE-SLNs and ZEO was compared under in vitro conditions. The particle size of ZE-SLNs was around 255.5±3 nm with PDI of 0.369±0.05 and zeta potential was about -37.8±0.8 mV. Encapsulation efficacy of ZE-SLNs in crystalline form was 84±0.92%. The results showed that the ZEO and ZE-SLNs had 54 and 79% inhibition on the growth of fungal pathogens, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) under in vitro conditions for the ZEO on the fungal pathogens of Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani, and Rhizopus stolonifer was 300, 200, 300, 200, 200 and 200 ppm, respectively, for ZE-SLNs, it was 200, 200, 200, 100, 50 and 50 ppm. The antifungal efficacy of ZE-SLNs was significantly more than ZEO. Our results showed that the SLNs were suitable carriers for Z. multiflora essential oil in controlling the fungal pathogens and merits further investigation.
Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali
Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.
Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali
Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280
Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Tepe, Bektas; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed
Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil and monolaurin were determined using microbroth dilution method and the interactions of essential oil and monolaurin were determined by the evaluation of fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) index. Carvacrol (63.20%) and thymol (15.10%) were found as the main components of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil and monolaurin at pH 7 and 30 ˚C were measured as 312.50 µg mL(-1) and 125.00 µg mL(-1), respectively. Combination of monolaurin and Z. multiflora essential oil were found to act synergistically (FIC index < 0.5) against L. monocytogenes under different pH and temperature conditions. Decrease in the pH and temperature values have increased the anti-listerial activity of monolaurin and the essential oil. The lowest MIC value of monolaurin and essential oil was observed at pH 5 and 5 ˚C. According to our results, the oil alone or in combination with monolaurin at low pH and temperature conditions showed a promising inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes.
Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Tepe, Bektas; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed
Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil and monolaurin were determined using microbroth dilution method and the interactions of essential oil and monolaurin were determined by the evaluation of fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) index. Carvacrol (63.20%) and thymol (15.10%) were found as the main components of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil and monolaurin at pH 7 and 30 ˚C were measured as 312.50 µg mL-1 and 125.00 µg mL-1, respectively. Combination of monolaurin and Z. multiflora essential oil were found to act synergistically (FIC index < 0.5) against L. monocytogenes under different pH and temperature conditions. Decrease in the pH and temperature values have increased the anti-listerial activity of monolaurin and the essential oil. The lowest MIC value of monolaurin and essential oil was observed at pH 5 and 5 ˚C. According to our results, the oil alone or in combination with monolaurin at low pH and temperature conditions showed a promising inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes. PMID:27226881
Khosravi, A.R.; Shokri, H.; Tootian, Z.; Alizadeh, M.; Yahyaraeyat, R.
Disseminated candidiasis is a serious problem in public health that results from the invasion of Candida species, in particular Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of Zataria multiflora essential oil and itraconazole in clearing C. albicans from the visceral organs of BALB/c mice suffered from disseminated candidiasis. Zataria multiflora essential oil was extracted using Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For clearance experiment, mice (20-25 g, N=8 per group) received essential oil at doses of 30, 48 and 64 mg/kg and itraconazole at dose of 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally (IP) 2 days before and after intravenous inoculation of 0.5 × 106 C. albicans blastospores. The treated animals were sacrificed on day 20, and 0.1 g of the tissue homogenates was plated onto specific media. In GC-Mass, the main components of the essential oil were carvacrol (61.29%) and thymol (25.18%). The results demonstrated that IP administration of 64 mg/kg of the essential oil had the highest efficacy in reducing C. albicans and produced 39.5, 21.8, 141.5, 174 and 501-fold reductions in mean CFUs per 0.1 gram in Candida infections of the liver, spleen, lungs, brain and kidneys, respectively, compared to positive control. Itraconazole showed significantly more responsiveness than the essential oil at dose of 30 mg/kg in clearing C. albicans from the kidneys (P<0.02), brain (P<0.02) and spleen (P<0.04), and less responsiveness than that of 64 mg/kg in clearing the organism from the brain (P<0.01), lungs (P<0.0005) and kidneys (P<0.0005), whereas no significant difference was observed between this drug and Z. multiflora at dose of 48 mg/kg. These data explain the increased rate of yeast clearance and reduced dissemination to the viscera of Z. multiflora treated mice. PMID:24031384
Sharififar, Fariba; Mirtajadini, Mansour; Azampour, Mohammad Jaber; Zamani, Ehsan
One of the most common strategies in the treatment of cognitive disorders is enhancing the acetylcholine level in the brain through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Despite the effectiveness of current modern drugs, more attention has been paid for finding new anticholinesterase agents from medicinal plants. Zatraia multiflora Boiss. is an endemic plant to Iran which has different uses in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti spasmodic. We intended to evaluate the in vitro anticholinesterase and free radical scavenging activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Z. multiflora. The essential oil and methanolic extract of the plant were evaluated for anticholinesterase activity using modified Ellman method. The free radical scavenging effect of the samples were studied by using of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH). IC50 and the percent of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was calculated from regression equation. The results showed that both the essential oil and methanolic extract of the plant exhibited high anticholinesterase activity (95.3 +/- 3.4 and 87.9 +/- 2.2% inhibition, respectively) which was similar to eserine (96.2 +/- 1.7% inhibition). The IC50 value of essential oil was determined as 0.97 +/- 0.12 microg mL(-1) in comparison to eserine (0.13 +/- 0.02 microg mL(-1)). The results of antioxidant assay showed that both the essential oil and methanolic extract potentially inhibit DPPH free radical (94.8 +/- 2.4 and 93.2 +/- 1.7% inhibition, respectively). The essential oil and methanolic extract of Z. multiflora have beneficial effect in health promotion and this plant would be good candidate for further studies.
Yahyaraeyat, R; Khosravi, A R; Shahbazzadeh, D; Khalaj, V
This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.
Yahyaraeyat, R.; Khosravi, A.R.; Shahbazzadeh, D.; Khalaj, V.
This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity. PMID:24294264
Kashiri, Mahboobeh; Maghsoudlo, Yahya; Khomeiri, Morteza
Active zein films with different levels of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil were produced successfully. To enhance properties of this biopolymer for food packaging applications, sodium bentonite clay was used at two levels (2 and 4%). The results indicated that the addition of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil caused a reduction in tensile strength and Young's modulus and slight increase in the percent of elongation at break of the films. Maximum solubility in water and water vapor permeability was observed by incorporation of 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the zein matrix. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs of zein film were verified by the exfoliation of the layers of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. Stronger films with lower water vapor permeability and water solubility were evident of good distribution of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. According to the results, 2% sodium bentonite clay was selected for evaluation of nano active film properties. Water vapor permeability, UV light barrier, tensile strength, and Young's modulus values of active films were improved by incorporation of 2% sodium bentonite clay. The antibacterial activity of different contents of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in vapor phase demonstrated that use of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the liquid phase was more effective than in vapor phase. The antibacterial zein-based films showed that active zein film with 5 and 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil had reductions of 1.68 log and 2.99 log, respectively, against Listeria monocytogenes and 1.39 and 3.07 log against Escherichia coli. Nano active zein film containing 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil and 2% sodium bentonite clay showed better antibacterial properties against L. monocytogenes (3.23 log) and E. coli (3.17 log).
Faezeh, Fatema; Salome, Dini; Abolfazl, Dadkhah; Reza, Zolfaghari Mohammad
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities.
Irritable Bowel syndrome (IBS), the most common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder, is categorized as IBS-C and IBS-D, which are equivalent to Ghoolenj Rihi and Maghs Rihi in Iranian traditional medicine. One of the main applications of Zataria multiflora Boiss in traditional medicine is its efficacy in the gastrointestinal tract with symptoms such as IBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zataria multiflora essential oil in management of IBS. We used all the accessible references (electronic and published books, theses, and reports) to write this article. The results of our investigation show that the majority of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses exhibited carvacrol and thymol as the main components of Zataria multiflora essential oil, and 60 drops oral daily dose of Z. multiflora essential oil (2%) can relieve the symptoms of IBS without any adverse effects. The pharmacological studies confirmed the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasm and antiulcer effects of Z. multiflora essential oils and main components. According to the results of studies, oral Z. multiflora essential oil (2%) is a good candidate for management of IBS, but more studies are required to better understand its efficacies.
Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Sahebi, Safoora; Gholami, Ahmad; Delroba, Alireza; Kiani, Amin; Iraji, Aida; Abbott, Paul Vincent
In the present in vitro study, we investigated the time-related antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) plant essential oils compared to calcium hydroxide ([Ca[OH]2 ) to eliminate Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) from root canals. A new strain of E. faecalis (Enterococcus spp. AGH04) was isolated from a previously root-filled tooth with persistent apical periodontitis. The 16S rRNA sequence was analyzed and deposited in GeneBank under accession number KF465681. A total of 108 extracted human single-rooted teeth were contaminated with this bacterial strain and treated with Aloe vera essential oil, Z. multiflora essential oil, and Ca(OH)2 for 1, 7, and 14 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the chemical composition of the oils. The percentage reduction from initial c.f.u./mL counts were calculated and analyzed. Carvacrol, thymol, and linalool were the main constituents of both essential oils. The c.f.u./mL count reductions significantly increased for all three medicaments when the contact time was extended. A statistically-significant difference was observed between the medicaments after 1 and 7 days, but there was no significant difference after 14 days. Both medicinal herbs showed equal antimicrobial efficiency against E. faecalis, comparable to Ca(OH)2 for the prolonged contact time of 14 days. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Moradi, Mehran; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdul Rasoul
The effectiveness of chitosan films containing Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (ZEO) (5 and 10 g kg(-1) ) and grape seed extract (GSE) (10 g kg(-1) ) on lipid oxidation and microbial (lactic acid bacteria, aerobic mesophiles and inoculated Listeria monocytogenes) characteristics of mortadella sausage at 4 °C for 21 days was evaluated. The release of total phenolics (TPs) into sausage was also assessed. All films exhibited antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes on agar culture media. Chitosan films containing ZEO were the most effective on the growth of bacteria. The growth of L. monocytogenes was significantly inhibited by ZEO-GSE containing films especially during storage of the sausages for 6 days. Aerobic mesophiles and lactic acid bacteria were the most sensitive and resistant groups to films by 0.1-1.1 and 0.1-0.7 log cycles reduction, respectively. Sausages wrapped by 10 g kg(-1) GSE + 10 g kg(-1) ZEO films had the lowest degrees of lipid oxidation, which was 23% lower than the control. The TPs of ZEO films decreased to zero after 6 days, whereas TPs of GSE films followed a slight decrease during the storage. Antimicrobial/antioxidant chitosan film could be developed by incorporating GSE and ZEO for extending the shelf life of mortadella sausage. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Khatibi, S A; Misaghi, A; Moosavy, M H; Akhondzadeh Basti, A; Mohamadian, S; Khanjari, A
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 as a major human pathogen is responsible for food borne outbreaks, bloody diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome and even death. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZMEO) and nanoliposome-encapsulated ZMEO was evaluated on the pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of essential oil (EO) were determined against the bacterium before and after encapsulation into nanoliposome. Then, the effect of subinhibitory concentrations was evaluated on Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) production. The effect of free and nanoliposomal EO was also studied on the gene expression of Stx2 by real-time PCR. It was found that inhibitory activity of EO was improved after incorporation into nanoliposomes (P < 0·05). The MIC of free EO against E. coli O157:H7 was 0·03% (v/v), while this value decreased to 0·015%, after encapsulation of EO into nanoliposomes. Furthermore, subinhibitory concentrations of liposomal EO (50 and 75% MIC) had significantly higher inhibitory effect on Stx2 titre than its free form (P < 0·05). Sub-MICs of nanoencapsulated EO also showed a better activity in reduction of Stx2A gene expression than free EO. Using 75% MIC of nanoliposomal EO, the relative transcriptional level of Stx2A gene was decreased from 0·721 to 0·646. The findings of present study suggest that application of nanoliposomes can improve the antibacterial effect of EOs like ZMEO. Due to the enhancement of antimicrobial activity, nanoencapsulation of plant EOs and extracts may increase their commercial application not only in food area but also in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics and health products. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Cough, as a defensive reflux mechanism, removes foreign objects and secretions from bronchi and bronchioles of airways. Zataria multiflora is a popular plant for treatment of cough in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this review was to evaluate the potency of Z. multiflora as an alternative treatment in management of acute cough and its possible mechanisms of action. Here the authors compiled information about Z. multiflora in the treatment of cough from all accessible resources and books. The results of this investigation showed that there were five clinical studies that evaluated the efficacy of Z. multiflora essential oil or extract alone (n = 1), in combination with Althaea officinalis (n = 2) or Foeniculum vulgare essential oil (n = 1), in the form of syrup (n = 3), oral drop (n = 1) and soft capsule (n = 1), for the treatment of acute cough in comparison with placebo or synthetic drugs (bromhexine, dextromethorphan and clobutinol). All clinical studies confirmed the efficacy of Z. multiflora in the amelioration of acute cough in pediatric (n = 1) and adult patients (n = 4) without any adverse effects. Different mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, relaxant and immune-enhancement, may be responsible for the efficacy of Z. multiflora in cough relief. Other clinical trials can be performed with Z. multiflora in combination with ivy leaf extract or primrose root extract on patients with cough. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Comparative efficacy of Zataria multiflora Boiss., Origanum compactum and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils against E. coli O157:H7, feline calicivirus and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby-leaf salads.
Azizkhani, Maryam; Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Selma, María Victoria; Aznar, Rosa
Ready-to-eat salads using baby-leaf and multi-leaf mixes are one of the most promising developments in the fresh-cut food industry. There is great interest in developing novel decontamination treatments, which are both safe for consumers and more efficient against foodborne pathogens. In this study, emulsions of essential oils (EOs) from Origanum compactum (oregano), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove), and Zataria multiflora Boiss (zataria) were applied by spray (0.8 ml) after the sanitizing washing step. The aim was to investigate their ability to control the growth of potentially cross-contaminating pathogens and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby leaves, processed in a fresh-cut produce company. Zataria EO emulsions of 3%, 5% and 10% reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 1.7, 2.2 and 3.5 log cfu/g in baby-leaf salads after 5 days of storage at 7°C. By contrast, reductions in E. coli O157:H7 counts remained the same when clove was applied at concentrations of 5% and 10% (2.5 log cfu/g reduction). Oregano (10%) reduced inoculated E. coli O157:H7 counts in baby-leaf salads by a maximum of 0.5 log cfu/g after 5 days of storage. Zataria showed strong antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli O157:H7 and also against the endogenous microbiota of baby-leaf salads stored for 9 days. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a norovirus surrogate, survived on inoculated baby-leaf salads during refrigerated storage (9 days at 7°C) regardless of treatment. Refrigeration temperatures completely annulled the effectiveness of the EOs against FCV inoculated in baby-leaf salads as occurred in FCV cultures. This study shows that EOs, and zataria in particular, have great potential use as an additional barrier to reduce contamination-related risks in baby-leaf salads. However, further research should be done into foodborne viruses in order to improve food safety. © 2013.
Moazeni, Mohammad; Larki, Sara; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Oryan, Ahmad; Ansary Lari, Maryam; Mootabi Alavi, Amir
Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from aromatic water (AW) of Zataria multiflora. Thymol (66.9%), carvacrol (15.2%), and carvone (7.3%) were found to be the major EO constituents. Eighty laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1,500 viable protoscolices and were divided into prevention (40 mice) and therapeutic (40 mice) groups. To prove the preventive effect of the Z. multiflora AW on development of hydatid cysts, the 40 infected mice were allocated into three treatment groups, including the albendazole group (10 mice that received 150 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days), the Z. multiflora AW group (15 mice that received 20 ml/liter in drinking water for 8 months), and a control group (15 mice that received no treatment). To estimate the therapeutic effect of the Z. multiflora AW on the hydatid cyst, after 8 months of infection, the 15 remaining mice were allocated into three experimental treatment groups of five animals each, including the albendazole group (300 mg/kg/day for 20 days), Z. multiflora AW group (40 ml/liter in drinking water for 30 days), and control group (no treatment). All mice were then euthanized, and the sizes and weights of the cysts as well as their ultrastructural changes were investigated. The weights and sizes of the hydatid cysts significantly decreased upon treatment with the Z. multiflora AW in both the preventive and therapeutic groups (P < 0.05). The results of scanning electron microscopy also showed considerable damage in the germinal layer of the hydatid cysts recovered from the treated animals. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Fatemi, F; Asri, Y; Rasooli, I; Alipoor, Sh D; Shaterloo, M
Irradiation is the process of exposing food such as herbal plant to ionizing radiation to destroy microorganisms. Zataria multiflora Boiss (Lamiaceae), known as Avishan-e-Shirazi in Persian, is a thyme-like plant that grows naturally in central and southern parts of Iran and is used in traditional folk medicine. In this study, the effects of γ-radiation on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Z. multiflora were investigated. The plants were first irradiated with Co60 source (0, 10, and 25 kGy) and then subjected to Clevenger extraction to obtain essential oils. The composition of the oil was analyzed by a gas chromatography and compared with samples pretreated under different conditions. In parallel, the hydroalcoholic extract was prepared and used for measuring flavonoid content. Thereafter, the free-radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of essential oils and hydroalcoholic extract were examined. Despite the minor change in the individual oil constituents, the total percentage of the main components remained unaffected before and after irradiation (~95%). In addition, the total flavonoid content of hydroalcoholic extract was also unchanged due to irradiation (~32 mg QE/g extract). The high radical scavenging activity of the oil (~67%) and hydroalcoholic extract (~71%), in addition, the antioxidant properties of the oil (~91%) and hydroalcoholic extract (~95%), were unaffected after irradiation. These findings may suggest the sustainability of Z. multiflora extract properties pretreated with γ-radiation. With a view to its antioxidant applications, resistance of Z. multiflora and its properties against radiation effects are promising findings.
Sodouri, Marzieh; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Fathizadeh, Nahid; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Azarbad, Zohreh; Memarzadeh, Mohammadreza
Background: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a common problem in women. Zataria multiflora Boiss is a valuable plant. This herbal plant has been used in different conditions. Objectives: The study was performed to investigate the effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss to control PMS symptoms. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blinded, prospective randomized trial. The study population was the college students living in the dormitories of Isfahan University. Eighty-eight eligible students were randomly divided to intervention and control groups. Students completed the prospective record of the impact and severity of menstrual symptoms (PRISM) calendar including 30 PMS symptoms for four menstrual cycles (two cycles before, and two after the intervention). The intervention group received pearls containing 20 mg of Zataria multi-flora essence (four pearls each day) for two menstrual cycles, seven days before menstruation. The mean difference of PMS severity score between groups was analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. The difference in frequency score of symptoms was analyzed using repeated-measure analysis of variance. Results: Thirty-eight students in intervention and 37 students in placebo group completed the study. The groups had no significant difference regarding the severity of PMS. Both groups showed a significant improvement in PMS severity score after the intervention. The repeated-measure analysis of variance showed that the frequency of symptoms decreased significantly in the cycles, but it was not different in intervention and placebo groups. Conclusions: Our findings did not support the use of Zataria multiflora Boiss in premenstrual syndrome. PMID:25414880
Moazeni, Mohammad; Larki, Sara; Oryan, Ahmad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal
The phenolic compounds of Zataria multiflora extract, were identified by HPLC analysis. Gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, and quercetin were found to be the major phenolic compounds. Eighty healthy laboratory Balb/C mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1500 viable protoscoleces and were divided into prevention (40 mice) and therapeutic (40 mice) groups. To prove the preventive effect of Z. multiflora extract on development of hydatid cyst, the 40 infected animals were allocated into three treatment groups including Z. multiflora (4 g/l in drinking water for 8 months), albendazole (150 mg/kg BW/day for 10 days) and untreated (control) group. To estimate the therapeutic effect of Z. multiflora extract on the hydatid cyst, after 8 months of infection, the infected mice were allocated into three experimental treatment groups including Z. multiflora (8 g/l in drinking water for 30 days), albendazole (300 mg/kg BW/day for 20 days) and untreated (control) group. At the end of the treatment period, all mice were euthanized and necropsied, the hydatid cysts were carefully removed, weighed and their size were recorded. Weight and size of the hydatid cysts significantly decreased (p<0.05) upon the treatment with Z. multiflora extract in both prevention and therapeutic groups. The germinal layer of the hydatid cysts recovered from the treated mice, either from the prevention or therapeutic group, were completely damaged at ultrastructural level by scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hajibemani, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza
In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin + streptomycin (pen + strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). Cervical cytology, reagent strip test and cell counting by means of Neubauer hemocytometer were carried out in both examinations. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 1 were 45.5, 34.5 and 53.6% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora, respectively. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 2, 3 were 66.7, 84.6 and 56.0% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora, respectively. Overall, proportions of successfully treated cows were 55.0, 58.2 and 54.7% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora, respectively (p > 0.05). In placebo, none of the parameters were significantly different between first and second examination, while we found the significant differences in percentage of neutrophils and leukocyte esterase activity in other groups (p < 0.05). First service conception rate of cows was higher in Z. multiflora compared to other groups; however, this difference was not significant. In conclusion, pen + strep and Z. multiflora extract can be effective on the clinical endometritis and may improve reproductive performance. The extract of Z. multiflora can be useful as an alternative therapy for treatment of clinical endometritis in lactating dairy cows. PMID:28144422
Hajibemani, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza
In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin + streptomycin (pen + strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). Cervical cytology, reagent strip test and cell counting by means of Neubauer hemocytometer were carried out in both examinations. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 1 were 45.5, 34.5 and 53.6% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 2, 3 were 66.7, 84.6 and 56.0% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively. Overall, proportions of successfully treated cows were 55.0, 58.2 and 54.7% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively ( p > 0.05). In placebo, none of the parameters were significantly different between first and second examination, while we found the significant differences in percentage of neutrophils and leukocyte esterase activity in other groups ( p < 0.05). First service conception rate of cows was higher in Z. multiflora compared to other groups; however, this difference was not significant. In conclusion, pen + strep and Z. multiflora extract can be effective on the clinical endometritis and may improve reproductive performance. The extract of Z. multiflora can be useful as an alternative therapy for treatment of clinical endometritis in lactating dairy cows.
Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age.
Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza
Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.
Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age
Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza
Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis. PMID:26266260
Shirdel, Maryam; Tajik, Hossein; Moradi, Mehran
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial and biofilm removal potential of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) and silver nanoparticle (SNP) alone and in combination on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium and evaluate the mechanism of action. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and optimal inhibitory combination (OIC) of ZEO and SNP were determined according to fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) method. Biofilm removal potential and leakage pattern of 260-nm absorbing material from the bacterial cell during exposure to the compounds were also investigated. Results: MICs of SNP for both bacteria were the same as 25 μg/ mL. The MICs and MBCs values of ZEO were 2500 and 1250 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective OIC value for SNP and ZEO against Salm. Typhimurium and Staph. aureus were 12.5, 625 and 0.78, 1250 μg/ mL, respectively. ZEO and SNP at MIC and OIC concentrations represented a strong removal ability (>70%) on biofilm. Moreover, ZEO at MIC and OIC concentrations did a 6-log reduction of primary inoculated bacteria during 15 min contact time. The effect of ZEO on the loss of 260-nm material from the cell was faster than SNP during 15 and 60 min. Conclusion: Combination of ZEO and SNP had significant sanitizing activity on examined bacteria which may be suitable for disinfecting the surfaces.
Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor; Lamien-Meda, Aline; Bayala, Balé; Tirogo, Souleymane; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Nebié, Roger Charles; Dicko, Mamoudou Hama
Essential oils from leaves of Lippia multiflora, Mentha x piperita and Ocimum basilicum from Burkina Faso were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Major components were p-cymene, thymol, b-caryophyllene, carvacrol and carvone for L. multiflora, menthol and iso-menthone for M. x piperita and, linalool and eugenol for O. basilicum. The essential oils and their major monoterpene alcohols were tested against nine bacterial strains using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The essential oils with high phenolic contents were the most effective antimicrobials. The checkerboard method was used to quantify the efficacy of paired combinations of essential oils and their major components. The best synergetic effects among essential oils and major components were obtained with combinations involving O. basilicum essential oil and eugenol, respectively. As phenolic components are characterized by a strong spicy aroma, this study suggests that the selection of certain combinations of EOs could help to reduce the amount of essential oils and consequently reduce any adverse sensory impact in food.
Soro, Lêniféré Chantal; Munier, Sylvie; Pelissier, Yves; Grosmaire, Lidwine; Yada, Rickey; Kitts, David; Ocho-Anin Atchibri, Anin Louise; Guzman, Caroline; Boudard, Frédéric; Menut, Chantal; Robinson, Jean Charles; Poucheret, Patrick
Lippia multiflora is a plant with nutritional and pharmaco-therapeutic properties that is native to central and occidental Africa. The potential effects of plants on health are associated with their chemical composition. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify chemical variations in essential oils of Lippia multiflora as a function of geographic origin and time of annual harvest to determine optimal chemical profiles for ethno-pharmacotherapeutic applications. Experimental plants were cultivated at Abidjan (LPA), Toumodi (LPT) and Bondoukou (LPB). Natural Lippia multiflora seeds were sourced to produce standardized plants over a period of six months. Standard plants (n=40) were re-introduced into natural plots, cultivated for 12 months and leaves were sampled monthly in a standardized fashion. Essentials oils (n=36) were then extracted from these samples by hydro-distillation according to the European Pharmacopoeia and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using GC/FID and GC/MS. These data were then analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Anti-inflammatory properties were also assessed against activated macrophages in vitro. The results indicated that chemical profiles and essential oil yields vary according to the location where the plants were cultivated. One essential oil chemotype corresponded to the LPA and LPT sites and one corresponded to the LPB site. Statistical analysis of the chemical profiles and monthly evolution of the three sites over a period of one year allowed assessment of variations in composition and the subsequent choice of the optimal harvest time for ethnopharmacological applications. Anti-inflammatory activity apparently correlated with chemical profiles of essential oils and the geographic origins of the plants. The optimal harvest time was associated with the maximum yield of pharmacological compounds with the most potential interest for health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alizadeh, Alireza; Zamani, Elham; Sharaifi, Rohollah; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad; Nazari, Somayeh
Increasing attentions have been paid on the application of essential oils and plant extracts for control of postharvest pathogens due to their natural origin and less appearance of resistance in fungi pathogens. Some Aspergillus species are toxigenic and responsible for many cases of food and feed contamination. Some Toxins that produce with some Aspergillus species are known to be potent hepatocarcinogens in animals and humans. The present work evaluated the parameters of antifungal activity of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Thymus migricus, Satureja hortensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Carum capticum and thiabendazol fungicide on survival and growth of different species of Aspergillus. Aerial part and seeds of plant species were collected then dried and its essential oils isolated by means of hydrodistillation. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro by poisonous medium technique with PDA medium at six concentrations. Results showed that all essential oils could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus species. The essential oil with the best effect and lowest EC50 and MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) was Z. multiflora (223 microl/l and 650 microl/l, respectively). The chemical composition of the Z. multiflora essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS.
Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Fahimirad, S
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the distribution pattern and population size of Malassezia species in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and the inhibitory efficacy of Zataria multiflora, Thymus kotschyanus, Mentha spicata, Artemisia sieberi, Rosmarinus officinalis and Heracleum persicum essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia isolates. The samples were collected from 5 different anatomical sites of 33 atopic dogs and cultured onto modified Dixon agar (MDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) media. The essential oil extraction was performed by steam distillation using Clevenger system. Anti-Malassezia efficacy of medicinal essential oils and standard drugs was evaluated using broth microdilution method. A total of 103 yeast colonies were isolated from dogs with AD. Eight different Malassezia species were identified as follows: Malassezia pachydermatis (81.4%), M. globosa (7.8%), M. restricta (3.9%), M. sloofiae (2.9%), M. furfur (1%), M. nana (1%), M. obtusa (1%) and M. sympodialis (1%). The most and least infected sites were: anal (21.2%) and ear (10.6%) respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent Malassezia species isolated from both skin and mucosa of dogs with AD. Antifungal susceptibility test revealed the inhibitory efficacy of essential oils on pathogenic Malassezia isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 30 to 850 μg/mL. Among the tested oils, Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus exhibited the highest inhibitory effects (P<0.05). The essential oils of Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus showed strong antifungal activity against pathogenic Malassezia species tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ghadiri, Pooria; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Moein, Mohammad Reza; Mehriar, Peiman; Bahrani, Farideh; Golzar, Tahereh; Pakshir, Keyvan; Fani, Mohammad Mehdi
Background: Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend in using oral hygienic products originating from natural resources such as essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. Seven aromatic plants used in this study are among popular traditional Iranian medicinal plants with potential application in modern medicine as anti-oral infectious diseases. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from seven medicinal plants against pathogens causing oral infections. Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of EOs distilled from seven plants were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These plants included Satureja khuzestanica, S. bachtiarica, Ocimum sanctum, Artemisia sieberi, Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum and Oliveria decumbens. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Results: The tested EOs inhibited the growth of examined oral pathogens at concentrations of 0.015-16 µL/mL. Among the examined oral pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis had the highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Microbicidal Concentrations (MMCs). Of the examined EOs, S. khuzestanica, Z. multiflora and S. bachtiarica, showed the highest antimicrobial activities, respectively, while Artemisia sieberi exhibited the lowest antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: The excellent antimicrobial activities of the tested EOs might be due to their major phenolic or alcoholic monoterpenes with known antimicrobial activities. Hence, these EOs can be possibly used as an antimicrobial agent in treatment and control of oral pathogens. PMID:25793100
Mohammadi, Ali; Hashemi, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyed Masoud
Background and Objectives: The efficacy of Mentha piperita L, Zataria multiflora Boiss and Thymus vulgaris L essential oils (EOs) was evaluated for controlling the growth of Phytophthora drechsleri, the causative agent of damage to many crops that is consumed directly by humans. Materials and Methods: The EOs used in this study was purchased from Magnolia Co, Iran. The pour plate method in petri dishes containing Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) was used to evaluate the antifungal properties of EOs. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) as well as mycelial growth inhibition (MGI) were measured. The IC50 value (the concentration inhibited 50% of the mycelium growth) was calculated by probit analysis. Results and Conclusion: The fungal growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of tested EOs. The complete reduction was obtained with Shirazi thyme at all concentrations, whereas the complete reduction for peppermint and thyme was observed at 0.4% and 0.8% (v/v) concentrations, respectively. Meanwhile, the minimum inhibition was observed when 0.1% peppermint (MGI values of 9.37%) was used. The IC50, MIC and MFC values of Shirazi thyme was 0.053, 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively. Similarly, MIC and MFC values of peppermint and thyme were recorded 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. The results obtained from this study may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from this pathogenic fungus and many agricultural plant pathogens causing drastic crop losses. PMID:26644871
Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin
Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In 1948-49 studies were made on the spreading of multiflora rose at the sites of three old plantings in Alabama and Georgia. The age of these plantings varied from 14-40 years. Roses were invading surrounding land at each site. Observations indicated that seeds are carried by water and birds. Seedlings were numerous in drainageways leading from old shrubs. Birds had deposited seed under trees, in thickets, and along hedgerows. Seedlings growing under a single tree varied in number from a few to 50. Two rose bushes were found under a tree a mile from the probable point of origin. Seedlings were spreading in unimproved pastures by growing in thickets where they were protected from grazing and mowing. Plants were not found in cultivated fields. Spreading was similar near all three locations in like plant communities. Competition from trees affected multiflora more than that of any other type of vegetation. Plants thrive in pine woodlands with an open canopy, but growth is weak in a thick hardwood stand. Control will be necessary if multiflora rose is to be kept from spreading in idle land and unimproved pastures.
Cassandra M. Kurtz; Mark H. Hansen
This publication provides an overview of multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) on forest land across the 24 states of the midwestern and northeastern United States based on an extensive systematic network of plots measured by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station (NRS).
Weiming Yu; Zhaofei Fan; W. K. Moser; M. H. Hansen; M. D. Nelson
Multiflora rose (Rosa Multiflora Thunb.) (MFR) is widely spreading across the United States, with up to 38 states in the contiguous United States reporting the presence of this species. In this study, U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from the Upper Midwest states for the period of 2005-2006 were...
Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the multiflora rose var. "Jatar" (Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murray) and the Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita Rusby) to phytoextract heavy metals from municipal sewage sludge. The 6-year field experiment involved four levels of fertilization with sewage sludge at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM (Dry Mass) sludge ha -1 . The increasing doses of sewage sludge were found to significantly increase the yield of multiflora rose and Virginia fanpetals biomass. They also significantly increased the content of heavy metals in these plants. The highest uptake of heavy metals by the multiflora rose and Virginia fanpetals crops was recorded at the fertilization dose of 60 Mg DM ⋅ ha -1 . Our investigations show that the Virginia fanpetals was more efficient in the phytoextraction of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd from the sewage sludge than the multiflora rose, due to the greater yields and higher heavy metal uptake by the former plant. In turn, the multiflora rose phytoextracted greater amounts of Pb from the sewage sludge. The analyses indicate that the Virginia fanpetals can be used for phytoremediation (phytoextraction) of heavy metals contained in sewage sludge.
Cheng, Lin-Yang; Chen, Chun-Lin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, I-Wei; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chung, Mei-Ing; Chen, Jih-Jung
A new polyprenylated polycyclic acylphloroglucinol, garcimultiflorone K (1), has been isolated from the stems of Garcinia multiflora, together with two known compounds, garcimultiflorone A (2) and garcimultiflorone B (3). The structure of new compound 1 was determined through spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and MS analyses. The anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer effects of compounds 1-3 were evaluated in human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and cancer cells. Of these, garcimultiflorone K (1) displayed the most potent anti-angiogenic property by suppressing cell growth and tube formation of EPCs. Compound 1 also exhibited growth-inhibitory activities against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SK-Hep-1 and hormone refractory prostate cancer cell line PC-3 with GI 50 values of 4.3 ± 1.6 and 6.6 ± 0.4 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gutierrez-Lugo, Maria-Teresa; Wang, Yuehong; Franzblau, Scott G; Suarez, Enrique; Timmermann, Barbara N
Bioassay guided isolation of an antitubercular extract of the aerial parts of Thalia multiflora led to the isolation of nine stigmast-5-ene and stigmasta-5,22-dien steroids, four isorhamnetin and quercetin flavonoid glycosides, two ceramides, an indole alkaloid and two simple phenolic compounds. Stigmast-5-en-3beta-ol-7-one (2), stigmast-4-ene-6beta-ol-3-one (3), stigmast-5,22-dien-3beta-ol-7-one (7) and stigmast-4,22-dien-6beta-ol-3-one (8) were found to be the most active compounds with MIC values of 1.98 +/- 0.02, 4.2 +/- 0.17, 1.0 +/- 0.06 and 2.2 +/- 0.3 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 2, 3, 7 and 8 were not cytotoxic to Vero cells at 102 microg/mL. This investigation constitutes the first report of a chemical study of a species of the genus Thalia.
Vilà, Montserrat; Terradas, Jaume
The effect of interspecific competition on resprouting and reproductive success and the relationship between above-ground vegetative biomass variability and reproductive biomass variability were analysed during resprouting after clipping. For this purpose, a field experiment was performed by removing neighbours around individuals of Erica multiflora in a Mediterranean shrub community. Removal of neighbours increased the number of sprouts and the above-ground vegetative biomass of target plants. However, it did not decrease plant size variability. Neighbours decreased the likelihood of fruiting and the biomass of fruits. In target plants that had set fruits a simple allometric relationship between above-ground vegetative biomass and the biomass of fruits explained 42% of the variation in fruit biomass. The probability to set fruits at a given plant size was smaller in plants with neighbours than without neighbours. Presence of neighbours also increased the variability of fruit biomass within the population, because 50% of target plants with neighbours did not set fruits. This failure to set fruits may be related to shading, the small size of plants with neighbours, as well as a delay in development.
Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu; Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Noorzai, Rafi; Zamany, Ahmad Jawid; Kim, Doo Hwan
The effect of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation from shoot tip explants of Ajuga multiflora was studied. The highest number of shoots (17.1) was observed when shoot tip explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 8.0 µM 6-Benzyladenine (BA) and 2.7 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The mean number of shoots per explant was increased 1.6-fold in liquid medium as compared with semi-solid medium. Maximum rooting (100 %) with an average of 7.2 roots per shoot was obtained on MS basal medium. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatised in the greenhouse with 100 % survival rate. Composition of carotenoids, fatty acids and tocopherols was also studied from leaves of greenhouse-grown plants and in vitro-regenerated shoots of A. multiflora. The greatest amounts of carotenoids, fatty acids and tocopherols were obtained from leaves of in vitro-regenerated shoots cultured on MS basal medium, followed by leaves of greenhouse-grown plants and leaves of in vitro-regenerated shoots cultured on MS basal medium with 2.0 µM BA or thidiazuron. The most abundant carotenoid in A. multiflora leaves was all-E-lutein (89.4-382.6 μg g -1 FW) followed by all-E-β-carotene (32.0-156.7 μg g -1 FW), 9'-Z-neoxanthin (14.2-63.4 μg g -1 FW), all-E-violaxanthin (13.0-45.9 μg g -1 FW), all-E-zeaxanthin (1.3-2.5 μg g -1 FW) and all-E-β-cryptoxanthin (0.3-0.9 μg g -1 FW). α-Tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in A. multiflora leaves. Linolenic acid (49.03-52.59 %) was detected in higher amounts in A. multiflora leaf samples followed by linoleic acid (18.95-21.39 %) and palmitic acid (15.79-18.66 %).
Sadki, Chrifa; Hacht, Brahim; Souliman, Amrani; Atmani, Fouad
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diuretic potential and effect on urinary electrolytes of aqueous Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae) flowers and Cynodon dactylon L. (Poaceae) rhizomes extracts in rats. Different concentrations of these plants extract (0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 g/kg of body weight) or the reference drug furosemide (0.015 g/kg) were administrated orally to hydrated male Wistar rats and their urine output was measured at several interval of time after a single dose administration. Furthermore, a toxicological effect of both plants was undertaken as well. The results showed that furosemide induced significant diuresis and electrolytes excretion during the first hours. Plant extracts increased significantly urinary output and electrolytes excretion at the dose of 0.250 g/kg for Erica multiflora and 0.500 g/kg for Cynodon dactylon. This diuretic effect seems to be not related to K(+) plant content. Urinary pH remained mostly unchanged during the course of the study for both plant extracts. No lethality was observed among animals when using Erica multiflora even at the dose of 10 g/kg while Cynodon dactylon, instead, caused 50% of rat death (LD50) at 4.5 g/kg. We concluded that both aqueous herb extracts administered, particularly, at the dose of 0.500 g/kg induce significant effect on urinary output of water and electrolytes and justify their use as diuretic remedy in traditional medicine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakamura, Noriko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Otagaki, Shungo; Matsumoto, Shogo; Tabata, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yoshikazu
Abstract The draft genome sequence of a wild rose (Rosa multiflora Thunb.) was determined using Illumina MiSeq and HiSeq platforms. The total length of the scaffolds was 739,637,845 bp, consisting of 83,189 scaffolds, which was close to the 711 Mbp length estimated by k-mer analysis. N50 length of the scaffolds was 90,830 bp, and extent of the longest was 1,133,259 bp. The average GC content of the scaffolds was 38.9%. After gene prediction, 67,380 candidates exhibiting sequence homology to known genes and domains were extracted, which included complete and partial gene structures. This large number of genes for a diploid plant may reflect heterogeneity of the genome originating from self-incompatibility in R. multiflora. According to CEGMA analysis, 91.9% and 98.0% of the core eukaryotic genes were completely and partially conserved in the scaffolds, respectively. Genes presumably involved in flower color, scent and flowering are assigned. The results of this study will serve as a valuable resource for fundamental and applied research in the rose, including breeding and phylogenetic study of cultivated roses. PMID:29045613
Ndoye Foe, Chantal Florentine; Njankouo Ndam, Youchahou; Njayou, Frédéric Nico; Fonkoua, Marie Christine; Etoa, François-Xavier
The present work was undertaken to evaluate antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Dissotis multiflora (Sm) Triana (D. multiflora) on Shigella flexneri-induced diarrhea in Wistar rats and its subacute toxicity. Diarrhea was induced by oral administration of 1.2 × 109 cells/mL S. flexneri to rats. Antidiarrheal activity was investigated in rats with the doses of 111.42 mg/kg, 222.84 mg/kg, and 445.68 mg/kg. The level of biochemical parameters was assessed and organs histology examined by 14 days' subacute toxicity. S. flexneri stool load decreased significantly in dose-dependent manner. The level of ALT increased (p < 0.05) in male rats treated with the dose of 445.68 mg/kg while creatinine level increased in rats treated with both doses. In female rats, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of the level of AST and creatinine was noted in rats treated with the dose of 222.84 mg/kg of D. multiflora. Histological exams of kidney and liver of treated rats showed architectural modifications at the dose of 445.68 mg/kg. This finding suggests that D. multiflora leaf extract is efficient against diarrhea caused by S. flexneri but the treatment with doses lower than 222.84 mg/kg is recommended while further study is required to define the exact efficient nontoxic dose. PMID:29234391
Wang, Zhao-Quan; Li, Xing-Yu; Hu, Dong-Bao; Long, Chun-Lin
Seven undescribed lavandulyl benzophenones garcimultiflorones K-Q, and fourteen known compounds were isolated from the CHCl 3 soluble fraction of 95% EtOH extract of Garcinia multiflora branches. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic techniques including NMR spectroscopy, MS analysis, and ECD calculations. Seven isolated compounds expect for garcimultiflorone L and garcimultiflorone O exhibited cytotoxic activities in vitro against five cancer cell lines (HL-60, A549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW480). It is worth mentioning that garcimultiflorone Q exhibited most significant cytotoxicities against five cancer cell lines with IC 50 values ranging from 3.07-12.56 μM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adalsteinsson, Solny A; Shriver, W Gregory; Hojgaard, Andrias; Bowman, Jacob L; Brisson, Dustin; D'Amico, Vincent; Buler, Jeffrey J
Forests in urban landscapes differ from their rural counterparts in ways that may alter vector-borne disease dynamics. In urban forest fragments, tick-borne pathogen prevalence is not well characterized; mitigating disease risk in densely-populated urban landscapes requires understanding ecological factors that affect pathogen prevalence. We trapped blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs in urban forest fragments on the East Coast of the United States and used multiplex real-time PCR assays to quantify the prevalence of four zoonotic, tick-borne pathogens. We used Bayesian logistic regression and WAIC model selection to understand how vegetation, habitat, and landscape features of urban forests relate to the prevalence of B. burgdorferi (the causative agent of Lyme disease) among blacklegged ticks. In the 258 nymphs tested, we detected Borrelia burgdorferi (11.2% of ticks), Borrelia miyamotoi (0.8%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1.9%), but we did not find Babesia microti (0%). Ticks collected from forests invaded by non-native multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) had greater B. burgdorferi infection rates (mean = 15.9%) than ticks collected from uninvaded forests (mean = 7.9%). Overall, B. burgdorferi prevalence among ticks was positively related to habitat features (e.g. coarse woody debris and total understory cover) favorable for competent reservoir host species. Understory structure provided by non-native, invasive shrubs appears to aggregate ticks and reservoir hosts, increasing opportunities for pathogen transmission. However, when we consider pathogen prevalence among nymphs in context with relative abundance of questing nymphs, invasive plants do not necessarily increase disease risk. Although pathogen prevalence is greater among ticks in invaded forests, the probability of encountering an infected tick remains greater in uninvaded forests characterized by thick litter layers, sparse understories, and relatively greater questing tick abundance in
Salem, Nidá M; Golino, Deborah A; Falk, Bryce W; Rowhani, Adib
The three double-stranded (ds) RNAs were detected in Rosa multiflora plants showing rose spring dwarf (RSD) symptoms. Northern blot analysis revealed three dsRNAs in preparations of both dsRNA and total RNA from R. multiflora plants. The complete sequences of the dsRNAs (referred to as dsRNA 1, dsRNA 2 and dsRNA 3) were determined based on a combination of shotgun cloning of dsRNA cDNAs and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The largest dsRNA (dsRNA 1) was 1,762 bp long with a single open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a putative polypeptide containing 479 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 55.9 kDa. This polypeptide contains amino acid sequence motifs conserved in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) of members of the family Partitiviridae. Both dsRNA 2 (1,475 bp) and dsRNA 3 (1,384 bp) contained single ORFs, encoding putative proteins of unknown function. The 5' untranslated regions (UTR) of all three segments shared regions of high sequence homology. Phylogenetic analysis using the RdRp sequences of the various partitiviruses revealed that the new sequences would constitute the genome of a virus in family Partitiviridae. This virus would cluster with Fragaria chiloensis cryptic virus and Raphanus sativus cryptic virus 2. We suggest that the three dsRNA segments constitute the genome of a novel cryptic virus infecting roses; we propose the name Rosa multiflora cryptic virus (RMCV). Detection primers were developed and used for RT-PCR detection of RMCV in rose plants.
Cynthia D. Huebner; Jim Steinman; Todd F. Hutchinson; Todd E. Ristau; Alejandro A. Royo
Background and aims. A soil fertility gradient, ranging from infertile to highly fertile soils, may define whether or not a plant will establish and spread at a site. We evaluated whether or not such a fertility gradient exists for Rosa multiflora Thunb., a nonnative invasive shrub, and Kalmia latifolia L., a...
Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques
This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides
Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques
This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides
Palacios, Sara M; Bertoni, Alberto; Rossi, Yanina; Santander, Rocío; Urzúa, Alejandro
The insecticidal activity of nine essential oils (EOs) against the house fly (Musca domestica) was evaluated by placing flies in a screw-cap glass jar holding a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC(50)) in 30 min was determined at 26 +/- 1 degrees C. The EOs showed LC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 46.9 mg/dm(3). The EO from Minthostachys verticillata was the most potent insecticide (LC(50) = 0.5 mg/dm(3)) followed by EOs from Hedeoma multiflora (LC(50) = 1.3 mg/dm(3)) and Artemisia annua (LC(50) = 6.5 mg/dm(3)). The compositions of the nine EOs, obtained by hydrodistillation of medicinal herbs, were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. These analyses showed that (4R)(+)-pulegone (69.70%), menthone (12.17%), and limonene (2.75%) were the principal components of M. verticillata EO. (4R)(+)-pulegone was also the main constituent (52.80%) of H. multiflora, while artemisia ketone (22.36%) and 1,8-cineole (16.67%) were the major constituents of A. annua EO. The terpene (4R)(+)-pulegone showed a lower toxicity (LC(50) = 1.7 mg/dm(3)) than M. verticillata or H. multiflora EOs. Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate, selected as a positive control, showed an LC(50) of 0.5 mg/dm(3). EOs from M. verticillata and H. multiflora show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.
... Tremor - familial; Benign essential tremor; Shaking - essential tremor Images Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system References Jankovic J. Parkinson disease and other movement disorders. In: Daroff ...
Jeon, Hyerin; Kim, Dong Hye; Nho, Youn-Hwa; Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Eung Ho
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α/γ is known to inhibit the increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by ultraviolet light (UV). Extracts of natural herbs, such as Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora, have a PPAR α/γ dual agonistic effect. Therefore, we investigated whether and how they have an antiaging effect on photoaging skin. Eighteen-week-old hairless mice were irradiated with UVA 14 J/cm2 and UVB 40 mJ/cm2 three times a week for 8 weeks. A mixture of extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora (KR) was topically applied on the dorsal skin of photoaging mice twice a day for 8 weeks. Tesaglitazar, a known PPAR α/γ agonist, and vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol = 7:3, v/v) were applied as positive and negative controls, respectively. Dermal effects (including dermal thickness, collagen density, dermal expression of procollagen 1 and collagenase 13) and epidermal effects (including skin barrier function, epidermal proliferation, epidermal differentiation, and epidermal cytokines) were measured and compared. In photoaging murine skin, KR resulted in a significant recovery of dermal thickness as well as dermal fibroblasts, although it did not change dermal collagen density. KR increased the expression of dermal transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The dermal effects of KR were explained by an increase in procollagen 1 expression, induced by TGF-β, and a decrease in MMP-13 expression. KR did not affect basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) or stratum corneum (SC) integrity, but did decrease SC hydration. It also did not affect epidermal proliferation or epidermal differentiation. KR decreased the expression of epidermal interleukin (IL)-1α. Collectively, KR showed possible utility as a therapeutic agent for photoaging skin, with few epidermal side effects such as epidermal hyperplasia or poor differentiation. PMID:27854351
Jeon, Hyerin; Kim, Dong Hye; Nho, Youn-Hwa; Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Eung Ho
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α/γ is known to inhibit the increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by ultraviolet light (UV). Extracts of natural herbs, such as Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora , have a PPAR α/γ dual agonistic effect. Therefore, we investigated whether and how they have an antiaging effect on photoaging skin. Eighteen-week-old hairless mice were irradiated with UVA 14 J/cm² and UVB 40 mJ/cm² three times a week for 8 weeks. A mixture of extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora (KR) was topically applied on the dorsal skin of photoaging mice twice a day for 8 weeks. Tesaglitazar, a known PPAR α/γ agonist, and vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol = 7:3, v / v ) were applied as positive and negative controls, respectively. Dermal effects (including dermal thickness, collagen density, dermal expression of procollagen 1 and collagenase 13) and epidermal effects (including skin barrier function, epidermal proliferation, epidermal differentiation, and epidermal cytokines) were measured and compared. In photoaging murine skin, KR resulted in a significant recovery of dermal thickness as well as dermal fibroblasts, although it did not change dermal collagen density. KR increased the expression of dermal transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The dermal effects of KR were explained by an increase in procollagen 1 expression, induced by TGF-β, and a decrease in MMP-13 expression. KR did not affect basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) or stratum corneum (SC) integrity, but did decrease SC hydration. It also did not affect epidermal proliferation or epidermal differentiation. KR decreased the expression of epidermal interleukin (IL)-1α. Collectively, KR showed possible utility as a therapeutic agent for photoaging skin, with few epidermal side effects such as epidermal hyperplasia or poor differentiation.
Cheng, Brian Chi-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Tse, Kai-Wing; Cao, Hui-Hui; Su, Tao; Shu, Xin; Wu, Zheng-zhi; Yu, Zhi-ling
A herbal formula (RL) consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus (Yingshi) and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua) has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory disorders. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory mode and mechanism of action of the ethanol extract of RL so as to provide a pharmacological basis for the use of RL in treating inflammatory diseases. RL consisting of Yingshi and Jinyinhua (in 5:3 ratio) was extracted using absolute ethanol. We investigated its effects on nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RL could decrease the secretion of NO, IL-6 and TNF-α into the culture medium and the cellular protein levels of iNOS and COX-2, which were associated with the reduction of the phosphorylation/activation of JNK and p38, and the inhibition of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of RL on the inflammatory mediators regulated by the NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, providing a pharmacological basis for RL in the control of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... leukemia (cancer that starts in the bone marrow) Polycythemia vera (bone marrow disease that leads to an ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 68. Tefferi A. Polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis. In: Goldman ...
Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.
The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…
Murray, T. J.
Essential tremor, including the juvenile and senile variations, may be a result of a disorder of the servomechanism that controls physiologic tremor. Hands and arms are affected most commonly, and the tremor can vary in amplitude as well as frequency. Long-term treatment with propranolol has been helpful for some patients, although older patients are less likely to benefit. Other drugs and behaviour modification therapy have been less successful. Surgical treatment is effective but should probably be reserved for severe cases. An effective instrument for measuring the subjective and objective aspects of the tremor is still needed, as is an effective long-term method of treatment. PMID:7018658
A herbal formula comprising Rosae Multiflorae Fructus and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators and the IRAK-1/TAK1 and TBK1/IRF3 pathways in RAW 264.7 and THP-1 cells.
Cheng, Brian Chi Yan; Yu, Hua; Su, Tao; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Guo, Hui; Li, Ting; Cao, Hui-Hui; Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Yu, Zhi-Ling
As documented in the Chinese Materia Medica Grand Dictionary (), a herbal formula (RL) consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus (multiflora rose hips) and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Japanese honeysuckle flowers) has traditionally been used in treating inflammatory disorders. RL was previously reported to inhibit the expression of various inflammatory mediators regulated by NF-κB and MAPKs that are components of the TLR4 signalling pathways. This study aims to provide further justification for clinical application of RL in treating inflammatory disorders by further delineating the involvement of the TLR4 signalling cascades in the effects of RL on inflammatory mediators. RL consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (in 5:3 ratio) was extracted using absolute ethanol. We investigated the effect of RL on the production of cytokines and chemokines that are regulated by three key transcription factors of the TLR4 signalling pathways AP-1, NF-κB and IRF3 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells using the multiplex biometric immunoassay. Phosphorylation of AP-1, NF-κB, IRF3, IκB-α, IKKα/β, Akt, TAK1, TBK1, IRAK-1 and IRAK-4 were examined in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and THP-1 cells using Western blotting. Nuclear localizations of AP-1, NF-κB and IRF3 were also examined using Western blotting. RL reduced the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines regulated by transcription factors AP-1, NF-κB and IRF3. Phosphorylation and nuclear protein levels of these transcription factors were decreased by RL treatment. Moreover, RL inhibited the activation/phosphorylation of IκB-α, IKKα/β, TAK1, TBK1 and IRAK-1. Suppression of the IRAK-1/TAK1 and TBK1/IRF3 signalling pathways was associated with the effect of RL on inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. This provides further pharmacological basis for the clinical application of RL in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Brière, Jean B
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is an acquired myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) characterized by a sustained elevation of platelet number with a tendency for thrombosis and hemorrhage. The prevalence in the general population is approximately 30/100,000. The median age at diagnosis is 65 to 70 years, but the disease may occur at any age. The female to male ratio is about 2:1. The clinical picture is dominated by a predisposition to vascular occlusive events (involving the cerebrovascular, coronary and peripheral circulation) and hemorrhages. Some patients with ET are asymptomatic, others may experience vasomotor (headaches, visual disturbances, lightheadedness, atypical chest pain, distal paresthesias, erythromelalgia), thrombotic, or hemorrhagic disturbances. Arterial and venous thromboses, as well as platelet-mediated transient occlusions of the microcirculation and bleeding, represent the main risks for ET patients. Thromboses of large arteries represent a major cause of mortality associated with ET or can induce severe neurological, cardiac or peripheral artery manifestations. Acute leukemia or myelodysplasia represent only rare and frequently later-onset events. The molecular pathogenesis of ET, which leads to the overproduction of mature blood cells, is similar to that found in other clonal MPDs such as chronic myeloid leukemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia of the spleen. Polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia of the spleen and ET are generally associated under the common denomination of Philadelphia (Ph)-negative MPDs. Despite the recent identification of the JAK2 V617F mutation in a subset of patients with Ph-negative MPDs, the detailed pathogenetic mechanism is still a matter of discussion. Therapeutic interventions in ET are limited to decisions concerning the introduction of anti-aggregation therapy and/or starting platelet cytoreduction. The therapeutic value of hydroxycarbamide and aspirin in high risk
Gelman, Susan A.
Psychological essentialism is an intuitive folk belief positing that certain categories have a non-obvious inner “essence” that gives rise to observable features. Although this belief most commonly characterizes natural kind categories, I argue that psychological essentialism can also be extended in important ways to artifact concepts. Specifically, concepts of individual artifacts include the non-obvious feature of object history, which is evident when making judgments regarding authenticity and ownership. Classic examples include famous works of art (e.g., the Mona Lisa is authentic because of its provenance), but ordinary artifacts likewise receive value from their history (e.g., a worn and tattered blanket may have special value if it was one's childhood possession). Moreover, in some cases, object history may be thought to have causal effects on individual artifacts, much as an animal essence has causal effects. I review empirical support for these claims and consider the implications for both artifact concepts and essentialism. This perspective suggests that artifact concepts cannot be contained in a theoretical framework that focuses exclusively on similarity or even function. Furthermore, although there are significant differences between essentialism of natural kinds and essentialism of artifact individuals, the commonalities suggest that psychological essentialism may not derive from folk biology but instead may reflect more domain-general perspectives on the world. PMID:23976903
Ferdinand, Keith C; Nasser, Samar A
The treatment of essential hypertension is one of the most critical interventions to decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of hypertension in the US varies across race/ethnicity with African Americans having the highest prevalence and overall less control among racial/ethnic minorities compared with non-Hispanic whites. Therapeutic lifestyle modifications are the bedrock of essential hypertension control, but most patients with hypertension will require pharmacotherapy, usually with multiple medications often in combination. Overall, the principal drug classes recommended as initial pharmacotherapy are thiazide-type diuretics, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jenkins, Melinda L
Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs are proliferating around the US as advanced practice nursing programs evolve to build capacity by adding content on professional leadership, policy, and quality improvement to the traditional clinical content. One of the eight "Essentials" for DNP education is "Information systems/technology and patient care technology for the improvement and transformation of health care." A required graduate course was revised and updated in 2017 to provide a foundation in clinical informatics for DNPs, as well as for nursing informatics specialists. Components of the online course, assignments, and free online resources linked to the DNP Essentials are described in this paper.
... successfully treats limb tremor is weakened by the research methods involved. DBS and thalamotomy each pose some risk. They are used only when tremor is very disabling and drugs do not ... is best? Research on treatments for essential tremor is limited. No ...
Green, Ken, Ed.; Hardman, Ken, Ed.
This book is aimed primarily at under and postgraduate students pursuing entire programmes or discrete courses and modules in the broad area of physical education and sport in schools. It consists of a collection of what is considered to be essential readings in the sense that they are contributions from eminent authors on a breadth of salient…
Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.
This collection of practical writing activities was designed to give classroom teachers a variety of approaches, options, and techniques for teaching the essential skills in writing. The activities are organized into units according to grade level, one series of activities following each writing objective determined to be an indicator of whether a…
Rezaeigolestani, Mohammadreza; Misaghi, Ali; Khanjari, Ali; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Abdulkhani, Ali; Fayazfar, Samira
Biodegradability and antimicrobial activity of food packaging materials are among the most attractive parameters in modern food industries. In order to develop biodegradable poly-lactic acid (PLA) film to antibacterial nanocomposites, different concentration of Zataria multiflora Bioss. essential oil (ZME), propolis ethanolic extract (PEE) and cellulose nanofiber (CNF) were incorporated to the polymer by solvent casting method. The resulting films were characterized by mechanical and physical tests and their antimicrobial application was evaluated in-vitro against four common foodborne pathogens and in vacuum-packed cooked sausages during refrigerated storage. Mechanical examination revealed that addition of ZME and PEE made films more flexible and incorporation of CNF improved almost all mechanical parameters tested. Moreover, according to physical analysis, incorporation of 0.5% v/v ZME to the composite primary solutions improved water vapor permeability of the resulting films. Almost all of the active films were effective against the tested bacteria except for PLA/PEE films, and maximum antibacterial effects recorded for the films containing both ZME and PEE. Based on the microbiological and sensory evaluation of the sausages, all of the PLA/1%ZME/PEE composites increased the shelf life to >40days. The results indicate that incorporation of natural antimicrobial substances such as ZME and PEE to packaging material could be an interesting approach in development of active packaging material without significant negative effect on polymer technical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hedera, Peter; Cibulčík, František; Davis, Thomas L.
Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This has limited the development of effective pharmacotherapy. The current therapeutic armamentaria for ET represent the product of careful clinical observation rather than targeted molecular modeling. Here we review their pharmacokinetics, metabolism, dosing, and adverse effect profiles and propose a treatment algorithm. We also discuss the concept of medically refractory tremor, as therapeutic trials should be limited unless invasive therapy is contraindicated or not desired by patients. PMID:24385718
Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Taylor, Eric G; Kato, Daniel; Marsh, Jessecae K; Bloom, Paul
The current study examines causal essentialism, derived from psychological essentialism of concepts. We examine whether people believe that members of a category share some underlying essence that is both necessary and sufficient for category membership and that also causes surface features. The main claim is that causal essentialism is restricted to categories that correspond to our intuitive notions of existing kinds and hence is more attenuated for categories that are based on arbitrary criteria. Experiments 1 and 3 found that people overtly endorse causal essences in nonarbitrary kinds but are less likely to do so for arbitrary categories. Experiments 2 and 4 found that people were more willing to generalize a member's known causal relations (or lack thereof) when dealing with a kind than when dealing with an arbitrary category. These differences between kinds and arbitrary categories were found across various domains-not only for categories of living things, but also for artefacts. These findings have certain real-world implications, including how people make sense of mental disorders that are treated as real kinds.
Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.
SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs. PMID:21528097
Martínez de Victoria, Emilio
Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral element in our body. It accounts for about 2% of body weight. The functions of calcium are: a) functions skeletal and b) regulatory functions. Bone consists of a protein matrix that mineralizes mainly with calcium (the most abundant), phosphate and magnesium, for it is essential an adequate dietary intake of Ca, phosphorus and vitamin D. The ionic Ca (Ca2+) is essential to maintain and / or perform different specialized functions of, virtually, all body cells cellular. Because of its important functions Ca2+ must be closely regulated, keeping plasma concentrations within narrow ranges. For this reason there is an accurate response against hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia in which the parathormone, calcitriol, calcitonin and vitamin K are involved. Ca intakes in the Spanish population are low in a significant percentage of the older adult’s population, especially in women. The main source of Ca in the diet is milk and milk derivatives. Green leafy vegetables, fruits and legumes can be important sources of Ca in a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The bioavailability of dietary Ca depends on physiological and dietary factors. Physiological include age, physiological status (gestation and lactation) Ca and vitamin D status and disease. Several studies relate Ca intake in the diet and various diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.
This paper distinguishes between Jung's theoretical discourse regarding the archetypes and his phenomenological account of numinous experience. For this author, the initial attraction of 'my Jung' came from both the vivid Romanticism of his descriptions of the anima and the apparent 'ground of being' offered by his theory of archetypes. However, the essentialism inherent to archetypal theory in general and the anima in particular has necessitated a re-evaluation of Jung's theory in terms of emergence theory. My own version of this emphasises the role of symbols in the constitution of affect through collective human action in the world. In this reconfiguration, the visceral energy of numinous experience is retained while the problematic theory of archetypes is no longer needed. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Frewin, R; Dowson, A
Headache is frequently reported as one of the neurological manifestations of essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and other myeloproliferative neoplasms. It is associated with considerable morbidity; yet, it is a frequently under-recognised symptom. In patients with ET, headaches may be attributable to the disease, to the prescribed ET treatment, or unrelated to ET. The majority of headaches in ET are self-limiting and can be managed with standard headache therapies such as paracetamol, but it is vital that the clinician managing these conditions is able to recognise the headaches with a more sinister pathology. In this article, we will review the incidence and management of headaches in ET, whether they are primarily related to the disease or a result of its treatment. Identification of specific headache types in patients with ET may enable physicians to employ the most effective headache medication. This would enhance the patient-physician relationship, increasing patient compliance and thus reducing the risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:22889110
Pereira, H.M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G.N.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Scholes, Robert J.; Bruford, M.W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Cardoso, A.C.; Coops, N.C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D.P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R.D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D.S.; McGeoch, M.A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Stuart, S.N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.
Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.
Chambers, D W
This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality.
Lu, Yao; Lu, Yulan; Deng, Jingyuan; Peng, Hai; Lu, Hui; Lu, Long Jason
Genes with indispensable functions are identified as essential; however, the traditional gene-level studies of essentiality have several limitations. In this study, we characterized gene essentiality from a new perspective of protein domains, the independent structural or functional units of a polypeptide chain. To identify such essential domains, we have developed an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm-based Essential Domain Prediction (EDP) Model. With simulated datasets, the model provided convergent results given different initial values and offered accurate predictions even with noise. We then applied the EDP model to six microbial species and predicted 1879 domains to be essential in at least one species, ranging 10-23% in each species. The predicted essential domains were more conserved than either non-essential domains or essential genes. Comparing essential domains in prokaryotes and eukaryotes revealed an evolutionary distance consistent with that inferred from ribosomal RNA. When utilizing these essential domains to reproduce the annotation of essential genes, we received accurate results that suggest protein domains are more basic units for the essentiality of genes. Furthermore, we presented several examples to illustrate how the combination of essential and non-essential domains can lead to genes with divergent essentiality. In summary, we have described the first systematic analysis on gene essentiality on the level of domains. firstname.lastname@example.org or Long.Lu@cchmc.org Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Draws a connection between Gallie's essentially contested concepts and Aristotle's account of rhetorical argument by presenting a definition of Essentially Contested Argument which is used as the connecting term between rhetoric and essentially contested concepts and by demonstrating the value of making this connection. (JF)
Bruno, Elisa; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Filippini, Graziella; Zappia, Mario; Colosimo, Carlo
Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders. Treatment is based primarily on pharmacological agents. On this basis, although primidone and propranolol are well-established treatments in clinical practice, they could be ineffective in 25% to 55% of patients and can produce serious adverse events (AEs) in a large percentage of individuals. For these reasons, evaluating treatment alternatives for ET may be a worthwhile pursuit. Alprazolam has been suggested as a potentially useful agent for treatment of individuals with ET, but its efficacy and safety are uncertain. PrimaryTo assess the efficacy and safety of alprazolam in the treatment of individuals with ET. SecondaryTo examine effects of alprazolam treatment on the quality of life of people with ET. We carried out a systematic search without language restrictions to identify all relevant trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (January 1966 to September 2015), EMBASE (January 1988 to September 2015), the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (1999 to September 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (1997 to September 2015) and the World Health Organiza tion (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2004 to September 2015). We handsearched grey literature and examined the reference lists of identified studies and reviews. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of alprazolam versus placebo or any other treatment. We included studies in which ET was diagnosed according to accepted and validated diagnostic criteria. We excluded studies that included patients presenting with secondary forms of tremor or reporting only neurophysiological parameters for the pur p ose of assessing outcomes. Two review authors independently collected and extracted data using a data collection form. We assessed risk of bias and the body of evidence. We used inverse variance methods for continuous outcomes and measurement scales
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of nosocomial infections, particularly in immunocompromised, cancer, burn and cystic fibrosis patients. Development of novel antimicrobials against P. aeruginosa is therefore of the highest importance. Although the first reports on P. aeruginosa essential genes date back to the early 2000s, a number of more sensitive genomic approaches have been used recently to better define essential genes in this organism. These analyses highlight the evolution of the definition of an 'essential' gene from the traditional to the context-dependent. Essential genes, particularly those indispensable under the clinically relevant conditions, are considered to be promising targets of novel antibiotics against P. aeruginosa. This review provides an update on the investigation of P. aeruginosa essential genes. Special focus is on recently identified P. aeruginosa essential genes and their exploitation for the development of antimicrobials.
Maiti, Rituparna; Bhatia, Vikas; Padhy, Biswa Mohan; Hota, Debasish
The concept of defining essential medicines and establishing a list of them was aimed to improve the availability of affordable medicines for the world's poor. Access to essential medicines is a major determinant of health outcomes. Several countries have made substantial progress towards increasing access to essential medicines, but access to essential medicines in developing countries like India is not adequate. In this review we have tried to present the Indian scenario in respect to availability and accessibility of essential medicines over last one decade. To enhance the credibility of Indian healthcare system, procurement and delivery systems of essential medicines have to be strengthened through government commitment, careful selection, adequate public sector financing, efficient distribution systems, control on taxes and duties, and inculcating a culture of rational use of medicines in current and future prescribers. PMID:26435594
Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong
Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684
Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo
Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production. PMID:29099084
National Center on Response to Intervention, 2011
The Response to Intervention (RTI) Essential Components Integrity Rubric is for use by individuals who are responsible for monitoring school-level fidelity of RTI implementation. The rubric is aligned with "Essential Components of RTI: A Closer Look at Response to Intervention" (National Center on Response to Intervention, 2010).…
Miura, Shiroh; Fujioka, Ryuta; Taniwaki, Takayuki
We describe two cases of typical essential tremor with aspartic acidemia and mildly increased concentrations of plasma glutamic acid. Although this is a preliminary report, we emphasize the possibility of using amino acids, including aspartic acid, as biomarkers for the detection of essential tremor.
species and alter long-term successional processes (Vidra et al. 2007), although they could also enhance the biodiversity of the plant community...3. Biological control ( fungi or insects) 4. Fire management 5. Prescribed grazing. Because the plant grows in large, dense thickets, possesses
Sharifi, Sarvi; Nederveen, Aart J.; Booij, Jan; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur
Background Essential tremor is regarded to be a disease of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging is a rapidly growing field with potential benefits to both diagnostics and research. The exact role of imaging techniques with respect to essential tremor in research and clinical practice is not clear. A systematic review of the different imaging techniques in essential tremor is lacking in the literature. Methods We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms essential tremor and familial tremor with the following keywords: imaging, MRI, VBM, DWI, fMRI, PET and SPECT, both in abbreviated form as well as in full form. We summarize and discuss the quality and the external validity of each study and place the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of essential tremor. Results A total of 48 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 29 functional and metabolic studies. The quality of the studies varied, especially concerning inclusion criteria. Functional imaging studies indicated cerebellar hyperactivity during rest and during tremor. The studies also pointed to the involvement of the thalamus, the inferior olive and the red nucleus. Structural studies showed less consistent results. Discussion and conclusion Neuroimaging techniques in essential tremor give insight into the pathophysiology of essential tremor indicating the involvement of the cerebellum as the most consistent finding. GABAergic dysfunction might be a major premise in the pathophysiological hypotheses. Inconsistencies between studies can be partly explained by the inclusion of heterogeneous patient groups. Improvement of scientific research requires more stringent inclusion criteria and application of advanced analysis techniques. Also, the use of multimodal neuroimaging techniques is a promising development in movement disorders research. Currently, the role of imaging techniques in essential tremor in daily
... types of activities, such as eating, drinking, or writing. Essential tremor can also occur when the muscles are opposing gravity, such as when the hands are extended. It is usually not evident at ...
Webb, Elmer James
Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)
de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich
Essential oils are widely used in the flavor, food, fragrance, and cosmetic industries in many applications. Contact allergy to them is well known and has been described for 80 essential oils. The relevance of positive patch test reactions often remains unknown. Knowledge of the chemical composition of essential oils among dermatologists is suspected to be limited, as such data are published in journals not read by the dermatological community. Therefore, the authors have fully reviewed and published the literature on contact allergy to and chemical composition of essential oils. Selected topics from this publication will be presented in abbreviated form in Dermatitis starting with this issue, including I. Introduction; II. General aspects; III. Chemistry; IV. General aspects of contact allergy; V. Peppermint oil, lavender oil and lemongrass oil; VI: Sandalwood oil, ylang-ylang oil, and jasmine absolute.
AD-.A282 456 Essential Kinematics for Autonomous Vehicles Alonzo Kelly DTICCMU-RI-TR-94- 14 AU 031994 F The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon...kit of concepts and techniques that will equip the reader to master a large class of kinematic modelling problems. Control of autonomous vehicles in 3D...transformation from system ’a’ to system b’. Essential Kinematics for Autonomous Vehicles page 1. The specification of derivatives will be necessarily
Thompson, Richard F
I argue here that we have succeeded in localizing an essential memory trace for a basic form of associative learning and memory--classical conditioning of discrete responses learned with an aversive stimulus--to the anterior interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum. We first identified the entire essential circuit, using eyelid conditioning as the model system, and used reversible inactivation, during training, of critical structures and pathways to localize definitively the essential memory trace. In recognition of the 30th anniversary of Behavioral Neuroscience, I highlight 1 paper (Tracy, Thompson, Krupa, & Thompson, 1998) that was particularly significant for the progress of this research program. In this review, I present definitive evidence that the essential memory trace for eyelid conditioning is localized to the cerebellum and to no other part of the essential circuit, using electrical stimulation of the pontine nuclei-mossy fibers projecting to the cerebellum as the conditional stimulus (CS; it proved to be a supernormal stimulus resulting in much faster learning than with any peripheral CS) and using an electrical stimulus to the output of the cerebellum as a test, which did not change. Pontine patterns of projection to the cerebellum were confirmed with retrograde labeling techniques. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Espay, AJ; Lang, AE; Erro, R; Merola, A; Fasano, A; Berardelli, A; Bhatia, KP
While essential tremor has been considered the most common movement disorder, it has largely remained a diagnosis of exclusion: many tremor and non-tremor features must be absent for the clinical diagnosis to stand. The clinical features of “essential tremor” overlap with or may be part of other tremor disorders and, not surprisingly, this prevalent familial disorder has remained without a gene identified, without a consistent natural history, and without an acceptable pathology or pathophysiologic underpinning. The collective evidence suggests that under the rubric of essential tremor there exists multiple unique diseases, some of which represent cerebellar dysfunction, but for which there is no intrinsic “essence” other than a common oscillatory behavior on posture and action. One approach may be to use the term “essential tremor” only as a transitional node in the deep phenotyping of tremor disorders based on historical, phenomenological, and neurophysiological features, to facilitate its etiologic diagnosis or serve for future gene- and biomarker-discovery efforts. This approach deemphasizes essential tremor as a diagnostic entity and facilitates the understanding of the underlying disorders in order to develop biologically tailored diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:28116753
Stolk, Pieter; Willemen, Marjolein J C; Leufkens, Hubert G M
Since 1977, the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by WHO, has provided advice for Member States that struggle to decide which pharmaceutical technologies should be provided to patients within their public health systems. Originating from outside WHO, an incentive system has been put in place by various governments for the development of medicines for rare diseases ("orphan drugs"). With progress in pharmaceutical research (e.g. drugs targeted for narrower indications), these medicines will feature more often on future public health agendas. However, when current definitions for selecting essential medicines are applied strictly, orphan drugs cannot be part of the WHO Essential Medicines Programme, creating the risk that WHO may lose touch with this field. In our opinion WHO should explicitly include orphan drugs in its policy sphere by composing a complementary Orphan Medicines Model List as an addition to the EML. This complementary list of "rare essentials" could aid policy-makers and patients in, for example, emerging countries to improve access to these drugs and stimulate relevant policies. Furthermore, inconsistencies in the current EML with regard to medicines for rare diseases can be resolved. In this paper we propose selection criteria for an Orphan Medicines Model List that could form a departure point for future work towards an extensive WHO Orphan Medicines Programme.
Stolk, Pieter; Willemen, Marjolein J. C.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.
Since 1977, the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by WHO, has provided advice for Member States that struggle to decide which pharmaceutical technologies should be provided to patients within their public health systems. Originating from outside WHO, an incentive system has been put in place by various governments for the development of medicines for rare diseases ("orphan drugs"). With progress in pharmaceutical research (e.g. drugs targeted for narrower indications), these medicines will feature more often on future public health agendas. However, when current definitions for selecting essential medicines are applied strictly, orphan drugs cannot be part of the WHO Essential Medicines Programme, creating the risk that WHO may lose touch with this field. In our opinion WHO should explicitly include orphan drugs in its policy sphere by composing a complementary Orphan Medicines Model List as an addition to the EML. This complementary list of "rare essentials" could aid policy-makers and patients in, for example, emerging countries to improve access to these drugs and stimulate relevant policies. Furthermore, inconsistencies in the current EML with regard to medicines for rare diseases can be resolved. In this paper we propose selection criteria for an Orphan Medicines Model List that could form a departure point for future work towards an extensive WHO Orphan Medicines Programme. PMID:17128345
Prince, Jeffrey P.; Heiser, Lisa J.
This book is a quick reference source to guide the career professional through the essentials of using the most popular career interest tools. It summarizes important technical aspects of each inventory, and offers step-by-step guidance in the interpretation and use of the various inventories. The chapters are: (1) "Overview"; (2)…
Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Tworek, Christina M.
Social essentialism entails the belief that certain social categories (e.g., gender, race) mark fundamentally distinct kinds of people. Essentialist beliefs have pernicious consequences, supporting social stereotyping and contributing to prejudice. How does social essentialism develop? In the studies reported here, we tested the hypothesis that generic language facilitates the cultural transmission of social essentialism. Two studies found that hearing generic language about a novel social category diverse for race, ethnicity, age, and sex led 4-y-olds and adults to develop essentialist beliefs about that social category. A third study documented that experimentally inducing parents to hold essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led them to produce more generic language when discussing the category with their children. Thus, generic language facilitates the transmission of essentialist beliefs about social categories from parents to children. PMID:22869722
Duong, Mai; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty; Chen, Timothy F
To explore the perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders engaged in medicines decision making around what constitutes an "essential" medicine, and how the Essential Medicines List (EML) concept functions in a high income country context. In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Australian stakeholders, recognised as decision makers, leaders or advisors in the area of medicines reimbursement or supply chain management. Participants were recruited from government, pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical wholesale/distribution companies, medicines non-profit organisations, academic health disciplines, hospitals, and consumer groups. Perspectives on the definition and application of the EML concept in a high income country context were thematically analysed using grounded theory approach. Stakeholders found it challenging to describe the EML concept in the Australian context because many perceived it was generally used in resource scarce settings. Stakeholders were unable to distinguish whether nationally reimbursed medicines were essential medicines in Australia. Despite frequent generic drug shortages and high prices paid by consumers, many struggled to describe how the EML concept applied to Australia. Instead, broad inclusion of consumer needs, such as rare and high cost medicines, and consumer involvement in the decision making process, has led to expansive lists of nationally subsidised medicines. Therefore, improved communication and coordination is needed around shared interests between stakeholders regarding how medicines are prioritised and guaranteed in the supply chain. This study showed that decision-making in Australia around reimbursement of medicines has strayed from the fundamental utilitarian concept of essential medicines. Many stakeholders involved in medicine reimbursement decisions and management of the supply chain did not consider the EML concept in their approach. The wide range of views of what stakeholders
Diversity is an essential quality for success in agronomy because agronomy touches everyone, everywhere in some way, and food production is crucial for every society around the world. Consider, for example, our membership, which is diverse in almost every way imaginable. This diversity brings differ...
The book is an introduction to the subject of fluid mechanics, essential for students and researchers in many branches of science. It illustrates its fundamental principles with a variety of examples drawn mainly from astrophysics and geophysics as well as from everyday experience. Prior familiarity with basic thermodynamics and vector calculus is assumed.
Every profession has a set of essential tools for carrying out its work. Airplane mechanics cannot repair engines without sophisticated diagnostics, wrenches, and pliers. Surgeons cannot operate without scalpels and clamps. In contrast, teaching has often been perceived as a profession requiring only students, chalk, and a blackboard in order for…
Conrad, Jo Ann; Reinecke, Hank
This student workbook is designed to help Micronesian adults learn everyday English. Its ten chapters move from simple one-word picture labeling to more abstract ideas in a spiraled fashion, reiterating the essential elements of the English language in different, more complicated ways. Subjects covered include names for everyday objects and…
Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans
Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006
Davis, Anita P.; McDaniel, Thomas R.
Updates a list (originally published in 1963) of "survival" or essential words--words so important for survival and success in everyday life that everyone should know them. Notes that recognition of these key words and phrases may require non-English-speaking individuals, disabled readers, and adult literacy students to use rote memorization for…
Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.
Peace education is a key for establishing a consensual peace and maintaining it over time. There are 5 essential elements in building a lasting peace through education. First, a public education system must be established that has compulsory attendance for all children and youth, integrated so students from previously conflicting groups interact…
Objective To explore the perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders engaged in medicines decision making around what constitutes an “essential” medicine, and how the Essential Medicines List (EML) concept functions in a high income country context. Methods In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Australian stakeholders, recognised as decision makers, leaders or advisors in the area of medicines reimbursement or supply chain management. Participants were recruited from government, pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical wholesale/distribution companies, medicines non-profit organisations, academic health disciplines, hospitals, and consumer groups. Perspectives on the definition and application of the EML concept in a high income country context were thematically analysed using grounded theory approach. Findings Stakeholders found it challenging to describe the EML concept in the Australian context because many perceived it was generally used in resource scarce settings. Stakeholders were unable to distinguish whether nationally reimbursed medicines were essential medicines in Australia. Despite frequent generic drug shortages and high prices paid by consumers, many struggled to describe how the EML concept applied to Australia. Instead, broad inclusion of consumer needs, such as rare and high cost medicines, and consumer involvement in the decision making process, has led to expansive lists of nationally subsidised medicines. Therefore, improved communication and coordination is needed around shared interests between stakeholders regarding how medicines are prioritised and guaranteed in the supply chain. Conclusions This study showed that decision-making in Australia around reimbursement of medicines has strayed from the fundamental utilitarian concept of essential medicines. Many stakeholders involved in medicine reimbursement decisions and management of the supply chain did not consider the EML concept in their approach
Preston, F. E.; Emmanuel, I. G.; Winfield, D. A.; Malia, R. G.
Six patients are described in whom gangrene of one or more toes occurred as the presenting feature of essential thrombocythaemia. Spontaneous platelet aggregation was observed in platelet-rich plasma from four patients and platelet aggregation after the addition of adenosine diphosphate and collagen was highly abnormal in samples from all six. All of the patients described dramatic relief of pain within six hours of ingestion of aspirin and this coincided with disappearance of the spontaneous platelet aggregation and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Treatment with phosphorus-32 corrected the platelet count and there were no further recurrences of peripheral vascular disease. Platelet function tests performed at the time all gave normal results. It is concluded that essential thrombocythaemia is an important and treatable cause of peripheral vascular disease. PMID:4472103
Mosquitoes carry diseases than can lead to serious illness and death. According to the World Health Organization, mosquitoes infect over 300 million people a year with Malaria and Dengue Fever, two life threatening diseases vectored by mosquitoes. Although insecticides are the most effective way to control mosquitoes, they are not always environmentally friendly. Therefore, alternative tactics should be considered. In this study, we looked at the repellency of various essential oils on female Aedes aegypti through a series of laboratory assays.
notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 01-06-2007 2...known about platelet mRNAs. The pathogenesis of essential thrombocytosis (ET), a disease of platelet number and function, is poorly understood at the
penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR...intact protein synthetic capabilities, remarkably little is known about platelet mRNAs. The pathogenesis of essential thrombocytosis (ET), a disease of...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a . REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U
This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advance organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tool, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategies for communication for change processes, whether large or small. Intentional planning and development of a communication strategy alongside, not as an afterthought, to change initiatives are essential.
A well-designed performance measurement system is vital for ensuring that organisations deliver cost-effective, high-quality services that meet the needs of service users. Without feedback on all important aspects and a system for ensuring that the organisation acts on that information, managers are struggling in the dark to improve services. However, performance measurement is not easy, particularly in health and public services where a wide range of stakeholders is involved. This article discusses what the author considers to be the eight essentials of performance measurement. Though described in the context of health and social care, they are important for organisations in all sectors.
Provides a comprehensive overview of the 19 essential trace elements, examining: the concept of essentiality; evolution of these elements; possible future essential elements; the lanthanides and actinides; how essential trace elements work; the metalloenzymes; the nonmetals; iodine and the thyroid hormones; and antagonism among these elements. (JN)
Uauy, R; Olivares, M; Gonzalez, M
The biochemical basis for the essentiality of copper, the adequacy of the dietary copper supply, factors that condition deficiency, and the special conditions of copper nutriture in early infancy are reviewed. New biochemical and crystallographic evidence define copper as being necessary for structural and catalytic properties of cuproenzymes. Mechanisms responsible for the control of cuproprotein gene expression are not known in mammals; however, studies using yeast as a eukaryote model support the existence of a copper-dependent gene regulatory element. Diets in Western countries provide copper below or in the low range of the estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake. Copper deficiency is usually the consequence of decreased copper stores at birth, inadequate dietary copper intake, poor absorption, elevated requirements induced by rapid growth, or increased copper losses. The most frequent clinical manifestations of copper deficiency are anemia, neutropenia, and bone abnormalities. Recommendations for dietary copper intake and total copper exposure, including that from potable water, should consider that copper is an essential nutrient with potential toxicity if the load exceeds tolerance. A range of safe intakes should be defined for the general population, including a lower safe intake and an upper safe intake, to prevent deficiency as well as toxicity for most of the population.
Wise, Ingrid A.; Charchar, Fadi J.
Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex, polygenic condition with no single causative agent. Despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of EH, hypertension remains one of the world’s leading public health problems. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications are as important as genetic predisposition in the development of EH. Indeed, a complex and interactive genetic and environmental system exists to determine an individual’s risk of EH. Epigenetics refers to all heritable changes to the regulation of gene expression as well as chromatin remodelling, without involvement of nucleotide sequence changes. Epigenetic modification is recognized as an essential process in biology, but is now being investigated for its role in the development of specific pathologic conditions, including EH. Epigenetic research will provide insights into the pathogenesis of blood pressure regulation that cannot be explained by classic Mendelian inheritance. This review concentrates on epigenetic modifications to DNA structure, including the influence of non-coding RNAs on hypertension development. PMID:27023534
Hursh, Steven R; Silberberg, Alan
The strength of a rat's eating reflex correlates with hunger level when strength is measured by the response frequency that precedes eating (B. F. Skinner, 1932a, 1932b). On the basis of this finding, Skinner argued response frequency could index reflex strength. Subsequent work documented difficulties with this notion because responding was affected not only by the strengthening properties of the reinforcer but also by the rate-shaping effects of the schedule. This article obviates this problem by measuring strength via methods from behavioral economics. This approach uses demand curves to map how reinforcer consumption changes with changes in the "price" different ratio schedules impose. An exponential equation is used to model these demand curves. The value of this exponential's rate constant is used to scale the strength or essential value of a reinforcer, independent of the scalar dimensions of the reinforcer. Essential value determines the consumption level to be expected at particular prices and the response level that will occur to support that consumption. This approach permits comparing reinforcers that differ in kind, contributing toward the goal of scaling reinforcer value. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Rajput, Ali H; Rajput, Alex
Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor characterized by upper limb action—postural tremor (PT)/kinetic tremor (KT). There are no specific neuropathological or biochemical abnormalities in ET. The disability is consequent to amplitude of KT, which may remain mild without handicap or may become disabling. The most effective drugs for sustained tremor control are propranolol and primidone. Symptomatic drug treatment must be individualized depending on the circumstances that provoke the tremor-related disability. Broad guidelines for treatment are discussed in this review. Patients may be treated intermittently only on stressful occasions with propranolol, clonazepam, or primidone monotherapy, or an alcoholic drink. Those with persistently disabling tremor need continued treatment. PMID:24812533
ABSTRACT Robust adhesion to wet, salt-encrusted, corroded and slimy surfaces has been an essential adaptation in the life histories of sessile marine organisms for hundreds of millions of years, but it remains a major impasse for technology. Mussel adhesion has served as one of many model systems providing a fundamental understanding of what is required for attachment to wet surfaces. Most polymer engineers have focused on the use of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa), a peculiar but abundant catecholic amino acid in mussel adhesive proteins. The premise of this Review is that although Dopa does have the potential for diverse cohesive and adhesive interactions, these will be difficult to achieve in synthetic homologs without a deeper knowledge of mussel biology; that is, how, at different length and time scales, mussels regulate the reactivity of their adhesive proteins. To deposit adhesive proteins onto target surfaces, the mussel foot creates an insulated reaction chamber with extreme reaction conditions such as low pH, low ionic strength and high reducing poise. These conditions enable adhesive proteins to undergo controlled fluid–fluid phase separation, surface adsorption and spreading, microstructure formation and, finally, solidification. PMID:28202646
Favier, R P; van Leeuwen, M; Teske, E
In this report two dogs with essential thrombocythaemia (ET) are described. Both dogs were presented more or less at the same time with a combination of reduced exercise tolerance and pale mucous membranes without any report of blood loss. Moderate-to-severe, Coomb's-negative anaemia and thrombocytosis (> 1249 x 10'/l) were present. In addition, the peripheral blood smear revealed the presence of basophilia and large numbers of abnormally shaped megakaryocytes in the bone marrow of both dogs. Treatment with vincristine (0.7 mg/m2 once intravenously) and hydroxyurea (500 mg/m2 p.o. per day) was started. Because of insufficient response to treatment after 3 weeks, the dosage of hydroxyurea was increased in both dogs to 2000 mg/m2 p.o. per day. The dogs deteriorated further, however, and were euthanized at 6 weeks after the start of treatment. Blood examination revealed pancytopenia in both dogs, most likely due to the myelosuppressive effects of high-dose hydroxyurea. A survey of veterinary literature on ET is presented, including a comparison of ET in humans.
Wang, Jie; Feng, Bo; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Teng, Fei; Li, Shengjie; Xiong, Xingjiang
Objectives. To assess the current clinical evidence of Tai Chi for essential hypertension (EH). Search Strategy. 7 electronic databases were searched until 20 April, 2013. Inclusion Criteria. We included randomized trials testing Tai Chi versus routine care or antihypertensive drugs. Trials testing Tai Chi combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were also included. Data Extraction and Analyses. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 18 trials were included. Methodological quality of the trials was low. 14 trials compared Tai Chi with routine care. 1 trial compared Tai Chi with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis all showed significant effect of TaiChi in lowering blood pressure (BP). 3 trials compared Tai Chi plus antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs. Positive results in BP were found in the other 2 combination groups. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety of Tai Chi is still uncertain. Conclusions. There is some encouraging evidence of Tai Chi for EH. However, due to poor methodological quality of included studies, the evidence remains weak. Rigorously designed trials are needed to confirm the evidence. PMID:23986780
Lafon, F.; Osher, S.
High order accurate centered flux approximations used in the computation of numerical solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations produce large oscillations in regions of sharp transitions. Here, we present a new class of filtering methods denoted by Essentially Nonoscillatory Least Squares (ENOLS), which constructs an upgraded filtered solution that is close to the physically correct weak solution of the original evolution equation. Our method relies on the evaluation of a least squares polynomial approximation to oscillatory data using a set of points which is determined via the ENO network. Numerical results are given in one and two space dimensions for both scalar and systems of hyperbolic conservation laws. Computational running time, efficiency, and robustness of method are illustrated in various examples such as Riemann initial data for both Burgers' and Euler's equations of gas dynamics. In all standard cases, the filtered solution appears to converge numerically to the correct solution of the original problem. Some interesting results based on nonstandard central difference schemes, which exactly preserve entropy, and have been recently shown generally not to be weakly convergent to a solution of the conservation law, are also obtained using our filters.
Child health is a growing concern at the global level, as infectious diseases and preventable conditions claim hundreds of lives of children under the age of five in low-income countries. Approximately 7.6 million children under five years of age died in 2011, calculating to about 19 000 children each day and almost 800 every hour. About 80 percent of the world’s under-five deaths in 2011 occurred in only 25 countries, and about half in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. The implications and burden of such statistics are huge and will have dire consequences if they are not corrected promptly. This paper reviews essential interventions for improving child health, which if implemented properly and according to guidelines have been found to improve child health outcomes, as well as reduce morbidity and mortality rates. It also includes caregivers and delivery strategies for each intervention. Interventions that have been associated with a decrease in mortality and disease rates include exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding strategies, routine immunizations and vaccinations for children, preventative zinc supplementation in children, and vitamin A supplementation in vitamin A deficient populations. PMID:25177974
Kuroda, Y; Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H
We investigated the effect of arotinolol, a new peripherally acting beta-adrenergic blocker, in 15 patients with essential tremor. The patients received 30 mg per day of arotinolol for 8 weeks. Accelerometer readings showed a significant reduction in amplitude of postural tremor after treatment. Action tremor also improved to essentially the same degree as postural tremor. The present findings support the view that the therapeutic effect of beta-blockers in essential tremor is mediated by peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors.
Vasil'eva, L N
In biological literature, essentialism and typological thinking are believed to be incompatible with evolutionary ideas. At present, the same considerations underlay the claims to abandon the Linnaean hierarchy, or the fundamental classificatory structure rooted in essentialism. This paper suggests to reconsider the negative views of Plato's typology and Aristotle's essentialism following the narrow interpretations that have nothing to do with the classification of living beings. Plato's theory of 'ideas' (or 'forms') is the basis of classificatory theory; it provided such concepts as 'species', 'genus', 'essence', 'dichotomous division' but the development of this theory in the framework of moral and esthetic values could not be beneficial to biology. Aristotle's essentialism is more complicated and exists in two forms; one of these, or classificatory essentialism, is a modification of Plato's typology; another one, or organismal essentialism, represents the shift of 'essence' from the world of relations between objects to the realm of particular things, where the concept of essence lost its basic meaning. It is senseless to look for unreal 'type of an organism' ('essence of a thing') but precisely this kind of essentialism is attractive for biologists and philosophers. Organismal essentialism is the underlying basis of so-called 'individuality thesis' that is used as a weapon against classificatory essentialism. The same thesis is associated with an extensional vision of taxa that also explains the criticism of Linnaean hierarchy, while the latter is the intentional structure and the first tool suggested for the rank coordination of many unequal taxa.
Labena, Abraham A; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Dong, Chuan; Zhang, Fa-Z; Guo, Feng-Biao
Essential reactions are vital components of cellular networks. They are the foundations of synthetic biology and are potential candidate targets for antimetabolic drug design. Especially if a single reaction is catalyzed by multiple enzymes, then inhibiting the reaction would be a better option than targeting the enzymes or the corresponding enzyme-encoding gene. The existing databases such as BRENDA, BiGG, KEGG, Bio-models, Biosilico, and many others offer useful and comprehensive information on biochemical reactions. But none of these databases especially focus on essential reactions. Therefore, building a centralized repository for this class of reactions would be of great value. Here, we present a species-specific essential reactions database (SSER). The current version comprises essential biochemical and transport reactions of twenty-six organisms which are identified via flux balance analysis (FBA) combined with manual curation on experimentally validated metabolic network models. Quantitative data on the number of essential reactions, number of the essential reactions associated with their respective enzyme-encoding genes and shared essential reactions across organisms are the main contents of the database. SSER would be a prime source to obtain essential reactions data and related gene and metabolite information and it can significantly facilitate the metabolic network models reconstruction and analysis, and drug target discovery studies. Users can browse, search, compare and download the essential reactions of organisms of their interest through the website http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn/sser .
El Asbahani, A; Miladi, K; Badri, W; Sala, M; Aït Addi, E H; Casabianca, H; El Mousadik, A; Hartmann, D; Jilale, A; Renaud, F N R; Elaissari, A
Essential oils are natural products which have many interesting applications. Extraction of essential oils from plants is performed by classical and innovative methods. Numerous encapsulation processes have been developed and reported in the literature in order to encapsulate biomolecules, active molecules, nanocrystals, oils and also essential oils for various applications such as in vitro diagnosis, therapy, cosmetic, textile, food etc. Essential oils encapsulation led to numerous new formulations with new applications. This insures the protection of the fragile oil and controlled release. The most commonly prepared carriers are polymer particles, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boss, R. Wayne
The purpose of organization development (OD) is to improve an organization's effectiveness in making decisions and changes and to reach the full potential of its personnel. Objectives of OD and essentials for successful programs are listed. Definitions of essentials and how they add to the effectiveness of OD are presented. (Author/BEF)
Purpose: This conceptual paper aims to argue that times, spaces, bodies and things constitute four essential dimensions of workplace learning. It examines how practices relate or hang together, taking Gherardi's texture of practices or connectedness in action as the foundation for making visible essential but often overlooked dimensions of…
Education Development Center, Inc, 2006
Countries that begin implementing the Intel[R] Teach to the Future Essentials course after March of 2006 are required to collect data using the Intel[R] Teach Essentials End of Training Survey to help support program improvement. This End of Training evaluation toolkit provides guidelines on: (1) End of Training Survey administration; (2) The…
Kabir, Mitra; Barradas, Ana; Tzotzos, George T.; Hentges, Kathryn E.
Essential genes are those that are critical for life. In the specific case of the mouse, they are the set of genes whose deletion means that a mouse is unable to survive after birth. As such, they are the key minimal set of genes needed for all the steps of development to produce an organism capable of life ex utero. We explored a wide range of sequence and functional features to characterise essential (lethal) and non-essential (viable) genes in mice. Experimental data curated manually identified 1301 essential genes and 3451 viable genes. Very many sequence features show highly significant differences between essential and viable mouse genes. Essential genes generally encode complex proteins, with multiple domains and many introns. These genes tend to be: long, highly expressed, old and evolutionarily conserved. These genes tend to encode ligases, transferases, phosphorylated proteins, intracellular proteins, nuclear proteins, and hubs in protein-protein interaction networks. They are involved with regulating protein-protein interactions, gene expression and metabolic processes, cell morphogenesis, cell division, cell proliferation, DNA replication, cell differentiation, DNA repair and transcription, cell differentiation and embryonic development. Viable genes tend to encode: membrane proteins or secreted proteins, and are associated with functions such as cellular communication, apoptosis, behaviour and immune response, as well as housekeeping and tissue specific functions. Viable genes are linked to transport, ion channels, signal transduction, calcium binding and lipid binding, consistent with their location in membranes and involvement with cell-cell communication. From the analysis of the composite features of essential and viable genes, we conclude that essential genes tend to be required for intracellular functions, and viable genes tend to be involved with extracellular functions and cell-cell communication. Knowledge of the features that are over
de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich
Nearly 80 essential oils (including 2 jasmine absolutes) have caused contact allergy. Fifty-five of these have been tested in consecutive patients suspected of contact dermatitis, and nine (laurel, turpentine, orange, tea tree, citronella, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, clove, and costus root) showed greater than 2% positive patch test reactions. Relevance data are generally missing or inadequate. Most reactions are caused by application of pure oils or high-concentration products. The clinical picture depends on the responsible product. Occupational contact dermatitis may occur in professionals performing massages. The (possible) allergens in essential oils are discussed. Several test allergens are available, but patients should preferably be tested with their own products. Co-reactivity with other essential oils and the fragrance mix is frequent, which may partly be explained by common ingredients. Patch test concentrations for essential oils are suggested.
Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)
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Fuchs, Victor R
As the ninety-year history and failure of health care reform illustrates, it is easy for policymakers to disagree about the details of any new plan. In this Perspective, the author suggests trying a new approach this time: enacting a plan that encompasses four essential principles and then making midcourse adjustments later to get the details right. He defines the essentials as the Four Cs: coverage, cost control, coordinated care, and choice.
Zhang, Xue; Xiao, Wangxin; Acencio, Marcio Luis; Lemke, Ney; Wang, Xujing
Many centrality measures have been proposed to mine and characterize the correlations between network topological properties and protein essentiality. However, most of them show limited prediction accuracy, and the number of common predicted essential proteins by different methods is very small. In this paper, an ensemble framework is proposed which integrates gene expression data and protein-protein interaction networks (PINs). It aims to improve the prediction accuracy of basic centrality measures. The idea behind this ensemble framework is that different protein-protein interactions (PPIs) may show different contributions to protein essentiality. Five standard centrality measures (degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, eigenvector centrality, and subgraph centrality) are integrated into the ensemble framework respectively. We evaluated the performance of the proposed ensemble framework using yeast PINs and gene expression data. The results show that it can considerably improve the prediction accuracy of the five centrality measures individually. It can also remarkably increase the number of common predicted essential proteins among those predicted by each centrality measure individually and enable each centrality measure to find more low-degree essential proteins. This paper demonstrates that it is valuable to differentiate the contributions of different PPIs for identifying essential proteins based on network topological characteristics. The proposed ensemble framework is a successful paradigm to this end.
de Almeida, Igor; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Vieira, Danielle Pereira; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C S; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S
In this study, we investigated the effects of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on Giardia lamblia and on the modulation of the interaction of these parasites by peritoneal mouse macrophage. The essential oil (2 mg/ml) and its purified substances demonstrated antigiardial activity. Linalool (300 microg/ml), however, was able to kill 100% parasites after 1 h of incubation, which demonstrates its high antigiardial potential. Pretreatment of peritoneal mouse macrophages with 2 mg/ml essential oil dilution reduced in 79% the association index between these macrophages and G. lamblia, with a concomitant increase by 153% on nitric oxide production by the G. lamblia-ingested macrophages. The protein profiles and proteolitic activity of these parasite trophozoites, previously treated or not with 2 mg/ml essential oil or with the purified fractions, were also determined. After 1 and 2 h of incubation, proteins of lysates and culture supernatants revealed significant differences in bands patterns when compared to controls. Besides, the proteolitic activity, mainly of cysteine proteases, was clearly inhibited by the essential oil (2 mg/ml) and the purified linalool (300 microg/ml). These results suggest that, with G. lamblia, the essential oil from O. basilicum and its purified compounds, specially linalool, have a potent antimicrobial activity.
Nerio, Luz Stella; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena
Currently, the use of synthetic chemicals to control insects and arthropods raises several concerns related to environment and human health. An alternative is to use natural products that possess good efficacy and are environmentally friendly. Among those chemicals, essential oils from plants belonging to several species have been extensively tested to assess their repellent properties as a valuable natural resource. The essential oils whose repellent activities have been demonstrated, as well as the importance of the synergistic effects among their components are the main focus of this review. Essential oils are volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons with a diversity of functional groups, and their repellent activity has been linked to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. However, in some cases, these chemicals can work synergistically, improving their effectiveness. In addition, the use of other natural products in the mixture, such as vanillin, could increase the protection time, potentiating the repellent effect of some essential oils. Among the plant families with promising essential oils used as repellents, Cymbopogon spp., Ocimum spp. and Eucalyptus spp. are the most cited. Individual compounds present in these mixtures with high repellent activity include alpha-pinene, limonene, citronellol, citronellal, camphor and thymol. Finally, although from an economical point of view synthetic chemicals are still more frequently used as repellents than essential oils, these natural products have the potential to provide efficient, and safer repellents for humans and the environment.
Montecucco, Fabrizio; Pende, Aldo; Quercioli, Alessandra; Mach, François
In spite of the huge amount of research recently performed in this area, the pathogenesis of human hypertension remains elusive. Thus, hypertension has to be defined as "essential" for the majority of patients with high blood pressure. Given the lack of animal models useful to investigate essential hypertension, we analyze and discuss both clinical and basic research studies indicating that essential hypertension should be considered as a potential multifactorial inflammatory disease. The pathophysiology of essential hypertension might result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Morphological abnormalities in the renal parenchyma and arteries have also been shown to determine hypertension. Inflammatory processes might induce renal vasoconstriction, ischemia and injury that can sustain systemic hypertension. Arterial and tubulointerstitial infiltration of inflammatory cells in response to renal damage might further increase renal and vascular alterations through the production of oxidants and other soluble inflammatory mediators. The present review gives an update regarding the latest research on the possible direct role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension.
Toosi, Negin R.; Ambady, Nalini
As a social identity, religion is unique because it contains a spectrum of choice. In some religious communities, individuals are considered members by virtue of having parents of that background, and religion, culture, and ethnicity are closely intertwined. Other faith communities actively invite people of other backgrounds to join, expecting individuals to choose the religion that best fits their personal beliefs. These various methods of identification influence beliefs about the essentialist nature of religious identity. Essentialism is when social groups are considered to have deep, immutable, and inherent defining properties. In this study, college students (N=55) provided ratings of essentialism for eight religious identities: Atheist, Buddhist, Catholic, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Protestant, and Spiritual-but-not-religious. Significant differences in essentialism were found between the target groups. Results and implications for intergroup relations are discussed. PMID:21572550
Toosi, Negin R; Ambady, Nalini
As a social identity, religion is unique because it contains a spectrum of choice. In some religious communities, individuals are considered members by virtue of having parents of that background, and religion, culture, and ethnicity are closely intertwined. Other faith communities actively invite people of other backgrounds to join, expecting individuals to choose the religion that best fits their personal beliefs. These various methods of identification influence beliefs about the essentialist nature of religious identity. Essentialism is when social groups are considered to have deep, immutable, and inherent defining properties. In this study, college students (N=55) provided ratings of essentialism for eight religious identities: Atheist, Buddhist, Catholic, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Protestant, and Spiritual-but-not-religious. Significant differences in essentialism were found between the target groups. Results and implications for intergroup relations are discussed.
Trattner, Akiva; David, Michael; Lazarov, Aneta
Allergic contact dermatitis induced by the occupational use of products containing essential oils has not been studied comprehensively. The aim of the present report was to describe the characteristics, diagnosis, and outcome of 5 patients with occupational contact dermatitis because of essential oils attending our outpatient dermatology clinics over a 2-year period. These patients are added to the 11 cases reported thus far in the literature. The research shows that for proper diagnosis, patch tests with the standard series and the fragrance series should be performed, in addition to tests with the specific oils to which the patients were exposed. Patients should be instructed to avoid the allergens identified. Sensitization to essential oils has important implications for the occupational future of affected individuals.
Dugani, Sagar; Wasan, Kishor M; Kissoon, Niranjan
In June 2017, the World Health Organization released 20th Model List of Essential Medicines for adults and sixth Model List of Essential Medicines for children. In our commentary, we describe the changes to the Essential Medicine list, and identify deficits in excluding medicines for management of diseases with a high burden. In using tracer conditions such as cardiovascular and thromboembolic disease, mental health, and diseases of the musculoskeletal system, we highlight the absence of several medicines, which are incorporated into major clinical practice guidelines. We recommend that the World Health Organization review its process with respect to identifying disease conditions as well as evidence-based therapies. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ohta, Tadanobu; Hagiwara, Kioyuki; Makita, Kaori; Mugitani, Atuko; Ohta, Kensuke; Yamane, Takahisa; Takubo, Takayuki; Hino, Masayuki
We describe an XXX female patient accompanied with essential thrombocythemia. To our knowledge this is the first case ever to have been reported. The patient was asymptomatic, but her platelet count had increased to 111.2 x 10(4)/microliter, and she was diagnosed as having essential thrombocythemia based on the diagnostic criteria of the Polycythemia Vera Study Group. At the same time, chromosome analysis of bone marrow cells revealed that she was an XXX female. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout the course of treatment.
The guidelines describe the essential parts of the quality management system to fulfil the requirements of the standard EN ISO 15 189. It includes mainly the organisation, the definition of responsibilities, training of personnel, the document control, the quality control, identification and control of nonconformities, corrective actions, preventive actions and evaluation, as audits and the management review.
American Medical Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Medical Education.
Prepared by the Council on Education of the American Medical Association in cooperation with the American Society of Clinical Pathologists, the "essentials" are organized within the areas of administration, faculty and personnel, organization, prerequisites for admission, curriculum, ethics, student health, and procedure for admission to…
McCain, Roger A.
Discusses an electronic textbook called "Essential Principles of Economics." Explains that economic concepts are found by following links from the table of contents, while each chapter includes both expository information and interactive material including online multiple-choice drill questions. States that the textbook is a "work…
This paper discusses four key concepts to help preschool and primary grade children develop the ability to read and understand maps. Examples of student activities to develop each of the concepts are provided. The essential concepts are representation, symbolization, perspective, and scale. Representation is vital. Children must perceive that a…
Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise
Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…
Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.
This teacher's guide was developed for use in junior and senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida, for the purpose of identifying those secondary science laboratory experiences which are essential to the development of science content knowledge and competency in handling science laboratory equipment and consumables. The guide…
Miller, Joan G.
This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.
Playing fair has a value with which people are all familiar. From the sandboxes of childhood and the competitive sports of youth to the business transactions of adulthood, people have been told how important it is to play fair. Playing fair in contracting is not only essential, it's the legal and ethical thing to do. In this article, the author…
Welch, Mary A., Ed.
This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)
Alexander, William M.
The author states that throughout the past century or more, especially during the twentieth century, the continuing conflict between proponents of the minimum essentials approach to curriculum excellence and those of the individual development approach has been an obstacle to the achievement of excellence. (CT)
Jonas, Mark E.
Patricia White ("Stud Philos Educ" 18:43-52, 1999) argues that the virtue gratitude is essential to a flourishing democracy because it helps foster universal and reciprocal amity between citizens. Citizens who participate in this reciprocal relationship ought to be encouraged to recognize that "much that people do does in fact help to make…
Vina W. Yang; Carol A. Clausen
When wood and wood products are exposed to moisture during storage, construction or while in-service, mold growth can occur in 24 to 48 hours. Mold growth could be suppressed or prevented if wood was treated with an effective mold inhibitor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mold inhibiting properties of natural plant extracts such as essential oils....
North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015
In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…
Day, Michael D.
Art is increasingly being accepted as an essential subject within general education. Article discusses what constitutes substantive student learning in art, emerging careers in the visual arts, and the principal's responsibility to hire well- qualified, caring art teachers. Students deprived of regular art study often lack basic appreciation for…
Maudet, Ludovic; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Trueb, Lionel
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines have been updated in October 2015. The 2010 guidelines are reaffirmed: immediate call for help via the local dispatch center, high quality CPR (frequency between 100 and 120/min, compression depth between 5 and 6 cm) and early defibrillation improve patient's survival chances. This article reviews the essential elements of resuscitation and recommended advanced measures.
The Florida Council on Teacher Education (COTE) planned and conducted statewide involvement studies to determine competencies that are essential and acceptable to the profession. This included systematic involvement procedures for gaining professional agreement on identification, assessment, implementation, and other development and research on…
Preston, Courtney; Goldring, Ellen; Guthrie, J. Edward; Ramsey, Russell; Huff, Jason
Three decades of reform aimed at improving disadvantaged student achievement have not substantially narrowed achievement and graduation gaps. This article reviews the research around eight essential components of effective high schools emerging from a review of the effective schools and high school reform literature, and provides a framework for…
Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.
Developed by the Michigan State Board of Education, this document begins with brief discussions of a philosophy for the integration of computers into all content areas and district planning for computer use in schools. Essential goals and objectives for computer education are then outlined in the following areas: (1) computing and its evolving…
Kay, Patricia M.; Byrne, Michael M.
The rapid proliferation of the use of computers in schools has led to questions about how teachers should be educated to deal with the new technology and what all teachers should be required to demonstrate in the way of minimal essential computer skills as a condition of certification. This paper addresses these questions by proposing a set of…
Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix
Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…
Wellness is an integrated curriculum combining aspects of traditional health classes with physical education, games, fitness skills and other mind-body connection skills. The goals of Parker Charter Essential School's Wellness program developed by members of the Parker community are: (1) to develop and nurture resilience; (2) to foster and promote…
Combs, Julie Peterson; Harris, Sandra; Edmonson, Stacey
The presence of trust can enhance an organization's efforts to fulfill its mission, and the lack of trust can constrict those efforts. The authors offer four essential guidelines to help school leaders communicate in a way that builds trust. Build trust by understanding trust. Trusted leaders demonstrate care, character, and competence in their…
The religion of Islam is often portrayed with false and negative stereotypes. If we expect our students to understand and participate in the global world and to be informed and engaged citizens in a democratic America, then it is essential that they develop a basic and sound understanding of Islam. Furthermore, learning about Islam can facilitate…
Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Banker, Ashish; Shete, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed Sharukh; Tyson, John E; Barratt, Michelle S; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Milewicz, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric
The aim was to determine the proportions and correlates of essential hypertension among children in a tertiary pediatric hypertension clinic. We evaluated 423 consecutive children and collected demographic and clinical history by retrospective chart review. We identified 275 (65%) hypertensive children (blood pressure >95th percentile per the "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents") from 423 children referred to the clinic for history of elevated blood pressure. The remainder of the patients had normotension (11%), white coat hypertension (11%), prehypertension (10%), and pending diagnosis (3%). Among the 275 hypertensive children, 43% (n = 119; boys = 56%; median age = 12 years; range = 3-17 years) had essential hypertension and 57% (n = 156; boys = 66%; median age = 9 years; range = 0.08-19 years) had secondary hypertension. When compared with those with secondary hypertension, those with essential hypertension had a significantly older age at diagnosis (P = 0.0002), stronger family history of hypertension (94% vs. 68%; P < 0.0001), and lower prevalence of preterm birth (20% vs. 46%; P < 0.001). There was a bimodal distribution of age of diagnosis in those with secondary hypertension. The phenotype of essential hypertension can present as early as 3 years of age and is the predominant form of hypertension in children after age of 6 years. Among children with hypertension, those with essential hypertension present at an older age, have a stronger family history of hypertension, and have lower prevalence of preterm birth. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Clarke, Carne; Fisher, William; Marks, Rick; Ross, Sharon; Zbiek, Rose Mary
This book focuses on essential knowledge for teachers about rational numbers. It is organized around four big ideas, supported by multiple smaller, interconnected ideas--essential understandings. Taking teachers beyond a simple introduction to rational numbers, the book will broaden and deepen their mathematical understanding of one of the most…
Nordløkken, Marit; Berg, Torunn; Flaten, Trond Peder; Steinnes, Eiliv
Concentrations of essential and non-essential elements in five widespread species of natural boreal vegetation were studied with respect to seasonal variation and contribution from different sources. The plant species included in the study were Betula pubescens, Sorbus aucuparia, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum, Calluna vulgaris and Deschampsia flexuosa. Concentrations of elements essential to plants remained essentially constant or decreased slightly throughout the growing season. Concentrations of most non-essential elements increased or tended to increase on a dry mass basis from June to July as well as from July to September. The increasing trend for these elements was observed for all species except C. vulgaris. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the material indicated a common source for many of the non-essential elements; Sc, Ti, V, Ga, As, Y, Sb, lanthanides, Pb, Bi, and U, i.e. both elements presumably of geogenic origin and elements associated with trans-boundary air pollution. Uptake by plant roots appeared to be the main source of nutrient elements as well as some non-essential elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tadtong, Sarin; Suppawat, Supatcha; Tintawee, Anchalee; Saramas, Phanida; Jareonvong, Suchada; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee
Antimicrobial activities of two blended essential oil preparations comprising lavender oil, petigrain oil, clary sage oil, ylang ylang oil and jasmine oil were evaluated against various pathogenic microorganisms. Both preparations showed antimicrobial activity in the agar disc diffusion assay against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and S. epidermidis isolated strain, the fungus, Candida albicans ATCC10231, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, but showed no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these preparations was evaluated. By the broth microdilution assay, preparation 1, comprising lavender oil, clary sage oil, and ylang ylang oil (volume ratio 3:4:3), exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than preparation 2, which was composed of petigrain oil, clary sage oil, and jasmine oil (volume ratio 3:4:3). Moreover, the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentrations (Sigma fic) of preparation 1 expressed a synergistic antimicrobial effect against the tested microorganisms (Sigma fic
Ramezani, Alireza; Saberian, Peyman; Soheilian, Masoud; Parsa, Saeed Alipour; Kamali, Homayoun Koohi; Entezari, Morteza; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Yaseri, Mehdi
To evaluate fundus autofluorescence (FAF) changes in patients with chronic essential hypertension (HTN). In this case-control study, 35 eyes of 35 patients with chronic essential HTN (lasting >5 years) and 31 eyes of 31 volunteers without history of HTN were included. FAF pictures were taken from right eyes of all cases with the Heidelberg retina angiography and then were assessed by two masked retinal specialists. In total, FAF images including 35 images of hypertensive patients and 31 pictures of volunteers, three apparently abnormal patterns were detected. A ring of hyper-autofluorescence in the central macula (doughnut-shaped) was observed in 9 (25.7%) eyes of the hypertensive group but only in 2 (6.5%) eyes of the control group. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.036) between two groups. Hypo- and/or hyper-autofluorescence patches outside the fovea were the other sign found more in the hypertensive group (22.9%) than in the control group (6.5%); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.089). The third feature was hypo-autofluorescence around the disk noticed in 11 (31.4%) eyes of hypertensive patients compared to 8 (25.8%) eyes of the controls (P = 0.615). A ring of hyper-autofluorescence in the central macula forming a doughnut-shaped feature may be a FAF sign in patients with chronic essential HTN.
Sharma, Sangeeta; Kh, Reeta; Chaudhury, R Roy
The Delhi State Drug Policy was adopted in 1994 following which the first Essential Medicines List (EML) was developed in 1996. The Delhi State Essential Medicines Formulary was brought out in 1997. A need was felt to revise the formulary to match with the EML as the EML is renewed every 2 years. A survey was undertaken to elicit the opinions of the doctors practicing in the state on the usefulness of the formulary before revising and printing the updated version. The survey covered dispensaries, 10-20 bedded hospitals, 100-bedded hospitals and two tertiary care hospitals. Discussions were focused on questionnaires on attitudes toward adopting Essential Medicines Formulary using a 10-point scale. Of the 200 doctors approached, only 90 doctors completed the questionnaire. Sixty-nine respondents (76.6%) had received the copy of the formulary. Most practitioners welcomed the formulary and were satisfied with the coverage and selection of the medicines. Most respondents (76.9%) agreed that a well-developed formulary would improve the quality of the public health care system, although they had reservations about the authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. About 74% of the respondents used the formulary in clinical practice as a source of medicine information, which makes its regular revision necessary.
Sharma, Sangeeta; Kh, Reeta; Chaudhury, R. Roy
Objective: The Delhi State Drug Policy was adopted in 1994 following which the first Essential Medicines List (EML) was developed in 1996. The Delhi State Essential Medicines Formulary was brought out in 1997. A need was felt to revise the formulary to match with the EML as the EML is renewed every 2 years. Materials and Methods: A survey was undertaken to elicit the opinions of the doctors practicing in the state on the usefulness of the formulary before revising and printing the updated version. The survey covered dispensaries, 10–20 bedded hospitals, 100-bedded hospitals and two tertiary care hospitals. Discussions were focused on questionnaires on attitudes toward adopting Essential Medicines Formulary using a 10-point scale. Results: Of the 200 doctors approached, only 90 doctors completed the questionnaire. Sixty-nine respondents (76.6%) had received the copy of the formulary. Most practitioners welcomed the formulary and were satisfied with the coverage and selection of the medicines. Most respondents (76.9%) agreed that a well-developed formulary would improve the quality of the public health care system, although they had reservations about the authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. Conclusion: About 74% of the respondents used the formulary in clinical practice as a source of medicine information, which makes its regular revision necessary. PMID:20871765
Rangel, Ulrike; Keller, Johannes
Individuals tend to explain the characteristics of others with reference to an underlying essence, a tendency that has been termed psychological essentialism. Drawing on current conceptualizations of essentialism as a fundamental mode of social thinking, and on prior studies investigating belief in genetic determinism (BGD) as a component of essentialism, we argue that BGD cannot constitute the sole basis of individuals' essentialist reasoning. Accordingly, we propose belief in social determinism (BSD) as a complementary component of essentialism, which relies on the belief that a person's essential character is shaped by social factors (e.g., upbringing, social background). We developed a scale to measure this social component of essentialism. Results of five correlational studies indicate that (a) BGD and BSD are largely independent, (b) BGD and BSD are related to important correlates of essentialist thinking (e.g., dispositionism, perceived group homogeneity), (c) BGD and BSD are associated with indicators of fundamental epistemic and ideological motives, and (d) the endorsement of each lay theory is associated with vital social-cognitive consequences (particularly stereotyping and prejudice). Two experimental studies examined the idea that the relationship between BSD and prejudice is bidirectional in nature. Study 6 reveals that rendering social-deterministic explanations salient results in increased levels of ingroup favoritism in individuals who chronically endorse BSD. Results of Study 7 show that priming of prejudice enhances endorsement of social-deterministic explanations particularly in persons habitually endorsing prejudiced attitudes. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Broccoli, Morgan C; Pigoga, Jennifer L; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Wallis, Lee; Calvello Hynes, Emilie J
Essential medicines lists (EMLs) are efficient means to ensure access to safe and effective medications. The WHO has led this initiative, generating a biannual EML since 1977. Nearly all countries have implemented national EMLs based on the WHO EML. Although EMLs have given careful consideration to many public health priorities, they have yet to comprehensively address the importance of medicines for treating acute illness and injury. We undertook a multistep consensus process to establish an EML for emergency care in Africa. After a review of existing literature and international EMLs, we generated a candidate list for emergency care. This list was reviewed by expert clinicians who ranked the medicines for overall inclusion and strength of recommendation. These medications and recommendations were then evaluated by an expert group. Medications that reached consensus in both the online survey and expert review were included in a draft emergency care EML, which underwent a final inperson consensus process. The final emergency care EML included 213 medicines, 25 of which are not in the 2017 WHO EML, but were deemed essential for clinical practice by regional emergency providers. The final EML has associated recommendations of desirable or essential and is subdivided by facility level. Thirty-nine medicines were recommended for basic facilities, an additional 96 for intermediate facilities (eg, district hospitals) and an additional 78 for advanced facilities (eg, tertiary centres). The 25 novel medications not currently on the WHO EML should be considered by planners when making rational formularies for developing emergency care systems. It is our hope that these resource-stratified lists will allow for easier implementation and will be a useful tool for practical expansion of emergency care delivery in Africa. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless
Blastocyst implantation is a process of interaction between embryo and the uterus. To understand this process, this review tries to summarize what blastocyst implantation essential factors (BIEFs) play what roles, as well as where in the uterus and at what stage of implantation process. Addition of more new data to this kind of compilation of information will help the development of diagnosis and treatment of infertility caused by implantation failure. The major, important cells of the endometrial cells that interact with invading blastocyst (trophoblast) are luminal epithelial cells, stromal cells (decidual cells) and resident immune cells. BIEFs regulate these cells to successfully maintain pregnancy.
... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.5 Determination of essential air service. Procedures for the determination of essential air service under this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of essential air service. 272...
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Essential service requirement. 252.21 Section 252.21... § 252.21 Essential service requirement. (a) Essential service. A vessel which is not subject to a... separate agreement, shall be deemed to be in an essential service, within the meaning of section 211(b) of...
Richardson, Annette; Whatmore, Jayne
This article aims to guide critical care nurses with the care and management of patients on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). CRRT, a highly specialized therapy involving complex nursing care, is used widely in the intensive care unit to treat patients with acute kidney injury. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, Medline from PubMed and BNI using the search terms CRRT or continuous veno-venous haemofiltration and nursing or nurses from 2000 onwards and limited to the English language. The appraised evidence and expert opinion is used in this article. Four essential nursing principles for CRRT are reviewed (1) the importance of continuous assessment of the indications to influence the appropriate mode; (2) ensuring good vascular access; (3) the avoidance of unnecessary interruptions and (4) the prevention of complications. The identified four essential nursing principles provide guidance on this complex aspects of nursing practice. Specific nursing research to guide the care and management of this therapy is limited so should be explored in the future. Critical care nurses caring for and managing patients on CRRT require an understanding of how to deliver safe CRRT. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.
González, Jaime; Valls, Nicolás; Brito, Roberto; Rodrigo, Ramón
Essential hypertension is a highly prevalent pathological condition that is considered as one of the most relevant cardiovascular risk factors and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Despite the fact that mechanisms underlying hypertension are not yet fully elucidated, a large amount of evidence shows that oxidative stress plays a central role in its pathophysiology. Oxidative stress can be defined as an imbalance between oxidant agents, such as superoxide anion, and antioxidant molecules, and leads to a decrease in nitric oxide bioavailability, which is the main factor responsible for maintaining the vascular tone. Several vasoconstrictor peptides, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and urotensin II, act through their receptors to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species, by activating enzymes like NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase. The knowledge of the mechanism described above has allowed generating new therapeutic strategies against hypertension based on the use of antioxidants agents, including vitamin C and E, N-Acetylcysteine, polyphenols and selenium, among others. These substances have different therapeutic targets, but all represent antioxidant reinforcement. Several clinical trials using antioxidants have been made. The aim of the present review is to provide new insights about the key role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension and new clinical attempts to demonstrate the usefulness of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:24976907
Marker, Simone; Carradec, Quentin; Tanty, Véronique; Arnaiz, Olivier; Meyer, Eric
In most eukaryotes, small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways form complex interacting networks. In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, at least two RNA interference (RNAi) mechanisms coexist, involving distinct but overlapping sets of protein factors and producing different types of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). One is specifically triggered by high-copy transgenes, and the other by feeding cells with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-producing bacteria. In this study, we designed a forward genetic screen for mutants deficient in dsRNA-induced silencing, and a powerful method to identify the relevant mutations by whole-genome sequencing. We present a set of 47 mutant alleles for five genes, revealing two previously unknown RNAi factors: a novel Paramecium-specific protein (Pds1) and a Cid1-like nucleotidyl transferase. Analyses of allelic diversity distinguish non-essential and essential genes and suggest that the screen is saturated for non-essential, single-copy genes. We show that non-essential genes are specifically involved in dsRNA-induced RNAi while essential ones are also involved in transgene-induced RNAi. One of the latter, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RDR2, is further shown to be required for all known types of siRNAs, as well as for sexual reproduction. These results open the way for the dissection of the genetic complexity, interconnection, mechanisms and natural functions of RNAi pathways in P. tetraurelia. PMID:24860163
Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina
During the past decades public and research interest in postvention, i.e., support for families and communities after a suicide, has increased. However, the postvention field is still facing a number of important challenges and questions. This article aims to discuss a series of essential issues on suicide bereavement and postvention, regarding the current state of the art and future developments. Who is a suicide survivor and how many suicide survivors are there? Is suicide bereavement different from other types of bereavement? What are the needs of suicide survivors and what is postvention from a clinical perspective and from a public health perspective? Can postvention be prevention? With this last question, the article concludes with a series of recommendations in order to strengthen the potential of postvention as prevention. PMID:22470275
Souba, Wiley W
The 3 fundamental and essential responsibilities of leadership--setting a compelling and appealing direction (vision), selecting the right people (talent), and creating and embracing the right set of guiding core values (culture)--are reviewed in the context of the many contributions and leadership legacy of Dr Stanley J. Dudrick, one of the giants of American surgery. Critical success factors which enable the development of leadership as an organizational capacity in any department or unit are emphasized. They include building a team of faculty and residents who are aligned on mission, vision, and values; forging a climate where people are willing to have difficult conversations rather than avoiding complex problems; and the establishment of an esprit d'corps where people experience that they are contributing to a purpose larger than themselves.
Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Joseph; Hohmann, Judit
The antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils (orange oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, geranium oil, juniper oil, peppermint oil, rosemary oil, purified turpentine oil, thyme oil, Australian tea tree oil) and of menthol, the main component of peppermint oil, were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined on the Gram (+) Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Gram (-) Escherichia coli F'lac K12 LE140, and on two yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0425 delta/1 and 0425 52C strains. The antiplasmid activities were investigated on E. coli F'lac bacterial strain. Each of the oils exhibited antimicrobial activity and three of them antiplasmid action. The interaction of peppermint oil and menthol with the antibiotics was studied on the same bacterial strain with the checkerboard method. Peppermint oil and menthol displayed additive synergy with oxytetracycline. A new mechanism of plasmid curing was established for one of the oil components.
Nelson, Kathryn M; Dahlin, Jayme L; Bisson, Jonathan; Graham, James; Pauli, Guido F; Walters, Michael A
Curcumin is a constituent (up to ∼5%) of the traditional medicine known as turmeric. Interest in the therapeutic use of turmeric and the relative ease of isolation of curcuminoids has led to their extensive investigation. Curcumin has recently been classified as both a PAINS (pan-assay interference compounds) and an IMPS (invalid metabolic panaceas) candidate. The likely false activity of curcumin in vitro and in vivo has resulted in >120 clinical trials of curcuminoids against several diseases. No double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial of curcumin has been successful. This manuscript reviews the essential medicinal chemistry of curcumin and provides evidence that curcumin is an unstable, reactive, nonbioavailable compound and, therefore, a highly improbable lead. On the basis of this in-depth evaluation, potential new directions for research on curcuminoids are discussed.
Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Anand, Bhargavi; Bahuguna, Rohit; Govila, Vivek; Rastogi, Pavitra
Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer's disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health. PMID:24130938
Derntl, Michael; Botturi, Luca
Coming from architecture, through computer science, pattern-based design spread into other disciplines and is nowadays recognized as a powerful way of capturing and reusing effective design practice. However, current pedagogical pattern approaches lack widespread adoption, both by users and authors, and are still limited to individual initiatives. This paper contributes to creating a shared understanding of what a pattern system is by defining the key terms. Moreover, the paper builds upon and extends a set of existing functional and non-functional requirements for pattern systems, adds structure to these requirements, and derives essential use cases following a goal-based approach for both pattern maintenance and pattern application. Finally, implications concerning the pedagogical use of pattern-based design are drawn, concluding that a stronger focus on the underlying (pedagogical) value system is required in order to make a pattern system a meaningful tool for effective educational design.
Curcumin is a constituent (up to ∼5%) of the traditional medicine known as turmeric. Interest in the therapeutic use of turmeric and the relative ease of isolation of curcuminoids has led to their extensive investigation. Curcumin has recently been classified as both a PAINS (pan-assay interference compounds) and an IMPS (invalid metabolic panaceas) candidate. The likely false activity of curcumin in vitro and in vivo has resulted in >120 clinical trials of curcuminoids against several diseases. No double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial of curcumin has been successful. This manuscript reviews the essential medicinal chemistry of curcumin and provides evidence that curcumin is an unstable, reactive, nonbioavailable compound and, therefore, a highly improbable lead. On the basis of this in-depth evaluation, potential new directions for research on curcuminoids are discussed. PMID:28074653
Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Anand, Bhargavi; Bahuguna, Rohit; Govila, Vivek; Rastogi, Pavitra
Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer's disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health.
Merlyn Keziah, S.; Subathra Devi, C.
Equilibrium of biodiversity is essential for the maintenance of the ecosystem as they are interdependent on each other. The decline in biodiversity is a global problem and an inevitable threat to the mankind. Major threats include unsustainable exploitation, habitat destruction, fragmentation, transformation, genetic pollution, invasive exotic species and degradation. This review covers the management strategies of biotechnology which include sin situ, ex situ conservation, computerized taxonomic analysis through construction of phylogenetic trees, calculating genetic distance, prioritizing the group for conservation, digital preservation of biodiversities within the coding and decoding keys, molecular approaches to asses biodiversity like polymerase chain reaction, real time, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism, amplified fragment length polymorphism, single sequence repeats, DNA finger printing, single nucleotide polymorphism, cryopreservation and vitrification.
Auzary, C; Lhote, F; Buoncuore, A; Casassus, P; Piquet, V; Babinet, P
The occurrence of polymyositis (PM) correlates with an increased risk of solid tumor. Among hematologic malignancies that are sporadically associated with PM or dermatopolymyositis (DM), lymphoma and chronic lymphoid leukemia are the most frequent. The association between PM and myeloproliferative disorders remains exceptional. We describe the simultaneous revelation of a PM and an essential thrombocytemia (ET). The sensitivity of the PM to corticosteroids was noteworthy and allowed a quick and definitive control of clinical and biological inflammation. Despite the efficiency of a cytostatic agent upon the thrombocytemia, the patient died after numerous thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications of ET. This is the first published case of such an association between PM and TE. The paraneoplastic significance of the PM is discussed.
Fujimoto, Chisato; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Urata, Shinji; Morishita, Hideaki; Sakamaki, Yuriko; Fujioka, Masato; Kondo, Kenji; Mizushima, Noboru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya
Hearing loss is the most frequent sensory disorder in humans. Auditory hair cells (HCs) are postmitotic at late-embryonic differentiation and postnatal stages, and their damage is the major cause of hearing loss. There is no measurable HC regeneration in the mammalian cochlea, and the maintenance of cell function is crucial for preservation of hearing. Here we generated mice deficient in autophagy-related 5 (Atg5), a gene essential for autophagy, in the HCs to investigate the effect of basal autophagy on hearing acuity. Deletion of Atg5 resulted in HC degeneration and profound congenital hearing loss. In autophagy-deficient HCs, polyubiquitinated proteins and p62/SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, accumulated as inclusion bodies during the first postnatal week, and these aggregates increased in number. These findings revealed that basal autophagy has an important role in maintenance of HC morphology and hearing acuity.
Jiménez-Jiménez, F J; Alonso-Navarro, H; García-Martín, E; Lorenzo-Betancor, O; Pastor, P; Agúndez, J A G
Despite the research, few advances in the etiopathogenesis on essential tremor (ET) have been made to date. The high frequency of positive family history of ET and the observed high concordance rates in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twins support a major role of genetic factors in the development of ET. In addition, a possible role of environmental factors has been suggested in the etiology of ET (at least in non-familial forms). Although several gene variants in the LINGO1 gene may increase the risk of ET, to date no causative mutated genes have been identified. In this review, we summarize the studies performed on families with tremor, twin studies, linkage studies, case-control association studies, and exome sequencing in familial ET. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham
Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lindquist, Kristen A; Gendron, Maria; Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Many scientific models of emotion assume that emotion categories are natural kinds that carve nature at its joints. These beliefs remain strong, despite the fact that the empirical record on the issue has remained equivocal for over a century. In this research, the authors examined one reason for this situation: People essentialize emotion categories by assuming that members of the same category (e.g., fear) have a shared metaphysical essence (i.e., a common causal mechanism). In Study 1, the authors found that lay people essentialize emotions by assuming that instances of the same emotion category have a shared essence that defines them, even when their surface features differ. Study 2 extended these findings, demonstrating that lay people tend to essentialize categories the more a category is of the body (vs. the mind). In Study 3, we examined the links between emotion essentialism and the complexity of actual emotional experiences. In particular, we predicted and found that individuals who hold essentialist beliefs about emotions describe themselves as experiencing highly differentiated emotional experiences but do not show evidence of stronger emotional differentiation in their momentary ratings of experience in everyday life. Implications for the science of emotion are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Bagetta, Giacinto; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Amantea, Diana; Russo, Rossella; Berliocchi, Laura; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana
Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) is a fruit most knowledgeable for its essential oil (BEO) used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders and cancer pain though the rational basis for such applications awaits to be discovered. The behavioural and EEG spectrum power effects of BEO correlate well with its exocytotic and carrier-mediated release of discrete amino acids endowed with neurotransmitter function in the mammalian hippocampus supporting the deduction that BEO is able to interfere with normal and pathological synaptic plasticity. The observed neuroprotection in the course of experimental brain ischemia and pain does support this view. In conclusion, the data yielded so far contribute to our understanding of the mode of action of this phytocomplex on nerve tissue under normal and pathological experimental conditions and provide a rational basis for the practical use of BEO in complementary medicine. The opening of a wide venue for future research and translation into clinical settings is also envisaged. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mann, Brian E.
Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).
Argentieri, Maria Pia; De Lucia, Barbara; Cristiano, Giuseppe; Avatoa Pinarosa
The genus Lavandula includes about thirty species plus a number of intraspecific taxa and hybrids, which are distributed in the Mediterranean area. The traditional use of lavender both as perfume or medicinal plant is known since antiquity. Nowadays several species are extensively cultivated for the extraction of their essential oils (EOs) which are used in manufactured products like cosmetics and perfumes or in phytotherapy. Lavandula pinnata L. f. (syn L. pinnata Lundmark) is a rare species native to the Canary Islands used in folk medicine as relaxant and also a valuable remedy against bites. To the best of our knowledge, EOs from L. pinnata have been very little studied. The present paper reports on the quali- and quantitative compositional profile of the EOs distilled (by a Spring type apparatus) from the aerial parts (flowers and leaves) of this species cultivated in soilless conditions. Chemical analyses by means of GC and GC-MS techniques have indicated that oxygenated monoterpenes are the main constituents of both the flowers (68.30%) and the leaves (83.65%). Carvacrol is the main compound which characterizes the EOs of this species. In addition, discrete amounts of spathulenol (12.22%) and caryophyllene oxide (14.62%) have been detected in flowers EOs, while leaves EOs contained small amounts of carvacrol methyl ether (2.52%).
This article was written by Crystal Eastman when she was Secretary of the New York Commission on Employers' Liability and Causes of Industrial Accidents, Unemployment, and Lack of Farm Labor. It was published in July of 1911, in Volume 38, Number 1 of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pages 98-107. The issue title was "Risks in Modern Industry." Eastman calls for the prevention of workplace accidents through three essentials: injury surveillance/reporting (with annual public reporting of the data); government enforcement of accident prevention laws, via departments with well-paid and well-trained officials and inspectors, fines that are high enough to be a deterrence to employers, and the power to have police shut down a factory if preventive measures are not installed; and a workers' compensation system-"a system of liability by which an employer can reduce his accident costs, not by hiring a more unscrupulous attorney and a more hard-hearted claim agent, but only by reducing his accidents."
Hopper, P.E.; Mandell, C.P.; Turrel, J.M.
Essential thrombocythemia (ET), in an 11-year-old dog was characterized by persistently high platelet counts range, 4.19 X 10(6)/microliters to 4.95 X 10(6)/microliters, abnormal platelet morphology, marked megakaryocytic hyperplasia in the bone marrow, absence of circulating megakaryoblasts, and history of splenomegaly and gastrointestinal bleeding. Increased numbers of megakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts (15% to 20%) in the bone marrow were confirmed by a positive acetylcholinesterase reaction. Another significant finding was the presence of a basophilia in blood (4,836/microliters) and bone marrow. The marked persistent thrombocytosis, absence of reactive (secondary) thrombocytosis, abnormal platelet morphology, and quantitative and qualitative changes in the megakaryocytic series inmore » the bone marrow suggested the presence of a myeloproliferative disease. Cytochemical and ultrastructural findings aided in the diagnosis of ET. The dog was treated with radiophosphorus. The results was a rapid decline in the numbers of megakaryoblasts and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and platelets and basophils in the peripheral blood. The dog died unexpectedly of acute necrotizing pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus before a complete remission was achieved.« less
Kleiner, S M
Water is an essential nutrient required for life. To be well hydrated, the average sedentary adult man must consume at least 2,900 mL (12 c) fluid per day, and the average sedentary adult woman at least 2,200 mL (9 c) fluid per day, in the form of noncaffeinated, nonalcoholic beverages, soups, and foods. Solid foods contribute approximately 1,000 mL (4 c) water, with an additional 250 mL (1 c) coming from the water of oxidation. The Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys indicate that a portion of the population may be chronically mildly dehydrated. Several factors may increase the likelihood of chronic, mild dehydration, including a poor thirst mechanism, dissatisfaction with the taste of water, common consumption of the natural diuretics caffeine and alcohol, participation in exercise, and environmental conditions. Dehydration of as little as 2% loss of body weight results in impaired physiological and performance responses. New research indicates that fluid consumption in general and water consumption in particular can have an effect on the risk of urinary stone disease; cancers of the breast, colon, and urinary tract; childhood and adolescent obesity; mitral valve prolapse; salivary gland function; and overall health in the elderly. Dietitians should be encouraged to promote and monitor fluid and water intake among all of their clients and patients through education and to help them design a fluid intake plan. The influence of chronic mild dehydration on health and disease merits further research.
Małecki, Rafał; Gacka, Małgorzata; Fiodorenko-Dumas, Żanna; Dumas, Ilias; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Adamiec, Rajmund; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Małgorzata
A significant number of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) complain of symptoms including distal parts of the extremities (e.g., paresthesias or Raynaud's phenomenon). The aim of the present study was to examine peripheral circulation in the upper extremities of individuals with ET. The study included 45 ET patients and 30 control subjects. All participants were subjected to thermography, photoplethysmography, impedance plethysmography, and applanation tonometry pulse wave analysis. The patients with ET differed significantly from the control subjects in terms of 3rd finger skin temperature (mean 31.04 vs. 32.45°C), skin temperature gradient (mean 1.82 vs. 0.11°C), photoplethysmographic amplitude (median 0.25 vs. 0.74%), and pulse waveform in the radial artery (more frequent occurrence of type B waveform). Pulse wave parameters correlated with the skin temperature gradient. The study findings imply the altered regulation of peripheral circulation in ET, including a decreased flow and an increased resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher
Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.
Plinta, Klaudia; Krzak-Kubica, Agnieszka; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Dylak, Jacek; Ober, Jan; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Rudzińska, Monika
Abstract Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls. Saccadometer Advanced (Ober Consulting, Poland) was used to investigate reflexive, pace-induced and cued saccades and conventional electrooculography for evaluation of smooth pursuit and fixation. The severity of the tremor was assessed by the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. Significant differences between ET patients and controls were found for the incidence of reflexive saccades dysmetria and deficit of smooth pursuit. Reflexive saccades dysmetria was more frequent in patients in the second and third phase of ET compared to the first phase. The reflexive saccades latency increase was correlated with severity of the tremor. In conclusion, oculomotor abnormalities were significantly more common in ET patients than in healthy subjects. The most common oculomotor disturbances in ET were reflexive saccades dysmetria and slowing of smooth pursuit. The frequency of reflexive saccades dysmetria increased with progression of ET. The reflexive saccades latency increase was related to the severity of tremor. PMID:28149393
Aromatherapy with the use of essential oils has been studied in cancer patients to help with symptom relief. Read about how aromatherapy massage or inhalation of essential oils have reduced symptoms in cancer patients in this expert-reviewed summary.
Reis, Debra; Jones, Tisha
Essential oils can be a great adjunct to cancer care, aiding in the management of side effects, such as insomnia and nausea. Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about the quality and safety of essential oils when using them for clinical purposes. Using lesser quality essential oils and not understanding safety guidelines can negatively affect clinical outcomes. This article provides an overview of how nurses can help patients with cancer safely use essential oils as a supportive therapy.
Hussain, Mukdad Q.
Let R be associative ring with identity and M be a unitary R-module. In this paper study the direct summand of essentially semismall quasi-Dedekind module and prove that the direct sum of essentially semismall quasi-Dedekind modules need not be essentially semismall quasi-Dedekind and give the definition of essentially semismall quasi-Dedekind relative to a module with some examples, also give some of their basic properties and some examples that illustrate these properties.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) 660.395... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.395 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity (16 U.S.C...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Essential hydrologic functions. 822.11 Section... IN ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS § 822.11 Essential hydrologic functions. (a) The operator of a surface coal... throughout the mining and reclamation process the essential hydrologic functions of an alluvial valley floor...
... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Essential health benefits. 440.347 Section 440.347 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.347 Essential health benefits. (a) Alternative Benefit Plans must contain essential...
... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Essential health benefits. 440.347 Section 440.347 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.347 Essential health benefits. (a) Alternative Benefit Plans must contain essential...
TITLE: Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Scott M. Landfear, Ph.D...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...selective inhibitors of the essential glucose transporters of the parasite Leishmania mexicana. Toward this end, a cell growth assay has been
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). 660.75... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.75 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity (16 U.S.C...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). 660.75... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.75 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity (16 U.S.C...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). 660.75... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.75 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity (16 U.S.C...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). 660.75... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.75 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity (16 U.S.C...
Soil is one of the important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of essential...
In these lecture notes we describe the construction, analysis, and application of ENO (Essentially Non-Oscillatory) and WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws and related Hamilton- Jacobi equations. ENO and WENO schemes are high order accurate finite difference schemes designed for problems with piecewise smooth solutions containing discontinuities. The key idea lies at the approximation level, where a nonlinear adaptive procedure is used to automatically choose the locally smoothest stencil, hence avoiding crossing discontinuities in the interpolation procedure as much as possible. ENO and WENO schemes have been quite successful in applications, especially for problems containing both shocks and complicated smooth solution structures, such as compressible turbulence simulations and aeroacoustics. These lecture notes are basically self-contained. It is our hope that with these notes and with the help of the quoted references, the reader can understand the algorithms and code them up for applications.
Király, Orsolya; Tóth, Dénes; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Maraz, Aniko
Video games are more popular than ever and the general public, including parents, educators, and the media, tends to consider intense video gaming fundamentally problematic. To test this hypothesis, participants were recruited via gaming-related websites resulting in a sample of N = 5,222 online video gamers (mean age: 22.2 years, SD = 6.4). Besides assessing gaming time, we administered the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire. Two structural regression models were estimated with both gaming time and problematic gaming as outcome variables. Predictors were psychiatric symptoms in the first, and gaming motives in the second model. Both models yielded adequate fit indices. Psychiatric symptoms had a moderate positive effect on problematic use (β = .46, p < .001) whereas their effect on gaming time was practically zero (β = -.01, p = .84). In the second model, Escape was the most prominent motive and was moderately to-strongly associated (β = .58, p < .001) with problematic use. However, the association between Escape and gaming time was substantially weaker (β = .21, p < .001). The correlation between gaming time and problematic use was weak-to-moderate in both models (r = .26, p < .001 and r = .21, p < .001, respectively). Data suggest that gaming time is weakly associated with negative psychological factors such as psychiatric symptoms and Escape motive, which were found to be consistently related to problematic use. Therefore, the amount of gaming time alone appears to be an unreliable predictor of problematic use, which questions the aforementioned idea that intense gaming is essentially problematic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Thorson, Ivar L.; Liénard, Jean; David, Stephen V.
Encoding properties of sensory neurons are commonly modeled using linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters. For the auditory system, the FIR filter is instantiated in the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF), often in the framework of the generalized linear model. Despite widespread use of the FIR STRF, numerous formulations for linear filters are possible that require many fewer parameters, potentially permitting more efficient and accurate model estimates. To explore these alternative STRF architectures, we recorded single-unit neural activity from auditory cortex of awake ferrets during presentation of natural sound stimuli. We compared performance of > 1000 linear STRF architectures, evaluating their ability to predict neural responses to a novel natural stimulus. Many were able to outperform the FIR filter. Two basic constraints on the architecture lead to the improved performance: (1) factorization of the STRF matrix into a small number of spectral and temporal filters and (2) low-dimensional parameterization of the factorized filters. The best parameterized model was able to outperform the full FIR filter in both primary and secondary auditory cortex, despite requiring fewer than 30 parameters, about 10% of the number required by the FIR filter. After accounting for noise from finite data sampling, these STRFs were able to explain an average of 40% of A1 response variance. The simpler models permitted more straightforward interpretation of sensory tuning properties. They also showed greater benefit from incorporating nonlinear terms, such as short term plasticity, that provide theoretical advances over the linear model. Architectures that minimize parameter count while maintaining maximum predictive power provide insight into the essential degrees of freedom governing auditory cortical function. They also maximize statistical power available for characterizing additional nonlinear properties that limit current auditory models. PMID:26683490
Boiger, Michael; Ceulemans, Eva; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Uchida, Yukiko; Norasakkunkit, Vinai; Mesquita, Batja
The current research offers an alternative to essentialism for studying cultural variation in emotional experience. Rather than assuming that individuals always experience an emotion in the same way, our starting point was that the experience of an emotion like anger or shame may vary from one instance to another. We expected to find different anger and shame experience types, that is, groups of people who differ in the instances of anger and shame that they experience. We proposed that studying cultural differences in emotional experience means studying differences in the distribution of these types across cultural contexts: There should be systematic differences in the types that are most common in each culture. Students from the United States, Japan, and Belgium (N = 928) indicated their emotional experiences in terms of appraisals and action tendencies in response to 15 hypothetical anger or shame situations. Using an inductive clustering approach, we identified anger and shame types who were characterized by different patterns of anger and shame experience. As expected, we found that the distribution of these types differed across the three cultural contexts: Of the two anger types, one was common in Japan and one in the United States and Belgium; the three shame types were each most prevalent in a different cultural context. Participants' anger and shame types were primarily predicted by their culture of origin (with an accuracy of 72.3% for anger and 74.0% for shame) and not, or much less, by their ethnic origin, socioeconomic status, gender, self-construal, or personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Sen, Chandan K.
The state of wound oxygenation is a key determinant of healing outcomes. From a diagnostic standpoint, measurements of wound oxygenation are commonly used to guide treatment planning such as amputation decision. In preventive applications, optimizing wound perfusion and providing supplemental O2 in the peri-operative period reduces the incidence of post-operative infections. Correction of wound pO2 may, by itself, trigger some healing responses. Importantly, approaches to correct wound pO2 favorably influence outcomes of other therapies such as responsiveness to growth factors and acceptance of grafts. Chronic ischemic wounds are essentially hypoxic. Primarily based on the tumor literature, hypoxia is generally viewed as being angiogenic. This is true with the condition that hypoxia be acute and mild to modest in magnitude. Extreme near-anoxic hypoxia, as commonly noted in problem wounds, is not compatible with tissue repair. Adequate wound tissue oxygenation is required but may not be sufficient to favorably influence healing outcomes. Success in wound care may be improved by a personalized health care approach. The key lies in our ability to specifically identify the key limitations of a given wound and in developing a multifaceted strategy to specifically address those limitations. In considering approaches to oxygenate the wound tissue it is important to recognize that both too little as well as too much may impede the healing process. Oxygen dosing based on the specific need of a wound therefore seems prudent. Therapeutic approaches targeting the oxygen sensing and redox signaling pathways are promising. PMID:19152646
Kolotii, A.; Kussul, N.; Shelestov, A.; Lavreniuk, M. S.
According to Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 - 2030 Leaf Area Index (LAI) is considered as one of essential climatic variables. This variable represents the amount of leaf material in ecosystems and controls the links between biosphere and atmosphere through various processes and enables monitoring and quantitative assessment of vegetation state. LAI has added value for such important global resources monitoring tasks as drought mapping and crop yield forecasting with use of data from different sources [1-2]. Remote sensing data from space can be used to estimate such biophysical parameter at regional and national scale. High temporal satellite imagery is usually required to capture main parameters of crop growth . Sentinel-2 mission launched in 2015 be ESA is a source of high spatial and temporal resolution satellite imagery for mapping biophysical parameters. Products created with use of automated Sen2-Agri system deployed during Sen2-Agri country level demonstration project for Ukraine will be compared with our independent results of biophysical parameters mapping. References Shelestov, A., Kolotii, A., Camacho, F., Skakun, S., Kussul, O., Lavreniuk, M., & Kostetsky, O. (2015, July). Mapping of biophysical parameters based on high resolution EO imagery for JECAM test site in Ukraine. In 2015 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 1733-1736 Kolotii, A., Kussul, N., Shelestov, A., Skakun, S., Yailymov, B., Basarab, R., ... & Ostapenko, V. (2015). Comparison of biophysical and satellite predictors for wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 40(7), 39-44. Kussul, N., Lemoine, G., Gallego, F. J., Skakun, S. V., Lavreniuk, M., & Shelestov, A. Y. Parcel-Based Crop Classification in Ukraine Using Landsat-8 Data and Sentinel-1A Data. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing , 9 (6), 2500-2508.
Smith, Philip; Arias, Ronald; Sonti, Shilpa; Odgerel, Zagaa; Santa-Maria, Ismael; McCabe, Brian D; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Louis, Elan D; Hodge, James J L; Clark, Lorraine N
Essential Tremor (ET) is one of the most common neurological diseases, with an estimated 7 million affected individuals in the US; the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood. Recently, we identified a mutation (KCNS2 (Kv9.2), c.1137 T > A, p.(D379E) in an electrically silent voltage-gated K + channel α-subunit, Kv9.2, in a family with ET, that modulates the activity of Kv2 channels. We have produced transgenic Drosophila lines that express either the human wild type Kv9.2 (hKv9.2) or the ET causing mutant Kv9.2 (hKv9.2-D379E) subunit in all neurons. We show that the hKv9.2 subunit modulates activity of endogenous Drosophila K + channel Shab. The mutant hKv9.2-D379E subunit showed significantly higher levels of Shab inactivation and a higher frequency of spontaneous firing rate consistent with neuronal hyperexcitibility. We also observed behavioral manifestations of nervous system dysfunction including effects on night time activity and sleep. This functional data further supports the pathogenicity of the KCNS2 (p.D379E) mutation, consistent with our prior observations including co-segregation with ET in a family, a likely pathogenic change in the channel pore domain and absence from population databases. The Drosophila hKv9.2 transgenic model recapitulates several features of ET and may be employed to advance our understanding of ET disease pathogenesis.
Forsythe-Newell, S. P.; Bates, J. J.; Barkstrom, B. R.; Privette, J. L.; Kearns, E. J.
Advancement in understanding, predicting and mitigating against climate change implies collaboration, close monitoring of Essential Climate Variable (ECV)s through development of Climate Data Record (CDR)s and effective action with specific thematic focus on human and environmental impacts. Towards this end, NCDC's Scientific Data Stewardship (SDS) Program Office developed Climate Long-term Information and Observation system (CLIO) for satellite data identification, characterization and use interrogation. This "proof-of-concept" online tool provides the ability to visualize global CDR information gaps and overlaps with options to temporally zoom-in from satellite instruments to climate products, data sets, data set versions and files. CLIO provides an intuitive one-stop web site that displays past, current and planned launches of environmental satellites in conjunction with associated imagery and detailed information. This tool is also capable of accepting and displaying Web-based input from Subject Matter Expert (SME)s providing a global to sub-regional scale perspective of all ECV's and their impacts upon climate studies. SME's can access and interact with temporal data from the past and present, or for future planning of products, datasets/dataset versions, instruments, platforms and networks. CLIO offers quantifiable prioritization of ECV/CDR impacts that effectively deal with climate change issues, their associated impacts upon climate, and this offers an intuitively objective collaboration and consensus building tool. NCDC's latest tool empowers decision makers and the scientific community to rapidly identify weaknesses and strengths in climate change monitoring strategies and significantly enhances climate change collaboration and awareness.
King, Janet C
Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role. PMID:21715515
Wagesho, Yohannes; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common condiment for various foods and beverages and widely used worldwide as a spice. Its extracts are used extensively in the food, beverage, and confectionary industries in the production of products such as marmalade, pickles, chutney, ginger beer, ginger wine, liquors, biscuits, and other bakery products. In Ethiopia, it is among the important spices used in every kitchen to flavor stew, tea, bread and local alcoholic drinks. It is also chiefly used medicinally for indigestion, stomachache, malaria, fevers, common cold, and motion sickness. The literature survey revealed that there is no study conducted on the determination of metals in ginger cultivated in Ethiopia. Hence it is worthwhile to determine the levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger cultivated in Ethiopia. The levels of essential (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) and non-essential (Cd and Pb) metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivated in four different regions of Ethiopia and the soil where it was grown were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 0.5 g of oven dried ginger and soil samples were digested using 3 mL of HNO3 and 1 mL of HClO4 at 210°C for 3 h and a mixture of 6 mL aqua-regia and 1.5 mL H2O2 at 270°C for 3 h, respectively. The mean metal concentration (μg/g dry weight basis) ranged in the ginger and soil samples, respectively, were: Ca (2000-2540, 1770-3580), Mg (2700-4090, 1460-2440), Fe (41.8-89.0, 21700-46900), Zn (38.5-55.2, 255-412), Cu (1.1-4.8, 3.80-33.9), Co (2.0-7.6, 48.5-159), Cr (6.0-10.8, 110-163), Mn (184-401, 1760-6470), Ni (5.6-8.4, 14.1-79.3) and Cd (0.38-0.97, 0.24-1.1). The toxic metal Pb was not detected in both the ginger and soil samples. There was good correlation between some metals in ginger and soil samples while poor correlation between other metals (Fe, Ni, Cu). This study revealed that Ethiopian gingers are good source of essential metals and free from toxic
Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat
Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J
by minimizing the time, effort, and funding needed by individual investigators to comply with requests for their unique resource. Indeed, sharing is an imperative, but it is also essential to find ways to protect for both the original owner of the resource and those wishing to share it.
Alighiri, D.; Eden, W. T.; Supardi, K. I.; Masturi; Purwinarko, A.
Indonesia is the source of raw essential oil in the world. Essential oils are used in various types of industries such as food and beverage, flavour, fragrance, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. However, the development of Indonesian essential oil industry has not been encouraging for the production of essential oils, further it is unable to meet global demand. Besides that, the quality of volatile oil resulted cannot meet the international market standards. Based on the facts, the potential of Indonesian essential oils needs to be developed to provide added value, through increased production, improved quality and product diversification. One part of Indonesia having abundant of raw essential oil source is Central Java. Central Java has the quite large potential production of essential oils. Some essential oils produced from refining industry owned by the government, private and community sectors include cananga oils (Boyolali district), clove oils (Semarang district), patchouli oils (Brebes district, Pemalang district, and Klaten district). The main problem in the development of plants industries that producing essential oil in Central Java is low crops production, farming properties, quality of essential oils are diverse, providing poor-quality products and volatile oil price fluctuations. Marketing constraints of Central Java essential oils are quite complex supply chain. In general, marketing constraints of essential oils due to three factors, namely the low quality due to type of essential oil business that generally shaped small businesses with different capital and technology, domestic marketing is still a buyer-market (price determined by the buyer) because of weak bargaining position processors businessman, and prices fluctuate (domestic and foreign) due to uncontrolled domestic production and inter-country competition among manufacturers.
Methods are provided for the rapid identification of essential or conditionally essential DNA segments in any species of haploid cell (one copy chromosome per cell) that is capable of being transformed by artificial means and is capable of undergoing DNA recombination. This system offers an enhanced means of identifying essential function genes in diploid pathogens, such as gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. Support Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings.
The Essential Principles for Reform of Chemicals Management Legislation (Principles) are provided to help inform efforts underway in Congress to reauthorize and significantly strengthen the effectiveness of TSCA.
Görnemann, T; Nayal, R; Pertz, H H; Melzig, M F
To investigate the essential oil of Lippia dulcis Trev. (Verbenaceae) that is traditionally used in the treatment of cough, colds, bronchitis, asthma, and colic in Middle America for antispasmodic activity. We used a porcine bronchial bioassay to study contractile responses to carbachol and histamine in the absence or presence of the essential oil. The essential oil showed anti-histaminergic and anti-cholinergic activities at 100 microg/ml. The anti-histaminergic and anti-cholinergic activities of the essential oil of Lippia dulcis support the rational use of the plant or plant extracts to treat bronchospasm.
Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education presents energy concepts that, if understood and applied, will help individuals and communities make informed energy decisions.
Robertson, David L.; Hentges, Kathryn E.
A greater understanding of the causes of human disease can come from identifying characteristics that are specific to disease genes. However, a full understanding of the contribution of essential genes to human disease is lacking, due to the premise that these genes tend to cause developmental abnormalities rather than adult disease. We tested the hypothesis that human orthologs of mouse essential genes are associated with a variety of human diseases, rather than only those related to miscarriage and birth defects. We segregated human disease genes according to whether the knockout phenotype of their mouse ortholog was lethal or viable, defining those with orthologs producing lethal knockouts as essential disease genes. We show that the human orthologs of mouse essential genes are associated with a wide spectrum of diseases affecting diverse physiological systems. Notably, human disease genes with essential mouse orthologs are over-represented among disease genes associated with cancer, suggesting links between adult cellular abnormalities and developmental functions. The proteins encoded by essential genes are highly connected in protein-protein interaction networks, which we find correlates with an over-representation of nuclear proteins amongst essential disease genes. Disease genes associated with essential orthologs also are more likely than those with non-essential orthologs to contribute to disease through an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, suggesting that these diseases may actually result from semi-dominant mutant alleles. Overall, we have described attributes found in disease genes according to the essentiality status of their mouse orthologs. These findings demonstrate that disease genes do occupy highly connected positions in protein-protein interaction networks, and that due to the complexity of disease-associated alleles, essential genes cannot be ignored as candidates for causing diverse human diseases. PMID:22096564
Bauer, Norman J.
In essential-schools philosophy, the purpose of education on the individual level is to instill intellectual and moral discipline. On a societal level, education's purpose is to transmit the essential portion of total heritage to students. Technocratic rationality is the belief that bureaucrats and administrators decide policy about the goals of…
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.
This handbook for Trustees of the Wisconsin Public Library describes in detail the tasks involved in being a library trustee. The handbook comprises a number of "Trustee Essentials" that cover the basic essential information needed by Trustees, as well as sources of additional information. Contents include: The Trustee Job Description;…
This qualitative study addresses the link between urban high school science teachers' beliefs about essential teaching dispositions and student learning outcomes. The findings suggest that in order to help students to do well in science in urban school settings, science teachers should possess essential teaching dispositions which include…
M, Canales-Martinez; C R, Rivera-Yañez; J, Salas-Oropeza; H R, Lopez; M, Jimenez-Estrada; R, Rosas-Lopez; D A, Duran; C, Flores; L B, Hernandez; M A, Rodriguez-Monroy
Bursera morelensis , known as "Aceitillo", is an endemic tree of Mexico. Infusions made from the bark of this species have been used for the treatment of skin infections and for their wound healing properties. In this work, we present the results of a phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the essential oil of B. morelensis . The essential oil was obtained by a steam distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 28 compounds. The principal compound of the essential oil was a-Phellandrene (32.69%). The essential oil had antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative strains. The most sensitive strains were S. pneumoniae , V. cholerae (cc) and E. coli (MIC 0.125 mg/mL, MBC 0.25 mg/mL). The essential oil was bactericidal for V. cholera (cc). The essential oil inhibited all the filamentous fungi. F. monilifome (IC 50 = 2.27 mg/mL) was the most sensitive fungal strain. This work provides evidence that confirms the antimicrobial activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and this is a scientific support about of traditional uses of this species.
Essential Reliability Services by Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant: Q&A Demonstration of Essential Reliability Services by Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant: Q&A Webinar Questions & Answers April 27, 2017 Is photovoltaic (PV) generation required to provide grid supportive
Yusoff, Nor Hanis Aifaa; Abdullah, Siti Aisyah; Othman, Zaulia; Zainal, Zamri
The efficacy of Citrus hystrix, Azadirachta indica and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils were evaluated for controlling the growth of mycelia and spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In order to determine the best essential oil (EO) and suitable concentration of essential oil, in vitro experiment was conducted by preparing a pure culture of antrachnose on Potato Dextrose Agar containing EOs of C. hystrix, A. indica and C. citratus with different concentrations (0.2%, 0.6%, 1% and 1.4% (v/v)). The result shows that C. hystrix essential oil at a concentration of 1.4% (v/v) reduced of mycelia growth of C. gloeosporioides by 29.49%. A second experiment was conducted, but at higher concentration of each essential oils (1.8%, 2.2%, 2.6% and 2.8% (v/v)). Significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) inhibition of mycelia growth was obtained in all treatments except the control. The antifungal index values of essential oils were proportionally increased with concentration of essential oil applied in each treatment. It is concluded that essential oil from C. hystrix are efficient in inhibiting C. gloeosporioides.
In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...
Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih
The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, α-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent.
Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae
Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Essentials of evaluative... FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.1 Essentials of evaluative rating. This rating... application of this schedule, accurate and fully descriptive medical examinations are required, with emphasis...
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Nuñez, L.; Aquino, M. D’
Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use PMID:24031950
ABSTRACT Transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) is a high-throughput method coupling transposon mutagenesis with short-fragment DNA sequencing. It is commonly used to identify essential genes. Single gene deletion libraries are considered the gold standard for identifying essential genes. Currently, the TraDIS method has not been benchmarked against such libraries, and therefore, it remains unclear whether the two methodologies are comparable. To address this, a high-density transposon library was constructed in Escherichia coli K-12. Essential genes predicted from sequencing of this library were compared to existing essential gene databases. To decrease false-positive identification of essential genes, statistical data analysis included corrections for both gene length and genome length. Through this analysis, new essential genes and genes previously incorrectly designated essential were identified. We show that manual analysis of TraDIS data reveals novel features that would not have been detected by statistical analysis alone. Examples include short essential regions within genes, orientation-dependent effects, and fine-resolution identification of genome and protein features. Recognition of these insertion profiles in transposon mutagenesis data sets will assist genome annotation of less well characterized genomes and provides new insights into bacterial physiology and biochemistry. PMID:29463657
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...
Clark, Martyn P.; Luce, Charles H.; van Meerveld, H. J. (Ilja)
Water Resources Research published nine commentaries in the AGU "Science is Essential" collection. The goal of these papers is to celebrate the advances in hydrologic science, to show how hydrologic science is essential for society, and to illustrate how hydrologic science has influenced policies. Here we provide a brief introduction to these papers, to encourage you to explore them in full.
The purpose of the "State of the Literacy and Essential Skills Field" report is to provide an environmental scan showing the state of Literacy and Essential Skills (L/ES) across the country, from the perspective of the Canadian Literacy and Learning Network (CLLN) and its national network of partners, both within and outside the Literacy…
Bomfim, Larissa M; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Neto, Albertino F S; Nascimento, Magaly P; Campos, Adriana F; Silva, Lidércia C R C E; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P
Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae), popularly known as 'bruteira', has nutritional and medicinal uses. This study investigated the chemical composition and antitumour potential of the essential oil of A. vepretorum leaf alone and complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a microencapsulation. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed using GC-MS and GC-FID. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents in tumour cell lines from different histotypes was evaluated using the alamar blue assay. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of essential oil was demonstrated in mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma. The essential oil included bicyclogermacrene (35.71%), spathulenol (18.89%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.46%), α-phellandrene (8.08%), o-cymene (6.24%), germacrene D (3.27%) and α-pinene (2.18%) as major constituents. The essential oil and spathulenol exhibited promising cytotoxicity. In vivo tumour growth was inhibited by the treatment with the essential oil (inhibition of 34.46%). Importantly, microencapsulation of the essential oil increased in vivo tumour growth inhibition (inhibition of 62.66%). © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).
Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia
In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques. PMID:24031717
Moazeni, Mohammad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Hoseini, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Amir Mootabi
Objective To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica)essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant. Methods The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results : A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group). Conclusions The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent. PMID:23569981
Sebring, Penny Bender; Allensworth, Elaine; Bryk, Anthony S.; Easton, John Q.; Luppescu, Stuart
This report sets forth a framework of essential supports and contextual resources for school improvement, examines empirical evidence on its key elements and how they link to improvements in student learning, and investigates how a school's essential supports interact with community context to affect student learning. The purpose of this research…
Stodden, Robert A.; Brown, Steven E.; Galloway, L. M.; Mrazek, Susan; Noy, Liora
The purpose of this Essential Tool is to assist state-level transition coordinators and others responsible for forming, conducting, and evaluating the performance of interagency transition teams that are focused upon the school and post-school needs of youth with disabilities. This Essential Tool is designed to guide the coordination efforts of…
Leishmania Glucose Transporters PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Scott M. Landfear, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oregon Health & Science...3. DATES COVERED 1 JUL 2011 - 30 JUN 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters...function as selective inhibitors of the essential glucose transporters of the parasite Leishmania mexicana. To identify such compounds, a cell growth
Erler, F; Ulug, I; Yalcinkaya, B
Essential oils extracted from the seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum), dried fruits of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), dried foliage of mint (Mentha piperita) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) and fresh foliage of laurel (Laurus nobilis) were tested for their repellency against the adult females of Culex pipiens. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees, eucalyptus, basil and anise being the most active.
Soil is one of the most important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of esse...
Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh
Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.
M., Canales-Martinez; C.R., Rivera-Yañez; J., Salas-Oropeza; H.R., Lopez; M., Jimenez-Estrada; R., Rosas-Lopez; D.A., Duran; C., Flores; L.B., Hernandez; M.A., Rodriguez-Monroy
Background: Bursera morelensis, known as “Aceitillo”, is an endemic tree of Mexico. Infusions made from the bark of this species have been used for the treatment of skin infections and for their wound healing properties. In this work, we present the results of a phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the essential oil of B. morelensis. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was obtained by a steam distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. Results: GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 28 compounds. The principal compound of the essential oil was a-Phellandrene (32.69%). The essential oil had antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative strains. The most sensitive strains were S. pneumoniae, V. cholerae (cc) and E. coli (MIC 0.125 mg/mL, MBC 0.25 mg/mL). The essential oil was bactericidal for V. cholera (cc). The essential oil inhibited all the filamentous fungi. F. monilifome (IC50 = 2.27 mg/mL) was the most sensitive fungal strain. Conclusions: This work provides evidence that confirms the antimicrobial activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and this is a scientific support about of traditional uses of this species. PMID:28480418
Sonboli, Ali; Mirzania, Foroogh; Gholipour, Abbas
Dracocephalum kotschyi is one of the medicinal and fragrant herbs that can be found in natural locations of mountainous areas. In this investigation the hydrodistilled essential oils obtained from aerial parts of two populations of D. kotschyi collected from Siahbisheh and Baladeh were analysed by capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. Essential oil analysis led to the identification of 48 compounds that represented 85.9 and 90.0% of the total oil compositions, respectively. As the major group of compounds, oxygenated monoterpens comprised 45.5 and 57.4% in the essential oils of compounds as the main group in the essential oils of Siahbisheh and Baladeh samples, respectively. Disagreement in the major contents of the essential oils of these two samples may be ascribed to differences in the ecological, climatic and genetically factors.
Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan
To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.
Woronuk, Grant; Demissie, Zerihun; Rheault, Mark; Mahmoud, Soheil
Lavenders and their essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. The volatile compounds that comprise lavender essential oils, including linalool and linalyl acetate, have demonstrative therapeutic properties, and the relative abundance of these metabolites is greatly influenced by the genetics and environment of the developing plants. With the rapid progress of molecular biology and the genomic sciences, our understanding of essential oil biosynthesis has greatly improved over the past few decades. At the same time, there is a recent surge of interest in the use of natural remedies, including lavender essential oils, in alternative medicine and aromatherapy. This article provides a review of recent developments related to the biosynthesis and medicinal properties of lavender essential oils. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
In the present review the physiological and/or pharmacological properties of essential oils and of single fragrance compounds are discussed. Essential oils are known and have been used since ancient times as natural medicines. As natural products essential oils are dependent on climate and their composition varies according to conditions of soil, to solar irradiation, to harvest time, to production methods, to storage conditions and similar facts which are discussed in chapter 2 of this review. The next chapters deal with the therapeutic use of essential oils in treating diseases, disorders or ailments of the nervous system, against cancer and as penetration enhancers. For space-saving reasons, however, the manifold antimicrobial and antifungal properties of these natural products have been left out. In the last chapter, the pros and cons in the use of essential oils in therapy are also discussed.
Miladinović, Dragoljub L; Ilić, Budimir S; Kocić, Branislava D; Miladinović, Ljiljana C; Marković, Marija S
The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Peucedanum officinale L. (Apiaceae) essential oil were examined, as well as the association between it and antibiotics: tetracycline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. The interactions of the essential oil with antibiotics were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay. Monoterpene hydrocarbons, with α-phellandrene as the dominant constituent, were the most abundant compound class of the essential oil of P. officinale. The researched essential oil exhibited slight antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains in vitro. On the contrary, essential oil of P. officinale possesses a great synergistic potential with chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Their combinations reduced the minimum effective dose of the antibiotic and, consequently, minimised its adverse side effects. In addition, investigated interactions are especially successful against Gram-negative bacteria, the pharmacological treatment of which is very difficult nowadays.
Farrelly, Paul J; Losty, Paul D
Delivery of health care in the UK faces enormous challenges with the Department of Health driving significant financial cost savings to ensure viability of public health services. We have analysed and modelled the concept of 'essential' and 'non-essential' paediatric surgery linked to the delivery of children's surgery in the NHS in England. Operation codes for surgical operations in newborns, children and adolescents were identified and Healthcare Resource Group tariffs-£Stg matched. Operations were designated as 'essential' or 'non-essential' based on the criteria-(1) life saving-neonatal surgery, emergency general surgery of childhood, cancer surgery; (2) debility if uncorrected; (3) aesthetics and (4) culture/attitude. Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data were accessed and sampled for the total number of paediatric surgical operations-(age range 0-14 years) performed in NHS hospitals from 2009 to 2010. Annual costs (£) of both 'essential' and 'non-essential' operations were then calculated. The commonest 'essential' operations performed in children and adolescents in the year 2009-2010 was appendicectomy at a cost of over £51 million pounds. Costs of performing a selection of 'non-essential' paediatric surgery operations were >£14 million pounds/year. The NHs funds for example almost 11,000 paediatric circumcisions annually at a cost of >£8 million pounds-50% are performed for non-therapeutic reasons. Surgeons must engage and work actively with health care systems to ensure diminishing financial resources prioritise 'essential' operations for children. Commissioners must embrace evidence-based surgery. 'Essential' and 'non-essential' surgery has wide implications for the sustainability of the NHS and concepts herein developed can be applied to nations worldwide.
A. sieberi essential oil has been used for treatment of hardly curable infectious ulcers in Middle East Medicine and has been famous due to its wormicide effects. In this review, we evaluated the potency of A. sieberi essential oil in treatment of fungal infections. We searched in PubMed Central, Science direct, Wiley, Springer, SID, and accessible books, reports, thesis. There is a lot of mixed information on chemical compositions of A. sieberi essential oil, but most articles reported α, β-thujones as the main components of essential oils. In vitro studies confirmed the antifungal activity of A. sieberi essential oil against saprophytes fungi, dermatophytes, Malassezia sp. and Candida sp. and these results were confirmed in six clinical studies. The clinical studies confirmed the superiority of A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion in improvement of clinical signs of fungal superficial diseases, and mycological laboratory examinations of dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor diseases than clotrimazole (1%) topical treatment. The recurrence rate of superficial fungal infections with dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor was statistically lower in A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion than clotrimazole. There are no adverse effects due to the application of A. sieberi essential oil in clinical studies. Despite, the efficacy of A. sieberi essential oil against Candida sp., there is no clinical study about their related infections. Investigation about the effects of A. sieberi essential oil on fungal virulence factors in order to identifying the exact mechanism of antifungal activity and clinical trials on Candida related diseases are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Bevilaqua, C M L; Morais, S M; Maciel, M V; Costa, C T C; Macedo, I T F; Oliveira, L M B; Braga, R R; Silva, R A; Vieira, L S
Because of the development of anthelmintic resistant populations, the search for new drugs is essential to maintain the productivity of small ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Croton zehntneri and Lippia sidoides essential oils and their major constituents, anethole and thymol. The effects of these oils and their constituents were determined by in vitro assays with the eggs and larvae of the sheep gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. The two essential oils were evaluated on intestinal nematodes of mice at 800 mg kg(-1) dose. In the last experiment, the mice were treated with larger doses of L. sidoides, 1200 and 1600 mg kg(-1). The essential oils and their constituents prevented more than 98% of the H. contortus eggs from hatching at a concentration of 1.25 mg ml(-1) and inhibited more than 90% of H. contortus larval development at a concentration of 10 mg ml(-1). At a concentration of 800 mg kg(-1), the two essential oils were 46.3% and 11.64% effective against Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera. At 1200 and 1600 mg kg(-1), L. sidoides essential oil's efficacy on the mouse worm burden was 57.6% and 68.9%, respectively. The fact that L. sidoides essential oil was almost 70% effective against mouse intestinal nematodes indicates it should be evaluated against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats.
Perczak, Adam; Juś, Krzysztof; Marchwińska, Katarzyna; Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Goliński, Piotr
Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations. The degree of ZEA reduction was determined by HPLC method. It was found that the kind of essential oil influences the effectiveness of toxin level reduction, the highest being observed for lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils, while lavender, thymic and rosemary oils did not degrade the toxin. In addition, the decrease in ZEA content was temperature, pH as well as toxin and essential oil concentration dependent. Generally, higher reduction was observed at higher temperature in a wide range of pH, with clear evidence that the degradation rate increased gradually with time. In some combinations (e.g., palmarosa oil at pH 6 and 4 or 20°C) a toxin degradation rate higher than 99% was observed. It was concluded that some of the tested essential oils may be effective in detoxification of ZEA. We suggested that essential oils should be recognized as an interesting and effective means of ZEA decontamination and/or detoxification. PMID:27563298
Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J
The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the number of viable biofilm cells, but none of them could remove biofilms completely. Thyme and patchouli oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. © The Author(s) 2014.
Goodacre, Norman F; Gerloff, Dietlind L; Uetz, Peter
More than 20% of all protein domains are currently annotated as "domains of unknown function" (DUFs). About 2,700 DUFs are found in bacteria compared with just over 1,500 in eukaryotes. Over 800 DUFs are shared between bacteria and eukaryotes, and about 300 of these are also present in archaea. A total of 2,786 bacterial Pfam domains even occur in animals, including 320 DUFs. Evolutionary conservation suggests that many of these DUFs are important. Here we show that 355 essential proteins in 16 model bacterial species contain 238 DUFs, most of which represent single-domain proteins, clearly establishing the biological essentiality of DUFs. We suggest that experimental research should focus on conserved and essential DUFs (eDUFs) for functional analysis given their important function and wide taxonomic distribution, including bacterial pathogens. The functional units of proteins are domains. Typically, each domain has a distinct structure and function. Genomes encode thousands of domains, and many of the domains have no known function (domains of unknown function [DUFs]). They are often ignored as of little relevance, given that many of them are found in only a few genomes. Here we show that many DUFs are essential DUFs (eDUFs) based on their presence in essential proteins. We also show that eDUFs are often essential even if they are found in relatively few genomes. However, in general, more common DUFs are more often essential than rare DUFs.
Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B
Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent.
Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.
Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324
Zhong, Jiancheng; Wang, Jianxin; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Zhen; Pan, Yi
Essential proteins are indispensable for cell survive. Identifying essential proteins is very important for improving our understanding the way of a cell working. There are various types of features related to the essentiality of proteins. Many methods have been proposed to combine some of them to predict essential proteins. However, it is still a big challenge for designing an effective method to predict them by integrating different features, and explaining how these selected features decide the essentiality of protein. Gene expression programming (GEP) is a learning algorithm and what it learns specifically is about relationships between variables in sets of data and then builds models to explain these relationships. In this work, we propose a GEP-based method to predict essential protein by combing some biological features and topological features. We carry out experiments on S. cerevisiae data. The experimental results show that the our method achieves better prediction performance than those methods using individual features. Moreover, our method outperforms some machine learning methods and performs as well as a method which is obtained by combining the outputs of eight machine learning methods. The accuracy of predicting essential proteins can been improved by using GEP method to combine some topological features and biological features.
Urushitani, M; Inoue, H; Kawamura, K; Kageyama, T; Fujisawa, M; Nishinaka, K; Udaka, F; Kameyama, M
Mechanism of essential tremor remains unknown. Central oscillators, postulated in thalamus, inferior olive, and spinal cord are thought to be important to form rhythmicity, and finally to stimulate spinal or medullary motor cells, leading trembling muscle contraction, tremor. Among several subtypes of essential familial tremor, including hand tremor, neck tremor, and voice tremor, essential neck tremor is a common disorder, and its pathophysiology seems different from that of typical essential hand tremor, since patients with essential hand tremor are responsive to beta blocker, whereas those with neck tremor are usually not. We experienced a 41-year-old left handed woman with essential neck tremor in whom neck titubation disappeared shortly after pontine base infarct. She was our patient in the outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of essential neck tremor. The tremor developed when she was teenage, and has been localized in the neck muscles. Alcohol intake had apparently diminished it transiently. Her mother also had the tremor in her neck. She was admitted to our hospital with sudden onset of right-sided limb weakness and speech disturbance. Neurological examination showed right hemiparesis including the ipsilateral face, scanning speech, and cerebellar limb ataxia on the same side. In addition, there was no tremor in her neck. Brain MR imaging revealed a pontine base infarct at the level of middle pons, which was consistent with paramedian artery territory. The hemiparesis and speech disturbance improved almost completely after treatment, and her neck tremor has never occurred in one year follow-up. In our patient, efficacy of alcohol imply that essential neck tremor and hand tremor had same central nervous pathway including central oscillator in common, and descending cortical fibers is seemingly associated with diminishing patient's tremor. Pathophysiology of essential neck tremor was discussed with reviewing previous literature.
Charbonneau, Amelia R L; Forman, Oliver P; Cain, Amy K; Newland, Graham; Robinson, Carl; Boursnell, Mike; Parkhill, Julian; Leigh, James A; Maskell, Duncan J; Waller, Andrew S
Utilising next generation sequencing to interrogate saturated bacterial mutant libraries provides unprecedented information for the assignment of genome-wide gene essentiality. Exposure of saturated mutant libraries to specific conditions and subsequent sequencing can be exploited to uncover gene essentiality relevant to the condition. Here we present a barcoded transposon directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) system to define an essential gene list for Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, the causative agent of strangles in horses, for the first time. The gene essentiality data for this group C Streptococcus was compared to that of group A and B streptococci. Six barcoded variants of pGh9:ISS1 were designed and used to generate mutant libraries containing between 33,000-66,000 unique mutants. TraDIS was performed on DNA extracted from each library and data were analysed separately and as a combined master pool. Gene essentiality determined that 19.5% of the S. equi genome was essential. Gene essentialities were compared to those of group A and group B streptococci, identifying concordances of 90.2% and 89.4%, respectively and an overall concordance of 83.7% between the three species. The use of barcoded pGh9:ISS1 to generate mutant libraries provides a highly useful tool for the assignment of gene function in S. equi and other streptococci. The shared essential gene set of group A, B and C streptococci provides further evidence of the close genetic relationships between these important pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, the ABC of gene essentiality reported here provides a solid foundation towards reporting the functional genome of streptococci.
Larsen, T A; Teräväinen, H
The beta 1-selective blocker metoprolol was compared to propranolol and a placebo in a double-blind crossover trial in 24 patients with essential tremor. Both beta blockers suppressed the essential tremor, but metoprolol, which caused a mean reduction of 32.0% in tremor intensity from the base-line value, was less effective than propranolol, which reduced mean tremor intensity by 41.3%. Subjective benefit for their tremor was found by 15 of the patients taking propranolol and by one taking metoprolol. The tremor frequency was not affected. No serious side effects were observed. Metoprolol may offer an alternative for those essential tremor patients who cannot tolerate propranolol.
Goodall, Emily C A; Robinson, Ashley; Johnston, Iain G; Jabbari, Sara; Turner, Keith A; Cunningham, Adam F; Lund, Peter A; Cole, Jeffrey A; Henderson, Ian R
Transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) is a high-throughput method coupling transposon mutagenesis with short-fragment DNA sequencing. It is commonly used to identify essential genes. Single gene deletion libraries are considered the gold standard for identifying essential genes. Currently, the TraDIS method has not been benchmarked against such libraries, and therefore, it remains unclear whether the two methodologies are comparable. To address this, a high-density transposon library was constructed in Escherichia coli K-12. Essential genes predicted from sequencing of this library were compared to existing essential gene databases. To decrease false-positive identification of essential genes, statistical data analysis included corrections for both gene length and genome length. Through this analysis, new essential genes and genes previously incorrectly designated essential were identified. We show that manual analysis of TraDIS data reveals novel features that would not have been detected by statistical analysis alone. Examples include short essential regions within genes, orientation-dependent effects, and fine-resolution identification of genome and protein features. Recognition of these insertion profiles in transposon mutagenesis data sets will assist genome annotation of less well characterized genomes and provides new insights into bacterial physiology and biochemistry. IMPORTANCE Incentives to define lists of genes that are essential for bacterial survival include the identification of potential targets for antibacterial drug development, genes required for rapid growth for exploitation in biotechnology, and discovery of new biochemical pathways. To identify essential genes in Escherichia coli , we constructed a transposon mutant library of unprecedented density. Initial automated analysis of the resulting data revealed many discrepancies compared to the literature. We now report more extensive statistical analysis supported by both
Dunkić, Valerija; Mikrut, Antonija; Bezić, Nada
The essential oil of Satureja cuneifolia Ten. was characterized by a high concentration of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (21.3%) and thymol (9.2%). The in vitro activity of the essential oil against Legionela pneumophila serogroups (SG) I and 2-15 and Legionella spp. from different sources, using microdilution, showed that L. pneumofila is sensitive to the oil, with MICs ranging from 0.12 to 0.5%, v/v, and a MBC at 0.5 to 1%, v/v. The essential oil of S. cuneifolia was effective in the reduction of Legionellosis infections.
Louis, Elan D.; Jiang, Wendy; Gerbin, Marina; Mullaney, Mary M.; Zheng, Wei
Introduction Harmane, a potent tremor-producing β-carboline alkaloid, may play a role in the etiology of essential tremor (ET). Blood harmane concentrations are elevated in ET cases compared with controls yet the basis for this elevation remains unknown. Decreased metabolic conversion (harmane to harmine) is one possible explanation. Using a sample of >500 individuals, we hypothesized that defective metabolic conversion of harmane to harmine might underlie the observed elevated harmane concentration in ET, and therefore expected to find a higher harmane to harmine ratio in familial ET than in sporadic ET or controls. Methods Blood harmane and harmine concentrations were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Results There were 78 familial ET cases, 187 sporadic ET cases, and 276 controls. Blood harmane and harmine concentrations were correlated with one another (Spearman’s r = 0.24, p < 0.001). The mean (±SD) harmane/harmine ratio = 23.4 ± 90.9 (range = 0.1 – 987.5). The harmane/harmine ratio was highest in familial ET (46.7 ± 140.4), intermediate in sporadic ET (28.3 ± 108.1), and lowest in controls (13.5 ± 50.3)(p = 0.03). In familial ET cases, there was no association between this ratio and tremor severity (Spearman’s r = 0.08, p=0.48) or tremor duration (Spearman’s r = 0.14, p = 0.24). Conclusion The basis for the elevated blood harmane concentration, particularly in familial ET, is not known, although the current findings (highest harmane/harmine ratio in familial ET cases) lends support to the possibility that it could be the result of a genetically-driven reduction in harmane metabolism. PMID:20708029
Louis, Elan D; Jiang, Wendy; Gerbin, Marina; Mullaney, Mary M; Zheng, Wei
Harmane, a potent tremor-producing β-carboline alkaloid, may play a role in the etiology of essential tremor (ET). Blood harmane concentrations are elevated in ET cases compared with controls yet the basis for this elevation remains unknown. Decreased metabolic conversion (harmane to harmine) is one possible explanation. Using a sample of >500 individuals, we hypothesized that defective metabolic conversion of harmane to harmine might underlie the observed elevated harmane concentration in ET, and therefore expected to find a higher harmane to harmine ratio in familial ET than in sporadic ET or controls. Blood harmane and harmine concentrations were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. There were 78 familial ET cases, 187 sporadic ET cases, and 276 controls. Blood harmane and harmine concentrations were correlated with one another (Spearman's r=0.24, p<0.001). The mean (±SD) harmane/harmine ratio=23.4±90.9 (range=0.1-987.5). The harmane/harmine ratio was highest in familial ET (46.7±140.4), intermediate in sporadic ET (28.3±108.1), and lowest in controls (13.5±50.3) (p=0.03). In familial ET cases, there was no association between this ratio and tremor severity (Spearman's r=0.08, p=0.48) or tremor duration (Spearman's r=0.14, p=0.24). The basis for the elevated blood harmane concentration, particularly in familial ET, is not known, although the current findings (highest harmane/harmine ratio in familial ET cases) lends support to the possibility that it could be the result of a genetically-driven reduction in harmane metabolism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Release Monday, August 26, 2013 Researchers find essential brain circuit in visual development NIH-funded study could ... shows the connections from the eyes to the brain in a mouse. The right image shows the ...
Brizio, P; Benedetto, A; Squadrone, S; Curcio, A; Pellegrino, M; Ferrero, M; Abete, M C
Crops intended for human nutrition and food production containing different essential trace elements, such as copper and zinc, could be contaminated by toxic metals like cadmium and lead. The interrelationship between micronutrients and contaminant trace elements in different cereals was investigated in North-western Italy, where both agricultural and industrial activities are present. Elemental concentrations in sampled cereals were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Rice, oats and barley reached the highest median levels for Al, Cd and Pb content, while corn samples were less contaminated by toxic metals. Regarding essential elements highest median values of Cu and Zn were both found in barley, while Ni median content was higher in oats. Rice had the lowest median levels of essential elements. The correlation study between toxic and essential elements seemed to demonstrate fixed trends in analysed samples, corroborating the importance of a different diet to limit potential adverse effects caused by toxic elements.
Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Stoilova, Ivanka; Stoyanova, Albena; Krastanov, Albert; Schmidt, Erich
The antioxidant activity of a commercial rectified clove leaf essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and its main constituent eugenol was tested. This essential oil comprises in total 23 identified constituents, among them eugenol (76.8%), followed by beta-caryophyllene (17.4%), alpha-humulene (2.1%), and eugenyl acetate (1.2%) as the main components. The essential oil from clove demonstrated scavenging activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydracyl (DPPH) radical at concentrations lower than the concentrations of eugenol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This essential oil also showed a significant inhibitory effect against hydroxyl radicals and acted as an iron chelator. With respect to the lipid peroxidation, the inhibitory activity of clove oil determined using a linoleic acid emulsion system indicated a higher antioxidant activity than the standard BHT.
Turner, Steven L.; Morelli, Christopher A.
The authors identify five key relationships beginning teachers need to build within their first year and offer ideas and practical strategies to help them establish relationships that are essential to their work.
Vincent, John B
Nearly 60 y ago, chromium, as the trivalent ion, was proposed to be an essential element, but the results of new studies indicate that chromium currently can only be considered pharmacologically active and not an essential element. Regardless, articles still continue to appear in the literature claiming chromium is an essential element. Chromium has been marketed as an agent to reduce body mass and develop muscle; however, such marketing claims are no longer allowed in the United States because these claims, similar to claims of essential status, are not supported by experiments. Trivalent chromium has also been proposed as a therapeutic agent to increase insulin sensitivity and affect lipid metabolism. Although effective in certain rodent models, beneficial effects in humans have not been unequivocally established. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the beneficial effects but have not been definitively shown to occur in animals. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Aromatherapy research with cancer patients has studied the effect of essential oils on anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and other health conditions. Learn more about aromatherapy use as a complementary therapy in this expert-reviewed summary.
Xu, Ping; Ge, Xiuchun; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaojing; Dou, Yuetan; Xu, Jerry Z.; Patel, Jenishkumar R.; Stone, Victoria; Trinh, My; Evans, Karra; Kitten, Todd; Bonchev, Danail; Buck, Gregory A.
A clear perception of gene essentiality in bacterial pathogens is pivotal for identifying drug targets to combat emergence of new pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, for synthetic biology, and for understanding the origins of life. We have constructed a comprehensive set of deletion mutants and systematically identified a clearly defined set of essential genes for Streptococcus sanguinis. Our results were confirmed by growing S. sanguinis in minimal medium and by double-knockout of paralogous or isozyme genes. Careful examination revealed that these essential genes were associated with only three basic categories of biological functions: maintenance of the cell envelope, energy production, and processing of genetic information. Our finding was subsequently validated in two other pathogenic streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans and in two other gram-positive pathogens, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our analysis has thus led to a simplified model that permits reliable prediction of gene essentiality. PMID:22355642
Social constructionism is the view that homosexuality is not an atemporal and acultural phenomenon. Rather, homosexuality exists only within certain cultures and within certain time periods, most obviously Europe and North America after the nineteenth century. Essentialism is the view that homosexuality is an essential feature of human beings and that it could be found, in principle at least, in any culture and in any time. In this paper, I argue that the historical evidence available to us does not show that social constructionism is the correct view, and that essentialism is fully compatible with such evidence. Furthermore, I argue that the historical evidence does not even render social constructionism more probable than essentialism, i.e., both views are equally probable in the face of this evidence.
Evans, James G.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Frank, David G.; Olson, Donald W.
Garnet is one of the most common minerals in the world. Occurring in almost any color, it is most widely known for its beauty as a gem stone. Because of its hardness and other properties, garnet is also an essential industrial mineral used in abrasive products, non-slip surfaces, and filtration. To help manage our Nation's resources of such essential minerals, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides crucial data and scientific information to industry, policymakers, and the public.
Dilucca, Maddalena; Cimini, Giulio; Giansanti, Andrea
Essential genes constitute the core of genes which cannot be mutated too much nor lost along the evolutionary history of a species. Natural selection is expected to be stricter on essential genes and on conserved (highly shared) genes, than on genes that are either nonessential or peculiar to a single or a few species. In order to further assess this expectation, we study here how essentiality of a gene is connected with its degree of conservation among several unrelated bacterial species, each one characterised by its own codon usage bias. Confirming previous results on E. coli, we show the existence of a universal exponential relation between gene essentiality and conservation in bacteria. Moreover, we show that, within each bacterial genome, there are at least two groups of functionally distinct genes, characterised by different levels of conservation and codon bias: i) a core of essential genes, mainly related to cellular information processing; ii) a set of less conserved nonessential genes with prevalent functions related to metabolism. In particular, the genes in the first group are more retained among species, are subject to a stronger purifying conservative selection and display a more limited repertoire of synonymous codons. The core of essential genes is close to the minimal bacterial genome, which is in the focus of recent studies in synthetic biology, though we confirm that orthologs of genes that are essential in one species are not necessarily essential in other species. We also list a set of highly shared genes which, reasonably, could constitute a reservoir of targets for new anti-microbial drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aruch, Daniel; Mascarenhas, John
Management of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia requires understanding of the key concepts regarding diagnosis, risk stratification, and management. Essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera are among the Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. They are characterized by overproduction of blood cells and their complications include thrombosis, hemorrhage, and progression to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Management of essential thrombocythemia/polycythemia vera requires recognition of the risk factors for thrombosis and hemorrhage. Risk stratification allows the clinician to make a treatment plan that may include antiplatelet therapy with aspirin alone or in combination with therapeutic phlebotomy in the case of polycythemia vera, or cytoreductive therapy for high-risk patients with either essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera. Hydroxyurea remains first-line therapy for high-risk patients with essential thrombocythemia/polycythemia vera, whereas second-line options include anagrelide, pegylated-IFNα-2a, and the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. The current evaluation of pegylated-IFNα-2a in global phase II and III studies will provide clarity to the potential long-term benefit and risks associated with this biologic in patients with essential thrombocythemia/polycythemia vera. Novel therapeutics aimed at prevention of disease progression to myelofibrosis/AML are the focus of current clinical trials. Risk stratification of patients with essential thrombocythemia/polycythemia vera by age and/or history of thrombosis provides the basis of risk adapted therapeutic intervention. Aggressive control of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, the use of antiplatelet agents, control of the hematocrit less than 45% in polycythemia vera, and cytoreductive therapy in high-risk essential thrombocythemia/polycythemia vera patients is the focus of management. The exact role of IFN-α remains undefined and under
Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams
Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148
... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory... essential oils. ...
... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory... essential oils. ...
... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory... essential oils. ...
Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R
Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Semba, Richard D; Shardell, Michelle; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Moaddel, Ruin; Trehan, Indi; Maleta, Kenneth M; Ordiz, M Isabel; Kraemer, Klaus; Khadeer, Mohammed A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J
Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of children. We used a targeted metabolomics approach to measure serum amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and other metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 313 children, aged 12-59months, from rural Malawi. Children underwent anthropometry. Sixty-two percent of the children were stunted. Children with stunting had lower serum concentrations of all nine essential amino acids (tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine) compared with nonstunted children (p<0.01). In addition, stunted children had significantly lower serum concentrations of conditionally essential amino acids (arginine, glycine, glutamine), non-essential amino acids (asparagine, glutamate, serine), and six different sphingolipids compared with nonstunted children. Stunting was also associated with alterations in serum glycerophospholipid concentrations. Our findings support the idea that children with a high risk of stunting may not be receiving an adequate dietary intake of essential amino acids and choline, an essential nutrient for the synthesis of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G
The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.
Wilkinson, Jenny M; Cavanagh, Heather M A
To date, of the Australian essential oils, only tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus spp. have undergone extensive investigation. In this study a range of Australian essential oils, including those from Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity. M. alternifolia was also included for comparison purposes. Activity was determined using standard disc diffusion assays with each oil assayed at 100%, 10% and 1% against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis) and the yeast, Candida albicans. All bacteria, with the exception of Ps. aeruginosa, were susceptible to one or more of the essential oils at 100%, with only Eremophilia mitchelli inhibiting the growth of any bacteria at 1% (inhibition of Sal. typhimurium). Where multiple samples of a single oil variety were tested variability in activity profiles were noted. This suggests that different methods of preparation of essential oils, together with variability in plant chemical profiles has an impact on whether or not the essential oil is of use as an antimicrobial agent. These results show that essential oils from Australian plants may be valuable antimicrobial agents for use alone or incorporated into cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceutical products.
Buijink, A W G; Broersma, M; van der Stouwe, A M M; van Wingen, G A; Groot, P F C; Speelman, J D; Maurits, N M; van Rootselaar, A F
Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of cerebellar output in essential tremor during rhythmic finger tapping employing functional MRI. Thirty-one propranolol-sensitive essential tremor patients with upper limb tremor and 29 healthy controls were measured. T2*-weighted EPI sequences were acquired. The task consisted of alternating rest and finger tapping blocks. A whole-brain and region-of-interest analysis was performed, the latter focusing on the cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus and inferior olive nucleus. Activations were also related to tremor severity. In patients, dentate activation correlated positively with tremor severity as measured by the tremor rating scale part A. Patients had reduced activation in widespread cerebellar cortical regions, and additionally in the inferior olive nucleus, and parietal and frontal cortex, compared to controls. The increase in dentate activation with tremor severity supports involvement of the dentate nucleus in essential tremor. Cortical and cerebellar changes during a motor timing task in essential tremor might point to widespread changes in cerebellar output in essential tremor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges. PMID:28930277
Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils. PMID:28546822
Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagozlu, Nural; Sahin, Serpil; Sumnu, Gulum; Bayramoglu, Beste
Effects of microwave assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD) methods on yield, composition, specific gravity, refractive index, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L were studied. The main aroma compounds of rosemary essential oil were found as 1,8-cineole and camphor. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values for essential oils extracted by MAHD and HD were 1.52 mM/ml oil and 1.95 mM/ml oil, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the oils obtained by MAHD and HD were found as 60.55% and 51.04% respectively. Inhibitory effects of essential oils obtained by two methods on linoleic acid peroxidation were almost the same. Essential oils obtained by two methods inhibited growth of Esherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NRRLE 4463 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A with the same degree. However, inhibitory activity of essential oil obtained by MAHD on Staphylococcus aureus 6538P was stronger than that of obtained by HD (p < 0.05).
Homa, Mónika; Fekete, Ildikó Pálma; Böszörményi, Andrea; Singh, Yendrembam Randhir Babu; Selvam, Kanesan Panneer; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László
The present study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Juniperus communis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gaultheria procumbens, Melaleuca alternifolia, Origanum majorana, Salvia sclarea, and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Fusarium species, the most common etiologic agents of filamentous fungal keratitis in South India. C. zeylanicum essential oil showed strong anti-Fusarium activity, whereas all the other tested essential oils proved to be less effective. The main component of C. zeylanicum essential oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, was also tested and showed a similar effect as the oil. The in vitro interaction between trans-cinnamaldehyde and natamycin, the first-line therapeutic agent of Fusarium keratitis, was also investigated; an enhanced fungal growth inhibition was observed when these agents were applied in combination. Light and fluorescent microscopic observations revealed that C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces the cellular metabolism and inhibits the conidia germination. Furthermore, necrotic events were significantly more frequent in the presence of these two compounds. According to our results, C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde provides a promising basis to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of Fusarium keratitis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Wang, Guoping; Xu, Mengyun; Wang, Wenyi; Galili, Gad
To feed the world's growing population, increasing the yield of crops is not the only important factor, improving crop quality is also important, and it presents a significant challenge. Among the important crops, horticultural crops (particularly fruits and vegetables) provide numerous health compounds, such as vitamins, antioxidants, and amino acids. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be produced by the organism and, therefore, must be obtained from diet, particularly from meat, eggs, and milk, as well as a variety of plants. Extensive efforts have been devoted to increasing the levels of essential amino acids in plants. Yet, these efforts have been met with very little success due to the limited genetic resources for plant breeding and because high essential amino acid content is generally accompanied by limited plant growth. With a deep understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of essential amino acids and their interactions with the regulatory networks in plants, it should be possible to use genetic engineering to improve the essential amino acid content of horticultural plants, rendering these plants more nutritionally favorable crops. In the present report, we describe the recent advances in the enhancement of essential amino acids in horticultural plants and possible future directions towards their bio-fortification.
Cheng, Jian; Wu, Wenwu; Zhang, Yinwen; Li, Xiangchen; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Wei, Gehong; Tao, Shiheng
Determination of the minimum gene set for cellular life is one of the central goals in biology. Genome-wide essential gene identification has progressed rapidly in certain bacterial species; however, it remains difficult to achieve in most eukaryotic species. Several computational models have recently been developed to integrate gene features and used as alternatives to transfer gene essentiality annotations between organisms. We first collected features that were widely used by previous predictive models and assessed the relationships between gene features and gene essentiality using a stepwise regression model. We found two issues that could significantly reduce model accuracy: (i) the effect of multicollinearity among gene features and (ii) the diverse and even contrasting correlations between gene features and gene essentiality existing within and among different species. To address these issues, we developed a novel model called feature-based weighted Naïve Bayes model (FWM), which is based on Naïve Bayes classifiers, logistic regression, and genetic algorithm. The proposed model assesses features and filters out the effects of multicollinearity and diversity. The performance of FWM was compared with other popular models, such as support vector machine, Naïve Bayes model, and logistic regression model, by applying FWM to reciprocally predict essential genes among and within 21 species. Our results showed that FWM significantly improves the accuracy and robustness of essential gene prediction. FWM can remarkably improve the accuracy of essential gene prediction and may be used as an alternative method for other classification work. This method can contribute substantially to the knowledge of the minimum gene sets required for living organisms and the discovery of new drug targets.
Cui, Haiying; Zhang, Xuejing; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Chengting; Lin, Lin
Nowadays, essential oils are recognized as safe substances and can be used as antibacterial additives. Salvia sclarea is one of the most important aromatic plants cultivated world-wide as a source of essential oils. In addition to being flavoring foods, Salvia sclarea essential oil can also act as antimicrobials and preservatives against food spoilage. Understanding more about the antibacterial performance and possible mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil will be helpful for its application in the future. But so far few related researches have been reported. In our study, Salvia sclarea oil showed obvious antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) of seven pathogens were 0.05 and 0.1 % respectively. In addition, Salvia sclarea oil also exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and meats. After treated with Salvia sclarea oil, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images can clearly see the damage of cell membrane; the intracellular ATP concentrations of E. coli and S. aureus reduced 98.27 and 69.61 % respectively, compared to the control groups; the nuclear DNA content of E. coli and S. aureus was significantly reduced to 48.32 and 50.77 % respectively. In addition, there was massive leakage of cellular material when E. coli and S. aureus were exposed to Salvia sclarea oil. Salvia sclarea essential oil damaged the cell membrane and changed the cell membrane permeability, leading to the release of some cytoplasm such as macromolecular substances, ATP and DNA. In general, the antimicrobial action of Salvia sclarea essential oil is not only attributable to a unique pathway, but also involves a series of events both on the cell surface and within the cytoplasm. Therefore, more experiments need to be done to fully understand the antimicrobial mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil.
Garrod, A N I; Evans, P G; Davy, C W
"COSHH essentials" was developed in Great Britain to help duty holders comply with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations. It uses a similar approach to that described in the new European "REACH" Regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals; EC No. 1907/2006 of the European Parliament), insofar as it identifies measures for managing the risk for specified exposure scenarios. It can therefore assist REACH duty holders with the identification and communication of appropriate risk-management measures. The technical basis for COSHH essentials is explained in the original papers published in the Annals of Occupational Hygiene. Its details will, therefore, not be described here; rather, its ability to provide a suitable means for communicating risk-management measures will be explored. COSHH essentials is a simple tool based on an empirical approach to risk assessment and risk management. The output is a "Control Guidance Sheet" that lists the "dos" and "don'ts" for control in a specific task scenario. The guidance in COSHH essentials recognises that exposure in the workplace will depend not just on mechanical controls, but also on a number of other factors, including administrative and behavioural controls, such as systems of work, supervision and training. In 2002, COSHH essentials was made freely available via the internet (http://www.coshh-essentials.org.uk/). This electronic delivery enabled links to be made between product series that share tasks, such as drum filling, and with ancillary guidance, such as setting up health surveillance for work with a respiratory sensitiser. COSHH essentials has proved to be a popular tool for communicating good control practice. It has attracted over 1 million visits to its site since its launch. It offers a common benchmark of good practice for chemical users, manufacturers, suppliers and importers, as well as regulators and health professionals.
Rubin, Benjamin E.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; ...
Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a model organism used for studying photosynthesis and the circadian clock, and it is being developed for the production of fuel, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. To identify a comprehensive set of genes and intergenic regions that impacts fitness in S. elongatus, we created a pooled library of ~250,000 transposon mutants and used sequencing to identify the insertion locations. By analyzing the distribution and survival of these mutants, we identified 718 of the organism's 2,723 genes as essential for survival under laboratory conditions. The validity of the essential gene set is supported by its tight overlapmore » with wellconserved genes and its enrichment for core biological processes. The differences noted between our dataset and these predictors of essentiality, however, have led to surprising biological insights. One such finding is that genes in a large portion of the TCA cycle are dispensable, suggesting that S. elongatus does not require a cyclic TCA process. Furthermore, the density of the transposon mutant library enabled individual and global statements about the essentiality of noncoding RNAs, regulatory elements, and other intergenic regions. In this way, a group I intron located in tRNA Leu , which has been used extensively for phylogenetic studies, was shown here to be essential for the survival of S. elongatus. Our survey of essentiality for every locus in the S. elongatus genome serves as a powerful resource for understanding the organism's physiology and defines the essential gene set required for the growth of a photosynthetic organism.« less
Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhao; Wu, Wenwu; Zhao, Li; Li, Xiangchen; Liu, Yanlin; Tao, Shiheng
Various computational models have been developed to transfer annotations of gene essentiality between organisms. However, despite the increasing number of microorganisms with well-characterized sets of essential genes, selection of appropriate training sets for predicting the essential genes of poorly-studied or newly sequenced organisms remains challenging. In this study, a machine learning approach was applied reciprocally to predict the essential genes in 21 microorganisms. Results showed that training set selection greatly influenced predictive accuracy. We determined four criteria for training set selection: (1) essential genes in the selected training set should be reliable; (2) the growth conditions in which essential genes are defined should be consistent in training and prediction sets; (3) species used as training set should be closely related to the target organism; and (4) organisms used as training and prediction sets should exhibit similar phenotypes or lifestyles. We then analyzed the performance of an incomplete training set and an integrated training set with multiple organisms. We found that the size of the training set should be at least 10% of the total genes to yield accurate predictions. Additionally, the integrated training sets exhibited remarkable increase in stability and accuracy compared with single sets. Finally, we compared the performance of the integrated training sets with the four criteria and with random selection. The results revealed that a rational selection of training sets based on our criteria yields better performance than random selection. Thus, our results provide empirical guidance on training set selection for the identification of essential genes on a genome-wide scale.
Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Beom-Su; Keum, Ki-Suk; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoi; Chang, Byoung-Soo; Ra, Ji-Young; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Seo, Bo-Ra; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk
Curcuma longa (C. longa) has been used as a spice in foods and as an antimicrobial in Oriental medicine. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of an essential oil isolated from C. longa on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which is an important bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries formation. First, the inhibitory effects of C. longa essential oil on the growth and acid production of S. mutans were tested. Next, the effect of C. longa essential oil on adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HAs) was investigated. C. longa essential oil inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL. The essential oil also exhibited significant inhibition of S. mutans adherence to S-HAs at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. S. mutans biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. The essential oil of C. longa inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. The components of C. longa essential oil were then analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the major components were α-turmerone (35.59%), germacrone (19.02%), α-zingiberene (8.74%), αr-turmerone (6.31%), trans-β-elemenone (5.65%), curlone (5.45%), and β-sesquiphellandrene (4.73%). These results suggest that C. longa may inhibit the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Cagnan, Hayriye; Little, Simon; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Cheeran, Binith; Fitzgerald, James; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu
Tremor is a cardinal feature of Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor, the two most common movement disorders. Yet, the mechanisms underlying tremor generation remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that driving deep brain stimulation electrodes at a frequency closely matching the patient’s own tremor frequency should interact with neural activity responsible for tremor, and that the effect of stimulation on tremor should reveal the role of different deep brain stimulation targets in tremor generation. Moreover, tremor responses to stimulation might reveal pathophysiological differences between parkinsonian and essential tremor circuits. Accordingly, we stimulated 15 patients with Parkinson’s disease with either thalamic or subthalamic electrodes (13 male and two female patients, age: 50–77 years) and 10 patients with essential tremor with thalamic electrodes (nine male and one female patients, age: 34–74 years). Stimulation at near-to tremor frequency entrained tremor in all three patient groups (ventrolateral thalamic stimulation in Parkinson’s disease, P = 0.0078, subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson’s disease, P = 0.0312; ventrolateral thalamic stimulation in essential tremor, P = 0.0137; two-tailed paired Wilcoxon signed-rank tests). However, only ventrolateral thalamic stimulation in essential tremor modulated postural tremor amplitude according to the timing of stimulation pulses with respect to the tremor cycle (e.g. P = 0.0002 for tremor amplification, two-tailed Wilcoxon rank sum test). Parkinsonian rest and essential postural tremor severity (i.e. tremor amplitude) differed in their relative tolerance to spontaneous changes in tremor frequency when stimulation was not applied. Specifically, the amplitude of parkinsonian rest tremor remained unchanged despite spontaneous changes in tremor frequency, whereas that of essential postural tremor reduced when tremor frequency departed from median values. Based on these results we conclude that
Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam
The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies. PMID:29743861
Satyal, Prabodh; Murray, Brittney L.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Setzer, William N.
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%); the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%); the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%); and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%). A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris. PMID:28231164
Zhao, Xiuhong; Xin, Guang; Zhao, Lichun; Xiao, Zhigang; Xue, Bai
This study demonstrated the chemical constituents of the essential oil of Aristolochia manshurientsis Kom and improved the essential oil efficiency by the enzyme-assisted extraction followed by hydrodistillation. The essential oils of Aristolochia manshurientsis Kom acquired by hydrodistillation after the solvent extraction with and without the assistance of cellulase have been investigated by gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The predominant constituents of both types of essential oils are camphene, 1,7,7-trimethyl-bicyclo [2.2.1] hept-2-yl acetate, 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl) naphthalene, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, and (-)-Spathulenol. The enzyme-assisted extraction not only increased extracting efficiency of the essential oil from 4.93% to 9.36%, but also facilitated the extraction of additional eight compounds such as 2-methano(-6,6-dimethyl) bicycle [3.1.1] hept-2-ene, (+)--terpineol and 1-propyl-3-(propen-1-yl) adamantane, which were not identified from the non-enzyme extraction sample.
Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam
The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies.
Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana
Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).
Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul
Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902
Filoche, S K; Soma, K; Sissons, C H
The aim of the present study was to compare antimicrobial effects of essential oils alone and in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus plantarum. The essential oils included cinnamon, tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifola), manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), Leptospermum morrisonii, arnica, eucalyptus, grapefruit, the essential oil mouthrinse Cool Mint Listerine and two of its components, menthol and thymol. Cinnamon exhibited the greatest antimicrobial potency (1.25-2.5 mg/ml). Manuka, L. morrisonii, tea-tree oils, and thymol also showed antimicrobial potency but to a lesser extent. The combination effect of the essential oil-chlorhexidine was greater against biofilm cultures of both S. mutans and L. plantarum than against planktonic cultures. The amount of chlorhexidine required to achieve an equivalent growth inhibition against the biofilm cultures was reduced 4-10-fold in combination with cinnamon, manuka, L. morrisonii, thymol, and Listerine. We conclude that there may be a role for essential oils in the development of novel anticaries treatments.
Vergis, Jess; Gokulakrishnan, P; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Ashok
Food-borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend. Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a "natural" remedy to this problem other than its flavoring property instead of using synthetic agents. The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram-positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth, and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry.
Raimundo, Keila Fernanda; Bortolucci, Wanessa de Campos; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros; Gazim, Zilda Cristiani
Gallesia integrifolia (Phytolaccaceae) is native to Brazil and has a strong alliaceous odor. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and evaluate fungicidal activity against the main food-borne diseases and food spoilage fungi. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC-MS. From 35 identified compounds, 68% belonged to the organosulfur class. The major compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (15.49%), 2,8-dithianonane (52.63%) and lenthionine (14.69%). The utilized fungi were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, and Trichoderma viride. Minimal fungicidal concentration for the essential oil varied from 0.02 to 0.18mg/mL and bifonazole and ketoconazole controls ranged from 0.20 to 3.50mg/mL. The lower concentration of the essential oil was able to control P. ochrochloron, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus and T. viride. This study shows a high fungicidal activity of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and can support future applications by reducing the use of synthetic fungicides. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Costa, Emmanoel V; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rocha, Suellen L A; Baliza, Ingrid R S; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Bezerra, Daniel P
Zornia brasiliensis, popularly known as "urinária", "urinana", and "carrapicho", is a medicinal plant used in Brazilian northeast folk medicine as a diuretic and against venereal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antitumor potential of the leaf essential oil of Z. brasiliensis. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Its composition was characterized by the presence of trans-nerolidol, germacrene D, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and farnesene as major constituents. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents (trans-nerolidol, trans-caryophyllene, and α-humulene) was evaluated for tumor cell lines from different histotypes using the Alamar blue assay. The essential oil, but not the constituents tested, presented promising cytotoxicity. Furthermore, mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma were used to confirm its in vivo effectiveness. An in vivo antitumor study showed tumor growth inhibition rates of 1.68-38.61 % (50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). In conclusion, the leaf essential oil of Z. brasiliensis presents trans-nerolidol, germacrene D, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and farnesene as major constituents and is able to inhibit cell proliferation in cultures as well as in tumor growth in mice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino
Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as "Bergamot," is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.
Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino
Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as “Bergamot,” is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress. PMID:25784877
Saab, Antoine M; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Lampronti, Ilaria; Tacchini, Massimo; El Samrani, Antoine; Medawar, Samir; Makhlouf, Hassane; Tannoury, Mona; Abboud, Jihad; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Kijjoa, Anake; Tundis, Rosa; Aoun, Jawad; Efferth, Thomas
Natural products frequently exert pharmacological activities. The present review gives an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the Cedrus genus, e.g. cytotoxic, spasmolytic immunomodulatory, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Cancer patients frequently seek remedies from traditional medicinal plants that are believed to exert less side effects than conventional therapy with synthetic drugs. A long-lasting goal of anti-cancer and anti-microbial therapy research is to find compounds with reduced side effects compared to currently approved drugs. In this respect, Cedrus species might be of interest. The essential oil isolated from Cedrus libani leaves may bear potential for drug development due to its high concentrations of germacrene D and β-caryophyllene. The essential oils from Cedrus species also show bioactivity against bacteria and viruses. More preclinical analyses (e.g. in vivo experiments) as well as clinical trials are required to evaluate the potential of essential oils from Cedrus species for drug development.
Schaller, M; Korting, H C
Contact allergy to various essential oils used in aromatherapy was demonstrated on patch testing in a 53-year-old patient suffering from relapsing eczema resistant to therapy on various uncovered parts of the skin, in particular the scalp, neck and hands. Sensitization was due to previous exposure to lavender, jasmine and rosewood. Laurel, eucalyptus and pomerance also produced positive tests, although there was no hint of previous exposure. A diagnosis of allergic airborne contact dermatitis was thus established. On topical and systemic glucocorticoid treatment (peroral methylprednisolone at an initial dose of 60 mg/day) the skin lesions eventually resolved. Due to persistence of the volatile essential oils in the patient's home after a year-long use of aroma lamps, complete renewal of the interior of the patient's flat was considered essential. Due to changing self-medication habits, with increasing orientation to 'natural' modes of treatment, increasing numbers of such sensitizations might be on the horizon.
Zhao, Hong-Zheng; Luo, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Lv, Ze-Liang; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yang, Mei-Hua
Mosquitoes are seriously harmful to human health for transmitting some mortal diseases. Among the methods of mosquito control, synthetical insecticides are the most popular. However, as a result of longterm use of these insecticides, high resistant mosquitos and heavy environmental pollution appear. Thus, eco-friendly prevention measures are taken into the agenda. Essential oils extracted from medicinal plants have repellent and smoked killing effects on mosquitoes. With abundant medical plants resources and low toxicity, they have the potential of being developed as a new type of mosquito and insect repellent agent. The recent application advances of essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent and its application limitations are overviewed. This review will provide references for the future development and in-depth study of essential oils. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Garfinkle, Michael A
Essential hypertension is common and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, questions remain as to the exact physiological mechanisms underlying this disease. First, we discuss how essential hypertension may be largely a result of a maladaptation to a high-salt diet and that high blood pressure, rather than being an inactive side effect of high salt intake, may be an adaptive mechanism to improve salt secretion. Next, we explain how any physiological state that reduces urinary sodium concentrating ability may increase an individual's risk for salt-induced hypertension. Finally, we conclude that natriuresis is a crucial criterion for effective long-term pharmacologic treatment of essential hypertension. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gustafson, David H.
Summary Since the passage of healthcare reform, there have been many discussions about how the mental health and substance use disorder (MH/SUD) system will need to change. Of the many components involved in a system redesign, the identification of essential ingredients is crucial to its success. In an effort to determine what essential ingredients the new MH/SUD system requires to optimally meet the needs of its customers, we convened a group of 16 multi-industrial experts who analyzed data collected from a string of 7 focus groups and 15 interviews with people dealing with or working in the SUD field. This paper summarizes the 11 essential ingredients our group identified. PMID:25243237
Chahed, Thouraya; Dhifi, Wissal; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Msaada, Kamel; Bellila, Amor; Kchouk, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Brahim
Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit is well known for its oleaginous and edible seed. Less information is available about the hull constituted by the epicarp and the mesocarp. This part of the fruit contains an essential oil that can be valorized. Tunisia is one of the countries cultivating pistachio trees. This work presents essential oil composition of pistachio hulls (Mateur variety) from different geographical localities: Grombalia (North-East), Kairouan (Middle) and Sfax (Middle-East). Yields were more important in Sfax samples (0.53% on a dry weight basis). Alpha-terpinolene was the major compound for Grombalia fruits (35.7%), whereas Kairouan and Sfax samples where characterized by alpha-pinene (42.5 and 43.8% respectively). For all samples, monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated (more than 79.8% of the essential oil).
Moritsugu, Kei; Terada, Tohru; Kidera, Akinori
A multiscale simulation method, "multiscale essential sampling (MSES)," is proposed for calculating free energy surface of proteins in a sizable dimensional space with good scalability. In MSES, the configurational sampling of a full-dimensional model is enhanced by coupling with the accelerated dynamics of the essential degrees of freedom. Applying the Hamiltonian exchange method to MSES can remove the biasing potential from the coupling term, deriving the free energy surface of the essential degrees of freedom. The form of the coupling term ensures good scalability in the Hamiltonian exchange. As a test application, the free energy surface of the folding process of a miniprotein, chignolin, was calculated in the continuum solvent model. Results agreed with the free energy surface derived from the multicanonical simulation. Significantly improved scalability with the MSES method was clearly shown in the free energy calculation of chignolin in explicit solvent, which was achieved without increasing the number of replicas in the Hamiltonian exchange.
Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.
Saleh, Kamaruzaman; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M
To assess the pharmaceutical sector to know whether people have access to essential medicines. The study was conducted in 20 public health clinics, five public district drug stores and 20 private retail pharmacies selected randomly in five different areas randomly selected (four states and a federal territory). The methodology used was adopted from the World Health Organization study protocol. The degree of attainment of the strategic pharmaceutical objectives of improved access is measured by a list of tested indicators. Access is measured in terms of the availability and affordability of essential medicines, especially to the poor and in the public sector. The first survey in the public health clinics and public district drug stores gathered information about current availability of essential medicines, prevalence of stock-outs and affordability of treatment (except drug stores). The second survey assessed affordability of treatment in public health clinics and private retail pharmacies. Availability, stock-out duration, percent of medicines dispensed, accessibility and affordability of key medicines. The average availability of key medicines in the public health clinics for the country was 95.4%. The average stock-out duration of key medicines was 6.5 days. However, average availability of key medicines in the public district drug stores was 89.2%; with an average stock-out duration of 32.4 days. Medicines prescribed were 100% dispensed to the patients. Average affordability for public health clinics was 1.5 weeks salary and for the private pharmacies, 3.7 weeks salary. The present pharmaceutical situation in the context of essential medicines list implementation reflected that the majority of the population in Malaysia had access to affordable essential medicines. If medicines need to be obtained from the private sector, they are hardly affordable. Although the average availability of essential medicines in Malaysia was high being more than 95.0%, in certain
Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Borges, Bruna Cristina; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; de Almeida Junior, Luiz Domingues; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; da Silva, Claudio Vieira
Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w), and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%), globulol (14.13%), viridiflorol (8.83%), γ-eudesmol (7.89%) and α-eudesmol (6.88%). The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL−1) breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL−1). Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL−1) but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:29300307
Zweygarth, M; Summers, R S
In the process of drafting standard treatment guidelines for adults and children at hospital level, the Secretariat of the National Essential Drugs List Committee made use of a database designed with technical support from the School of Pharmacy, MEDUNSA. The database links the current 697 drugs on the Essential Drugs List with Standard Treatment Guidelines for over 400 conditions. It served to streamline the inclusion of different drugs and dosage forms in the various guidelines, and provided concise, updated information to other departments involved in drug procurement. From information on drug prices and morbidity, it can also be used to calculate drug consumption and cost estimates and compare them with actual figures.
Asghar, Ramyar; Behzad, Elahi; Mohammad, Golsorkhtabar-Amiri
We report an 11-year-old child with essential thrombocythemia ET, a very rare myeloproliferative disorder among children. Essential thrombocythemia can be complicated by life-threatening thrombosis with a risk of converting into acute leukemia. Cytoreductive therapy may reduce the risk of thromboembolic complications. We usually recommend cytoreductive treatment for asymptomatic adult patients with platelet counts of more than 1.5 million/micro liter, but treatment remains obscure in children. Herein, we report the results of child with ET, treated successfully with hydroxuea.
Deuschl, G; Lücking, C H; Schenck, E
Forty five patients with essential tremor have been investigated by means of clinical examination, polygraphic EMG records and testing of long-latency reflexes. Clinically there were no differences between the patients, whereas the electrophysiological investigations suggested two subtypes. One group of patients may be characterised by normal long-latency reflexes and synchronous tremor bursts in antagonists or activity of the antigravity muscle alone. The second group had abnormal long-latency reflexes and reciprocal EMG activity in antagonists. It is suggested that these two groups represent distinct subgroups of essential tremor. Patients of the first group responded well to propranolol, whereas those of the second group did not. PMID:3694203
Anderson, C; Lis-Balchin, M; Kirk-Smith, M
Childhood atopic eczema is an increasingly common condition in young children. As well as being irritating to the child, it causes sleepless nights for both the child and the family and leads to difficulties in parental relationships and can have severe effects on employment. A group of eight children, born to professional working mothers were studied to test the hypothesis that massage with essential oils (aromatherapy) used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with normal medical treatment, would help to alleviate the symptoms of childhood atopic eczema. The children were randomly allocated to the massage with essential oils group and both counselled and massaged with a mixture of essential oils by the therapist once a week and the mother every day over a period of 8 weeks. The preferred essential oils, chosen by the mothers for their child, from 36 commonly used aromatherapy oils, were: sweet marjoram, frankinsence, German chamomile, myrrh, thyme, benzoin, spike lavender and Litsea cubeba. A control group of children received the counselling and massage without essential oils. The treatments were evaluated by means of daily day-time irritation scores and night time disturbance scores, determined by the mother before and during the treatment, both over an 8 week period; finally general improvement scores were allocated 2 weeks after the treatment by the therapist, the general practitioner and the mother. The study employed a single case experimental design across subjects, such that there were both a within-subject control and between-subjects control, through the interventions being introduced at different times. The results showed a significant improvement in the eczema in the two groups of children following therapy, but there was no significant difference in improvement shown between the aromatherapy massage and massage only group. Thus there is evidence that tactile contact between mother and child benefits the symptoms of atopic eczema but there is no
Uehara, Ayaka; Tommis, Basma; Belhassen, Emilie; Satrani, Badr; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Baldovini, Nicolas
The main odorant constituents of Cedrus atlantica essential oil were characterized by GC-Olfactometry (GC-O), using the Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) methodology with 12 panelists. The two most potent odor-active constituents were vestitenone and 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene. The identification of the odorants was realized by a detailed fractionation of the essential oil by liquid-liquid basic extraction, distillation and column chromatography, followed by the GC-MS and GC-O analyses of some fractions, and the synthesis of some non-commercial reference constituents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Cássia da Silveira e Sá, Rita; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; da Nóbrega, Flávio Rogério; de Brito, Anna Emmanuela Medeiros
The constituents of essential oils are widely found in foods and aromatic plants giving characteristic odor and flavor. However, pharmacological studies evidence its therapeutic potential for the treatment of several diseases and promising use as compounds with analgesic-like action. Considering that pain affects a significant part of the world population and the need for the development of new analgesics, this review reports on the current studies of essential oils’ chemical constituents with analgesic-like activity, including a description of their mechanisms of action and chemical aspects. PMID:29232831
Ho, Allen L; Choudhri, Omar; Sung, C Kwang; DiRenzo, Elizabeth E; Halpern, Casey H
Essential vocal tremor (EVT) is the presence of a tremulous voice that is commonly associated with essential tremor. Patients with EVT often report a necessary increase in vocal effort that significantly worsens with stress and anxiety and can significantly impact quality of life despite optimal medical and behavioral treatment options. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an effective therapy for vocal tremor, but very few studies exist in the literature that comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of DBS for specifically addressing EVT. We present a technical report on our multidisciplinary, comprehensive operative methodology for treatment of EVT with frameless, awake deep brain stimulation (DBS).
Choudhri, Omar; Sung, C. Kwang; DiRenzo, Elizabeth E; Halpern, Casey H
Essential vocal tremor (EVT) is the presence of a tremulous voice that is commonly associated with essential tremor. Patients with EVT often report a necessary increase in vocal effort that significantly worsens with stress and anxiety and can significantly impact quality of life despite optimal medical and behavioral treatment options. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an effective therapy for vocal tremor, but very few studies exist in the literature that comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of DBS for specifically addressing EVT. We present a technical report on our multidisciplinary, comprehensive operative methodology for treatment of EVT with frameless, awake deep brain stimulation (DBS). PMID:26180680
Lloyd, Malinda Hoskins; Kolodziej, Nancy J.; Brashears, Kathy M.
Based on findings from a recent qualitative study utilizing grounded theory methodology, in this essay, the authors focus on the building of community within the classroom by emphasizing classroom discourse as an essential component of instruction in exemplary teachers' classrooms. The authors then provide insights as to how to encourage and…
A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...
Jelley, Wilma; Larocque, Nathalie; Borghese, Michael
To gather the perspectives of physiotherapists and physiotherapist assistants on essential competencies for intraprofessional (physiotherapist-physiotherapist assistant) collaboration. A survey was developed to gather physiotherapist and physiotherapist assistant perceptions of the essential elements of effective and efficient intraprofessional collaborative practice. Participants were asked to rate the importance of 36 elements in 6 different categories (communication, collaboration, consultation, assignment of tasks, conflict management, and roles/responsibilities) involved in intraprofessional practice. A total of 1049 physiotherapists and 121 physiotherapist assistants responded to the survey. Analysis identified 10 competency elements perceived by participants as essential to effective and efficient intraprofessional collaboration. Comparisons using demographic variables consistently yielded the same top 10 elements. Our results indicated that physiotherapists and physiotherapist assistants working in private and public practice share very similar views on what is essential for effective intraprofessional practice. The consensus is that communication is key; open lines of communication help to determine responsibilities. Physiotherapy pre-licensure and continuing education programmes should include opportunities to work on communication, listening, and the skills needed to interact and collaborate effectively.
Snyder, Lester M., Jr.
This revision of the "Basic/Essential Skills Taxonomy" exhibits changes based on use of the original taxonomy in the field. It features more precise definitions of the levels of key words and phrases, the deletion of some science items that ranged above basic skills, the combination of the language arts sections from the original two parts, and…
THIS OUTLINE FOR A COURSE IN THE ESSENTIALS OF MERCHANDISING IS DESIGNED FOR THE INEXPERIENCED RETAIL EMPLOYEE. THE COURSE IS PLANNED FOR SIX 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCHANDISING, (2) TERMINOLOGY AND MATHEMATICS OF MERCHANDISING, (3) BUYING POLICIES AND PRACTICES, (4) MARKET REPRESENTATIVES, (5) TERMS OF PURCHASE, INCLUDING…
As the impact of humans on the Earth and on its ecological systems that sustain people become more visible--in terms of climate change, resource depletion, and species extinctions--so, too, it is becoming clearer that living sustainably is essential, not optional. To live sustainably requires a mind shift for many people. Education for…
Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef
Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025
Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef; Kokoska, Ladislav
Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity.
Risk assessments of manganese by inhalation or oral routes of exposure typically acknowledge the duality of manganese as an essential element at low doses and a toxic metal at high doses. Previously, however, risk assessors were unable to describe manganese pharmacokinetics quant...
Katrina Perehudoff, S; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans
A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states' legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions.
This guide aims to help parents choose stimulating, educational, and fun videos for their children from the more than 7,000 currently available. The guide includes: 10 tips for evaluating and choosing videos; interviews with and advice from experts; annotated descriptions of more than 400 recommended videos; essential information such as suggested…
Free radical scavenging, bactericidal and bitting deterrent properties of Alpinia nigra essential oils (EOs) were investigated in the present study. Chemical composition of the EOs were analyzed using GC-MS/GC-FID which revealed the presence of 63 constituents including ß-caryophyllene as major comp...
Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a…
Besides being a content expert, it is critical for today's museum educator to be a marketer, a collaborator, and to understand how people learn best in a museum environment. This article provides a list of six books that the author recommends as essential references for today's museum educator who must wear many hats. (Contains 3 notes.)
James P. Barnett
Regenerating longleaf pine by artificial means is an essential component of restoring the ecosystem across most of its range because there are limited acres of longleaf stands remaining. Establishing longleaf pine is an early step in the ecosystem restoration process. An overview discussion of artificial regeneration techniques and related issues are presented this...
Wang, Z; Hong, X
The GC-fingerprint spectra of essential oils in imported sandalwood are established by the new technique of GC-relative retention value fingerprint spectrum (GC-FPS). According to the GC-FPS of samples, their chromatographic peaks, overlap ratio of peaks and eight strong peaks are studied comparatively.
Taylor, Maurice; Taschereau, Suzanne
This pan Canadian participatory action research project involved faculty and managers in twelve Canadian colleges and institutes, nine employers, and 1300 students and workers in examining exemplary practice in essential skills as a way of catalyzing system change. Multiple sources of data were used in the three year project and key findings…
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage of essential health benefits. 147.150 Section 147.150 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage of essential health benefits. 147.150 Section 147.150 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS...
Dakhiel, Maysoon A.
The present study aims to identify the essential characteristics required for the EFL practicum supervisors from their perspective. The questionnaire validity and reliability was tested through application to a sample of (7) supervisors. Then the questionnaire was distributed to the participants, which consisted of (20) EFL supervisors for the…
Velásquez, G.; Boulet, P.
Recent global developments in the regulation of trade and intellectual property rights threaten to hinder the access of populations in developing countries to essential drugs. The authors argue for state intervention in the health and pharmaceutical markets in order to guarantee equitable access to these products. PMID:10212525
Ilmberger, J; Heuberger, E; Mahrhofer, C; Dessovic, H; Kowarik, D; Buchbauer, G
Scientific research on the effects of essential oils on human behavior lags behind the promises made by popular aromatherapy. Nearly all aspects of human behavior are closely linked to processes of attention, the basic level being that of alertness, which ranges from sleep to wakefulness. In our study we measured the influence of essential oils and components of essential oils [peppermint, jasmine, ylang-ylang, 1,8-cineole (in two different dosages) and menthol] on this core attentional function, which can be experimentally defined as speed of information processing. Substances were administered by inhalation; levels of alertness were assessed by measuring motor and reaction times in a reaction time paradigm. The performances of the six experimental groups receiving substances (n = 20 in four groups, n = 30 in two groups) were compared with those of corresponding control groups receiving water. Between-group analysis, i.e. comparisons between experimental groups and their respective control groups, mainly did not reach statistical significance. However, within-group analysis showed complex correlations between subjective evaluations of substances and objective performance, indicating that effects of essentials oils or their components on basic forms of attentional behavior are mainly psychological.
Roberts, Michael C.
The practice fields of psychology develop through specialization in training and education. The recognized specialties play a major role in developing new opportunities for professional psychology and providing quality services for the public. The essential tension comes from the balance of innovation and tradition and, in professional psychology,…
Helton, Betty G.; Griffin, Jennie
This document contains both a student's manual and a teacher's guide for high school mathematics essential to marketing. The student's manual contains 34 assignments within the following 11 units: (1) arithmetic fundamentals; (2) application of arithmetic fundamentals; (3) cashiering; (4) inventory procedures; (5) invoices; (6) computing employee…
In AACRAO's new publication Essentials of Enrollment Management: Cases in the Field experts in enrollment management representing all types of institutions reveal the evolution of the enrollment strategies implemented at their institutions, the results, and the lessons learned. The introductory chapter provides an overview of themes and models…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2010
In the year 1999, OPI [Montana Office of Public Instruction] brought together representatives from all the tribes in Montana and created 7 Essential Understandings. These are some of the major issues all tribes have in common. They form the basis for all of our curriculum efforts and initiatives. There is great diversity among the 12 tribal…
Ghazouani, Nessrine; Sifaoui, Ines; Bachrouch, Olfa; Abderrabba, Manef; E Pinero, José; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of T. ramosissimum by hydrodistillation and to investigate their anti-Acanthamoeba activity. Identification and quantification were realized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection by (GC-FID). Sixty-eight compounds representing 97.78% of the essential oil were identified, of which δ-cadinene (18.63%), δ-cadinol (18.70%), β-eudesmol (12.13%), γ-gurjunene (4.34%) and 8-cedrene (3.99%) were the main compounds. This essential oil contained a complex mixture consisting mainly on sesquiterpenes (80.62%) and monoterpene fractions (14.34%). The findings of the anti-Acanthamoeba assay indicate that T. ramosissimum essential oil have a good activity with an IC 50 = 25.73 ± 0.75 μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Penrose, John M.
Instructions are an essential communication component of organizations, but even advanced students seldom admit any shortcomings in direction-writing. Whether printed material for customers on how to use a product (construct the children's play set, connect a DVD player to a home entertainment center, or program a car radio's stations), formal job…
Zaveri, Pavan P; Hsu, Deborah; Mittiga, Matthew R; Wolff, Margaret; Reynolds, Stacy; Kim, In; Allen, Coburn; McAneney, Constance M; Kou, Maybelle
This article is the first in a 7-part series (Table 1) that aims to comprehensively describe the current state and future directions of pediatric emergency medicine fellowship training from the essential requirements to considerations for successfully administering and managing a program to the careers that may be anticipated on program completion. This overview article provides a framework for the series.
Liverwort and moss are economically significant weeds across a range of US container production sites, including forest seedling greenhouse culture in the Pacific Northwest. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of essential oils, or distilled plant extracts, in controlling liverwort and moss container weeds over three seasons of trials. When applied at the...
A general theoretical background is introduced for characterization of conformational motions in protein molecules, and for building reduced coarse-grained models of proteins, based on the statistical analysis of their phase trajectories. Using the projection operator technique, a system of coupled generalized Langevin equations is derived for essential collective coordinates, which are generated by principal component analysis of molecular dynamic trajectories. The number of essential degrees of freedom is not limited in the theory. An explicit analytic relation is established between the generalized Langevin equation for essential collective coordinates and that for the all-atom phase trajectory projected onto the subspace of essential collective degrees of freedom. The theory introduced is applied to identify correlated dynamic domains in a macromolecule and to construct coarse-grained models representing the conformational motions in a protein through a few interacting domains embedded in a dissipative medium. A rigorous theoretical background is provided for identification of dynamic correlated domains in a macromolecule. Examples of domain identification in protein G are given and employed to interpret NMR experiments. Challenges and potential outcomes of the theory are discussed.
Reis, Sally M., Ed.
The National Association for Gifted Children series "Essential Readings in Gifted Education," edited by Sally M. Reis, is a comprehensive collection of the leading research, theories, and findings that span more than 25 years. Each volume tackles the major issues, chronicles chief trends, and imparts effective models and solutions for gifted…
Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang
Purified primary metabolites from essential oils were previously shown to be bioactive inhibitors of mold fungi on unleached Southern pine sapwood, either alone or in synergy with a second metabolite. This study evaluated the leachability of these compounds in Southern pine that was either dip- or vacuum-treated. Following laboratory leach tests, specimens were...
McIlwain, T F; McCracken, M J
This paper reviews existing literature and defines essential dimensions of a hospital's marketing strategy for each of two business strategies; using the results of a national survey, this study confirms that hospitals make different marketing decisions based on the type of business strategy adopted by the hospital.
Education Service Center Region 11, Ft. Worth, TX.
This extensive curriculum guide provides teachers of young children ages three to six with some specific lesson plans using the fine arts--music, drama, creative movement, and visual arts--to teach the "essential elements" in early childhood education. In addition, systematic, thorough evaluations of a variety of materials, kits, resource and…
Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; And Others
Nineteen secondary school teachers in a mid-sized Florida school district participated in a single-group pretest/posttest design to explore the relationship between essential and higher order teaching skills. Correlations between two sets of teacher performance variables were computed before and after training in teaching for higher order thinking…
Wheeler, Myrl, Ed.
Designed to provide information related to quality early care and education services for providers, policy makers, and clients in Idaho, This "blueprint" outlines the nine essential elements for best practices in early care and education settings. The document is presented in three parts. Part 1 delineates standards and indicators in…
Wojtczak, Andrzej; Schwarz, M. Roy
Reviews the definition of standards in general, and proposes a definition of standards and global minimum essential requirements for use in medical education. Aims to serve as a tool for the improvement of quality and international comparisons of basic medical programs. Explains the IIME (Institute for International Medical Education) project…
Todaro, Julie B.
The essential elements of personnel management are outlined. Personnel management may be called by various names and may be practiced by various levels of management, but in any case it is one of the most important elements of a management position. While sample forms generally relate to Texas community colleges and libraries, the guide is written…
Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung
Carbonyls emitted from essential oils can affect the air quality when they are used in indoors, especially under poor ventilation conditions. Lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, and tea tree oils were selected as typical and popular essential oils to investigate in terms of composition, thermal characteristics and fifteen carbonyl constituents. Based on thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the activation energy was 7.6-8.3 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.7 and the frequency factor was 360-2838 min -1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the dominant carbonyl compounds, and their concentrations were 0.034-0.170 ppm. The emission factors of carbonyl compounds were 2.10-3.70 mg g -1, and acetone, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde accounted for a high portion of the emission factor of carbonyl compounds in essential oil exhaust. Some unhealthy carbonyl species such as formaldehyde and valeraldehyde, were measured at low-temperature during the vaporization of essential oils, indicating a potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.
Chaudhari, Lalit Kumar D; Jawale, Bhushan Arun; Sharma, Sheeba; Sharma, Hemant; Kumar, C D Mounesh; Kulkarni, Pooja Adwait
Many essential oils have been advocated for use in complementary medicine for bacterial and fungal infections. However, few of the many claims of therapeutic efficacy have been validated adequately by either in vitro testing or in vivo clinical trials. To study the antibacterial activity of nine commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans in vitro and to compare the antibacterial activity between each material. Nine pure essential oils; wintergreen oil, lime oil, cinnamon oil, spearmint oil, peppermint oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil were selected for the study. Streptococcus mutans was inoculated at 37ºC and seeded on blood agar medium. Agar well diffusion assay was used to measure antibacterial activity. Zone of inhibition was measured around the filter paper in millimeters with vernier caliper. Cinnamon oil showed highest activity against Streptococcus mutans followed by lemongrass oil and cedarwood oil. Wintergreen oil, lime oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil showed no antibacterial activity. Cinnamon oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil exhibit antibacterial property against S. mutans. The use of these essential oils against S. mutans can be a viable alternative to other antibacterial agents as these are an effective module used in the control of both bacteria and yeasts responsible for oral infections.
Pearman, Cathy J.; Lefever-Davis, Shirley
CD-ROM storybooks can support the development of the five essential elements of reading instruction identified by The National Reading Panel: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Specific features inherent in these texts, audio pronunciation of text, embedded vocabulary definitions and animated graphics can be used…
For young people with disabilities, crossing the bridge to adulthood will be empowering instead of intimidating--when their support teams know the essentials of effective transition planning. Now all the fundamentals of well-crafted transition plans are collected in one concise quick-guide, straight from one of the top authorities on helping young…
Bryant, Damon U.; Wooten, William
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how cognitive and measurement principles can be integrated to create an essentially unidimensional test. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, test questions were created by using the feature integration theory of attention to develop a cognitive model of performance and then manipulating complexity…
Pan, J G; Xu, Z L; Ji, L
The constituents of the essential oils obtained from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, A. argyi cv.qiai, A. lavandulaefolia, A. mongolica, A. princeps and A. argyi var. gracilis were analysed by GC-MS. 96 compounds including alpha-thujene, 1,8-cineole, camphor and artemisia alcohol, etc. were identified. Their percentages in the oils were given.
Needham, Dorothy L.
Designed for use in the classroom, by counselors, or as a self-study unit, this curriculum guide is for the fifteen- to twenty-year-old considering moving from home for the first time who is considered a slow learner. It explores eight units of study for essential living skills, each in the form of an instructional unit. Each unit is divided into…
LaPoint, Velma; And Others
The Talent Development Model for high schools was developed to fill a major current void in American education--the lack of a proven model of high school effectiveness. This report presents the essential components of the Talent Development High School, a model of changes in high school organization, curriculum, and instruction based on research…
Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang
Subterranean termite infestations occur in every state in the contiguous United States and are responsible for damage to wooden structures in excess of two billion dollars (U.S.) annually. Essential oils have historically been used to repel insects. They have relatively low toxicity and some of them are exempt from regulation by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and...
Dixit, Rohit; Vinay, M.; Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Manohar, V. S.; Chandrasekhar, N.
The present study was undertaken to assess the availability of the essential medicines to the people of Kunijarla, Khammam district, AP. This was done in two steps: 1) Comparison of PHC-EML (primary health care essential medicines list) with AP-EML (Andhra Pradesh essential medicines list) and NEML (National essential medicines list); and 2) Assessment of availability of the listed medicines in adequate quantity to meet the needs of people of kunijarla. Results showed that the PHC-EML is on par with AP-EML and NEML. The hospital has 100% availability of the listed medicines; however, there was a need for certain add-on drugs like phenytoin tablets, valproic acid, and activated charcoal since they were prescribed frequently and were not included in PHC-EML. All the drugs which were listed in PHC-EML were being used and none were considered as non-utility supply. Suggestions were given for the revision of PHC-EML according to the criteria for identifying medicines for inclusion in the revised list which was mentioned in NEML. PMID:22022009
Dixit, Rohit; Vinay, M; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Manohar, V S; Chandrasekhar, N
The present study was undertaken to assess the availability of the essential medicines to the people of Kunijarla, Khammam district, AP. This was done in two steps: 1) Comparison of PHC-EML (primary health care essential medicines list) with AP-EML (Andhra Pradesh essential medicines list) and NEML (National essential medicines list); and 2) Assessment of availability of the listed medicines in adequate quantity to meet the needs of people of kunijarla. Results showed that the PHC-EML is on par with AP-EML and NEML. The hospital has 100% availability of the listed medicines; however, there was a need for certain add-on drugs like phenytoin tablets, valproic acid, and activated charcoal since they were prescribed frequently and were not included in PHC-EML. All the drugs which were listed in PHC-EML were being used and none were considered as non-utility supply. Suggestions were given for the revision of PHC-EML according to the criteria for identifying medicines for inclusion in the revised list which was mentioned in NEML.
Kinsella-Meier, Mary Ann; Gala, Nicholas M.
In today's world collaborating is critical, and collaborations, while always essential, are not always easy. It may be important to focus on exactly what this term means. What we have found is that what is often labeled "collaboration" may instead be simply a partnership or one of several levels of a working relationship in which…
The essential oil present in the aerial parts of the plant Nepeta manchuriensis was prepared by steam distillation using clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition of the oil was studied by GCMS. Sabinene, elemol, selinene, 4-terpineol, menthatriene and neoisothujol are the major components and r...
Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J
This article introduces the notion of genetic essentialist biases: cognitive biases associated with essentialist thinking that are elicited when people encounter arguments that genes are relevant for a behavior, condition, or social group. Learning about genetic attributions for various human conditions leads to a particular set of thoughts regarding those conditions: they are more likely to be perceived as (a) immutable and determined, (b) having a specific etiology, (c) homogeneous and discrete, and (d) natural, which can lead to the naturalistic fallacy. There are rare cases of "strong genetic explanation" when such responses to genetic attributions may be appropriate; however, people tend to overweigh genetic attributions compared with competing attributions even in cases of "weak genetic explanation," which are far more common. The authors reviewed research on people's understanding of race, gender, sexual orientation, criminality, mental illness, and obesity through a genetic essentialism lens, highlighting attitudinal, cognitive, and behavioral changes that stem from consideration of genetic attributions as bases of these categories. Scientific and media portrayals of genetic discoveries are discussed with respect to genetic essentialism, as is the role that genetic essentialism has played (and continues to play) in various public policies, legislation, scientific endeavors, and ideological movements in recent history. Last, moderating factors and interventions to reduce the magnitude of genetic essentialism, which identify promising directions to explore in order to reduce these biases, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Zhu, Luke
Due to basic processes of psychological essentialism and contagion, one particular token of monetary currency is not always interchangeable with another piece of currency of equal economic value. When money loses its physical form it is perceived as "not quite the same" money (i.e., to have partly lost the original essence that distinguished it…
Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J.
This paper introduces the notion of genetic essentialist biases: cognitive biases associated with essentialist thinking that are elicited when people encounter arguments that genes are relevant for a behavior, condition, or social group. Learning about genetic attributions for various human conditions leads to a particular set of thoughts regarding those conditions: they are more likely to be perceived as a) immutable and determined, b) having a specific etiology, c) homogeneous and discrete, and, d) natural, which can lead to the naturalistic fallacy. There are rare cases of “strong genetic explanation” when such responses to genetic attributions may be appropriate, however people tend to over-weigh genetic attributions compared with competing attributions even in cases of “weak genetic explanation,” which are far more common. Research on people’s understanding of race, gender, sexual orientation, criminality, mental illness and obesity is reviewed through a genetic essentialism lens, highlighting attitudinal, cognitive and behavioral changes that stem from consideration of genetic attributions as bases of these categories. Scientists and media portrayals of genetic discoveries are discussed with respect to genetic essentialism, as is the role that genetic essentialism has played (and continues to play) in various public policies, legislation, scientific endeavors, and ideological movements in recent history. Last, moderating factors and interventions to reduce the magnitude of genetic essentialism are discussed that identify promising directions to explore in order to reduce these biases. PMID:21142350
Snyder, Troy Ernest
Analyzing the effects of the Equine Essentials discipline model by examining measurable differences in teacher holonomy at schools applying the model with varying degrees of intensity was the purpose of this study. The study decomposed the analysis into tests for the presence of each of the five dimensions of holonomy: efficacy, craftsmanship,…
Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of childr...
For over a decade, the national Bringing Theory to Practice (BTtoP) project has promoted the idea that well-being is an essential outcome of college students' learning and civic engagement. The project emphasizes the full promise of a liberal education: to be liberally educated is to possess the complex skills and abilities necessary for…
Lundervold, Duane A.; Poppen, Roger
Essential tremor (ET), the most prevalent movement disorder, has a peak prevalence in the sixth decade of life, primarily affecting the hands and head. Persons with ET are often significantly disabled and medical intervention often had limited effectiveness. Describes a biobehavioral rehabilitation model for older adults with ET. (Author/JBJ)
Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.
The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of…
Yong, Minglee; Cheney, Douglas A.
The purpose of this study is to identify the essential features of Tier 2 interventions conducted within multitier systems of behavior support in schools. A systematic literature search identified 12 empirical studies that were coded and scored according to a list of Tier 2 specific RE-AIM criteria, related to the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption,…
Academic Medicine, 1996
The American Medical Student Association's Nutrition Curriculum Project assembled a 10-member advisory board to develop a comprehensive list of nutrition topics deemed essential for the adequate training of physicians. The resulting 92 topics are divided into 5 major categories: (1) biochemistry/physiology/pathophysiology; (2) nutrition…
LEAMON, M. PHILLIP; AND OTHERS
A SET OF MINIMUM ESSENTIALS FOR EACH LEVEL OF A 4-YEAR SEQUENCE OF LATIN IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IS PRESENTED IN THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE. FOLLOWING STATEMENTS OF THE OBJECTIVES OF LATIN STUDY--READING THE LATIN OF THE GREAT ROMAN AUTHORS, ATTAINING A LINGUISTIC PROFICIENCY, AND ACQUIRING A WIDER HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL AWARENESS--THE GUIDE OUTLINES FOR…
Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih
Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ρ-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.
Markó, Gábor; Gyuricza, Veronika; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbacker, Vilmos
The impact of browsing on vegetation depends on the relative density and species composition of browsers. Herbivore density and plant damage can be either site-specific or change seasonally and spatially. For juniper (Juniperus communis) forests of a sand dune region in Hungary, it has been assumed that plant damage investigated at different temporal and spatial scales would reflect selective herbivory. The level of juniper damage was tested for a possible correlation with the concentration of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in plants and seasonal changes in browsing pressure. Heavily browsed and nonbrowsed junipers were also assumed to differ in their chemical composition, and the spatial distribution of browsing damage within each forest was analyzed to reveal the main browser. Long-term differences in local browsing pressure were also expected and would be reflected in site-specific age distributions of distant juniper populations. The concentrations of PSMs (essential oils) varied significantly among junipers and seasons. Heavily browsed shrubs contained the lowest oil yield; essential oils were highest in shrubs bearing no damage, indicating that PSMs might contribute to reduce browsing in undamaged shrubs. There was a seasonal fluctuation in the yield of essential oil that was lower in the summer period than in other seasons. Gas chromatography (GC) revealed differences in some essential oil components, suggesting that certain chemicals could have contributed to reduced consumption. The consequential long-term changes were reflected in differences in age distribution between distant juniper forests. These results confirm that both the concentration of PSMs and specific compounds of the essential oil may play a role in selective browsing damage by local herbivores.
Fang, Fang; Candy, Kerdalidec; Melloul, Elise; Bernigaud, Charlotte; Chai, Ling; Darmon, Céline; Durand, Rémy; Botterel, Françoise; Chosidow, Olivier; Izri, Arezki; Huang, Weiyi; Guillot, Jacques
The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei. The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experimentally infected pigs. For contact bioassays, essential oils were diluted with paraffin to get concentrations at 10, 5, and even 1% for the most efficient ones. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after contact. For fumigation bioassay, a filter paper was treated with 100 μL of the pure essential oil. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope for the first 5min, and then every 5min until 1h. Using contact bioassays, 1% clove and palmarosa oil killed all the mites within 20 and 50min, respectively. The oils efficacy order was: clove > palmarosa > geranium > tea tree > lavender > manuka > bitter orange > eucalyptus > Japanese cedar. In fumigation bioassays, the efficacy order was: tea tree > clove > eucalyptus > lavender > palmarosa > geranium > Japanese cedar > bitter orange > manuka. In both bioassays, cade oil showed no activity. Essential oils, especially tea tree, clove, palmarosa, and eucalyptus oils, are potential complementary or alternative products to treat S. scabiei infections in humans or animals, as well as to control the mites in the environment.
Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri
This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers.
Bruneton, C; Favre, I; Fontaine, D; Maritoux, J; Rey, J L
in most sub-Saharan countries, an extensive economic crisis coupled with a low level of existing resources has put most pharmaceuticals beyond the reach of the general public. This situation was worsened by the devaluation of the Franc CFA in 1994. The supply of lowprice drugs and the improvement of rational drug use is now a priority. Unfortunately, essential generic drugs are little known and used in Africa. 1. To improve the knowledge of and confidence in essential and generic drugs among providers, prescribers and consumers, through the participation of the general public in an incentive-based, creative competition; 2. To collect locally-adapted promotional material, to be used in the future promotion of essential and generic drugs in Africa. Design, setting and method: a competition was announced in June 1995, via various networks, in French-speaking Africa: the population was invited to create one or several items promoting essential generic drugs. These items included slogans, posters, songs and short plays. Over 550 entries were received before the deadline (15 October 1995), from 22 countries (mostly Sub-Saharan and French-speaking). The entries included 387 slogans, 94 posters, 22 plays, and various (photos, comic strips, songs, poems). 1. Greater awareness of essential generic drugs in Western Africa, through the publicity given to the competition; 2. Selection of a pool of approximately 200 promotional items, produced by the target populations, to be published in a catalog and distributed in African countries; 3. Insights into popular practices and representations of Western medications, and local re-interpretation of the concept. this public competition was effective at achieving three important goals: 1. Dynamic promotion (the competition was the opportunity for school projects, radio talkshows, etc. on generic drugs); 2. Re appropriation of a policy, thanks to a participative approach; 3. Analysis of the population's general comprehension of
Amores-Arrocha, Antonio; Roldán, Ana; Jiménez-Cantizano, Ana; Caro, Ildefonso; Palacios, Víctor
The aim of the present study was to compare and analyze the impact of using bee pollen doses (0.1, 0.25, 1, 5, 10 and 20 g/L) as activator in the alcoholic fermentation process of Palomino fino and Riesling wines. In this regard, its influence on the musts composition, the fermentative kinetics, the evolution of the populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the evolution of yeast-assimilable nitrogen and physico-chemical characteristics of final wines has been analyzed. Bee pollen addition produces significant increases in yeast-assimilable nitrogen and maximum yeasts population and exponential velocity reached during alcoholic fermentation. Bee pollen showed an important effect on yeast survival during the death phase. Final wines showed significantly increase in volatile acidity above doses higher than 10 g/L and Comisión Internacional de L'Eclairage parameters (CIELab), color intensity and Abs 420 nm, from 1 g/L. Therefore, pollen could be used as fermentative activator for the alcoholic fermentation of white wines applying doses below of 1 g/L.
Martins, A P; Salgueiro, L R; Gonçalves, M J; Proença da Cunha, A; Vila, R; Cañigueral, S
The composition and the antimicrobial activity of the bark oil of Santiria trimera (Oliv.) Aubrév., a plant widely used by the traditional healers in S. Tomé and Príncipe, especially for wound healing, are reported for the first time. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC and GC-MS. The oil contains a high content of monoterpenes, alpha-pinene (66.6 %) being the major constituent, followed by beta-pinene (20.0 %). The essential oil was active against both bacteria and fungi strains, except Staphylococcus epidermidis and Aspergillus niger. It exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris and Cryptococcus neoformans with MICs values of 1.11 microl/ml and lower than 0.71 microl/ml, respectively.
Born, Christopher T; Monchik, Keith O; Hayda, Roman A; Bosse, Michael J; Pollak, Andrew N
Disaster preparedness and management education is essential for allowing orthopaedic surgeons to play a valuable, constructive role in responding to disasters. The National Incident Management System, as part of the National Response Framework, provides coordination between all levels of government and uses the Incident Command System as its unified command structure. An "all-hazards" approach to disasters, whether natural, man-made, intentional, or unintentional, is fundamental to disaster planning. To respond to any disaster, command and control must be established, and emergency management must be integrated with public health and medical care. In the face of increasing acts of terrorism, an understanding of blast injury pathophysiology allows for improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. A practical understanding of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents and their attendant clinical symptoms is also prerequisite. Credentialing and coordination between designated organizations and the federal government are essential to allow civilian orthopaedic surgeons to access systems capable of disaster response.
Kenyon, Lisa K; Birkmeier, Marisa; Anderson, Deborah K; Martin, Kathy
At the Section on Pediatrics Education Summit in July 2012, consensus was achieved on 5 essential core competencies (ECCs) that represent a knowledge base essential to all graduates of professional physical therapist education programs. This article offers suggestions for how clinical instructors (CIs) might use the ECCs to identify student needs and guide student learning during a pediatric clinical education experience. Pediatric CIs potentially might choose to use the ECCs as a reference tool in clinical education to help (1) organize and develop general, clinic-specific clinical education objectives, (2) develop and plan individualized student learning experiences, (3) identify student needs, and (4) show progression of student learning from beginner to intermediate to entry level. The ECCs may offer CIs insights into the role of pediatric clinical education in professional physical therapist education.
Bernardi, Alessandra; Pegoraro, Renzo
In 2001 the Italian Government defined Essential Assistance Levels (LEA), which can be considered as an important step forward in the health care system. The Italian health care system would provide payment of essential and uniform aid services in order to safeguard many values such as human dignity, personal health, equal assistance and good health practices. The Ministry of Health has worked to rationalize the National Formulary and to define evaluation methods for drugs in order to choose what to reimburse without penalizing the rights of the individual and society. This paper describes how this job of rationalization was done and tries to illustrate the choices made in Italy by the use of two meaningful examples (statins and rivastigmine).
Lecona, Emilio; Rodriguez-Acebes, Sara; Specks, Julia; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J; Ruppen, Isabel; Murga, Matilde; Muñoz, Javier; Mendez, Juan; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar
Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like modifiers regulates DNA replication. We have previously shown that chromatin around replisomes is rich in SUMO and poor in Ub, whereas mature chromatin exhibits an opposite pattern. How this SUMO-rich, Ub-poor environment is maintained at sites of DNA replication in mammalian cells remains unexplored. Here we identify USP7 as a replisome-enriched SUMO deubiquitinase that is essential for DNA replication. By acting on SUMO and SUMOylated proteins, USP7 counteracts their ubiquitination. Inhibition or genetic deletion of USP7 leads to the accumulation of Ub on SUMOylated proteins, which are displaced away from replisomes. Our findings provide a model explaining the differential accumulation of SUMO and Ub at replication forks and identify an essential role of USP7 in DNA replication that should be considered in the development of USP7 inhibitors as anticancer agents.
Codorniu-Hernández, Edelsys; Mesa-Ibirico, Ariel; Hernández-Santiesteban, Richel; Montero-Cabrera, Luis A.; Martínez-Luzardo, Francisco; Santana-Romero, Jorge L.; Borrmann, Tobias; Stohrer, Wolf-D.
The interaction of two flavonoid species (resorcinolic and fluoroglucinolic) with the 20 essential amino acids was studied by the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) procedures, through the AM1 and PM3 semiempirical methods. Remarkable thermodynamic data related to the properties of the molecular association of these compounds were obtained, which will be of great utility for future investigations concerning the interaction of flavonoids with proteins. These results are compared with experimental and classical force field results reported in the available literature, and new evidences and criteria are shown. The hydrophilic amino acids demonstrated high affinity in the interaction with flavonoid molecules; the complexes with lysine are especially extremely stable. An affinity order for the interaction of both flavonoid species with the essential amino acids is suggested. Our theoretical results are compared with experimental evidence on flavonoid interactions with proteins of biomedical interest.
de Oliveira, Erick F; Paula, Haroldo C B; de Paula, Regina C M
Alginate/cashew gum nanoparticles were prepared via spray-drying, aiming at the development of a biopolymer blend for encapsulation of an essential oil. Nanoparticles were characterized regarding to their hydrodynamic volume, surface charge, Lippia sidoides essential oil content and release profile, in addition to being analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. Nanoparticles in solution were found to have averaged sizes in the range 223-399 nm, and zeta potential values ranging from -30 to -36 mV. Encapsulated oil levels varied from 1.9 to 4.4% with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 55%. The in vitro release profile showed that between 45 and 95% of oil was released within 30-50h. Kinetic studies revealed that release pattern follow a Korsmeyer-Peppas mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo
Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.
Jenkins, A P; Green, A T; Thompson, R P
Dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids and polyunsaturated lecithin may improve biochemical and histological parameters in liver disease. Ten patients with serological and histological evidence of chronic hepatitis B received capsules of the polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich evening primrose oil in a dose of 4 g daily for 12 months, while a matched group received liquid paraffin capsules as a placebo. Compared to the placebo group, the patients receiving evening primrose oil showed no improvement in either biochemical or histological indices of liver damage, or in the rate of loss of circulating e antigen. Dietary, supplementation with this dose of essential fatty acids is unlikely to be of benefit in chronic hepatitis B.
Rombolà, Laura; Tridico, Laura; Scuteri, Damiana; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Sakurada, Shinobu; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Avato, Pinarosa; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Morrone, Luigi Antonio
Preclinical studies have recently highlighted that bergamot essential oil (BEO) is endowed with remarkable neurobiolological effects. BEO can affect synaptic transmission, modulate electroencephalographic activity and it showed neuroprotective and analgesic properties. The phytocomplex, along with other essential oils, is also widely used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders. However, only limited preclinical evidences are actually available. This study examined the anxiolytic/sedative-like effects of BEO using an open field task (OFT), an elevated plus-maze task (EPM), and a forced swimming task (FST) in rats. This study further compared behavioural effects of BEO to those of the benzodiazepine diazepam. Analysis of data suggests that BEO induces anxiolytic-like/relaxant effects in animal behavioural tasks not superimposable to those of the DZP. The present observations provide further insight to the pharmacological profile of BEO and support its rational use in aromatherapy.
Sobral, Marianna Vieira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino
Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for about 7 million deaths each year. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species or are based on such substances. Accumulating data has revealed anticancer activity in plant-derived monoterpenes. In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental models, and mechanisms of action for bioactive substances are presented. PMID:25401162
Different scientific communities have established sets of commonly agreed upon essential variables to help coordinate data collection in a variety of Earth observation areas. As an example, the World Meteorological Organization Global Climate Observing System has identified 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), such as sea-surface temperature and carbon dioxide, which are required to monitoring the climate and detect and attribute climate change. In addition to supporting climate science, measuring these ECVs deliver many types of societal benefits, ranging from disaster mitigation to agricultural productivity to human health. While communicating the value in maintaining and improving observational records for these variables has been a challenge, quantifying how the measurement of these ECVs results in the delivery of many different societal benefits may help support their continued measurement. The 2016 National Earth Observation Assessment (EOA 2016) quantified the impact of individual Earth observation systems, sensors, networks, and surveys (or Earth observation systems, for short) on the achievement of 217 Federal objectives in 13 societal benefit areas (SBAs). This study will demonstrate the use of the EOA 2016 dataset to show the different Federal objectives and SBAs that are impacted by the Earth observation systems used to measure ECVs. Describing how the measurements from these Earth observation systems are used not only to maintain the climate record but also to meet additional Federal objectives may help articulate the continued measurement of the ECVs. This study will act as a pilot for the use of the EOA 2016 dataset to map between the measurements required to observe additional sets of variables, such as the Essential Ocean Variables and Essential Biodiversity Variables, and the ability to achieve a variety of societal benefits.
Oliveira, R M; Dutra, T S; Simionatto, E; Ré, N; Kassuya, C A L; Cardoso, C A L
Mangifera indica is widely found in Brazil, and its leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. The aim of this study is to perform composition analysis of essential oils from the M. indica varieties, espada (EOMIL1) and coração de boi (EOMIL2), and confirm their anti-inflammatory properties. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two essential oils from the leaves. Paw edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw model, while leukocyte migration was analyzed using the pleurisy model. At oral doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, the essential oils significantly reduced edema formation and the increase in MPO activity induced by carrageenan in rat paws. For a dose of 300 mg/kg EOMIL1, 62 ± 8% inhibition of edema was observed, while EOMIL2 led to 51 ± 7% inhibition of edema. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the inhibition was 54 ± 9% for EOMIL1 and 37 ± 7% for EOMIL2. EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 significantly reduced MPO activity at doses of 100 mg/kg (47 ± 5 and 23 ± 8%, respectively) and 300 mg/kg (50 ± 9 and 31 ± 7%, respectively). In the pleurisy model, inhibitions were also observed for EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 in the leukocyte migration test. The results of the present study show that essential oils from M. indica differ in chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity in rats.
Robertson, J; Hill, S R
Thirty years after its inception, the role, audience, and contents of the global Essential Medicines List (EML) are reviewed. Challenges for decision makers in applying the principles of medicine selection based on efficacy, safety, burden of disease, and cost effectiveness are discussed and illustrated with recent decisions of the Expert Committee. Areas of controversy for decision makers are highlighted, and the advocacy role of the EML for both drug procurement and development of quality-assured products is described.
Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid
Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.
Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair H
Returning to study can be a stressful time for many students. In this article the authors consider ways in which studying at a university may differ from previous study experiences and explore how students can make best use of library and other resources. Studying at home has particular challenges and these are discussed as well as a range of skills that are essential to effective study.
Alecu, C; Abraham, P; Ternisien, C; Enon, B; Saumet, J L
Not only the total number of platelets but their normal or abnormal function are essential points to be analyzed in case of stroke associated with thrombocytemia. When possible the treatment of arterial episodes in thrombocytemia should not be surgical. Anti-platelet agents and the rigorous control of the different risk factors are warranted to limit the activation of abnormal platelets on early endothelial lesions and thereby limit the risk of recurrent accidents. We report two typical cases illustrating these different points.
Fleischer, T C; Mensah, M L K; Mensah, A Y; Komlaga, G; Gbedema, S Y; Skaltsa, H
Xylopia aethiopica is a medicinal plant of great repute in West Africa which produces a variety of complex chemical compounds. The fresh and dried fruits, leaf, stem bark and root bark essential oils showed various degrees of activity against the gram positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, the gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans, using the cup plate method. However, none of the oils showed activity against Escherichia coli.
of wildcrafted biomass would probably have to be combined during the commercial production of a botanical pesticide . Therefore, it seems likely...S.I. Content, composition, and bioactivity of the essential of three basil genotypes as a function of harvesting. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 380...throughput screening method to identify potential pesticides for mosquito control. J. Med. Entomol. 2009, 46, 335–341. 28. Anderson, J.T.; Thorvilson, G.H
Plastino, A.; Rocca, M. C.
It has been argued in Abe (2010), entitled Essential discreteness in generalized thermostatistics with non-logarithmic entropy, that ;continuous Hamiltonian systems with long-range interactions and the so-called q-Gaussian momentum distributions are seen to be outside the scope of non-extensive statistical mechanics;. The arguments are clever and appealing. We show here that, however, some mathematical subtleties render them unconvincing.
Meng, Jiang; Dong, Xiao-ping; Zhou, Yi-sheng; Jiang, Zhi-hong; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Zhao, Zhong-zhen
To optimize the extraction procedure of essential oil from H. cordata using the SFE-CO2 and analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil. The extraction procedure of essential oil from fresh H. cordata was optimized with the orthogonal experiment. Essential oil of fresh H. cordata was analysed by GC-MS. The optimize preparative procedure was as follow: essential oil of H. cordata was extracted at a temperature of 35 degrees C, pressure of 15,000 kPa for 20 min. 38 chemical components were identified and the relative contents were quantified. The optimum preparative procedure is reliable and can guarantee the quality of essential oil.
Yin, Ailing; Han, Zhifeng; Shen, Jie; Guo, Liwei; Cao, Guiping
To study on the separation from essential oil-in-water emulsion of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride by ultrafiltration and acetoacetate extraction methods respectively, and the comparison of the oil yields and chemical compositions. Essential oil-in-water emulsion of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride was separated by ultrafiltration and acetoacetate extraction methods respectively, and the chemical compositions were analyzed and compared by GC-MS. Ultrafiltration method could enrich essential oil more and its chemical compositions were more similar to the essential oil prepared by steam distillation method. Ultrafiltration method is a good medium to separate essential oil from essential oil-in-water emulsion of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride.
Coulomb, Stéphane; Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude
The mechanistic bases for gene essentiality and for cell mutational resistance have long been disputed. The recent availability of large protein interaction databases has fuelled the analysis of protein interaction networks and several authors have proposed that gene dispensability could be strongly related to some topological parameters of these networks. However, many results were based on protein interaction data whose biases were not taken into account. In this article, we show that the essentiality of a gene in yeast is poorly related to the number of interactants (or degree) of the corresponding protein and that the physiological consequences of gene deletions are unrelated to several other properties of proteins in the interaction networks, such as the average degrees of their nearest neighbours, their clustering coefficients or their relative distances. We also found that yeast protein interaction networks lack degree correlation, i.e. a propensity for their vertices to associate according to their degrees. Gene essentiality and more generally cell resistance against mutations thus seem largely unrelated to many parameters of protein network topology. PMID:16087428
Braun, Markus; Hauslage, Jens; Limbach, Christoph
A role of the actin cytoskeleton in the different phases of gravitropism in higher plant organs seems obvious, but experimental evidence is still inconclusive and contradictory. In gravitropically tip-growing rhizoids and protonemata, however, it is well documented that actin is an essential component of the tip-growth machinery and is involved either in the cellular mechanisms that lead to gravity sensing and in the processes of the graviresponses that result in the reorientation of the growth direction. All these processes depend on a complexly organized and highly dynamic organization of actin filaments whose diverse functions are coordinated by numerous associated proteins. Actin filaments and myosins mediate the transport of secretory vehicles to the growing tip and precisely control the delivery of cell wall material. In addition, both cell types use a very efficient actomyosin-based system to control and correct the position of their statoliths and to direct sedimenting statoliths to confined graviperception sites at the plasma membrane. The studies presented in this paper provide evidence for the essential role of actin in plant gravity sensing and the gravitropic responses. A unique actin-organizing center exists in the tip of characean rhizoids and protonemata which is associated with and dynamically regulated by a specific set of actin-dynamizing proteins. It is concluded that this highly dynamic apical actin array is an essential prerequisite for gravity sensing and gravity-oriented tip growth.
Armas Merino, Rodolfo; Torres Canales, Adrián
Essential research studies of health problems affecting the majority of the population, aiming at actions that are feasible to be taken, efficiently and effectively implementing there and seeking solutions to unsolved problems. This is a complex process, which requires long lasting participation and coordinated interaction between different relevant sectors, namely the academic world, health policymakers and health-related industries. An analysis of essential health research in Chile is presented, considering factors such as shared efforts between the academic and health care sectors and the role of the Ministry of Health in research promotion. The following suggestions are made: 1) The Ministry of Health, along with universities, should stimulate, guide and monitor research activities that enrich and update the work on priority health issues; 2) To strengthen the capacity building of clinical or public health specialists by training them in applied research within medical centers, mainly teaching centers; 3) To assess the performance of National Fund for Health Research and Development (FONIS) and, if necessary, increase its resources to stimulate applied research in health; 4) To establish priorities for essential research, more specific than those proposed in 2010; 5) To reactivate the National Council for Health Research (CONIS) as an autonomous entity that coordinates applied research within the Ministry of Health.
This paper builds on an existential-phenomenology framework to better understand the essential qualities of children’s favorite places. Based on grounded theory, this study focused on the everyday life experiences of 25 children (14 girls and 11 boys), aged 9–12 years and living in Jakarta, whose housing environments reflected various spatial qualities. The results showed that all children reported having one or more favorite places. Despite differences in type, scale, form, and location of children’s favorite places, each existential place was a supportive urban space conceived, perceived, and lived through the meaning and symbolic use given to it by a child. The essential qualities of children’s favorite places were accessibility, a location within route from home to other destinations (such as a friend’s house or school), and a space providing a sense of comfort, security, and social affiliation, as well as experiences that were restorative, personal, sensory, and materialistic. This study may have implications for the design of urban places that foster the formation of children’s favorite spaces by taking into account these essential qualities of children’s lived-existential spaces.
Osho, A; Adetunji, T; Fayemi, S O; Moronkola, D O
The need for a reduction in drug resistance led to the investigation of Argemone Mexicana L. as an agent against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida stellatoidea and Candida torulopsis, using well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations methods. The sensitivity of Bacillus Subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to the essential oils of both the aerial and root parts were determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to the essential oil from both the aerial and root part of the plant. C. torulopsis, C. stellatoidea and C. albicans were susceptible to the essential oils from the aerial and root part of the plant. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 3.75 mg/ml and 4.0 mg/ml were recorded for Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae by the aerial and the root extracts, but P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were not susceptible to the aerial and root extracts. The observed inhibition of selected bacteria and fungi by oils of Physalis angulata makes it a promising antimicrobial agent. This study justifies its uses for treatment of sores, cuts, intestinal and digestive problems and some skin-diseases often reported in folkloric medicine.
Howard, M; Ashwell, S; Bond, L; Holbrook, I
Aim—To investigate possible abnormalities of serum potassium and calcium levels in patients with essential thrombocythaemia and significant thrombocytosis. Methods—24 cases of essential thrombocythaemia with significant thrombocytosis (platelet count > 700 x 109/litre) had serum potassium and calcium estimations performed at the time of maximum thrombocytosis before treatment, and at the time of low platelet count after treatment with cytoreductive drugs. Selected patients were further investigated with plasma sampling and estimation of ionised calcium and parathyroid hormone. Results—At the time of maximum thrombocytosis six patients had serum hyperkalaemia (> 5.5 mmol/litre) and five had serum hypercalcaemia (> 2.6 mmol/litre). Following treatment and reduction of the platelet count, hyperkalaemia resolved in all cases and hypercalcaemia in four of the five cases. Mean serum potassium and calcium concentrations were raised (p < 0.0001) at maximum thrombocytosis compared with the values when the platelet count was low. Serum potassium and calcium values were significantly correlated at all stages. Measurements on plasma consistently corrected the hyperkalaemia but not the hypercalcaemia. Serum hypercalcaemia was associated with raised ionised calcium and normal parathyroid hormone concentrations. Conclusions—Essential thrombocythaemia with significant thrombocytosis is associated with serum hyperkalaemia and hypercalcaemia. The probable mechanism of hypercalcaemia is the secretion of calcium in vitro from an excessive number of abnormally activated platelets. It is thus likely that the hypercalcaemia is an artefact, as is the hyperkalaemia. Key Words: thrombocythaemia • hypercalcaemia • hyperkalaemia PMID:10767824
Heuberger, Eva; Ilmberger, Josef
Olfactory stimuli are used in aromatherapy to enhance mood, well-being and work efficiency. Nevertheless, the impact of fragrances on cognitive performance in humans is not well understood. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effects of 1,8-cineol, jasmine absolute ether, linalyl acetate and peppermint essential oil on human vigilance performance. The odorants were administered by means of inhalation and, except for peppermint essential oil, were tested at 2 different dosages. Performance in a standard visual vigilance task was measured in terms of speed and accuracy and subjective ratings of the odorants were assessed in terms of pleasantness, intensity, arousal and stress. We hypothesized that 1,8-cineol, jasmine absolute ether and peppermint essential oil would improve vigilance performance, whereas linalyl acetate would impair such performance. Comparison of the performances of the seven independent experimental groups with that of a control group did not show any of the expected effects. In contrast, inhalation of linalyl acetate decreased reaction times. Within-group analyses, however, revealed significant interactions between subjective ratings of the odorants and task performance. The results of the present investigation emphasize the high impact of subjective factors on the modulation of attentional functions by olfactory stimuli in humans.
Pickens, Scott; Solak, Jamie
Many healthcare organization projects take more time and resources than planned and fail to deliver desired business outcomes. Healthcare IT is a major component of many projects and often undeservedly receives the blame for failure. Poor results are often not a result of faulty healthcare IT or poor project management or poor project execution alone. Many projects fail because of poor portfolio management--poor planning and management of the portfolio of initiatives designed to meet an organization's strategic goals. Because resources are limited, portfolio management enables organizations to more strategically allocate and manage their resources so care delivery, service delivery, and initiatives that advance organizations toward their strategic goals, including healthcare IT initiatives, can be accomplished at the levels of quality and service desired by an organization. Proper portfolio management is the essential foundation for program and project success and supports overall organization success. Without portfolio management, even programs and projects that execute flawlessly may not meet desired objectives. This article discusses the essential requirements for porfolio management. These include opportunity identification, return on investment (ROI) forecast, project prioritization, capacity planning (inclusive of human, financial, capital, and facilities resources), work scheduling, program and project management and execution, and project performance and value assessment. Portfolio management is essential to successful healthcare project execution. Theories are drawn from the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3) work of the Project Management Institute and other leading strategy, planning, and organization change management research institutes.
Harder, J; Heyen, U; Probian, C; Foss, S
Plant volatile organic compounds are a major carbon source in nature. We studied the degradability of these substances by anaerobic microorganisms in enrichment cultures with representative essential oils as organic substrates and nitrate as electron acceptor. Lemon and pine needle oil supported microbial growth in the presence of pure oil, whereas parsley seed, camphor, sage, fennel, and mint oil supported growth only when the essential oils were dissolved in an overlying phase of 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane. Thyme oil did not support denitrification. Analyses of the microbially degraded oils revealed the disappearance of monoterpenes, of several monoterpenoids, and of methoxy-propenyl-benzenes, including apiole and myristicin. Most-probable-number determinations for denitrifying communities in sewage sludge and forest soil yielded 10(6) to 10(7) monoterpene-utilizing cells ml(-1), representing 0.7 to 100% of the total cultivable nitrate-reducing microorganisms. The utilization of essential oils together with the common occurrence of this metabolic trait are indications for an environmentally important, but currently unexplored anaerobic turnover of plant volatile organic compounds in soil.
Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung
Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ≈ rosemary > tea tree ≈ lemon ≈ lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.
Lindeman, Zachary; Waggoner, Molly; Batdorff, Audra; Humphreys, Tricia L
Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p=0.409). E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid.
Gourine, Nadhir; Bombarda, Isabelle; Yousfi, Mohamed; Gaydou, Emile M
The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Pistacia atlantica Desf. leaves collected from different regions of Algeria were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was rich in monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major components were alpha-pinene (0.0-67%), delta-3-carene (0.0-56%), spathulenol (0.5-22%), camphene (0.0-21%), terpinen-4-ol (0.0-16%) and beta-pinene (0.0-13%). Among the various components identified, twenty were used for statistical analyses. The result of principal component analysis (PCA) showed the occurrence of three chemotypes: a delta-3-carene chemotype (16.4-56.2%), a terpinen-4-ol chemotype (10.8-16.0%) and an alpha-pinene/camphene chemotype (10.9-66.6%/3.8-20.9%). It was found that the essential oil from female plants (delta-3-carene chemotype) could be easily differentiated from the two other chemotypes corresponding to male trees.
In an effort to accelerate progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 and 5, provision of essential reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions is being considered. Not only should a state-of-the-art approach be taken for services delivered to the mother, neonate and to the child, but services must also be deployed across the household to hospital continuum of care approach and in the form of packages. The paper proposed several packages for improved maternal, newborn and child health that can be delivered across RMNCH continuum of care. These packages include: supportive care package for women to promote awareness related to healthy pre-pregnancy and pregnancy interventions; nutritional support package for mother to improve supplementation of essential nutrients and micronutrients; antenatal care package to detect, treat and manage infectious and noninfectious diseases and promote immunization; high risk care package to manage preeclampsia and eclampsia in pregnancy; childbirth package to promote support during labor and importance of skilled birth attendance during labor; essential newborn care package to support healthy newborn care practices; and child health care package to prevent and manage infections. This paper further discussed the implementation strategies for employing these interventions at scale. PMID:25178110
Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes
This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sebaaly, Carine; Jraij, Alia; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène
In this study, suitable formulations of natural soybean phospholipid vesicles were developed to improve the stability of clove essential oil and its main component, eugenol. Using an ethanol injection method, saturated (Phospholipon 80H, Phospholipon 90H) and unsaturated soybean (Lipoid S100) phospholipids, in combination with cholesterol, were used to prepare liposomes at various eugenol and clove essential oil concentrations. Liposomal batches were characterized and compared for their size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The liposomes were tested for their stability after storing them for 2 months at 4°C by monitoring changes in their mean size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values. It was found that liposomes exhibited nanometric oligolamellar and spherical shaped vesicles and protected eugenol from degradation induced by UV exposure; they also maintained the DPPH-scavenging activity of free eugenol. Liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile unstable essential oil constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Maskri, Ahmed Yahya; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Maskari, Masoud Yahya; Abraham, Alfie Susan; Al-sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Al-Mantheri, Omar
The focus of the present study was on the influence of season on yield, chemical composition, antioxidant and antifungal activities of Omani basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil. The present study involved only one of the eight Omani basil varieties. The hydro-distilled essential oil yields were computed to be 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.1% in the winter, spring and summer seasons, respectively. The major components identified were L- linalool (26.5-56.3%), geraniol (12.1-16.5%), 1,8-cineole (2.5-15.1%), p-allylanisole (0.2-13.8%) and DL-limonene (0.2-10.4%). A noteworthy extra component was beta- farnesene, which was exclusively detected in the oil extracted during winter and spring at 6.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The essential oil composition over the different seasons was quite idiosyncratic, in which the principal components of one season were either trivial or totally absent in another. The essential oil extracted in spring exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (except DPPH scavenging ability) in comparison with the oils from other seasons. The basil oil was tested against pathogenic fungi viz. Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Penicillium italicum and Rhizopus stolonifer using a disc diffusion method, and by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. Surprisingly high antifungal values were found highlighting the potential of Omani basil as a preservative in the food and medical industries.
Chen, Wei-Hua; Lu, Guanting; Chen, Xiao; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Bork, Peer
OGEE is an Online GEne Essentiality database. To enhance our understanding of the essentiality of genes, in OGEE we collected experimentally tested essential and non-essential genes, as well as associated gene properties known to contribute to gene essentiality. We focus on large-scale experiments, and complement our data with text-mining results. We organized tested genes into data sets according to their sources, and tagged those with variable essentiality statuses across data sets as conditionally essential genes, intending to highlight the complex interplay between gene functions and environments/experimental perturbations. Developments since the last public release include increased numbers of species and gene essentiality data sets, inclusion of non-coding essential sequences and genes with intermediate essentiality statuses. In addition, we included 16 essentiality data sets from cancer cell lines, corresponding to 9 human cancers; with OGEE, users can easily explore the shared and differentially essential genes within and between cancer types. These genes, especially those derived from cell lines that are similar to tumor samples, could reveal the oncogenic drivers, paralogous gene expression pattern and chromosomal structure of the corresponding cancer types, and can be further screened to identify targets for cancer therapy and/or new drug development. OGEE is freely available at http://ogee.medgenius.info. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Sian, Tanvir Singh; Tierney, G M; Park, H; Lund, J N; Speake, W J; Hurst, N G; Al Chalabi, H; Smith, K J; Tou, S
A background in minimally invasive colorectal surgery (MICS) has been thought to be essential prior to robotic-assisted colorectal surgery (RACS). Our aim was to determine whether MICS is essential prior to starting RACS training based on results from our initial experience with RACS. Two surgeons from our centre received robotic training through the European Academy of Robotic Colorectal Surgery (EARCS). One surgeon had no prior formal MICS training. We reviewed the first 30 consecutive robotic colorectal procedures from a prospectively maintained database between November 2014 and January 2016 at our institution. Fourteen patients were male. Median age was 64.5 years (range 36-82) and BMI was 27.5 (range 20-32.5). Twelve procedures (40%) were performed by the non-MICS-trained surgeon: ten high anterior resections (one conversion), one low anterior resection and one abdomino-perineal resection of rectum (APER). The MICS-trained surgeon performed nine high and four low anterior resections, one APER and in addition three right hemicolectomies and one abdominal suture rectopexy. There were no intra-operative complications and two patients required re-operation. Median post-operative stay was five days (range 1-26). There were two 30-day re-admissions. All oncological resections had clear margins and median node harvest was 18 (range 9-39). Our case series demonstrates that a background in MICS is not essential prior to starting RACS training. Not having prior MICS training should not discourage surgeons from considering applying for a robotic training programme. Safe and successful robotic colorectal services can be established after completing a formal structured robotic training programme.
Desideri, D; Cantaluppi, C; Ceccotto, F; Meli, M A; Roselli, C; Feduzi, L
Essential elements (K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Br, and I) and nonessential or toxic elements (Al, Ti, Si, Rb, Sr, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were determined by energy-dispersive polarized x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in 14 seaweeds purchased in local specialty stores in Italy and consumed by humans. The differences in elements between the algae species reached up to 2-4 orders of magnitude. Lithothamnium calcareum showed the highest levels of Ca, Al, Si, Fe, and Ti. Palmaria palmata showed the highest concentrations of K, Rb, and Cl. The highest content of S was in Chondrus crispus. Laminaria digitata contained the highest concentrations of total As, Cd, Sn, Br, and I. The highest concentration of Zn was in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Ulva lactuca displayed the highest levels of Cu, Ni, Mn, and Pb. Iodine levels ranged from 3.4 in Chlorella pyrenoidosa to 7316 mg/kg(dry) in Laminaria digitata. The nutrimental importance of essential elements was assessed using nutritional requirements. The results showed that the consumption of algae might serve as an important source of the essential elements. Health risk due to the toxic elements present in seaweed was estimated using risk estimators. Total As, Cd, and Pb concentrations ranged from <1 to 67.6, to 7.2 and to 6.7 mg/kg(dry) respectively; therefore, their contribution to total elemental intake does not appear to pose any threat to the consumers, but the concentrations of these elements should be controlled to protect the consumer against potential adverse health risks.
Shivute, Nestor; Bickler, Stephen; Cole-Ceesay, Ramou; Jargo, Bakary; Abdullah, Fizan; Cherian, Meena
Abstract Objective To assess the resources for essential and emergency surgical care in the Gambia. Methods The World Health Organization’s Tool for Situation Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was distributed to health-care managers in facilities throughout the country. The survey was completed by 65 health facilities – one tertiary referral hospital, 7 district/general hospitals, 46 health centres and 11 private health facilities – and included 110 questions divided into four sections: (i) infrastructure, type of facility, population served and material resources; (ii) human resources; (iii) management of emergency and other surgical interventions; (iv) emergency equipment and supplies for resuscitation. Questionnaire data were complemented by interviews with health facility staff, Ministry of Health officials and representatives of nongovernmental organizations. Findings Important deficits were identified in infrastructure, human resources, availability of essential supplies and ability to perform trauma, obstetric and general surgical procedures. Of the 18 facilities expected to perform surgical procedures, 50.0% had interruptions in water supply and 55.6% in electricity. Only 38.9% of facilities had a surgeon and only 16.7% had a physician anaesthetist. All facilities had limited ability to perform basic trauma and general surgical procedures. Of public facilities, 54.5% could not perform laparotomy and 58.3% could not repair a hernia. Only 25.0% of them could manage an open fracture and 41.7% could perform an emergency procedure for an obstructed airway. Conclusion The present survey of health-care facilities in the Gambia suggests that major gaps exist in the physical and human resources needed to carry out basic life-saving surgical interventions. PMID:21836755
To analyze the achievements, issues and policy recommendations for implementing essential medicine system in China after a 3-year effort. Policy documents analysis and Literature reviews are conducted. From 2009-2011, a series of national essential medicine (EM) policies has been established which contain EM list, organizing production, quality assurance, pricing, tendering and procurement, distribution, rational use, monitoring and evaluation, etc. About 98.8% government-run primary healthcare institutions and 41.5% village health posts are conducting zero-mark-up policy while buying EMs. The average cost per visit, per admission, and per description in outpatient and inpatient departments has declined. The issues with the national EM list cannot meet the requirements of clinical practice at the local level, all provinces have to increase additional 64-455 EMs in their local supplementary list; the limitation of EML in primary healthcare institutions causes patients to transfer directly to secondary or tertiary hospitals to search appropriate treatment; there is no defined regulation or legislation regarding the responsibility and accountability of government to compensate for the financial loss after implementing a zero mark-up policy in primary healthcare institutions. In the future, some innovative reform should be taken into account, such as revising EML, quality assurance, control margins within the distribution system, differential pricing and internal reference-based pricing, waive taxes and import duties of EMs, and separation between prescribing and dispensing in public hospital reform. Establishing a national essential medicine system is a difficult task to accomplish. The role of the zero-mark-up policy of EMs is to cut off the economic profit chain among different stakeholders. Using pharmaceutical profit to subsidize hospital revenue will be gradually eliminated in China.
Carranza, Michael A.; Snyder, Madeline R.; Elble, Rodger J.; Boutzoukas, Angelique E.; Zesiewicz, Theresa A.
Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common tremor disorders in the world. Despite this, only two medications have received Level A recommendations from the American Academy of Neurology to treat it (primidone and propranolol). Even though these medications provide relief to a large group of ET patients, up to 50% of patients are non-responders. Additional medications to treat ET are needed. This review discusses some of the methodological issues that should be addressed for quality clinical drug development in ET. PMID:23440401
Valli, G; De Vecchi, A; Gaddi, L; Nobile-Orazio, E; Tarantino, A; Barbieri, S
The clinical and neurophysiological features of 23 patients affected by essential cryoglobulinemia (EC) have been studied. It was possible to perform sural nerve biopsy in 3 cases. Six patients were found to be affected by a peripheral neuropathy, according to the WHO criteria, while in 8 other patients clinical and neurophysiological signs of a milder peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement were evident. The incidence of PNS involvement seems to be high (60.9%). Neurophysiological and histological studies were indicative of a mainly axonal damage.
Sakkas, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy
For centuries, plants have been used for a wide variety of purposes, from treating infectious diseases to food preservation and perfume production. Presently, the increasing resistance of microorganisms to currently used antimicrobials in combination with the appearance of emerging diseases requires the urgent development of new, more effective drugs. Plants, due to the large biological and structural diversity of their components, constitute a unique and renewable source for the discovery of new antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic compounds. In the present paper, the history, composition, and antimicrobial activities of the basil, oregano, and thyme essential oils are reviewed.
Pande, Chitra; Tewari, Geeta; Singh, Charu; Singh, Shalini; Padalia, R C
The essential oil composition of Feronia elephantum Correa (family: Rutaceae) was examined by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The analysis revealed the presence of 24 constituents, of which 18 constituents were identified. Trans-anethole (57.73%) and methyl chavicol (37.48%) were the major compounds, while cis-anethole, p-anisaldehyde, (E)-jasmone, methyl eugenol, β-caryophyllene, linalool and (E)-methyl isoeugenol were also present as the minor constituents.
Mathur, V S; Chaudhury, R R; Fraser, H S
A scoring system is presented for selection of essential drugs, using criteria of efficacy, safety, cost of a course of therapy, compliance, multiple usage and storage, ease of administration and local availability. Such a system allows for different weighting of factors whose relative importance varies from country to country and would help in choosing the most appropriate and cost-effective drugs for use in developing countries. The importance of such factors as cost and compliance has been illustrated with suitable examples. This approach could also be used for individual patient decisions with the aid of a computer program.
Buiarelli, Francesca; Cartoni, Giampaolo; Coccioli, Franco; Jasionowska, Renata; Mazzarino, Monica
This work examines the distilled essential oils of limette and bergamot in order to assess the presence of low volatile substances such as coumarins (bergapten) which, being toxic, must be eliminated before using these oils in the food industry. The quantitative determination of coumarins was carried out by spectrofluorimetric detection. The substances present in the chromatograms, obtained by HPLC with UV detection at 254 nm, were then identified. Moreover, a new coumarin that is present in small quantities was identified using HPLC-MS.
Chahal, Harinder Singh; St. Fort, Nazaire; Bero, Lisa
Background Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and faces numerous challenges, including inadequate medication access for its residents. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, prices, and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti and compare these findings to other countries. Methods We conducted a cross–sectional nationwide survey in 2011 of availability and consumer prices of 60 essential medicines in Haiti using a standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International. The survey was conducted in 163 medicine outlets in four health care sectors (public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors). Medicine prices were expressed as ratios relative to the International Reference Price. Affordability was calculated by comparing the costs of treatment for common conditions with the salary of the lowest paid government worker and was compared to available data from four Latin American countries. Results For generic medicines, the availability in public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors was 20%, 37%, 24% and 23% of medications, respectively. Most of the available medicines were priced higher than the International Reference Price. The lowest paid government worker would need 2.5 days’ wages to treat an adult respiratory infection with generic medicines from the public sector. For treatment of common conditions with originator brands (OB) purchased from a retail pharmacy, costs were between 1.4 (anaerobic bacterial infection) and 13.7 (hyperlipidemia) days’ wages, respectively. Treatment of pediatric bacterial infections with the OB of ceftriaxone from a retail pharmacy would cost 24.6 days’ wages. Prices in Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua were frequently lower for comparable medications. Conclusions The availability of essential medicines was low and prices varied widely across all four sectors. Over 75% of Haitians live on less than US$ 2.00 /day; therefore, most
Douglas, J G; Thibonnier, M; Wright, J T
Essential hypertension is a complex polygenetic disorder with different "intermediate phenotypes" among diverse racial/ethnic groups. Differences have been identified in the renin-angiotensin system, prevalence of salt sensitivity, ion-transport mechanisms, and calcium homeostasis, yet no unifying hypothesis as to the genetic mechanisms responsible for the excess prevalence and severity of hypertension among African Americans has emerged. Environmental factors, such as access to health care, socioeconomic status, stress, diet, and obesity, account for some of the differences in the prevalence of hypertension worldwide.
Kim, In K; Zuckerbraun, Noel; Kou, Maybelle; Vu, Tien; Levasseur, Kelly; Yen, Kenneth; Chapman, Jennifer; Doughty, Cara; McAneney, Constance; Zaveri, Pavan; Hsu, Deborah
This article is the sixth in a 7-part series that aims to comprehensively describe the current state and future directions of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellowship training from the essential requirements to considerations for successfully administering and managing a program to the careers that may be anticipated upon program completion. This article provides a broad overview of administering and supervising a PEM fellowship program. It explores 3 topics: the principles of program administration, committee management, and recommendations for minimum time allocated for PEM fellowship program directors to administer their programs.
Warner, Debbie; Norton, Virgil
Introduction Abundant water resources of the Flint River Basin have played a major role in the history and development of southwestern Georgia. The Flint River-along with its tributaries, wetlands, and swamps-and the productive aquifers of the river basin are essential components of the area's diverse ecosystems. These resources also are necessary for sustained agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities. Increasing, and in some cases conflicting, demand for water makes careful monitoring and wise planning and management of southwestern Georgia's water resources critical to the ecological and economic future of the area. This poster presents the major issues associated with increasing competition for water resources in the southern Flint River Basin.
Coles, W H
Motion pictures of 15 patients with essential blepharospasm were studied. Previously unrecognized signs indicated multiple cranial nerve involvement. These signs include impersistence of gaze, lid retraction, tongue thrust, head tilts, head jerks, vertical gaze spasms, and asymmetry. The sugns were also observed in a patient with bilateral blepharospasm who had a history of Bell's palsy suggesting facial nerve injury as a possible factor in blepharospasm. The presence of these signs can be explained by known neural pathways, but the site, or sites, of the lesion remains obscure. These signs may be important in assessing severity and in treatment evaluation.
Glazer, Alex M; Sofen, Bryan D; Rigel, Darrell S; Shupack, Jerome L
Generalized essential telangiectasia (GET) is a notoriously difficult to treat disorder with no current satisfactory treatments. This case and discussion report the use of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) as a successful treatment for GET. Moreover, we show that GET may represent a state of increased angiogenesis, a paradigm shift from the current understanding that these telangiectasias represent dilatations of only pre-existing vessels. This new view of GET may drive others to look at novel agents for treatment.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(3):280-282..
Rath, C. C.; Devi, S.; Dash, S. K.; Mishra, R. K.
The antibacterial activity of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) flower hydro steam distilled essential oil, synthetic blends and six major individual components was assessed against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) strain. The activity was bactericidal. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by tube dilution technique, and the Minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 1.9-31.25 μl/ml. Phenolcoefficient of the oil, synthetic blends and components varied between 0.6-1.7. The activity of the chemicals was possibly due to the inhibition of cell membrane synthesis. PMID:20046722
Rath, C C; Devi, S; Dash, S K; Mishra, R K
The antibacterial activity of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) flower hydro steam distilled essential oil, synthetic blends and six major individual components was assessed against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) strain. The activity was bactericidal. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by tube dilution technique, and the Minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 1.9-31.25 mul/ml. Phenolcoefficient of the oil, synthetic blends and components varied between 0.6-1.7. The activity of the chemicals was possibly due to the inhibition of cell membrane synthesis.
Hartley, Sarah; Wickson, Fern
Agricultural biotechnology continues to generate considerable controversy. We argue that to address this controversy, serious changes to governance are needed. The new wave of genomic tools and products (e.g., CRISPR, gene drives, RNAi, synthetic biology, and genetically modified [GM] insects and fish), provide a particularly useful opportunity to reflect on and revise agricultural biotechnology governance. In response, we present five essential features to advance more socially responsible forms of governance. In presenting these, we hope to stimulate further debate and action towards improved forms of governance, particularly as these new genomic tools and products continue to emerge. PMID:27144921
The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus molle isolated by hydrodistillation was tested for antibacterial activity using the hole plate diffusion method and for antifungal activity using the mycelium or single cell growth inhibition method. Results obtained showed that the volatile oil exhibited significant activity against the following bacterial species: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Leuconostoc cremoris, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium sporogenes, Acinetobacter calcoacetica, Escherichia coli, Beneckea natriegens, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis and Brochothrix thermosphacata. The fungal species Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata exhibited significant sensitivity to the volatile oil.
Cliff, E. M.
The concept of a 'best approximating m-dimensional subspace' for a given set of vectors in n-dimensional whole space is introduced. Such a subspace is easily described in terms of the eigenvectors of an associated Gram matrix. This technique is used to approximate an achievable set for a discrete linear time-invariant dynamical system. This approximation characterizes the part of the state space that may be reached using modest levels of control. If the achievable set can be closely approximated by a proper subspace of the whole space then the system is 'essentially uncontrollable'. The notion finds application in studies of failure-tolerant systems, and in decoupling.
Hartley, Sarah; Gillund, Frøydis; van Hove, Lilian; Wickson, Fern
Agricultural biotechnology continues to generate considerable controversy. We argue that to address this controversy, serious changes to governance are needed. The new wave of genomic tools and products (e.g., CRISPR, gene drives, RNAi, synthetic biology, and genetically modified [GM] insects and fish), provide a particularly useful opportunity to reflect on and revise agricultural biotechnology governance. In response, we present five essential features to advance more socially responsible forms of governance. In presenting these, we hope to stimulate further debate and action towards improved forms of governance, particularly as these new genomic tools and products continue to emerge.
Babushok, V. I.; Linstrom, P. J.; Zenkevich, I. G.
Gas chromatographic retention indices were evaluated for 505 frequently reported plant essential oil components using a large retention index database. Retention data are presented for three types of commonly used stationary phases: dimethyl silicone (nonpolar), dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups (slightly polar), and polyethylene glycol (polar) stationary phases. The evaluations are based on the treatment of multiple measurements with the number of data records ranging from about 5 to 800 per compound. Data analysis was limited to temperature programmed conditions. The data reported include the average and median values of retention index with standard deviations and confidence intervals.
Roberts, Michael C
The practice fields of psychology develop through specialization in training and education. The recognized specialties play a major role in developing new opportunities for professional psychology and providing quality services for the public. The essential tension comes from the balance of innovation and tradition and, in professional psychology, from the balance of fragmentation and unification. As an example, specialization in clinical child psychology is integrated within the broad and general traditions. The greater degree of focused science and practice in a specialty is the logical consequence of advances of the discipline and profession of psychology. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Cropley, Stacey; Sandrs, Ellare Duis
Quality improvement and cost control rely on effective coordination of patient care. Registered nurses (RNs) across the continuum of care play an essential role in care coordination. Greater health care efficiencies can be realized through coordination of care centered on the needs and preferences of patients and their families. Professional nursing links these approaches, promoting quality, safety, and efficiency in care, resulting in improved health care outcomes that are consistent with nursing's holistic, patient-centered framework of care. This model for RN care coordination provides a guideline for nurses in direct care as well as those in highly specialized care coordination positions.
Due to increased economic challenges in the management of hospitals head surgeons do not only need excellent surgical expertise but also significant management qualities. The personality of head surgeons should include authenticity, sincerity, fairness and the ability to cooperate. Visionary leadership, strategic thinking and strategic management of the personnel are further prerequisites for success. Besides good abilities in communication head surgeons need knowledge of the operating figures for interpretation. To keep up with the own capabilities time and self-management is essential. A survival as head surgeon is likely if these qualities and abilities exist.
... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of essential oils. ...
... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of essential oils. ...
... prescribed in 237.7603, use the following clause: Continuation of Mission Essential Functions (Date) (a) The... contractor services in support of mission-essential functions. The contractor-provided services that have been determined to be essential contractor services in support of mission-essential functions are...
Lecona, Emilio; Rodriguez-Acebes, Sara; Specks, Julia; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J; Ruppen, Isabel; Murga, Matilde; Muñoz, Javier; Mendez, Juan; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar
Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like modifiers regulates various aspects of DNA replication. We previously showed that the chromatin around replisomes is rich in SUMO and depleted in Ub, whereas an opposite pattern is observed in mature chromatin. How this SUMO-rich/Ub-low environment is maintained at sites of DNA replication is not known. Here we identify USP7 as a replisome-enriched SUMO deubiquitinase that is essential for DNA replication. By acting on SUMO and SUMOylated proteins, USP7 counteracts their ubiquitination. Chemical inhibition or genetic deletion of USP7 leads to the accumulation of Ub on SUMOylated proteins, which are displaced to chromatin away from replisomes. Our findings provide a model to explain the differential accumulation of SUMO and Ub at replication forks, and identify an essential role of USP7 in DNA replication that should be taken into account for the use of USP7 inhibitors as anticancer agents. PMID:26950370
The pathophysiology of essential tremor, especially at the cellular level, is poorly understood. Although no drug has been specifically designed to treat essential tremor, several medications improve tremor, and others worsen it. Studying the mechanism of actions of these medications can help our understanding of tremor pathophysiology and contribute to future rational drug design. We reviewed literature, concentrating on mechanisms of action, of various medications that mitigate tremor. Many medications have multiple mechanisms of actions, making simple correlations difficult. Medications that increase the duration of opening of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptors are most consistently associated with tremor improvement. Interestingly, drugs that increase GABA availability have not been associated with improved tremor. Other mechanisms possibly associated with tremor improvement include antagonism of alpha-2 delta subunits associated with calcium channels, inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, and inhibition of the synaptic vesicle protein 2A. Drugs that block voltage-gaited sodium channels do not affect tremor. The ideal beta-adrenergic blocker requires B2 affinity (non-cardiac selective), has no sympathomimetic properties, does not require membrane stabilization properties, and may benefit from good central nervous system penetration. To date, serendipitous observations have provided most of our understanding of tremor cellular physiology. Based on similarities to currently effective drugs or rational approximations and inferences, several currently available agents should be considered for tremor trials.
Background The pathophysiology of essential tremor, especially at the cellular level, is poorly understood. Although no drug has been specifically designed to treat essential tremor, several medications improve tremor, and others worsen it. Studying the mechanism of actions of these medications can help our understanding of tremor pathophysiology and contribute to future rational drug design. Methods We reviewed literature, concentrating on mechanisms of action, of various medications that mitigate tremor. Results Many medications have multiple mechanisms of actions, making simple correlations difficult. Medications that increase the duration of opening of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptors are most consistently associated with tremor improvement. Interestingly, drugs that increase GABA availability have not been associated with improved tremor. Other mechanisms possibly associated with tremor improvement include antagonism of alpha-2 delta subunits associated with calcium channels, inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, and inhibition of the synaptic vesicle protein 2A. Drugs that block voltage-gaited sodium channels do not affect tremor. The ideal beta-adrenergic blocker requires B2 affinity (non-cardiac selective), has no sympathomimetic properties, does not require membrane stabilization properties, and may benefit from good central nervous system penetration. Discussion To date, serendipitous observations have provided most of our understanding of tremor cellular physiology. Based on similarities to currently effective drugs or rational approximations and inferences, several currently available agents should be considered for tremor trials. PMID:26989572
Fox, Jeremy W; Vasseur, David A
Resource competition is thought to drive divergence in resource use traits (character displacement) by generating selection favoring individuals able to use resources unavailable to others. However, this picture assumes nutritionally substitutable resources (e.g., different prey species). When species compete for nutritionally essential resources (e.g., different nutrients), theory predicts that selection drives character convergence. We used models of two species competing for two essential resources to address several issues not considered by existing theory. The models incorporated either slow evolutionary change in resource use traits or fast physiological or behavioral change. We report four major results. First, competition always generates character convergence, but differences in resource requirements prevent competitors from evolving identical resource use traits. Second, character convergence promotes coexistence. Competing species always attain resource use traits that allow coexistence, and adaptive trait change stabilizes the ecological equilibrium. In contrast, adaptation in allopatry never preadapts species to coexist in sympatry. Third, feedbacks between ecological dynamics and trait dynamics lead to surprising dynamical trajectories such as transient divergence in resource use traits followed by subsequent convergence. Fourth, under sufficiently slow trait change, ecological dynamics often drive one of the competitors to near extinction, which would prevent realization of long-term character convergence in practice.
Wolschendorf, Frank; Ackart, David; Shrestha, Tej B.; Hascall-Dove, Laurel; Nolan, Scott; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Wang, Ying; Bossmann, Stefan H.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Niederweis, Michael
Copper (Cu) is essential for many biological processes, but is toxic when present in excessive amounts. In this study, we provide evidence that Cu plays a crucial role in controlling tuberculosis. A Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) mutant lacking the outer membrane channel protein Rv1698 accumulated 100-fold more Cu and was more susceptible to Cu toxicity than WT Mtb. Similar phenotypes were observed for a M. smegmatis mutant lacking the homolog Ms3747, demonstrating that these mycobacterial copper transport proteins B (MctB) are essential for Cu resistance and maintenance of low intracellular Cu levels. Guinea pigs responded to infection with Mtb by increasing the Cu concentration in lung lesions. Loss of MctB resulted in a 1,000- and 100-fold reduced bacterial burden in lungs and lymph nodes, respectively, in guinea pigs infected with Mtb. In mice, the persistence defect of the Mtb mctB mutant was exacerbated by the addition of Cu to the diet. These experiments provide evidence that Cu is used by the mammalian host to control Mtb infection and that Cu resistance mechanisms are crucial for Mtb virulence. Importantly, Mtb is much more susceptible to Cu than other bacteria and is killed in vitro by Cu concentrations lower than those found in phagosomes of macrophages. Hence, this study reveals an Achilles heel of Mtb that might be a promising target for tuberculosis chemotherapy. PMID:21205886
Roth, Lukas; Adler, Melissa; Jain, Tanvi; Bempong, Daniel
To raise awareness about the importance of public pharmaceutical standards, identify if and, if so, where current pharmacopeias are falling short in the development of new and complete monographs and foster collaboration among the various pharmacopeias, to prioritize, develop and make available standards for those key medicines for which no complete monographs exist. In August 2017, we mined eight pharmacopeias to identify which of the 669 medicines in the 20th edition of the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines were covered by complete or incomplete monographs. The pharmacopeias we included were the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, the British Pharmacopoeia, the Indian Pharmacopeia Commission, the International Pharmacopoeia, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, the Mexican Pharmacopoeia, the Pharmacopeia of the People's Republic of China and the United States Pharmacopeia. For 99 (15%) of the medicines on the Model List, no monographs were available in any of the eight pharmacopeias investigated. Only 3% (1/30) of the cardiovascular medicines listed, but 28% (9/32) of the antiretroviral medicines and 23% (6/26) of the antimalarial medicines lacked monographs. There appear to be no public standards for many so-called essential medicines. To address this shortfall, a greater collaboration in the global health community is needed.
Haggerty, Lois A; Grace, Pamela
Clinical wisdom, an essential foundation of nursing care that provides for the "good" of individual patients while taking into account the common good, is a concept that is difficult to define and comprehend. However, understanding what constitutes clinical wisdom is essential for the education of the types of nurses who are most likely to provide leadership that is consistent with the goals of nursing as outlined in the 2005 Code of Ethics for Nurses of the International Council of Nurses and the 2001 Code of Ethics for Nurses With Interpretive Statements of the American Nurses Association. The three key elements of wisdom, derived from the psychology and philosophy literature, are (1) balancing and providing for the good of another and the common good, (2) the use of intellect and affect in problem solving, and (3) the demonstration of experience-based tacit knowing in problematic situations. We conceptualized clinical wisdom as a more specific variant of general wisdom by examining how the core elements described can be linked to wisdom for nursing practice. In doing so, the nature of clinical wisdom is clarified and strategies are suggested to assist nurse educators in developing wise nurses.
Umpiérrez, María Laura; Santos, Estela; Mendoza, Yamandú; Altesor, Paula; Rossini, Carmen
Beekeeping has experienced a great expansion worldwide. Nowadays, several conventional pesticides, some organic acids, and essential oil components are the main means of chemical control used against Varroa destructor, an ectoparasite that may contribute to the colony collapse disorders. Varroa resistance against conventional pesticides has already been reported; therefore it is imperative to look for alternative control agents to be included in integrated pest management programs. A good alternative seems to be the use of plant essential oils (EOs) which, as natural products, are less toxic and leave fewer residues. Within this context, a bioprospecting program of the local flora searching for botanical pesticides to be used as varroacides was launched. A primary screening (driven by laboratory assays testing for anti-Varroa activity, and safety to bees) led us to select the EOs from Eupatorium buniifolium (Asteraceae) for follow up studies. We have chemical characterized EOs from twigs and leaves collected at different times. The three E. buniifolium EOs tested were active against Varroa in laboratory assays; however, there are differences that might be attributable to chemical differences also found. The foliage EO was selected for a preliminary field trial (on an experimental apiary with 40 hives) that demonstrated acaricidal activity when applied to the hives. Although activity was less than that for oxalic acid (the positive control), this EO was less toxic to bees than the control, encouraging further studies.
Stephen, Craig; Stemshorn, Barry
One Health is held as an approach to solve health problems in this era of complexity and globalization, but inadequate attention has been paid to the competencies required to build successful teams and programs. Most of the discussion on developing One Health teams focuses on creating cross-disciplinary awareness and technical skills. There is, however, evidence that collaborative, multi-disciplinary teams need skills, processes and institutions that enable policy and operations to be co-managed and co-delivered across jurisdictions. We propose that competencies in leadership and human resources; governance and infrastructure; and partnership and stakeholder engagement are essential, but often overlooked One Health attributes. Competencies in these staple attributes of leadership and management need to be more prominent in training and One Health capacity development. Although One Health has been in existence for over a decade, there has been no systematic evaluation of the essential attributes of successful and sustainable One Health programs. As such, much of this paper borrows from experience in other sectors dealing with complex, cross and inter-sectoral problems. Our objective is to advocate for increased investment in One Health leadership, governance and partnership skills to balance the focus on creating cross-disciplinary awareness and technical proficiency in order to maintain One Health as a viable approach to health issues at the human-animal-environment interface.
Kukita, Toshio; Wada, Naohisa; Kukita, Akiko; Kakimoto, Takashi; Sandra, Ferry; Toh, Kazuko; Nagata, Kengo; Iijima, Tadahiko; Horiuchi, Madoka; Matsusaki, Hiromi; Hieshima, Kunio; Yoshie, Osamu; Nomiyama, Hisayuki
Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing, multinucleated giant cells that are essential for bone remodeling and are formed through cell fusion of mononuclear precursor cells. Although receptor activator of nuclear factor–κB ligand (RANKL) has been demonstrated to be an important osteoclastogenic cytokine, the cell surface molecules involved in osteoclastogenesis are mostly unknown. Here, we report that the seven-transmembrane receptor-like molecule, dendritic cell–specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Expression of DC-STAMP is rapidly induced in osteoclast precursor cells by RANKL and other osteoclastogenic stimulations. Targeted inhibition of DC-STAMP by small interfering RNAs and specific antibody markedly suppressed the formation of multinucleated osteoclast-like cells. Overexpression of DC-STAMP enhanced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, DC-STAMP directly induced the expression of the osteoclast marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. These data demonstrate for the first time that DC-STAMP has an essential role in osteoclastogenesis. PMID:15452179
Burger, Pauline; Landreau, Anne; Watson, Marie; Janci, Laurent; Cassisa, Viviane; Kempf, Marie; Azoulay, Stéphane; Fernandez, Xavier
Background: Vetiver is a key ingredient for the perfume industry nowadays. However, with the constant and rapid changes of personal tastes, this appeal could vanish and this sector could decline quite quickly. New dissemination paths need to be found to tap this valuable resource. Methods: In this way, its potential use in cosmetics either as an active ingredient per se (with cosmeceutical significance or presenting antimicrobial activity) has hence been explored in vitro. Results: In this contribution, we demonstrated that vetiver essential oil displays no particularly significant and innovative cosmetic potential value in formulations apart from its scent already largely exploited. However, evaluated against twenty bacterial strains and two Candida species using the in vitro microbroth dilution method, vetiver oil demonstrated notably some outstanding activities against Gram-positive strains and against one Candida glabrata strain. Conclusions: Based on these findings, vetiver essential oil appears to be an appropriate aspirant for the development of an antimicrobial agent for medicinal purposes and for the development of a cosmetic ingredient used for its scent and displaying antimicrobial activity as an added value. PMID:28930256
Stitt, Susan; Dwyer, John; Dye, Dennis; Josberger, Edward
The Global Terrestrial Observing System, Global Climate Observing System, World Meteorological Organization, and Committee on Earth Observation Satellites all support consistent global land observations and measurements. To accomplish this goal, the Global Terrestrial Observing System defined 'essential climate variables' as measurements of atmosphere, oceans, and land that are technically and economically feasible for systematic observation and that are needed to meet the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and requirements of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The following are the climate variables defined by the Global Terrestrial Observing System that relate to terrestrial measurements. Several of them are currently measured most appropriately by in-place observations, whereas others are suitable for measurement by remote sensing technologies. The U.S. Geological Survey is the steward of the Landsat archive, satellite imagery collected from 1972 to the present, that provides a potential basis for deriving long-term, global-scale, accurate, timely and consistent measurements of many of these essential climate variables.
Samsell, L.J.; Spears, J.W.
Although chromium has been established as an essential trace element for certain animal species, no requirement has been shown for ruminants. Sixteen female lambs (35 kg) were used in an attempt to determine if chromium is essential in the ruminant. Animals were individually housed in all plastic pens and fed twice daily either a low chromium (100 ppb) torula yeast based diet or the basal diet supplemented with 10 ppm chromium as CrCl/sub 3/. Blood samples obtained prior to the morning feeding and 2 and 6 hr post-feeding on days 28 and 56 indicated no significant treatment differences in plasmamore » glucose or serum free fatty acids. By day 56, serum cholesterol tended to be lower in chromium supplemented lambs (60.9 vs 71.7 mg/dl). Lambs in the chromium supplemented treatment also tended to gain more efficiently through 56 days (.130 vs .118 gain/fed). On day 84, lambs were bled after a 48 hr fast, refed, then bled again at 2 and 6 hr post-feeding. Plasma glucose and serum free fatty acids were not affected by chromium at the end of the 48 hr fast or when lambs were refed following fasting. At 84 days both total serum cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were lower in lambs receiving supplemental chromium. These results suggest that chromium may have a biological role in the ruminant.« less