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Sample records for zdroj energie pre

  1. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Attitudes towards Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Ipek, Cemalettin

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to examine the pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation. In order to reach this main aim following research questions are formulated: (1) What are the attitude levels of pre-service primary teachers in terms of energy conservation? (2) Do pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation…

  2. Effects of energy content and energy density of pre-portioned entrées on energy intake.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Alexandria D; Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-10-01

    Pre-portioned entrées are commonly consumed to help control portion size and limit energy intake. The influence of entrée characteristics on energy intake, however, has not been well studied. We determined how the effects of energy content and energy density (ED, kcal/g) of pre-portioned entrées combine to influence daily energy intake. In a crossover design, 68 non-dieting adults (28 men and 40 women) were provided with breakfast, lunch, and dinner on 1 day a week for 4 weeks. Each meal included a compulsory, manipulated pre-portioned entrée followed by a variety of unmanipulated discretionary foods that were consumed ad libitum. Across conditions, the entrées were varied in both energy content and ED between a standard level (100%) and a reduced level (64%). Results showed that in men, decreases in the energy content and ED of pre-portioned entrées acted independently and added together to reduce daily energy intake (both P < 0.01). Simultaneously decreasing the energy content and ED reduced total energy intake in men by 16% (445 ± 47 kcal/day; P < 0.0001). In women, the entrée factors also had independent effects on energy intake at breakfast and lunch, but at dinner and for the entire day the effects depended on the interaction of the two factors (P < 0.01). Simultaneously decreasing the energy content and ED reduced daily energy intake in women by 14% (289 ± 35 kcal/day; P < 0.0001). Both the energy content and ED of pre-portioned entrées affect daily energy intake and could influence the effectiveness of such foods for weight management.

  3. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meghan A.; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training. PMID:28212449

  4. Assessing Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Energy Literacy: An Application of Rasch measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusup, M.; Setiawan, A.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Kaniawati, I.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to present a summary of pre-service physics teachers’ responses on energy literacy assessment. A total of 123 pre-service physics teacher in first through third year of education participated. Data were analyzed using Rasch modeling. Research findings indicate that pre-service physics teachers show their low self-system toward energy conservation. They were also still lack of metacognitive and cognitive competencies. These finding provide information for the future development of curriculum, teaching and learning that can improve pre-service physics teachers’ energy literacy.

  5. [Energy and macronutrients intake from pre-packaged foods among urban residents].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiguo; Huang, Feifei; Wang, Huijun; Zhai, Feigying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the energy and macronutrients intake from pre-packaged foods among urban residents in China. The adult subjects were selected from 9 cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Shenyang, Harbin, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Changsha, Nanning. The recording method for 7 consecutive days was used to collect pre-packaged foods consumption information. Among subjects, the median intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate from pre-packaged foods were 628. 8kJ/d, 5.0 g/d, 6.7 g/d and 17.0 g/d, respectively. Among consumers, the median intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate from pre-packaged foods were 745. 3 kJ/d, 6. 0 g/d, 7. 7 g/d and 20. 7 g/d, respectively. The energy and macronutrients intake from pre-packaged foods were at low level.

  6. JANNAF workshop on hazards due to pre-combustion behavior of high energy propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results and hazards associated with the pre-combustion behavior of high energy propellants are discussed. Special attention was given to future needs for modeling and the problem of deflagration to detonation transition.

  7. Cherokee Wind Energy Development - Feasibility and Pre-Construction Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Andy

    Cherokee Nation Businesses (CNB) received a grant from the US Department of Energy to explore feasibility and pursue development of a wind power generation facility on Cherokee land in north-central Oklahoma. This project followed several years of initial study exploring the possibility of commercial-scale wind power generation on primarily agricultural land owned by the Cherokee Nation. This project produced detailed analysis of the legal, financial and market viability of such generation facilities, and encompassed a full technical evaluation of the engineering, environmental, and geotechnical aspects of installing this capacity. During the course of this project, information gleaned from this explorationmore » changed CNB’s thinking about the best course of action for Cherokee participation in the development, eventually moving away from an equity-owner model and towards utilization of the land asset as a resource while mitigating Cherokee financial and operational risk.« less

  8. Pre-compound emission in low-energy heavy-ion interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Shuaib, Mohd.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, Devendra P.; Unnati; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown the presence of pre-compound emission component in heavy ion reactions at low projectile energy ranging from 4 to 7 MeV/nucleons. In earlier measurements strength of the pre-compound component has been estimated from the difference in forward-backward distributions of emitted particles. Present measurement is a part of an ongoing program on the study of reaction dynamics of heavy ion interactions at low energies aimed at investigating the effect of momentum transfer in compound, precompound, complete and incomplete fusion processes in heavy ion reactions. In the present work on the basis of momentum transfer the measurement of the recoil range distributions of heavy residues has been used to decipher the components of compound and pre-compound emission processes in the fusion of 16O projectile with 159Tb and 169Tm targets. The analysis of recoil range distribution measurements show two distinct linear momentum transfer components corresponding to pre-compound and compound nucleus processes are involved. In order to obtain the mean input angular momentum associated with compound and pre-compound emission processes, an online measurement of the spin distributions of the residues has been performed. The analysis of spin distribution indicate that the mean input angular momentum associated with pre-compound products is found to be relatively lower than that associated with compound nucleus process. The pre-compound components obtained from the present analysis are consistent with those obtained from the analysis of excitation functions.

  9. A Data Driven Pre-cooling Framework for Energy Cost Optimization in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Vishwanath, Arun; Chandan, Vikas; Mendoza, Cameron

    Commercial buildings consume significant amount of energy. Facility managers are increasingly grappling with the problem of reducing their buildings’ peak power, overall energy consumption and energy bills. In this paper, we first develop an optimization framework – based on a gray box model for zone thermal dynamics – to determine a pre-cooling strategy that simultaneously shifts the peak power to low energy tariff regimes, and reduces both the peak power and overall energy consumption by exploiting the flexibility in a building’s thermal comfort range. We then evaluate the efficacy of the pre-cooling optimization framework by applying it to building managementmore » system data, spanning several days, obtained from a large commercial building located in a tropical region of the world. The results from simulations show that optimal pre-cooling reduces peak power by over 50%, energy consumption by up to 30% and energy bills by up to 37%. Next, to enable ease of use of our framework, we also propose a shortest path based heuristic algorithmfor solving the optimization problemand show that it has comparable erformance with the optimal solution. Finally, we describe an application of the proposed optimization framework for developing countries to reduce the dependency on expensive fossil fuels, which are often used as a source for energy backup.We conclude by highlighting our real world deployment of the optimal pre-cooling framework via a software service on the cloud platform of a major provider. Our pre-cooling methodology, based on the gray box optimization framework, incurs no capital expense and relies on data readily available from a building management system, thus enabling facility managers to take informed decisions for improving the energy and cost footprints of their buildings« less

  10. Surface Energy Exchanges during Pre-monsoon Thunderstorm Activity over a Tropical Station Kharagpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Bhishma; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Rajvanshi, R. K.; Mandal, M.

    2014-07-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to understand the variation of surface energy fluxes such as net radiation, sensible, latent and soil heat during different epochs of thunderstorm activity at Kharagpur. The study also focuses in delineating the difference in the surface energy budget from the days of thunderstorm activity to fair weather days in the pre-monsoon months (April and May) which is locally known as thunderstorm season. For this purpose, experimental data obtained from the Severe Thunderstorms- Observations and Regional Modeling (STORM) programme during pre-monsoon months of 2007, 2009 and 2010 at Kharagpur (22°30'N, 87°20'E), West Bengal, India are used. The present study reveals quick response, in the order of a few days, in the variations of transport of energy fluxes at soil-atmosphere interface to the upper atmosphere vis-à-vis to the occurrence of thunderstorm activity. Rise of surface sensible heat flux to the level of surface latent heat flux a day or two before the occurrence of a thunderstorm has been identified as a precursor signal for the thunderstorm occurrence over Kharagpur. Distinguishable differences are found in the partitioning of the surface energy fluxes to that of net radiation between thunderstorm and non-thunderstorm days. The present study reveals more Bowen's ratio during thunderstorm days to that of nonthunderstorm days. These results are useful in validating mesoscale model simulations of thunderstorm activity.

  11. Energy-positive sewage sludge pre-treatment with a novel ultrasonic flatbed reactor at low energy input.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Thomas; Bandelin, Jochen; Musch, Alexandra; Drewes, Jörg E; Koch, Konrad

    2018-05-20

    The performance of a novel ultrasonic flatbed reactor for sewage sludge pre-treatment was assessed for three different waste activated sludges. The study systematically investigated the impact of specific energy input (200 - 3,000 kJ/kg TS ) on the degree of disintegration (DD COD , i.e. ratio between ultrasonically and maximum chemically solubilized COD) and methane production enhancement. Relationship between DD COD and energy input was linear, for all sludges tested. Methane yields were significantly increased for both low (200 kJ/kg TS ) and high (2,000 - 3,000 kJ/kg TS ) energy inputs, while intermediate inputs (400 - 1,000 kJ/kg TS ) showed no significant improvement. High inputs additionally accelerated reaction kinetics, but were limited to similar gains as low inputs (max. 12%), despite the considerably higher DD COD values. Energy balance was only positive for 200 kJ/kg TS -treatments, with a maximum energy recovery of 122%. Results suggest that floc deagglomeration rather than cell lysis (DD COD =1% - 5% at 200 kJ/kg TS ) is the key principle of energy-positive sludge sonication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of body composition, pre- and postpartum energy intake and stage of production of energy utilization by beef cows.

    PubMed

    Houghton, P L; Lemenager, R P; Hendrix, K S; Moss, G E; Stewart, T S

    1990-05-01

    Mature Charolais x Angus cows (n = 128) were adjusted to a body condition score (BCS) of 3 (1 = very thin, 3 = moderate, 5 = very fat) between 130 and 190 d of gestation. When cows averaged 190 d of gestation, they were assigned randomly to a maintenance energy diet (ME) or to a diet very low in energy (LE). Cows were allotted within these prepartum (PRP) diets to a high-energy (HE) or LE diet at parturition. At 30 d postpartum (PP), cows were allotted to four treatments: a) slaughter at 0 (n = 32) or b) 48 h after calf removal (n = 32), c) cows whose calves were early weaned at 30 d PP (n = 32) or d) normally weaned at 205 d PP (n = 32). Low energy PRP intake reduced (P less than .01) BCS, cow weight, total empty body lipid (TEBL), body energy (BE) and daily predicted maintenance energy (PME)/W.75 by parturition. Pre- and postpartum energy intake combined to affect (P less than .10) these same factors in a similar manner at 30 d PP. From 30 to 60 d PP, early weaning reduced (P less than .05) PME/W.75. Cow BCS at 190 d of gestation had little effect (P greater than .10) on PME/W.75 or PME/Mcal of BE. Body condition score at parturition, however, affected (P less than .05) delta BCS, delta BE and PME/Mcal of BE by 30 and 60 d PP, with thinner cows losing less condition and requiring more PME/Mcal of BE. Cow BCS had a similar effect from 30 to 60 d PP. Total daily PME was greater for the fat cows during both the PRP and PP periods. Body composition, PRP and PP energy intake and early weaning affect energy requirements and energetic efficiency of beef cows.

  13. Pre-patterned ZnO nanoribbons on soft substrates for stretchable energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Teng; Wang, Yong; Tang, Rui; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2013-05-01

    Three pre-patterned ZnO nanoribbons in different configurations were studied in this paper, including (a) straight ZnO nanoribbons uniformly bonded on soft substrates that form sinusoidal buckles, (b) straight ZnO nanoribbons selectively bonded on soft substrates that form pop-up buckles, and (c) serpentine ZnO nanoribbons bonded on soft substrates via anchors. The nonlinear dynamics and random analysis were conducted to obtain the fundamental frequencies and to evaluate their performance in energy harvesting applications. We found that pop-up buckles and overhanging serpentine structures are suitable for audio frequency energy harvesting applications. Remarkably, almost unchanged fundamental natural frequency upon strain is achieved by properly patterning ZnO nanoribbons, which initiates a new and exciting direction of stretchable energy harvesting using nano-scale materials in audio frequency range.

  14. 78 FR 55069 - Whitewater Green Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent to File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14383-005] Whitewater Green... Application for an Original License and Commencing Pre-filing Process. b. Project No.: 14383-005. c. Dated Filed: July 8, 2013. d. Submitted By: Whitewater Green Energy, LLC. e. Name of Project: Whitewater Creek...

  15. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on pre-bred dairy heifer feed intake and growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of pre-bred dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI), and offered diets with different energy levels. Pre-bred heifers (128, ages 4-9 months) were blocked by ...

  16. Building a Pre-Competitive Knowledge Base to Support Australia's Wave Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeke, R. K.; Hemer, M. A.; Symonds, G.; Rosebrock, U.; Kenyon, R.; Zieger, S.; Durrant, T.; Contardo, S.; O'Grady, J.; Mcinnes, K. L.

    2016-02-01

    A pre-competitive, query-able and openly available spatio-temporal atlas of Australia's wind-wave energy resource and marine management uses is being delivered. To provide the best representation of wave energy resource information, accounting for both spatial and temporal characteristics of the resource, a 34+yr numerical hindcast of wave conditions in the Australian region has been developed. Considerable in situ and remotely sensed data have been collected to support calibration and validation of the hindcast, resulting in a high-quality characterisation of the available wave resource in the Australian domain. Planning for wave energy projects is also subject to other spatial constraints. Spatial information on alternative uses of the marine domain including, for example, fisheries and aquaculture, oil and gas, shipping, navigation and ports, marine parks and reserves, sub-sea cables and infrastructure, shipwrecks and sites of cultural significance, have been compiled to complement the spatial characterisation of resource and support spatial planning of future wave energy projects. Both resource and spatial constraint information are being disseminated via a state-of-the-art portal, designed to meet the needs of all industry stakeholders. Another aspect currently impeding the industry in Australia is the limited evidence-base of impacts of wave energy extraction on adjacent marine and coastal environments. To build this evidence base, a network of in situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented.

  17. Net positive energy wastewater treatment plant via thermal pre-treatment of sludge: A theoretical case study.

    PubMed

    Farno, Ehsan; Baudez, Jean Christophe; Parthasarathy, Rajarathinam; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2017-04-16

    In a wastewater treatment process, energy is mainly used in sludge handling and heating, while energy is recovered by biogas production in anaerobic digestion process. Thermal pre-treatment of sludge can change the energy balance in a wastewater treatment process since it reduces the viscosity and yield stress of sludge and increases the biogas production. In this study, a calculation based on a hypothetical wastewater treatment plant is provided to show the possibility of creating a net positive energy wastewater treatment plant as a result of implementing thermal pre-treatment process before the anaerobic digester. The calculations showed a great energy saving in pumping and mixing of the sludge by thermal pre-treatment of sludge before anaerobic digestion process.

  18. Development of a low-pressure materials pre-treatment process for improved energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwanghee; You, Byung Don

    2017-09-01

    Low pressure materials pre-treatment process has been developed as an alternative to the existing high-temperature sludge drying, limestone calcination, and limonite dehydroxylation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium relationship between temperature and pressure represented by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the operational temperature of these reactions could be lowered at reduced pressure for increased energy efficiency. For industrial sludge drying, the evaporation rate was controlled by interfacial kinetics showing a constant rate with time and significant acceleration in the reaction could be observed with reduced pressure. At this modified reaction rate under low pressure, the rate was also partially controlled by mass transfer. Temperature of limestone calcination was lowered, but the reaction was limited at the calculated equilibrium temperature of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and slightly higher temperatures were required. The energy consumption during limestone calcination and limonite dehydroxylation were evaluated, where lower processing pressures could enhance the energy efficiency for limestone calcination, but limonite dehydroxylation could not achieve energy-savings due to the greater power consumption of the vacuum pump under lower pressure and reduced temperatures.

  19. Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jay R; Kang, Jie; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Hoffman, Mattan W; Tranchina, Christopher P; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a pre-exercise high energy drink on reaction time and anaerobic power in competitive strength/power athletes. In addition, the effect of the pre-exercise drink on subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus was also explored. Methods Twelve male strength/power athletes (21.1 ± 1.3 y; 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; 88.6 ± 12.1 kg; 17.6 ± 3.3% body fat) underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory and were provided with either 120 ml of a high energy drink (SUP), commercially marketed as Redline Extreme® or 120 ml of a placebo (PL) that was similar in taste and appearance but contained no active ingredients. Following consumption of the supplement or placebo subjects rested quietly for 10-minutes prior to completing a survey and commencing exercise. The survey consisted of 4 questions asking each subject to describe their feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus for that moment. Following the completion of the questionnaire subjects performed a 2-minute quickness and reaction test on the Makoto testing device (Makoto USA, Centennial CO) and a 20-second Wingate Anaerobic Power test. Following a 10-minute rest subjects repeated the testing sequence and after a similar rest period a third and final testing sequence was performed. The Makoto testing device consisted of subjects reacting to both a visual and auditory stimulus and striking one out of 30 potential targets on three towers. Results Significant difference in reaction performance was seen between SUP and PL in both average number of targets struck (55.8 ± 7.4 versus 51.9 ± 7.4, respectively) and percent of targets struck (71.9 ± 10.5% versus 66.8 ± 10.9%, respectively). No significant differences between trials were seen in any anaerobic power measure. Subjective feelings of energy (3.5 ± 0.5 versus 3.1 ± 0

  20. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Views about Nuclear Energy with Respect to Gender and University Providing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ates, H.; Saracoglu, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate pre-service science teachers' (PST) views about nuclear energy and to examine what effects, if any, of gender and the university of instruction had on their views. Data were collected through the Risks and Benefits about Nuclear Energy Scale (Iseri, 2012). The sample consisted of 214 PSTs who…

  1. Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvester Pre-charged Wirelessly at 2.45 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddi, Z.; Takhedmit, H.; Karami, A.; Basset, P.; Cirio, L.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and experiments of an electrostatic vibration harvester (e-VEH), pre-charged wirelessly for the first time by using an electromagnetic waves harvester at 2.4 GHz. The rectenna uses the Cockcroft-Walton voltage doubler rectifier. It is designed and optimized to operate at low power densities and provides high voltage levels: 0.5 V at 0.5 μW/cm2 and 0.8 V at 1 μW/cm2 The e-VEH uses the Bennet doubler as conditioning circuit. Experiments show 23 V voltage across the transducer terminal when the harvester is excited at 25 Hz by 1.5 g of external acceleration. An accumulated energy of 275 μJ and a maximum power of 0.4 μW are available for the load.

  2. Energy metabolism and biotransformation as endpoints to pre-screen hepatotoxicity using a liver spheroid model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Jinsheng; Purcell, Wendy M.

    2006-10-15

    The current study investigated liver spheroid culture as an in vitro model to evaluate the endpoints relevant to the status of energy metabolism and biotransformation after exposure to test toxicants. Mature rat liver spheroids were exposed to diclofenac, galactosamine, isoniazid, paracetamol, m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) and 3-nitroaniline (3-NA) for 24 h. Pyruvate uptake, galactose biotransformation, lactate release and glucose secretion were evaluated after exposure. The results showed that pyruvate uptake and lactate release by mature liver spheroids in culture were maintained at a relatively stable level. These endpoints, together with glucose secretion and galactose biotransformation, were related to and could reflect themore » status of energy metabolism and biotransformation in hepatocytes. After exposure, all of the test agents significantly reduced glucose secretion, which was shown to be the most sensitive endpoint of those evaluated. Diclofenac, isoniazid, paracetamol and galactosamine reduced lactate release (P < 0.01), but m-DNB increased lactate release (P < 0.01). Diclofenac, isoniazid and paracetamol also reduced pyruvate uptake (P < 0.01), while galactosamine had little discernible effect. Diclofenac, galactosamine, paracetamol and m-DNB also reduced galactose biotransformation (P < 0.01), by contrast, isoniazid did not. The metabolite of m-DNB, 3-NA, which served as a negative control, did not cause significant changes in lactate release, pyruvate uptake or galactose biotransformation. It is concluded that pyruvate uptake, galactose biotransformation, lactate release and glucose secretion can be used as endpoints for evaluating the status of energy metabolism and biotransformation after exposure to test agents using the liver spheroid model to pre-screen hepatotoxicity.« less

  3. Wind energy development: methods for assessing risks to birds and bats pre-construction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzner, Todd E.; Bennett, Victoria; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Braham, Melissa A.; Hale, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Wind power generation is rapidly expanding. Although wind power is a low-carbon source of energy, it can impact negatively birds and bats, either directly through fatality or indirectly by displacement or habitat loss. Pre-construction risk assessment at wind facilities within the United States is usually required only on public lands. When conducted, it generally involves a 3-tier process, with each step leading to more detailed and rigorous surveys. Preliminary site assessment (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Tier 1) is usually conducted remotely and involves evaluation of existing databases and published materials. If potentially at-risk wildlife are present and the developer wishes to continue the development process, then on-site surveys are conducted (Tier 2) to verify the presence of those species and to assess site-specific features (e.g., topography, land cover) that may influence risk from turbines. The next step in the process (Tier 3) involves quantitative or scientific studies to assess the potential risk of the proposed project to wildlife. Typical Tier-3 research may involve acoustic, aural, observational, radar, capture, tracking, or modeling studies, all designed to understand details of risk to specific species or groups of species at the given site. Our review highlights several features lacking from many risk assessments, particularly the paucity of before-and-after-control- impact (BACI) studies involving modeling and a lack of understanding of cumulative effects of wind facilities on wildlife. Both are essential to understand effective designs for pre-construction monitoring and both would help expand risk assessment beyond eagles.

  4. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and usemore » and knowledge about thermostats.« less

  5. Piezoelectric Pre-Stressed Bending Mechanism for Impact-Driven Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdal, A. M.; Leong, K. S.

    2017-06-01

    This paper experimentally demonstrates and evaluates a piezoelectric power generator bending mechanism based on pre-stressed condition whereby the piezoelectric transducer being bended and remained in the stressed condition before applying a force on the piezoelectric bending structure, which increase the stress on the piezoelectric surface and hence increase the generated electrical charges. An impact force is being exerted onto bending the piezoelectric beam and hence generating electrical power across an external resistive load. The proposed bending mechanism prototype has been manufactured by employing 3D printer technology in order to conduct the evaluation. A free fall test has been conducted as the evaluation method with varying force using a series of different masses and different fall heights. A rectangular piezoelectric harvester beam with the size of 32mm in width, 70mm in length, and 0.55mm in thickness is used to demonstrate the experiment. It can be seen from the experiment that the instantaneous peak to peak AC volt output measured at open-circuit is increasing and saturated at about of 70V when an impact force of about 80N is being applied. It is also found that a maximum power of about 53mW is generated at an impact force of 50N when it is connected to an external resistive load of 0.7KΩ. The reported mechanism is a promising candidate in the application of energy harvesting for powering various wireless sensor nodes (WSN) which is the core of Internet of Things (IoT).

  6. Origin of life: hypothesized roles of high-energy electrical discharges, infrared radiation, thermosynthesis and pre-photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Trevors, J T

    2012-12-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that during the organization of pre-biotic bacterial cell(s), high-energy electrical discharges, infrared radiation (IR), thermosynthesis and possibly pre-photosynthesis were central to the origin of life. High-energy electrical discharges generated some simple organic molecules available for the origin of life. Infrared radiation, both incoming to the Earth and generated on the cooling Earth with day/night and warming/cooling cycles, was a component of heat engine thermosynthesis before enzymes and the genetic code were present. Eventually, a primitive forerunner of photosynthesis and the capability to capture visible light emerged. In addition, the dual particle-wave nature of light is discussed from the perspective that life requires light acting both as a wave and particle.

  7. The potential of value management (VM) to improve the consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Rajemi, Mohamad Farizal

    2016-08-01

    Energy demand and consumption in buildings will rise rapidly in the near future because of several social economics factors and this situation occurs not only in developed countries but also in developing countries such as Malaysia. There is demand towards building with energy efficiency features at this time, however most of the current buildings types are still being constructed with conventional designs, thus contribute to inefficient of energy consumption during the operation stage of the building. This paper presents the concept and the application of Value Management (VM) approach and its potential to improve consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction process. Based on the relevant literatures, VM has provides an efficient and effective delivery system to fulfill the objectives and client's requirements. Generally in this paper, VM is discussed and scrutinized with reference to previous studies to see how these concepts contribute to better optimize the energy consumption in a building by seeking the best value energy efficiency through the design and construction process. This paper will not draw any conclusion but rather a preliminary research to propose the most energy efficiency measures to reliably accomplish a function that will meet the client's needs, desires and expectations. For further research in future, simple quantitative industry survey and VM workshops will be conducted to validate and further improve the research.

  8. Competition between the compound and the pre-compound emission processes in α-induced reactions at near astrophysical energy to well above it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Vijay Raj; Yadav, Abhiskek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2016-04-01

    The study of pre-compound emission in α-induced reactions, particularly at the low incident energies, is of considerable interest as the pre-compound emission is more likely to occur at higher energies. With a view to study the competition between the compound and the pre-compound emission processes in α-induced reactions at different energies and with different targets, a systematics for neutron emission channels in targets 51V, 55Mn, 93Nb, 121, 123Sb and 141Pr at energy ranging from astrophysical interest to well above it, has been developed. The off-line γ-ray-spectrometry based activation technique has been adopted to measure the excitation functions. The experimental excitation functions have been analysed within the framework of the compound nucleus mechanism based on the Weisskopf-Ewing model and the pre-compound emission calculations based on the geometry dependent hybrid model. The analysis of the data shows that experimental excitation functions could be reproduced only when the pre-compound emission, simulated theoretically, is taken into account. The strength of pre-compound emission process for each system has been obtained by deducing the pre-compound fraction. Analysis of data indicates that in α-induced reactions, the pre-compound emission process plays an important role, particularly at the low incident energies, where the pure compound nucleus process is likely to dominate.

  9. Use of the Drawing-Writing Technique to Determine the Level of Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers Regarding Renewable Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of pre-service science teachers in Turkey regarding the different types of renewable energy sources, the methods used for obtaining energy from these sources, and the areas of use for these energy sources. Within the context of the study, the drawing-writing technique was used in order…

  10. Energy Transformation Topic: Correlation between Pre-Classroom Reading Activity and Students’ Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttaqiin, A.; Sopandi, W.

    2017-09-01

    This research aimed to analyze the correlation between pre-classroom reading activity and students’ curiosity to science. 31 participants were selected randomly from one of the junior high schools in Cimahi. Spearman’s correlation was chosen since the data from two variables were not normally distributed. The result shows that there was a weak correlation between reading before learning and students’ curiosity in the classroom and it was not significant. Several factors influence this result, one of them was students’ reluctant in daily reading to science content.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of thermal pre-treated sludge at different solids concentrations--Computation of mass-energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Pilli, Sridhar; More, Tanaji; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2015-07-01

    The effect of thermal pre-treatment on sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) efficiency was studied at different total solids (TS) concentrations (20.0, 30.0 and 40.0 g TS/L) and digestion times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 days) for primary, secondary and mixed wastewater sludge. Moreover, sludge pre-treatment, AD and disposal processes were evaluated based on a mass-energy balance and corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Mass balance revealed that the least quantity of digestate was generated by thermal pre-treated secondary sludge at 30.0 g TS/L. The net energy (energy output-energy input) and energy ratio (energy output/energy input) for thermal pre-treated sludge was greater than control in all cases. The reduced GHG emissions of 73.8 × 10(-3) g CO2/g of total dry solids were observed for the thermal pre-treated secondary sludge at 30.0 g TS/L. Thermal pre-treatment of sludge is energetically beneficial and required less retention time compared to control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wind Energy and Wildlife Pre- and Post-Construction Project at Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, Raymond S.

    From 2009-2017, we conducted pre- and post-construction monitoring of wildlife at the Pantex Plant before and after construction of five wind turbines on the plant in 2014-2015. Pre-construction acoustic monitoring for bats was conducted at five sites on Pantex. Acoustic (here after Anabat) files were downloaded 30 times with Anabat files recorded from 6/21/2010 through 1/17/2014. The resulting data include over 3,000,000 files and we hope to analyze them in the future. We were never successful recording acoustic data after 2014 (post-construction). This is despite numerous attempts to trouble shoot our acoustic monitors. Wind damage to cables going from themore » body of the monitor to their microphones could not be repaired or replaced while towers were standing. Sampling of breeding birds was accomplished through point counts conducted at sites selected for turbine construction and others selected as control sites. Precipitation varied greatly over the course of the study, from a low of 17.81 cm (7.01 inches) during 2011 to a high of 87.96 cm (34.63 inches) during 2015. The pre-construction portion of the project was characterized by fairly extreme drought starting in 2011. Total precipitation for 2011 and 2012 was just 49.12 cm (19.34 inches), less than 50% of the average for a two-year period. The impact of this drought on nesting grassland birds manifest as low nesting species richness and abundance. In 2011 and 2012, 20 and 17 species were documented during point counts, respectively. Post-construction sampling followed the wet year of 2015 (87.96 cm, 34.63 inches). Species richness of nesting birds in 2016 and 2017 was considerably higher than during the drought, 40 and 37 species, respectively. We suspect changes in resource availability associated with relief from drought starting after 2015 was responsible for the recovery/increase in species detected during the breeding season; less importantly any changes from installation of turbines or changes in

  13. Fracture Energy-Based Brittleness Index Development and Brittleness Quantification by Pre-peak Strength Parameters in Rock Uniaxial Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Brittleness is a fundamental mechanical rock property critical to many civil engineering works, mining development projects and mineral exploration operations. However, rock brittleness is a concept yet to be investigated as there is not any unique criterion available, widely accepted by rock engineering community able to describe rock brittleness quantitatively. In this study, new brittleness indices were developed based on fracture strain energy quantities obtained from the complete stress-strain characteristics of rocks. In doing so, different rocks having unconfined compressive strength values ranging from 7 to 215 MPa were examined in a series of quasi-static uniaxial compression tests after properly implementing lateral-strain control in a closed-loop system to apply axial load to rock specimen. This testing method was essential to capture post-peak regime of the rocks since a combination of class I-II or class II behaviour featured post-peak stress-strain behaviour. Further analysis on the post-peak strain localisation, stress-strain characteristics and the fracture pattern causing class I-II and class II behaviour were undertaken by analysing the development of field of strains in the rocks via three-dimensional digital image correlation. Analysis of the results demonstrated that pre-peak stress-strain brittleness indices proposed solely based on pre-peak stress-strain behaviour do not show any correlation with any of pre-peak rock mechanical parameters. On the other hand, the proposed brittleness indices based on pre-peak and post-peak stress-strain relations were found to competently describe an unambiguous brittleness scale against rock deformation and strength parameters such as the elastic modulus, the crack damage stress and the peak stress relevant to represent failure process.

  14. Influence of duration of phosphoric acid pre-etching on bond durability of universal adhesives and surface free-energy characteristics of enamel.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of duration of phosphoric acid pre-etching on the bond durability of universal adhesives and the surface free-energy characteristics of enamel. Three universal adhesives and extracted human molars were used. Two no-pre-etching groups were prepared: ground enamel; and enamel after ultrasonic cleaning with distilled water for 30 s to remove the smear layer. Four pre-etching groups were prepared: enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 3, 5, 10, and 15 s. Shear bond strength (SBS) values of universal adhesive after no thermal cycling and after 30,000 or 60,000 thermal cycles, and surface free-energy values of enamel surfaces, calculated from contact angle measurements, were determined. The specimens that had been pre-etched showed significantly higher SBS and surface free-energy values than the specimens that had not been pre-etched, regardless of the aging condition and adhesive type. The SBS and surface free-energy values did not increase for pre-etching times of longer than 3 s. There were no significant differences in SBS values and surface free-energy characteristics between the specimens with and without a smear layer. The results of this study suggest that phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel improves the bond durability of universal adhesives and the surface free-energy characteristics of enamel, but these bonding properties do not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times of longer than 3 s. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in "J Chem Educ" 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by…

  16. The Evaluation of HOMER as a Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Pre-deployment Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-21

    used to ensure the HOMER models were accurate. Following the calibration, the concept of expeditionary energy density as it pertains to power ...MEP Mobile Electric Power MPP Maximum Power Point MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracker NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration...process was used to analyze HOMER’s modeling capability: • Conduct photovoltaic (PV) experiment, • Develop a calibration process to match the HOMER

  17. Structure prediction of nanoclusters; a direct or a pre-screened search on the DFT energy landscape?

    PubMed

    Farrow, M R; Chow, Y; Woodley, S M

    2014-10-21

    The atomic structure of inorganic nanoclusters obtained via a search for low lying minima on energy landscapes, or hypersurfaces, is reported for inorganic binary compounds: zinc oxide (ZnO)n, magnesium oxide (MgO)n, cadmium selenide (CdSe)n, and potassium fluoride (KF)n, where n = 1-12 formula units. The computational cost of each search is dominated by the effort to evaluate each sample point on the energy landscape and the number of required sample points. The effect of changing the balance between these two factors on the success of the search is investigated. The choice of sample points will also affect the number of required data points and therefore the efficiency of the search. Monte Carlo based global optimisation routines (evolutionary and stochastic quenching algorithms) within a new software package, viz. Knowledge Led Master Code (KLMC), are employed to search both directly and after pre-screening on the DFT energy landscape. Pre-screening includes structural relaxation to minimise a cheaper energy function - based on interatomic potentials - and is found to improve significantly the search efficiency, and typically reduces the number of DFT calculations required to locate the local minima by more than an order of magnitude. Although the choice of functional form is important, the approach is robust to small changes to the interatomic potential parameters. The computational cost of initial DFT calculations of each structure is reduced by employing Gaussian smearing to the electronic energy levels. Larger (KF)n nanoclusters are predicted to form cuboid cuts from the rock-salt phase, but also share many structural motifs with (MgO)n for smaller clusters. The transition from 2D rings to 3D (bubble, or fullerene-like) structures occur at a larger cluster size for (ZnO)n and (CdSe)n. Differences between the HOMO and LUMO energies, for all the compounds apart from KF, are in the visible region of the optical spectrum (2-3 eV); KF lies deep in the UV region

  18. Asymmetric supercapacitors based on electrospun carbon nanofiber/sodium-pre-intercalated manganese oxide electrodes with high power and energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sheng-Chi; Lu, Yi-Ting; Chien, Yu-An; Wang, Jeng-An; Chen, Po-Yu; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2018-07-01

    The sodium-pre-intercalated δ-MnO2 is in-situ grown on carbon nanofiber via a simple, one-step method for the application of asymmetric supercapacitors. The pre-intercalation of Na ions into the layered structure of δ-MnO2 reduces the crystallinity, beneficial to Na+ diffusion into/out the interlayer structure and pseudocapacitive utilization of MnO2. This NaxMnO2@CNF nanocomposite with desirable pseudo-capacitance from δ-NaxMnO2 and high electric conductivity from CNF network shows a high specific capacitance of 321 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 with ca. 75.2% capacitance retention from 1 to 32 A g-1. An ASC cell consisting of this nanocomposite and activated carbon as the positive and negative electrodes can be reversibly charged and discharged to a cell voltage of 2.0 V in 1 M Na2SO4 and 4 mM NaHCO3 with specific energy and power of 21 Wh kg-1 and 1 kW kg-1, respectively. This ASC also shows excellent cell capacitance retention (7% decay) in the 2 V, 10,000-cycle stability test, revealing superior performance.

  19. The Effect of Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching Times on Bonding Performance and Surface Free Energy with Single-step Self-etch Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, A; Barkmeier, W W; Takamizawa, T; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching times on shear bond strength (SBS) and surface free energy (SFE) with single-step self-etch adhesives. The three single-step self-etch adhesives used were: 1) Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (3M ESPE), 2) Clearfil tri-S Bond (Kuraray Noritake Dental), and 3) G-Bond Plus (GC). Two no pre-etching groups, 1) untreated enamel and 2) enamel surfaces after ultrasonic cleaning with distilled water for 30 seconds to remove the smear layer, were prepared. There were four pre-etching groups: 1) enamel surfaces were pre-etched with phosphoric acid (Etchant, 3M ESPE) for 3 seconds, 2) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 5 seconds, 3) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 10 seconds, and 4) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 15 seconds. Resin composite was bonded to the treated enamel surface to determine SBS. The SFEs of treated enamel surfaces were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the enamel surfaces and enamel-adhesive interface. The specimens with phosphoric acid pre-etching showed significantly higher SBS and SFEs than the specimens without phosphoric acid pre-etching regardless of the adhesive system used. SBS and SFEs did not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times over 3 seconds. There were no significant differences in SBS and SFEs between the specimens with and without a smear layer. The data suggest that phosphoric acid pre-etching of ground enamel improves the bonding performance of single-step self-etch adhesives, but these bonding properties do not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times over 3 seconds.

  20. Validation of a pre-coded food diary used among 60-80 year old men: comparison of self-reported energy intake with objectively recorded energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Stea, Tonje H; Andersen, Lene F; Paulsen, Gøran; Hetlelid, Ken J; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Adnanes, Svanhild; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Salvesen, Svein; Berntsen, Sveinung

    2014-01-01

    To validate energy intake (EI) estimated from a pre-coded food diary (PFD) against energy expenditure (EE) measured with a valid physical activity monitor (SenseWear Pro3 Armband) and to evaluate whether misreporting was associated with overweight/obesity in a group of elderly men. Forty-seven healthy Norwegian men, 60-80 years old, completed the study. As this study was part of a larger intervention study, cross-sectional data were collected at both baseline and post-test. Participants recorded their food intake for four consecutive days using food diaries and wore SenseWear Pro3 Armband (SWA) during the same period. Only participants with complete data sets at both baseline and post-test were included in the study. The group average EI was 17% lower at baseline and 18% lower at post-test compared to measured EE. Mean difference from Bland-Altman plot for EI and EE was -1.5 MJ/day (±1.96 SD: -7.0, 4.0 MJ/day) at baseline and -1.6 MJ/day (-6.6, 3.4 MJ/day) at post-test. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.54, p = 0.018) at baseline and 0.34 (0.06, 0.57, p = 0.009) at post-test. Higher values of underreporting was shown among overweight/obese compared to normal weight participants at both baseline and post-test (p≤ 0.001), respectively. The results indicate that the PFD could be a useful tool for estimating energy intake in normal weight elderly men. On the other hand, the PFD seems to be less suitable for estimating energy intake in overweight/obese elderly men.

  1. 77 FR 61585 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Hydro LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document (PAD... Application for a New License and Commencing Pre-filing Process. b. Project No.: 2531-067. c. Dated Filed... Commission a Pre-Application Document (PAD; including a proposed process plan and schedule), pursuant to 18...

  2. Pre-service Elementary School Teachers' Ability to Account for the Operation of Simple Physical Systems Using the Energy Conservation Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadouris, Nicos; Hadjigeorgiou, Angela; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2014-12-01

    Energy is recognized as a core idea in science and, hence, a significant learning objective of science education. The effective promotion of this learning objective posits that teachers themselves possess sound conceptual understanding. This is needed for enabling them to organize effective learning environments for their students. In this study, we report on the results of an empirical investigation of teachers' understanding of energy. In particular, the focus is placed on pre-service teachers' ability to employ energy as a framework for analyzing the operation of physical systems. We have collected data from 198 pre-service teachers through three open-ended tasks that involved the application of the energy conservation principle to simple physical systems. The results corroborate the claim made in the literature that teachers typically do not possess functional, coherent understanding of this principle. Most importantly, the data serve to identify and document specific difficulties that hamper attempts to use energy for the analysis of the operation of physical systems. The difficulties we were able to document lend support to the idea that it is important to introduce the idea of energy degradation alongside the conservation of energy principle. The findings of this study have implications for the design of preparation programs for teachers, about energy. The findings also provide insights into the limitations of conventional teaching of energy, to which the participants had been exposed as students, in fostering coherent understanding of energy conservation.

  3. 77 FR 51985 - Archon Energy 1, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ..., Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document, and Approving... Application and Request to Use the Traditional Licensing Process. b. Project No.: 14432-000. c. Date Filed... Endangered Species Act. m. Archon filed a Pre-Application Document (PAD) with the Commission, pursuant to 18...

  4. Influence of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment on Anaerobic Digestion of Secondary Thickened Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery in Sewage Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hephzibah, D.; Kumaran, P.; Saifuddin, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of secondary thickened sludge (STS) for enhancement of biogas production that has great potential to generate energy for the utilization of the sewage treatment plant (STP) itself. Microwave pre-treatment has been adopted for this study. Experiment works have been designed and conducted to examine the effectiveness of continuous flow microwave pre-treatment on the solubility of STS, digestibility of STS and biogas production at a power level of 80 W for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. A few characteristics of the sewage sludge were monitored daily to identify the effect of pre-treatment on the sludge. The soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)/total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ratio increased by 0.1, 1.0 and 1.8%, while the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of the pre-treated sludge improved by 4.4, 5.1, 5.9% at the irradiation time of 5, 10 and 15 minutes, respectively at a microwave power level of 80 W. Besides that, the digestate also indicates that the pre-treated sludge undergoes efficient VS removal and TCOD removal after anaerobic digestion compared to the untreated sludge. Moreover, the biogas quantity increased by an average of 19.2, 24.1 and 32.2% in 5, 10 and 15 minutes irradiation time respectively compared to the untreated sludge. The additional quantity of biogas generated has shown a great potential for sustainable energy generation that can be utilized internally by the STP.

  5. Thermal Properties and Energy Fluxes in Pre-monsoon Season of 2016 at the Ponkar Debris-Covered Glacier, Manang, Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, M. B.; Kayastha, R. B.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Himalayan glaciers are characterized by the presence of extensive debris cover in ablation areas. It is essential to understand the thermal properties and assess the effect of debris in glacier ice melt rate in debris-covered glaciers. Meteorological conditions are recorded on the lower ablation zone of the debris-covered Ponkar Glacier, Bhimthang, Manang, Nepal during pre-monsoon season of 2016. Debris temperature at different depths is monitored for winter and pre-monsoon season to estimate the effective heat conduction. Similarly, melt under the debris is also measured for pre-monsoon season. The incoming and outgoing shortwave radiations are measured at 2 m above the surface and other variables including air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation are used to estimate surface energy balance. Energy flux is dominated by net shortwave radiation as the foremost source of melting, where contribution of net longwave radiation, sensible, latent, and conductive heat flux is low. The daily average temperature gradients of the debris layer from surface to 30 cm below for winter and pre-monsoon seasons are 0.04 oC cm-1 and 0.23 oC cm-1, respectively. Debris thermal conductivities are 0.30 W m-1 K-1 and 1.69 W m-1 K-1 for the winter and pre-monsoon season, respectively. The higher value of conductivity during pre-monsoon season is due to the higher air temperature and increased precipitation compared to the winter months. The daily mean measured ice melt under a debris layer of 11-20 cm ranges from 0.6 to 1.1 cm. Estimation of melt at a few points can be used to estimate the general melting pattern for the glacier surface, which can be improved by using the spatial distribution of debris thickness and surface temperature.

  6. Comparison of the interfacial energy and pre-exponential factor calculated from the induction time and metastable zone width data based on classical nucleation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding

    2016-09-01

    The pre-exponential factor and interfacial energy obtained from the metastable zone width (MSZW) data using the integral method proposed by Shiau and Lu [1] are compared in this study with those obtained from the induction time data using the conventional method (ti ∝J-1) for three crystallization systems, including potassium sulfate in water in a 200 mL vessel, borax decahydrate in water in a 100 mL vessel and butyl paraben in ethanol in a 5 mL tube. The results indicate that the pre-exponential factor and interfacial energy calculated from the induction time data based on classical nucleation theory are consistent with those calculated from the MSZW data using the same detection technique for the studied systems.

  7. 75 FR 70224 - New York Tidal Energy Company; Notice Concluding Pre-Filing Process and Approving Process Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12665-003] New York Tidal... Tidal Energy Company. e. Name of Project: East River Tidal Energy Pilot Project. f. Location: In the.... Filed Pursuant to: 18 CFR 5.3 of the Commission's regulations. h. Applicant Contact: Daniel Power...

  8. 78 FR 59923 - Cave Run Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14376-001] Cave Run Energy...: July 21, 2013. d. Submitted By: Cave Run Energy, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cave Run Hydroelectric...: 18 CFR 5.3 of the Commission's regulations. h. Potential Applicant Contact: Mark Boumansour, Cave Run...

  9. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-01-01

    Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (<100°C) thermal pre-treatments were investigated to improve the present efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) carried out on waste activated sludge (WAS) in the largest Italian wastewater treatment plant (2,300,000p.e.). Thermal pre-treatments returned disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary study on the differentiation between parapelvic cyst and hydronephrosis with non-calculous using only pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT scans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dong; Ma, Guangming; Wei, Lequn; Ren, Chenglong; Zhou, Jieli; Shen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of using the quantitative parameters from only the pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT imaging for distinguishing between parapelvic cyst and hydronephrosis with non-calculous (HNC). Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. 28 patients with parapelvic cyst and 24 patients with HNC who underwent standard pre-contrast and multiphase contrast-enhanced dual-energy spectral CT imaging were retrospectively identified. The parapelvic cyst and HNC were identified using the contrast-enhanced scans, and their CT number in the 70-keV monochromatic images, effective atomic number (Zeff), iodine concentration (IC) and water concentration in the pre-contrast images were measured. The slope of the spectral curve (λ) was calculated. The difference in the measurements between parapelvic cyst and HNC was statistically analyzed using SPSS® v. 19.0 (IBM Corp., New York, NY; formerly SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) statistical software. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Results: The CT numbers in the 70-keV images, Zeff and IC values were statistically different between parapelvic cyst and HNC (all p < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of these parameters for distinguishing between parapelvic cyst and HNC were 89.2%, 73.3% and 82.1%; 86.5%, 43.3% and 67.2%; 91.9%, 40.0% and 68.7%; and 64.9%, 73.3% and 83.6%, respectively, and the combined specificity was 92.9%. There was no statistical difference in λ between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The quantitative parameters obtained in the pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT imaging may be used to differentiate between parapelvic cyst and HNC. Advances in knowledge: The pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT scans may be used to screen parapelvic cysts for patients who are asymptomatic, thereby avoiding contrast-enhanced CT or CT urography examination for these patients to reduce

  11. The Equilibrium and Pre-equilibrium Triton Emission Spectra of Some Target Nuclei for ( n, xt) Reactions up to 45 MeV Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Kaplan, A.; Aydın, A.; Özkorucuklu, S.; Büyükuslu, H.; Yıldırım, G.

    2010-08-01

    Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So, working out the systematics of ( n,t) reaction cross sections and triton emission differential data are important for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. In this study, ( n,xt) reactions for some target nuclei as 16O, 27Al, 59Co and 209Bi have been investigated up to 45 MeV incident neutron energy. In the calculations of the triton emission spectra, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been used. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.

  12. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 - 25.26 keV photon energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941).

  13. Confined ion energy >200 keV and increased fusion yield in a DPF with monolithic tungsten electrodes and pre-ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Eric J.; Hassan, Syed M.; Karamitsos, Ivana; Von Roessel, Fred

    2017-10-01

    To reduce impurities in the dense plasma focus FF-1 device, we used monolithic tungsten electrodes with pre-ionization. With this new set-up, we demonstrated a three-fold reduction of impurities by mass and a ten-fold reduction by ion number. FF-1 produced a 50% increase in fusion yield over our previous copper electrodes, both for a single shot and for a mean of ten consecutive shots with the same conditions. These results represent a doubling of fusion yield as compared with any other plasma focus device with the same 60 kJ energy input. In addition, FF-1 produced a new single-shot record of 240 ± 20 keV for mean ion energy, a record for any confined fusion plasma, using any device, and a 50% improvement in ten-shot mean ion energy. With a deuterium-nitrogen mix and corona-discharge pre-ionization, we were also able to reduce the standard deviation in the fusion yield to about 15%, a four-fold reduction over the copper-electrode results. We intend to further reduce impurities with new experiments using microwave treatment of tungsten electrodes, followed by the use of beryllium electrodes.

  14. Energy and macronutrient content of familiar beverages interact with pre-meal intervals to determine later food intake, appetite and glycemic response in young adults.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Liu, Ting Ting; Akhavan, Tina; El Khoury, Dalia; Goff, H Douglas; Harvey Anderson, G

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of pre-meal consumption of familiar beverages on appetite, food intake, and glycemic response in healthy young adults. Two short-term experiments compared the effect of consumption at 30 (experiment 1) or 120 min (experiment 2) before a pizza meal of isovolumetric amounts (500 mL) of water (0 kcal), soy beverage (200 kcal), 2% milk (260 kcal), 1% chocolate milk (340 kcal), orange juice (229 kcal) and cow's milk-based infant formula (368 kcal) on food intake and subjective appetite and blood glucose before and after a meal. Pre-meal ingestion of chocolate milk and infant formula reduced food intake compared to water at 30 min, however, beverage type did not affect food intake at 2h. Pre-meal blood glucose was higher after chocolate milk than other caloric beverages from 0 to 30 min (experiment 1), and after chocolate milk and orange juice from 0 to 120 min (experiment 2). Only milk reduced post-meal blood glucose in both experiments, suggesting that its effects were independent of meal-time energy intake. Combined pre- and post-meal blood glucose was lower after milk compared to chocolate milk and orange juice, but did not differ from other beverages. Thus, beverage calorie content and inter-meal intervals are primary determinants of food intake in the short-term, but macronutrient composition, especially protein content and composition, may play the greater role in glycemic control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reconstructing the eruption magnitude and energy budgets for the pre-historic eruption of the monogenetic ˜5 ka Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Otterloo, Jozua; Cas, Raymond A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding explosive volcanic eruptions, especially phreatomagmatic eruptions, their intensities and energy budgets is of major importance when it comes to risk and hazard studies. With only a few historic occurrences of phreatomagmatic activity, a large amount of our understanding comes from the study of pre-historic volcanic centres, which causes issues when it comes to preservation and vegetation. In this research, we show that using 3D geometrical modelling it is possible to obtain volume estimates for different deposits of a pre-historic, complex, monogenetic centre, the Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia. Using these volumes, we further explore the energy budgets and the magnitude of this eruption (VEI 4), including dispersal patterns (eruption columns varying between 5 and 10 km, dispersed towards north-east to south), to further our understanding of intraplate, monogenetic eruptions involving phreatomagmatic activity. We also compare which thermodynamic model fits best in the creation of the maar crater of Mt. Gambier: the major-explosion-dominated model or the incremental growth model. In this case, the formation of most of the craters can best be explained by the latter model.

  16. Pre-hibernation energy reserves in a temperate anuran, Rana chensinensis, along a relatively fine elevational gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, X.; Li, B.; Li, Y.; Ma, X.; Fellers, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Temperate anurans have energy substrates in the liver, fat bodies, carcass and gonads; these stores provide support for metabolism and egg production during hibernation, and for breeding activities in spring. This paper compares the energy budget shortly before hibernation among Rana chensinensis populations at elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m along a river in northern China. The larger frogs, regardless of elevation, had relatively heavy storage organs and the masses of nearly all these organs were positively correlated with each other. After controlling for the effect of body size, we found no significant difference in energetic organ mass among different age classes for each of the three populations. There were sexual differences in energy strategy. Males in all populations accumulated greater reserves in liver, fat bodies and carcass than did females. In contrast, females put more energy into their ovaries and oviducts. Frogs from higher elevations tended to have heavier organs than those from lower elevations; however, the pattern did not vary systematically along fine environmental gradients. Mid-elevation R. chensinensis built up significantly more reserves than low-elevation individuals, but were similar to their highland conspecifics. Males from higher elevations tended to have heavier liver and fat bodies; females were similar in liver and ovary mass across all elevations, but formed heavier fat bodies, oviducts and somatic tissue at higher elevation sites.

  17. Effects of d-a-Tocopherol and Dietary Energy on Growth and Health of Pre-ruminant Dairy Calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 wks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received moder...

  18. MCTDH on-the-fly: Efficient grid-based quantum dynamics without pre-computed potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richings, Gareth W.; Habershon, Scott

    2018-04-01

    We present significant algorithmic improvements to a recently proposed direct quantum dynamics method, based upon combining well established grid-based quantum dynamics approaches and expansions of the potential energy operator in terms of a weighted sum of Gaussian functions. Specifically, using a sum of low-dimensional Gaussian functions to represent the potential energy surface (PES), combined with a secondary fitting of the PES using singular value decomposition, we show how standard grid-based quantum dynamics methods can be dramatically accelerated without loss of accuracy. This is demonstrated by on-the-fly simulations (using both standard grid-based methods and multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree) of both proton transfer on the electronic ground state of salicylaldimine and the non-adiabatic dynamics of pyrazine.

  19. Microscopically based energy density functionals for nuclei using the density matrix expansion: Implementation and pre-optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoitsov, M.; Kortelainen, M.; Bogner, S. K.; Duguet, T.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Gebremariam, B.; Schunck, N.

    2010-11-01

    In a recent series of articles, Gebremariam, Bogner, and Duguet derived a microscopically based nuclear energy density functional by applying the density matrix expansion (DME) to the Hartree-Fock energy obtained from chiral effective field theory two- and three-nucleon interactions. Owing to the structure of the chiral interactions, each coupling in the DME functional is given as the sum of a coupling constant arising from zero-range contact interactions and a coupling function of the density arising from the finite-range pion exchanges. Because the contact contributions have essentially the same structure as those entering empirical Skyrme functionals, a microscopically guided Skyrme phenomenology has been suggested in which the contact terms in the DME functional are released for optimization to finite-density observables to capture short-range correlation energy contributions from beyond Hartree-Fock. The present article is the first attempt to assess the ability of the newly suggested DME functional, which has a much richer set of density dependencies than traditional Skyrme functionals, to generate sensible and stable results for nuclear applications. The results of the first proof-of-principle calculations are given, and numerous practical issues related to the implementation of the new functional in existing Skyrme codes are discussed. Using a restricted singular value decomposition optimization procedure, it is found that the new DME functional gives numerically stable results and exhibits a small but systematic reduction of our test χ2 function compared to standard Skyrme functionals, thus justifying its suitability for future global optimizations and large-scale calculations.

  20. Validity of 24-h recalls in (pre-)school aged children: comparison of proxy-reported energy intakes with measured energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Börnhorst, C; Bel-Serrat, S; Pigeot, I; Huybrechts, I; Ottavaere, C; Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Mouratidou, T; Mesana, M I; Westerterp, K; Bammann, K; Lissner, L; Eiben, G; Pala, V; Rayson, M; Krogh, V; Moreno, L A

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the validity of repeated 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) as a measure of total energy intake (EI) in young children. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of proxy-reported EI by comparison with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique. The agreement between EI and TEE was investigated in 36 (47.2% boys) children aged 4-10 years from Belgium and Spain using subgroup analyses and Bland-Altman plots. Low-energy-reporters (LER), adequate-energy-reporters (AER) and high-energy-reporters (HER) were defined from the ratio of EI over TEE by application of age- and sex-specific cut-off values. There was good agreement between means of EI (1500 kcal/day) and TEE (1523 kcal/day) at group level though in single children, i.e. at the individual level, large differences were observed. Almost perfect agreement between EI and TEE was observed in thin/normal weight children (EI: 1511 kcal/day; TEE: 1513 kcal/day). Even in overweight/obese children the mean difference between EI and TEE was only -86 kcal/day. Among the participants, 28 (78%) were classified as AER, five (14%) as HER and three (8%) as LER. Two proxy-reported 24-HDRs were found to be a valid instrument to assess EI on group level but not on the individual level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of different feeding regimens on energy and protein utilization and partitioning for maintenance and growth in pre-weaned lambs reared artificially.

    PubMed

    Danso, A S; Morel, P C H; Kenyon, P R; Blair, H T

    2016-12-01

    Estimation of metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (ME) and growth (ME) in pre-weaned lambs have been limited to milk-only fed lambs. This study aimed to determine energy and nitrogen metabolisability of milk and pellets when fed together, compare the growth and chemical body composition of lambs fed varying levels of pellets in addition to milk, and to estimate ME, ME, and the CP:ME ratio requirements for growth. The study included 32 twin-born Romney-cross ram lambs. Four lambs were slaughtered at 24 h post-partum to estimate initial body composition and the remaining 28 were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups of 7. Group 1 was fed milk replacer (MR) only; group 2 was fed MR and allowed ad libitum access to pellets; groups 3 and 4 were offered 30% and 60%, respectively of the average pellet intake of the ad libitum group the previous day while being fed MR. Milk replacer was fed as a proportion of the lamb's live weight (LW). Lambs from each treatment were placed in metabolic cages at 17 kg LW for 4 d to allow for total fecal and urine collection. All lambs were slaughtered at 18 kg LW. The ADG, ADG:ME ratio, stomach and liver weight, and rumen papillae lengths increased ( < 0.05) with increasing pellet intake. Increasing daily ME intake increased ( < 0.05) both daily energy and protein deposition but had no effect ( > 0.05) on fat deposition. However, the total chemical body composition was unaffected ( > 0.05) by dietary treatment. Digestibility of energy and N decreased ( < 0.05) with increasing ME intake. Percent energy and N retained for growth were 96% vs. 71% and 72% vs. 30% for milk and pellets, respectively. The ME and ME values obtained were 0.40 MJ ME/kg LW·d and 13.8 MJ ME/kg ADG, respectively. The CP:ME ratio of MR and pellet was 11.1 and 15.7, respectively. However, a simulation model suggested that lambs require a CP:ME ratio of 13.1 at 5 kg and 10.9 at 18 kg LW, indicating that protein intake may be limiting to lamb growth in

  2. Anaerobic digestion of straw and corn stover: The effect of biological process optimization and pre-treatment on total bio-methane yield and energy performance.

    PubMed

    Croce, Serena; Wei, Qiao; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a useful method for producing renewable energy/biofuel. Today, biogas production uses a large amount of energy crops (EC), with the effect of increasing AD costs and creating conflict between food/feed vs. energy use. A partial solution to this might be the substitution of EC with agricultural wastes, e.g. straw. Straw and corn stover are widely available in the world and approximately 1600millionMgyear -1 of these substrates are available. Straw can be useful used for biogas production but its characteristics limit its performance so that sometimes the energetic balance can be negative. In this review, the limits for the conversion of this substrate into biogas were investigated and solutions/proposals for getting higher straw biogas production performance are reported. In addition, energetic balances for untreated and pre-treated substrates are reported, giving indicative evaluations of the sustainability of straw and corn stover use for biogas production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Unit Design on Acute Care Nurses' Walking Distances, Energy Expenditure, and Job Satisfaction: A Pre-Post Relocation Study.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Darcy; Chambers, Misty

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what differences occurred in steps taken and energy expenditure among acute care nurses when their work environment moved from a hospital with centralized nurses' stations to a hospital with decentralized nurses' stations. Additional goals were to determine design features nurses perceived as contributing to or deterring from their work activities and what changes occurred in reported job satisfaction. Since design features can also affect patient outcomes, patient falls were monitored. The construction of a replacement facility for a 224-bed Level 1 trauma center provided the opportunity to compare the effects of centralized versus decentralized nurses' stations on nurses' experiences of their work environments. A pre-post quasi-experimental design was used. RN participants completed an open-ended questionnaire and recorded pedometer data at the end of each shift, working for 3-month pre-relocation and for 3-month post-relocation. Nine months passed between the move and post-relocation data collection. There were significant reductions in nurses' energy expenditure ( p < .001) and steps taken ( p = .041) post-relocation. Overall, nurses' job satisfaction was high and improved post-relocation, and patient falls decreased by 55%. Post-relocation, a number of the dissatisfiers associated with the physical environment were eliminated, and nurses identified more satisfiers (in general and related to the physical environment). Patients are safer post-relocation as indicated by a decrease in falls. This decrease is even more noteworthy when considering that the numbers of patient beds on each unit is higher post-relocation.

  4. Ratios of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers on satiety and energy intake in overweight pre- and postmenopausal women1

    PubMed Central

    Burton-Freeman, Britt; Liyanage, Dhanesh; Rahman, Sajida; Edirisinghe, Indika

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibers’ properties impact different mechanisms involved in satiety and energy intake regulation and metabolic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of fiber types and menopausal status on satiety and metabolic responses in overweight women. METHODS: In a randomized within-subjects design, 19 overweight/obese women [9 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal] consumed 3 preloads that varied by fiber content and source: 1) 3:1 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (SF), 2) 1:3 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (IF), 3) no fiber control (NFC). Subjective satiety, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG) were measured for 3 h post-preload followed by in-lab ad libitum test meal and 32 hour food intake monitoring. RESULTS: Significant preload, time and preload by menopausal status interaction was apparent for hunger and fullness (p < 0.05 for both) with SF preload predominantly more satiating in postmenopausal women. CCK and insulin were significantly lower after SF preload (p < 0.0001 for both). Post-preload glucose responses differed by menopausal status: postmenopausal women distinguished between fiber types unlike premenopausal women (p = 0.02). TG was significantly elevated after the IF preload compared to NFC and SF (p = 0.007 and p = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Customized/personalized dietary recommendations for women during their premenopausal and postmenopausal years can help maximize metabolic and appetite control. PMID:28447070

  5. Pre-strain effect on frequency-based impact energy dissipation through a silicone foam pad for shock mitigation [Pre-strain effect on the frequency response of shock mitigation through a silicone foam pad

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, Brett; Song, Bo; Smith, Scott

    Silicone foams have been used in a variety of applications from gaskets to cushioning pads over a wide range of environments. Particularly, silicone foams are used as a shock mitigation material for shock and vibration applications. Understanding the shock mitigation response, particularly in the frequency domain, is critical for optimal designs to protect internal devices and components more effectively and efficiently. The silicone foams may be subjected to pre-strains during the assembly process which may consequently influence the frequency response with respect to shock mitigation performance. A Kolsky compression bar was modified with pre-compression capabilities to characterize the shock mitigationmore » response of silicone foam in the frequency domain to determine the effect of pre-strain. Lastly, a silicone sample was also intentionally subjected to repeated pre-strain and dynamic loadings to explore the effect of repeated loading on the frequency response of shock mitigation.« less

  6. Pre-strain effect on frequency-based impact energy dissipation through a silicone foam pad for shock mitigation [Pre-strain effect on the frequency response of shock mitigation through a silicone foam pad

    DOE PAGES

    Sanborn, Brett; Song, Bo; Smith, Scott

    2015-12-29

    Silicone foams have been used in a variety of applications from gaskets to cushioning pads over a wide range of environments. Particularly, silicone foams are used as a shock mitigation material for shock and vibration applications. Understanding the shock mitigation response, particularly in the frequency domain, is critical for optimal designs to protect internal devices and components more effectively and efficiently. The silicone foams may be subjected to pre-strains during the assembly process which may consequently influence the frequency response with respect to shock mitigation performance. A Kolsky compression bar was modified with pre-compression capabilities to characterize the shock mitigationmore » response of silicone foam in the frequency domain to determine the effect of pre-strain. Lastly, a silicone sample was also intentionally subjected to repeated pre-strain and dynamic loadings to explore the effect of repeated loading on the frequency response of shock mitigation.« less

  7. Relationships among diet, physical activity, and dual plane dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone outcomes in pre-pubertalgirls.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Brann, Lynn S; Bruening, Kay S; Scerpella, Tamara A; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2017-12-01

    In pre-pubertal girls, nutrient intakes and non-aquatic organized activity were evaluated as factors in vertebral body bone mass, structure, and strength. Activity, vitamin B 12 , and dietary fiber predicted bone outcomes most consistently. Exercise and vitamin B 12 appear beneficial, whereas high fiber intake appears to be adverse for vertebral body development. Childhood development sets the baseline for adult fracture risk. Most studies evaluate development using postero-anterior (PA) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) areal bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and bone mineral apparent density. In a prior analysis, we demonstrated that PA DXA reflects posterior element properties, rather than vertebral body fracture sites, such that loading is associated with subtle differences in vertebral body geometry, not 3D density. The current analysis is restricted to pre-pubertal girls, for a focused exploration of key nutrient intakes and physical activity as factors in dual plane indices of vertebral body geometry, density, and strength. This cross-sectional analysis used paired PA and supine lateral (LAT) lumbar spine DXA scans to assess "3D" vertebral body bone mineral apparent density (PALATBMAD), "3D" index of structural strength in axial compression (PALATIBS), and fracture risk index (PALATFRI). Diet data were collected using the Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire (YAQ, 1995); organized physical activity was recorded via calendar-based form. Pearson correlations and backward stepwise multiple linear regression analyzed associations among key nutrients, physical activity, and bone outcomes. After accounting for activity and key covariates, fiber, unsupplemented vitamin B 12 , zinc, carbohydrate, vitamin C, unsupplemented magnesium, and unsupplemented calcium intake explained significant variance for one or more bone outcomes (p < 0.05). After adjustment for influential key nutrients and covariates, activity exposure was associated with postero

  8. Enhancement in current density and energy conversion efficiency of 3-dimensional MFC anodes using pre-enriched consortium and continuous supply of electron donors

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A

    2011-01-01

    Using a pre-enriched microbial consortium as the inoculum and continuous supply of carbon source, improvement in performance of a three-dimensional, flow-through MFC anode utilizing ferricyanide cathode was investigated. The power density increased from 170 W/m3 (1800 mW/m2) to 580 W/m3 (6130 mW/m2), when the carbon loading increased from 2.5 g/l-day to 50 g/l-day. The coulombic efficiency (CE) decreased from 90% to 23% with increasing carbon loading. The CEs are among the highest reported for glucose and lactate as the substrate with the maximum current density reaching 15.1 A/m2. This suggests establishment of a very high performance exoelectrogenic microbial consortium atmore » the anode. A maximum energy conversion efficiency of 54% was observed at a loading of 2.5 g/l-day. Biological characterization of the consortium showed presence of Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the dominant members. Imaging of the biofilms revealed thinner biofilms compared to the inoculum MFC, but a 1.9-fold higher power density.« less

  9. Lateral ordering of PTCDA on the clean and the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Stefan; Fiedler, Benjamin; Bauer, Oliver; Marele, Antonela; Sokolowski, Moritz M

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) on the clean and on the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface [referred to as (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100)] by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Our results confirm the (4√2 × 5√2)R45° superstructure of PTCDA/Cu(100) reported by A. Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99,11770-11779]. However, contrary to Schmidt et al., we have no indication for a dissociation of the PTCDA upon adsorption, and we propose a detailed structure model with two intact PTCDA molecules within the unit cell. Domains of high lateral order are obtained, if the deposition is performed at 400 K. For deposition at room temperature, a significant density of nucleation defects is found pointing to a strong interaction of PTCDA with Cu(100). Quite differently, after preadsorption of oxygen and formation of the (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100) superstructure on Cu(100), PTCDA forms an incommensurate monolayer with a structure that corresponds well to that of PTCDA bulk lattice planes.

  10. The Insidious Nature of "Hard-Core" Alternative Conceptions: Implications for the Constructivist Research Programme of Patterns in High School Students' and Pre-Service Teachers' Thinking about Ionisation Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the constructivist research programme (RP) into learning science by comparing patterns in responses from two groups of learners--senior high school students and pre-service teachers--in the same educational context (Singapore), to a diagnostic instrument relating to the topic of ionisation energies. This topic is…

  11. PreCam Survey Work at ANL

    Science.gov Websites

    - Astrophysics - DES - PreCam PreCam Work at ANL The Argonne/HEP Dark Energy Survey (DES) group, working on the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), built a mini-DECam camera called PreCam. This camera has provided valuable

  12. Estimation of relative free energies of binding using pre-computed ensembles based on the single-step free energy perturbation and the site-identification by Ligand competitive saturation approaches.

    PubMed

    Raman, E Prabhu; Lakkaraju, Sirish Kaushik; Denny, Rajiah Aldrin; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-06-05

    Accurate and rapid estimation of relative binding affinities of ligand-protein complexes is a requirement of computational methods for their effective use in rational ligand design. Of the approaches commonly used, free energy perturbation (FEP) methods are considered one of the most accurate, although they require significant computational resources. Accordingly, it is desirable to have alternative methods of similar accuracy but greater computational efficiency to facilitate ligand design. In the present study relative free energies of binding are estimated for one or two non-hydrogen atom changes in compounds targeting the proteins ACK1 and p38 MAP kinase using three methods. The methods include standard FEP, single-step free energy perturbation (SSFEP) and the site-identification by ligand competitive saturation (SILCS) ligand grid free energy (LGFE) approach. Results show the SSFEP and SILCS LGFE methods to be competitive with or better than the FEP results for the studied systems, with SILCS LGFE giving the best agreement with experimental results. This is supported by additional comparisons with published FEP data on p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. While both the SSFEP and SILCS LGFE approaches require a significant upfront computational investment, they offer a 1000-fold computational savings over FEP for calculating the relative affinities of ligand modifications once those pre-computations are complete. An illustrative example of the potential application of these methods in the context of screening large numbers of transformations is presented. Thus, the SSFEP and SILCS LGFE approaches represent viable alternatives for actively driving ligand design during drug discovery and development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Chandra and HST Observations of the High Energy (X-ray/UV) Radiation Fields for an Evolutionary Sequence of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexander; Herczeg, G. J.; Brown, J. M.; Walter, F. M.; Valenti, J.; Ardila, D.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Edwards, S.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Alexander, R.; Bergin, E. A.; Calvet, N.; Bethell, T. J.; Ingleby, L.; Bary, J. S.; Audard, M.; Baldovin, C.; Roueff, E.; Abgrall, H.; Gregory, S. G.; Ayres, T. R.; Linsky, J. L.

    2010-03-01

    Pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars are strong X-ray and UV emitters and the high energy radiation from the central stars directly influences the physical and chemical processes in their protoplanetary disks. Gas and dust in protoplanetary systems are excited by these photons, which are the dominant ionization source for hundreds of AU around the star. X-rays penetrate deep into disks and power complex chemistry on grain surfaces. ``Transitional disks'' are an important short-lived evolutionary stage for PMS stars and protoplanetary systems. These disks have transformed most of the dust and gas in their inner regions into planetesimals or larger solid bodies. As dust disks disappear after ages of roughly 5 Myr high levels of stellar magnetic activity persist and continue to bathe the newly-forming protoplanetary systems with intense high energy radiation. We present new X-ray and UV spectra for a sample of PMS stars at a variety of evolutionary stages, including the classical T Tauri stars DE Tau and DK Tau, the transitional disk stars GM Aur and HD135344B, the Herbig Ae star HD104237, and the weak-lined T Tauri star LkCa4, the Eta Cha cluster [age 7 Myr] members RECX1, RECX-11, and RECX-15, and TW Hya association [age 8 Myr] member TWA-2. These include the first results from our 111 orbit HST Large project and associated X-ray data. New and archival Chandra, XMM, and Swift X-ray spectra and HST COS+STIS FUV spectra are being used to reconstruct the full high energy (X-ray/EUV/FUV/NUV) spectra of these stars, thus allowing detailed modeling of the physics and chemistry of their circumstellar environments. The UV spectra provide improved emission line profiles revealing details of the magnetically-heated plasma and accretion and outflow processes. This work is supported by Chandra grants GO8-9024X, GO9-0015X and GO9-0020B and proposal 11200754 and HST GO grants 11336, 11616, and 11828.

  14. 10 CFR 609.4 - Submission of Pre-Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of Pre-Applications. 609.4 Section 609.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE... Pre-Applications, either Project Sponsors or Applicants may submit Pre-Applications to DOE. Pre...

  15. Influence of sward maturity and pre-conditioning temperature on the energy production from grass silage through the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB): 2. Properties of energy carriers and energy yield.

    PubMed

    Richter, F; Fricke, T; Wachendorf, M

    2011-04-01

    In order to determine influencing parameters on energy production of the IFBB process, herbage from a lowland hay meadow (Arrhenaterion) was sampled and ensiled at eight dates between 27 April and 21 June 2007. The silage from each date was processed in six IFBB treatments with and without hydrothermal conditioning at different temperatures. Methane yields and higher heating values were determined and an energy balance was calculated with whole-crop digestion (WCD) of the silage as reference system. Maximum net energy yields were 10.2 MWh ha(-1) for the IFBB treatment without hydrothermal conditioning and 9.0 MWh ha(-1) for the treatment with hydrothermal conditioning at 50 °C. WCD achieved a maximum net energy yield of 3.7 MWh ha(-1). Energy conversion efficiency ranged from 0.24 to 0.54 and was predicted with high accuracy by temperature of hydrothermal conditioning as well as concentration of neutral detergent fibre and dry matter in the silage (R(2)=0.90). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of acute ingestion of a pre-workout dietary supplement with and without p-synephrine on resting energy expenditure, cognitive function and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y Peter; Earnest, Conrad P; Koozehchian, Majid; Galvan, Elfego; Dalton, Ryan; Walker, Dillon; Rasmussen, Christopher; Murano, Peter S; Greenwood, Mike; Kreider, Richard B

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute ingestion of a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without p- synephrine (S) on perceptions of readiness to perform, cognitive function, exercise performance, and markers of safety. In a randomized, double-blind, and counterbalanced manner; 25 healthy and recreationally active male and female participants ingested a flavored maltodextrin placebo (PLA), a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg) with 2 g of maltodextrin and flavoring; or, the PWS with Citrus aurantium (PWS + S) extract standardized for 30% p -synephrine (20 mg). Participants had heart rate (HR), blood pressure, resting energy expenditure (REE), 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG), perceptions about readiness to perform, cognitive function (Stroop Color-Word test), bench and leg press performance (2 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of 1RM and 1 set to failure), and Wingate anaerobic capacity (WAC) sprint performance determined as well as donated blood samples prior to and/or following exercise/supplementation. Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures as well as mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI). No clinically significant differences were observed among treatments in HR, blood pressure, ECG, or general clinical blood panels. There was evidence that PWS and PWS + S ingestion promoted greater changes in REE responses. Participants reported higher perception of optimism about performance and vigor and energy with PWS and PWS + S ingestion and there was evidence that PWS and PWS + S improved changes in cognitive function scores from baseline to a greater degree than PLA after 1

  17. Corrosion resistance of alumina-forming alloys against molten chlorides for energy production. I: Pre-oxidation treatment and isothermal corrosion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vidal, J. C.; Fernandez, A. G.; Tirawat, R.

    Advanced components in next-generation concentrating solar power (CSP) applications will require advanced heat-transfer fluids and thermal-storage materials that work from about 550 °C to at least 720 °C, for integration with advanced power-conversion systems. To reach the cost target, less-expensive salts such as molten chlorides have been identified as high-temperature fluid candidates. High-strength alloys need to be identified and their mechanical and chemical degradation must be minimized to be used in CSP applications. Approaches for corrosion mitigation need to be investigated and optimized to drive down corrosion rates to acceptable levels—in the order of tens of micrometers per year—for achievingmore » a long system lifetime of at least 30 years. Surface passivation is a good corrosion mitigation approach because the alloy could then be exposed to both the liquid and the vapor phases of the salt mixture. In this investigation, we pre-oxidized the alumina-forming alloys Inconel 702, Haynes 224, and Kanthal APMT at different temperatures, dwelling times, and atmospheres to produce the passivation by forming protective oxides at the surface. The pretreated alloys were later corroded in molten MgCl2 – 64.41 wt% KCl at 700 °C in a flowing Ar atmosphere. We performed electrochemical techniques such as open-circuit potential followed by a potentiodynamic polarization sweep and conventional long-term weight-change tests to down-select the best-performing alloy and pre-oxidation conditions. The best corrosion results were obtained for In702 pre-oxidized in zero air at 1050 °C for 4 h. Finally, metallographic characterization of the pre-oxidized alloys and of the corroded surfaces showed that the formation of dense and uniform alumina scale during the pre-oxidation appears to protect the alloy from attack by molten chloride.« less

  18. Corrosion resistance of alumina-forming alloys against molten chlorides for energy production. I: Pre-oxidation treatment and isothermal corrosion tests

    DOE PAGES

    Gomez-Vidal, J. C.; Fernandez, A. G.; Tirawat, R.; ...

    2017-02-24

    Advanced components in next-generation concentrating solar power (CSP) applications will require advanced heat-transfer fluids and thermal-storage materials that work from about 550 °C to at least 720 °C, for integration with advanced power-conversion systems. To reach the cost target, less-expensive salts such as molten chlorides have been identified as high-temperature fluid candidates. High-strength alloys need to be identified and their mechanical and chemical degradation must be minimized to be used in CSP applications. Approaches for corrosion mitigation need to be investigated and optimized to drive down corrosion rates to acceptable levels—in the order of tens of micrometers per year—for achievingmore » a long system lifetime of at least 30 years. Surface passivation is a good corrosion mitigation approach because the alloy could then be exposed to both the liquid and the vapor phases of the salt mixture. In this investigation, we pre-oxidized the alumina-forming alloys Inconel 702, Haynes 224, and Kanthal APMT at different temperatures, dwelling times, and atmospheres to produce the passivation by forming protective oxides at the surface. The pretreated alloys were later corroded in molten MgCl2 – 64.41 wt% KCl at 700 °C in a flowing Ar atmosphere. We performed electrochemical techniques such as open-circuit potential followed by a potentiodynamic polarization sweep and conventional long-term weight-change tests to down-select the best-performing alloy and pre-oxidation conditions. The best corrosion results were obtained for In702 pre-oxidized in zero air at 1050 °C for 4 h. Finally, metallographic characterization of the pre-oxidized alloys and of the corroded surfaces showed that the formation of dense and uniform alumina scale during the pre-oxidation appears to protect the alloy from attack by molten chloride.« less

  19. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 – 25.26 keV photon energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-29

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 valuemore » of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)« less

  20. 10 CFR 603.500 - Pre-award business evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-award business evaluation. 603.500 Section 603.500 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation § 603.500 Pre-award business evaluation. (a) The contracting officer must determine the...

  1. 10 CFR 609.4 - Submission of Pre-Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of Pre-Applications. 609.4 Section 609.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE... Pre-Applications, either Project Sponsors or Applicants may submit Pre-Applications to DOE. The...

  2. Surface modification and deuterium retention in reduced-activation steels under low-energy deuterium plasma exposure. Part II: steels pre-damaged with 20 MeV W ions and high heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Zhou, Z.; Sugiyama, K.; Balden, M.; Pintsuk, G.; Gasparyan, Yu.; Efimov, V.

    2017-03-01

    The reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels including Eurofer (9Cr) and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels by the addition of Y2O3 particles investigated in Part I were pre-damaged either with 20 MeV W ions at room temperature at IPP (Garching) or with high heat flux at FZJ (Juelich) and subsequently exposed to low energy (~20-200 eV per D) deuterium (D) plasma up to a fluence of 2.9  ×  1025 D m-2 in the temperature range from 290 K to 700 K. The pre-irradiation with 20 MeV W ions at room temperature up to 1 displacement per atom (dpa) has no noticeable influence on the steel surface morphology before and after the D plasma exposure. The pre-irradiation with W ions leads to the same concentration of deuterium in all kinds of investigated steels, regardless of the presence of nanoparticles and Cr content. It was found that (i) both kinds of irradiation with W ions and high heat flux increase the D retention in steels compared to undamaged steels and (ii) the D retention in both pre-damaged and undamaged steels decreases with a formation of surface roughness under the irradiation of steels with deuterium ions with incident energy which exceeds the threshold of sputtering. The increase in the D retention in RAFM steels pre-damaged either with W ions (damage up to ~3 µm) or high heat flux (damage up to ~10 µm) diminishes with increasing the temperature. It is important to mention that the near surface modifications caused by either implantation of high energy ions or a high heat flux load, significantly affect the total D retention at low temperatures or low fluences but have a negligible impact on the total D retention at elevated temperatures and high fluences because, in these cases, the D retention is mainly determined by bulk diffusion.

  3. Energy.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2012-01-01

    Energy is the capacity to do the things we are capable of and desire to accomplish. Most often this is thought of in terms of PEP--personal energy potential--a reservoir of individual vivacity and zest for work. Like a battery, energy can be conceived of as a resource that is alternatively used and replenished. Transitions between activities, variety of tasks, and choices of what to spend energy on are part of energy management. Energy capacity can be thought of at four levels: (a) so little that harm is caused and extraordinary steps are needed for recovery, (b) a deficit that slightly impairs performance but will recover naturally, (c) the typical range of functioning, and (d) a surplus that may or may not be useful and requires continual investment to maintain. "Flow" is the experience of optimal energy use when challenges balance capacity as a result of imposing order on our environment. There are other energy resources in addition to personal vim. Effective work design reduces demands on energy. Money, office design, and knowledge are excellent substitutes for personal energy.

  4. Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers' Ability to Account for the Operation of Simple Physical Systems Using the Energy Conservation Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nicos; Hadjigeorgiou, Angela; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is recognized as a core idea in science and, hence, a significant learning objective of science education. The effective promotion of this learning objective posits that teachers themselves possess sound conceptual understanding. This is needed for enabling them to organize effective learning environments for their students. In this study,…

  5. 10 CFR 600.111 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements § 600.111 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of Grants and... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-award policies. 600.111 Section 600.111 Energy...

  6. Pre-Test Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Pre-tests are a non-graded assessment tool used to determine pre-existing subject knowledge. Typically pre-tests are administered prior to a course to determine knowledge baseline, but here they are used to test students prior to topical material coverage throughout the course. While counterintuitive, the pre-tests cover material the student is…

  7. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  8. Teaching Pre-Service Teachers about Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Ann

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how a Teacher Educator teaches her university students (pre-service teachers) about belonging; how it feels to belong to a group, why they need to spend their time and energy during the school day working to make K-12 students feel that they belong, what belonging looks like, and how to make it happen in the pre-service…

  9. Pre-conception energy balance and secondary sex ratio--partial support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2006-06-01

    suggested a positive effect of pre-conception BCS and BW change on secondary sex ratio, agreeing with the Trivers-Willard hypothesis that females in good physiological condition are more likely to produce male offspring.

  10. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults.

    PubMed

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19-55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. "Taste" was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  11. Pre-Columbian alloys from the royal tombs of Sipán; energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with a portable equipment.

    PubMed

    Cesareo, R; Calza, C; Dos Anjos, M; Lopes, R T; Bustamante, A; Fabian S, J; Alva, W; Chero Z, L

    2010-01-01

    On the north coast of present-day Peru flourished approximately between 50 and 700 AD, the Moche civilization. It was an advanced culture and the Moche were sophisticated metalsmiths, so that they are considered as the finest producers of jewels and artefacts of the region. The Moche metalworking ability was impressively demonstrated by the objects discovered by Walter Alva and coworkers in 1987, in the excavations of the "Tumbas Reales de Sipán". About 50 metal objects from these excavations, now at the namesake Museum, in Lambayeque, north of Peru, were analyzed with a portable equipment using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This portable equipment is mainly composed of a small size X-ray tube and a thermoelectrically cooled X-ray detector. Standard samples of gold and silver alloys were employed for quantitative analysis. It was determined that the analyzed artefacts from the "Tumbas Reales de Sipán" are mainly composed of gold, silver and copper alloys, of gilded copper and of tumbaga, the last being a poor gold alloy enriched at the surface by depletion gilding, i.e. removing copper from the surface. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A pre-partum lift in ewe nutrition from a high-energy lick or maize or by grazing Lotus uliginosus pasture, increases colostrum production and lamb survival.

    PubMed

    Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Lindsay, D R; Milton, J T B

    2009-08-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that a lift in the nutrition of ewes, before lambing, to increase colostrum production would enhance lamb survival. In all, 261 mature Corriedale ewes, each with a single fetus from a synchronised mating, grazed native pasture to day 130 after mating; at which point they were weighed, condition scored and allocated to graze either native pasture or a pasture dominant with Lotus uliginosus. Five days later (14 days before the expected start of lambing) the ewes were allocated to one of four treatments and fed: (i) native pasture alone, (ii) native pasture plus a commercial high-energy lick, (iii) L. uliginosus pasture alone or (iv) L. uliginosus pasture plus whole maize. The weight, viscosity and concentration of components and immunoglobulin G in the colostrum that had accumulated at parturition, were measured for 10 ewes in each treatment. The lambs that survived to 20 days of age from the 221 ewes that were not milked, were recorded. The ewes supplemented with the lick or maize grain and those that grazed the L. uliginosus pasture alone accumulated two to three times more colostrum at birth than the ewes that grazed native pasture alone (396, 635 and 662 g v. 206 g; P < 0.01). The colostrum from the ewes that grazed only native pasture was more viscous (lower score) than that from the ewes supplemented with the lick or maize grain or the ewes that grazed the L. uliginosus pasture alone (scores of 4.1 v. 6.2, 6.5 and 6.4, P < 0.001) and, not surprisingly, the concentration of lactose in the colostrum of the ewes fed only native pasture was also much lower (1.1% v. 3.0%, 2.8% and 2.6%; P < 0.001)he survival of lambs from the ewes fed only native pasture was less than that of the lambs from ewes fed native pasture plus the commercial lick (81.8% v. 95.5%; P < 0.05) or the L. uliginosus pasture alone (92.4%, P < 0.05), and also tended to be lower than that for lambs born to ewes fed L. uliginosus pasture plus maize (91.8%, P = 0

  13. 10 CFR 900.4 - Pre-Application mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-Application mechanism. 900.4 Section 900.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COORDINATION OF FEDERAL AUTHORIZATIONS FOR ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 900.4 Pre-Application mechanism. (a) An applicant, or prospective applicant, for a Federal authorization seeking...

  14. Core level electron energy-loss spectra of minerals: pre-edge fine structures at the oxygen K-edge . Comment on ``Water in minerals detectable by electron energy-loss spectroscopy EELS'' by R. Wirth, Phys Chem Minerals (1997) 24:561-568

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aken, P. A.; Liebscher, B.; Styrsa, V. J.

    In a recent paper entitled ``Water in minerals detectable by electron energy-loss spectroscopy EELS'' by R. Wirth, it has been claimed that OH-- and H2O-bearing minerals exhibit a characteristic peak in the ELNES spectra at about 528 eV prior to the onset of the O K-edge at 532 eV, which could be used for (semi-)quantitative determination of water- or OH-contents on a nanometer scale. It is shown here by parallel electron energy-loss spectroscopy (PEELS) recorded in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) that O K-pre-edge peaks with very high intensities may also exist in water-free compounds and minerals, in particular when they contain transition metals. These spectral features arise from covalent mixing of the metal and oxygen states, which introduces oxygen p character in unoccupied states of mainly metal character. The point is illustrated by the comparison of hematite (α-Fe2O3) and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) O K-edge PEELS spectra which exhibit similar intensities of the pre-edge peak, despite of their grossly different OH- contents. As a consequence, the general validity of the method proposed by Wirth is questioned.

  15. Pre-Packaged Commercial PACE Financing Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallander, Michael

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a more streamlined method for facilitating commercial property assessed clean energy (PACE) retrofits. The Recipient aimed to prove that energy efficiency performance of simple, pre-packaged technologies (e.g., lighting and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)) can be accurately estimated without the need for a detailed energy audit. A successful project would inspire consumer confidence in undertaking cost-effective retrofits.

  16. Pre-Algebra Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Dunstan; Cuevas, Gilberto

    The pre-algebra lexicon is a set of classroom exercises designed to teach the technical words and phrases of pre-algebra mathematics, and includes the terms most commonly found in related mathematics courses. The lexicon has three parts, each with its own introduction. The first introduces vocabulary items in three groups forming a learning…

  17. 75 FR 11873 - Notice of Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Notice of Fuel Cell Pre... Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop. SUMMARY: The Fuel Cell Technologies Program, under the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, is inviting the fuel cell research community and other...

  18. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  19. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing...

  20. Pre-Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Brittberg, Mats; Eriksson, Karl; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Lindahl, Anders; Marlovits, Stefan; Möller, Per; Richardson, James B.; Steinwachs, Matthias; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Objective An attempt to define pre-osteoarthritis (OA) versus early OA and definitive osteoarthritis. Methods A group of specialists in the field of cartilage science and treatment was formed to consider the nature of OA onset and its possible diagnosis. Results Late-stage OA, necessitating total joint replacement, is the end stage of a biological process, with many previous earlier stages. Early-stage OA has been defined and involves structural changes identified by arthroscopy or radiography. The group argued that before the “early-stage OA” there must exist a stage where cellular processes, due to the presence of risk factors, have kicked into action but have not yet resulted in structural changes. The group suggested that this stage could be called “pre-osteoarthritis” (pre-OA). Conclusions The group suggests that defining points of initiation for OA in the knee could be defined, for example, by traumatic episodes or surgical meniscectomy. Such events may set in motion metabolic processes that could be diagnosed by modern MRI protocols or arthroscopy including probing techniques before structural changes of early OA have developed. Preventive measures should preferably be applied at this pre-OA stage in order to stop the projected OA “epidemic.” PMID:26175861

  1. Pre-Demolition Inspections

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A pre-demolition inspection may be one of the most helpful and cost-efficient steps you can take to identify materials that should (or must) be removed from buildings prior to demolition. In some cases it may be required by regulation.

  2. Pre-heating mitigates composite degradation

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Jessika Calixto; Rogério Vieira, REGES; REGE, Inara Carneiro Costa; CRUZ, Carlos Alberto dos Santos; VAZ, Luís Geraldo; ESTRELA, Carlos; de CASTRO, Fabrício Luscino Alves

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental composites cured at high temperatures show improved properties and higher degrees of conversion; however, there is no information available about the effect of pre-heating on material degradation. Objectives This study evaluated the effect of pre-heating on the degradation of composites, based on the analysis of radiopacity and silver penetration using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Material and Methods Thirty specimens were fabricated using a metallic matrix (2x8 mm) and the composites Durafill VS (Heraeus Kulzer), Z-250 (3M/ESPE), and Z-350 (3M/ESPE), cured at 25°C (no pre-heating) or 60°C (pre-heating). Specimens were stored sequentially in the following solutions: 1) water for 7 days (60°C), plus 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for 14 days (60°C); 2) 50% silver nitrate (AgNO3) for 10 days (60°C). Specimens were radiographed at baseline and after each storage time, and the images were evaluated in gray scale. After the storage protocol, samples were analyzed using SEM/EDS to check the depth of silver penetration. Radiopacity and silver penetration data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α=5%). Results Radiopacity levels were as follows: Durafill VSZ-350>Z-250 (p<0.05). After storage in water/NaOH, pre-heated specimens presented higher radiopacity values than non-pre-heated specimens (p<0.05). There was a lower penetration of silver in pre-heated specimens (p<0.05). Conclusions Pre-heating at 60°C mitigated the degradation of composites based on analysis of radiopacity and silver penetration depth. PMID:26814459

  3. 10 CFR 609.5 - Evaluation of Pre-Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation of Pre-Applications. 609.5 Section 609.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE... for an Eligible Project; (2) The submission contains the information required by § 609.4 of this part...

  4. 10 CFR 609.5 - Evaluation of Pre-Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation of Pre-Applications. 609.5 Section 609.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE... for an Eligible Project; (2) The submission contains the information required by § 609.4 of this part...

  5. 10 CFR 609.5 - Evaluation of Pre-Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation of Pre-Applications. 609.5 Section 609.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE... for an Eligible Project; (2) The submission contains the information required by § 609.4 of this part...

  6. 10 CFR 609.5 - Evaluation of Pre-Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation of Pre-Applications. 609.5 Section 609.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE... for an Eligible Project; (2) The submission contains the information required by § 609.4 of this part...

  7. 10 CFR 609.5 - Evaluation of Pre-Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation of Pre-Applications. 609.5 Section 609.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE... for an Eligible Project; (2) The submission contains the information required by § 609.4 of this part...

  8. Pre-college education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Sylvia

    1990-01-01

    Pre-college education efforts are many and varied, involving the teachers, students, parents, museums, and youth groups. However, it is necessary to reach out to school administration at all levels if teachers are to be innovative in their approaches. This introductory meeting clearly indicated that more interaction between the participants would be profitable. It is clear that the science pipeline leading from kindergarten to college entry needs to be filled with students. What is not clear is how we can do it. The plethora of projects being pursued by the NASA Space Grant College Fellowship (NSGC) programs to accomplish that goal are heartening and exciting. However, this large gamut of programs may also indicate how new we are in this game and how little anyone knows about creating a pre-college interest in science and engineering. In a way, it resembles the situation of the common cold--there is no known cure yet, so there are many so-called remedies. Unfortunately, the time we had together was entirely too short to address the evaluation situation, so that we can in the future zero in on the most effective approaches. This report is a summary of the many ways the different NSGC' s are approaching pre-college education and a list of suggestions.

  9. Pre-operative anaemia.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, B; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    Pre-operative anaemia is a relatively common finding, affecting a third of patients undergoing elective surgery. Traditionally associated with chronic disease, management has historically focused on the use of blood transfusion as a solution for anaemia in the peri-operative period. Data from large series now suggest that anaemia is an independent risk associated with poor outcome in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Furthermore, blood transfusion does not appear to ameliorate this risk, and in fact may increase the risk of postoperative complications and hospital length of stay. Consequently, there is a need to identify, diagnose and manage pre-operative anaemia to reduce surgical risk. Discoveries in the pathways of iron metabolism have found that chronic disease can cause a state of functional iron deficiency leading to anaemia. The key iron regulatory protein hepcidin, activated in response to inflammation, inhibits absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and further reduces bioavailability of iron stores for red cell production. Consequently, although iron stores (predominantly ferritin) may be normal, the transport of iron either from the gastrointestinal tract or iron stores to the bone marrow is inhibited, leading to a state of 'functional' iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia. Since absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is blocked, increasing oral iron intake is ineffective, and studies are now looking at the role of intravenous iron to treat anaemia in the surgical setting. In this article, we review the incidence and impact of anaemia on the pre-operative patient. We explain how anaemia may be caused by functional iron deficiency, and how iron deficiency anaemia may be diagnosed and treated. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Pre-Apprenticeship Training Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Paul; Blomberg, Davinia

    2011-01-01

    Pre-apprenticeships are becoming an increasingly important component of the Australian vocational education and training (VET) system. The purpose of this report is to investigate the level of pre-apprenticeship activity occurring in Australia and to examine the characteristics of pre-apprenticeship courses and the students undertaking those…

  11. Does Pre-Assessment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2018-01-01

    Exactly what is a pre-assessment, and how are they best used? In this article, Thomas R. Guskey explores the theoretical underpinnings of pre-assessments and provides an overview of the research. He also details the three forms that pre-assessments take: prerequisite, present, and preview.

  12. Session: Pre-development project risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Richard; Linehan, Andy

    This second session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The focus of the presentations was on the practices and methodologies used in the wind energy industry for assessing risk to birds and bats at candidate project sites. Presenters offered examples of pre-development siting evaluation requirements set by certain states. Presentation one was titled ''Practices and Methodologies and Initial Screening Tools'' by Richard Curry of Curry and Kerlinger, LLC. Presentation two was titled ''State of the Industry in the Pacific Northwest'' by Andy Linehan, CH2MHILL.

  13. 15 CFR 970.2402 - Notice of pre-enactment exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre... Director, Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department...

  14. 15 CFR 970.2402 - Notice of pre-enactment exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre... Director, Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department...

  15. 15 CFR 970.2402 - Notice of pre-enactment exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre... Director, Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department...

  16. 15 CFR 970.2402 - Notice of pre-enactment exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre... Director, Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department...

  17. 15 CFR 970.2402 - Notice of pre-enactment exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre... Director, Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department...

  18. 10 CFR 603.830 - Pre-award costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at the recipient's risk (e.g., DOE is not obligated to reimburse the costs if, for any reason, the recipient does not receive an award, or if the award is less than anticipated and inadequate to cover the... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-award costs. 603.830 Section 603.830 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  19. 10 CFR 603.830 - Pre-award costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... at the recipient's risk (e.g., DOE is not obligated to reimburse the costs if, for any reason, the recipient does not receive an award, or if the award is less than anticipated and inadequate to cover the... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-award costs. 603.830 Section 603.830 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  20. 10 CFR 603.830 - Pre-award costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... at the recipient's risk (e.g., DOE is not obligated to reimburse the costs if, for any reason, the recipient does not receive an award, or if the award is less than anticipated and inadequate to cover the... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-award costs. 603.830 Section 603.830 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  1. 10 CFR 603.830 - Pre-award costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... at the recipient's risk (e.g., DOE is not obligated to reimburse the costs if, for any reason, the recipient does not receive an award, or if the award is less than anticipated and inadequate to cover the... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-award costs. 603.830 Section 603.830 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  2. 10 CFR 603.830 - Pre-award costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... at the recipient's risk (e.g., DOE is not obligated to reimburse the costs if, for any reason, the recipient does not receive an award, or if the award is less than anticipated and inadequate to cover the... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-award costs. 603.830 Section 603.830 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  3. 10 CFR 603.500 - Pre-award business evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-award business evaluation. 603.500 Section 603.500... Business Evaluation § 603.500 Pre-award business evaluation. (a) The contracting officer must determine the qualification of the recipient, as described in §§ 603.510 and 603.515. (b) As the business expert working with...

  4. 10 CFR 603.500 - Pre-award business evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-award business evaluation. 603.500 Section 603.500... Business Evaluation § 603.500 Pre-award business evaluation. (a) The contracting officer must determine the qualification of the recipient, as described in §§ 603.510 and 603.515. (b) As the business expert working with...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q Appendix Q to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q Appendix Q to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q Appendix Q to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This...

  8. Pre- and Early-Postnatal Nutrition Modify Gene and Protein Expressions of Muscle Energy Metabolism Markers and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in a Muscle Type Specific Manner in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lei; Kongsted, Anna H.; Ghoreishi, Seyed M.; Takhtsabzy, Tasnim K.; Friedrichsen, Martin; Hellgren, Lars I.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Vaag, Allan; Nielsen, Mette O.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that undernutrition in late fetal life reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity in adult sheep, irrespective of dietary exposure in early postnatal life. Skeletal muscle may play an important role in control of insulin action. We therefore studied a range of putative key muscle determinants of insulin signalling in two types of skeletal muscles (longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF)) and in the cardiac muscle (ventriculus sinister cordis (VSC)) of sheep from the same experiment. Twin-bearing ewes were fed either 100% (NORM) or 50% (LOW) of their energy and protein requirements during the last trimester of gestation. From day-3 postpartum to 6-months of age (around puberty), twin offspring received a high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) or a moderate-conventional (CONV) diet, whereafter all males were slaughtered. Females were subsequently raised on a moderate diet and slaughtered at 2-years of age (young adults). The only long-term consequences of fetal undernutrition observed in adult offspring were lower expressions of the insulin responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1α (PGC1α) mRNA in BF, but increased PGC1α expression in VSC. Interestingly, the HCHF diet in early postnatal life was associated with somewhat paradoxically increased expressions in LD of a range of genes (but not proteins) related to glucose uptake, insulin signalling and fatty acid oxidation. Except for fatty acid oxidation genes, these changes persisted into adulthood. No persistent expression changes were observed in BF and VSC. The HCHF diet increased phospholipid ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in all muscles, even in adults fed identical diets for 1½ years. In conclusion, early postnatal, but not late gestation, nutrition had long-term consequences for a number of determinants of insulin action and metabolism in LD. Tissues other than muscle may account for reduced whole

  9. 18 CFR 5.6 - Pre-application document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., threatened and endangered species. A description of any listed rare, threatened and endangered, candidate, or... located, or would violate any Federal law, including the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.6 Pre...

  10. 18 CFR 5.6 - Pre-application document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., threatened and endangered species. A description of any listed rare, threatened and endangered, candidate, or... located, or would violate any Federal law, including the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.6 Pre...

  11. 18 CFR 5.6 - Pre-application document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., threatened and endangered species. A description of any listed rare, threatened and endangered, candidate, or... located, or would violate any Federal law, including the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.6 Pre...

  12. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Allen, Phillip Grant

    2011-01-01

    High-power ultrasonic actuators are generally assembled with a horn, backing, stress bolt, piezoelectric rings, and electrodes. The manufacturing process is complex, expensive, difficult, and time-consuming. The internal stress bolt needs to be insulated and presents a potential internal discharge point, which can decrease actuator life. Also, the introduction of a center hole for the bolt causes many failures, reducing the throughput of the manufactured actuators. A new design has been developed for producing ultrasonic horn actuators. This design consists of using flexures rather than stress bolts, allowing one to apply pre-load to the piezoelectric material. It also allows one to manufacture them from a single material/plate, rapid prototype them, or make an array in a plate or 3D structure. The actuator is easily assembled, and application of pre-stress greater than 25 MPa was demonstrated. The horn consists of external flexures that eliminate the need for the conventional stress bolt internal to the piezoelectric, and reduces the related complexity. The stress bolts are required in existing horns to provide prestress on piezoelectric stacks when driven at high power levels. In addition, the manufacturing process benefits from the amenability to produce horn structures with internal cavities. The removal of the pre-stress bolt removes a potential internal electric discharge point in the actuator. In addition, it significantly reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the piezoelectric stacks that result from the hole surface in conventional piezoelectric actuators. The novel features of this disclosure are: 1. A design that can be manufactured from a single piece of metal using EDM, precision machining, or rapid prototyping. 2. Increased electromechanical coupling of the horn actuator. 3. Higher energy density. 4. A monolithic structure of a horn that consists of an external flexure or flexures that can be used to pre-stress a solid piezoelectric structure

  13. Methods for solid electrolyte interphase formation and anode pre-lithiation of lithium ion capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Santhanam; Xi, Xiaomei; Ye, Xiang-Rong

    A method of pre-doping an anode of an energy storage device can include immersing the anode and a dopant source in an electrolyte, and coupling a substantially constant current between the anode and the dopant source. A method of pre-doping an anode of an energy storage device can include immersing the anode and a dopant source in an electrolyte, and coupling a substantially constant voltage across the anode and the dopant source. An energy storage device can include an anode having a lithium ion pre-doping level of about 60% to about 90%.

  14. Pre-flare coronal dimmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Su, Y. N.; Ji, H. S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Coronal dimmings are regions of decreased extreme-ultravoilet (EUV) and/or X-ray (originally Skylab, then Yohkoh/SXT) intensities, which are often associated with flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The large-scale impulsive dimmings have been thoroughly observed and investigated. The pre-flare dimmings before the flare impulsive phase, however, have rarely been studied in detail. Aims: We focus on the pre-flare coronal dimmings. We report our multiwavelength observations of the GOES X1.6 solar flare and the accompanying halo CME that was produced by the eruption of a sigmoidal magnetic flux rope (MFR) in NOAA active region (AR) 12158 on 2014 September 10. Methods: The eruption was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). The photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms were observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board SDO. The soft X-ray (SXR) fluxes were recorded by the GOES spacecraft. The halo CME was observed by the white-light coronagraphs of the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) on board SOHO. Results: About 96 min before the onset of the flare/CME, narrow pre-flare coronal dimmings appeared at the two ends of the twisted MFR. They extended very slowly, with their intensities decreasing with time, while their apparent widths (8-9 Mm) continued to be nearly constant. During the impulsive and decay phases of flare, typical fan-like twin dimmings appeared and expanded, with a much larger extent and lower intensities than the pre-flare dimmings. The percentage of the 171 Å intensity decrease reaches 40%. The pre-flare dimmings are most striking in 171, 193, and 211 Å with formation temperatures of 0.6-2.5 MK. The northern part of the pre-flare dimmings could also be recognized in 131 and 335 Å. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of pre-flare coronal dimmings; they can be explained by density depletion as a result of the gradual

  15. Structural motifs of pre-nucleation clusters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Türkmen, I R; Wassermann, B; Erko, A; Rühl, E

    2013-10-07

    Structural motifs of pre-nucleation clusters prepared in single, optically levitated supersaturated aqueous aerosol microparticles containing CaBr2 as a model system are reported. Cluster formation is identified by means of X-ray absorption in the Br K-edge regime. The salt concentration beyond the saturation point is varied by controlling the humidity in the ambient atmosphere surrounding the 15-30 μm microdroplets. This leads to the formation of metastable supersaturated liquid particles. Distinct spectral shifts in near-edge spectra as a function of salt concentration are observed, in which the energy position of the Br K-edge is red-shifted by up to 7.1 ± 0.4 eV if the dilute solution is compared to the solid. The K-edge positions of supersaturated solutions are found between these limits. The changes in electronic structure are rationalized in terms of the formation of pre-nucleation clusters. This assumption is verified by spectral simulations using first-principle density functional theory and molecular dynamics calculations, in which structural motifs are considered, explaining the experimental results. These consist of solvated CaBr2 moieties, rather than building blocks forming calcium bromide hexahydrates, the crystal system that is formed by drying aqueous CaBr2 solutions.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This... Reactor Safeguards of requests for early review of one or more site suitability issues relating to the...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This... Reactor Safeguards of requests for early review of one or more site suitability issues relating to the...

  18. Pre-Service Teachers Institute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-18

    The Pre-Service Teachers Institute sponsored by Jackson (Miss.) State University participated in an agencywide Hubble Space Telescope workshop at Stennis Space Center on July 18. Twenty-five JSU junior education majors participated in the workshop, a site tour and educational presentations by Karma Snyder of the NASA SSC Engineering & Safety Center and Anne Peek of the NASA SSC Deputy Science & Technology Division.

  19. Pre-Service Teachers Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Pre-Service Teachers Institute sponsored by Jackson (Miss.) State University participated in an agencywide Hubble Space Telescope workshop at Stennis Space Center on July 18. Twenty-five JSU junior education majors participated in the workshop, a site tour and educational presentations by Karma Snyder of the NASA SSC Engineering & Safety Center and Anne Peek of the NASA SSC Deputy Science & Technology Division.

  20. [Pre-conception sex selection].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-11-16

    According to Article 14 of the Oviedo Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine of the Council of Europe, the use of techniques of medically assisted procreation shall not be allowed for the purpose of choosing the sex of a future child, unless serious hereditary sex-related disease is to be avoided. In Israel and the United States of America, pre-conception sex selection for the purpose of family balancing is legal. The European health culture does not regard reproductive justice as part of social justice. From this aspect, the situation is very similar in China and India. Reproductive liberty is opposed by the Catholic Church, too. According to the Catholic Church, medical grounds may not justify pre-conception sex selection, though being bioethically less harmful than family balancing for social reasons. In Hungary, according to Section 170 of the Criminal Code, pre-conception sex selection for the purpose of family balancing constitutes a crime. At present, the Hungarian legislation is in full harmony with the Oviedo Convention, enacted in Hungary in 2002.

  1. Pre-stressed/pre-compressed gas turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Jang, Hoyle; Itzel, Gary Michael; Yu, Yufeng Phillip

    2002-01-01

    A method of increasing low cycle fatigue life of a turbine nozzle comprising a plurality of stationary airfoils extending between radially inner and outer ring segments comprising a) providing at least one radial passage in each of the plurality of airfoils; b) installing a rod in the radial passage extending between the radially inner and outer ring segments and fixing one end of the rod to one of the inner and outer rings; and c) pre-loading the rod to compress the airfoil between the inner and outer ring segments.

  2. Commercial Building Energy Saver, API

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2015-08-27

    The CBES API provides Application Programming Interface to a suite of functions to improve energy efficiency of buildings, including building energy benchmarking, preliminary retrofit analysis using a pre-simulation database DEEP, and detailed retrofit analysis using energy modeling with the EnergyPlus simulation engine. The CBES API is used to power the LBNL CBES Web App. It can be adopted by third party developers and vendors into their software tools and platforms.

  3. Effect of Pre-Strain on the Fatigue Behavior of Extruded AZ31 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanjun

    2017-09-01

    An attempt is made to rationalize the effect of pre-strain history on fatigue behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Axial fatigue tests were conducted in the extruded and pre-compressioned AZ31 alloy under low cycle total strain control fatigue conditions. The pre-strain process influences the plastic deformation mechanism activated during fatigue deformation, especially during tensile loading, by enhancing the activity of detwinning mechanism. The low-cycle fatigue lifetime of extruded AZ31 alloy can be enhanced by the pre-compression process. And the hysteresis energy was successfully used to predict the low-cycle fatigue lifetime.

  4. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  5. Effects of Borax on the Reduction of Pre-oxidized Panzhihua Ilmenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yufeng; Zheng, Fuqiang; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Feng; Wang, Shuai; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2018-01-01

    The effects of borax (sodium borate) on the enhancement reduction of pre-oxidized Panzhihua ilmenite were investigated. The effects of borax on the mineral phase transformation, microstructures, crystal cell parameter, melting point and Mg distribution were studied to reveal the mechanism of enhancement reduction. Under the constant reduction conditions, the borax could reduce the reduction activation energy of pre-oxidized ilmenite. The reduction kinetics analysis indicated that the reduction rate was controlled by interfacial chemical reaction. The reduction activation energy of the pre-oxidized ilmenite with 4% borax was 80.263 kJ/mol, which was 28.585 kJ/mol less than that of the pre-oxidized ilmenite without borax. Borax could eliminate the migration of Mg into the reduced particle center. The crystal cell parameter of the reduced product was increased by adding borax. Borax could improve the growth of dendritic crystals in the pre-oxidized ilmenite.

  6. Actuarial Implications from Pre-Kindergarten Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beekman, John; Ober, David

    2016-01-01

    Great progress has been made in providing pre-kindergarten (pre-K) public education throughout the United States. The percentages of 3- and 4-year-olds enrolled nationally have grown from 3% to 5% and 14% to 29%, respectively, between 2002 and 2015. By 2015, 42 states and the District of Columbia were in varying stages of offering pre-K programs…

  7. Ultrasound pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion improvement.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Elvira, S; Fdz-Polanco, M; Plaza, F I; Garralón, G; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2009-01-01

    Prior research indicates that ultrasounds can be used in batch reactors as pre-treatment before anaerobic digestion, but the specific energy required at laboratory-scale is too high. This work evaluates both the continuous ultrasound device performance (efficiency and solubilisation) and the operation of anaerobic digesters continuously fed with sonicated sludge, and presents energy balance considerations. The results of sludge solubilisation after the sonication treatment indicate that, applying identical specific energy, it is better to increase the power than the residence time. Working with secondary sludge, batch biodegradability tests show that by applying 30 kWh/m3 of sludge, it is possible to increase biogas production by 42%. Data from continuous pilot-scale anaerobic reactors (V=100 L) indicate that operating with a conventional HRT=20 d, a reactor fed with pre-treated sludge increases the volatile solids removal and the biogas production by 25 and 37% respectively. Operating with HRT=15 d, the removal efficiency is similar to the obtained with a reactor fed with non-hydrolysed sludge at HTR=20 d, although the specific biogas productivity per volume of reactor is higher for the pretreated sludge. Regarding the energy balance, although for laboratory-scale devices it is negative, full-scale suppliers state a net generation of 3-10 kW per kW of energy used.

  8. Pre-vector variational inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lai-Jiu

    1994-12-31

    Let X be a Hausdorff topological vector space, (Y, D) be an ordered Hausdorff topological vector space ordered by convex cone D. Let L(X, Y) be the space of all bounded linear operator, E {improper_subset} X be a nonempty set, T : E {yields} L(X, Y), {eta} : E {times} E {yields} E be functions. For x, y {element_of} Y, we denote x {not_lt} y if y - x intD, where intD is the interior of D. We consider the following two problems: Find x {element_of} E such that < T(x), {eta}(y, x) > {not_lt} 0 for all y {element_of}more » E and find x {element_of} E, < T(x), {eta}(y, x) > {not_gt} 0 for all y {element_of} E and < T(x), {eta}(y, x) >{element_of} C{sub p}{sup w+} = {l_brace} {element_of} L(X, Y) {vert_bar}< l, {eta}(x, 0) >{not_lt} 0 for all x {element_of} E{r_brace} where < T(x), y > denotes linear operator T(x) at y, that is T(x), (y). We called Pre-VVIP the Pre-vector variational inequality problem and Pre-VCP complementary problem. If X = R{sup n}, Y = R, D = R{sub +} {eta}(y, x) = y - x, then our problem is the well-known variational inequality first studies by Hartman and Stampacchia. If Y = R, D = R{sub +}, {eta}(y, x) = y - x, our problem is the variational problem in infinite dimensional space. In this research, we impose different condition on T(x), {eta}, X, and < T(x), {eta}(y, x) > and investigate the existences theorem of these problems. As an application of one of our results, we establish the existence theorem of weak minimum of the problem. (P) V - min f(x) subject to x {element_of} E where f : X {yields} Y si a Frechet differentiable invex function.« less

  9. Pre-symplectic algebroids and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiefeng; Sheng, Yunhe; Bai, Chengming

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of a pre-symplectic algebroid and show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between pre-symplectic algebroids and symplectic Lie algebroids. This result is the geometric generalization of the relation between left-symmetric algebras and symplectic (Frobenius) Lie algebras. Although pre-symplectic algebroids are not left-symmetric algebroids, they still can be viewed as the underlying structures of symplectic Lie algebroids. Then we study exact pre-symplectic algebroids and show that they are classified by the third cohomology group of a left-symmetric algebroid. Finally, we study para-complex pre-symplectic algebroids. Associated with a para-complex pre-symplectic algebroid, there is a pseudo-Riemannian Lie algebroid. The multiplication in a para-complex pre-symplectic algebroid characterizes the restriction to the Lagrangian subalgebroids of the Levi-Civita connection in the corresponding pseudo-Riemannian Lie algebroid.

  10. 40 CFR 1065.520 - Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. 1065.520 Section 1065.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.520 Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. (a) If your...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.520 - Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. 1065.520 Section 1065.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.520 Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. (a) If your...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.520 - Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. 1065.520 Section 1065.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.520 Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. (a) For...

  13. 40 CFR 1066.420 - Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. 1066.420 Section 1066.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test § 1066.420 Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. (a) Follow the...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.520 - Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. 1065.520 Section 1065.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.520 Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. (a) If your...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.520 - Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. 1065.520 Section 1065.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.520 Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. (a) If your...

  16. 40 CFR 1066.420 - Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. 1066.420 Section 1066.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test § 1066.420 Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. (a) Follow the...

  17. 10 CFR 2.1010 - Pre-License Application Presiding Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-License Application Presiding Officer. 2.1010 Section 2.1010 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND..., that the adverse determination constitutes an abuse of discretion. The designated officer's decision...

  18. Pre-inflationary clues from String Theory?

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, N.; Sagnotti, A., E-mail: kitazawa@phys.se.tmu.ac.jp, E-mail: sagnotti@sns.it

    2014-04-01

    ''Brane supersymmetry breaking'' occurs in String Theory when the only available combinations of D-branes and orientifolds are not mutually BPS and yet do not introduce tree-level tachyon instabilities. It is characterized by the emergence of a steep exponential potential, and thus by the absence of maximally symmetric vacua. The corresponding low-energy supergravity admits intriguing spatially-flat cosmological solutions where a scalar field is forced to climb up toward the steep potential after an initial singularity, and additional milder terms can inject an inflationary phase during the ensuing descent. We show that, in the resulting power spectra of scalar perturbations, an infraredmore » suppression is typically followed by a pre-inflationary peak that reflects the end of the climbing phase and can lie well apart from the approximately scale invariant profile. A first look at WMAP9 raw data shows that, while the χ{sup 2} fits for the low-ℓ CMB angular power spectrum are clearly compatible with an almost scale invariant behavior, they display nonetheless an eye-catching preference for this type of setting within a perturbative string regime.« less

  19. Pre-Dawn Martian Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    On Sol 39 there were wispy blue clouds in the pre-dawn sky of Mars, as seen by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The color image was made by taking blue, green, and red images and then combining them into a single color image. The clouds appear to have a bluish side and a greenish side because they moved (in the wind from the northeast) between images. This picture was made an hour and twenty minutes before sunrise -- the sun is not shining directly on the water ice clouds, but they are illuminated by the dawn twilight.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  20. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger: PreProcessor implementation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åsman, B.; Achenbach, R.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Anders, G.; Andrei, V.; Büscher, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barnett, B. M.; Bauss, B.; Bendtz, K.; Bohm, C.; Bracinik, J.; Brawn, I. P.; Brock, R.; Buttinger, W.; Caputo, R.; Caughron, S.; Cerrito, L.; Charlton, D. G.; Childers, J. T.; Curtis, C. J.; Daniells, A. C.; Davis, A. O.; Davygora, Y.; Dorn, M.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, J. P.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, K.; Ermoline, Y.; Föhlisch, F.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Fedorko, W.; Fleckner, J.; French, S. T.; Gee, C. N. P.; Gillman, A. R.; Goeringer, C.; Hülsing, T.; Hadley, D. R.; Hanke, P.; Hauser, R.; Heim, S.; Hellman, S.; Hickling, R. S.; Hidvégi, A.; Hillier, S. J.; Hofmann, J. I.; Hristova, I.; Ji, W.; Johansen, M.; Keller, M.; Khomich, A.; Kluge, E.-E.; Koll, J.; Laier, H.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lang, V. S.; Laurens, P.; Lepold, F.; Lilley, J. N.; Linnemann, J. T.; Müller, F.; Müller, T.; Mahboubi, K.; Martin, T. A.; Mass, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, C.; Middleton, R. P.; Moa, T.; Moritz, S.; Morris, J. D.; Mudd, R. D.; Narayan, R.; zur Nedden, M.; Neusiedl, A.; Newman, P. R.; Nikiforov, A.; Ohm, C. C.; Perera, V. J. O.; Pfeiffer, U.; Plucinski, P.; Poddar, S.; Prieur, D. P. F.; Qian, W.; Rieck, P.; Rizvi, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schäfer, U.; Scharf, V.; Schmitt, K.; Schröder, C.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schumacher, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simioni, E.; Snidero, G.; Staley, R. J.; Stamen, R.; Stock, P.; Stockton, M. C.; Tan, C. L. A.; Tapprogge, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, P. D.; Thomson, M.; True, P.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Weber, P.; Wessels, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Williams, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The PreProcessor system of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) receives about 7200 analogue signals from the electromagnetic and hadronic components of the calorimetric detector system. Lateral division results in cells which are pre-summed to so-called Trigger Towers of size 0.1 × 0.1 along azimuth (phi) and pseudorapidity (η). The received calorimeter signals represent deposits of transverse energy. The system consists of 124 individual PreProcessor modules that digitise the input signals for each LHC collision, and provide energy and timing information to the digital processors of the L1Calo system, which identify physics objects forming much of the basis for the full ATLAS first level trigger decision. This paper describes the architecture of the PreProcessor, its hardware realisation, functionality, and performance.

  1. Energy Experiments for STEM Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchi, John

    2011-03-01

    Texas Christian University (TCU) is developing an undergraduate program that prepares students to become engineers with an emphasis in energy systems. One of the courses in the program is a technical overview of traditional energy (coal, oil and gas), nuclear energy, and renewable energy that requires as a pre-requisite two semesters of calculus-based physics. Energy experiments are being developed that will facilitate student involvement and provide hands-on learning opportunities. Students participating in the course will improve their understanding of energy systems; be introduced to outstanding scientific and engineering problems; learn about the role of energy in a global and societal context; and evaluate contemporary issues associated with energy. This talk will present the status of experiments being developed for the technical energy survey course.

  2. Guided elastic waves in a pre-stressed compressible interlayer

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos

    2000-03-01

    The propagation of guided elastic waves in a pre-stressed elastic compressible layer embedded in a different compressible material is examined. The waves propagate parallel to the planar layer interfaces as a superposed dynamic stress state on the statically pre-stressed layer and host material. The underlying stress condition in the two materials is characterized by equibiaxial in-plane deformations with common principal axes of strain, one of the axes being perpendicular to the layering. Both materials have arbitrary strain energy functions. The dispersion equation is derived in explicit form. Analysis of the dispersion equation reveals the propagation characteristics and their dependence on frequency, material parameters and stress parameters. Combinations of these parameters are also defined for which guided waves cannot propagate.

  3. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-30

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  4. Transportation Energy - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov Websites

    ; Components Compatibility Hydrogen Behavior Quantitative Risk Assessment Technical Reference for Hydrogen Combustion jbei Facilities Algae Testbed Battery Abuse Testing Laboratory Center for Infrastructure Research and Innovation Combustion Research Facility Joint BioEnergy Institute Close Energy Research Programs

  5. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahre, H.; Bahroun, K.; Behm, H.; Steves, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Böke, M.; Hopmann, Ch; Winter, J.

    2013-02-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered.

  6. Effect of macronutrient ratio of the pre-starter diet on broiler performance and intermediary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Swennen, Q; Everaert, N; Debonne, M; Verbaeys, I; Careghi, C; Tona, K; Janssens, G P J; Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V; Buyse, J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of isoenergetic substitution between the three energy delivering macronutrients in pre-starter diets on performance and intermediary nutrient metabolism in broiler chickens. From hatch until 5 days of age, 600 chicks, collected during peak of hatch, were fed one of the three experimental pre-starter diets with isoenergetic (13 MJ metabolisable energy/kg) substitutions between fat (43 vs. 108 g/kg), protein (126 vs. 240 g/kg) and carbohydrates (391 vs. 510 g/kg). After 5 days, commercial grower and finisher diets were provided. Pre-starter composition influenced body weight until slaughter age, although not statistically verifiable. Broilers fed the low protein (LP) pre-starter had the lowest body weight in relation to chickens on the low carbohydrate or low fat pre-starter diet. After hatch, chicks on the LP pre-starter diet were able to use the residual yolk sac more rapidly to fulfil their protein requirement, which is reflected in small intestine and liver development. Also, plasma metabolite levels were influenced mostly by the LP pre-starter, indicating that the main focus for the requirements of newly hatched chicks should be on proteins. Furthermore, optimal nutrition during the first day's post-hatch should take into account the contribution of the yolk.

  7. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haser, Cigdem; Dogan, Oguzhan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of mathematics teacher education programme courses on pre-service teachers' mathematics teaching belief systems before their field experience was initially investigated through a Likert-type scale. The impact of a third year general teaching methodologies course was then investigated through the responses pre-service teachers…

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions of Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odafe, Victor U.

    2011-01-01

    Probability knowledge and skills are needed in science and in making daily decisions that are sometimes made under uncertain conditions. Hence, there is the need to ensure that the pre-service teachers of our children are well prepared to teach probability. Pre-service teachers' conceptions of probability are identified, and ways of helping them…

  9. Pre--Post Secondary Curriculum Guide: Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael J. Owens Technical Coll., Perrysburg, OH.

    A pre--Post secondary curriculum for preparing eleventh and twelfth grade students contemplating postsecondary education in the health occupations is presented in the document. The curriculum would assist high school students in their choice of health careers and in entering postsecondary education smoothly. The pre--post secondary curriculum…

  10. Pre-Assessment: Promises and Cautions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; McTighe, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Nearly every modern instructional planning model, differentiation approach, and personalized learning system incorporates some form of re-assessment. Yet there's scant research evidence that teachers use pre-assessment in ways that improve learning, according to Guskey and McTighe. To increase the likelihood that pre-assessment will be worth the…

  11. Areas and Volumes in Pre-Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Joscelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests the introduction of the concepts of areas bounded by plane curves and the volumes of solids of revolution in Pre-calculus. It builds on the basic knowledge that students bring to a pre-calculus class, derives a few more formulas, and gives examples of some problems on plane areas and the volumes of solids of revolution that…

  12. The pre-operative electrocardiogram: an assessment.

    PubMed

    Paterson, K R; Caskie, J P; Galloway, D J; McArthur, K; McWhinnie, D L

    1983-04-01

    Electrocardiography is of limited value in pre-operative screening for cardiac disease. A short questionnaire has been shown to be helpful in assessing cardiac status and could permit a 30% reduction in the number of pre-operative ECGs performed.

  13. Pre-K as School Turnaround Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buenafe, Anthony Q.

    2011-01-01

    Both state and local school systems, recognizing the strong and growing evidence of pre-kindergarten's effectiveness in closing achievement gaps, are implementing early learning programs as part of their education reform efforts. In low-performing districts, pre-k has emerged as a promising turnaround strategy, reaching children before they become…

  14. Pre-cementation of deep shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, W. F.

    1988-12-01

    Pre-cementation or pre-grouting of deep shafts in South Africa is an established technique to improve safety and reduce water ingress during shaft sinking. The recent completion of several pre-cementation projects for shafts deeper than 1000m has once again highlighted the effectiveness of pre-grouting of shafts utilizing deep slimline boreholes and incorporating wireline technique for drilling and conventional deep borehole grouting techniques for pre-cementation. Pre-cementation of deep shaft will: (i) Increase the safety of shaft sinking operation (ii) Minimize water and gas inflow during shaft sinking (iii) Minimize the time lost due to additional grouting operations during sinking of the shaft and hence minimize costly delays and standing time of shaft sinking crews and equipment. (iv) Provide detailed information of the geology of the proposed shaft site. Informations on anomalies, dykes, faults as well as reef (gold bearing conglomerates) intersections can be obtained from the evaluation of cores of the pre-cementation boreholes. (v) Provide improved rock strength for excavations in the immediate vicinity of the shaft area. The paper describes pre-cementation techniques recently applied successfully from surface and some conclusions drawn for further considerations.

  15. Flashback resistant pre-mixer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Laster, Walter R [Oviedo, FL; Gambacorta, Domenico [Oviedo, FL

    2012-02-14

    A pre-mixer assembly associated with a fuel supply system for mixing of air and fuel upstream from a main combustion zone in a gas turbine engine. The pre-mixer assembly includes a swirler assembly disposed about a fuel injector of the fuel supply system and a pre-mixer transition member. The swirler assembly includes a forward end defining an air inlet and an opposed aft end. The pre-mixer transition member has a forward end affixed to the aft end of the swirler assembly and an opposed aft end defining an outlet of the pre-mixer assembly. The aft end of the pre-mixer transition member is spaced from a base plate such that a gap is formed between the aft end of the pre-mixer transition member and the base plate for permitting a flow of purge air therethrough to increase a velocity of the air/fuel mixture exiting the pre-mixer assembly.

  16. Pre-testing Orientation for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalka, Joseph A.

    A pre-testing orientation was incorporated into the Work Incentives Program, a pre-vocational program for disadvantaged youth. Test-taking skills were taught in seven and one half hours of instruction and a variety of methods were used to provide a sequential experience with distributed learning, positive reinforcement, and immediate feedback of…

  17. Slovenian Pre-Service Teachers' Prototype Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovec, Alenka; Antolin, Darja

    2014-01-01

    In this article we apply narrative methodology to the study of pre-service elementary teachers' school-time memories connected to mathematics education. In the first phase of our empirical study we asked 214 Slovenian pre-service teachers to write their mathematical autobiographies. On the basis of the mathematical autobiographies we constructed a…

  18. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  19. Commercial Building Energy Saver, Web App

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary; Lee, Sang Hoon

    The CBES App is a web-based toolkit for use by small businesses and building owners and operators of small and medium size commercial buildings to perform energy benchmarking and retrofit analysis for buildings. The CBES App analyzes the energy performance of user's building for pre-and posto-retrofit, in conjunction with user's input data, to identify recommended retrofit measures, energy savings and economic analysis for the selected measures. The CBES App provides energy benchmarking, including getting an EnergyStar score using EnergyStar API and benchmarking against California peer buildings using the EnergyIQ API. The retrofit analysis includes a preliminary analysis by looking upmore » retrofit measures from a pre-simulated database DEEP, and a detailed analysis creating and running EnergyPlus models to calculate energy savings of retrofit measures. The CBES App builds upon the LBNL CBES API.« less

  20. Comparing the IRT Pre-equating and Section Pre-equating: A Simulation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Chi-en; Cleary, T. Anne

    The results obtained from two basic types of pre-equatings of tests were compared: the item response theory (IRT) pre-equating and section pre-equating (SPE). The simulated data were generated from a modified three-parameter logistic model with a constant guessing parameter. Responses of two replication samples of 3000 examinees on two 72-item…

  1. School Readiness: The Views of Pre-Service Preschool Teachers and Pre-Service Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin Sak, Ikbal Tuba

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the views of the concept of school readiness held by 50 pre-service preschool teachers and 50 pre-service primary teachers. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview protocol, and the word-list and key-words-in-context techniques were used for qualitative data analysis. Findings show that pre-service preschool…

  2. Nutrition in pre-war Sarajevo.

    PubMed

    Zec, S; Telebak, B; Sljepcevic, O; Filipovic-Hadziomeragic, A

    1995-10-01

    To assess nutritional status, dietary intake and lifestyle habits of non-manual workers in Sarajevo. Healthy employees in non-manual occupations from four large companies were invited to participate in a nutrition and health survey during 1990 and 1991. All the subjects were working in the city centre of Sarajevo. 1860 subjects (1120 men and 740 women) aged from 20-65 years of age participated. Nutritional status was evaluated through anthropometric measurements (weights and heights) and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Data on health status, diet and lifestyle were gathered through individual questionnaires. Overall, 4.3% of the sample was found to be underweight (BMI < 18.5). Nearly 12% of women and 5.5% of men were obese (BMI > 30.5). The majority of the obese men were in responsible positions (for example, directors, heads of departments). The majority of obese women were in the 35-45 years old age group in the post-maternity period. Intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate exceeded former Yugoslavian recommended dietary allowances. About one third of participants (34.3% men and 27.3% women) smoked heavily and 18.1% of men drank alcohol. A total of 16.2% of men and 11.6% of women suffered from hypertension. The food intake of the population of Sarajevo before the war was generally high. There was high consumption of meat, fatty foods and alcoholic drinks (particularly among men) and low levels of physical activity. This resulted in high levels of obesity and chronic degenerative diseases such as hypertension. Thus, high living standards and physical inactivity had a damaging effect on the health of non-manual workers in pre-war Sarajevo.

  3. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on dark fermentative biohydrogen production: A review.

    PubMed

    Bundhoo, M A Zumar; Mohee, Romeela; Hassan, M Ali

    2015-07-01

    Biohydrogen production from dark fermentation of lignocellulosic materials represents a huge potential in terms of renewable energy exploitation. However, the low hydrogen yield is currently hindering its development on industrial scale. This study reviewed various technologies that have been investigated for enhancing dark fermentative biohydrogen production. The pre-treatment technologies can be classified based on their applications as inoculum or substrates pre-treatment or they can be categorised into physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological based on the techniques used. From the different technologies reviewed, heat and acid pre-treatments are the most commonly studied technologies for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment. Nevertheless, these two technologies need not necessarily be the most suitable since across different studies, a wide array of other emerging techniques as well as combined technologies have yielded positive findings. To date, there exists no perfect technology for either inoculum or substrate pre-treatment. Although the aim of inoculum pre-treatment is to suppress H2-consumers and enrich H2-producers, many sporulating H2-consumers survive the pre-treatment while some non-spore H2-producers are inhibited. Besides, several inoculum pre-treatment techniques are not effective in the long run and repeated pre-treatment may be required for continuous suppression of H2-consumers and sustained biohydrogen production. Furthermore, many technologies employed for substrates pre-treatment may yield inhibitory compounds that can eventually decrease biohydrogen production. Consequently, much research needs to be done to find out the best technology for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment while also taking into consideration the energetic, economic and technical feasibility of implementing such a process on an industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

  5. Pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Raizel, Raquel; da Mata Godois, Allan; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; de Paula Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar; de Faria Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.

  6. Pre-main sequence variables in young cluster Stock 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tirthendu; Sharma, Saurabh; Pandey, Rakesh; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out multi-epoch deep I band photometry of the open cluster Stock 18 to search for variable stars in star forming regions. In the present study, we identified 65 periodic and 217 non-periodic variable stars. The periods of most of the periodic variables are between 2 hours to 15 days and their magnitude varies between 0.05 to 0.6 mag. We have derived spectral energy distributions for 48 probable pre-main sequence variables. Their average age and mass are 2.7 ± 0.3 Myrs and 2.7 ± 0.2 Mo, respectively.

  7. Alteration in iron status in pre eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Basher, K; Deb, K

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare and contrast serum iron status in pre eclamptic women with normal pregnant women which may help in the establishment of diagnosis of pre eclampsia before appearance of its clinical manifestation. A total of 82 women in the last half of pregnancy, between 17 to 40 years of age, who attended the model family planning clinic, out patient and in patient departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology unit of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh were selected for this purpose before any treatment was given in present pregnancy. Out of them 32 pregnant women were taken as control because they did not show any evidence of complication during the time of selection and 50 pregnant women were randomly selected as cases on the basic of having pre eclampsia. Mean value of serum iron was significantly increased in the pre eclamptic women in comparison to controls whereas mean values of both total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) were significantly decreased in pre eclamptic women in contrast to controls. The results allude to the possible contribution of released iron free radicals from ischaemic placenta in pre eclampsia to its etiology. So, routine investigation of serum iron status of pregnant women as part of antenatal checkup may help in the establishment of diagnosis of pre eclampsia before appearance of its clinical manifestation.

  8. Hydrothermal pre-treatment of rapeseed straw.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Manuel J; Cara, Cristóbal; Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel; Castro, Eulogio

    2010-04-01

    As a first step for ethanol production from alternative raw materials, rapeseed straw was studied for fermentable sugar production. Liquid hot water was used as a pre-treatment method and the influence of the main pre-treatment variables was assessed. Experimental design and response surface methodology were applied using pre-treatment temperature and process time as factors. The pretreated solids were further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis and the corresponding yields were used as pre-treatment performance evaluation. Liquid fractions obtained from pre-treatment were also characterized in terms of sugars and no-sugar composition. A mathematical model describing pre-treatment effects is proposed. Results show that enzymatic hydrolysis yields near to 100% based on pretreated materials can be achieved at 210-220 degrees C for 30-50 min, equivalent to near 70% of glucose present in the raw material. According to the mathematical model, a softer pre-treatment at 193 degrees C for 27 min results in 65% of glucose and 39% of xylose available for fermentation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevent: what is pre-criminal space?

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David; Jadhav, Sushrut; Younis, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    Prevent is a UK-wide programme within the government's anti-terrorism strategy aimed at stopping individuals from supporting or taking part in terrorist activities. NHS England's Prevent Training and Competencies Framework requires health professionals to understand the concept of pre-criminal space. This article examines pre-criminal space, a new term which refers to a period of time during which a person is referred to a specific Prevent-related safeguarding panel, Channel. It is unclear what the concept of pre-criminal space adds to the Prevent programme. The term should be either clarified or removed from the Framework. PMID:28811915

  10. Solderability of pre-tinned Cu sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunwoo, A. J.; Morris, J. W.; Lucey, G. K.

    1992-05-01

    The reliability and integrity of pre-tinned copper-clad printed circuit (PC) boards are serious concerns in the manufacture of electronic devices. The factors that influence the wetting during soldering of Cu are discussed. The results suggest that pre-tinning with a Pb-rich solder, such as 95Pb-5Sn, is preferred to pre-tinning with eutectic solder, since the latter can develop exposed intermetallics during aging that wet poorly. The results also confirm that the use of flux leads to carbon contamination in the solder.

  11. Rotational Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates several objects rolling down a slope to explain the energy transition among potential energy, translational kinetic energy, and rotational kinetic energy. Contains a problem from Galileo's rolling ball experiment. (YP)

  12. Support for solar energy collectors

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Corey; Ardell-Smith, Zachary; Ciasulli, John; Jensen, Soren

    2016-11-01

    A solar energy collection system can include support devices configured to accommodate misalignment of components during assembly. For example, the system can include piles fixed to the earth and an adjustable bearing assembly at the upper end of the pile. The adjustable bearing assembly can include at least one of a vertical adjustment device, a lateral adjustment device and an angular adjustment device. The solar energy collection system can also include a plurality of solar energy collection device pre-wired together and mounted to a support member so as to form modular units. The system can also include enhanced supports for wire trays extending between rows of solar energy collection devices.

  13. An interdisciplinary approach to study Pre-Earthquake processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S. A.; Hattori, K.; Taylor, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    We will summarize a multi-year research effort on wide-ranging observations of pre-earthquake processes. Based on space and ground data we present some new results relevant to the existence of pre-earthquake signals. Over the past 15-20 years there has been a major revival of interest in pre-earthquake studies in Japan, Russia, China, EU, Taiwan and elsewhere. Recent large magnitude earthquakes in Asia and Europe have shown the importance of these various studies in the search for earthquake precursors either for forecasting or predictions. Some new results were obtained from modeling of the atmosphere-ionosphere connection and analyses of seismic records (foreshocks /aftershocks), geochemical, electromagnetic, and thermodynamic processes related to stress changes in the lithosphere, along with their statistical and physical validation. This cross - disciplinary approach could make an impact on our further understanding of the physics of earthquakes and the phenomena that precedes their energy release. We also present the potential impact of these interdisciplinary studies to earthquake predictability. A detail summary of our approach and that of several international researchers will be part of this session and will be subsequently published in a new AGU/Wiley volume. This book is part of the Geophysical Monograph series and is intended to show the variety of parameters seismic, atmospheric, geochemical and historical involved is this important field of research and will bring this knowledge and awareness to a broader geosciences community.

  14. Pre-Ionization Controlled Laser Plasma Formation for Ignition Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail

    The presented research explored new physics and ignition schemes based on laser induced plasmas that are fundamentally distinct from past laser ignition research focused on single laser pulses. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple laser pulses where the first pulse provides pre-ionization allowing controlled absorption of the second pulse. In this way, we can form tailored laser plasmas in terms of their ionization fraction, gas temperature (e.g. to achieve elevated temperature of ~2000 K ideally suited for an ignition source), reduced energy loss to shock waves and radiation, and large kernel size (e.g. length ~1-10 cm). The proposed researchmore » included both experimental and modeling efforts, at Colorado State University, Princeton University and University of Tennessee, towards the basic science of the new laser plasma approach with emphasis on tailoring the plasmas to practical propulsion systems. Experimental results (CSU) show that the UV beam produces a pre-ionized volume which assists in breakdown of the NIR beam, leading to reduction in NIR breakdown threshold by factor of >2. Numerical modeling is performed to examine the ionization and breakdown of both beams. The main theoretical and computational parts of the work were done at Princeton University. The modeled breakdown threshold of the NIR, including assist by pre-ionization, is in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.« less

  15. Energy Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  16. Understanding Pre-Quantitative Risk in Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2011-01-01

    Standard approaches to risk management in projects depend on the ability of teams to identify risks and quantify the probabilities and consequences of these risks (e.g., the 5 x 5 risk matrix). However, long before quantification does - or even can - occur, and long after, teams make decisions based on their pre-quantitative understanding of risk. These decisions can have long-lasting impacts on the project. While significant research has looked at the process of how to quantify risk, our understanding of how teams conceive of and manage pre-quantitative risk is lacking. This paper introduces the concept of pre-quantitative risk and discusses the implications of addressing pre-quantitative risk in projects.

  17. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  18. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  19. Pre-sodiated nickel cobaltite for high-performance sodium-ion capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Sun, Xiaoming; Lim, Kyungmi; Ranganathan Gaddam, Rohit; Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; Kang, Kisuk; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2017-09-01

    Sodium-ion capacitors (NICs) are a hybrid energy storage system that store energy via both charge adsorption at the cathode/electrolyte interface and charge intercalation in the bulk of the anode, thereby possessing a higher energy density than supercapacitors and a higher power density than batteries. In this work, nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) hollow spheres with a chestnut shell morphology have been solvothermally synthesized and tested in a sodium half-cell. The NiCo2O4 material exhibits a reversible capacity of 313 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1. Pre-sodiation of NiCo2O4 is found to significantly improve its energy density. A NIC fabricated with pre-sodiated NiCo2O4 as the anode and an activated carbon (AC) as the cathode delivers an energy density of 60 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 10,000 W kg-1. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results reveal that NiCo2O4 is converted to metallic nickel and cobalt and Na2O phases during the pre-sodiation. The metallic nickel and cobalt phases are kinetically favourable for the electrolyte diffusion and electrochemical reactions, thus significantly improving the performance of the pre-sodiated NiCo2O4 electrode.

  20. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-08-01

    This picture is of an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle, carrying the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1, on Launch Complex 36 at the Air Force Eastern Test Range prior to launch on August 12, 1977. The Kennedy Space Center managed the launch operations that included a pre-aunch checkout, launch, and flight, up through the observatory separation in orbit.

  1. Pre-eclampsia: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management

    PubMed Central

    Uzan, Jennifer; Carbonnel, Marie; Piconne, Olivier; Asmar, Roland; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of pre-eclampsia ranges from 3% to 7% for nulliparas and 1% to 3% for multiparas. Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, preterm birth, perinatal death, and intrauterine growth restriction. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology of this multisystem disorder, characterized by abnormal vascular response to placentation, is still unclear. Despite great polymorphism of the disease, the criteria for pre-eclampsia have not changed over the past decade (systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and 24-hour proteinuria ≥0.3 g). Clinical features and laboratory abnormalities define and determine the severity of pre-eclampsia. Delivery is the only curative treatment for pre-eclampsia. Multidisciplinary management, involving an obstetrician, anesthetist, and pediatrician, is carried out with consideration of the maternal risks due to continued pregnancy and the fetal risks associated with induced preterm delivery. Screening women at high risk and preventing recurrences are key issues in the management of pre-eclampsia. PMID:21822394

  2. Synergistically-enhanced ion track formation in pre-damaged strontium titanate by energetic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Haizhou; Zarkadoula, Eva; Sachan, Ritesh

    Latent ion tracks created by energetic heavy ions (12 MeV Ti to 946 MeV Au) in single crystal SrTiO 3 are investigated in this paper using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that pre-existing irradiation damage, introduced via elastic collision processes, interacts synergistically with the electronic energy deposition from energetic heavy ions to enhance formation of latent ion tracks. The average amorphous cross-section increases with the level of pre-damage and is linearly proportional to the electronic energy loss of the ions, with a slope dependent on the pre-damage level. For the highest energy ions (629more » MeV Xe and 946 MeV Au), the tracks are continuous over the pre-damaged depth, but become discontinuous beyond the pre-damaged region. Finally, this work provides new understanding and insights on ion-solid interactions that significantly impact the interpretation of latent track formation processes, models of amorphization, and the fabrication of electro-ceramic devices.« less

  3. Synergistically-enhanced ion track formation in pre-damaged strontium titanate by energetic heavy ions

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Haizhou; Zarkadoula, Eva; Sachan, Ritesh; ...

    2018-03-20

    Latent ion tracks created by energetic heavy ions (12 MeV Ti to 946 MeV Au) in single crystal SrTiO 3 are investigated in this paper using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that pre-existing irradiation damage, introduced via elastic collision processes, interacts synergistically with the electronic energy deposition from energetic heavy ions to enhance formation of latent ion tracks. The average amorphous cross-section increases with the level of pre-damage and is linearly proportional to the electronic energy loss of the ions, with a slope dependent on the pre-damage level. For the highest energy ions (629more » MeV Xe and 946 MeV Au), the tracks are continuous over the pre-damaged depth, but become discontinuous beyond the pre-damaged region. Finally, this work provides new understanding and insights on ion-solid interactions that significantly impact the interpretation of latent track formation processes, models of amorphization, and the fabrication of electro-ceramic devices.« less

  4. Pre-supernova outbursts via wave heating in massive stars - II. Hydrogen-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Jim; Ro, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    Pre-supernova (SN) outbursts from massive stars may be driven by hydrodynamical wave energy emerging from the core of the progenitor star during late nuclear-burning phases. Here, we examine the effects of wave heating in stars containing little or no hydrogen, i.e. progenitors of Type IIb/Ib SNe. Because there is no massive hydrogen envelope, wave energy is thermalized near the stellar surface where the overlying atmospheric mass is small but the optical depth is large. Wave energy can thus unbind this material, driving an optically thick, super-Eddington wind. Using 1D hydrodynamic MESA simulations of ˜5 M⊙ He stars, we find that wave heating can drive pre-SN outbursts composed of a dense wind whose mass-loss rate can exceed ˜0.1 M⊙ yr-1. The wind terminal velocities are a few 100 km s-1, and outburst luminosities can reach ˜106 L⊙. Wave-driven outbursts may be linked with observed or inferred pre-SN outbursts of Type Ibn/transitional/transformational SNe, and pre-SN wave-driven mass loss is a good candidate to produce these types of SNe. However, we also show that non-linear wave breaking in the core of the star may prevent such outbursts in stars with thick convective helium-burning shells. Hence, only a limited subset of SN progenitors is likely to experience wave-driven pre-SN outbursts.

  5. The effects of substrate pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, My; Lagerkvist, Anders; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    Focus is placed on substrate pre-treatment in anaerobic digestion (AD) as a means of increasing biogas yields using today's diversified substrate sources. Current pre-treatment methods to improve AD are being examined with regard to their effects on different substrate types, highlighting approaches and associated challenges in evaluating substrate pre-treatment in AD systems and its influence on the overall system of evaluation. WWTP residues represent the substrate type that is most frequently assessed in pre-treatment studies, followed by energy crops/harvesting residues, organic fraction of municipal solid waste, organic waste from food industry and manure. The pre-treatment effects are complex and generally linked to substrate characteristics and pre-treatment mechanisms. Overall, substrates containing lignin or bacterial cells appear to be the most amendable to pre-treatment for enhancing AD. Approaches used to evaluate AD enhancement in different systems is further reviewed and challenges and opportunities for improved evaluations are identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pre- and postgame macronutrient intake of a group of elite Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Schokman, C P; Rutishauser, I H; Wallace, R J

    1999-03-01

    This study describes pre- and postcompetition mean energy and macro nutrient intakes of 40 elite Australian Football players. Carbohydrate intake, expressed both as a percentage of total energy intake (En%) and as grams per kilogram of body mass (g/kg BM). Pregame carbohydrate intake (53.6% En) was significantly greater (p < .01) than postgame (49.7% En). However, expressed as g/kg BM, pre- and postgame macronutrient intakes did not differ significantly. Protein and fat intakes (as g/kg BM) fell within guidelines, whereas energy intake (13.2 MJ/day or 153.8 kJ/kg BM) was lower than expected. Results suggest that for athletes engaging in endurance team sports where body mass and energy requirements vary considerably, carbohydrate recommendations are more appropriately expressed as g/kg BM rather than En %.

  7. Renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  8. The case for introducing pre-registered confirmatory pharmacological pre-clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Kiwanuka, Olivia; Bellander, Bo-Michael; Hånell, Anders

    2018-05-01

    When evaluating the design of pre-clinical studies in the field of traumatic brain injury, we found substantial differences compared to phase III clinical trials, which in part may explain the difficulties in translating promising experimental drugs into approved treatments. By using network analysis, we also found cases where a large proportion of the studies evaluating a pre-clinical treatment was performed by inter-related researchers, which is potentially problematic. Subjecting all pre-clinical trials to the rigor of a phase III clinical trial is, however, likely not practically achievable. Instead, we repeat the call for a distinction to be made between exploratory and confirmatory pre-clinical studies.

  9. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  10. Understanding Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  11. Should Pre-hypertension Be Treated?

    PubMed

    Kanegae, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Takamitsu; Kario, Kazuomi

    2017-10-18

    Hypertension is an important preventable risk factor for disease and death worldwide. In light of the world's population growth and aging, hypertension is a global public health issue. Many studies have shown associations between pre-hypertension and a higher risk of the future development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in general populations. However, pre-hypertension per se is not a disease with an immediate high risk, and the clinical value of the identification of pre-hypertension is the potential detection of the early stage of the risk of hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease over an individual's lifespan. We recently assessed the impacts of age-related differences in risk factors on new-onset hypertension among normotensive individuals. As risk factors of the new onset of hypertension, the impact of diastolic blood pressure compared with systolic blood pressure (SBP), men compared with women, and higher body mass index were greater in the younger adults, whereas in the older adults, the impact of SBP and female sex were greater. Proteinuria was a risk factor for hypertension in both younger and older adults. Non-pharmacological approaches such as body weight reduction, low-salt diet, physical exercise, and good sleep hygiene should be first-line treatments for pre-hypertension. In addition, careful observation to detect the new onset of hypertension and the identification of the appropriate timing of pharmacologic treatment should be conducted, especially in adults with pre-hypertension and the risk factors mentioned above.

  12. Effect of pre-heating on the thermal decomposition kinetics of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of pre-heating at low temperatures (160-280°C) on the thermal decomposition kinetics of scoured cotton fabrics was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis under nonisothermal conditions. Isoconversional methods were used to calculate the activation energies for the pyrolysis after one-...

  13. Energy Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy models characterize the energy system, its evolution, and its interactions with the broader economy. The energy system consists of primary resources, including both fossil fuels and renewables; power plants, refineries, and other technologies to process and convert these r...

  14. Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  15. Energy overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slone, H. O.

    1980-01-01

    The experience, capabilities, and facilities being utilized at NASA Lewis in support of energy programs conducted by the Department of Energy and other agencies are discussed. Background information is given regarding NASA's involvement in solving energy problems.

  16. Improving the sludge disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Şahinkaya, S; Sevimli, M F; Aygün, A

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious problems encountered in biological wastewater treatment processes is the production of waste activated sludge (WAS). Sonication, which is an energy-intensive process, is the most powerful sludge pre-treatment method. Due to lack of information about the combined pre-treatment methods of sonication, the combined pre-treatment methods were investigated and it was aimed to improve the disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining sonication with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods in this study. The process performances were evaluated based on the quantities of increases in soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), protein and carbohydrate. The releases of soluble COD, carbohydrate and protein by the combined methods were higher than those by sonication, alkalization and thermal pre-treatment alone. Degrees of sludge disintegration in various options of sonication were in the following descending order: sono-alkalization > sono-thermal pre-treatment > sonication. Therefore, it was determined that combining sonication with alkalization significantly improved the sludge disintegration and decreased the required energy to reach the same yield by sonication. In addition, effects on sludge settleability and dewaterability and kinetic mathematical modelling of pre-treatment performances of these methods were investigated. It was proven that the proposed model accurately predicted the efficiencies of ultrasonic pre-treatment methods.

  17. Energy resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the availability of fossil fuels for energy and non-energy production is presented. The cumulative requirements for petroleum, natural gas, and coal are discussed. Alternate forms of energy are described and the advantages and limitations are analyzed. Emphasis is placed on solar energy availability and methods for conversion. The Federal energy research and development funding for energy sources is tabulated.

  18. 18 CFR 153.12 - Pre-filing procedures for applications for authorization to site, construct, maintain, connect or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... used for the export or import of natural gas. 153.12 Section 153.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT... NATURAL GAS Application Under Section 3 § 153.12 Pre-filing procedures for applications for authorization...

  19. 18 CFR 153.12 - Pre-filing procedures for applications for authorization to site, construct, maintain, connect or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used for the export or import of natural gas. 153.12 Section 153.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT... NATURAL GAS Application Under Section 3 § 153.12 Pre-filing procedures for applications for authorization...

  20. 76 FR 40906 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2678-005] Pacific Gas and... Application for a Subsequent License and Commencing Pre-filing Process. b. Project No.: 2678-005. c. Dated Filed: April 29, 2011. d. Submitted By: Pacific Gas and Electric Company. e. Name of Project: Narrows No...

  1. Pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Maria C; Håberg, Siri E; Magnus, Per; Engeland, Anders; Nafstad, Per; Karlstad, Øystein; Nystad, Wenche

    2016-12-01

    Studies of pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma are conflicting, and none have performed a formal mediation analysis of preterm birth.We examined the association between pre-eclampsia and asthma at 7 years using national registries, including all births in Norway from 1999 to 2006 (n=406 907), and a subsample of children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (n=45 028) using log-linear regression. We performed a mediation analysis of preterm birth, and a sibling comparison to evaluate unobserved confounding.There was a positive association between pre-eclampsia and asthma in the registry study, with an adjusted relative risk of 1.31 (95% CI 1.22-1.41), but not in MoBa, which had an adjusted relative risk of 1.19 (95% CI 0.99-1.44). The odds ratios for the direct effect not mediated through preterm birth and the indirect effect in the registry linkage were 1.19 (95% CI 1.10-1.29) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.11-1.14), respectively. The sibling comparison indicated no association between pre-eclampsia and asthma (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.87-1.33).In this large study, which used different datasets and analytic approaches, there was little evidence for an association between pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma. The association was weak and largely explained by pre-term birth and confounders shared by siblings. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  2. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundantmore » woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.« less

  3. Changes in Lithuanian Pre-School and Pre-Primary Education Quality over the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monkeviciene, Ona; Stankeviciene, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the changes in Lithuanian pre-school and pre-primary education have been predetermined by changes in paradigms of children's education and strategic education documents that provided for guidelines of high quality children's (self-)education, an increasing attention of society to the quality of children's education, training…

  4. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    An introduction to geothermal energy is provided in this discussion of: (1) how a geothermal reservoir works; (2) how to find geothermal energy; (3) where it is located; (4) electric power generation using geothermal energy; (5) use of geothermal energy as a direct source of heat; (6) geopressured reservoirs; (7) environmental effects; (8)…

  5. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  6. Energy Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daane, Abigail R.; Wells, Lindsay; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Energy Theater is a dynamic, full-body activity that engages all students in representing the flow of energy in various phenomena, such as a light bulb burning steadily or a refrigerator cooling food. In Energy Theater, each participant acts as a unit of energy that has one form at a time. Regions on the floor correspond to objects in a physical…

  7. Theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yongmei M.; Wang, Yu U.; Ren, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Pre-martensitic phenomena, also called martensite precursor effects, have been known for decades while yet remain outstanding issues. This paper addresses pre-martensitic phenomena from new theoretical and experimental perspectives. A statistical mechanics-based Grüneisen-type phonon theory is developed. On the basis of deformation-dependent incompletely softened low-energy phonons, the theory predicts a lattice instability and pre-martensitic transition into elastic-phonon domains via 'phonon spinodal decomposition.' The phase transition lifts phonon degeneracy in cubic crystal and has a nature of phonon pseudo-Jahn-Teller lattice instability. The theory and notion of phonon domains consistently explain the ubiquitous pre-martensitic anomalies as natural consequences of incomplete phonon softening. The phonon domains are characterised by broken dynamic symmetry of lattice vibrations and deform through internal phonon relaxation in response to stress (a particular case of Le Chatelier's principle), leading to previously unexplored new domain phenomenon. Experimental evidence of phonon domains is obtained by in situ three-dimensional phonon diffuse scattering and Bragg reflection using high-energy synchrotron X-ray single-crystal diffraction, which observes exotic domain phenomenon fundamentally different from usual ferroelastic domain switching phenomenon. In light of the theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena, currently existing alternative opinions on martensitic precursor phenomena are revisited.

  8. Pre-Class Planning for Individualized Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Dean; Brooke, Joyce Ann

    1974-01-01

    Pre-class planning of individualized accounting is involved with goals, objectives, and activities developed and selected by the teacher in providing compatibility between accounting content and teaching strategy. A systematic arrangement of activities should be developed so that students can understand and apply accounting principles at their own…

  9. Confusion in Using Pre-Departure Clearances

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-12-20

    In 1990, the FAA implemented the Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC) program at a : number of U.S. airports. This system allows pilots to obtain IFR clearances : through aircraft ACARS units prior to taxi-out, thus eliminating the need for : verbal communi...

  10. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... VA – HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis HIV.gov on Twitter 22 hours 47 min ago. HIV.gov @HIVGov # ... routine. #HIVTestingDay Reply Retweet Favorite HIV.gov on Twitter Search Find HIV Testing Sites & Care Services Connect ...

  11. The Promise of Pre-K

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C., Ed.; Howes, Carollee, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    High-quality pre-K that really improves children's outcomes--that's the goal early childhood professionals will work toward with this groundbreaking text, the first volume in the NEW National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education (NCRECE) series. Combining the most current knowledge of top researchers, policy makers, and federal and…

  12. Pre-Algebra Groups. Concepts & Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Discussion material and exercises related to pre-algebra groups are provided in this five chapter manual. Chapter 1 (mappings) focuses on restricted domains, order of operations (parentheses and exponents), rules of assignment, and computer extensions. Chapter 2 considers finite number systems, including binary operations, clock arithmetic,…

  13. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    PubMed

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  14. Pre-Lingual Communication and Attachment Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modarressi, Taghi; McCulloch, Duncan

    Infant's crying may have an important mediating role in the formation of attachment behavior. The earliest vocalizations are discussed in terms of an acoustic communications model in which the baby's vocal repertoire becomes incorporated into a closed-loop, feedback system with his mother. Certain pre-lingual "signals" may be associated with those…

  15. Inclusive Attitudes: A Pre-Service Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    This enquiry has shown that pre-service teachers in Ontario, Canada (n = 141), believe they have the prerequisite training and knowledge to be inclusive educators. They believe inclusion is effective and produces required results for both identified and non-identified students. Inclusion was viewed as a difficult proposition dependent upon several…

  16. What Guides PreK Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, Elizabeth; Ryan, Sharon; Wilinski, Bethany; Northey, Kaitlin; Nocera, Amato

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Early childhood education joined the standards movement in 2002 with the Good Start, Grow Smart initiative (Brown, 2007), with advocates arguing that standards were a tool for creating more continuity and coherence in PreK systems (Bowman, 2006; Kagan 2012). Critics posed concerns about a perceived poor fit between…

  17. Pre-Darcy Flow in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejam, Morteza; Hassanzadeh, Hassan; Chen, Zhangxin

    2017-10-01

    Fluid flow in porous media is very important in a wide range of science and engineering applications. The entire establishment of fluid flow application in porous media is based on the use of an experimental law proposed by Darcy (1856). There are evidences in the literature that the flow of a fluid in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media does not follow Darcy law at very low fluxes, which is called pre-Darcy flow. In this paper, the unsteady flow regimes of a slightly compressible fluid under the linear and radial pre-Darcy flow conditions are modeled and the corresponding highly nonlinear diffusivity equations are solved analytically by aid of a generalized Boltzmann transformation technique. The influence of pre-Darcy flow on the pressure diffusion for homogeneous porous media is studied in terms of the nonlinear exponent and the threshold pressure gradient. In addition, the pressure gradient, flux, and cumulative production per unit area are compared with the classical solution of the diffusivity equation based on Darcy flow. The presented results advance our understanding of fluid flow in low-permeability media such as shale and tight formations, where pre-Darcy is the dominant flow regime.

  18. Medication or Lifestyle for Pre-Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Medication or Lifestyle Changes for Pre-diabetes Updated:Aug 30,2016 What’s best? Medication or ... doesn’t “fix” things, or make a healthy lifestyle less important. Some people with diabetes will always need some help from medications, but ...

  19. Model for School Pre-Employment Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasil, Raymond A.

    The guide argues for the establishment of placement services in secondary schools and provides detailed instructional units and suggestions for conducting pre-employment clinics which aim to provide all students leaving school with a basic understanding and working knowledge of the skills necessary to seek out and obtain employment or additional…

  20. Pre-Columbian Mayan Myths. Project Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Margaret

    This document outlines a course unit on Pre-Columbian Mayan Myths intended to be part of a semester-long survey course on world mythology. The intended unit length of three weeks for three hours per week allows time for consideration of a brief geographical, historical, and cosmological background against which to place Mayan myths, study of the…

  1. Pre-Service Teachers and Classroom Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Anthony M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the classroom practices of five pre-service teachers from three secondary schools in a large southeastern state. Through classroom observations, survey responses, reviews of refection logs, and focus-group interview responses, we centered on the issue of developing classroom authority as a means to effective classroom…

  2. Reducing ultrafiltration membrane fouling during potable water reuse using pre-ozonation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Park, Minkyu; Liang, Heng; Wu, Shimin; Lopez, Israel J; Ji, Weikang; Li, Guibai; Snyder, Shane A

    2017-11-15

    Wastewater reclamation has increasingly become popular to secure potable water supply. Low-pressure membrane processes such as microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) play imperative roles as a barrier of macromolecules for such purpose, but are often limited by membrane fouling. Effluent organic matter (EfOM), including biopolymers and particulates, in secondary wastewater effluents have been known to be major foulants in low-pressure membrane processes. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-ozonation as a pre-treatment for UF on the membrane fouling caused by EfOM in secondary wastewater effluents for hydrophilic regenerated cellulose (RC) and hydrophobic polyethersulfone (PES) UF membranes. It was found that greater fouling reduction was achieved by pre-ozonation for the hydrophilic RC membrane than the hydrophobic PES membrane at increasing ozone doses. In addition, the physicochemical property changes of EfOM, including biopolymer fractions, by pre-ozonation were systemically investigated. The classical pore blocking model and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theories were employed to scrutinize the fouling alleviation mechanism by pre-ozonation. As a result, the overarching mechanisms of fouling reduction were attributed to the following key reasons: (1) Ozone degraded macromolecules such as biopolymers like proteins and polysaccharides into smaller fractions, thereby increasing free energy of cohesion of EfOM and rendering them more hydrophilic and stable; (2) pre-ozonation augmented the interfacial free energy of adhesion between foulants and the RC/PES membranes, leading to the increase of repulsions and/or the decrease of attractions; and (3) pre-ozonation prolonged the transition from pore blocking to cake filtration that was a dominant fouling mechanism, thereby reducing fouling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 49 CFR 663.21 - Pre-award audit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-award audit requirements. 663.21 Section 663.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PRE-AWARD AND POST-DELIVERY AUDITS OF ROLLING STOCK PURCHASES Pre-Award Audits § 663.21 Pre-award audit...

  4. 46 CFR 115.640 - Pre-Survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-Survey meeting. 115.640 Section 115.640 Shipping... Tailshaft Examinations § 115.640 Pre-Survey meeting. (a) You must conduct a pre-survey meeting to discuss... of the ROV operating company must attend the pre-survey meeting and address the underwater ROV's...

  5. 46 CFR 115.640 - Pre-Survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-Survey meeting. 115.640 Section 115.640 Shipping... Tailshaft Examinations § 115.640 Pre-Survey meeting. (a) You must conduct a pre-survey meeting to discuss... of the ROV operating company must attend the pre-survey meeting and address the underwater ROV's...

  6. 46 CFR 115.640 - Pre-Survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-Survey meeting. 115.640 Section 115.640 Shipping... Tailshaft Examinations § 115.640 Pre-Survey meeting. (a) You must conduct a pre-survey meeting to discuss... of the ROV operating company must attend the pre-survey meeting and address the underwater ROV's...

  7. 46 CFR 115.640 - Pre-Survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-Survey meeting. 115.640 Section 115.640 Shipping... Tailshaft Examinations § 115.640 Pre-Survey meeting. (a) You must conduct a pre-survey meeting to discuss... of the ROV operating company must attend the pre-survey meeting and address the underwater ROV's...

  8. 46 CFR 115.640 - Pre-Survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-Survey meeting. 115.640 Section 115.640 Shipping... Tailshaft Examinations § 115.640 Pre-Survey meeting. (a) You must conduct a pre-survey meeting to discuss... of the ROV operating company must attend the pre-survey meeting and address the underwater ROV's...

  9. The Effects of Universal Pre-K on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, William T.; Gayer, Ted; Phillips, Deborah; Dawson, Brittany

    2005-01-01

    In this study of Oklahoma's universal pre-K program, the authors relied on a strict birthday eligibility criterion to compare "young" kindergarten children who just completed pre-K to "old" pre-K children just beginning pre-K. This regression-discontinuity design reduces the threat of selection bias. Their sample consisted of…

  10. Pre-K Benefits: The Facts on Fade-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2015

    2015-01-01

    As policymakers adopt policies for pre-K programs, they want to know that the programs are effective. Do the gains last? This brief report presents information that pre-k yields short-term academic gains; pre-k yields long-term academic gains; and pre-k yields substantial nonacademic benefits.

  11. University of Maryland MRSEC - Education: PreCollege

    Science.gov Websites

    Educational Education Pre-College Programs Homeschool Programs Undergraduate & Graduate Programs Teacher MRSEC Templates Opportunities Search Home » Education » Pre-College Programs Pre-College Programs Pre

  12. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre... must comply with the following requirements: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before... the purpose of pre-employment alcohol testing (i.e., it must not test some covered employees and not...

  13. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre... must comply with the following requirements: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before... the purpose of pre-employment alcohol testing (i.e., it must not test some covered employees and not...

  14. 28 CFR 97.11 - Pre-employment screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-employment screening. 97.11 Section... PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.11 Pre-employment screening. Private prisoner transport companies must adopt pre-employment screening measures for all potential employees. The pre-employment...

  15. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre... must comply with the following requirements: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before... the purpose of pre-employment alcohol testing (i.e., it must not test some covered employees and not...

  16. 28 CFR 97.11 - Pre-employment screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pre-employment screening. 97.11 Section... PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.11 Pre-employment screening. Private prisoner transport companies must adopt pre-employment screening measures for all potential employees. The pre-employment...

  17. 28 CFR 97.11 - Pre-employment screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-employment screening. 97.11 Section... PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.11 Pre-employment screening. Private prisoner transport companies must adopt pre-employment screening measures for all potential employees. The pre-employment...

  18. 28 CFR 97.11 - Pre-employment screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-employment screening. 97.11 Section... PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.11 Pre-employment screening. Private prisoner transport companies must adopt pre-employment screening measures for all potential employees. The pre-employment...

  19. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre... must comply with the following requirements: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before... the purpose of pre-employment alcohol testing (i.e., it must not test some covered employees and not...

  20. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre... must comply with the following requirements: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before... the purpose of pre-employment alcohol testing (i.e., it must not test some covered employees and not...

  1. Dropping the hammer: Examining impact ignition and combustion using pre-stressed aluminum powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Kevin J.; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Levitas, Valery I.

    2017-09-01

    Pre-stressing aluminum (Al) particles by annealing and quenching Al powder alters particle mechanical properties and has also been linked to an increase in particle reactivity. Specifically, energy propagation in composites consisting of aluminum mixed with copper oxide (Al + CuO) exhibits a 24% increase in flame speed when using pre-stressed aluminum (PS Al) compared to Al of the same particle size. However, no data exist for the reactivity of PS Al powders under impact loading. In this study, a drop weight impact tester with pressure cell was designed and built to examine impact ignition sensitivity and combustion of PS Al when mixed with CuO. Both micron and nanometer scale powders (i.e., μAl and nAl, respectively) were pre-stressed, then combined with CuO and analyzed. Three types of ignition and combustion events were identified: ignition with complete combustion, ignition with incomplete combustion, and no ignition or combustion. The PS nAl + CuO demonstrated a lower impact ignition energy threshold for complete combustion, differing from nAl + CuO samples by more than 3.5 J/mg. The PS nAl + CuO also demonstrated significantly more complete combustion as evidenced by pressure history data during ignition and combustion. Additional material characterization provides insight on hot spot formation in the incomplete combustion samples. The most probable reasons for higher impact-induced reactivity of pre-stressed particles include (a) delayed but more intense fracture of the pre-stressed alumina shell due to release of energy of internal stresses during fracture and (b) detachment of the shell from the core during impact due to high tensile stresses in the Al core leading to much more pronounced fracture of unsupported shells and easy access of oxygen to the Al core. The μAl + CuO composites did not ignite, even under pre-stressed conditions.

  2. Radon induced background processes in the KATRIN pre-spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränkle, F. M.; Bornschein, L.; Drexlin, G.; Glück, F.; Görhardt, S.; Käfer, W.; Mertens, S.; Wandkowsky, N.; Wolf, J.

    2011-10-01

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a next generation, model independent, large scale tritium β-decay experiment to determine the effective electron anti-neutrino mass by investigating the kinematics of tritium β-decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c 2 using the MAC-E filter technique. In order to reach this sensitivity, a low background level of 10 -2 counts per second (cps) is required. This paper describes how the decay of radon in a MAC-E filter generates background events, based on measurements performed at the KATRIN pre-spectrometer test setup. Radon (Rn) atoms, which emanate from materials inside the vacuum region of the KATRIN spectrometers, are able to penetrate deep into the magnetic flux tube so that the α-decay of Rn contributes to the background. Of particular importance are electrons emitted in processes accompanying the Rn α-decay, such as shake-off, internal conversion of excited levels in the Rn daughter atoms and Auger electrons. While low-energy electrons (<100 eV) directly contribute to the background in the signal region, higher energy electrons can be stored magnetically inside the volume of the spectrometer. Depending on their initial energy, they are able to create thousands of secondary electrons via subsequent ionization processes with residual gas molecules and, since the detector is not able to distinguish these secondary electrons from the signal electrons, an increased background rate over an extended period of time is generated.

  3. Improved Simulation of the Pre-equilibrium Triton Emission in Nuclear Reactions Induced by Nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P. E.; Blann, M.

    2014-04-01

    A new approach is proposed for the calculation of non-equilibrium triton energy distributions in nuclear reactions induced by nucleons of intermediate energies. It combines models describing the nucleon pick-up, the coalescence and the triton knock-out processes. Emission and absorption rates for excited particles are represented by the pre-equilibrium hybrid model. The model of Sato, Iwamoto, Harada is used to describe the nucleon pick-up and the coalescence of nucleons from exciton configurations starting from (2p,1h) states. The contribution of the direct nucleon pick-up is described phenomenologically. Multiple pre-equilibrium emission of tritons is accounted for. The calculated triton energy distributions are compared with available experimental data.

  4. De novo DNA methylation during monkey pre-implantation embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Niu, Yuyu; Sun, Yi Eve; Lu, Hanlin; Chen, Yongchang; Li, Siguang; Kang, Yu; Luo, Yuping; Si, Chenyang; Yu, Juehua; Li, Chang; Sun, Nianqin; Si, Wei; Wang, Hong; Ji, Weizhi; Tan, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Critical epigenetic regulation of primate embryogenesis entails DNA methylome changes. Here we report genome-wide composition, patterning, and stage-specific dynamics of DNA methylation in pre-implantation rhesus monkey embryos as well as male and female gametes studied using an optimized tagmentation-based whole-genome bisulfite sequencing method. We show that upon fertilization, both paternal and maternal genomes undergo active DNA demethylation, and genome-wide de novo DNA methylation is also initiated in the same period. By the 8-cell stage, remethylation becomes more pronounced than demethylation, resulting in an increase in global DNA methylation. Promoters of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation are preferentially remethylated at the 8-cell stage, suggesting that this mode of energy metabolism may not be favored. Unlike in rodents, X chromosome inactivation is not observed during monkey pre-implantation development. Our study provides the first comprehensive illustration of the 'wax and wane' phases of DNA methylation dynamics. Most importantly, our DNA methyltransferase loss-of-function analysis indicates that DNA methylation influences early monkey embryogenesis.

  5. De novo DNA methylation during monkey pre-implantation embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Niu, Yuyu; Sun, Yi Eve; Lu, Hanlin; Chen, Yongchang; Li, Siguang; Kang, Yu; Luo, Yuping; Si, Chenyang; Yu, Juehua; Li, Chang; Sun, Nianqin; Si, Wei; Wang, Hong; Ji, Weizhi; Tan, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Critical epigenetic regulation of primate embryogenesis entails DNA methylome changes. Here we report genome-wide composition, patterning, and stage-specific dynamics of DNA methylation in pre-implantation rhesus monkey embryos as well as male and female gametes studied using an optimized tagmentation-based whole-genome bisulfite sequencing method. We show that upon fertilization, both paternal and maternal genomes undergo active DNA demethylation, and genome-wide de novo DNA methylation is also initiated in the same period. By the 8-cell stage, remethylation becomes more pronounced than demethylation, resulting in an increase in global DNA methylation. Promoters of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation are preferentially remethylated at the 8-cell stage, suggesting that this mode of energy metabolism may not be favored. Unlike in rodents, X chromosome inactivation is not observed during monkey pre-implantation development. Our study provides the first comprehensive illustration of the 'wax and wane' phases of DNA methylation dynamics. Most importantly, our DNA methyltransferase loss-of-function analysis indicates that DNA methylation influences early monkey embryogenesis. PMID:28233770

  6. Pre-Hawking radiation cannot prevent the formation of apparent horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Unruh, William G.; Wu, Chih-Hung; Yeom, Dong-Han

    2018-03-01

    As an attempt to solve the black hole information loss paradox, recently there has been the suggestion that, due to semiclassical effects, a pre-Hawking radiation must exist during the gravitational collapse of matter, which in turn prevents the apparent horizon from forming. Assuming the pre-Hawking radiation does exist, here we argue the opposite. First we note that the stress energy tensor near the horizon for the pre-Hawking radiation is far too small to do anything to the motion of a collapsing shell. Thus the shell will always cross the apparent horizon within a finite proper time. Moreover, the amount of energy that can be radiated must be less than half of the total initial energy (if the particle starts at rest at infinity) before the shell becomes a null shell and cannot radiate any more without becoming tachyonic. We conclude that for any gravitational collapsing process within Einstein gravity and semiclassical quantum field theory, the formation of the apparent horizon is inevitable. Pre-Hawking radiation is therefore not a valid solution to the information paradox.

  7. Pre-Hawking radiation cannot prevent the formation of apparent horizon

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Pisin; Unruh, William G.; Wu, Chih-Hung; ...

    2018-03-30

    As an attempt to solve the black hole information loss paradox, recently there has been the suggestion that, due to semiclassical effects, a pre-Hawking radiation must exist during the gravitational collapse of matter, which in turn prevents the apparent horizon from forming. Assuming the pre-Hawking radiation does exist, here we argue the opposite. First we note that the stress energy tensor near the horizon for the pre-Hawking radiation is far too small to do anything to the motion of a collapsing shell. Thus the shell will always cross the apparent horizon within a finite proper time. Moreover, the amount ofmore » energy that can be radiated must be less than half of the total initial energy (if the particle starts at rest at infinity) before the shell becomes a null shell and cannot radiate any more without becoming tachyonic. Here, we conclude that for any gravitational collapsing process within Einstein gravity and semiclassical quantum field theory, the formation of the apparent horizon is inevitable. Pre-Hawking radiation is therefore not a valid solution to the information paradox.« less

  8. Pre-Hawking radiation cannot prevent the formation of apparent horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pisin; Unruh, William G.; Wu, Chih-Hung

    As an attempt to solve the black hole information loss paradox, recently there has been the suggestion that, due to semiclassical effects, a pre-Hawking radiation must exist during the gravitational collapse of matter, which in turn prevents the apparent horizon from forming. Assuming the pre-Hawking radiation does exist, here we argue the opposite. First we note that the stress energy tensor near the horizon for the pre-Hawking radiation is far too small to do anything to the motion of a collapsing shell. Thus the shell will always cross the apparent horizon within a finite proper time. Moreover, the amount ofmore » energy that can be radiated must be less than half of the total initial energy (if the particle starts at rest at infinity) before the shell becomes a null shell and cannot radiate any more without becoming tachyonic. Here, we conclude that for any gravitational collapsing process within Einstein gravity and semiclassical quantum field theory, the formation of the apparent horizon is inevitable. Pre-Hawking radiation is therefore not a valid solution to the information paradox.« less

  9. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  10. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  11. Bar code-based pre-transfusion check in pre-operative autologous blood donation.

    PubMed

    Ohsaka, Akimichi; Furuta, Yoshiaki; Ohsawa, Toshiya; Kobayashi, Mitsue; Abe, Katsumi; Inada, Eiichi

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a bar code-based identification system for the pre-transfusion check at the bedside in the setting of pre-operative autologous blood donation (PABD). Between July 2003 and December 2008 we determined the compliance rate and causes of failure of electronic bedside checking for PABD transfusion. A total of 5627 (9% of all transfusions) PABD units were administered without a single mistransfusion. The overall rate of compliance with electronic checking was 99%. The bar code-based identification system was applicable to the pre-transfusion check for PABD transfusion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MaRIE X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Pre-Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, Bruce E.; Barnes, Cris W.; Bishofberger, Kip A.

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory will include a 50-keV X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), a significant extension from planned and existing XFEL facilities. To prevent an unacceptably large energy spread arsing from energy diffusion, the electron beam energy should not exceed 20 GeV, which puts a significant constraint on the beam emittance. A 100-pC baseline design is presented along with advanced technology options to increase the photon flux and to decrease the spectral bandwidth through pre-bunching the electron beam.

  13. Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Rongxin; Xu, Peng; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-11-01

    Over the several past years, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has conducted field tests for different pre-cooling strategies in different commercial buildings within California. The test results indicated that pre-cooling strategies were effective in reducing electric demand in these buildings during peak periods. This project studied how to optimize pre-cooling strategies for eleven buildings in the Tri-City Corporate Center, San Bernardino, California with the assistance of a building energy simulation tool -- the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT) developed by LBNL's Demand Response Research Center funded by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. From themore » simulation results of these eleven buildings, optimal pre-cooling and temperature reset strategies were developed. The study shows that after refining and calibrating initial models with measured data, the accuracy of the models can be greatly improved and the models can be used to predict load reductions for automated demand response (Auto-DR) events. This study summarizes the optimization experience of the procedure to develop and calibrate building models in DRQAT. In order to confirm the actual effect of demand response strategies, the simulation results were compared to the field test data. The results indicated that the optimal demand response strategies worked well for all buildings in the Tri-City Corporate Center. This study also compares DRQAT with other building energy simulation tools (eQUEST and BEST). The comparison indicate that eQUEST and BEST underestimate the actual demand shed of the pre-cooling strategies due to a flaw in DOE2's simulation engine for treating wall thermal mass. DRQAT is a more accurate tool in predicting thermal mass effects of DR events.« less

  14. Pre-melting Behaviour in fcc Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamato, M. G.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Hunt, S.; Vocadlo, L.

    2016-12-01

    Although the Earth's core is accepted to be made of an iron-nickel alloy with a few percent of light elements, its exact structure and composition are still unknown. Seismological and mineralogical models in the Earth's inner core do not agree, with mineralogical models derived from ab initiocalculations predicting shear-wave velocities up to 30% greater than seismically observed values. Recent computer simulations revealed that such difference may be explained by a dramatic, non-linear, softening of the elastic constants of Fe prior to melting. Up to date, computer calculations are the only result on pre-melting of direct applicability to the Earth's core and it is essential to systematically investigate such phenomena at inner core pressures and temperatures. Measuring the pressure dependence of pre-melting effects at such conditions and to the required precision is however extremely challenging. Also, pre-melting effects have been observed or suggested to occur in other materials, particularly noble metals, which exhibit large departures from linearity (modulus defects) at elevated temperatures. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent pre-melting behaviour occurs in the physical properties of other metals at more experimentally tractable conditions. In particular, we report measurements of density and thermal expansion coefficients of both pure and alloyed gold (Au) up to their melting points. Au is an ideal test material since it crystallises in a simple monatomic face-centred structure and has a relatively low melting temperature. Precise measurements of unit cell lattice parameters were performed using a PANalytical X'Pert Pro powder diffractometer, equipped with an incident beam monochromator (giving very high resolution diffraction patterns) and with environmental stages covering the range from 40 K to 1373 K, with a readily achievable temperature resolution of 1K. We will discuss the circumstances under which pre-melting occurs, its

  15. Iron therapy for pre-operative anaemia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oliver; Keeler, Barrie D; Mishra, Amitabh; Simpson, Alastair; Neal, Keith; Brookes, Matthew J; Acheson, Austin G

    2015-12-22

    Pre-operative anaemia is common and occurs in up to 76% of patients. It is associated with increased peri-operative allogeneic blood transfusions, longer hospital lengths of stay and increased morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of this anaemia. Oral iron therapy has traditionally been used to treat anaemia but newer, safer parenteral iron preparations have been shown to be more effective in other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, chronic heart failure and post-partum haemorrhage. A limited number of studies look at iron therapy for the treatment of pre-operative anaemia. The aim of this Cochrane review is to summarise the evidence for use of iron supplementation, both enteral and parenteral, for the management of pre-operative anaemia. The objective of this review is to evaluate the effects of pre-operative iron therapy (enteral or parenteral) in reducing the need for allogeneic blood transfusions in anaemic patients undergoing surgery. We ran the search on 25 March 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), EMBASE Classic and EMBASE (Ovid), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), PubMed, clinical trials registries, conference abstracts, and we screened reference lists. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared pre-operative iron monotherapy to placebo, no treatment, standard of care or another form of iron therapy for anaemic adults undergoing surgery. Anaemia was defined by haemoglobin values less than 13 g/dL for males and 12 g/dL for non-pregnant females. Data were collected by two authors on the proportion of patients who receive a blood transfusion, amount of blood transfused per patient (units) and haemoglobin measured as continuous variables at pre-determined time-points: pre

  16. Energy and the English Industrial Revolution.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, E A

    2013-03-13

    Societies before the Industrial Revolution were dependent on the annual cycle of plant photosynthesis for both heat and mechanical energy. The quantity of energy available each year was therefore limited, and economic growth was necessarily constrained. In the Industrial Revolution, energy usage increased massively and output rose accordingly. The energy source continued to be plant photosynthesis, but accumulated over a geological age in the form of coal. This poses a problem for the future. Fossil fuels are a depleting stock, whereas in pre-industrial time the energy source, though limited, was renewed each year.

  17. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from co-digestion of wastewater sludges and agricultural wastes: Comparison with microwave pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Aylin Alagöz, B; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonication and microwave sludge disintegration/pre-treatment techniques on the anaerobic co-digestion efficiency of wastewater sludges with olive and grape pomaces. The effects of both co-digestion and sludge pre-treatment techniques were evaluated in terms of the organic removal efficiency and the biogas production. The "co-digestion" of wastewater sludge with both types of pomaces was revealed to be a much more efficient way for the biogas production compared to the single (mono) sludge digestion. The ultrasonication and microwave pre-treatments applied to the sludge samples caused to a further increase in biogas and methane yields. Based on applied specific energies, ultrasonication pre-treatment was found much more effective than microwave irradiation. The specific energy applied in microwave pre-treatment (87,000kj/kgTS) was almost 9 times higher than that of used in ultrasonication (10,000kj/kgTS), resulting only 10-15% increases in biogas/methane yield. Co-digestion of winery and olive industry residues with pre-treated wastewater sludges appears to be a suitable technique for waste management and energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre- and post-season dietary intake, body composition, and performance indices of NCAA division I female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Clark, Mandy; Reed, Debra B; Crouse, Stephen F; Armstrong, Robert B

    2003-09-01

    Little published data describe the dietary and physiological profiles of intercollegiate female soccer players; therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to report baseline dietary data, anthropometrics, and performance indices of soccer women during rigorous pre-season training (2 sessions/day) and then during the post-competitive season. Members of a NCAA Division I women's soccer squad completed 3-day diet records, anthropometrics, and physical tests, including VO2peak. Average body mass was 62 kg with 16% body fat, and no significant pre to post differences were observed. Total energy, carbohydrate (CHO), protein, and fat intakes were significantly greater during the pre-season. Pre-season energy intake met the DRI for females with an "active" lifestyle (37 kcal/kg). While CHO intake failed to meet minimum recommendations to promote glycogen repletion (7-10 g/kg), protein and fat intakes were above minimum recommendations. Pre- and post-season intakes of several micronutrients were marginal (<75% of the DRI) including vitamin E, folate, copper, and magnesium. VO2peak significantly improved from pre- to post-season (42 and 50 ml/kg/min). In this study female soccer players appeared to meet caloric needs during periods of training but failed to meet minimum CHO and micronutrient recommendations. Foods higher in protein and fat displaced more CHO-rich and nutrient-dense foods within athletes' energy requirements and satiety limits.

  19. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Naheed

    2015-01-01

    The anaesthetic management of patients with pre-existing pulmonary disease is a challenging task. It is associated with increased morbidity in the form of post-operative pulmonary complications. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function helps in reducing these complications. Patients are advised to stop smoking for a period of 4–6 weeks. This reduces airway reactivity, improves mucociliary function and decreases carboxy-haemoglobin. The widely used incentive spirometry may be useful only when combined with other respiratory muscle exercises. Volume-based inspiratory devices have the best results. Pharmacotherapy of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be optimised before considering the patient for elective surgery. Beta 2 agonists, inhaled corticosteroids and systemic corticosteroids, are the main drugs used for this and several drugs play an adjunctive role in medical therapy. A graded approach has been suggested to manage these patients for elective surgery with an aim to achieve optimal pulmonary function. PMID:26556913

  20. Energy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    1981-01-01

    The Aquatic Center at Corvallis (Oregon) is analyzed for energy use. Energy conservation in the building would be accomplished best through heavy insulation of exterior surfaces and the maximization of passive solar gain. (Author/MLF)

  1. Save Energy $.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Thomas E., III; Shapiro, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    Large institutional energy users can reduce energy costs by constructing and operating steam and electricity cogeneration facilities and purchasing their own gas at lower prices rather than relying on local distributors. (MSE)

  2. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  3. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  4. Observations of Pre-Stellar Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.

    2005-08-01

    Our understanding of the physical and chemical structure of pre-stellar cores, the simplest star-forming sites, has significantly improved since the last IAU Symposium on Astrochemistry (South Korea, 1999). Research done over these years has revealed that major molecular species like CO and CS systematically deplete onto dust grains in the interior of pre-stellar cores, while species like N2H+ and NH3 survive in the gas phase and can usually be detected toward the core centers. Such a selective behavior of molecular species gives rise to a differentiated (onion-like) chemical composition, and manifests itself in molecular maps as a dichotomy between centrally peaked and ring-shaped distributions. From the point of view of star-formation studies, the identification of molecular inhomogeneities in cores helps to resolve past discrepancies between observations made using different tracers, and brings the possibility of self-consistent modelling of the core internal structure. Here I present recent work on determining the physical and chemical structure of two pre-stellar cores, L1498 and L1517B, using observations in a large number of molecules and Monte Carlo radiative transfer analysis. These two cores are typical examples of the pre-stellar core population, and their chemical composition is characterized by the presence of large `freeze out holes' in most molecular species. In contrast with these chemically processed objects, a new population of chemically young cores has begun to emerge. The characteristics of its most extreme representative, L1521E, are briefly reviewed.

  5. [Apical resorption in pre-surgical orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Piasente, M; Merlini, C; Amelotti, C; Antonioli, M; Roghi, M

    1991-07-15

    Apical root resorption is a frequent phenomenon observed in pre-surgical orthodontic; the reason is double: we deal with adult patients and we often move the teeth in the opposite direction compared to the position obtained in previous inefficacious orthodontic treatments. Notwithstanding the amount of apical root resorption we couldn't record an hyper-mobility of the teeth and a long term evaluation of occlusal stability didn't show any significant change.

  6. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies III

    PubMed Central

    Warzybok, Anna; Ernst, Stephan M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of eight signal pre-processing strategies, including directional microphones, coherence filters, single-channel noise reduction, binaural beamformers, and their combinations, was undertaken with normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in three noise scenarios (multitalker babble, cafeteria noise, and single competing talker). Predictions of three common instrumental measures were compared with the general perceptual benefit caused by the algorithms. The individual SRTs measured without pre-processing and individual benefits were objectively estimated using the binaural speech intelligibility model. Ten listeners with NH and 12 HI listeners participated. The participants varied in age and pure-tone threshold levels. Although HI listeners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to obtain 50% intelligibility than listeners with NH, no differences in SRT benefit from the different algorithms were found between the two groups. With the exception of single-channel noise reduction, all algorithms showed an improvement in SRT of between 2.1 dB (in cafeteria noise) and 4.8 dB (in single competing talker condition). Model predictions with binaural speech intelligibility model explained 83% of the measured variance of the individual SRTs in the no pre-processing condition. Regarding the benefit from the algorithms, the instrumental measures were not able to predict the perceptual data in all tested noise conditions. The comparable benefit observed for both groups suggests a possible application of noise reduction schemes for listeners with different hearing status. Although the model can predict the individual SRTs without pre-processing, further development is necessary to predict the benefits obtained from the algorithms at an individual level. PMID:26721922

  7. Impact of Pre-adapted HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jonathan M.; Du, Victor Y.; Pfeifer, Nico; Bansal, Anju; Tan, Vincent Y.F.; Power, Karen; Brumme, Chanson J.; Kreimer, Anat; DeZiel, Charles E.; Fusi, Nicolo; Schaefer, Malinda; Brockman, Mark A.; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A.; Kilembe, William; Haubrich, Richard; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Shapiro, Roger; Frater, John; Harrigan, P. Richard; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Allen, Susan; Heckerman, David; Sidney, John; Allen, Todd M.; Goulder, Philip J.R.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Hunter, Eric; Goepfert, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Human Leukocyte Antigen class I (HLA) restricted CD8+ T lymphocyte (CTL) responses are critical to HIV-1 control. Although HIV can evade these responses, the longer-term impact of viral escape mutants remains unclear, since these variants can also reduce intrinsic viral fitness. To address this question, we here develop a metric to determine the degree of HIV adaptation to an HLA profile. We demonstrate that transmission of viruses pre-adapted to the HLA molecules expressed in the recipient is associated with impaired immunogenicity, elevated viral load and accelerated CD4 decline. Furthermore, the extent of pre-adaptation among circulating viruses explains much of the variation in outcomes attributed to expression of certain HLA alleles. Thus, viral pre-adaptation exploits “holes” in the immune response. Accounting for these holes may be critical for vaccine strategies seeking to elicit functional responses from viral variants, and to HIV cure strategies requiring broad CTL responses to achieve successful eradication of HIV reservoirs. PMID:27183217

  8. Pre-surgical register of tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Eva; Moreno, Montse; Pérez, Àngels; Castellano, Yolanda; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez, Cristina

    2018-03-24

    Smoking cessation before surgery decreases the risk of complications. The aim of this study was to analyse the smoking register, associated variables and a short talk given to smokers in pre-surgical visits. Cross-sectional study. The pre-surgical records of 680 patients were assessed. We selected patient sociodemographic variables, surgical intervention characteristics, smoking status and consumption pattern. Logistic regression was used to study the variables association with smoking. A percentage of 97.2 of the pre-surgical records include information on tobacco consumption. Overall 20% of surgical patients are smokers. The probability of smoking is higher among men (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-4.0) and≤60 years (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 3.2-9.1). None of the records had information regarding a short talk given to patients to give up smoking. Smoking consumption was prevalent, but the characterisation of a smoker's profile and short talk given to patient before surgery was practically nonexistent. Ensuring that patients who smokes receives a short talk to give up smoking before surgery is necessary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  10. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  11. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  12. Energy Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddy, Carol T., Ed.; Wells, Kathy, Ed.

    This collection of reprints offers practical solutions, not readily available elsewhere, to everyday energy problems, such as high utility bills, insulating windows, getting more gas mileage, or buying a more efficient washer or refrigerator. The Arkansas Energy Office provides a weekly column of energy news and conservation tips to newspapers,…

  13. Application of polyurethane foam as a sorbent for trace metal pre-concentration — A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, V. A.; Santos, M. S.; Santos, E. S.; Santos, M. J. S.; dos Santos, W. N. L.; Souza, A. S.; de Jesus, D. S.; das Virgens, C. F.; Carvalho, M. S.; Oleszczuk, N.; Vale, M. G. R.; Welz, B.; Ferreira, S. L. C.

    2007-01-01

    The first publication on the use of polyurethane foam (PUF) for sorption processes dates back to 1970, and soon after the material was applied for separation processes. The application of PUF as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of inorganic analytes for separation and pre-concentration purposes is reviewed. The physical and chemical characteristics of PUF (polyether and polyester type) are discussed and an introduction to the characterization of these sorption processes using different types of isotherms is given. Separation and pre-concentration methods using unloaded and loaded PUF in batch and on-line procedures with continuous flow and flow injection systems are presented. Methods for the direct solid sampling analysis of the PUF after pre-concentration are discussed as well as approaches for speciation analysis. Thermodynamic proprieties of some extraction processes are evaluated and the interpretation of determined parameters, such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy in light of the physico-chemical processes is explained.

  14. Molecular association of pathogenetic contributors to pre-eclampsia (pre-eclampsia associome)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Pre-eclampsia is the most common complication occurring during pregnancy. In the majority of cases, it is concurrent with other pathologies in a comorbid manner (frequent co-occurrences in patients), such as diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and obesity. Providing bronchial asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, certain neurodegenerative diseases and cancers as examples, we have shown previously that pairs of inversely comorbid pathologies (rare co-occurrences in patients) are more closely related to each other at the molecular genetic level compared with randomly generated pairs of diseases. Data in the literature concerning the causes of pre-eclampsia are abundant. However, the key mechanisms triggering this disease that are initiated by other pathological processes are thus far unknown. The aim of this work was to analyse the characteristic features of genetic networks that describe interactions between comorbid diseases, using pre-eclampsia as a case in point. Results The use of ANDSystem, Pathway Studio and STRING computer tools based on text-mining and database-mining approaches allowed us to reconstruct associative networks, representing molecular genetic interactions between genes, associated concurrently with comorbid disease pairs, including pre-eclampsia, diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and obesity. It was found that these associative networks statistically differed in the number of genes and interactions between them from those built for randomly chosen pairs of diseases. The associative network connecting all four diseases was composed of 16 genes (PLAT, ADIPOQ, ADRB3, LEPR, HP, TGFB1, TNFA, INS, CRP, CSRP1, IGFBP1, MBL2, ACE, ESR1, SHBG, ADA). Such an analysis allowed us to reveal differential gene risk factors for these diseases, and to propose certain, most probable, theoretical mechanisms of pre-eclampsia development in pregnant women. The mechanisms may include the following pathways: [TGFB1 or TNFA]-[IL1B]-[pre-eclampsia]; [TNFA

  15. Agua Caliente Solar Feasibility and Pre-Development Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carolyn T. Stewart, Managing Partner; Red Mountain Energy Partners

    2011-04-26

    Evaluation of facility- and commercial-scale solar energy projects on the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians Reservation in Palm Springs, CA. The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) conducted a feasibility and pre-development study of potential solar projects on its lands in southern California. As described below, this study as a logical and necessary next step for ACBCI. Support for solar project development in California, provided through the statewide California Solar Initiative (CSI), its Renewable Portfolio Standard and Feed-in Tariff Program, and recently announced Reverse Auction Mechanism, provide unprecedented support and incentives that can be utilized by customers ofmore » California's investor-owned utilities. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program funding allowed ACBCI to complete its next logical step to implement its Strategic Energy Plan, consistent with its energy and sustainability goals.« less

  16. Energy 101: Home Energy Assessment

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-18

    A home energy checkup helps owners determine where their house is losing energy and money - and how such problems can be corrected to make the home more energy efficient. A professional technician - often called an energy auditor - can give your home a checkup. You can also do some of the steps yourself. Items shown here include checking for leaks, examining insulation, inspecting the furnace and ductwork, performing a blower door test and using an infrared camera.

  17. Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to moremore » reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets

  18. Energy Audits. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in energy audits is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored training…

  19. The Conundrum of the Solar Pre-Flare Photospheric State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leka, KD; Barnes, Graham; Wagner, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of the state of the solar photospheric magnetic field at a single instant in time does not appear sufficient to predict the size and timing of impending solar flares. Such knowledge may provide necessary conditions, such as the free magnetic energy needed for a flare to occur. Given the necessary conditions, it is often assumed that the evolution of the field, possibly by only a small amount, may trigger the onset of a flare. We present the results of a study using time series of photospheric vector field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to quantitatively parameterize both the state and evolution of solar active regions - their complexity, magnetic topology and energy - as related to solar flare events. We examine both extensive and intensive parameters and their temporal behavior, in the context of both large and small flaring episodes. Statistical tests based on nonparametric Discriminant Analysis are used to compare pre-flare epochs to a control group of flare-quiet epochs and active regions. Results regarding the type of photospheric signature examined and the efficacy of using the present state vs. temporal evolution to predict solar flares is quantified by standard skill scores.This work is made possible by contracts NASA NNH12CG10C and NOAA/SBIR WC-133R-13-CN-0079.

  20. Development, characterization, and modeling of ballistic impact on composite laminates under compressive pre-stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr-Anderson, Eric

    Structural composite laminates were ballistically impacted while under in-plane compressive pre-stress. Residual properties, damage characterization, and energy absorption were compared to determine synergistic effects of in-plane compressive pre-stress and impact velocity. A fixture was developed to apply in-plane compressive loads up to 30 tons to structural composites during an impact event using a single-stage light-gas gun. Observed failure modes included typical conical delamination, the development of an impact initiated shear crack (IISC), and the shear failure of a pre-stressed composite due to impact. It was observed that the compressive failure threshold quadratically decreased in relation to the impact velocity up to velocities that caused partial penetration. For all laminates impacted at velocities causing partial or full penetration up to 350 ms-1, the failure threshold was consistent and used as an experimental normalization. Samples impacted below 65% of the failure threshold witnessed no significant change in damage morphology or residual properties when compared to typical conical delamination. Samples impacted above 65% of the failure threshold witnessed additional damage in the form of a shear crack extending perpendicular to the applied load from the point of impact. The presence of an IISC reduced the residual properties and even caused failure upon impact at extreme combinations. Four failure envelopes have been established as: transient failure, steady state failure, impact initiated shear crack, and conical damage. Boundaries and empirically based equations for residual compressive strength have been developed for each envelope with relation to two E-glass/vinyl ester laminate systems. Many aspects of pre-stressed impact have been individually examined, but there have been no comprehensive examinations of pre-stressed impact. This research has resulted in the exploration and characterization of compressively pre-stressed damage for impact

  1. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth pre-treated at 80 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Ivet; Palatsi, Jordi; Campos, Elena; Flotats, Xavier

    2010-10-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) is a fast growing aquatic plant which causes environmental problems in continental water bodies. Harvesting and handling this plant becomes an issue, and focus has been put on the research of treatment alternatives. Amongst others, energy production through biomethanation has been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The effect of a thermal sludge pre-treatment at 80 degrees C was also evaluated. To this end, anaerobic biodegradability tests were carried out at 35 degrees C and 55 degrees C, with raw and pre-treated water hyacinth. According to the results, the thermal pre-treatment enhanced the solubilisation of water hyacinth (i.e. increase in the soluble to total chemical oxygen demand (COD)) from 4% to 12% after 30 min. However, no significant effect was observed on the methane yields (150-190 L CH(4)/kg volatile solids). Initial methane production rates for thermophilic treatments were two fold those of mesophilic ones (6-6.5L vs. 3-3.5 L CH(4)/kg COD x day). Thus, higher methane production rates might be expected from thermophilic reactors working at short retention times. The study of longer low temperature pre-treatments or pre-treatments at elevated temperatures coupled to thermophilic reactors should be considered in the future. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

  3. 7 CFR 1717.305 - Pre-emption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in Rate Making in Connection With Power Supply Borrowers § 1717.305 Pre-emption. (a) Inadequate rates. State regulatory authority jurisdiction over a power supply borrower's rates shall be pre-empted by the...

  4. 7 CFR 1717.305 - Pre-emption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in Rate Making in Connection With Power Supply Borrowers § 1717.305 Pre-emption. (a) Inadequate rates. State regulatory authority jurisdiction over a power supply borrower's rates shall be pre-empted by the...

  5. Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions of the Greenhouse Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    1999-01-01

    Expands on earlier work to examine pre-service teachers' views on environmental issues, especially global warming and the related term "greenhouse effect." Suggests that pre-service elementary teachers hold many misconceptions about environmental issues. (DDR)

  6. [Management of pre-analytical nonconformities].

    PubMed

    Berkane, Z; Dhondt, J L; Drouillard, I; Flourié, F; Giannoli, J M; Houlbert, C; Surgat, P; Szymanowicz, A

    2010-12-01

    The main nonconformities enumerated to facilitate consensual codification. In each case, an action is defined: refusal to realize the examination with request of a new sample, request of information or correction, results cancellation, nurse or physician information. A traceability of the curative, corrective and preventive actions is needed. Then, methodology and indicators are proposed to assess nonconformity and to follow the quality improvements. The laboratory information system can be used instead of dedicated software. Tools for the follow-up of nonconformities scores are proposed. Finally, we propose an organization and some tools allowing the management and control of the nonconformities occurring during the pre-examination phase.

  7. A study of pre-operative sedatives

    PubMed Central

    Parkhouse, James; Mahoney, Joan

    1968-01-01

    A state-registered nurse acted as a whole-time investigator following patients through the pre-operative night in hospital and questioning them in the morning, to assess the relative merits of different medications. Two new sedatives were compared with a standard barbiturate and a placebo, and information was collected from patients who elected to have no medication to help them sleep. Subjective assessment enabled the placebo to be distinguished from the active medications, although there was little difference between these. The importance of psychological factors is discussed in relation to those patients who had no medication. PMID:4869880

  8. Wind energy.

    PubMed

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  9. Energy & Energetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-22

    mechanical and structural failure and decomposition in ultra-fast time regimes. Our research teams are exploring novel ways to convert mechanical ...energy to thermal energy by examining initiation mechanisms , multi-phase combustion, detonation and the mechanisms that lead to the release of energy...understanding of the mechanisms of structural stability by doping Fe in LiCoPO4 and effectiveness of HFiP in stopping further oxidation of electrolytes are

  10. 46 CFR 71.50-23 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-survey meeting. 71.50-23 Section 71.50-23 Shipping... Drydocking § 71.50-23 Pre-survey meeting. (a) In advance of each AHE, you must conduct a pre-survey meeting..., then the pre-survey meeting must be attended by a representative of the ROV operating company who is...

  11. 46 CFR 71.50-23 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-survey meeting. 71.50-23 Section 71.50-23 Shipping... Drydocking § 71.50-23 Pre-survey meeting. (a) In advance of each AHE, you must conduct a pre-survey meeting..., then the pre-survey meeting must be attended by a representative of the ROV operating company who is...

  12. 46 CFR 71.50-23 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-survey meeting. 71.50-23 Section 71.50-23 Shipping... Drydocking § 71.50-23 Pre-survey meeting. (a) In advance of each AHE, you must conduct a pre-survey meeting..., then the pre-survey meeting must be attended by a representative of the ROV operating company who is...

  13. 46 CFR 71.50-23 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-survey meeting. 71.50-23 Section 71.50-23 Shipping... Drydocking § 71.50-23 Pre-survey meeting. (a) In advance of each AHE, you must conduct a pre-survey meeting..., then the pre-survey meeting must be attended by a representative of the ROV operating company who is...

  14. 46 CFR 71.50-23 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-survey meeting. 71.50-23 Section 71.50-23 Shipping... Drydocking § 71.50-23 Pre-survey meeting. (a) In advance of each AHE, you must conduct a pre-survey meeting..., then the pre-survey meeting must be attended by a representative of the ROV operating company who is...

  15. Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  16. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  17. Severe Hailstorm in Pre-monsoon: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryal, D.

    2016-12-01

    During the pre-monsoon months in Nepal, severe thunder and hailstorms cause significant property and agricultural damage in addition to loss of life. A severe hailstorm that took place in Nepal during the pre-monsoon month of May is investigated in this study. The storm occurred close to midnight on May 3, 2001 at Thori, 215m asl, a small village on the border with India. Giant 1kg hailstones destroyed 800 dwellings, most of the villagers' livestock (over 500 oxen and goats) and 200 hectare of crops. The primary data sources for this investigation included Infrared Satellite images, which illustrated the sequences of convective activity, and original archived ESRL India and China upper air data, which were used for synoptic and mesoscale analyses. The Thori hailstorm had its origins in a topographically induced lee-side convergence area in the deserts of Pakistan on May 2, 2001, from where it propagated eastwards into India and evolved into an eastwards travelling Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) reaching Thori near midnight on May 3. Atmospheric instability over the Gangetic Plains, fuelled by a very active surface heat low, cold temperatures and dynamic lifting mechanisms aloft, created a synoptic and mesoscale environment capable of generating a dangerous thunderstorm. Thori is known for frequent, severe hailstorms, owing to moisture convergence caused by the nature of its surroundings; an abnormally ample supply of moisture resulted in giant 1kg hailstones near midnight on May 3. This study calculated (Convective Available Potential Energy) CAPE values exceeding 8000J/kg for hailstorm resulting in intense updraft speeds capable of sustaining giant hail growth. This study attempts to isolate the specific and unique characteristics of the hailstorm that not only might explain their severity, but also suggest forecasting techniques for future forecasting in Nepal.

  18. DEEP: Database of Energy Efficiency Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary; Lee, Sang Hoon

    A database of energy efficiency performance (DEEP) is a presimulated database to enable quick and accurate assessment of energy retrofit of commercial buildings. DEEP was compiled from results of about 10 million EnergyPlus simulations. DEEP provides energy savings for screening and evaluation of retrofit measures targeting the small and medium-sized office and retail buildings in California. The prototype building models are developed for a comprehensive assessment of building energy performance based on DOE commercial reference buildings and the California DEER [sic] prototype buildings. The prototype buildings represent seven building types across six vintages of constructions and 16 California climate zones.more » DEEP uses these prototypes to evaluate energy performance of about 100 energy conservation measures covering envelope, lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, plug loads, and domestic hot war. DEEP consists the energy simulation results for individual retrofit measures as well as packages of measures to consider interactive effects between multiple measures. The large scale EnergyPlus simulations are being conducted on the super computers at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The pre-simulation database is a part of the CEC PIER project to develop a web-based retrofit toolkit for small and medium-sized commercial buildings in California, which provides real-time energy retrofit feedback by querying DEEP with recommended measures, estimated energy savings and financial payback period based on users' decision criteria of maximizing energy savings, energy cost savings, carbon reduction, or payback of investment. The pre-simulated database and associated comprehensive measure analysis enhances the ability to performance assessments of retrofits to reduce energy use for small and medium buildings and business owners who typically do not have resources to conduct costly

  19. Semi-aerobic fermentation as a novel pre-treatment to obtain VFA and increase methane yield from primary sludge.

    PubMed

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Clarke, W P; Jensen, P D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing trend to consider organic wastes as potential sources of renewable energy and value-add products. Fermentation products have emerged as attractive value-add option due to relative easy production and broad application range. However, pre-fermentation and extraction of soluble products may impact down-stream treatment processes, particularly energy recovery by anaerobic digestion. This paper investigates primary sludge pre-fermentation at different temperatures (20, 37, 55, and 70°C), treatment times (12, 24, 48, and 72h), and oxygen availability (semi-aerobic, anaerobic); and its impact on anaerobic digestion. Pre-fermentation at 20 and 37°C succeeded for VFA production with acetate and propionate being major products. Pre-fermentation at 37, 55, and 70°C resulted in higher solubilisation yield but it reduced sludge methane potential by 20%. Under semi-aerobic conditions, pre-fermentation allowed both VFA recovery (43gCODVFAkg(-1)VS) and improved methane potential. The latter phenomenon was linked to fungi that colonised the sludge top layer during pre-fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 22 CFR 226.11 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pre-award policies. 226.11 Section 226.11 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.11 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of grants and...

  1. 17 CFR 12.303 - Pre-decision conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Law Judge may, in his discretion, conduct one or more pre-decision conferences to be held in... amendments or supplements to the pleadings; (f) Encouraging an early settlement of disputes relating to... a pre-decision conference, the Administrative Law Judge may serve a pre-decision memorandum and...

  2. 17 CFR 12.303 - Pre-decision conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Law Judge may, in his discretion, conduct one or more pre-decision conferences to be held in... amendments or supplements to the pleadings; (f) Encouraging an early settlement of disputes relating to... a pre-decision conference, the Administrative Law Judge may serve a pre-decision memorandum and...

  3. 17 CFR 12.303 - Pre-decision conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Law Judge may, in his discretion, conduct one or more pre-decision conferences to be held in... amendments or supplements to the pleadings; (f) Encouraging an early settlement of disputes relating to... a pre-decision conference, the Administrative Law Judge may serve a pre-decision memorandum and...

  4. 17 CFR 12.303 - Pre-decision conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Law Judge may, in his discretion, conduct one or more pre-decision conferences to be held in... amendments or supplements to the pleadings; (f) Encouraging an early settlement of disputes relating to... a pre-decision conference, the Administrative Law Judge may serve a pre-decision memorandum and...

  5. 17 CFR 12.303 - Pre-decision conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Law Judge may, in his discretion, conduct one or more pre-decision conferences to be held in... amendments or supplements to the pleadings; (f) Encouraging an early settlement of disputes relating to... a pre-decision conference, the Administrative Law Judge may serve a pre-decision memorandum and...

  6. 40 CFR 68.77 - Pre-startup review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-startup review. 68.77 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.77 Pre-startup review. (a) The owner or operator shall perform a pre-startup safety review for new stationary sources and for modified...

  7. 40 CFR 68.77 - Pre-startup review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-startup review. 68.77 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.77 Pre-startup review. (a) The owner or operator shall perform a pre-startup safety review for new stationary sources and for modified...

  8. 40 CFR 68.77 - Pre-startup review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-startup review. 68.77 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.77 Pre-startup review. (a) The owner or operator shall perform a pre-startup safety review for new stationary sources and for modified...

  9. 40 CFR 68.77 - Pre-startup review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pre-startup review. 68.77 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.77 Pre-startup review. (a) The owner or operator shall perform a pre-startup safety review for new stationary sources and for modified...

  10. 45 CFR 74.11 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 74.11 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of Grants and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-award policies. 74.11 Section 74.11 Public...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.111 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements § 1260.111 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of grants and cooperative agreements, and contracts. In each instance, NASA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-award policies. 1260.111 Section 1260...

  12. 43 CFR 12.911 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements § 12.911 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of Grants and Cooperative Agreements, and Contracts. In each... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-award policies. 12.911 Section 12.911...

  13. 49 CFR 19.11 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.11 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of grants and cooperative agreements, and contracts. In each... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-award policies. 19.11 Section 19.11...

  14. 22 CFR 518.11 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 518.11 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of Grants and Cooperative Agreements, and Contracts. In each... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pre-award policies. 518.11 Section 518.11...

  15. 28 CFR 70.11 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 70.11 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of grants and cooperative... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pre-award policies. 70.11 Section 70.11...

  16. 14 CFR 1260.111 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements § 1260.111 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of grants and cooperative agreements, and contracts. In each instance, NASA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Pre-award policies. 1260.111 Section 1260...

  17. 43 CFR 12.911 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements § 12.911 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of Grants and Cooperative Agreements, and Contracts. In each... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-award policies. 12.911 Section 12.911...

  18. 43 CFR 12.911 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements § 12.911 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of Grants and Cooperative Agreements, and Contracts. In each... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Pre-award policies. 12.911 Section 12.911...

  19. 14 CFR § 1260.111 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements § 1260.111 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of grants and cooperative agreements, and contracts. In each instance, NASA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-award policies. § 1260.111 Section Â...

  20. 28 CFR 70.11 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 70.11 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of grants and cooperative... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-award policies. 70.11 Section 70.11...

  1. 28 CFR 70.11 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 70.11 Pre-award policies. (a) Use of grants and cooperative... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-award policies. 70.11 Section 70.11...

  2. 36 CFR 1210.11 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RULES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 1210.11 Pre-award policies... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-award policies. 1210.11...

  3. 7 CFR 58.919 - Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-heat, pasteurization. 58.919 Section 58.919... Procedures § 58.919 Pre-heat, pasteurization. When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat... requirements outlined in § 58.128. Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that have...

  4. 7 CFR 58.919 - Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-heat, pasteurization. 58.919 Section 58.919... Procedures § 58.919 Pre-heat, pasteurization. When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat... requirements outlined in § 58.128. Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that have...

  5. 7 CFR 58.919 - Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-heat, pasteurization. 58.919 Section 58.919... Procedures § 58.919 Pre-heat, pasteurization. When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat... requirements outlined in § 58.128. Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that have...

  6. 10 CFR 609.4 - Submission of Pre-Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TECHNOLOGIES § 609.4 Submission of Pre-Applications. In response to a solicitation requesting the submission of... information submitted in or in connection with Pre-Applications will be treated as provided in 10 CFR 600.15... Applicant that attests to the accuracy of the information in the Pre-Application, and that binds the Project...

  7. 10 CFR 609.4 - Submission of Pre-Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TECHNOLOGIES § 609.4 Submission of Pre-Applications. In response to a solicitation requesting the submission of... information submitted in or in connection with Pre-Applications will be treated as provided in 10 CFR 600.15... Applicant that attests to the accuracy of the information in the Pre-Application, and that binds the Project...

  8. 46 CFR 176.640 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-survey meeting. 176.640 Section 176.640 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.640 Pre-survey meeting. (a) In advance of each AHE, you must conduct a pre-survey meeting to discuss the details of the AHE procedure with the...

  9. 46 CFR 176.640 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-survey meeting. 176.640 Section 176.640 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.640 Pre-survey meeting. (a) In advance of each AHE, you must conduct a pre-survey meeting to discuss the details of the AHE procedure with the...

  10. 46 CFR 176.640 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-survey meeting. 176.640 Section 176.640 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.640 Pre-survey meeting. (a) In advance of each AHE, you must conduct a pre-survey meeting to discuss the details of the AHE procedure with the...

  11. 46 CFR 176.640 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-survey meeting. 176.640 Section 176.640 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.640 Pre-survey meeting. (a) In advance of each AHE, you must conduct a pre-survey meeting to discuss the details of the AHE procedure with the...

  12. 46 CFR 176.640 - Pre-survey meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-survey meeting. 176.640 Section 176.640 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.640 Pre-survey meeting. (a) In advance of each AHE, you must conduct a pre-survey meeting to discuss the details of the AHE procedure with the...

  13. An Investigation of School Violence and Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaleb, Karen Nykorchuk; Andersen, Amy; Hueston, Harry

    2008-01-01

    All educators need to be aware of issues regarding school violence. Recent years have shown that violence can happen in a variety of school settings. This study conducted a one-group, pretest-posttest, pre-experimental design to explore pre-service teachers' perceptions regarding school violence. First, pre-service educators were asked to complete…

  14. 7 CFR 58.919 - Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-heat, pasteurization. 58.919 Section 58.919... Procedures § 58.919 Pre-heat, pasteurization. When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat... requirements outlined in § 58.128. Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that have...

  15. Children's Access to Pre-School Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Using the "Education Watch" household survey database, this paper explores children's access to pre-school education in Bangladesh. Participation in pre-school education has been increasing in Bangladesh at the rate of 0.6% per year and the net enrolment rate was found to be 13.4% in 2005. Enrolment of over-aged children in pre-school…

  16. Pre-Service Science and Mathematics Teachers' Thoughts about Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aran, Özge Can; Derman, Ipek; Yagci, Esed

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate pre-service teachers' opinions about the technology. In this respect, the opinions of pre-service science and mathematics teachers were taken. The study was carried out at a university, located in the capital of Turkey. The data were collected from 20 pre-service teachers in the department of secondary school science…

  17. Oregon Pre-Engineering Learning Outcomes Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Langan, Holly; Veach, Darya; Farkas, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    The Oregon Pre-engineering Learning Outcomes Project was conducted by the Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) with grant funding from the Engineering and Technology Industry Council (ETIC). The study sought to improve student preparation and success in pre-engineering programs through the development of the Oregon Pre-engineering Learning…

  18. Turning on the Lights: What Pre-Assessments Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockett, Jessica A.; Doubet, Kristina J.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-assessment has a bad reputation, write Hockett and Doubet--but that's largely because it's often misused solely to compare pre- and post-results. Used this way, pre-assessment serves as little more than a thief of instruction and a discouraging exercise for students. The authors describe how teachers can design thoughtful…

  19. Pre-Diabetes Non-Modifiable Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pre-diabetes Non-modifiable Risk Factors Updated:Nov 9,2015 ... This content was last reviewed August 2015. Pre-diabetes • Introduction • About Pre-diabetes • What's the Problem? Intro ...

  20. 75 FR 45013 - Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... provided (an important protection for a program designed to offer coverage to those with a pre-existing... Part II Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 152 Pre-Existing Condition Insurance... [OCIIO-9995-IFC] RIN 0991-AB71 Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Program AGENCY: Office of Consumer...

  1. The Pre-K Debates: Current Controversies and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Gilliam, Walter S., Ed.; Barnett, W. Steven, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted or universal pre-K? Direct instruction or learning through play? These and other debates are heating up as more and more young children across the country gain access to pre-K programs. Now there's a single volume that spotlights today's most urgent pre-K debates, explores each one from all sides, and paves the way for sound, educated…

  2. 22 CFR 145.11 - Pre-award policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pre-award policies. 145.11 Section 145.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 145.11 Pre-award policies...

  3. 49 CFR 382.301 - Pre-employment testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.301 Pre-employment testing. (a) Prior to the first time a... 40 of this title, the employer shall conduct a pre-employment controlled substances test. (d) An...: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive...

  4. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... employee takes a pre-employment drug test administered under this part with a verified negative result. An...) When a covered employee or applicant has previously failed or refused a pre-employment drug test...-employment drug test administered under this part with a verified negative result. (c) If a pre-employment...

  5. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive functions by every... test some covered employees and not others). (c) The employer must conduct the pre-employment tests...-employment alcohol test. (d) The employer must conduct all pre-employment alcohol tests using the alcohol...

  6. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... covered service, unless the employee has been administered a test for drugs with a result that did not...

  7. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... covered service, unless the employee has been administered a test for drugs with a result that did not...

  8. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... employee takes a pre-employment drug test administered under this part with a verified negative result. An...) When a covered employee or applicant has previously failed or refused a pre-employment drug test...-employment drug test administered under this part with a verified negative result. (c) If a pre-employment...

  9. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive functions by every... test some covered employees and not others). (c) The employer must conduct the pre-employment tests...-employment alcohol test. (d) The employer must conduct all pre-employment alcohol tests using the alcohol...

  10. 49 CFR 382.301 - Pre-employment testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.301 Pre-employment testing. (a) Prior to the first time a... 40 of this title, the employer shall conduct a pre-employment controlled substances test. (d) An...: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive...

  11. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... employee takes a pre-employment drug test administered under this part with a verified negative result. An...) When a covered employee or applicant has previously failed or refused a pre-employment drug test...-employment drug test administered under this part with a verified negative result. (c) If a pre-employment...

  12. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... covered service, unless the employee has been administered a test for drugs with a result that did not...

  13. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive functions by every... test some covered employees and not others). (c) The employer must conduct the pre-employment tests...-employment alcohol test. (d) The employer must conduct all pre-employment alcohol tests using the alcohol...

  14. 46 CFR 16.210 - Pre-employment testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test for dangerous drugs for that employer. (b) An employer may waive a pre-employment test required... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment testing requirements. 16.210 Section 16... TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.210 Pre-employment testing requirements. (a) No marine employer...

  15. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... covered service, unless the employee has been administered a test for drugs with a result that did not...

  16. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive functions by every... test some covered employees and not others). (c) The employer must conduct the pre-employment tests...-employment alcohol test. (d) The employer must conduct all pre-employment alcohol tests using the alcohol...

  17. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... employee takes a pre-employment drug test administered under this part with a verified negative result. An...) When a covered employee or applicant has previously failed or refused a pre-employment drug test...-employment drug test administered under this part with a verified negative result. (c) If a pre-employment...

  18. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive functions by every... test some covered employees and not others). (c) The employer must conduct the pre-employment tests...-employment alcohol test. (d) The employer must conduct all pre-employment alcohol tests using the alcohol...

  19. 49 CFR 382.301 - Pre-employment testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.301 Pre-employment testing. (a) Prior to the first time a... 40 of this title, the employer shall conduct a pre-employment controlled substances test. (d) An...: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive...

  20. 46 CFR 16.210 - Pre-employment testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... test for dangerous drugs for that employer. (b) An employer may waive a pre-employment test required... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment testing requirements. 16.210 Section 16... TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.210 Pre-employment testing requirements. (a) No marine employer...

  1. 46 CFR 16.210 - Pre-employment testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... test for dangerous drugs for that employer. (b) An employer may waive a pre-employment test required... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-employment testing requirements. 16.210 Section 16... TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.210 Pre-employment testing requirements. (a) No marine employer...

  2. 49 CFR 382.301 - Pre-employment testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.301 Pre-employment testing. (a) Prior to the first time a... 40 of this title, the employer shall conduct a pre-employment controlled substances test. (d) An...: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive...

  3. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... employee takes a pre-employment drug test administered under this part with a verified negative result. An...) When a covered employee or applicant has previously failed or refused a pre-employment drug test...-employment drug test administered under this part with a verified negative result. (c) If a pre-employment...

  4. 46 CFR 16.210 - Pre-employment testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... test for dangerous drugs for that employer. (b) An employer may waive a pre-employment test required... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment testing requirements. 16.210 Section 16... TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.210 Pre-employment testing requirements. (a) No marine employer...

  5. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... covered service, unless the employee has been administered a test for drugs with a result that did not...

  6. 46 CFR 16.210 - Pre-employment testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... test for dangerous drugs for that employer. (b) An employer may waive a pre-employment test required... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-employment testing requirements. 16.210 Section 16... TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.210 Pre-employment testing requirements. (a) No marine employer...

  7. 32 CFR 22.420 - Pre-award procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to obtain a pre-award credit report, audit, or any other specific piece of information. On a case-by... the grants officer in a particular case decide that a pre-award credit report, audit, or survey is... § 22.710), and decide whether pre-existing surveys or audits of the recipient, such as those of the...

  8. 32 CFR 22.420 - Pre-award procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to obtain a pre-award credit report, audit, or any other specific piece of information. On a case-by... the grants officer in a particular case decide that a pre-award credit report, audit, or survey is... § 22.710), and decide whether pre-existing surveys or audits of the recipient, such as those of the...

  9. Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions on Teaching Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan; Karsantik, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' opinions on teaching thinking skills. 134 senior pre-service pre-school, English and mathematics teachers studying at a state university in Istanbul participated in the study which is designed based on survey model. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was…

  10. Pre-genomic, genomic and post-genomic study of microbial communities involved in bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Halden, Rolf U

    2008-08-01

    Microorganisms can produce renewable energy in large quantities and without damaging the environment or disrupting food supply. The microbial communities must be robust and self-stabilizing, and their essential syntrophies must be managed. Pre-genomic, genomic and post-genomic tools can provide crucial information about the structure and function of these microbial communities. Applying these tools will help accelerate the rate at which microbial bioenergy processes move from intriguing science to real-world practice.

  11. A Pre-launch Analysis of NASA's SMAP Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, V. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Product applications have become an integral part of converting the data collected into actionable knowledge that can be used to inform policy. Successfully bridging scientific research with operational decision making in different application areas requires looking into thematic user requirements and data requirements. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive mission (SMAP) has an applications program that actively seeks to integrate the data prior to launch into a broad range of environmental monitoring and decision making systems from drought and flood guidance to disease risk assessment and national security SMAP is a a combined active/passive microwave instrument, which will be launched into a near-polar orbit in late 2014. It aims to produce a series of soil moisture products and soil freeze/thaw products with an accuracy of +/- 10%, a nominal resolution of between 3 and 40km, and latency between 12 hours and 7 days. These measurements will be used to enhance the understanding of processes that link the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to extend the capabilities of weather and climate prediction models. The driving success of the SMAP applications program is joining mission scientists to thematic end users and leveraging the knowledge base of soil moisture data applications, increase the speed SMAP data product ingestion into critical processes and research, improving societal benefits to science. Because SMAP has not yet launched, the mission is using test algorithms to determine how the data will interact with existing processes. The objective of this profession review is to solicit data requirements, accuracy needs and current understanding of the SMAP mission from the user community and then feed that back into mission product development. Thus, understanding how users will apply SMAP data, prior to the satellite's launch, is an important component of SMAP Applied Sciences and one of NASA's measures for mission success. This paper presents an analysis of

  12. Optically pre-amplified lidar-radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morvan, Loic; Dolfi, Daniel; Huignard, Jean-Pierre

    2001-09-01

    We present the concept of an optically pre-amplified intensity modulated lidar, where the modulation frequency is in the microwave domain (1-10 GHz). Such a system permits to combine directivity of laser beams with mature radar processing. As an intensity modulated or dual-frequency laser beam is directed on a target, the backscattered intensity is collected by an optical system, pass through an optical preamplifier, and is detected on a high speed photodiode in a direct detection scheme. A radar type processing permits then to extract range, speed and identification information. The association of spatially multimode amplifier and direct detection allows low sensitivity to atmospheric turbulence and large field of view. We demonstrated theoretically that optical pre-amplification can greatly enhance sensitivity, even in spatially multimode amplifiers, such as free-space amplifier or multimode doped fiber. Computed range estimates based on this concept are presented. Laboratory demonstrations using 1 to 3 GHz modulated laser sources and >20 dB gain in multimode amplifiers are detailed. Preliminary experimental results on range and speed measurements and possible use for large amplitude vibrometry will be presented.

  13. Pre-adaptation to shiftwork in space.

    PubMed

    Samel, A; Wegmann, H M; Vejvoda, M

    1993-08-01

    Astronauts are often required to work in shift schedules. To test pre-mission adaptation strategies and effects on the circadian system, a study was performed using microgravity simulation by head-down bedrest. Eight male subjects were studied over 4 control days, and 7 days each for pre-mission adaptation, bedrest, and readjustment. The circadian system was assessed by monitoring ECG and temperature, and by collecting urine for determination of hormones and electrolytes. Rhythms did not achieve complete adjustment within the adaptation period when the sleep-wake cycle was shortened by 1 h/day, but resynchronization continued during bedrest. After the bedrest period when the time shift was reversed by a 7-h delay within 2 days, resynchronization was achieved satisfactorily only within 7 days. From the results it is concluded that a sleep-wake cycle advance as used in this study is insufficient to keep the circadian system in pace. Under operational conditions the circadian system of astronauts may become longer and more destabilized than under controlled laboratory conditions.

  14. Pre-adaptation to shiftwork in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samel, A.; Wegmann, H. M.; Vejvoda, M.

    Astronauts are often required to work in shift schedules. To test pre-mission adaptation strategies and effects on the circadian system, a study was performed using microgravity simulation by head-down bedrest. Eight male subjects were studied over 4 control days, and 7 days each for pre-mission adaptation, bedrest, and readjustment. The circadian system was assessed by monitoring ECG and temperature, and by collecting urine for determination of hormones and electrolytes. Rhythms did not achieve complete adjustment within the adaptation period when the sleep-wake cycle was shortened by 1h/day, but resynchronization continued during bedrest. After the bedrest period when the time shift was reversed by a 7-h delay within 2 days, resynchronization was achieved satisfactorily only within 7 days. From the results it is concluded that a sleep-wake cycle advance as used in this study is insufficient to keep the circadian system in pace. Under operational conditions the circadian system of astronauts may become longer and more destabilized than under controlled laboratory conditions.

  15. Arabic handwritten: pre-processing and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliki, Makki; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Sellahewa, Harin

    2012-06-01

    This paper is concerned with pre-processing and segmentation tasks that influence the performance of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems and handwritten/printed text recognition. In Arabic, these tasks are adversely effected by the fact that many words are made up of sub-words, with many sub-words there associated one or more diacritics that are not connected to the sub-word's body; there could be multiple instances of sub-words overlap. To overcome these problems we investigate and develop segmentation techniques that first segment a document into sub-words, link the diacritics with their sub-words, and removes possible overlapping between words and sub-words. We shall also investigate two approaches for pre-processing tasks to estimate sub-words baseline, and to determine parameters that yield appropriate slope correction, slant removal. We shall investigate the use of linear regression on sub-words pixels to determine their central x and y coordinates, as well as their high density part. We also develop a new incremental rotation procedure to be performed on sub-words that determines the best rotation angle needed to realign baselines. We shall demonstrate the benefits of these proposals by conducting extensive experiments on publicly available databases and in-house created databases. These algorithms help improve character segmentation accuracy by transforming handwritten Arabic text into a form that could benefit from analysis of printed text.

  16. Survey of aviation medical examiners : information and attitudes about the pre-employment and pre-appointment drug testing program.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-03-01

    Aviation medical examiners who are designated to collect urine specimens were surveyed to collect information and assess attitudes about different aspects of the pre-employment and pre-appointment drug testing program. Fifty-seven percent of the samp...

  17. Changes in cognitive control in pre-manifest Huntington's disease examined using pre-saccadic EEG potentials - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ness, Vanessa; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Saft, Carsten; Beste, Christian

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that Huntington's disease (HD) affects saccadic processing. However, saccadic dysfunctions in HD may be seen as a result of dysfunctional processes occurring at the oculomotor level prior to the execution of saccades, i.e., at a pre-saccadic level. Virtually nothing is known about possible changes in pre-saccadic processes in HD. This study examines pre-saccadic processing in pre-manifest HD gene mutation carriers (pre-HDs) by using clinically available EEG measures. Error rates, pre-saccadic EEG potentials and saccade onset EEG potentials were measured in 14 pre-HDs and case-matched controls performing prosaccades and antisaccades in a longitudinal study over a 15-month period. The results show that pre-saccadic potentials were changed in pre-HDs, relative to controls and also revealed changes across the 15-month longitudinal period. In particular, pre-saccadic ERP in pre-HDs were characterized by lower amplitudes and longer latencies, which revealed longitudinal changes. These changes were observed for anti-saccades, but not for pro-saccades. Overt saccadic trajectories (potentials) were not different to those in controls, showing that pre-saccadic processes are sensitive to subtle changes in fronto-striatal networks in pre-HDs. Deficits in pre-saccadic processes prior the execution of an erroneous anti-saccade can be seen as an effect of dysfunctional cognitive control in HD. This may underlie saccadic abnormalities and hence a major phenotype of HD. Pre-saccadic EEG potentials preceding erroneous anti-saccades are sensitive to pre-manifest disease progression in HD.

  18. Energy - 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Board of Regents, Topeka.

    A checklist of energy consumption reduction measures for universities is provided with the intent of achieving rapid and significant energy savings at minimal cost. Measures described should be within the scope of accomplishment by regular university operating and maintenance personnel. The measures involve non-technical actions such as adjusting…

  19. Energy Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ron

    2010-01-01

    When construction slows and campus operating expenses are under the microscope, it is more important than ever to save energy dollars with the equipment and staff on hand. For the facilities manager who thinks out of the box, significant savings can be found on most school and college campuses. This article provides energy-conservation tips that…

  20. Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Amy A.

    This selection of class activities involves a sequence of 10 class sessions. The goal of the collection is to aid students in learning the concepts of energy conservation and to put this knowledge into practice. Attention is also given to the development of alternate energy sources. Each lesson includes an activity title, motivational hints,…

  1. Energy Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobieski, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Education facilities managers are faced with a daunting set of challenges: They must find new ways to reduce energy consumption and carry out greener energy policies. HVAC typically accounts for more than 30% of a building's electricity costs, so there is a clear incentive to eliminate unnecessary heating and cooling of unoccupied rooms. With more…

  2. Energy Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Catherina L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a unit to study the cycling of matter and energy through speleology using cooperative learning groups. Integrates the topic with zoology, biogeochemistry, paleontology, and meteorology. Includes a sample rubric for a salt block cave presentation, unit outline, and processes for studying matter and energy processes in caves. (Author/KHR)

  3. Energy Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed as an interdisciplinary, supplemental teaching guide, this document provides fundamental information about energy supply, use, and conservation and related learning activities for secondary students. Eight units address the following topics: energy history, petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, alternative sources, energy…

  4. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  5. Identifying the source of super-high energetic electrons in the presence of pre-plasma in laser–matter interaction at relativistic intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Luan, S. X.

    The generation of super-high energetic electrons influenced by pre-plasma in relativistic intensity laser–matter interaction is studied in a one-dimensional slab approximation with particle-in-cell simulations. Different pre-plasma scale lengths and laser intensities are considered, showing an increase in both particle number and cut-off kinetic energy of electrons with the increase of pre-plasma scale length and laser intensity, the cut-off kinetic energy greatly exceeding the corresponding laser ponderomotive energy. A two-stage electron acceleration model is proposed to explain the underlying physics. The first stage is attributed to the synergetic acceleration by longitudinal electric field and counter-propagating laser pulses, and a scaling lawmore » is obtained with efficiency depending on the pre-plasma scale length and laser intensity. These electrons pre-accelerated in the first stage could build up an intense electrostatic potential barrier with maximal value several times as large as the initial electron kinetic energy. Some of the energetic electrons could be further accelerated by reflection off the electrostatic potential barrier, with their finial kinetic energies significantly higher than the values pre-accelerated in the first stage.« less

  6. Identifying the source of super-high energetic electrons in the presence of pre-plasma in laser–matter interaction at relativistic intensities

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Luan, S. X.; ...

    2016-10-03

    The generation of super-high energetic electrons influenced by pre-plasma in relativistic intensity laser–matter interaction is studied in a one-dimensional slab approximation with particle-in-cell simulations. Different pre-plasma scale lengths and laser intensities are considered, showing an increase in both particle number and cut-off kinetic energy of electrons with the increase of pre-plasma scale length and laser intensity, the cut-off kinetic energy greatly exceeding the corresponding laser ponderomotive energy. A two-stage electron acceleration model is proposed to explain the underlying physics. The first stage is attributed to the synergetic acceleration by longitudinal electric field and counter-propagating laser pulses, and a scaling lawmore » is obtained with efficiency depending on the pre-plasma scale length and laser intensity. These electrons pre-accelerated in the first stage could build up an intense electrostatic potential barrier with maximal value several times as large as the initial electron kinetic energy. Some of the energetic electrons could be further accelerated by reflection off the electrostatic potential barrier, with their finial kinetic energies significantly higher than the values pre-accelerated in the first stage.« less

  7. Pre-main Sequence Evolution and the Hydrogen-Burning Minimum Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takenori

    There is a lower limit to the mass of the main-sequence stars (the hydrogen-burning minimum mass) below which the stars cannot replenish the energy lost from their surfaces with the energy released by the hydrogen burning in their cores. This is caused by the electron degeneracy in the stars which suppresses the increase of the central temperature with contraction. To find out the lower limit we need the accurate knowledge of the pre-main sequence evolution of very low-mass stars in which the effect of electron degeneracy is important. We review how Hayashi and Nakano (1963) carried out the first determination of this limit.

  8. Investigation of laser pulse length and pre-plasma scale length impact on hot electron generation on OMEGA-EP

    DOE PAGES

    Peebles, J.; Wei, M. S.; Arefiev, A. V.; ...

    2017-02-02

    A series of experiments studying pre-plasma’s effect on electron generation and transport due to a high intensity laser were conducted on the OMEGA-EP laser facility. A controlled pre-plasma was produced in front of an aluminum foil target prior to the arrival of the high intensity short pulse beam. Energetic electron spectra were characterized with magnetic and bremsstrahlung spectrometers. Preplasma and pulse length were shown to have a large impact on the temperature of lower energy, ponderomotive scaling electrons. Furthermore, super-ponderomotive electrons, seen in prior pre-plasma experiments with shorter pulses, were observed without any initial pre-plasma in our experiment. 2D particle-in-cellmore » and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations shed light on and validate these experimental results.« less

  9. Investigation of laser pulse length and pre-plasma scale length impact on hot electron generation on OMEGA-EP

    SciTech Connect

    Peebles, J.; Wei, M. S.; Arefiev, A. V.

    A series of experiments studying pre-plasma’s effect on electron generation and transport due to a high intensity laser were conducted on the OMEGA-EP laser facility. A controlled pre-plasma was produced in front of an aluminum foil target prior to the arrival of the high intensity short pulse beam. Energetic electron spectra were characterized with magnetic and bremsstrahlung spectrometers. Preplasma and pulse length were shown to have a large impact on the temperature of lower energy, ponderomotive scaling electrons. Furthermore, super-ponderomotive electrons, seen in prior pre-plasma experiments with shorter pulses, were observed without any initial pre-plasma in our experiment. 2D particle-in-cellmore » and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations shed light on and validate these experimental results.« less

  10. Dependence of Actuation Strain of Dielectric Elastomer on Equi-biaxial, Pure Shear and Uniaxial Modes of Pre-stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajeet; Ahmad, Dilshad; Patra, Karali

    2018-02-01

    A dielectric elastomer is capable of large deformation under three basic modes of deformation: equi-biaxial, pure shear and uniaxial. Pre-stretching of dielectric elastomer improves the actuation strain appreciably. Experimental results shows that pre-stretching using equal biaxial mode can result to higher actuation strain compared to other two modes of stretching, i.e., uniaxial and pure shear. However, analysis of the experimental results shows that the actuation strain is independent of the modes of pre-stretching rather it is dependent upon the thickness stretch. For same thickness stretch at a particular voltage, the actuation strain is almost similar for all pre-stretching modes. Power trend lines are obtained to predict the actuation strain at any thickness stretch for a particular voltage. The present analysis opens the door to easily design the actuators, sensors and energy harvesting devices.

  11. Pulling PreK into a K-12 Orbit: The Evolution of PreK in the Age of Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Ryan, Sharon; Nocera, Amato; Northey, Kaitlin; Wilinski, Bethany

    2017-01-01

    We might call this decade the era of early childhood. In the US, federal and state governments invest in the creation of public pre-kindergarten (preK) programs and create standards that articulate goals for practice and benchmarks that can be used to evaluate success. How have these trends provided a context for the evolution of preK curriculum?…

  12. Computer Use in Pre-School Education: The Attitudes of the Future Pre-School Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatalovic Vorkapic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    According to the relevance of teacher attitudes in the teaching process as well as to the great number of discussions among experts of pre-school education, it was interesting to examine the students of pre-school teaching about their attitudes toward the use of computer among pre-school children. The sample consisted of N = 40 students from…

  13. Pre-departure preparation for international clinical work: a handbook.

    PubMed

    Edwardson, Jill; Owens, Lauren; Moran, Dane; Aluri, James; Kironji, Antony; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace

    2015-08-01

    International clinical experiences are increasingly popular among medical students, residents, fellows, and practitioners. Adequate pre-departure training is an integral part of a meaningful, productive, and safe international experience. At Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, we have developed a pre-departure handbook to assist practitioners in preparing for global health work. The handbook draws from current global health education literature, existing handbooks, and expert experiences, and includes information about logistical and cultural preparations. While a pre-departure handbook cannot serve as a substitute for a comprehensive pre-departure training program, it can be a useful introduction to the pre-departure process.

  14. Pre-Retirement Rehearsal Project: A Bibliography of Pre-Retirement Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenberg, Donna

    This bibliography cites title, source/publisher, availability, and cost for information and materials on various aspects of pre-retirement planning. Materials may be specifically for the elderly/retired person or of general interest. Bibliographies and periodicals are included. These materials and information are listed under twenty-three…

  15. The King Pre-Retirement Checklist: Assessing Differences in Pre-Retirement Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitzow, Darryl; King, Donald N.

    In an effort to assess the retirement preparedness of Midwestern populations above the age of 28, the King Pre-Retirement Checklist was administered to a sampling of 458 persons randomly selected and proportionally stratified by geographic location and community size. Factors examined were financial, social, family cohesion, mobility/health,…

  16. Pre-Kindergarten - Pre-Kindergarten - New York City Department of Education

    Science.gov Websites

    miss the March 30, 2018 application deadline. Read More Pre-K Admissions Overview In free, full-day priority to students who receive Free and Reduced Lunch (FRL), English Language Learners (ELLs), students qualify for Free and Reduced Lunch (FRL) for 67% of offers at every District 1 elementary school for

  17. Flexible Pre-Majors: Final Report of the Flexible Pre-Majors Working Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzGibbon, John; Orum, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This report provides advice for program areas contemplating the development of a Flexible Pre-Major (FPM) in their discipline. The FPM is another means of aiding student transfer in a system that expects and encourages significant student mobility. The FPM addresses a problematic area for academic students: that of completing the lower level major…

  18. Improving the Leadership Skills of Pre-Service School Librarians through Leadership Pre-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniella

    2014-01-01

    School librarian guidelines encourage active leadership in schools. Two ways school librarian educators can encourage school librarians to be leaders are to embed the standards into the certification curriculum and to assess the leadership potential of pre-service school librarians in order to adapt the curriculum to their needs. This mixed-method…

  19. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  20. Pre-eclampsia part 2: prediction, prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    An antiangiogenic state might constitute a terminal pathway for the multiple aetiologies of pre-eclampsia, especially those resulting from placental abnormalities. The levels of angiogenic and antiangiogenic proteins in maternal blood change prior to a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, correlate with disease severity and have prognostic value in identifying women who will develop maternal and/or perinatal complications. Potential interventions exist to ameliorate the imbalance of angiogenesis and, hence, might provide opportunities to improve maternal and/or perinatal outcomes in pre-eclampsia. Current strategies for managing pre-eclampsia consist of controlling hypertension, preventing seizures and timely delivery of the fetus. Prediction of pre-eclampsia in the first trimester is of great interest, as early administration of aspirin might reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, albeit modestly. Combinations of biomarkers typically predict pre-eclampsia better than single biomarkers; however, the encouraging initial results of biomarker studies require external validation in other populations before they can be used to facilitate intervention in patients identified as at increased risk. Angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors might also be useful in triage of symptomatic patients with suspected pre-eclampsia, differentiating pre-eclampsia from exacerbations of pre-existing medical conditions and performing risk assessment in asymptomatic women. This Review article discusses the performance of predictive and prognostic biomarkers for pre-eclampsia, current strategies for preventing and managing the condition and its long-term consequences. PMID:25003612

  1. Pre-processing Tasks in Indonesian Twitter Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayatullah, A. F.; Ma'arif, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    Twitter text messages are very noisy. Moreover, tweet data are unstructured and complicated enough. The focus of this work is to investigate pre-processing technique for Twitter messages in Bahasa Indonesia. The main goal of this experiment is to clean the tweet data for further analysis. Thus, the objectives of this pre-processing task is simply removing all meaningless character and left valuable words. In this research, we divide our proposed pre-processing experiments into two parts. The first part is common pre-processing task. The second part is a specific pre-processing task for tweet data. From the experimental result we can conclude that by employing a specific pre-processing task related to tweet data characteristic we obtained more valuable result. The result obtained is better in terms of less meaningful word occurrence which is not significant in number comparing to the result obtained by just running common pre-processing tasks.

  2. Numerical modeling of coronal mass ejections based on various pre-event model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    1994-01-01

    We examine how the initial state (pre-event corona) affects the numerical MHD simulation for a coronal mass ejection (CME). Earlier simulations based on a pre-event corona with a homogeneous density and temperature distribution at lower boundary (i.e. solar surface) have been used to analyze the role of streamer properties in determining the characteristics of loop-like transients. The present paper extends these studies to show how a broader class of global coronal properties leads not only to different types of CME's, but also modifies the adjacent quiet corona and/or coronal holes. We consider four pre-event coronal cases: (1) Constant boundary conditions and a polytropic gas with gamma = 1.05; (2) Non-constant (latitude dependent) boundary conditions and a polytropic gas with gamma = 1.05; (3) Constant boundary conditions with a volumetric energy source and gamma = 1.67; (4) Non-constant (latitude dependent) boundary conditions with a volumetric energy source and gamma = 1.67. In all models, the pre-event magnetic fields separate the corona into closed field regions (streamers) and open field regions. The CME's initiation is simulated by introducing at the base of the corona, within the streamer region, a standard pressure pulse and velocity change. Boundary values are determined using MHD characteristic theory. The simulations show how different CME's, including loop-like transients, clouds, and bright rays, might occur. There are significant new features in comparison to published results. We conclude that the pre-event corona is a crucial factor in dictating CME's properties.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejections Based on Various Pre-event Model Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    1995-01-01

    We examine how the initial state (pre-event corona) affects the numerical MHD simulation for a coronal mass ejection (CME). Earlier simulations based on a pre-event corona with a homogeneous density and temperature distribution, at the lower boundary (i.e., solar surface) have been used to analyze the role of streamer properties in determining the characteristics of loop-like transients. The present paper extends these studies to show how a broader class of global coronal properties leads not only to different types of CME's, but also modifies the adjacent quiet corona and/or coronal holes. We consider four pre-event coronal cases: (1) constant boundary conditions and a polytropic gas with gamma = 1.05; (2) non-constant (latitude dependent) boundary conditions and a polytropic gas with gamma = 1.05; (3) constant boundary conditions with a volumetric energy source and gamma = 1.67; (4) non-constant (latitude dependent) boundary conditions with a volumetric energy source and gamma = 1.67. In all models, the pre-event magnetic fields separate the corona into closed field regions (streamers) and open field regions. The CME's initiation is simulated by introducing at the base of the corona, within the streamer region, a standard pressure pulse and velocity change. Boundary values are determined using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) characteristic theory. The simulations show how different CME's, including loop-like transients, clouds and bright rays, might occur. There are significant new features in comparison to published results. We conclude that the pre-event corona is a crucial factor in dictating CME's properties.

  4. Ionization Energy: Implications of Preservice Teachers' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Taber, Keith S.

    2009-01-01

    The results from a study to explore pre-service teachers' understanding of ionization energy, a topic that features in A-level (grade 11 and 12) chemistry courses. in Singapore , is described. A previous study using a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic test has shown that Singapore A-level students have considerable difficulty understanding the…

  5. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  6. Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Godfrey

    2004-05-01

    Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

  7. DPPP: Default Pre-Processing Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Diepen, Ger; Dijkema, Tammo Jan

    2018-04-01

    DPPP (Default Pre-Processing Pipeline, also referred to as NDPPP) reads and writes radio-interferometric data in the form of Measurement Sets, mainly those that are created by the LOFAR telescope. It goes through visibilities in time order and contains standard operations like averaging, phase-shifting and flagging bad stations. Between the steps in a pipeline, the data is not written to disk, making this tool suitable for operations where I/O dominates. More advanced procedures such as gain calibration are also included. Other computing steps can be provided by loading a shared library; currently supported external steps are the AOFlagger (ascl:1010.017) and a bridge that enables loading python steps.

  8. lcps: Light curve pre-selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlecker, Martin

    2018-05-01

    lcps searches for transit-like features (i.e., dips) in photometric data. Its main purpose is to restrict large sets of light curves to a number of files that show interesting behavior, such as drops in flux. While lcps is adaptable to any format of time series, its I/O module is designed specifically for photometry of the Kepler spacecraft. It extracts the pre-conditioned PDCSAP data from light curves files created by the standard Kepler pipeline. It can also handle csv-formatted ascii files. lcps uses a sliding window technique to compare a section of flux time series with its surroundings. A dip is detected if the flux within the window is lower than a threshold fraction of the surrounding fluxes.

  9. Clinical governance in pre-hospital care.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson-Steel, I; Edwards, S; Gough, M

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to discover and recognize the importance of clinical governance within a new and emerging quality National Health Service (NHS) system. It evaluates the present state of prehospital care and recommends how change, via clinical governance, can ensure a paradigm shift from its currently fragmented state to a seamless ongoing patient care episode. Furthermore, it identifies the drivers of a quality revolution, examines the monitoring and supervision of quality care, and evaluates the role of evidence-based practice. A frank and open view of immediate care doctors is presented, with recommendations to improve the quality of skill delivery and reduce the disparity that exists. Finally, it reviews the current problems with pre-hospital care and projects a future course for quality and patient care excellence. PMID:11383428

  10. Energy Fact Sheets - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov Websites

    ; Components Compatibility Hydrogen Behavior Quantitative Risk Assessment Technical Reference for Hydrogen Combustion jbei Facilities Algae Testbed Battery Abuse Testing Laboratory Center for Infrastructure Research and Innovation Combustion Research Facility Joint BioEnergy Institute Close Energy Research Programs

  11. Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

  12. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge through microwave pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Siles, J A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Estévez-Pastor, F S; Toro-Baptista, E

    2016-07-15

    Sewage sludge generated in the activated sludge process is a polluting waste that must be treated adequately to avoid important environmental impacts. Traditional management methods, such as landfill disposal or incineration, are being ruled out due to the high content in heavy metal, pathogens, micropolluting compounds of the sewage sludge and the lack of use of resources. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A microwave pre-treatment at pilot scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. The operational variables of microwave pre-treatment (power and specific energy applied) were optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) under different pre-treatment conditions. According to the variation in the sCOD and TN concentration, the optimal operation variables of the pre-treatment were fixed at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. A subsequent anaerobic digestion test was carried out with raw and pre-treated sewage sludge under different conditions (20,000 J/g TS and 700 W; 20,000 J/g TS and 400 W; and 30,000 J/g TS and 400 W). Although stability was maintained throughout the process, the enhancement in the total methane yield was not high (up to 17%). Nevertheless, very promising improvements were determined for the kinetics of the process, where the rG and the OLR increased by 43% and 39%, respectively, after carrying out a pre-treatment at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The ISIS pre-injector reconfiguration

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T., E-mail: trevor.wood@stfc.ac.uk; Faircloth, D. C.; Lawrie, S. R.

    2016-02-15

    With the introduction of a new “low energy beams” group at ISIS, the decision was taken to expand the ion source area. This paper will explain what actions were taken, how this has improved the present working environment and how the space will be used to accommodate a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) section after the existing radio-frequency quadrupole. The MEBT will incorporate three 202.5 MHz re-bunching cavities and will achieve a transmission of 96% with minimal emittance growth.

  14. The ISIS pre-injector reconfiguration.

    PubMed

    Wood, T; Faircloth, D C; Lawrie, S R; Letchford, A P; Whitehead, M O; Pike, T; Perkins, M

    2016-02-01

    With the introduction of a new "low energy beams" group at ISIS, the decision was taken to expand the ion source area. This paper will explain what actions were taken, how this has improved the present working environment and how the space will be used to accommodate a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) section after the existing radio-frequency quadrupole. The MEBT will incorporate three 202.5 MHz re-bunching cavities and will achieve a transmission of 96% with minimal emittance growth.

  15. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pre-filing procedures... applications. 157.21 Section 157.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...) A description of a Public Participation Plan which identifies specific tools and actions to...

  16. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pre-filing procedures... applications. 157.21 Section 157.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...) A description of a Public Participation Plan which identifies specific tools and actions to...

  17. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pre-filing procedures... applications. 157.21 Section 157.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...) A description of a Public Participation Plan which identifies specific tools and actions to...

  18. 77 FR 23241 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document.... Date Filed: February 20, 2012. d. Submitted By: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC. e. Name of Project... Applicant Contact: Mr. Mark R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900...

  19. Effect of cryopreservation on the pre-hatching behavior in the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a sampling of untreated embryos of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, the cumulative hatch percentage was 84.77±7.8% of which ~70% of the larvae eclosed through the posterior pole of the egg. This is due to an unusual and seemingly energy demanding act of flipping of the fully developed pre-ha...

  20. Tidal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impact of Science on Society, 1987

    1987-01-01

    States that tidal power projects are feasible in a relatively limited number of locations around the world. Claims that together they could theoretically produce the energy equivalent to more than one million barrels of oil per year. (TW)

  1. Energy behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, P.C.; Kirkpatrick, E.M.

    1977-12-01

    The energy crisis is approached as a social and psychological problem with solutions based on an understanding of principles of attitude and behavior change. Propaganda calling for voluntary energy conservation has had little effect, and incentive systems present several serious drawbacks. The author believes that the ideal role of both incentives and persuasion is to influence the behavior of groups who in turn would maintain individual behavior and attitudes by social pressure. Thus a program of incentives and education directed at groups of people may effectively increase conservation and change related attitudes without increasing reactance. The author presents 2 strategiesmore » to cope with the energy problem: one relies strongly on government action, combining appeal to national feelings and a threat to future coercion to change attitudes and behavior; the other uses incentives to communities for conservation and development of renewable energy resources.« less

  2. Renewable Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditterich, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to expose middle school students to a variety of alternative energy sources with a variety of practical applications. It was part of an Austria-wide IMST-project (IMST stands for innovation makes students strong). As part of this exposure, several classes of about 80 students visited a number of locations for alternative energy resources, including a hydroelectric site, a biological energy plant, a wind turbine manufacturing plant, a water purification station as well as others others. A short film was made to document the project in order that non-participants in the class could also gain knowledge on alternative energy. The three minute film will be shown at the poster.

  3. Salinity Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  4. Energy Bingo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    Rules are provided for this bingo game focusing on terms related to solar, coal, nuclear, hydro, and wind energy. Playing cards and calling cards (to be cut out by the teacher) are also provided. (JN)

  5. Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Design and Construction, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

  6. Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

  7. Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption portion size effect in males?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; te Raa, Wesselien; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Larger portions increase energy intake (the 'portion size effect'); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a 'pre-consumption portion size effect'). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Thermionic Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion is the production of energy from a nuclear source. It is a technology advanced by SNSO, a joint research and development organization formed by NASA and the AEC. SNSO contracted with Thermo Electron Corporation to develop high temperature applications, i.e., metals with high melting points. Thermo Electron Corporation's expertise resulted in contracts for products made from exotic metals such as bone implants, artificial hips, and heart pacemakers.

  9. Clinical target volume delineation in glioblastomas: pre-operative versus post-operative/pre-radiotherapy MRI

    PubMed Central

    Farace, P; Giri, M G; Meliadò, G; Amelio, D; Widesott, L; Ricciardi, G K; Dall'Oglio, S; Rizzotti, A; Sbarbati, A; Beltramello, A; Maluta, S; Amichetti, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Delineation of clinical target volume (CTV) is still controversial in glioblastomas. In order to assess the differences in volume and shape of the radiotherapy target, the use of pre-operative vs post-operative/pre-radiotherapy T1 and T2 weighted MRI was compared. Methods 4 CTVs were delineated in 24 patients pre-operatively and post-operatively using T1 contrast-enhanced (T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV) and T2 weighted images (T2PRECTV and T2POSTCTV). Pre-operative MRI examinations were performed the day before surgery, whereas post-operative examinations were acquired 1 month after surgery and before chemoradiation. A concordance index (CI) was defined as the ratio between the overlapping and composite volumes. Results The volumes of T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV were not statistically different (248 ± 88 vs 254 ± 101), although volume differences >100 cm3 were observed in 6 out of 24 patients. A marked increase due to tumour progression was shown in three patients. Three patients showed a decrease because of a reduced mass effect. A significant reduction occurred between pre-operative and post-operative T2 volumes (139 ± 68 vs 78 ± 59). Lack of concordance was observed between T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV (CI = 0.67 ± 0.09), T2PRECTV and T2POSTCTV (CI = 0.39 ± 0.20) and comparing the portion of the T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV not covered by that defined on T2PRECTV images (CI = 0.45 ± 0.16 and 0.44 ± 0.17, respectively). Conclusion Using T2 MRI, huge variations can be observed in peritumoural oedema, which are probably due to steroid treatment. Using T1 MRI, brain shifts after surgery and possible progressive enhancing lesions produce substantial differences in CTVs. Our data support the use of post-operative/pre-radiotherapy T1 weighted MRI for planning purposes. PMID:21045069

  10. Using Technology in Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can-Yasar, Munevver; Inal, Gozde; Uyanik, Ozgun; Kandir, Adalet

    2012-01-01

    Technology is the collection of machines, processes, methods, transactions, systems, administration and supervision mechanism, which serves as a bridge between science and practice and helps meet human needs using available information, materials, sources and energy. The developments in technology and educational aims follow a parallelism, which…

  11. Pre-microscope tunnelling — Inspiration or constraint?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, D. G.

    1987-03-01

    Before the microscope burst upon the scene, tunnelling had established for itself a substantial niche in the repertoire of the solid state physicist. Over a period of 20 years it has contributed importantly to our understanding of many systems. It elucidated the superconducting state, first by a direct display of the energy gap then by providing detailed information on the phonon spectra and electron-phonon coupling strength in junction electrodes. Its use as a phonon spectrometer was subsequently extended to semiconductors and to the oxides of insulating barriers. Eventually the vibrational spectra of monolayer organic and inorganic adsorbates became amenable with rich scientific rewards. In a few cases electronic transitions have been observed. Plasmon excitation by tunnelling electrons led to insights on the electron loss function in metals at visible frequencies and provided along the way an intriguing light emitting device. With the advent of the microscope it is now appropriate to enquire how much of this experience can profitably be carried over to the new environment. Are we constrained just to repeat the experiments in a new configuration? Happily no. The microscope offers us topographical and spectroscopic information of a new order. One might next ask how great is the contact between the two disciplines? We explore this question and seek to establish where the pre-microscope experience can be helpful in inspiring our use of this marvellous new facility that we know as the scanning tunnelling microscope.

  12. The Effect of Carbonaceous Reductant Selection on Chromite Pre-reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleynhans, E. L. J.; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Bunt, J. R.; Nkosi, N. S. B.; Venter, M.

    2017-04-01

    Ferrochrome (FeCr) production is an energy-intensive process. Currently, the pelletized chromite pre-reduction process, also referred to as solid-state reduction of chromite, is most likely the FeCr production process with the lowest specific electricity consumption, i.e., MWh/t FeCr produced. In this study, the effects of carbonaceous reductant selection on chromite pre-reduction and cured pellet strength were investigated. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to evaluate the effect of reductant characteristics on the aforementioned two parameters. This yielded mathematical solutions that can be used by FeCr producers to select reductants more optimally in future. Additionally, the results indicated that hydrogen (H)- (24 pct) and volatile content (45.8 pct) were the most significant contributors for predicting variance in pre-reduction and compressive strength, respectively. The role of H within this context is postulated to be linked to the ability of a reductant to release H that can induce reduction. Therefore, contrary to the current operational selection criteria, the authors believe that thermally untreated reductants ( e.g., anthracite, as opposed to coke or char), with volatile contents close to the currently applied specification (to ensure pellet strength), would be optimal, since it would maximize H content that would enhance pre-reduction.

  13. Death and injury in aerial spraying: pre-crash, crash, and post-crash prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Richter, E D; Gordon, M; Halamish, M; Gribetz, B

    1981-01-01

    To prevent crash-related death and injury among spray pilots, a program including pre-crash, crash and post-crash stages of intervention for aircraft, physical environment, and pilots and ground crews was proposed in accordance with a matrix of options derived from road crash epidemiology. In addition to the dangers of fixed obstacles, low-altitude runs, and heavy work schedules, work hazards included combined exposures to noise, vibration, G forces, heat stress, pesticides, and dehydration. Together, these exposures were believed to have produced slight, but crucial decreases in pilot performance, alertness and skill. For aircraft, the major pre-crash measure was cockpit air cooling, with filter technologies to prevent in-flight pesticide exposure. Crash and post-crash design changes to reduce energy transfers to the pilot's body (thermal, kinetic) were the most important recommendations, because absolute prevention of the crash event was unlikely. For the environment, pre-crash recommendations included marking fixed obstacles, such as power and telephone lines, but preferably their elimination. Other measures included drainage pits with sodium hydroxide points to neutralize parathion and prevent dispersion of parathion-containing mists. Pilot pre-crash measures (more fluid intake, biological monitoring--EMG, urinary alkyl phosphate, cholinesterase testing) required special organizational arrangements. Systematic application of options from the foregoing matrix suggest that the high risk of death and injury from aerial spraying is unnecessary.

  14. A magnesium-induced triplex pre-organizes the SAM-II riboswitch

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Susmita; Lammert, Heiko; Dayie, T. Kwaku; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.

    2017-01-01

    Our 13C- and 1H-chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments previously revealed a dynamic exchange between partially closed and open conformations of the SAM-II riboswitch in the absence of ligand. Here, all-atom structure-based molecular simulations, with the electrostatic effects of Manning counter-ion condensation and explicit magnesium ions are employed to calculate the folding free energy landscape of the SAM-II riboswitch. We use this analysis to predict that magnesium ions remodel the landscape, shifting the equilibrium away from the extended, partially unfolded state towards a compact, pre-organized conformation that resembles the ligand-bound state. Our CEST and SAXS experiments, at different magnesium ion concentrations, quantitatively confirm our simulation results, demonstrating that magnesium ions induce collapse and pre-organization. Agreement between theory and experiment bolsters microscopic interpretation of our simulations, which shows that triplex formation between helix P2b and loop L1 is highly sensitive to magnesium and plays a key role in pre-organization. Pre-organization of the SAM-II riboswitch allows rapid detection of ligand with high selectivity, which is important for biological function. PMID:28248966

  15. Pre-travel advice: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    The message of the pre-travel provider is necessarily paradoxic. First the provider lists a score of causes of illness and premature demise, and then states, "But it sounds like a great trip and I think you'll have fun." Pre-travel providers need to walk a fine line: they must encourage patients to be cautious but not paranoid, optimistic but realistic. This discussion is complicated further by the fact that risk reduction is not the only consideration; if it were, practitioners would advise patients to remain in the developed world and foray from their homes only to visit health clubs and the fruit-and-vegetable section of grocery stores. A tacit assumption in travel medicine is that some degree of acceptance of heightened risk is tolerated for the benefit of improved quality of life offered by travel abroad. The amount of risk that is reasonable to accept for a given benefit in quality of life yielded by travel cannot be quantified, however. Providers must render judgments on what is "reasonable" and what is not, and this complex decision is based on equal parts medical knowledge and intuition. At one extreme, mountaineers in Nepal have been found to have a 2.4% mortality rate per expedition [83,84]. The travel provider might make the reasonable decision to counsel these travelers to avoid that activity. These travelers most likely will ignore that advice, at which point the provider must endeavor to reduce risk to the extent possible. Other situations in which the provider should advise a change in itinerary or activities include counseling parents who plan to take an infant to high altitude or a pregnant woman who plans to scuba dive. If travelers remain cloistered in their hotel rooms, eating all meals from room service and watching CNN, then it could be suggested that they are overly risk-adverse and might consider foraying out of the hotel, despite the potential associated increased risks to health. Conversely, if travelers find themselves on motorcycles

  16. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-01-16

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  17. Pre-medication and renal pre-conditioning: a role for alprazolam, atropine, morphine and promethazine.

    PubMed

    Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamid Reza; Ajami, Marjan; Habibey, Rouhollah

    2010-04-01

    Four pre-medication drugs are used to relieve pain, allay anxiety, reduce secretion and enhance hypnosis, were evaluated for their effects on ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury which is one of the major complications of vascular and transplantation surgery. Right kidney was removed from female rats (210-250 g) 3 weeks before surgical procedure. Different doses of morphine (0.5, 2 and 5 mg/kg), promethazine (1, 2 and 5 mg/kg), atropine (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg) and alprazolam (0.08, 0.32 and 0.64 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously 30 min before left renal artery occlusion and 6 h reperfusion. Left kidneys were processed for histological evaluations. Creatinine and BUN were measured in serum samples. Morphine, promethazine, atropine and alprazolam at all evaluated doses significantly decreased serum creatinine and BUN levels and histopathological scores. The effects of promethazine (1 mg/kg) and all doses of alprazolam were more potent than other pre-medication drugs and doses. This study suggested a protective effect of these pre-medication drugs on I/R injury. Although obvious studies are required, these findings may lead to effective therapies against I/R injury.

  18. Are pre-treatment psychological characteristics influenced by pre-surgical orthodontics?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, S J; Gilthorpe, M S; Hunt, N P

    2001-12-01

    A number of investigations have looked at psychological changes occurring in association with orthognathic treatment. However, most of these studies have used a pre-surgery questionnaire as the baseline measurement. There is little data relating to the true baseline, i.e. that prior to any active treatment. Until this aspect is investigated, it is not possible to assume that pre-surgery is an acceptable baseline. This questionnaire based study aimed to assess changes in six psychological outcome measures between T1 (prior to any active treatment) and T2 (following pre-surgical orthodontics/prior to surgery). The outcome variables were: state anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image, and facial body image. Sixty-two patients (39 females and 23 males) completed both questionnaires. The results showed that intervention, in the form of orthodontic treatment, had a minimal effect on the chosen psychometric outcome variables. There was a significant reduction in satisfaction with body image amongst patients who initially reported mild to moderate dental/facial problems, whilst a moderate increase in satisfaction occurred in those patients reporting severe conditions initially. Also of note were significant increases in state anxiety amongst older patients whilst trait anxiety showed greater increases in females than males.

  19. Virtual plate pre-bending for the long bone fracture based on axis pre-alignment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Luo, Xinjian; Huang, Rui; Wan, Chao; Zhang, Bingbing; Hu, Weihua; Yue, Zongge

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a modeling and visualizing system for assisting surgeons in correctly registering for the closed fracture reduction surgery is presented. By using this system, the geometric parameters of the target fixation plate before the long bone fracture operation can be obtained. The main processing scheme consists of following steps: firstly (image data process), utilize the Curvelet transform to denoise the CT images of fracture part and then reconstruct the 3D models of the broken bones. Secondly (pre-alignment), extract the axial lines of the broken bones and spatially align them. Then drive the broken bone models to be pre-aligned. Thirdly (mesh segmentation), a method based on vertex normal feature is utilized to obtain the broken bone cross-sections mesh models. Fourthly (fine registration), the ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm is used to register the cross-sections and the broken bone models are driven to achieve the fine registration posture. Lastly (plate fitting), an accurate NURBS surface fitting method is used to construct the virtual plate. The experiment proved that the obtained models of the pre-bended plates were closely bonded to the surface of the registered long bone models. Finally, the lengths, angles and other interested geometric parameters can be measured on the plate models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pre-treatment of domestic wastewater with pre-composting tanks: evaluation of existing systems.

    PubMed

    Gajurel, D R; Benn, O; Li, Z; Behrendt, J; Otterpohl, R

    2003-01-01

    A relatively new technology called pre-composting tank or Rottebehaelter, retaining solid material and draining water to a certain extent, has been found to be an interesting component of decentralised systems to replace the usual septic tank. Results of the investigation revealed that solid material which has been retained in the pre-composting tanks still contained a high percentage of water. However, there was no odour problem at and near the tanks. The pre-composted materials have to be further composted together with household and garden wastes for a year prior to their use as soil conditioner. The filtrate is further treated in a constructed wetland. One of the major advantages of this system compared to other systems, such as septic tanks, is that it does not deprive agriculture of the valuable nutrients and soil conditioner from human excreta and does not require an expensive tanker truck. It can be the most appropriate system for application in regions where there is a demand for local reuse of the end product. It has to be stated that maintenance is a crucial factor.

  1. Maternal and fetal plasma zinc in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bassiouni, B A; Foda, A I; Rafei, A A

    1979-04-01

    Zinc is important for fetal growth and is involved in several important enzyme systems. Maternal and umbilical plasma zinc concentrations were determined in 52 parturient women with mild and severe pre-eclampsia, and were compared with those obtained from 20 women in labor whose pregnancies had progressed normally. A decrease in maternal as well as umbilical plasma zinc concentrations was observed in pre-eclamptic women, and this decrease was statistically significant in severe pre-eclampsia. The causes of these changes in plasma zinc concentrations in pre-eclampsia were discussed, and the possible adverse effects of zinc deficiency on the mother and fetus were mentioned. Low plasma zinc concentrations in pre-eclampsia may be a sign of zinc deficiency, implying possible risks to the mother and her fetus. It is recommended that maintenance of adequate dietary zinc nutrition during pregnancy, and particularly in pre-eclampsia, is important.

  2. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  3. Viability assessment of regional biomass pre-processing center based bioethanol value chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carolan, Joseph E.

    Petroleum accounts for 94% of all liquid fuels and 36% of the total of all energy consumed in the United States. Petroleum dependence is problematic because global petroleum reserves are estimated to last only for 40 to 60 years at current consumption rates; global supplies are often located in politically unstable or unfriendly regions; and fossil fuels have negative environmental footprints. Domestic policies have aimed at promoting alternative, renewable liquid fuels, specifically bio-fuels derived from organic matter. Cellulosic bio-ethanol is one promising alternative fuel that has featured prominently in federal bio-fuel mandates under the Energy Independence and Security Act, 2007. However, the cellulosic bio-ethanol industry faces several technical, physical and industrial organization challenges. This dissertation examines the concept of a network of regional biomass pre-treatment centers (RBPC) that form an extended biomass supply chain feeding into a simplified biorefinery as a way to overcome these challenges. The analyses conducted address the structural and transactional issues facing bio-ethanol value chain establishment; the technical and financial feasibility of a stand alone pre-treatment center (RBPC); the impact of distributed pre-treatment on biomass transport costs; a comparative systems cost evaluation of the performance of the RBPC chain versus a fully integrated biorefinery (gIBRh), followed by application of the analytical framework to three case study regions.

  4. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    PubMed

    Jennings, A; McEvoy, S; Corish, C

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices. A telephone questionnaire completed by pre-school managers (n=54) examined pre-school dietary practices, food provision and the association between these and pre-school size, nutritional training attendance, possession of the Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Pre-school Services and having a healthy eating policy. Nutritional training needs were also investigated. Twenty-five pre-schools provided all food for attending children; parents were sole providers in six. Thirty-four pre-schools had a written healthy eating policy. Attendance at nutritional training was reported by 40. Possession of the Guidelines (n=40) did not consistently result in their use. Poor parental and staff involvement in policy and menu development was cited. Although the delayed introduction of iron-containing foods and a feeding beaker in infants was clearly evident, inappropriate beverages and snacks were served to children aged 1-5 years in 43 and 37 pre-schools, respectively. Training priorities cited by managers included parental education and the provision of information regarding menu planning and healthy food choices. Nutritional training should advocate whole staff familiarity with and use of current guidelines, in addition to encouraging nutritional policy development and enforcement. Parental education is warranted. Dietary education should focus specifically on appropriate weaning practices, healthy beverage and snack provision and menu planning. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. 40 CFR 91.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-test procedures. 91.408 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.408 Pre-test... accordance with § 91.117. (b) Engine pre-test preparation. (1) Drain and charge the fuel tank(s) with the...

  6. 40 CFR 91.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-test procedures. 91.408 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.408 Pre-test... accordance with § 91.117. (b) Engine pre-test preparation. (1) Drain and charge the fuel tank(s) with the...

  7. 40 CFR 91.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Pre-test procedures. 91.408 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.408 Pre-test... accordance with § 91.117. (b) Engine pre-test preparation. (1) Drain and charge the fuel tank(s) with the...

  8. 40 CFR 91.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-test procedures. 91.408 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.408 Pre-test... accordance with § 91.117. (b) Engine pre-test preparation. (1) Drain and charge the fuel tank(s) with the...

  9. Fixation of compressive deformation in wood by pre-steaming

    Treesearch

    M. Inoue; N. Sekino; T. Morooka; R.M. Rowell; M. Norimoto

    2008-01-01

    Wood block specimens pre-steamed at 120-220 °C for 5-20 min were compressed in the radial direction. The recovery of set decreased with increasing pre-steaming temperature and time. The reduction of set recovery correlated with the amount of weight loss in steaming irrespective of pre-steaming temperature and time. The weight loss for the highest level of...

  10. 40 CFR 91.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-test procedures. 91.408 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.408 Pre-test... accordance with § 91.117. (b) Engine pre-test preparation. (1) Drain and charge the fuel tank(s) with the...

  11. Pre-slaughter stress and pork quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajković, S.; Teodorović, V.; Baltić, M.; Karabasil, N.

    2017-09-01

    Stress is an inevitable consequence of handling of animals for slaughter. Stress conditions during transport, lairage and at slaughter induce undesirable effects on the end quality of meat such as pale, soft, exudative meat and dark firm dry meat. Hence, it is very important to define appropriate parameters for objective assessment of level of stress. Attempts to define measures of stress have been difficult and no physiological parameter has been successfully used to evaluate stress situations. One physiological change in swine associated with animal handling stress and with pork quality is an increase in blood lactate concentration. Plasma cortisol was thought to be an appropriate indicator of stress, but the concentration was not consistently changed by different stressors. Therefore, finding alternative parameters reacting to stressors, such as acute phase proteins, would be of great value for the objective evaluation of level of stress and meat quality. As the stress during pre-slaughter handling is unavoidable, the final goal is to improve transport and slaughter conditions for the animal and, as a consequence, meat quality and animal welfare.

  12. Pre- and postprocessing for reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.L.; Ingalls, L.J.; Prasad, S.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the functionality and underlying programing paradigms of Shell's simulator-related reservoir-engineering graphics system. THis system includes the simulation postprocessing programs Reservoir Display System (RDS) and Fast Reservoir Engineering Displays (FRED), a hypertext-like on-line documentation system (DOC), and a simulator input preprocessor (SIMPLSIM). RDS creates displays of reservoir simulation results. These displays represent the areal or cross-section distribution of computer reservoir parameters, such as pressure, phase saturation, or temperature. Generation of these images at real-time animation rates is discussed. FRED facilitates the creation of plot files from reservoir simulation output. The use of dynamic memory allocation, asynchronous I/O, amore » table-driven screen manager, and mixed-language (FORTRAN and C) programming are detailed. DOC is used to create and access on-line documentation for the pre-and post-processing programs and the reservoir simulators. DOC can be run by itself or can be accessed from within any other graphics or nongraphics application program. DOC includes a text editor, which is that basis for a reservoir simulation tutorial and greatly simplifies the preparation of simulator input. The use of sharable images, graphics, and the documentation file network are described. Finally, SIMPLSIM is a suite of program that uses interactive graphics in the preparation of reservoir description data for input into reservoir simulators. The SIMPLSIM user-interface manager (UIM) and its graphic interface for reservoir description are discussed.« less

  13. Pre-encounter observations of 951 Gaspra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, D. J.; Goldader, J. D.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Photometry and colorimetry of 951 Gaspra were obtained on nine nights during the 1990 opposition. A composite lightcurve constructed using data from eight of those nights yielded a synodic rotational period of 7.04346 +/- 0.00006 hours, a mean absolute V magnitude of 11.8026 +/- 0.0025, and a slope parameter of 0.285 +/- 0.005. The apparent discrepancy can be easily resolved by realizing that their determination is based primarily on data obtained after opposition. Different phase functions pre- and post-opposition are a natural consequence of a changing aspect during an opposition. If the sub-Earth latitude on Gaspra is at a less equatorial aspect after opposition than it was before opposition, then we would expect to see a shallower phase function (corresponding to a larger numerical value of the slope parameter). Adding weight to this hypothesis is the last observation of the opposition, made in May after Gaspra had passed post opposition quadrature, which is displaced toward brighter absolute magnitudes relative to the rest of our data, indicating an even more poleward sub-Earth latitude than earlier in the opposition. Because the orbits of Earth and Gaspra are nearly coplanar, a substantial change in sub-Earth latitude during the opposition would not have been possible unless the obliquity of the asteroid's rotational axis is not small.

  14. Promoting Pre-college Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. L.

    1999-11-01

    The Fusion Education Program, with support from DOE, continues to promote pre-college science education for students and teachers using multiple approaches. An important part of our program is direct scientist-student interaction. Our ``Scientist in a Classroom'' program allows students to interact with scientists and engage in plasma science activities in the students' classroom. More than 1000 students from 11 schools have participated in this exciting program. Also, this year more than 800 students and teachers have visited the DIII--D facility and interacted with scientists to cover a broad range of technical and educational issues. Teacher-scientist interaction is imperative in professional development and each year more than 100 teachers attend workshops produced by the fusion education team. We also participate in unique learning opportunities. Members of the team, in collaboration with the San Diego County Office of Education, held a pioneering Internet-based Physics Olympiad for American and Siberian students. Our teamwork with educators helps shape material that is grade appropriate, relevant, and stimulates thinking in educators and students.

  15. Microbial Communities in Pre-Columbian Coprolites

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne M.; Chanlatte, Luis; Crespo-Torres, Edwin; Toranzos, Gary A.; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Hamrick, Alice; Cano, Raul J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of coprolites from earlier cultures represents a great opportunity to study an “unaltered” composition of the intestinal microbiota. To test this, pre-Columbian coprolites from two cultures, the Huecoid and Saladoid, were evaluated for the presence of DNA, proteins and lipids by cytochemical staining, human and/or dog-specific Bacteroides spp. by PCR, as well as bacteria, fungi and archaea using Terminal Restriction Fragment analyses. DNA, proteins and lipids, and human-specific Bacteroides DNA were detected in all coprolites. Multidimensional scaling analyses resulted in spatial arrangements of microbial profiles by culture, further supported by cluster analysis and ANOSIM. Differences between the microbial communities were positively correlated with culture, and SIMPER analysis indicated 68.8% dissimilarity between the Huecoid and Saladoid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and methanogens were found in all coprolite samples. Propionebacteria, Shewanella and lactic acid bacteria dominated in the Huecoid samples, while Acidobacteria, and peptococci were dominant in Saladoid samples. Yeasts, including Candida albicans and Crypotococcus spp. were found in all samples. Basidiomycetes were the most notable fungi in Huecoid samples while Ascomycetes predominated in Saladoid samples, suggesting differences in dietary habits. Our study provides an approach for the study of the microbial communities of coprolite samples from various cultures. PMID:23755194

  16. The Pre-exponential Factor in Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    He, Zheng-Da; Chen, Yan-Xia; Santos, Elizabeth; Schmickler, Wolfgang

    2018-07-02

    Like many branches of science, not to mention culture in general, electrochemistry has a number of recurring topics: Areas of research that are popular for a certain time, then fade away as their possibilities seem to have been exhausted, only to return decades later as progress in experimental or theoretical techniques offer new possibilities for their investigation. A prime example are fuel cells, which have undergone five such cycles, but here we discuss a general concept of kinetics-the pre-exponential factor of a rate constant-which has undergone two such cycles. The first cycle was in the 1950-1980s, when the methods of electrochemical kinetics were developed, and the interpretation was based on transition-state theory. The second was triggered by the re-discovery of Kramers theory for reactions in condensed phases. This Minireview will show that the time has come for a third cycle based on recent progress in electrocatalysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Capturing a flavivirus pre-fusion intermediate.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Chipman, Paul R; Holdaway, Heather A; Johnson, Syd; Fremont, Daved H; Kuhn, Richard J; Diamond, Michael S; Rossmann, Michael G

    2009-11-01

    During cell entry of flaviviruses, low endosomal pH triggers the rearrangement of the viral surface glycoproteins to a fusion-active state that allows the release of the infectious RNA into the cytoplasm. In this work, West Nile virus was complexed with Fab fragments of the neutralizing mAb E16 and was subsequently exposed to low pH, trapping the virions in a pre-fusion intermediate state. The structure of the complex was studied by cryo-electron microscopy and provides the first structural glimpse of a flavivirus fusion intermediate near physiological conditions. A radial expansion of the outer protein layer of the virion was observed compared to the structure at pH 8. The resulting approximately 60 A-wide shell of low density between lipid bilayer and outer protein layer is likely traversed by the stem region of the E glycoprotein. By using antibody fragments, we have captured a structural intermediate of a virus that likely occurs during cell entry. The trapping of structural transition states by antibody fragments will be applicable for other processes in the flavivirus life cycle and delineating other cellular events that involve conformational rearrangements.

  18. The Pre-History of Urban Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Ortman, Scott G.; Cabaniss, Andrew H. F.; Sturm, Jennie O.; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Cities are increasingly the fundamental socio-economic units of human societies worldwide, but we still lack a unified characterization of urbanization that captures the social processes realized by cities across time and space. This is especially important for understanding the role of cities in the history of human civilization and for determining whether studies of ancient cities are relevant for contemporary science and policy. As a step in this direction, we develop a theory of settlement scaling in archaeology, deriving the relationship between population and settled area from a consideration of the interplay between social and infrastructural networks. We then test these models on settlement data from the Pre-Hispanic Basin of Mexico to show that this ancient settlement system displays spatial scaling properties analogous to those observed in modern cities. Our data derive from over 1,500 settlements occupied over two millennia and spanning four major cultural periods characterized by different levels of agricultural productivity, political centralization and market development. We show that, in agreement with theory, total settlement area increases with population size, on average, according to a scale invariant relation with an exponent in the range . As a consequence, we are able to infer aggregate socio-economic properties of ancient societies from archaeological measures of settlement organization. Our findings, from an urban settlement system that evolved independently from its old-world counterparts, suggest that principles of settlement organization are very general and may apply to the entire range of human history. PMID:24533062

  19. Claritas rise, Mars: Pre-Tharsis magmatism?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Ruiz, J.; McGuire, P.C.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Wang, R.; Scharenbroich, L.; Hare, T.M.; Connerney, J.E.P.; Baker, V.R.; Wheelock, S.J.; Ferris, J.C.; Miyamoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    Claritas rise is a prominent ancient (Noachian) center of tectonism identified through investigation of comprehensive paleotectonic information of the western hemisphere of Mars. This center is interpreted to be the result of magmatic-driven activity, including uplift and associated tectonism, as well as possible hydrothermal activity. Coupled with its ancient stratigraphy, high density of impact craters, and complex structure, a possible magnetic signature may indicate that it formed during an ancient period of Mars' evolution, such as when the dynamo was in operation. As Tharsis lacks magnetic signatures, Claritas rise may pre-date the development of Tharsis or mark incipient development, since some of the crustal materials underlying Tharsis and older parts of the magmatic complex, respectively, could have been highly resurfaced, destroying any remanent magnetism. Here, we detail the significant characteristics of the Claritas rise, and present a case for why it should be targeted by the Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Express spacecrafts, as well as be considered as a prime target for future tier-scalable robotic reconnaissance. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. The pre-history of urban scaling.

    PubMed

    Ortman, Scott G; Cabaniss, Andrew H F; Sturm, Jennie O; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2014-01-01

    Cities are increasingly the fundamental socio-economic units of human societies worldwide, but we still lack a unified characterization of urbanization that captures the social processes realized by cities across time and space. This is especially important for understanding the role of cities in the history of human civilization and for determining whether studies of ancient cities are relevant for contemporary science and policy. As a step in this direction, we develop a theory of settlement scaling in archaeology, deriving the relationship between population and settled area from a consideration of the interplay between social and infrastructural networks. We then test these models on settlement data from the Pre-Hispanic Basin of Mexico to show that this ancient settlement system displays spatial scaling properties analogous to those observed in modern cities. Our data derive from over 1,500 settlements occupied over two millennia and spanning four major cultural periods characterized by different levels of agricultural productivity, political centralization and market development. We show that, in agreement with theory, total settlement area increases with population size, on average, according to a scale invariant relation with an exponent in the range [Formula: see text]. As a consequence, we are able to infer aggregate socio-economic properties of ancient societies from archaeological measures of settlement organization. Our findings, from an urban settlement system that evolved independently from its old-world counterparts, suggest that principles of settlement organization are very general and may apply to the entire range of human history.

  1. Promoting Pre-college Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. L.; Lee, R. L.

    2000-10-01

    The Fusion Education Program, with continued support from DOE, has strengthened its interactions with educators in promoting pre-college science education for students. Projects aggressively pursued this year include an on-site, college credited, laboratory-based 10-day educator workshop on plasma and fusion science; completion of `Starpower', a fusion power plant simulation on interactive CD; expansion of scientist visits to classrooms; broadened participation in an internet-based science olympiad; and enhancements to the tours of the DIII-D Facility. In the workshop, twelve teachers used bench top devices to explore basic plasma physics. Also included were radiation experiments, computer aided drafting, techniques to integrate fusion science and technology in the classroom, and visits to a University Physics lab and the San Diego Supercomputer Center. Our ``Scientist in a Classroom'' program reached more than 2200 students at 20 schools. Our `Starpower' CD allows a range of interactive learning from the effects of electric and magnetic fields on charged particles to operation of a Tokamak-based power plant. Continuing tours of the DIII-D facility were attended by more than 800 students this past year.

  2. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongmei; Krawczyk-Becker, Martin; Marquardt, Daniel; Herzke, Tobias; Coleman, Graham; Adiloğlu, Kamil; Bomke, Katrin; Plotz, Karsten; Gerkmann, Timo; Doclo, Simon; Kollmeier, Birger; Hohmann, Volker; Dietz, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs). 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50) were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users. PMID:26721921

  3. The Pontryagin class for pre-Courant algebroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhangju; Sheng, Yunhe; Xu, Xiaomeng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we show that the Jacobiator J of a pre-Courant algebroid is closed naturally. The corresponding equivalence class [J♭ ] is defined as the Pontryagin class, which is the obstruction of a pre-Courant algebroid to be deformed into a Courant algebroid. We construct a Leibniz 2-algebra and a Lie 2-algebra associated to a pre-Courant algebroid and prove that these algebraic structures are isomorphic under deformations. Finally, we introduce the twisted action of a Lie algebra on a manifold to give more examples of pre-Courant algebroids, which include the Cartan geometry.

  4. Thoracolumbar spinal ligaments exhibit negative and transverse pre-strain.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Daniel J; Von Forell, Gregory A; Alsup, Jeremy; Bowden, Anton E

    2013-07-01

    The present work represents the first reported bi-axial spinal ligament pre-strain data for the thoracic and lumbar spine. Ligament pre-strain (in-situ strain) is known to significantly alter joint biomechanics. However, there is currently a lack of comprehensive data with regards to spinal ligament pre-strain. The current work determined the pre-strain of 71 spinal ligaments (30 anterior longitudinal ligaments, 27 supraspinous ligaments and 14 interspinous ligaments). The interspinous ligament and the anterior longitudinal ligament exhibited bi-axial pre-strain distributions, demonstrating they are not uniaxial structures. The supraspinous ligament frequently exhibited large amounts of negative pre-strain or laxity suggesting it makes no mechanical contribution to spinal stability near the neutral posture. Upon implementing multi-axial pre-strain results into a finite element model of the lumbar spine, large differences in spinal biomechanics were observed. These results demonstrate the necessity of accounting for ligament pre-strain in biomechanical models. In addition, the authors present a unique experimental method for obtaining ligament pre-strain that presents a number of advantages when compared to standard techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Group discussions regarding consumer energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The results of a series of group discussions conducted to investigate consumer attitudes and motivations as they relate to energy conservation are described. Specifically, the study was designed to cast light on the following questions: (1) the background climate of opinion that acts as a frame of reference for energy conservation communications; (2) classification of consumers in terms of adherence to or rejection of a conservation ethic; (3) the relation of energy waste and conservation to the standard of living aspirations of Americans; (4) the dominant kinds of motivations that are likely to influence receptivity to communications designed to promotemore » energy conservation; (5) compatibility of counter-culture values with the conservation ethic; (6) kinds of beliefs held regarding the future role of alternative energy sources; (7) the likely effectiveness of economic incentives to energy conservation; (8) differences between teenager and pre-teen attitudes from adult attitudes.« less

  6. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  7. Press fluid pre-treatment optimisation of the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB) process approach.

    PubMed

    Corton, John; Toop, Trisha; Walker, Jonathan; Donnison, Iain S; Fraser, Mariecia D

    2014-10-01

    The integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB) system is an innovative approach to maximising energy conversion from low input high diversity (LIHD) biomass. In this system water pre-treated and ensiled LIHD biomass is pressed. The press fluid is anaerobically digested to produce methane that is used to power the process. The fibrous fraction is densified and then sold as a combustion fuel. Two process options designed to concentrate the press fluid were assessed to ascertain their influence on productivity in an IFBB like system: sedimentation and the omission of pre-treatment water. By concentrating press fluid and not adding water during processing, energy production from methane was increased by 75% per unit time and solid fuel productivity increased by 80% per unit of fluid produced. The additional energy requirements for pressing more biomass in order to generate equal volumes of feedstock were accounted for in these calculations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pronounced pre-martensitic anomaly in the magnetization on Ni2MnGa thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, I. T.; Müller, C.; Nobrega, K. Z.; Dartora, C. A.; Schreiner, W. H.; Mosca, D. H.

    2018-05-01

    We have prepared [110]-textured Ni2MnGa thin films exhibiting an unusual pre-martensitic transition accompanied by an extremely large magnetization change. The thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy directly on epi-ready GaAs(111)B. Crystalline structure was investigated in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex situ by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the film exhibits cubic crystalline structure (L2 1) at room temperature with lattice parameter a = 5.88 Å which undergoes martensitic transition. Magnetic characterization shows ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with Curie temperature higher than room temperature. Martensitic transformation occurs at TM ∼ 185 K. A phenomenological model based on Landau theory of phase transformation was developed to explain the anomalous pre-martensitic transition at ∼285 K.

  9. Radar signal pre-processing to suppress surface bounce and multipath

    DOEpatents

    Paglieroni, David W; Mast, Jeffrey E; Beer, N. Reginald

    2013-12-31

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes that return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  10. Pre-Schoolers, Pre-School Teachers, and Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills: A Comparative Study in Turkey and Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Derya

    2011-01-01

    Interpersonal cognitive problem solving, one of the most crucial social skills, is a life-long competency that must be supported from the early years of life. In this study, the opinions of 55 Turkish pre-school teachers and 53 Flemish pre-school teachers who work with 3-6-year-old children in private and public pre-schools in metropolitan cities…

  11. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination in pre-filled and photo-filled intermediate band solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mayani, Maryam Gholami; Reenaas, Turid Worren, E-mail: turid.reenaas@ntnu.no

    2014-08-18

    In this work, we study how Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination via energy levels in the bandgap, caused by defects or impurities, affects the performance of both photo-filled and pre-filled intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs). For a pre-filled cell, the IB is half-filled in equilibrium, while it is empty for the photo-filled cell in equilibrium. The energy level, density, and capture cross-sections of the defects/impurities are varied systematically. We find that the photo-filled cells are, in general, less efficient than pre-filled cells, except when the defect level is between the conduction band and the IB. In that case, for a range ofmore » light intensities, the photo-filled cell performs better than the pre-filled. When the defect level is at the same energy as the IB, the efficiency is above 82% of the defect-free case, when less than 50% of the states at the IB lead to SRH recombination. This shows that even if SRH recombination via the IB takes place, high efficiencies can be achieved. We also show that band gap optimization can be used to reduce the SRH recombination.« less

  12. Creating Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David A.

    The author of this booklet is an engineer who conducts experiments in solar energy. Here he has described basic principles of the field. He also details methods of constructing a variety of solar implements, including solar panels, solar cells, a concentrating collector and a solar furnace. The book is intended for the layman and contains…

  13. Creative Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Stephen F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares four strategies that will keep school leaders involved in their schools, connected to their peers, and enthusiastic about it all. Here, the author describes how he has managed to balance the "impossible" with things that give him the energy to face the Mondays and start each new year. So, whether it's…

  14. Energy politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Augustin

    2012-07-01

    In his review of Tyler Hamilton's book Mad Like Tesla (May pp44-45), Roger Bridgman writes that "in energy supply, obviously, companies cannot simply junk huge infrastructure investments in favour of something new, however good it might be". But that is exactly what Angela Merkel's administration has done in Germany with its anti-nuclear policy.

  15. Energy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Group of Eight (Go8) is a coalition of leading Australian universities, intensive in research and comprehensive in general and professional education. The Go8 member universities recognise that the issue of energy usage and transformation is one of vital importance not only to Australia but to the world as a whole. The universities aim to make…

  16. Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Education News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    This newsletter is concerned with energy education programs for the general public. The nature of the target audience is analyzed first, then the discussion turns to the questions of what goals may be set for such programs and what vehicles or agencies may be used. Four new curriculum project materials are reviewed and descriptions of nine…

  17. Energy Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrahy, Dennis J.

    One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of energy. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Separate sections cover early sources of…

  18. Pre-relaxation in weakly interacting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Bruno; Fagotti, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    We consider time evolution in models close to integrable points with hidden symmetries that generate infinitely many local conservation laws that do not commute with one another. The system is expected to (locally) relax to a thermal ensemble if integrability is broken, or to a so-called generalised Gibbs ensemble if unbroken. In some circumstances expectation values exhibit quasi-stationary behaviour long before their typical relaxation time. For integrability-breaking perturbations, these are also called pre-thermalisation plateaux, and emerge e.g. in the strong coupling limit of the Bose-Hubbard model. As a result of the hidden symmetries, quasi-stationarity appears also in integrable models, for example in the Ising limit of the XXZ model. We investigate a weak coupling limit, identify a time window in which the effects of the perturbations become significant and solve the time evolution through a mean-field mapping. As an explicit example we study the XYZ spin-\\frac{1}{2} chain with additional perturbations that break integrability. One of the most intriguing results of the analysis is the appearance of persistent oscillatory behaviour. To unravel its origin, we study in detail a toy model: the transverse-field Ising chain with an additional nonlocal interaction proportional to the square of the transverse spin per unit length (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 197203). Despite being nonlocal, this belongs to a class of models that emerge as intermediate steps of the mean-field mapping and shares many dynamical properties with the weakly interacting models under consideration.

  19. Instrument pre-development activities for FLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettinato, L.; Fossati, E.; Coppo, P. M.; Taiti, A.; Labate, D.; Capanni, A.; Taccola, M.; Bézy, J. L.; Francois, M.; Meynart, R.; Erdmann, L.; Triebel, P.

    2017-09-01

    The FLuorescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) is the payload of the FLuorescence Explorer Mission (FLEX) of the European Space Agency. The mission objective is to perform quantitative measurements of the solar induced vegetation fluorescence to monitor photosynthetic activity. FLORIS works in a push-broom configuration and it is designed to acquire data in the 500-780 nm spectral range, with a sampling of 0.1 nm in the oxygen bands (759-769 nm and 686- 697 nm) and 0.5-2.0 nm in the red edge, chlorophyll absorption and Photochemical Reflectance Index bands. FLEX will fly in formation with Sentinel-3 to benefit of the measurements made by the Sentinel-3 instruments OLCI and SLSTR, particularly for cloud screening, proper characterization of the atmospheric state and determination of the surface temperature. The instrument concept is based on a common telescope and two modified Offner spectrometers with reflective concave gratings both for the High Resolution (HR) and Low Resolution (LR) spectrometers. In the frame of the instrument pre-development Leonardo Company (I) has built and tested an elegant breadboard of the instrument consisting of the telescope and the HR spectrometer. The development of the LR spectrometer is in charge of OHB System AG (D) and is currently in the manufacturing phase. The main objectives of the activity are: anticipate the development of the instrument and provide early risk retirement of critical components, evaluate the system performances such as imaging quality parameters, straylight, ghost, polarization sensitivity and environmental influences, verify the adequacy of critical tests such as spectral characterization and straylight, define and optimize instrument alignment procedures. Following a brief overview of the FLEX mission, the paper will cover the design and the development of the optics breadboard with emphasis on the results obtained during the tests and the lessons learned for the flight unit.

  20. Pre-admission criteria and pre-clinical achievement: Can they predict medical students performance in the clinical phase?

    PubMed

    Salem, Raneem O; Al-Mously, Najwa; AlFadil, Sara; Baalash, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Various factors affect medical students' performance during clinical phase. Identifying these factors would help in mentoring weak students and help in selection process for residency programmes. Our study objective is to evaluate the impact of pre-admission criteria, and pre-clinical grade point average (GPA) on undergraduate medical students' performance during clinical phase. This study has a cross-sectional design that includes fifth- and sixth-year female medical students (71). Data of clinical and pre-clinical GPA in medical school and pre-admission to medical school tests scores were collected. A significant correlation between clinical GPA with the pre-clinical GPA was observed (p < 0.05). Such significant correlation was not seen with other variables under study. A regression analysis was performed, and the only significant predictor of students clinical performance was the pre-clinical GPA (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference between students' clinical and pre-clinical GPA for both cohorts was observed (p > 0.05). Pre-clinical GPA is strongly correlated with and can predict medical students' performance during clinical years. Our study highlighted the importance of evaluating the academic performances of students in pre-clinical years before they move into clinical years in order to identify weak students to mentor them and monitor their progress.