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Sample records for ze transit bus

  1. Transit Bus Safety Oversight

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-11-17

    After the National Transportation Safety Board conducted several accident investigations involving transit buses (Normandy, Missouri; Cosmopolis, Washington; New York, New York; and Nashville, Tennesee) and held a public hearing on transit bus safety...

  2. Transit Bus Manufacturers' Profiles

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-03-01

    This report is an analytic paper addressing the trend toward entry into the U.S. transit bus market by new foreign manufacturers. The purpose of this study is to provide an explanation, and outline the implications of why so many companies are intere...

  3. Mass transit : bus rapid transit shows promise

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-09-17

    The U. S. General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to (1) examine the federal role in supporting Bus Rapid Transit; (2) compare the capital costs, operating costs, and performance characteristics of Bus Rapid Transit and Light Rail systems; and (3) ...

  4. Bus Rapid Transit Demonstration Program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-12-31

    This report was prepared by the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration and Innovation. It describes the FTA's Bus Rapid Transit Demonstration Program, designed to provide funding and support to transit agencies engag...

  5. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  6. The bus transit system : ITS underutilized potential

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-05-01

    The bus system represents the most widely used transit mode. Upgraded bus services, primarily those which have partially or fully separated rights-of-way, represent a very cost-effective method to improve the balance between automobile and transit. M...

  7. Analysis of Florida transit bus accidents

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-06-01

    Through its National Center for Transit Research, and under contract with the Florida Department of Transportation, the Center for Urban Transportation Research was tasked with reviewing a sample of transit bus crash occurrence data from selected Flo...

  8. Analysis of Florida transit bus crashes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-06-01

    Through its National Center for Transit Research, and under contract with the Florida Department of Transportation, the Center for Urban Transportation Research was tasked with reviewing a sample of transit bus crash occurrence data from selected Flo...

  9. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus Preliminary Evaluation Results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-10-16

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The report discusses the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment us...

  10. Bus rapid transit : a handbook for partners.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-02-01

    This document describes the policy and role of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) to support the development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT ) projects and technology and, in that context, to strengthen partnerships, expedite project de...

  11. Understanding & modeling bus transit driver availability.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    Bus transit agencies are required to hire extraboard (i.e. back-up) operators to account for unexpected absences. Incorrect sizing of extra driver workforce is problematic for a number of reasons. Overestimating the appropriate number of extraboard o...

  12. Hybrid Propulsion Technologies for Urban Bus Transit

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-11-01

    Information on hybrid propulsion technologies is presented to increase the transit community's awareness and understanding of bus propulsion designs that offer extended use capability for trolley-emergency, short-range, and back-up propulsion for tro...

  13. Evaluation guidelines for bus rapid transit demonstration projects

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-02-01

    The Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Bus Rapid Transit Demonstration Program is supporting demonstrations of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in selected cities across the United States. The US BRT Demonstration Program aims to adapt the principles of h...

  14. Survey of transit bus maintenance programs in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    Transit bus maintenance practices as used by thirteen small and medium-sized transit systems in Virginia were cataloged. Different approaches to maintenance were investigated and the current condition of transit bus maintenance was determined. Factor...

  15. Transit bus life cycle cost and year 2007 emissions estimation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-06-01

    The report presents a study of transit bus life cycle cost (LCC) analysis, and projected transit bus emissions and fuel economy for 2007 : model year buses. It covers four bus types: diesel buses using ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), diesel buses usi...

  16. Trends in bus transit operations, 1960-1974

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-01-01

    This report analyzes the historical patterns of bus transit operations from 1960 to 1974 using data from 50 bus operations. Because of limitations on the available data, the analyzed data do not represent the universe of bus operations, nor is it a r...

  17. Guidelines for bus transit stops in highway construction work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-01

    Fixed route transit systems provide a valuable transportation service for many of our citizens. As users depend on : bus transit to access to the essentials of life, maintaining transit service is a critical issue. Given the extent of : nationwide bu...

  18. Peer-to-peer information exchange on bus rapid transit (BRT) and bus priority best practices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this effort was to foster a dialogue among peers at transportation and planning agencies about their experiences with : promoting public transit and, in particular, the challenges they face related to Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) projects, ...

  19. Transit Bus Fuel Economy and Performance Simulation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of bus simulation studies to determine the effects of various design and operating parameters on bus fuel economy and performance. The bus components are first described in terms of how they are modeled. Then a variat...

  20. Transit bus stop pedestrian warning application : concept of operations document.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-02-04

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Transit Bus Stop Pedestrian Warning (TSPW) application. The ConOps describes the current state of operations with respect to the integration of connected vehicle technology in transit...

  1. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project : Evaluation Results Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-02-02

    British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) has been leading a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) in Whistler, Canada, since early 2010. This 20-bus demonstration was introduced during the 2010 Winter Olympic Games and is the worlds larges...

  2. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results : Second Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit began a demonstration of three Proterra BEBs in Oct...

  3. A research framework for studying transit bus driver distraction.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-09-01

    The increase in transit bus ridership nationally during the past ten years, along with the : proliferation of personal electronic control and communication gadgets is causing more : distractions for the drivers. Earlier research studies have found dr...

  4. Transit bus applications of lithium ion batteries : progress and prospects

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-31

    This report provides an overview of diverse transit bus applications of advanced Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs). The report highlights and illustrates several FTA programs that fostered the successful development, demonstration, and deployment of fuel-...

  5. Transit bus stop pedestrian warning application : requirements document.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-01

    This document describes the System Requirements for the Transit Bus Stop Pedestrian Warning (TSPW) application. The requirements describe the system of interest for the implementation team including the required functions and performance along with t...

  6. A qualitative analysis of bus simulator training on transit incidents : a case study in Florida.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to track and observe three Florida public transit agencies as they incorporated and integrated computer-based transit bus simulators into their existing bus operator training programs. In addition to the three Florida...

  7. Economic impacts of bus rapid transit in southeast Michigan.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has generated great interest across the United States. There are more than 20 BRT : systems in existence, and more are in the planning stage (including in Detroit). Within the next few years, BRT will be plann...

  8. Evaluation of bus transit reliability in the District of Columbia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    Several performance metrics can be used to assess the reliability of a transit system. These include on-time arrivals, travel-time : adherence, run-time adherence, and customer satisfaction, among others. On-time arrival at bus stops is one of the pe...

  9. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC workers, with Center Director Roy Bridges (at right next to bus), head for the open door of the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus and a ride around the center. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available to employees for viewing and a ride, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  10. National transit bus accident data collection & analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-02-01

    Through its National Center for Transit Research, and under contract with the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), and in cooperation with the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials' Standing Committee on Public Tr...

  11. Alternative Fuel Transit Bus Evaluation Program Results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-05-06

    The objective of this program, which is supported by the U.S. Department of : Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to : provide an unbiased and comprehensive comparison of transit buses operating on : alternative f...

  12. The US transit bus manufacturing industry [brief].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    Manufacturing buses for the US transit market has been a challenging business : over the last several decades. It is a small market with volatile demand. The : purpose of this report is to provide policy makers with an update on the state of the indu...

  13. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-01-01

    In October 2010, Foothill Transit began a demonstration of three Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in its service area located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. The agency had a goal of evaluating the...

  14. Noise Reduction Retrofit for a "New Look" Flexible Transit Bus Service Bulletin

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-09-01

    This document presents instructions on how to apply a noise treatment to a contemporary city transit bus without extensive structural alteration. Baseline bus configuration, noise ratings, and performance benchmarks are presented for a Flexible 111DC...

  15. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus drives around KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus tours the KSC Visitor Complex for a test ride. In the background are a mock-up orbiter named Explorer (left) and a stack of solid rocket boosters and external tank (right), typically used on Shuttle launches. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept.

  16. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus drives around KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus passes a mock-up orbiter named Explorer on a trek through the KSC Visitor Complex. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept.

  17. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC employees, along with Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left), view the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  18. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On view in front of the Headquarters Building, the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus attracts an interested group of employees, including Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left in foreground). Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  19. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In front of the Headquarters Building at KSC, Center Director Roy Bridges (left) looks at the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by- product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  20. Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

  1. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Jeffers, Matthew

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluationmore » of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.« less

  2. Design & development of the LCO-140H series hydraulic hybrid low floor transit bus.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    Automation Alley, Altair, and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), in a public-private partnership, teamed up to advance a new transit bus initiative that would improve Americas local and regional transit systems while requiring no infrastruc...

  3. Baseline Testing of the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeffrey C.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Thompson, William K.

    1999-01-01

    A government, industry and academic cooperative has developed a Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). Goals of the program include doubling the fuel economy of city transit buses currently in service, and reducing emissions to one-tenth of EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors for the energy storage system and the planned use of a natural gas fueled turbogenerator, to be developed from a small jet engine. At over 17000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle to use ultra-capacitor energy storage. A description of the HETB, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are the subject of this report.

  4. Evolution of weighted complex bus transit networks with flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ailing; Xiong, Jie; Shen, Jinsheng; Guan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Study on the intrinsic properties and evolutional mechanism of urban public transit networks (PTNs) has great significance for transit planning and control, particularly considering passengers’ dynamic behaviors. This paper presents an empirical analysis for exploring the complex properties of Beijing’s weighted bus transit network (BTN) based on passenger flow in L-space, and proposes a bi-level evolution model to simulate the development of transit routes from the view of complex network. The model is an iterative process that is driven by passengers’ travel demands and dual-controlled interest mechanism, which is composed of passengers’ spatio-temporal requirements and cost constraint of transit agencies. Also, the flow’s dynamic behaviors, including the evolutions of travel demand, sectional flow attracted by a new link and flow perturbation triggered in nearby routes, are taken into consideration in the evolutional process. We present the numerical experiment to validate the model, where the main parameters are estimated by using distribution functions that are deduced from real-world data. The results obtained have proven that our model can generate a BTN with complex properties, such as the scale-free behavior or small-world phenomenon, which shows an agreement with our empirical results. Our study’s results can be exploited to optimize the real BTN’s structure and improve the network’s robustness.

  5. AVL systems for bus transit : a synthesis of transit practice

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    A vast storehouse of information exists on many subjects of concern to the transit industry. This information has resulted from research and from the successful application of solutions to problems by individuals or organizations. There is a continui...

  6. Fuel Cell Transit Buses : ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the ThunderPower fuel cell bus demonstration at SunLine Transit Agency in Thousand Palms, California. Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluat...

  7. Bus rapid transit and development : policies and practices that affect development around transit.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-01

    The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the United States, but several systems are in operation and more are advancing. There is a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land use and...

  8. Highlights of the Transit Bus Technology Workshop - April 29-30, 1982

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-09-01

    The Transit Bus Technology Workshop, held at the Transportation Systems Center on April 29-30, 1982, provided UMTA with current information on research, development, and technical assistance needed to improve the economy and performance of transit bu...

  9. Transit bus stop pedestrian warning application : architecture and design : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-02-28

    This document describes the Draft System Architecture and Design for the Transit Bus Stop Pedestrian Warning (TSPW) application including the design for the pedestrian detection system and DSRC radio to be deployed at transit stops and includes detai...

  10. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  11. Advanced Vehicle Monitoring And Communication Systems For Bus Transit Benefits And Economic Feasibility

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-03-01

    THIS REPORT ANALYZES THE FEASIBILITY OF ADVANCED VEHICLE MONITORING AND COMMUNICATION (AVM/C) SYSTEMS FOR BUS TRANSIT IN THE UNITED STATES. SUCH SYSTEMS ARE WIDELY USED IN EUROPE AND CANADA TO PROVIDE MORE RELIABLE AND EFFICIENT BUS SERVICES, BUT HAV...

  12. Advanced Vehicle Monitoring And Communication Systems For Bus Transit, Benefits And Economic Feasibility

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-09-01

    THIS REPORT ANALYZES THE FEASIBILITY OF ADVANCED VEHICLE MONITORING AND COMMUNICATION (AVM/C) SYSTEMS FOR BUS TRANSIT IN THE UNITED STATES. SUCH SYSTEMS ARE WIDELY USED IN EUROPE AND CANADA TO PROVIDE MORE RELIABLE AND EFFICIENT BUS SERVICES, BUT HAV...

  13. Transit vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) applications : near term research and development transit bus stop pedestrian safety application : operational concept.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-01

    This document serves as an Operational Concept for the Transit Bus Stop Pedestrian Safety application. The purpose of this document is to communicate user needs and desired capabilities for and expectations of the Transit Bus Stop Pedestrian Safety a...

  14. Transit vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) applications : near term research and development. Transit bus-pedestrian/cyclist crossing safety application : operational concept.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    This document serves as an Operational Concept for the Transit Bus-Pedestrian/Cyclist Crossing Safety application. The purpose of this document is to provide an operational description of how the Transit Bus-Pedestrian/Cyclist Crossing Safety W...

  15. City of Fresno peer exchange on bus rapid transit : a TPCB peer exchange

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-09-11

    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), held on May 21 and May 22, 2013, in Fresno, California. This event was sponsored by the Transportation Planning Capacity Buildin...

  16. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  17. Transit bus stop pedestrian warning application : acceptance test plan : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-14

    This document is the Acceptance Test Plan for the Transit Bus Stop Pedestrian Warning (TSPW) application. This report describes the test and demonstration plan to verify that the application meets its functional and performance requirements.

  18. Quantifying the importance of image and perception to bus rapid transit : March 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to quantify the importance of image and perception to Bus Rapid Transit, by identifying the different underlying : tangible and intangible factors that drive any perceived differences between BRT and other forms of rapid trans...

  19. Land developer participation in providing for bus transit facilities and operations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the various non-regulatory and regulatory approaches for engaging private sector land developer participation in contributing toward the provision of public bus transit capital facilities and the cost of operations...

  20. Bus rapid transit developments in China : perspectives from research, meetings, and site visits in April 2006.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-07-01

    This report briefly summarizes the information related to Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) developments in China collected through : independent research and a visit to China from April 17-26, 2006 as part of FTA Public Transportation Trade Mission. The purpo...

  1. Small City Transit : Bremerton, Washington : Privately Operated Subscription Bus Service to an Industrial Site

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-03-01

    Bremerton, Washington, is an illustration of a privately operated, profitmaking subscription bus service. This case study is one of thirteen examples of a transit service in a small community. The background of the community is discussed along with a...

  2. A procedural method for express bus-fringe parking transit planning.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-01-01

    The report illustrates a procedural method for planning express bus-fringe parking transit services - a method built upon the findings from previous research, including disaggregate travel choice models and planning guidelines. The methodology addres...

  3. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    SciTech Connect

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  4. Vehicle catalog : a compendium of vehicles and powertrain systems for bus rapid transit service

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-01-01

    This report represents one part of an effort to provide information to the U.S. transit : authorities on activities related to Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). This document is prepared in : partnership with the Federal Transit Administration as part of a ...

  5. Mapping Between Bus Rapid Transit Shelter and High School Location in Semarang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, D. I. K.; Rakhmatulloh, A. R.; Anggraini, P.

    2018-02-01

    The main users of public bus transport are those who have the goal to work and attend school. But the last few years there has been a decline in the use of public transport for high school students. Partly of the reason are the high use of motorcycle by student and lack of bus stop service range to high school location. This research has aim to increase the use of public transport for school students by mapping Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) shelter and school locations. The research method used are descriptive quantitative with GIs analysis tools and using spatial analysis approach

  6. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation : Third Results Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    SunLine Transit Agency provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California. SunLine has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. This report describes operations at SunLine for a prototype f...

  7. Clean air program : use of hydrogen to power the advanced technology transit bus (ATTB) : an assessment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-11-01

    The Advanced Technology Transit Bus (ATTB), developed under primary funding from : the U.S. DOT/Federal Transit Administration (FTA), currently uses a power plant : based on a natural gas burning IC engine-generator set. FTA is interested in : demons...

  8. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California. SunLine has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technol...

  9. Public transit research: Rail, bus, and new technology, 1991. Transportation Research Record

    SciTech Connect

    Kassabian, N.C.; Tobias, A.G.; Crayton, L.

    1991-01-01

    The report contains: Image of Rail Transit; Train Operations Computer Simulation Case Study: Single-Tracking Operations for Philadelphia's Market-Frankford Subway Elevated Rail Rapid Transit Line; Transit Railcar Quantities: Scale Economies; Evaluation of Training Programs in Rail Transit: Its Role and Status; Methodology for Evaluating Out-of-Direction Bus Route Segments; Integration of Fixed- and Flexible-Route Bus Systems; Downtown Space for Buses--The Manhattan Experience; Implications of Transit Drug Testing and Maintenance Service Procurement for Small Urban and Rural Systems; Challenges for Integration of Alternative Fuels in the Transit Industry; Short History of the Transbay Transit Terminal and the Relocation of the San Francisco Greyhoundmore » Depot Thereto; Airport Development with Automated People Mover Systems; Review of Four Alternative Airport Terminal Passenger Mobility Systems.« less

  10. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and helpmore » determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.« less

  11. Evaluation of transit signal priority strategies for bus rapid transit project on 3500 South Street in Salt Lake County, UT.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is becoming one of the most popular transit services in the United States. BRT is a viable option for many cities and can offer commuters travel times comparable to those experienced in private cars. With about 100 miles of BR...

  12. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  13. National Fuel Cell Bus Program : Accelerated Testing Report, AC Transit

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 throu...

  14. Entry and Competition in the U.S. Transit Bus Manufacturing Industry

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-03-01

    This report is an analytic paper addressing the trend toward entry into the U.S. transit bus market by new foreign manufacturers. The purpose of this study is to provide an explanation, and outline the implications of why so many companies are intere...

  15. Evaluation of transit operations : data applications of Tri-Met's automated bus dispatching system

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of operating performance for Tri-Met, the transit provider for the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. The analysis draws on data recovered by Tri-Met's automated Bus Dispatching System (BDS) and focuses on two main su...

  16. Impacts of bus rapid transit (BRT) on surrounding residential property values : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-07-01

    As bus rapid transit (BRT) grows in popularity in the United States, a better understanding of the modes impacts on land uses and property values is needed. Economic theory suggests, and literature has shown, that people are willing to pay higher ...

  17. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results : Second Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2009, British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) led a project to conduct a 5-year demonstration of 20 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) in Whistler, Canada. The FCEB fleet was introduced during the 2010 Winter Olympic Games and operated throug...

  18. National transit bus accident data collection and analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-02-01

    Through its National Center for Transit Research, and under contract with the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), and in cooperation with the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials' Standing Committee on Public Tr...

  19. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations : Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-05-01

    This document describes the hydrogen transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportations Federal Transit Administration (...

  20. Investigation of bus transit schedule behavior modeling using advanced techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaputapu, R.; Demetsky, M.J.

    This research focused on investigating the application of artificial neural networks (ANN) and the Box-Jenkins technique for developing and testing schedule behavior models using data obtained for a test route from Tidewater Regional Transit`s AVL system. The three ANN architectures investigated were: Feedforward Network, Elman Network and Jordan Network. In addition, five different model structures were investigated. The time-series methodology was adopted for developing the schedule behavior models. Finally, the role of a schedule behavior model within the framework of an intelligent transit management system is defined and the potential utility of the schedule behavior model is discussed using anmore » example application.« less

  1. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  2. Foothill Transit Electric Bus Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    , this study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of fast-charge electric well. The electric buses under study were Proterra EcoRide BE35 transit buses with eight 368V lithium Systems Technology Simulator, or FASTSim, to study the impact of route selection and other vehicle

  3. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    this study are featured in the Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid manufactured by Orion Industries with BAE propulsion systems. The results of this study are featured in the In power units. The results of this study are featured in the Ebus Hybrid Electric Buses and Trolleys case

  4. Analysis of bus collision and non-collision incidents using transit ITS and other archived operations data.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-11-01

    This report analyzes factors contributing to bus operations safety incidents at TriMet, the transit provider for the Portland Oregon metropolitan : region. The analysis focuses on 4,631 collision and non-collision incidents that occurred between 2006...

  5. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions.

  6. Risk factors for unintentional occupational injury among urban transit bus drivers: a cohort longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia; Gerberich, Susan G; Ryan, Andrew D; Alexander, Bruce H; Church, Timothy R; Manser, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Although many studies have focused on bus operators' occupational diseases, work-related injury and associated risk factor data are limited. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate unintentional injury and exposures that may affect injury risk among metropolitan bus operators. Demographic, work-related, and injury data obtained from a metropolitan transit company for a 5-year period, enabled estimates of rates per 100 full time equivalents (FTEs) and adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using Generalized Estimating Equations and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. The 2095 bus operators, included in this study, had an unintentional injury rate (95% CI) of 17.8 (16.1-19.7) per 100 FTEs. Multivariable analysis identified increased risks for operators who were female, compared to male (HR = 2.4; 2.0-2.8); worked less than 7 versus 7 to less than 12 hours per day (HR = 4.6; 3.8-5.5); and drove less than 7 versus 7 to less than 12 hours per day (HR = 3.2; 2.7-3.8). Suggestive increased risks were identified for operators working split versus straight shifts (HR = 1.2; 1.0-1.4) and for driving limited versus regular bus routes (HR = 1.36; 1.0-1.8). Results serve as a basis for further studies and inform the development of targeted intervention strategies to reduce bus operators' occupational injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  8. Prevalence of and factors associated with distraction among public transit bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Russell; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research has suggested that driver distraction is a major cause of driving performance impairment and motor vehicle collisions. Research on the topic has focused on passenger vehicles, with studies suggesting that drivers may be distracted nearly 33% of the time spent driving. To date, no study has examined the prevalence of distraction specifically among public transit bus drivers. Methods Over a three-month period, trained investigators observed and recorded distraction behaviors of bus drivers. Distraction prevalence was compared by route characteristics (e.g., geographic area, travel speed) using chi-square test. A general estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate p-values for distraction prevalence by driver demographics. Results Overall, there was a 39% prevalence of distraction. The most prevalent distractions were due to interactions with another passenger. Distractions were more prevalent among drivers <30 years of age or ≥50 years of age, on city streets or highways (relative to residential streets), and when there were more than 20 passengers. Distractions were the least prevalent in suburban areas, with the highest prevalence observed in city centers and rural areas. Conclusions Driver distraction is a common problem for public transit bus drivers, mainly due to other passengers. Drivers should be educated on the hazards of distracted driving and on ways to avoid distraction. PMID:24433192

  9. Relationships of working conditions, health problems and vehicle accidents in bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Cendales, Boris; Useche, Sergio; Bocarejo, Juan P

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate accident risk rates and mental health of bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers based on psychosocial risk factors at work leading to increased stress and health problems. A cross-sectional research design utilized a self-report questionnaire completed by 524 BRT drivers. Some working conditions of BRT drivers (lack of social support from supervisors and perceived potential for risk) may partially explain Bogota's BRT drivers' involvement in road accidents. Drivers' mental health problems were associated with higher job strain, less support from co-workers, fewer rewards and greater signal conflict while driving. To prevent bus accidents, supervisory support may need to be increased. To prevent mental health problems, other interventions may be needed such as reducing demands, increasing job control, reducing amount of incoming information, simplifying current signals, making signals less contradictory, and revising rewards. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ramp-related incidents involving wheeled mobility device users during transit bus boarding/alighting.

    PubMed

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina; Smalley, Craig

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) ramp-related incidents while boarding/alighting a public transit bus and to determine whether the frequency of incidents is less when the ramp slope meets the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable limit of ≤9.5°. Observational study. Community public transportation. WhMD users (N=414) accessing a public transit bus equipped with an instrumented ramp. Not applicable. Prevalence of boarding/alighting incidents involving WhMD users and associated ramp slopes; factors affecting incidents. A total of 4.6% (n=35) of WhMD users experienced an incident while boarding/alighting a transit bus. Significantly more incidents occurred during boarding (6.3%, n=26) than during alighting (2.2%, n=9) (P<.01), and when the ramp was deployed to street level (mean slope=11.4°) compared with sidewalk level (mean slope=4.2°) (P=.01). The odds ratio for experiencing an incident when the ramp slope exceeded the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope was 5.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.4-12.2; P<.01). The odds ratio for assistance being rendered to board/alight when the ramp slope exceeded the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope was 5.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.9-9.0; P<.01). The findings of this study support the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope of 9.5°. Ramp slopes >9.5° and ramps deployed to street level are associated with a higher frequency of incidents and provision of assistance. Transit agencies should increase awareness among bus operators of the effect kneeling and deployment location (street/sidewalk) have on the ramp slope. In addition, ramp components and the built environment may contribute to incidents. When prescribing WhMDs, skills training must include ascending/descending ramps at slopes encountered during boarding/alighting to ensure safe and independent access to public transit buses. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  11. Morphology of single inhalable particle inside public transit biodiesel fueled bus.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Kaushik K; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    In an urban-transit bus, fueled by biodiesel in Toledo, Ohio, single inhalable particle samples in October 2008 were collected and detected by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS). Particle size analysis found bimodal distribution at 0.2 and 0.5 microm. The particle morphology was characterized by 14 different shape clusters: square, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, nonagon, decagon, agglomerate, sphere, triangle, oblong, strip, line or stick, and unknown, by quantitative order. The square particles were common in the samples. Round and triangle particles are more, and pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, nonagon, decagon, strip, line or sticks are less. Agglomerate particles were found in abundance. The surface of most particles was coarse with a fractal edge that can provide a suitable chemical reaction bed in the polluted atmospheric environment. The three sorts of surface patterns of squares were smooth, semi-smooth, and coarse. The three sorts of square surface patterns represented the morphological characteristics of single inhalable particles in the air inside the bus in Toledo. The size and shape distribution results were compared to those obtained for a bus using ultra low sulfur diesel.

  12. Foothill Transit Agency Battery Electric Bus Progress Report, Data Period Focus: Jan. 2017 through Dec. 2017

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare the performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through December 2016. This report extends the data analysis through December 2017.more » NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every six months through 2020.« less

  13. Microbial air quality in mass transport buses and work-related illness among bus drivers of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Sundhiyodhin, Viboonsri; Luksamijarulkul, Soavalug; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan

    2004-06-01

    The air quality in mass transport buses, especially air-conditioned buses may affect bus drivers who work full time. Bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166 of the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority were randomly selected to investigate for microbial air quality. Nine air-conditioned buses and 2-4 open-air buses for each number of the bus (36 air-conditioned buses and 12 open-air buses) were included. Five points of in-bus air samples in each studied bus were collected by using the Millipore A ir Tester Totally, 180 and 60 air samples collected from air-conditioned buses and open-air buses were cultured for bacterial and fungal counts. The bus drivers who drove the studied buses were interviewed towards histories of work-related illness while working. The results revealed that the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied open-air buses ranged from 358.50 +/- 146.66 CFU/m3 to 506 +/- 137.62 CFU/m3; bus number 16 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which ranged from 93.33 +/- 44.83 CFU/m3 to 302 +/- 294.65 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. Whereas, the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied air-conditioned buses ranged from 115.24 +/- 136.01 CFU/m3 to 244.69 +/- 234.85 CFU/m3; bus numbers 16 and 67 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which rangedfrom 18.84 +/- 39.42 CFU/m3 to 96.13 +/- 234.76 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. When 180 and 60 studied air samples were analyzed in detail, it was found that 33.33% of the air samples from open-air buses and 6.11% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of bacterial counts (> 500 CFU/m3) while 6.67% of air samples from open-air buses and 2.78% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of fungal counts (> 500 CFU/m3). Data from the history of work-related illnesses among the studied bus drivers showed that 91.67% of open-air bus drivers and 57.28% of air-conditioned bus drivers had

  14. GO Bus impact analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-08-01

    NJ TRANSIT launched two relatively new enhanced bus services: GO 25 serving the : Springfield Avenue corridor in 2008 and GO 28 serving the Bloomfield Avenue corridor in 2009. : As an enhanced but not full Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service, GO Bus feat...

  15. Policy evaluation for a bus-based transit system: the case study of Busan, Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, K.S.

    This study considers a quite specific set of dimensions of transit evaluation as a comprehensive management-strategy approach for addressing the ongoing problems of urban public transit systems and apply them in a case study. With increasing difficulties in providing effective public transportation, attention in this study was placed on providing for the movement of people in an efficient and equitable manner. This study was therefore concerned with just identifying and evaluating policy options that are feasible within the socio-economic and political context of the Busan metropolitan area and, in particular, how the criteria of efficiency and equity can best bemore » achieved by implementing transit policy alternatives. In the absence of long-run major public investment in urban transportation, the criteria of both efficiency and equity can only be furthered through managerial strategies applied within a systematic evaluative framework. By emphasizing the planning, operational, and managerial considerations of fixed-route bus transit in Busan, it has been acknowledged that efficient and equitable public transportation can be provided through a variety of social, economic, political, and institutional arrangements that are possible to apply from a policy viewpoint in the immediate future.« less

  16. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, George

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largestmore » rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.« less

  17. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largestmore » rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.« less

  18. Electric bus systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  19. Assessment of the applicability of cooperative vehicle-highway automation systems (CVHAS) to bus transit and intermodal freight : case study feasibility analyses in the Metropolitan Chicago Region.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    This report presents the results of its performance assessment of the feasibility of applying cooperative vehicle- highway automation systems (CVHAS) to bus transit and freight movements in the metropolitan Chicago area. : CVHAS are systems that prov...

  20. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowestmore » average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  1. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  2. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  3. Effects of transit bus interior configuration on performance of wheeled mobility users during simulated boarding and disembarking.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James A; Steinfeld, Edward

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of low-floor bus designs and related regulatory standards in the U.S. have resulted in substantial improvements in public transit accessibility. However, passengers using wheeled mobility devices still experience safety concerns and inefficiencies in boarding, disembarking, and interior circulation on low-floor buses. This study investigates effects of low-floor bus interior configuration and passenger crowding on boarding and disembarking efficiency and safety. Users of manual wheelchairs (n = 18), powered wheelchairs (n = 21) and electric scooters (n = 9) simulated boarding and disembarking in three interior layout configurations at low and high passenger crowding conditions on a full-scale laboratory mock-up of a low-floor bus. Dependent measures comprised task times and critical incidents during access ramp use, fare payment, and movement to and from the doorway and wheeled mobility securement area. Individual times for unassisted boarding ranged from 15.2 to 245.3 s and for disembarking ranged from 9.1 to 164.6 s across layout and passenger crowding conditions. Nonparametric analysis of variance showed significant differences and interactions across vehicle design conditions, passenger load and mobility device type on user performance. The configuration having electronic on-board fare payment, rear-bus entrance doorways and adjacent device securement areas demonstrated greatest efficiency and safety. High passenger load adversely impacted efficiency and frequency of critical incidents during on-board circulation across all three layouts. Findings have broader implications for improving transit system efficiency and quality of service across the spectrum of transit users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary concept for statewide intercity bus and rail transit system : priority corridor ranking and analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    This product summarizes the preliminary concept and priority corridors for development of a potential : statewide intercity bus and rail network. The concept is based upon the results of Tasks 1 through 5 of Texas : Department of Transportation Proje...

  5. Modeling transit bus fuel consumption on the basis of cycle properties.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Oscar F; Clark, Nigel N; Thompson, Gregory J

    2011-04-01

    A method exists to predict heavy-duty vehicle fuel economy and emissions over an "unseen" cycle or during unseen on-road activity on the basis of fuel consumption and emissions data from measured chassis dynamometer test cycles and properties (statistical parameters) of those cycles. No regression is required for the method, which relies solely on the linear association of vehicle performance with cycle properties. This method has been advanced and examined using previously published heavy-duty truck data gathered using the West Virginia University heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with the trucks exercised over limited test cycles. In this study, data were available from a Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority emission testing program conducted in 2006. Chassis dynamometer data from two conventional diesel buses, two compressed natural gas buses, and one hybrid diesel bus were evaluated using an expanded driving cycle set of 16 or 17 different driving cycles. Cycle properties and vehicle fuel consumption measurements from three baseline cycles were selected to generate a linear model and then to predict unseen fuel consumption over the remaining 13 or 14 cycles. Average velocity, average positive acceleration, and number of stops per distance were found to be the desired cycle properties for use in the model. The methodology allowed for the prediction of fuel consumption with an average error of 8.5% from vehicles operating on a diverse set of chassis dynamometer cycles on the basis of relatively few experimental measurements. It was found that the data used for prediction should be acquired from a set that must include an idle cycle along with a relatively slow transient cycle and a relatively high speed cycle. The method was also applied to oxides of nitrogen prediction and was found to have less predictive capability than for fuel consumption with an average error of 20.4%.

  6. TransMilenio, a Scalable Bus Rapid Transit System for Promoting Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Sarmiento, Olga L; Pinzón, Jose David; Meisel, Jose D; Montes, Felipe; Hidalgo, Dario; Pratt, Michael; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Transport systems can play an important role in increasing physical activity (PA). Bogotá has been recognized for its bus rapid transit (BRT) system, TransMilenio (TM). To date, BRTs have been implemented in over 160 cities worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PA and the use of TM among adults in Bogotá. The study consists of a cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2011 with 1000 adults. PA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In a subsample of 250 adults, PA was objectively measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression models. The use of TM was associated with meeting moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). TM users were more likely to complete an average of >22 min a day of MVPA (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1, confidence interval [CI] = 95 % 1.4-7.1) and to walk for transportation for ≥150 min per week (OR = 1.5; CI = 95 % 1.1-2.0). The use of TM was associated with 12 or more minutes of MVPA (95 % CI 4.5-19.4, p < 0.0001). Associations between meeting PA recommendations and use of TM did not differ by socioeconomic status (p value = 0.106) or sex (p value = 0.288). The use of TM is a promising strategy for enhancing public health efforts to reduce physical inactivity through walking for transport. Given the expansion of BRTs, these results could inform the development of transport PA programs in low- to high-income countries.

  7. Mobile Gas and Particulate Emission Studies of the New York City Transit Bus Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayne, J. T.; Canagaratna, M.; Herndon, S.; Shorter, J.; Zahniser, M.; Shi, Q.; Kolb, C.; Worsnop, D.; Jimenez, J.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K.; Lanni, T.

    2001-12-01

    Emissions from both diesel and gasoline powered motor vehicles are a significant source of particulate (PM2.5) and trace gas pollution, especially in urban environments. Emission characterizations of motor vehicles can be performed using a dynamometer but these studies make fleet characterization impractical. Few studies have been performed which characterize emissions from in-use vehicles using a mobile sampling platform. This work describes application of new technology instrumentation for rapid (1-5 second) and real-time characterization of both gas and particulate emissions from in-use vehicles and is part of the PM2.5 Technology Assessment and Characterization Study in New York (PMTACS-NY). An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer (TILDAS) system were deployed on the Aerodyne Research mobile laboratory designed to "chase" target vehicles in and around the New York City area and measure their emissions under actual driving conditions. The AMS provides particle size and composition information for volatile and semi-volatile matter while the TILDAS system was configured to measure NO, NO2, CO, CH4, SO2 and formaldehyde. In addition to a GPS, an ELPI and a condensation particle counter, the mobile laboratory was also equipped with a CO2 monitor to allow emission ratios to be computed for the targeted vehicles. Emission ratios for both particulate and trace gases are reported for a representative fraction of the NYC Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) bus fleet in an effort to characterize new emission control technologies currently implemented by the NYC MTA.

  8. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... engaged in public transportation, or private non-profit organizations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary... program announcement of project selections. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) Federal...

  9. Building the vision, a series of AZTech ITS model deployment success stories for the Phoenix metropolitan area : number ten : high-tech transit, using state-of-the art technology to keep bus riders informed

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, the biggest problem experienced by transit riders is a lack of information. They may not have access to a bus schedule. Or, even if they do have a copy of the Bus Book, they have no way of : knowing if their particular bus is on schedu...

  10. Spatial distribution of diesel transit bus emissions and urban populations: implications of coincidence and scale on exposure.

    PubMed

    Gouge, Brian; Ries, Francis J; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2010-09-15

    Macroscale emissions modeling approaches have been widely applied in impact assessments of mobile source emissions. However, these approaches poorly characterize the spatial distribution of emissions and have been shown to underestimate emissions of some pollutants. To quantify the implications of these limitations on exposure assessments, CO, NO(X), and HC emissions from diesel transit buses were estimated at 50 m intervals along a bus rapid transit route using a microscale emissions modeling approach. The impacted population around the route was estimated using census, pedestrian count and transit ridership data. Emissions exhibited significant spatial variability. In intervals near major intersections and bus stops, emissions were 1.6-3.0 times higher than average. The coincidence of these emission hot spots and peaks in pedestrian populations resulted in a 20-40% increase in exposure compared to estimates that assumed homogeneous spatial distributions of emissions and/or populations along the route. An additional 19-30% increase in exposure resulted from the underestimate of CO and NO(X) emissions by macroscale modeling approaches. The results of this study indicate that macroscale modeling approaches underestimate exposure due to poor characterization of the influence of vehicle activity on the spatial distribution of emissions and total emissions.

  11. Bus Testing Program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-01-01

    The Bus Testing Program of the Federal Transit Administration was established in response to the requirements of the Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act (STURAA) of 1987. Under the program, testing is required on all new mode...

  12. Using agent based modeling to assess the effect of increased Bus Rapid Transit system infrastructure on walking for transportation.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Sarmiento, Olga L; Meisel, Jose D; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The effect of transport infrastructure on walking is of interest to researchers because it provides an opportunity, from the public policy point of view, to increase physical activity (PA). We use an agent based model (ABM) to examine the effect of transport infrastructure on walking. Particular relevance is given to assess the effect of the growth of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Bogotá on walking. In the ABM agents are assigned a home, work location, and socioeconomic status (SES) based on which they are assigned income for transportation. Individuals must decide between the available modes of transport (i.e., car, taxi, bus, BRT, and walking) as the means of reaching their destination, based on resources and needed travel time. We calibrated the model based on Bogota's 2011 mobility survey. The ABM results are consistent with previous empirical findings, increasing BRT access does indeed increase the number of minutes that individuals walk for transportation, although this effect also depends on the availability of other transport modes. The model indicates a saturation process: as more BRT lanes are added, the increment in minutes walking becomes smaller, and eventually the walking time decreases. Our findings on the potential contribution of the expansion of the BRT system to walking for transportation suggest that ABMs may prove helpful in designing policies to continue promoting walking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic Benefit of Introducing a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Kano State Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, K. A.; Afolabi, S.; Nda, M.; Daura, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to know the variables use in quantifying economic benefits of public transport project, contribution of public transport to economic productivity This paper attempts to provide a Road User Cost (RUC) comparison of current usage of Buses and Cars in three different stages which are the present time, do nothing and the introduction of new modes. Vehicle operating cost (VOC), value of time (VOT), pollution cost, accident cost and environmental cost are calculated in other to know the benefits for their abilities to ensure accessibility and mobility, reduce accidents and reduce environmental loss. The study stretch involves an 11.1 km of 2-lane divided carriageway road connecting Kabuga bus stop to Janguza market. Social costs which included accident costs, accident cost of cars (private modes) were found to be 50 times the accident cost of bus accidents. California Air Resource Board (CARB) model was adopted to evaluate Environmental costs. The total road user costs were then obtained to provide comparative evaluation among the study modes. Furthermore, the multiple future scenarios were created to provide understanding about the need for inclusion of other modes. In this regard, this paper provided a framework for the cost evaluation for an urban area and results indicate that buses are more cost-effective in transportation of equivalent number of passengers.

  14. Occupation exposed to road-traffic emissions and respiratory health among Congolese transit workers, particularly bus conductors, in Kinshasa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mbelambela, Etongola Papy; Hirota, Ryoji; Eitoku, Masamitsu; Muchanga, Sifa Marie Joelle; Kiyosawa, Hidenori; Yasumitsu-Lovell, Kahoko; Lawanga, Ontshick Leader; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2017-03-20

    Road-traffic emissions (RTE) induce adverse health effects, notably respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases, as a result of pollutants deposited into the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupation groups of Congolese transit workers exposed to RTE, particularly bus conductors and respiratory health, in Kinshasa. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 April 20 th to May 14 th , whose participants were bus conductors (n = 110), bus drivers (n = 107), taxi-motorcyclists (n = 102) and high school teachers (control group; n = 106). Subjects had completed the American Thoracic Society respiratory symptom questionnaire. Lung function test was performed by spirometry. Air pollutants levels of PM 2.5 , NO 2 and SO 2 were measured between 7:30 and 8:30 and 16:30-17:30 using a portable gas monitor. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupation exposed to RTE and impaired pulmonary function, after adjustment by plausible confounders. The prevalence of mixed syndrome was 21.9% for bus conductors, 10.9% for bus drivers, 15.4% for taxi-motorcyclists and 7.1% for high school teachers with (p < 0.05). The risk of developing a mixed syndrome was seven times higher among bus conductors [OR = 7.64; 95% CI: 1.83-31.67; p < 0.05] than other groups. Additionally, the prevalence of respiratory syndromes increased with the duration of exposure. Occupation exposed to RTE is associated with impaired pulmonary function and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among transit workers, especially bus conductors. Furthermore, this association increases with the duration of exposure suggesting the necessity to regulate these categories of occupations and to apply preventives measures.

  15. Bus Rapid Transit system’s influence on urban development: An inquiry to Boston and Seoul BRT systems’ technical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayogi, Lutfi

    2018-03-01

    This article explores the relation between bus rapid transit (BRT) system and urban development. This article was written through a multi-staged comprehensive literature review. It includes a general overview of widely acknowledged BRT technical characteristics. It explains the approach taken in understanding the relation between BRT system provision and urban development around the system. Findings regarding the influence of Boston Silver Line 4 and 5 and Seoul BRT systems on urban development around the systems are quoted and used as case studies. Investigation on the technical characteristics of Boston SL4/5 and Seoul BRT systems are provided. This article shows that the two BRT systems that influence urban development around the systems have technical characteristics that enable the BRT systems to have high performance. However, while the quoted BRT systems can influence urban development, they have significantly different performance.

  16. Land use impacts of bus rapid transit : phase II -- effects of BRT station proximity on property values along the Boston silver line Washington Street Corridor.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-01

    The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the U.S.; however, several systems are operating and many : more are being planned. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land uses and BRT systems is need...

  17. Investigating the determining factors for transit travel demand by bus mode in US metropolitan statistical areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-05-01

    Proper understanding of the nature of the transit travel demand is at the heart of transportation policy making and the success of : transit systems. Unfortunately, most of the existing studies have focused on a single or few transit systems or metro...

  18. American Fuel Cell Bus Project : First Analysis Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALSTAR...

  19. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  20. Savannah River bus project

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogenmore » fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.« less

  1. Evaluation of transit bus turn warning systems for pedestrians and cyclists.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-05-01

    As part of a cooperative agreement with the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon (TriMet) conducted a demonstration test of three commercially-available pedestrian turn warning systems fo...

  2. Development of an Automated Security Incident Reporting System (SIRS) for Bus Transit

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-12-01

    The security incident reporting system (sirs) is a microcomputer-based software program demonstrated at the metropolitan transit commission (mtc) in Minneapolis, mn. Sirs is designed to provide convenient storage, update and retrieval of security inc...

  3. Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as an Alternative Fuel.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-09-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), and Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used in buses. At present, there do not exist co...

  4. Evaluation of service reliability impacts of traffic signal priority strategies for bus transit

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-03-31

    Recent progress in technology has facilitated the design, testing, and deployment of traffic signal priority strategies for transit buses. However, a clear consensus has not emerged regarding the evaluation of these strategies. Each agency implementi...

  5. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using hydrogen as an alternative fuel

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-04-01

    Alternative fuels such as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and alcohol fuels (methanol, and ethanol) are already being used in commercial vehicles and transit buses in revenue service. Hydrogen...

  6. San Antonio's 1983 Bus Passenger Survey

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-10-01

    Many transit operators routinely collect ridership data in order to provide a : basis for the planning of bus services. Often a survey is conducted of bus : riders to determine their riding habits, their views about the quality of : current service, ...

  7. Listing of New Bus Technology Applications

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-12-01

    The New Bus Equipment Introduction program is designed to demonstrate innovative features on transit buses and encourage the adoption of innovative features that enhance productivity. New bus demonstrations and purchases have been catalogued for the ...

  8. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level hadmore » the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.« less

  9. Bus transit operational efficiency resulting from passenger boardings at park-and-ride facilities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-01

    In order to save time and money by not driving to an ultimate destination, some urban commuters drive themselves a few miles to specially designated parking lots built for transit customers and located where trains or buses stop. The focus of this pa...

  10. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Eudy, Leslie

    2016-07-25

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirementsmore » when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.« less

  11. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirementsmore » when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.« less

  12. Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization By Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nigel N. Clark, Mridul Gautam; Byron L. Rapp; Donald W. Lyons

    1999-05-03

    Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFHAER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found thatmore » oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more. The driving styles may be characterized as aggressive and non-aggressive, but both styles followed the CBD speed command acceptably. PM emissions were far higher for the aggressive driving style. For the NG fueled vehicles driving style had a similar, although smaller, effect on NO{sub x}. It is evident that driver habits may cause substantial deviation in emissions for the CBD cycle. When the CO emissions are used as a surrogate for driver aggression, a regression analysis shows that NO{sub x} and PM emissions from the two laboratories agree closely for equivalent driving style. Implications of driver habit for emissions inventories and regulations are briefly considered.« less

  13. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  14. Bus Fare Collection System Assessment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-01-01

    An assessment was conducted to examine the impact that rising fare levels are having on bus transit fare collection systems. Problems have been reported with regard to the handling of dollar bills and lost revenue. This report addresses these problem...

  15. IMPACTS OF BUS STOP IMPROVEMENTS

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-03-23

    Improving bus stops by providing shelters, seating, signage, and sidewalks is relatively inexpensive and popular among riders and local officials. Making such improvements, however, is not often a priority for U.S. transit providers because of compet...

  16. Bus transportation in Connecticut : data for planning, agenda for action

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-03-01

    Presents the conclusions and recommendations of the Connecticut Public Expenditure Council regarding the present status of bus transit service throughout Connecticut; operational and funding issues; status of bus transit elsewhere in the U. S. and se...

  17. Optimum bus system and water transportation study : staff report to the Board of Directors of Marin County Transit District

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1969-08-01

    Describes an optimum bus system replacing existing Greyhound service and designed primarily for the purpose of meeting commuter travel demands in the San Francisco-Marin corridor as well as intra-county travel, and mid-day and weekend trips between M...

  18. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public transportation, or private non-profit... Table 1 will provide funds to help maintain the nation's public transportation bus fleet, infrastructure... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration State of Good Repair Bus and Bus...

  19. 75 FR 74134 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... public agencies, private companies engaged in public transportation, or private non-profit organizations... public transportation bus fleet, infrastructure, and equipment in a state of good repair. Grantees... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration State of Good Repair Bus and Bus...

  20. Proceedings of Bus Summit 2000 : ensuring a healthy U.S. bus industry

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-10-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Bus Industry Summit was held October 18-19, 2000, in Washington, DC. The Summit offered an opportunity for representatives from the transit industry, including transit providers, vehicle manufacturers, consult...

  1. Integration of bus stop counts data with census data for improving bus service.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-01

    This research project produced an open source transit market data visualization and analysis tool suite, : The Bus Transit Market Analyst (BTMA), which contains user-friendly GIS mapping and data : analytics tools, and state-of-the-art transit demand...

  2. San Diego Wheelchair Accessible Bus Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-09-01

    The study describes the implementation and early operation of a pilot project of fixed route, wheelchair accessible bus service on two routes of the San Diego Transit system. Five buses of the Transit Authority fleet were retrofitted with wheelchair ...

  3. Bus incident reporting, tracking and analysis system

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-08-01

    Many Florida transit systems do little formal analysis of all accidents on an aggregate basis. In many transit system accidents and incidents are not being tracked or analyzed to identify common trends from types of incidents, location, driver, bus r...

  4. Connecticut DOT statewide bus system study : executive summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-07-01

    The Connecticut Statewide Bus System Study has been undertaken to ensure that bus transit in Connecticut serves continuing needs in the most efficient manner possible. The Study has taken a comprehensive look at the state's twenty urban and rural tra...

  5. Chattanooga SmartBus Project : phase III evaluation report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-01

    This report presents the results of Phase III of the national evaluation of the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authoritys (CARTA) SmartBus Project. The SmartBus Project is a comprehensive transit ITS program for the city of Chattanooga, ...

  6. Planning ahead for livable communities along the Powell–Division Bus Rapid Transit : neighborhood conditions and change.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-07-04

    New transit investments can be a double-edged sword for disadvantaged communities (e.g., those included in environmental justice and Title VI protected classes). Transit investments improve communities mobility and access, and may improve health w...

  7. Advanced network planning for bus rapid transit : the "Quickway" model as a modal alternative to "Light Rail Lite"

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-02-01

    Transit planning in the United States has tended toward viewing BRT as an analogue to light rail transit, with similar operating patterns. This model, referred to as Light Rail Lite, is compared to international best practices, which have often...

  8. Evaluation of transit route development : a case study of Downeast Transportation Inc.'s Bucksport, Maine, bus route.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-08-01

    The number of journal articles, books, and research related to rural transit has : increased somewhat in the past decade; however, there has been little transit research on : rural Maine. Maine citizens rely heavily on personal vehicles for transport...

  9. SMART operational field test evaluation : public support for bus transit in tri-county area of southeastern Michigan : final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-09-01

    Despite ever-decreasing public transit rider-ship in the U.S., public transit continues to enjoy moderate to high amounts of public support, meaning that the public continues to support public expenditures on transit. Indeed, since the 1970s some tra...

  10. Clean Air Program : Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alcohol Fuel (Methanol and Ethanol) as an Alternative Fuel

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-08-01

    Although there are over one thousand transit buses in revenue service in the U.S. that are powered by alternative fuels, there are no comprehensive guidelines for the safe design and operation of alternative fuel facilities and vehicles for transit s...

  11. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  12. Clean Air Program : Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as an Alternative Fuel

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-03-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used. At present, t...

  13. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using compressed natural gas as an alternative fuel

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-06-01

    This report documents design guidelines for the safe use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The report is designed to provide guidance, information on safe industry practices, applicable national codes and standards, and reference data that transit age...

  14. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using electric and hybrid electric propulsion as an alternative fuel

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-03-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including : Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and : Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used. At presen...

  15. Montana intercity bus service study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-01

    Intercity bus service funding from the Federal Transit Administration (FTAs) Section 5311(f) program is a part : of the larger 5311 program known as Formula Grants for Other than Urbanized Areas. The S.5311(f), requires : that 15% of the total 531...

  16. Intercity bus service study 2014.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-02-01

    Rural transit programs are funded with 5311 funds, named for their description in Section 5311 of United States : Code (49 USC S5311). In Alabama, 15% of 5311 funds are set aside to be spent on improving intercity bus : service through the 5311(f) pr...

  17. Bus Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorny, Audrea; Cole, ChiKay

    This manual presents guidelines for teaching students with disabilities necessary skills for safe and independent travel on public buses. Six guidelines for teachers include: (1) participate in bus training; (2) use wise and intelligent judgment; (3) utilize the bus checklist; (4) know and teach bus rules; (5) know bus routes; and (6) know bus…

  18. Accessible Fixed Route Bus Service Experience

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-05-01

    The research report discusses the operator and user experience with lifting devices on regular bus transit services that facilitate the entry and exit of wheelchair users and semi-ambulatory passengers. The study draws data mainly from experiences at...

  19. Efficiency in bus stop location and design.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-01-01

    The research reported here identified those elements associated with the location and design of bus stops that affect the efficiency of transit and traffic operations, and developed guidelines to assist transportation engineers and planners in techni...

  20. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration—Preliminary Project Results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. Recent programs include the National Fuel Cell Bus program, the Transit Investments for Greenhouse ...

  1. A High-Speed Target-Free Vision-Based Sensor for Bus Rapid Transit Viaduct Vibration Measurements Using CMT and ORB Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qijun; He, Songsheng; Wang, Shilong; Liu, Yugang; Zhang, Zutao; He, Leping; Wang, Fubin; Cai, Qijie; Shi, Rendan; Yang, Yuan

    2017-06-06

    Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has become an increasing source of concern for public transportation of modern cities. Traditional contact sensing techniques during the process of health monitoring of BRT viaducts cannot overcome the deficiency that the normal free-flow of traffic would be blocked. Advances in computer vision technology provide a new line of thought for solving this problem. In this study, a high-speed target-free vision-based sensor is proposed to measure the vibration of structures without interrupting traffic. An improved keypoints matching algorithm based on consensus-based matching and tracking (CMT) object tracking algorithm is adopted and further developed together with oriented brief (ORB) keypoints detection algorithm for practicable and effective tracking of objects. Moreover, by synthesizing the existing scaling factor calculation methods, more rational approaches to reducing errors are implemented. The performance of the vision-based sensor is evaluated through a series of laboratory tests. Experimental tests with different target types, frequencies, amplitudes and motion patterns are conducted. The performance of the method is satisfactory, which indicates that the vision sensor can extract accurate structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial or natural targets. Field tests further demonstrate that the vision sensor is both practicable and reliable.

  2. The impact of a Bus Rapid Transit system on commuters' exposure to Benzene, CO, PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Zuk, Miriam; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; Cerón, Julia; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    Carbon monoxide (CO), benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and suspended particles PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured inside public transportation vehicles, before and after a new Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system was implemented in Mexico City in June 2005. The objective was to evaluate the BRT system's impact on commuters' exposure to these air pollutants. The BRT system replaced conventional transport modes along 20 km of Insurgentes Avenue, and features confined corridors and new articulated diesel buses. We assessed the impact of the transportation mode on commuters' exposure using least squares regression models. We also analyzed the chemical composition of VOCs to evaluate the possible origin of these species. The implementation of the BRT system resulted in reductions in commuters' exposure to CO, benzene and PM 2.5 ranging between 20% and 70%. No significant reductions in PM 10 exposure were observed. Lower commuting times further reduced total commuters' exposure. Major sources affecting VOCs inside all transport modes are likely to be related to traffic and to emissions from the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas. The results suggest that BRT systems could in general be an effective means of reducing human exposure to traffic related air pollutants and associated health impacts.

  3. Network integration modelling of feeder and BRT(bus rapid transit) to reduce the usage of private vehicles in Palembang’s suburban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur'afalia, D.; Afifa, F.; Rubianto, L.; Handayeni, K. D. M. E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the optimal feeder network route that integrates with BRT (Bus Rapid Transit). Palembang, a high growing population city with unresolved transportation demand sector. BRT as main public transportation could not fulfill people’s demand in transportation, especially in Alang-Alang Lebar sub-district. As an impact, the usage of private vehicles increases along the movement toward the city center. The concept of Network Integration that integrates feeder network with BRT is expected to be a solution to suppress the rate of private vehicles’ usage and to improve public transportation service, so that the use of BRT will be increased in the suburban area of Palembang. The method used to identifying the optimal route using Route Analysis method is route analysis using Tranetsim 0.4. The best route is obtained based on 156 movement samples. The result is 58,7% from 199 mobility’s potency of private vehicle usage’s can be reduced if there is a feeder network’s route in Alang-Alang Lebar’s sub-district. From the result, the existance of integration between feeder network and BRT is potential enough to reduce the usage of private vehicles and supports the sustainability of transportation mobility in Palembang City.

  4. A High-Speed Target-Free Vision-Based Sensor for Bus Rapid Transit Viaduct Vibration Measurements Using CMT and ORB Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qijun; He, Songsheng; Wang, Shilong; Liu, Yugang; Zhang, Zutao; He, Leping; Wang, Fubin; Cai, Qijie; Shi, Rendan; Yang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has become an increasing source of concern for public transportation of modern cities. Traditional contact sensing techniques during the process of health monitoring of BRT viaducts cannot overcome the deficiency that the normal free-flow of traffic would be blocked. Advances in computer vision technology provide a new line of thought for solving this problem. In this study, a high-speed target-free vision-based sensor is proposed to measure the vibration of structures without interrupting traffic. An improved keypoints matching algorithm based on consensus-based matching and tracking (CMT) object tracking algorithm is adopted and further developed together with oriented brief (ORB) keypoints detection algorithm for practicable and effective tracking of objects. Moreover, by synthesizing the existing scaling factor calculation methods, more rational approaches to reducing errors are implemented. The performance of the vision-based sensor is evaluated through a series of laboratory tests. Experimental tests with different target types, frequencies, amplitudes and motion patterns are conducted. The performance of the method is satisfactory, which indicates that the vision sensor can extract accurate structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial or natural targets. Field tests further demonstrate that the vision sensor is both practicable and reliable. PMID:28587275

  5. Cops, cameras, and enclosures : a synthesis of the effectiveness of methods to provide enhanced security for bus operators

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-05-31

    The safety of operators and passengers is a primary concern of transit systems and has become an increasingly important issue to transit bus operators themselves. Many transit agencies have experienced incidents of assaults against their bus operator...

  6. 75 FR 5847 - Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative and Urban Circulator Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Livability Initiative and Urban Circulator Program Grants AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice to Extend Application Deadline for the Bus and Bus Facilities and Urban Circulator..., Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), Public Law 109-59, August 10, 2005. The Urban...

  7. The Bus Stops Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Explores some of the factors to consider before school planners decide to buy new school buses. Provides a checklist to help build and maintain a bus fleet. Concludes by addressing bus safety and advertising. (GR)

  8. FTA fuel cell bus program : research accomplishments through 2011.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-03-01

    Prepared by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), this report summarizes the accomplishments of fuel-cell-transit-bus-related research and demonstrations projects supported by FTA through 20...

  9. Optimization models for prioritizing bus stop facility investments for riders with disabilities : March 2010.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-03-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prescribes the minimum requirements for bus stop accessibility by riders with disabilities. Due to limited budgets, transit agencies can only select a limited number of bus stop locations for ADA impr...

  10. Connecticut Nutmeg Fuel Cell Bus Project : Demonstrating Advanced-Design Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses in Connecticut

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-07-01

    The Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP) focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. The Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium (NAVC) is one of three non-profit consortia chosen to ...

  11. Developing and Demonstrating the Next-Generation Fuel Cell Electric Bus Made in America

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-02-01

    The Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP) focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. CALSTART is one of three non-profit consortia chosen to manage projects competitively selected u...

  12. Bus rapid transit vehicle characteristics.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-06-01

    This report focuses on vehicle issues related to BRT systems. The characteristics of BRT systems described in this report are : developed based on existing or planned BRT systems. Information on the vendors offerings is based on information from t...

  13. Bus rapid transit accessibility guidelines.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-12-01

    In recent years helpful guides have appeared in both English and Spanish to assist planners : and officials to construct accessible buildings and pedestrian infrastructure which are usable : by seniors, persons with disabilities, and all others who e...

  14. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    electric 22 ft. bus that offers greater range than battery-electric buses can provide. Designed to seat 22 passengers plus standees, this Ebus model...system that has both parallel and series operating modes. The relatively low volume of many truck and bus designs has inhibited the development of...that battery packs need to be designed for 50,000 lifetime energy storage cycles in a hybrid transit bus vs. just 3,600 cycles in the typical

  15. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    Glass, Bob; Mathis, Mike; Cochran, Ron; Garback, John

    2018-06-08

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  16. Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    . Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017, L. Eudy and M. Post (November 2017) Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA ) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report, L. Eudy, M. Post, and M. Jeffers (September 2017 2017) American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Third Report, L. Eudy, M. Post, and M. Jeffers (May

  17. Front Range commuter bus study. Phase 2 : final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-10-01

    The goal of Front Range Commuter Bus service would be to provide a commuter bus service that would operate seamlessly with local transit systems and would be run through a partnership with each of the cities, CDOT, RTD and participating private provi...

  18. Connecticut nutmeg fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administra-tion (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP). A team led by the Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium a...

  19. COM-BUS : A Southern California Subscription Bus Service

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-05-01

    The evolution and operations of the COM-BUS Subscription Commuter Bus Service are documented. COM-BUS is a privately owned organization operating at a profit without any form of subsidy. COM-BUS serves approximately 2,000 commuters per day on 47 rout...

  20. 75 FR 20034 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility... ``Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants,'' extends the application deadline, and allows... comply with the terms and conditions of the Special Warranty for the Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility...

  1. Bus driver sues.

    PubMed

    1996-09-06

    A bus driver, known as John Doe, sued his employer, alleging that he was fired when he voluntarily disclosed that he was HIV-positive and needed a rest from the long hours of driving. The driver sued for back wages, benefits, and compensatory and punitive damages under the New Jersey Law Against Discrimination. Academy Bus tours told the driver he could not return to work without a doctor's examination. Doe has an excellent driving record and was certified as physically fit to work as a bus driver 14 months prior to his termination.

  2. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  3. Bus service evaluation procedures : a review

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-03-01

    The report presents the results of a literature review and survey of 71 transit properties in the U. S. and Canada regarding bus service evaluation procedures currently in use. The focus of the study was to identify service performance indicators and...

  4. Southwest Direct Express Bus Demonstration in Orlando, FL

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-04-01

    In August 1983, the Orange-Seminole-Osceola Transit Authority (OSOTA) initiated six express bus routes in the southwest corridor of Orlando (known collectively as the Southwest Direct) as an UMTA-funded demonstration project. While one objective of t...

  5. Bus operator safety : critical issues examination and model practices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-01-01

    In this study, researchers at the National Center for Transit Research performed a multi-topic comprehensive : examination of bus operator-related critical safety and personal security issues. The goals of this research : effort were to: : 1. Identif...

  6. Moving the bus safely back into traffic : Phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    The difficulty experienced by transit buses in moving back into traffic safely from bus pullout bays has : become a serious problem due to potential hazards between buses merging from the pullout bays and : the surrounding traffic. Previous studies h...

  7. Moving the bus safely back into traffic : phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    The difficulty experienced by transit buses in moving back into traffic safely from bus pullout bays has : become a serious problem due to potential hazards between buses merging from the pullout bays and : the surrounding traffic. Previous studies h...

  8. Flywheel/Diesel Hybrid Power Drive: Urban Bus Vehicle Simulation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-05-01

    This report describes the results of a Transportation Systems Center investigation conducted under Urban Mass Transportation Administration sponsorship, of the practicality of a flywheel/diesel hybrid power drive for urban transit bus propulsion. The...

  9. Chattanooga SmartBus Project : phase 2 evaluation report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-06-10

    This report presents the results of Phase II of the national evaluation of the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authoritys (CARTAs) SmartBus Project. The Smartbus Project is a comprehensive transit ITS program for the city of Chattanoog...

  10. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation : Second Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Admini...

  11. Fixed Route Accessible Bus Service in Connecticut : A Case Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-07-01

    U.S. Department of Transportation regulations implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, require transit agencies to provide wheelchair accessibility on fixed-route bus service. The study is part of the series which included studies ...

  12. Creative Bus Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  13. Small Bus Manufacturing Industry

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-01-01

    This report is an examination of the small bus manufacturing industry with the objectives of: (1) providing a systematic understanding of the diversity of vehicle types and manufacturers and (2) identifying important economic trends in the industry t...

  14. SCSI Communication Test Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Chanh V.; D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Halula, Elaine M.; Thornton, David N.; Heligman, Robert L.; Turner, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) communication test bus provides high-data-rate, standard interconnection enabling communication among International Business Machines (IBM) Personal System/2 Micro Channel, other devices connected to Micro Channel, test equipment, and host computer. Serves primarily as nonintrusive input/output attachment to PS/2 Micro Channel bus, providing rapid communication for debugger. Opens up possibility of using debugger in real-time applications.

  15. A study of headway maintenance for bus routes : causes and effects of "bus bunching" in extensive and congested service areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-01

    A healthy and efficient public transit system is indispensable to reduce congestion, emissions, energy consumption, and car : dependency in urban areas. The objective of this research is to 1) develop methods to evaluate and visualize bus service rel...

  16. Development of bus-stop time models in dense urban areas : a case study in Washington DC.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-08-01

    Bus transit reliability depends on several factors including the route of travel, traffic conditions, time of day, and conditions at : the bus stops along the route. The number of passengers alighting or boarding, fare payment method, dwell time (DT)...

  17. Bus lane with intermittent priority (BLIMP) concept simulation analysis final report : November 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-11-01

    The Lane Transit District, in cooperation with the National Bus Rapid Transit Institute (NBRTI) at the University of South Florida, completed a preliminary implementation study to determine the potential impacts of a new and innovative transit priori...

  18. Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-05-01

    The Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP) focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solu...

  19. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  20. Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

  1. Intercity bus service in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    The intercity bus industry in Virginia was examined to gain information on the status of the industry and to determine the likely impacts of state policy options relating to assistance and deregulation on the industry. The national intercity bus indu...

  2. Managing Student Behavior on the School Bus: A Key to Bus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    School buses are the safest form of mass transit in America. Every day, school buses travel through congested city traffic and on isolated country roads in all types of weather, safely transporting millions of children to and from school and school-related activities. Federal and state standards for school bus construction and maintenance and…

  3. Recommendations for yield-to-bus traffic control devices and bus pullout bays design characteristics.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    Traffic control devices such as roadside signs and pavement markings are used to promote highway safety and efficiency for all road users. A bus pullout bay is a special geometric roadway feature that allows transit buses to stop outside the travel l...

  4. Bus-Programmable Slave Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Slave microprocessors in multimicroprocessor computing system contains modified circuit cards programmed via bus connecting master processor with slave microprocessors. Enables interactive, microprocessor-based, single-loop control. Confers ability to load and run program from master/slave bus, without need for microprocessor development station. Tristate buffers latch all data and information on status. Slave central processing unit never connected directly to bus.

  5. Exploring how to make system safety work in transit

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-12-01

    The New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) and its operating elements, the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA), the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR), Metro-North Commuter Railroad, Long Island Bus (LI Bus), and the Staten Island Rapid Transit ...

  6. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  7. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  8. Highway Accident Summary Report: Bus Collision With Pedestrians, Normandy, Missouri, June 11, 1997

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-02-19

    On June 11, 1997, a transit bus collided with seven pedestrians at a "park and ride" transit facility in Normandy, Missouri. The bus was being operated by a driver trainee who had just completed a routine stop at the station. After allowing the passe...

  9. A statistical analysis of the relationship between land values and freestanding bus facilities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-02-01

    Public transit professionals continue to seek methods that offer greater service opportunities, while : not materially increasing the costs of service provision. One strategy is to construct bus transit : centers which operate much like the airline h...

  10. State of bus safety in the U.S. : summary of federal and state regulations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of transit bus safety regulations and standards developed by all 50 states, as well as : information on how state departments of transportation (DOT) regulate the maintenance or operation of transit/parat...

  11. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    SciTech Connect

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercialmore » non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.« less

  12. Test Bus Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    selected is statistically based on the total number of faults and the failure rate distribution in the system under test. The fault set is also...implemented the BPM and system level emulation consolidation logic as well as statistics counters for cache misses and various bus transactions. These...instruction F22 Advanced Tactical Fighter FET Field Effect Transitor FF Flip-Flop FM Failures/Milhon hours C-3 FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array GET

  13. Analyzing the Relationship Between Bus Pollution Policies and Morbidity Using a Quasi-Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Nicole S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transit buses are used by millions of commuters every day, but they emit toxic diesel fumes. In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented emission standards for transit buses, which have been continually updated. Yet there is no quantitative evidence of the health benefits from these bus pollution policies due to data constraints and confounding variables. In this study, a quasi-experiment is used to exploit the geographic and temporal variation in emission standards by using bus vintage as a proxy for bus emissions. This is accomplished using a unique, rich panel data set, which includes daily information on bus vintage and route for the New York City Transit bus fleet between 2006 and 2009. This information is merged with daily data on emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory illnesses, which include patients’ residences at the census block level and exact admission date. Economic benefits resulting from these bus pollution policies are then estimated. Results show that stricter transit bus emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for particulate matter are associated with reduced ED visits for respiratory diseases for patients living within a few hundred feet of a bus route. These findings demonstrate that bus pollution policies have made critical improvements to public health. PMID:26376392

  14. Analyzing the Relationship Between Bus Pollution Policies and Morbidity Using a Quasi-Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nicole S

    2015-09-01

    Transit buses are used by millions of commuters every day, but they emit toxic diesel fumes. In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented emission standards for transit buses, which have been continually updated. Yet there is no quantitative evidence of the health benefits from these bus pollution policies due to data constraints and confounding variables. In this study, a quasi-experiment is used to exploit the geographic and temporal variation in emission standards by using bus vintage as a proxy for bus emissions. This is accomplished using a unique, rich panel data set, which includes daily information on bus vintage and route for the New York City Transit bus fleet between 2006 and 2009. This information is merged with daily data on emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory illnesses, which include patients' residences at the census block level and exact admission date. Economic benefits resulting from these bus pollution policies are then estimated. Results show that stricter transit bus emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for particulate matter are associated with reduced ED visits for respiratory diseases for patients living within a few hundred feet of a bus route. These findings demonstrate that bus pollution policies have made critical improvements to public health.

  15. Evaluation of bus emissions generated near bus stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qian; Li, Tiezhu

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a methodology for quantification of bus emissions generated near bus stops based on the real-world on-road emissions data collected by the Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS). Data collection was carried out on an urban diesel bus throughout a bus line under normal operation condition on four work days. Stop influence zone is defined as the area in which the normal bus driving is interrupted by bus stops. The second-by-second data were screened out within the stop influence zone. And the bus running state near a stop was classified into three driving modes, deceleration, idling, and acceleration. Then emission characteristics were analyzed for each mode. Under the idling condition, the emission rates (g s-1) were not constant all the time. The NOX emission rate decreased in the first 4-6 s while the corresponding emission rates of CO2, CO, NOX, and HC increased in the last 4 s of idling. Besides, the influence of bus stop characteristics on emissions was investigated using statistical methods. Platform type, length and location of bus stops showed significant effects on the length of the stop influence zone. However, there were no significant effects on distance-based emission factors.

  16. Analysis of Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problems

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews. PMID:24526890

  17. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  18. Euro Data Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, H.E.; Hall, J.R. II; Schrock, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    With the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the opening of the Iron Curtain, a downsizing of the Defense Establishment in the West is occurring, causing industry to look for opportunities where technology used for military applications can be applied to meet former East Block countries. Among these requirements has been the urgent desire of the people in former East Block countries for access to Western media which had been denied them, and has led to numerous opportunities for the implementation of Cable Television (CATV) systems. In addition, there are also requirements for utility metering for electricity, gas, water, heat,more » etc. which had previously been provided to the population by the Government at little or no cost. EWT of Augsburg, Germany, previously a subcontractor to ASEC on military security system projects, who has a subsidiary, TSS, which is a prominent CATV systems house, requested ASEC to provide a system which can provide utility meter reading and other control and monitoring services utilizing CATV. Working with CableBus Systems Corporation, a CATV data communications supplier and various utility meter manufacturers, ASEC, as the System Integrator, has developed a utilities monitoring system. This system. in cooperation with EWT, is being marketed and sold in Europe as EURO DATA BUS. This paper describes EURO DATA BUS and its applications, as well as the actual system designs for two pilot applications. One system is oriented at Utility Meter Reading and Demand side Management primarily, but will also be used to demonstrate other system capabilities such as security and fire alarm monitoring, etc. The design is therefore quite straightforward and {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes}. The second system has more of an industrial orientation and involves the monitoring and load control for a Municipal Electric Utility. While well within the capabilities of the system to accomplish, a more customized design was required to meet these

  19. Bus Crashworthiness Issues. Highway Special Investigation Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-09-01

    School bus and motorcoach travel are two of the safest forms of transportation in the United States. Each year, on average, nine school bus passengers and four motorcoach passengers are fatally injured in bus crashes, according to the National Highwa...

  20. Improving School Bus Driver Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ernest

    This reference source is intended to assist the school bus driver training instructor in course preparation. Instructional units for program planning each contain pertinent course questions, a summary, and evaluation questions. Unit 1, "Introduction to the School Bus Driver Training Program," focuses on basic course objectives and…

  1. My Friend Ilan Gur Ze'Ev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Ilan Gur Ze'ev gave his last lecture on January 4, 2012, in room 363 in the Haifa University's Faculty of Education. Ilan passed away on the morning of January 5, 2012 at the Italian Hospital in Haifa. In this last lecture given to friends, colleagues and students he said 'The challenge is to counter immersion of ourselves in the fashionable and…

  2. 77 FR 71865 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant... selection of projects to be funded under Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 appropriations for the Over-the-Road Bus...-road buses to help finance the incremental capital and training costs of complying with DOT's over-the...

  3. 77 FR 5295 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility...-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized by Section 3038 of the Transportation Equity Act for... of over-the-road buses to help finance the incremental capital and training costs of complying with...

  4. 77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... require FTA to work with bus manufacturers and transit agencies to establish a new pass/ fail standard for... buses from the current value of 150 pounds to a new value of 175 pounds. This increase was proposed to... new pass/fail standards that require a more comprehensive review of its overall bus testing program...

  5. An experimental study on real time bus arrival time prediction with GPS data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    Bus headway in a rural area is usually much larger than that in an urban area. Providing real-time bus : arrival information could make the public transit system more user-friendly and thus enhance its : competitiveness among various transportation m...

  6. An experimental study on real time bus arrival time prediction with GPS data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-01-01

    Bus headway in a rural area usually is much larger than that in an urban area. Providing real-time bus arrival information could make the public transit system more user-friendly and thus enhance its competitiveness among various transportation modes...

  7. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours among bus operators.

    PubMed

    Escoto, K H; French, S A

    2012-03-01

    Urban bus operators are an occupational group with high rates of overweight and obesity. Understanding methods bus operators use for weight control may be important; there may be increased risk for these workers to engage in less healthy weight management behaviours due to stressful working conditions. To examine the prevalence of unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours used by bus operators and examine associations between use of unhealthy weight control behaviours and work-related and sociodemographic variables. Bus operators from four different transit garages were invited to complete a self-administered survey; height and weight were measured by research staff. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours, work hours, work schedule and social support were measured with self-report items on the employee survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate associations. Nearly 60% of bus operators endorsed at least one unhealthy method; over 50% reported skipping meals, 30% fasted and 10% reported taking diet pills in the past year. Bus operator gender, race, body mass index status and hours worked per week showed significant associations with using at least one unhealthy weight control behaviour. Worksite interventions should emphasize the benefit of healthy eating and physical activity but should also address the use of less healthy methods for weight control for individuals employed in transportation occupations.

  8. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE'smore » National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.« less

  9. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coordination of IVI and transit signal priority on transit evacuations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-02-01

    During an emergency evacuation, execution time is always critical to the evacuees who are : transit dependent. Transit Signal Priority (TSP) can speed up the transit services by prioritizing : the approaching bus at a signalized intersection. With th...

  11. Articulated Bus Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-07-01

    Escalating transit deficits have led the transit industry to search for methods for improving productivity and reducing operating costs. In seeking these objectives, there has been renewed interest in the cost-saving potential of high-capacity articu...

  12. Assessing Bus Performance Rating in Kajang, Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norhisham, S.; Ismail, A.; Sidek, L. M.; Borhan, M. N.; Zaini, N.; Yen, A. T. G.

    2018-04-01

    The Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (TCQSM) was chosen based on the review with four manuals and guidelines for the method will be applied. Six (6) attributes, namely Hours of Service, Passenger Load, Transit Auto Travel Time, Service Frequency, Punctuality Performance and Service Coverage were chosen for evaluation.[6][7][8]. A total of three (3) operators with seven (7) routes were identified in Kajang. Based on the final results, the Quality of Service (QOS) findings was rated as D, which was regarded as minimum or satisfactory. Most stakeholders’ recommendations were: for the operators to provide information on bus scheduling and have accurate information for the passengers. It was suggested that in future this study can be extended to all routes and could be repeated after the opening of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations in Kajang, so as to provide a comparison and better evaluation of the public buses in Kajang.

  13. Using Credit Cards To Pay Bus Fares in Phoenix

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 the City of Phoenix Public Transit System, first in the nation to install magnetic card readers on the electronic fareboxes in its buses, implemented a program known as Bus Card Plus, which billed employers for trips made by employees using e...

  14. High-Speed Ring Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  15. Electric School Bus Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Electric School Bus Evaluation Electric School Bus Evaluation Photo of children boarding school bus . NREL is evaluating the performance of electric and conventional school buses operated by two California school districts. Photo courtesy of School Bus Fleet Magazine NREL is evaluating the in-service

  16. Applications manual for logit modes of express bus-fringe parking choices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-01-01

    Manual computations and computerized applications of logit models are described. The models demonstrated reflect travel behavior concerning express bus-fringe parking transit. The specific travel issues addressed include the basic automobile vs. expr...

  17. Study of the impact of automation on productivity in bus-maintenance facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sumanth, D.J.; Weiss, H.J.; Adya, B.

    1988-12-01

    Whether or not the various types of automation and new technologies introduced in a bus-transit system really have an impact on productivity is the question addressed in the study. The report describes a new procedure of productivity measurement and evaluation for a county-transit system and provides an objective perspective on the impact of automation on productivity in bus maintenance facilities. The research objectives were: to study the impact of automation on total productivity in transit maintenance facilities; to develop and apply a methodology for measuring the total productivity of a Floridian transit maintenance facility (Bradenton-Manatee County bus maintenance facility whichmore » has been introducing automation since 1983); and to develop a practical step-by-step implementation scheme for the total productivity-based productivity measurement system that any bus manager can use. All 3 objectives were successfully accomplished.« less

  18. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  19. The Wheels on the Bus Go “Buy Buy Buy”: School Bus Advertising Laws

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment “forum analysis” as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property. PMID:22742065

  20. Diesel Bus Performance Simulation Program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-04-01

    A diesel bus performance computer simulation program was developed. This program provides information on acceleration, velocity, horsepower, distance traveled, and fuel consumption as a function of time from the originating station. The program was w...

  1. Bus Propulsion Alternatives Overview

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-04-01

    The Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) is currently investigating propulsion alternatives which would conserve petroleum-based fuels and would be practical for use by U.S. transit operators. A discussion of these alternatives (electric p...

  2. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  3. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  4. Relative importance of school bus-related microenvironments to children's pollutant exposure.

    PubMed

    Behrentz, Eduardo; Sabin, Lisa D; Winer, Arthur M; Fitz, Dennis R; Pankratz, David V; Colome, Steven D; Fruin, Scott A

    2005-10-01

    Real-time concentrations of black carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulate counts, as well as integrated and real-time fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were measured inside school buses during long commutes on Los Angeles Unified School District bus routes, at bus stops along the routes, at the bus loading/unloading zone in front of the selected school, and at nearby urban "background" sites. Across all of the pollutants, mean concentrations during bus commutes were higher than in any other microenvironment. Mean exposures (mean concentration times time spent in a particular microenvironment) in bus commutes were between 50 and 200 times greater than those for the loading/unloading microenvironment, and 20-40 times higher than those for the bus stops, depending on the pollutant. Although the analyzed school bus commutes represented only 10% of a child's day, on average they contributed one-third of a child's 24-hr overall black carbon exposure during a school day. For species closely related to vehicle exhaust, the within- cabin exposures were generally dominated by the effect of surrounding traffic when windows were open and by the bus's own exhaust when windows were closed. Low-emitting buses generally exhibited high concentrations only when traveling behind a diesel vehicle, whereas high-emitting buses exhibited high concentrations both when following other diesel vehicles and when idling without another diesel vehicle in front of the bus. To reduce school bus commute exposures, we recommend minimizing commute times, avoiding caravanning with other school buses, using the cleanest buses for the longest bus routes, maintaining conventional diesel buses to eliminate visible emissions, and transitioning to cleaner fuels and advanced particulate control technologies as soon as possible.

  5. 76 FR 47296 - Transit Asset Management (TAM) Pilot Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... makes funds available for public transportation providers, State Departments of Transportation (DOT... transportation asset management at the nation's rail and bus public transportation agencies. FOR FURTHER... asset management at the rail and bus public transportation agencies. Transit Asset Management Selections...

  6. Strategic Transit Automation Research Plan

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-01-01

    Transit bus automation could deliver many potential benefits, but transit agencies need additional research and policy guidance to make informed deployment decisions. Although funding and policy constraints may play a role, there is also a reasonable...

  7. Pennsylvania intercity bus study : final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-09-01

    Report presents the findings of a study to inventory the intercity bus industry in Pennsylvania. Objectives were to assemble information about the intercity bus industry in Pennsylvania in a form that can be used for policy formulation and for manage...

  8. School bus and children's traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-ming; Hargarten, Stephen; Zhu, Shan-kuan

    2007-08-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries. We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries. The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  9. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30%more » to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.« less

  10. Effectiveness of Bus Signal Priority : Final Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    Effectiveness of Bus Signal Priority (BSP) study evaluates BSP?s impact on traffic operations. The goal was to examine how different situations, such as the level of congestion, placement of bus stops, presence of express bus service, and number of t...

  11. The NASA bus communications listening device software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the bus listener is presented. Special software was developed to control the 'bus interface units' (BIU) connecting each of these devices to a communications cable to form the bus communication network. The code used in the BTU is described.

  12. Large school bus design vehicle dimensions

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-09-01

    A survey of United States school bus operators and manufacturers was conducted to define the larger sizes of school buses in regular use. A mid-60 passenger type-c bus (SB-C) and a mid-80 passenger type-D bus (SB-D) were selected as design vehicles. ...

  13. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  14. Low-inductance bus lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kernick, A.

    1977-01-01

    Laminated bus strips and bifilar litz cable connectors for high-power rectifiers, thrisistors, and transistors provide low inductance and eliminate electromagnetic interference in high-power circuits. These techniques offer significant cost advantages because of ease of assembly and consistent high quality of product. Effectiveness makes general usage in static power conversion likely.

  15. Synchronizing Data-Bus Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    Adapter allows communications among as many as 30 data processors without central bus controller. Adapter improves reliability of multiprocessor system by eliminating point of failure that causes entire system to fail. Scheme prevents data collisions and eliminates nonessential polling, thereby reducing power consumption.

  16. Pybus -- A Python Software Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.

    2004-10-14

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the conceptmore » of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user.« less

  17. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  18. Best practices for using geographic data in transit : a location referencing guidebook : defining geographic locations of bus stops, routes and other map data for ITS, GIS and operational efficiencies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-04-01

    This Guidebook was developed at the request of the transit industry. It provides best practices for both transit managers and technical staff with respect to planning, implementing and using geographic data in transit. The Guidebook discusses issues ...

  19. Rochester New York Integrated Transit Demonstration : Volume 1. Executive Summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-03-01

    The Rochester Integrated Transit Demonstration (RITD) was designed to assess the roles of demand-responsive transit services in a regionwide transit system that includes an extensive fixed-route bus network. The demonstration extended transit service...

  20. Rochester New York Integrated Transit Demonstration : Volume 3. Appendices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-03-01

    The Rochester Integrated Transit Demonstration (RITD) was designed to assess the roles of demand-responsive transit services in a regionwide transit system that includes an extensive fixed-route bus network. The demonstration extended transit service...

  1. Rochester New York Integrated Transit Demonstration : Volume 2. Evaluation Report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-03-01

    The Rochester Integrated Transit Demonstration (RITD) was designed to assess the roles of demand-responsive transit services in a regionwide transit system that includes an extensive fixed-route bus network. The demonstration extended transit service...

  2. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  3. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  4. Fairness in optimizing bus-crew scheduling process.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jihui; Song, Cuiying; Ceder, Avishai Avi; Liu, Tao; Guan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a model considering fairness in the problem of crew scheduling for bus drivers (CSP-BD) using a hybrid ant-colony optimization (HACO) algorithm to solve it. The main contributions of this work are the following: (a) a valid approach for cases with a special cost structure and constraints considering the fairness of working time and idle time; (b) an improved algorithm incorporating Gamma heuristic function and selecting rules. The relationships of each cost are examined with ten bus lines collected from the Beijing Public Transport Holdings (Group) Co., Ltd., one of the largest bus transit companies in the world. It shows that unfair cost is indirectly related to common cost, fixed cost and extra cost and also the unfair cost approaches to common and fixed cost when its coefficient is twice of common cost coefficient. Furthermore, the longest time for the tested bus line with 1108 pieces, 74 blocks is less than 30 minutes. The results indicate that the HACO-based algorithm can be a feasible and efficient optimization technique for CSP-BD, especially with large scale problems.

  5. Call-A-Bus Demonstration Project - Specialized Transportation for the Elderly and Handicapped in Syracuse, New York

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-06-01

    This report describes, analyzes and evaluates the conduct and results of the Syracuse Call-A-Bus demonstration, in which special transit services were provided for the elderly and handicapped populations of Onondaga County, New York. These services i...

  6. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  7. Supervision strategies for improved reliability of bus routes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers and supervisors, as well as to operating and planning personnel who are concerned with the reliability and scheduling of buses. Information is provided on service monitoring, service supervision and control, and supervision strategies. Reliability of transit service is critical to bus transit ridership. The extent of service supervision has an important bearing on reliability. The report describes the various procedures that are used by transit agencies to monitor and maintain bus service reliability. Most transit systems conduct checks of the number of riders at maximum load points and monitor schedulemore » adherence at these locations. Other supervisory actions include service restoration techniques, and strategies such as schedule control, headway control, load control, extraboard management, and personnel selection and training. More sophisticated technologies, such as automatic passenger counting (APC) systems and automatic vehicle location and control (AVLC), have been employed by some transit agencies and are described in the synthesis.« less

  8. Traveling by Bus Instead of Car on Urban Major Roads: Safety Benefits for Vehicle Occupants, Pedestrians, and Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Morency, Patrick; Strauss, Jillian; Pépin, Félix; Tessier, François; Grondines, Jocelyn

    2018-04-01

    Some studies have estimated fatality and injury rates for bus occupants, but data was aggregated at the country level and made no distinction between bus types. Also, injured pedestrians and cyclists, as a result of bus travel, were overlooked. We compared injury rates for car and city bus occupants on specific urban major roads, as well as the cyclist and pedestrian injuries associated with car and bus travel. We selected ten bus routes along major urban arterials (in Montreal, Canada). Passenger-kilometers traveled were estimated from vehicle counts at intersections (2002-2010) and from bus passenger counts (2008). Police accident reports (2001-2010) provided injury data for all modes. Injury rates associated with car and bus travel were calculated for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. Injury rate ratios were also computed. The safety benefits of bus travel, defined as the number of vehicle occupant, cyclist, and pedestrian injuries saved, were estimated for each route. Overall, for all ten routes, the ratio between car and bus occupant injury rates is 3.7 (95% CI [3.4, 4.0]). The rates of pedestrian and cyclist injuries per hundred million passenger-kilometers are also significantly greater for car travel than that for bus travel: 4.1 (95% CI [3.5, 4.9]) times greater for pedestrian injuries; 5.3 (95% CI [3.8, 7.6]) times greater for cyclist injuries. Similar results were observed for fatally and severely injured vehicle occupants, cyclists, and pedestrians. At the route level, the safety benefits of bus travel increase with the difference in injury rate associated with car and bus travel but also with the amount of passenger-kilometers by bus. Results show that city bus is a safer mode than car, for vehicle occupants but also for cyclists and pedestrians traveling along these bus routes. The safety benefits of bus travel greatly vary across urban routes; this spatial variation is most likely linked to environmental factors. Understanding the

  9. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  10. Bus Stops and Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Collisions in Lima, Peru: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Johnston, Brian D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Ebel, Beth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. Design Matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossing. Setting Random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February, 2011 to September, 2011. Participants 97 intersection cases representing 1,134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October, 2010 and January, 2011 and their matched controls. Main Exposures Presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. Main Outcome Occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Results Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53-7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Both formal and informal bus stops were associated with a higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76-22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37-6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02-5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high income countries. Conclusions In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a three-fold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. PMID:24357516

  11. Pilot survey of subway and bus stop noise levels.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-09-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 +/- 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure.

  12. Pilot Survey of Subway and Bus Stop Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A.; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 ± 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure. PMID:16802179

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Bus Dispatching Policy for Timed Transfers on Signalized Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hsun-Jung; Lin, Guey-Shii

    2007-12-01

    The major work of this study is to formulate the system cost functions and to integrate the bus dispatching policy with signal control. The integrated model mainly includes the flow dispersion model for links, signal control model for nodes, and dispatching control model for transfer terminals. All such models are inter-related for transfer operations in one-center transit network. The integrated model that combines dispatching policies with flexible signal control modes can be applied to assess the effectiveness of transfer operations. It is found that, if bus arrival information is reliable, an early dispatching decision made at the mean bus arrival times is preferable. The costs for coordinated operations with slack times are relatively low at the optimal common headway when applying adaptive route control. Based on such findings, a threshold function of bus headway for justifying an adaptive signal route control under various time values of auto drivers is developed.

  14. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school bus...

  15. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school bus...

  16. Bus Vent Design Evolution for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As a spacecraft undergoes ascent in a launch vehicle, its pressure environment transitions from one atmosphere to high vacuum in a matter of minutes. Venting of internal cavities is necessary to prevent the buildup of pressure differentials across cavity walls. Opposing the need to vent these volumes freely into space are thermal, optical, and electrostatic requirements for limiting or prohibiting the intrusion of unwanted energy into the same cavities. Bus vent design evolution is discussed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Design changes were influenced by a number of factors and concerns, such as contamination control, electrostatic discharge, changes in bus material, and driving fairing ascent pressure for a launch vehicle that was just entering service as this satellite project had gotten underway.

  17. Understanding transit ridership demand for a multi-destination, multimodal transit network in an American metropolitan area : lessons for increasing choice ridership while maintaining transit dependent ridership.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the factors underlying transit demand in the multi-destination, integrated bus and rail transit network for Atlanta, Georgia. Atlanta provides an opportunity to explore the consequences of a multi-destination transit network for b...

  18. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  19. School Bus Maintenance. Bulletin, 1948, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherston, E. Glenn

    1948-01-01

    This bulletin is one in the series on pupil transportation issued by the Office of Education. Its purpose is to furnish information and guidance for local school administrators and others who are concerned with school bus maintenance. Programs of school bus maintenance vary among the 48 States. Presumably all contract vehicles are maintained by…

  20. California's Bus Driver's Training Course. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This instructor's manual was designed to help graduates of the California Bus Driver Instructor Course provide effective instruction to school bus driver trainees. It contains enough material for 20-30 hours of classroom training. The information is organized in 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to the course;…

  1. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    A standardized and comprehensive school bus driver instructional program has been developed under contract with the Federal Government. The course has been organized to provide in one package a program for developing the minimum skills and knowledge needed by the school bus driver instructor, as well as those supplemental skills and knowledge…

  2. Hidden Savings in your Bus Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    School transportation industry statistics show the annual average costs for operating and maintaining a single school bus range from $34,000 to $38,000. Operating a school bus fleet at high efficiency has a real impact on the dollars saved for a school district and the reliability of transportation service to students. In this article, the author…

  3. Simulation of an Urban Battery Bus Vehicle

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-07-01

    This report describes the computer simulation of a battery-powered bus as it traverses an arbitrary mission profile of specified acceleration, roadway grade, and headwind. The battery-bus system components comprise a DC shunt motor, solid-state power...

  4. Best practices in transit service planning : final report, March 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    The provision of cost efficient and effective bus transit service is the basic premise upon which transit service is developed and the goal that all public transportations agencies strive to achieve. To attain this goal, public transit agencies must ...

  5. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, R.; Fischler, M.S.; Husby, D.E.

    1991-01-15

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured. 11 figures.

  6. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Robert; Fischler, Mark S.; Husby, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured.

  7. Characterization of transit ride quality.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-01

    Strategies often proposed to combat the growing traffic congestion problems of urban environments target enhancements to increase the use of bus transit. Therefore, service providers are keen to identify and understand factors that could attract more...

  8. USDOT Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Transit Data Gaps for Rail Transit Systems Initial Planning Workshop Notes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-06-23

    This document presents the notes taken at the USDOT Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Transit Data Gaps for Rail Transit Systems Initial Planning Workshop. Different scenarios for handling increased demand on rail and bus transit systems are discu...

  9. Best practices in bus dispatch.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-06-01

    In 2007, the National Center for Transit Research (NCTR) sponsored a study to examine best practices in : extraboard operator management. In most transit agencies, extraboard manpower is managed by the : dispatch function, but extraboard management i...

  10. High speed bus technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrow, Marlan B.; Hatfield, Donald W.

    1989-09-01

    The development and demonstration of the High Speed Data Bus system, a 50 Million bits per second (Mbps) local data network intended for avionics applications in advanced military aircraft is described. The Advanced System Avionics (ASA)/PAVE PILLAR program provided the avionics architecture concept and basic requirements. Designs for wire and fiber optic media were produced and hardware demonstrations were performed. An efficient, robust token-passing protocol was developed and partially demonstrated. The requirements specifications, the trade-offs made, and the resulting designs for both a coaxial wire media system and a fiber optics design are examined. Also, the development of a message-oriented media access protocol is described, from requirements definition through analysis, simulation and experimentation. Finally, the testing and demonstrations conducted on the breadboard and brassboard hardware is presented.

  11. Analog bus driver and multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    For a source-follower signal chain, the ohmic drop in the selection switch causes unacceptable voltage offset, non-linearity, and reduced small signal gain. For an op amp signal chain, the required bias current and the output noise rises rapidly with increasing the array format due to a rapid increase in the effective capacitance caused by the Miller effect boosting up the contribution of the bus capacitance. A new switched source-follower signal chain circuit overcomes limitations of existing op-amp based or source follower based circuits used in column multiplexers and data readout. This will improve performance of CMOS imagers, and focal plane read-out integrated circuits for detectors of infrared or ultraviolet light.

  12. A preliminary survey analysis of school shuttle bus system towards smart mobility solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Wong Seng; Hoy, Cheong Wan; Chye, Koh Keng

    2017-10-01

    Mobility and accessibility are crucial indicators of urban development. Public transport in the urban areas came into existence to fulfil transportation needs as well as mobility and accessibility demands. Ridership can be affected by the quality and quantity of transit service. However, technical improvements are needed for such as real-time bus information, controlling run time and headway delay. Thus, this paper is aimed to carry out a preliminary survey to determine the problems of school shuttle bus that faced by the students in a selected educational institution, their perceptions of using shuttle bus tracking and information mobile application and impacts of real-time information of public transits on bus ridership and towards smart mobility solutions. Efficient public transportation system needs further investigation about the role of mobile application for the bus tracking system in supporting smart mobility actions and real-time information. The proposed application also provides a smart solution for the management of public infrastructures and urban facilities in Malaysia in future. Eventually, this study opens an opportunity to improve Malaysian quality of life on the public value that created for the city as a whole.

  13. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  14. A summary of design, policies and operational characteristics for shared bicycle/bus lanes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-01

    This report contains the results of an investigation of the design and operation of shared bicycle/bus lanes in municipalities in the United States and other countries. These lanes are designated for use by public transit buses, bicycles, and usually...

  15. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... transit facilities and equipment. d. For facilities, evidence of proposed project compliance with ``Green Building'' certification. 3. For transit asset management system projects: If asset management system...-New York, Administrator, Region 7-Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust Street...

  16. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... to award the funds for capital investments aimed at replacing or rehabilitating transit... (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of capital projects for the State of... Facilities Program funds. As outlined in the NOFA, the Section 5309 funds would be awarded for capital...

  17. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian…

  18. Overview of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment FuZE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T. R.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Team

    2016-10-01

    Previously, the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, demonstrated sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch plasmas. Instabilities that have historically plagued Z-pinch plasma confinement were mitigated using sheared flows generated from a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type. Based on these results, a new SFS Z-pinch experiment, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE), has been constructed. FuZE is designed to investigate the scaling of SFS Z-pinch plasmas towards fusion conditions. The experiment will be supported by high fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Initial plans are in place for a pulsed fusion reactor following the results of FuZE. Notably, the design relies on proven commercial technologies, including a modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40 kV), and liquid metal electrodes. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  19. Motorcoach and school bus fire safety analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-11-01

    This report documents a motorcoach and school bus fire safety analysis performed by the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe) for the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. This report aims to: 1) identify the causes, fre...

  20. Intercity Bus Feeder Project Program Analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-09-01

    Following the passage of the Bus Regualtory Reform Act of 1982 (BRRA), intercity : carriers used their increased regulatory flexibility to discontinue many : underutilized rural and small city services. This was understandable, in light : of the comp...

  1. Bicycle-bus conflict area study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-11-01

    Increasing bicycle use and bus ridership are both desirable policy goals : from a sustainability standpoint, but on city streets these two modes of : transport are often in conflict. While occupying opposite ends of the size : and weight spectrum, th...

  2. A voltage-controlled superconducting quantum bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casparis, Lucas; Pearson, Natalie; KringhøJ, Anders; Larsen, Thorvald; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Krogstrup, Peter; Nygard, Jesper; Petersson, Karl; Marcus, Charles

    Superconducting qubits couple strongly to microwave photons and can therefore be coupled over long distances through a superconducting cavity acting as a quantum bus. To avoid frequency-crowding it is desirable to turn qubit coupling off while rearranging qubit frequencies. Here, we present experiments with two gatemon qubits coupled through a cavity, which can be tuned by a voltage-controlled superconducting switch. We characterize the bus tunability and demonstrate switchable qubit coupling with an on/off ratio up to 8. We find that pulsing the bus switch on nanosecond timescales results in the apparent loss of qubit coherence. Further work is needed to understand how dynamic control of the tuneable bus affects qubit operation. We acknowledge financial support from Microsoft Project Q, the Danish National Research Foundation and the US Army Research Office.

  3. Express bus-fringe parking planning methodology.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-01-01

    The conception, calibration, and evaluation of alternative disaggregate behavioral models of the express bus-fringe parking travel choice situation are described. Survey data collected for the Parham Express Service in Richmond, Virginia, are used to...

  4. Computer Simulation of an Electric Trolley Bus

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-12-01

    This report describes a computer model developed at the Transportation Systems Center (TSC) to simulate power/propulsion characteristics of an urban trolley bus. The work conducted in this area is sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administra...

  5. Bus operator perceptions of safety risks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of TriMet bus operators addressing safety risks in their assigned work. Surveyed risk factors : were organized into five categories: vehicle design and condition; route layout; operating conditions; fatigue...

  6. Passenger bus industry weather information application.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-03-21

    Adverse weather significantly affects the United States national transportation system, including commercial companies that rely on highways to support their enterprises. The Passenger Bus (Motorcoach) Industry (PBI) is one such affected user whose o...

  7. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  8. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2007.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2007. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  9. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  10. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  11. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  12. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  13. Tracer Film Growth Study of the Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys AZ31B and ZE10A in 0.01% NaCl Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M. P.; Fayek, M.; Leonard, D. N.

    We conducted a sequential isotopic tracer study of corrosion film growth for Mg-3Al-1Zn-0.25Mn (AZ31B) and Mg-1.2Zn-0.25Zr-<0.5Nd (ZE10A) by 4 h immersion in H 2 18O or D 2 16O, followed by a 20 h immersion in a 0.01 wt% NaCl H 2 18O or D 2 16O solution. Sputter depth profiles were obtained for 16O, 18O, H, and D using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). When compared to the previous tracer study for these alloys in salt-free water, the addition of 0.01 wt% NaCl resulted in a transition from oxygen inward-dominated film growth to a component of mixed inward/outward filmmore » growth for both alloys. The hydrogen tracer behavior remained inward growing for AZ31B, and short-circuit, inward growing for ZE10A, in both pure water and in 0.01 wt% NaCl solution, with extensive penetration of D beyond the film and into the underlying alloy also observed for ZE10A. Our analysis of the films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cross-section scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) indicated intermixed Mg(OH) 2 and MgO, with the relative fraction of Mg(OH) 2 peaking near the center of the film. These findings suggest a decoupled film growth mechanism, with initial formation of oxide followed by NaCl-accelerated conversion to hydroxide, likely by both solid-state and dissolution-precipitation processes.« less

  14. Tracer Film Growth Study of the Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys AZ31B and ZE10A in 0.01% NaCl Solution

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, M. P.; Fayek, M.; Leonard, D. N.; ...

    2017-05-25

    We conducted a sequential isotopic tracer study of corrosion film growth for Mg-3Al-1Zn-0.25Mn (AZ31B) and Mg-1.2Zn-0.25Zr-<0.5Nd (ZE10A) by 4 h immersion in H 2 18O or D 2 16O, followed by a 20 h immersion in a 0.01 wt% NaCl H 2 18O or D 2 16O solution. Sputter depth profiles were obtained for 16O, 18O, H, and D using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). When compared to the previous tracer study for these alloys in salt-free water, the addition of 0.01 wt% NaCl resulted in a transition from oxygen inward-dominated film growth to a component of mixed inward/outward filmmore » growth for both alloys. The hydrogen tracer behavior remained inward growing for AZ31B, and short-circuit, inward growing for ZE10A, in both pure water and in 0.01 wt% NaCl solution, with extensive penetration of D beyond the film and into the underlying alloy also observed for ZE10A. Our analysis of the films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cross-section scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) indicated intermixed Mg(OH) 2 and MgO, with the relative fraction of Mg(OH) 2 peaking near the center of the film. These findings suggest a decoupled film growth mechanism, with initial formation of oxide followed by NaCl-accelerated conversion to hydroxide, likely by both solid-state and dissolution-precipitation processes.« less

  15. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  16. AstroBus On-Board Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscarros, D.; Cantenot, C.; Séronie-Vivien, J.; Schmidt, G.

    AstroBus on-board software is a customisable software for ERC32 based avionics implementing standard ESA Packet Utilization Standard functions. Its architecture based on generic design templates and relying on a library providing standard PUS TC, TM and event services enhances its reusability on various programs. Finally, AstroBus on-board software development and validation environment is based on last generation tools providing an optimised customisation environment.

  17. EMI/EMP Resistant Data Bus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Control Multiplex Terminal Unit (CMTU) 1 each MTU Test Set 2 each CMTU Test Set 1 each 9 port Radial Coupler 1 each Fiber Optics Radial...Introduction 3 2 . MTU 11 3. CMTU 1 ? 4. SSIU and Controller ?! 5. Optical Data Bus 21 II System Design Construction 24 1 . Optoelectronic...8217 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) SECTION TITLE PAGE IV System Test and Operation 1 . Test Equipment 2 . Evaluation a. Optical Bus b. Optoelectronic

  18. Antidiabetic effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa extract Ze 450 in vitro and in vivo in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Moser, C; Vickers, S P; Brammer, R; Cheetham, S C; Drewe, J

    2014-09-25

    It was the aim of the present experiments to examine potential antidiabetic effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa extract Ze 450. Ze 450 and some of its components (23-epi-26-deoxyactein, protopine and cimiracemoside C) were investigated in vitro for their effects on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) compared to metformin in HepaRG cells. Ze 450 (given orally (PO) and intraperitonally (IP)), metformin (PO) and controls were given over 7 days to 68 male ob/ob mice. Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Ze 450 and its components activated AMPK to the same extent as metformin. In mice, Ze 450 (PO/IP) decreased significantly average daily and cumulative weight gain, average daily food and water intake, while metformin had no effect. In contrast to metformin, PO Ze 450 virtually did not change maximum glucose levels during OGTT, however, prolonged elimination. Ze 450 administered PO and IP decreased significantly post-stimulated insulin, whereas metformin did not. HOMA-IR index of insulin resistance improved significantly after IP and PO Ze 450 and slightly after metformin. In summary, the results demonstrate that Ze 450 reduced significantly body weight, plasma glucose, improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in diabetic ob/ob mice. In vitro experiments suggest that part of the effects may be related to AMPK activation. Ze 450 may have utility in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, longer term studies in additional animal models or patients with disturbed glucose tolerance or diabetes may be of use to investigate this further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. A software bus for thread objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Li, Dehuai

    1995-01-01

    The authors have implemented a software bus for lightweight threads in an object-oriented programming environment that allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in discrete-event simulation experiments. While previous research in object-oriented, parallel programming environments has focused on direct communication between threads, our lightweight software bus, called the MiniBus, provides a means to isolate threads from their contexts of execution by restricting communications between threads to message-passing via their local ports only. The software bus maintains a topology of connections between these ports. It routes, queues, and delivers messages according to this topology. This approach allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in other systems without making changes to the specifications or source code. A layered approach that provides the needed transparency to developers is presented. Examples of using the MiniBus are given, and the value of bus architectures in building and conducting simulations of discrete-event systems is discussed.

  20. Systems evaluation of thermal bus concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal bus concepts, to provide a centralized thermal utility for large, multihundred kilowatt space platforms, were studied and the results are summarized. Concepts were generated, defined, and screened for inclusion in system level thermal bus trades. Parametric trade studies were conducted in order to define the operational envelope, performance, and physical characteristics of each. Two concepts were selected as offering the most promise for thermal bus development. All of four concepts involved two phase flow in order to meet the required isothermal nature of the thermal bus. Two of the concepts employ a mechanical means to circulate the working fluid, a liquid pump in one case and a vapor compressor in another. Another concept utilizes direct osmosis as the driving force of the thermal bus. The fourth concept was a high capacity monogroove heat pipe. After preliminary sizing and screening, three of these concepts were selected to carry into the trade studies. The monogroove heat pipe concept was deemed unsuitable for further consideration because of its heat transport limitations. One additional concept utilizing capillary forces to drive the working fluid was added. Parametric system level trade studies were performed. Sizing and weight calculations were performed for thermal bus sizes ranging from 5 to 350 kW and operating temperatures in the range of 4 to 120 C. System level considerations such as heat rejection and electrical power penalties and interface temperature losses were included in the weight calculations.

  1. Crashworthiness evaluation of mass transit buses.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-01

    Mass transit bus systems are an integral part of the national transportation network, serving more than 20.6 billion passenger-miles per year with a relatively low fatality rate. Bus occupant injuries are evenly distributed among crashes on all sides...

  2. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    SciTech Connect

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing nextmore » generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.« less

  3. Atlanta Wheelchair Accessible Bus Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-08-01

    This document describes the implementation and operation of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority's fixed-route, subscription service for handicapped individuals. It is based on a site visit and discussions with several individuals in the ...

  4. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-03-01

    This report presents 16 case studies of attacks planned or carried out against Israeli bus targets, along with statistical data on the number, frequency, and lethality of attacks against bus targets that have taken place in Israel since 1970 and duri...

  5. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  6. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  7. Implementation of Ada protocols on Mil-STD-1553 B data bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhman, Smil; Rosemberg, Flavia

    1986-01-01

    Standardization activity of data communication in avionic systems started in 1968 for the purpose of total system integration and the elimination of heavy wire bundles carrying signals between various subassemblies. The growing complexity of avionic systems is straining the capabilities of MIL-STD-1553 B (first issued in 1973), but a much greater challenge to it is posed by Ada, the standard language adopted for real-time, computer embedded-systems. Hardware implementation of Ada communication protocols in a contention/token bus or token ring network is proposed. However, during the transition period when the current command/response multiplex data bus is still flourishing and the development environment for distributed multi-computer Ada systems is as yet lacking, a temporary accomodation of the standard language with the standard bus could be very useful and even highly desirable. By concentrating all status informtion and decisions at the bus controller, it was found to be possible to construct an elegant and efficient harware impelementation of the Ada protocols at the bus interface. This solution is discussed.

  8. Duluth Variable Work Hours/Transit Fare Prepayment Demonstration

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-04-01

    This report describes the evaluation results of the Duluth Variable Work Hours/Transit Fare Prepayment Demonstration. The demonstration project was intended to reduce severe peaks in demand on the bus routes of the Duluth Transit Authority (DTA). It ...

  9. Minneapolis-St. Paul Transit Service Reliability Demonstration

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of UMTA's first transit service reliability demonstration. The demonstration was implemented by the Metropolitan Transit Commission on a high-frequency branched bus route--Route 5 in Minneapolis. the aim of the demo...

  10. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future. PMID:27992590

  11. Classifying the Diversity of Bus Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Mohd Shahmy Mohd; Forrest, David

    2018-05-01

    This study represents the first stage of an investigation into understanding the nature of different approaches to mapping bus routes and bus network, and how they may best be applied in different public transport situations. In many cities, bus services represent an important facet of easing traffic congestion and reducing pollution. However, with the entrenched car culture in many countries, persuading people to change their mode of transport is a major challenge. To promote this modal shift, people need to know what services are available and where (and when) they go. Bus service maps provide an invaluable element of providing suitable public transport information, but are often overlooked by transport planners, and are under-researched by cartographers. The method here consists of the creation of a map evaluation form and performing assessment of published bus networks maps. The analyses were completed by a combination of quantitative and qualitative data analysis of various aspects of cartographic design and classification. This paper focuses on the resulting classification, which is illustrated by a series of examples. This classification will facilitate more in depth investigations into the details of cartographic design for such maps and help direct areas for user evaluation.

  12. Understanding transit accidents using the National Transit Database and the role of Transit Intelligent Vehicle Initiative Technology in reducing accidents

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the results of bus accident data analysis using the 2002 National Transit Database (NTD) and discusses the potential of using advanced technology being studied and developed under the U.S. Department of Transportations (U.S. ...

  13. FAST BUS Test Box (LAIKA) (Engineering Materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The assembly drawing AD 135-518-00-RO, and the drawings referenced thereon, provide the data and specifications for constructing the LAIKA Test Box. Some drawings are not available, although they are listed on the material lists included. The assembly is a manual tester for FAST BUS modules, both masters and slaves. FAST BUS signals are generated by means of switches or push buttons and provide the state of the bus lines by lighting LED's. The box acts as either a master or slave - depending upon the module under test. It also acts as an ATC to test the arbitration logic ofmore » a master or ATC device.« less

  14. Transit Operator Guidelines for Transfer Policy Design

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-06-01

    This report provides guidelines to aid transit operators in the design of policies to accomodate bus and/or rail transfers policy may range from a complete set of operator actions involving vehicle routing and scheduling, transfer charges, passenger ...

  15. Sound transit climate risk reduction project.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-09-01

    The Climate Risk Reduction Project assessed how climate change may affect Sound Transit commuter rail, light rail, and express bus : services. The project identified potential climate change impacts on agency operations, assets, and long-term plannin...

  16. Automatic Brake Slack Adjusters on Transit Buses

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide transit bus agencies with current information on automatic brake slack adjusters. Rather than a comprehensive statistical survey, this report is intended to provide an overview of the states of automatic slack...

  17. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. District of Columbia tour bus management initiative final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the District of Columbia Tour Bus Management Initiative is to develop a plan that will ameliorate the long-standing problems, as identified above, that negatively affect tour bus operations as well as traffic conditions, the visitor ...

  19. 214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN BUS STOP WIDENING, 1932. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  20. The crew activity planning system bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The hardware and software designs used to implement a high speed parallel communications interface to the MITRE 307.2 kilobit/second serial bus communications system are described. The primary topic is the development of the bus interface unit.

  1. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  2. Information management advanced development. Volume 3: Digital data bus breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and evaluation of the digital data bus breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) requirements summary, (2) parametric data for bus design, (3) redundancy concepts, and (4) data bus breadboard performance and interface requirements.

  3. Development and Implementation of a Bus Driver Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchovecky, John G.

    A bus driver training program was developed and implemented in a rural school district in an effort to improve the driving skills of the bus drivers. The program was tailored to meet the needs of the bus drivers and utilized various community agencies for demonstration and teaching purposes. The subject areas included in the program were driver…

  4. Research Electrical Distribution Bus | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov Websites

    | NREL Research Electrical Distribution Bus Research Electrical Distribution Bus The research electrical distribution bus (REDB) is the heart of the Energy Systems Integration Facility electrical system throughout the laboratories. Photo of a technician performing maintenance on the Research Electrical

  5. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system [research brief].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-03-01

    Government regulators and transportation operators of public bus systems are concerned about terrorist attacks. Bus attacks in Israel between late September 2000 and the end of 2006, a period known as the Second Intifada, are particularly well known....

  6. Bus Maintenance is a Sound Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Preventive school bus maintenance to reduce long-term costs should include daily visual inspections by drivers, frequent checks by mechanics, and comprehensive inspections every 5,000 miles. Mechanics recommend checking tail lights, batteries, brakes, lug nuts, leaf springs, tail pipes, and exhaust pipe hangers. (RW)

  7. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  8. Mission Services Evolution Center Message Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayorga, Arturo; Bristow, John O.; Butschky, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) Message Bus is a robust, lightweight, fault-tolerant middleware implementation that supports all messaging capabilities of the GMSEC API. This architecture is a distributed software system that routes messages based on message subject names and knowledge of the locations in the network of the interested software components.

  9. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  10. Bus safety study : a report to Congress.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    Section 20021(b) of the Moving Ahead for Progress for the 21st Century (MAP-21) legislation requires the Secretary of Transportation : to submit a report of the results of a Bus Safety Study to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affai...

  11. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-08-01

    SunLine collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program on the evaluation of the 30-foot hybrid fuel cell bus that was developed by ThunderPower LLC, a joint venture by Tho...

  12. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  13. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B.

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditionsmore » would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.« less

  14. Economical launching and accelerating control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Song, Jian; Li, Liang; Li, Shengbo; Cao, Dongpu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an economical launching and accelerating mode, including four ordered phases: pure electrical driving, clutch engagement and engine start-up, engine active charging, and engine driving, which can be fit for the alternating conditions and improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric bus (HEB) during typical city-bus driving scenarios. By utilizing the fast response feature of electric motor (EM), an adaptive controller for EM is designed to realize the power demand during the pure electrical driving mode, the engine starting mode and the engine active charging mode. Concurrently, the smoothness issue induced by the sequential mode transitions is solved with a coordinated control logic for engine, EM and clutch. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed launching and accelerating mode and its control methods are effective in improving the fuel economy and ensure the drivability during the fast transition between the operation modes of HEB.

  15. ZeBase: an open-source relational database for zebrafish laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Monica R; Hassenplug, Eric; McPhail, Rodney; Leung, Yuk Fai

    2012-03-01

    Abstract ZeBase is an open-source relational database for zebrafish inventory. It is designed for the recording of genetic, breeding, and survival information of fish lines maintained in a single- or multi-laboratory environment. Users can easily access ZeBase through standard web-browsers anywhere on a network. Convenient search and reporting functions are available to facilitate routine inventory work; such functions can also be automated by simple scripting. Optional barcode generation and scanning are also built-in for easy access to the information related to any fish. Further information of the database and an example implementation can be found at http://zebase.bio.purdue.edu.

  16. Astrophysical ZeV acceleration in the relativistic jet from an accreting supermassive blackhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Tajima, Toshiki

    2014-04-01

    An accreting supermassive blackhole, the central engine of active galactic nucleus (AGN), is capable of exciting extreme amplitude Alfven waves whose wavelength (wave packet) size is characterized by its clumpiness. The pondermotive force and wakefield are driven by these Alfven waves propagating in the AGN (blazar) jet, and accelerate protons/nuclei to extreme energies beyond Zetta-electron volt (ZeV=1021 eV). Such acceleration is prompt, localized, and does not suffer from the multiple scattering/bending enveloped in the Fermi acceleration that causes excessive synchrotron radiation loss beyond 1019 eV. The production rate of ZeV cosmic rays is found to be consistent with the observed gamma-ray luminosity function of blazars and their time variabilities.

  17. Overview of the FuZE Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.

    2017-10-01

    Successful results of the sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch from ZaP and ZaP-HD have motivated the new FuZE project to scale the plasma performance to fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is immune to the instabilities that plague the conventional Z-pinch yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling. The plasma density and temperature increase rapidly with decreasing plasma radius, which naturally leads to a compact configuration at fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is being investigated as a novel approach to a compact fusion device in a collaborative ARPA-E ALPHA project with the University of Washington and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project includes an experimental effort coupled with high-fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Along with scaling law analysis, computational and experimental results from the FuZE device are presented. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  18. Potentiostatic control of ionic liquid surface film formation on ZE41 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Efthimiadis, Jim; Neil, Wayne C; Bunter, Andrew; Howlett, Patrick C; Hinton, Bruce R W; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The generation of potentially corrosion-resistant films on light metal alloys of magnesium have been investigated. Magnesium alloy, ZE41 [Mg-Zn-Rare Earth (RE)-Zr, nominal composition approximately 4 wt % Zn, approximately 1.7 wt % RE (Ce), approximately 0.6 wt % Zr, remaining balance, Mg], was exposed under potentiostatic control to the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium diphenylphosphate, denoted [P(6,6,6,14)][DPP]. During exposure to this IL, a bias potential, shifted from open circuit, was applied to the ZE41 surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry (CA) were used to monitor the evolution of film formation on the metal surface during exposure. The EIS data indicate that, of the four bias potentials examined, applying a potential of -200 mV versus OCP during the exposure period resulted in surface films of greatest resistance. Both EIS measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging indicate that these surfaces are substantially different to those formed without potential bias. Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) elemental mapping of the films was utilized to ascertain the distribution of the ionic liquid cationic and anionic species relative to the microstructural surface features of ZE41 and indicated a more uniform distribution compared with the surface following exposure in the absence of a bias potential. Immersion of the treated ZE41 specimens in a chloride contaminated salt solution clearly indicated that the ionic liquid generated surface films offered significant protection against pitting corrosion, although the intermetallics were still insufficiently protected by the IL and hence favored intergranular corrosion processes.

  19. Shuttle bus services quality assessment Tangerang Selatan toward smart city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassa, Ferdinand; Sitorus, Fredy Jhon Philip; Adikesuma, Tri Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Around the world, shuttle bus operation played the significant role to accommodate transportation for commuting bus passengers. Shuttle Bus services in cities are provided by various bus agencies with kinds of own specific purposes. For instance, at Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, it was said that shuttle bus In Trans Bintaro is run and operated by private bus companies hire by Bintaro developer. The aim of this research is to identify factors of satisfaction of shuttle bus service in Kota Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia. Several factors are used to analyze sums of 20 parameters performance indicators of Shuttle Bus. A face to face interview using a questionnaire (N=200) was used to collect data on October and March 2017. Likert and diagram Cartesian were used to model the all the parameters. This research succeeded in finding some categories of Shuttle bus service attributes such as accessibility, comfort, and safety. Users agreed that eight indicators in shuttle bus have the excellent achievement, while three indicators on performance remain low and should receive more attention especially punctuality of the bus.

  20. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle... passenger weights and actual transit vehicle loads. Specifically, FTA proposed to change the average...

  1. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  2. 58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER THE CONTROL ROOM MEZZANINE IN THE SIGNAL POWER CONDITIONING ROOM. BUS IS A HEAVY COPPER BAR APPROXIMATELY 1/2" BY 4" WHICH CONDUCTS POWER THROUGHOUT THE POWER PLANT. BUS ARE PROTECTED BY A BRICK AND SOAPSTONE HOUSING. OPENINGS FOR INSPECTION AND ACCESS WOULD NORMALLY BE PROTECTED BY GLASS DOORS. THE BUS WOULD BE SUPPORTED ON INSULATORS WITHIN THE BRICK CHAMBER. BUS WAS REMOVED AND SALVAGED WHEN THE STATION WAS ABANDONED. THE OBJECT IN THE TOP CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER USED TO REDUCE BUS POTENTIAL OF 2200 VOLTS TO LOW VOLTAGES SAFE FOR USE IN CONTROL ROOM CIRCUITRY. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS ARE PRECISION DEVICES WHICH PRODUCE AN ACCURATE LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG OF THE HIGH VOLTAGE ON THE BUS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  3. Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ally, Jamie; Pryor, Trevor

    The Sustainable Transport Energy Programme (STEP) is an initiative of the Government of Western Australia, to explore hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the existing diesel and natural gas public transit infrastructure in Perth. This project includes three buses manufactured by DaimlerChrysler with Ballard fuel cell power sources operating in regular service alongside the existing natural gas and diesel bus fleets. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the fuel cell bus trial in Perth determines the overall environmental footprint and energy demand by studying all phases of the complete transportation system, including the hydrogen infrastructure, bus manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life disposal. The LCAs of the existing diesel and natural gas transportation systems are developed in parallel. The findings show that the trial is competitive with the diesel and natural gas bus systems in terms of global warming potential and eutrophication. Emissions that contribute to acidification and photochemical ozone are greater for the fuel cell buses. Scenario analysis quantifies the improvements that can be expected in future generations of fuel cell vehicles and shows that a reduction of greater than 50% is achievable in the greenhouse gas, photochemical ozone creation and primary energy demand impact categories.

  4. Integrating light rail transit into traditional bus systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-07-01

    This document identifies those dynamics that facilitate a citys addition of light rail as a successful component of its urban system, with success deemed to be opening on schedule with minimal start-up issues. The study examines several new system...

  5. TRANSIT BUS LOAD-BASED MODAL EMISSION RATE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) operations are a major source of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions in metropolitan area nationwide. Although HD¬DVs constitute a small portion of the on-road fleet, they typically contribute more than 45% of NOx and ...

  6. Teaching Kids with Learning Disabilities to Take Public Transit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Taking public transit can make anyone nervous, especially in a large or medium-sized city where there are many different bus lines going many different places. The author's daughter, Anna, has multiple learning disabilities and may never learn to drive, but she wants to be as independent as possible so the author taught her to ride the bus. This…

  7. Exposure assessment of diesel bus emissions.

    PubMed

    Yip, Maricela; Madl, Pierre; Wiegand, Aaron; Hofmann, Werner

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 mum emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station) and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform along with their breathing

  8. Terminals for Suburb Bus Transport in Bratislava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, Tibor; Schlosser, Peter; Cápayová, Silvia; Hodáková, Dominika

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the strategy for development of the public transport terminals in the city of Bratislava, Capital of Slovak Republic. The reason goes from the private operator Slovak Lines, who operates the suburb bus transport in the agglomeration of the city. For this operator was created a transport model, while placing emphasis on optimizing the compliance of suburban public transport with urban public transport in the city of Bratislava and evaluating the significance of the new Bus Station to be constructed at Mlynské Nivy - in a new down town centre of the city. The main issue is to ensure the best available offer of public transport (PT) to passengers in the Bratislava agglomeration. The subject of the study was oriented to specify and propose changes in the transport infrastructure and integrated public transport organisation on the area of the city in terms of the significant position of the new Mlynské Nivy Bus Station (MN BS), which is under preparation with realization in the year 2017.

  9. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  10. Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

    1990-01-01

    The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

  11. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses.

  12. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an applicant's...

  13. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an applicant's...

  14. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  15. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  16. Data visualization as a tool for improved decision making within transit agencies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-02-01

    TriMet, the regional transit provider in the Portland, OR, area has been a leader in bus transit performance monitoring using data collected via automatic vehicle location and automatic passenger counter technologies. This information is collected an...

  17. Countermeasures for Developing New Energy Bus Standards in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xin

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of new energy vehicle technology, new energy bus has become more and more popular in China, and the relevant standards and policy are urgently needed to guide the market. According to the assessment of the development situation on new energy vehicle technology and new energy bus, combing with traffic policy guidance and the development trend of new energy vehicles, this paper aims to put forward the countermeasures of the new energy bus standard in China, including standard system, key standards and relevant recommendations. Research result is expected to provide decision support for the wide application of new energy bus in China.

  18. The SMART MIL-STD-1553 bus adapter hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ton, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The SMART Multiplexer Interface Adapter, (SMIA) a complete system interface for message structure of the MIL-STD-1553, is described. It provides buffering and storage for transmitted and received data and handles all the necessary handshaking to interface between parallel 8-bit data bus and a MIL-STD serial bit stream. The bus adapter is configured as either a bus controller of a remote terminal interface. It is coupled directly to the multiplex bus, or stub coupled through an additional isolation transformer located at the connection point. Fault isolation resistors provide short circuit protection.

  19. KSC-99pp1251

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    KSC workers, with Center Director Roy Bridges (at right next to bus), head for the open door of the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus and a ride around the center. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available to employees for viewing and a ride, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27

  20. Microstructural Aspects in FSW and TIG Welding of Cast ZE41A Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Astarita, Antonello; Rubino, Felice; Pasquino, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, magnesium ZE41A alloy plates were butt joined through friction stir welding (FSW) and Tungsten Inert Gas welding processes. Process-induced microstructures were investigated by optical and SEM observations, EDX microanalysis and microhardness measurements. The effect of a post-welded T5 heat treatment on FSW joints was also assessed. Sound joints were produced by means of both techniques. Different elemental distributions and grain sizes were found, whereas microhardness profiles reflect microstructural changes. Post-welding heat treatment did not induce significant alterations in elemental distribution. The FSW-treated joint showed a more homogeneous hardness profile than the as-welded FSW joint.

  1. Bus-based park-and-ride system: a stochastic model on multimodal network with congestion pricing schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Meng, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on modelling the network flow equilibrium problem on a multimodal transport network with bus-based park-and-ride (P&R) system and congestion pricing charges. The multimodal network has three travel modes: auto mode, transit mode and P&R mode. A continuously distributed value-of-time is assumed to convert toll charges and transit fares to time unit, and the users' route choice behaviour is assumed to follow the probit-based stochastic user equilibrium principle with elastic demand. These two assumptions have caused randomness to the users' generalised travel times on the multimodal network. A comprehensive network framework is first defined for the flow equilibrium problem with consideration of interactions between auto flows and transit (bus) flows. Then, a fixed-point model with unique solution is proposed for the equilibrium flows, which can be solved by a convergent cost averaging method. Finally, the proposed methodology is tested by a network example.

  2. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  3. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  4. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  5. Traffic rule violations of private bus drivers and bus crashes in Sri Lanka: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Poudel, Krishna C; Nakahara, Shinji; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Jayatilleke, Achini Chinthika; Jimba, Masamine

    2010-06-01

    To explore the association between self-reported traffic rule violations of private sector bus drivers and bus crashes in the Kandy district, Sri Lanka. We carried out a case-control study from August to September 2006. Cases were all the private bus drivers registered in the Kandy district and involved in crashes reported to the police between November 2005 and April 2006 (n = 63). We included two control groups: the private bus drivers working on the same routes of the cases (n = 90; matched controls) and the drivers selected randomly from the other routes of the district (n = 111; unmatched controls). We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on the self-reported traffic rule violations and analyzed the association between the self-reported traffic rule violations and crashes using logistic regression. The following variables showed significant associations with private bus crashes: illegal overtaking (matched controls, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 14.78, unmatched controls, AOR = 1.04), taking passengers outside the bus bays (matched controls, AOR = 3.96, unmatched controls, AOR = 2.29), and overloading (matched controls, AOR = 10.26, unmatched controls, AOR = 1.93). However, we did not observe an association between high-speed driving and bus crashes matched controls, AOR = 1.22, unmatched controls, AOR = 0.81. Traffic rule violations, such as illegal overtaking, overloading, and taking passengers outside the bus bays, are significant risk factors for private bus crashes in Sri Lanka.

  6. Brake Lining for Transit Buses - Bonded vs. Bolted

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-06-01

    This report points out an often cited complaint from urban transit agencies concerning the Advanced Design Bus: the relatively short brake lining life. Despite design improvements made by the equipment supply industry since the introduction of the AD...

  7. Evaluation of Utah Transit Authority's Connection Protection system

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-05-12

    The Utah Transit Authority (UTA) implemented a Connection Protection (CP) system to improve the reliability of transfers from the higher frequency light rail TRAX trains to the lower frequency bus services. The CP system examines the status of TRAX t...

  8. Final evaluation plan : Utah Transit Authority Connection Protection system

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-08-27

    Utah Transit Authority (UTA) implemented a Connection Protection system (CP) to improve the reliability of transfers from the higher frequency light rail trains, TRAX, to the lower frequency bus services. The CP system examines the status of TRAX tra...

  9. How to guide - transit operations decision support systems (TODSS).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-01

    Transit Operations Decision Support Systems (TODSS) are decision support systems designed to support dispatchers in real-time bus operations management in response to incidents, special events, and other changing conditions in order to restore servic...

  10. Transit as transformation : the Euclid Corridor in Cleveland

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-06-30

    Public and private investments catalyzed a striking transformation along Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, generated in part by the construction of a new bus rapid transit (BRT) system known as the HealthLine. Euclid Avenues strategic location stretches...

  11. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  12. Lymphocyte DNA damage in bus manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C Q; Lam, T H; Jiang, C Q

    2001-04-05

    To study the effect of occupational exposure, smoking, and drinking on lymphocyte DNA damage in bus manufacturing workers, 346 employees (106 women and 240 men) from six job categories (welders, mechanics, painters, and assembling, auxiliary and managerial workers) in a bus manufacturing factory in Guangzhou were included. Significant differences of tail moment among the six job categories were found (P=0.003) with adjustment for age and gender. Smoking increased tail moment significantly (3.14 (2.89-3.40) versus 2.79 microm (2.63-2.97), P=0.023). Analysis of covariance showed that occupational exposure (P=0.001) and smoking (P=0.019) had significant effect on tail moment after adjusting for all factors, whereas age and gender had no effect on DNA damage. Stratified analysis showed that painters (P=0.002), auxiliary workers (P=0.011), and mechanics (P=0.044) had larger tail moments than managerial workers after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and drinking.

  13. Oregon School Bus Drivers Training Program. Students Handbook. Core Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This student handbook is one of the publications used for the Oregon Bus Driver Training Core Course. Handbook content focuses on those aspects of driving a school bus that differ from driving an automobile and that are essential for the safe transporting of students. Designed to accompany the four classes (each two and one-half hours long), the…

  14. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  15. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    controlled wired RS-485 network. The Android-based smartphone or tablet is used in conjunction with a USB to serial bridge to operate as the bus master in...Android-based smartphone or tablet is used in conjunction with a USB to serial bridge to operate as the bus master in the system. The Android device

  16. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  17. Preliminary Investigation of Workload on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    The daily routine of bus traffic controller which involves high mental processes would have a direct impact on the level of workload. To date, the level of workload on the bus traffic controllers in Malaysia is relatively unknown. Excessive workload on bus traffic controllers would affect the control and efficiency of the system. This paper served to study the workload on bus traffic controllers and justify the needs to conduct further detailed research on this field. The objectives of this research are to identify the level of workload on the intrastate bus traffic controllers. Based on the results, recommendations will be proposed for improvements and future studies. The level of workload for the bus traffic controllers is quantified using questionnaire adapted from NASA TLX. Interview sessions were conducted for validation of workload. Sixteen respondents were involved and it was found that the average level of workload based on NASA TLX was 6.91. It was found that workload is not affected by gender and marital status. This study also showed that the level of workload and working experience of bus traffic controllers has a strong positive linear relationship. This study would serve as a guidance and reference related to this field. Since this study is a preliminary investigation, further detailed studies could be conducted to obtain a better comprehension regarding the bus traffic controllers.

  18. Bus Lifecycle Cost Model for Federal Land Management Agencies.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-09-30

    The Bus Lifecycle Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based planning tool that estimates capital, operating, and maintenance costs for various bus types over the full lifecycle of the vehicle. The model is based on a number of operating characteristics, incl...

  19. Haverhill, Mass. School Bus Company Reduces Idling Under Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Coppola Bus, Inc., a Haverhill, Mass. company has reduced vehicle idling and therefore reduced diesel emissions, and paid an $18,000 penalty as part of a settlement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for claims of excessive school bus idling.

  20. 16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bus Room (also known as Switch Gear Room), view to the southeast. An air circuit breaker compressor (visible in photograph number 2) was once attached to the main bus relay visible in the background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  1. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  2. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  3. Automated Bus Diagnostic System Demonstration in New York City

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-12-01

    In response to a growing problem with the quality and efficiency of nationwide bus maintenance practices, an award was granted to the Tri-State Regional Planning Commission for the testing of an automated bus diagnostic system (ABDS). The ABDS was de...

  4. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation : Third Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-05-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The AFCB, built on an ElDorado National-California 40-foot Axess bus p...

  5. Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus Lands at Hickam AFB

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-09-22

    A FUEL CELL HYBRID ELECTRIC BUS was unveiled at Honolulus Hickam Air Force Base (Hickam AFB) in February 2004, becoming the first fuel cell vehicle in Hawaii and the first in the U.S. Air Force. The 30-foot flight crew shuttle bus will undergo 1 y...

  6. Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Bus Line Coordination on Urban Arterial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Chen, Shuyan; Ding, Haoyang; Li, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority. PMID:25663837

  7. Method and systems for a radiation tolerant bus interface circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A bus management tool that allows communication to be maintained between a group of nodes operatively connected on two busses in the presence of radiation by transmitting periodically a first message from one to another of the nodes on one of the busses, determining whether the first message was received by the other of the nodes on the first bus, and when it is determined that the first message was not received by the other of the nodes, transmitting a recovery command to the other of the nodes on a second of the of busses. Methods, systems, and articles of manufacture consistent with the present invention also provide for a bus recovery tool on the other node that re-initializes a bus interface circuit operatively connecting the other node to the first bus in response to the recovery command.

  8. A series of small scientific satellite with flexible standard bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hirobumi; Sawai, Syujiro; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Fukuda, Seisuke; Kitade, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has a plan to develop the small satellite standard bus for various scientific missions and disaster monitoring missions. The satellite bus is a class of 250-400 kg mass with three-axis control capability of 0.02∘ accuracy. The science missions include X-ray astronomy missions, planetary telescope missions, and magnetosphere atmosphere missions. In order to adapt the wide range of mission requirements, the satellite bus has to be provided with flexibility. The concepts of modularization, reusability, and product line are applied to the standard bus system. This paper describes the characteristics of the small satellite standard bus which will be firstly launched in 2011.

  9. [Particle emission characteristics of diesel bus fueled with bio-diesel].

    PubMed

    Lou, Di-Ming; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    With the use of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS), a study on the characteristics of particle emissions was carried out on a China-IV diesel bus fueled with blends of 5% , 10% , 20% , 50% bio-diesel transformed from restaurant waste oil and China-IV diesel (marked separately by BD5, BD10, BD20, BD50), pure bio-diesel (BD100) and pure diesel (BD0). The results indicated that particulate number (PN) and mass (PM) emissions of bio-diesel blends increased with the increase in bus speed and acceleration; with increasing bio-diesel content, particulate emissions displayed a relevant declining trend. In different speed ranges, the size distribution of particulate number emissions (PNSD) was bimodal; in different acceleration ranges, PNSD showed a gradual transition from bimodal shape to unimodal when bus operation was switched from decelerating to accelerating status. Bio-diesel blends with higher mixture ratios showed significant reduction in PN emissions for accumulated modes, and the particulate number emission peaks moved towards smaller sizes; but little change was obtained in PN emissions for nuclei modes; reduction also occurred in particle geometric diameter (Dg).

  10. Recommendations for yield-to-bus traffic control devices and bus pullout bays design characteristics : [research summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    Bus pullout bays are being installed increasingly : on Floridas roads as a safety factor and so that : stopped buses do not impede traffic. In Florida, : state law requires car drivers to yield to buses : when a bus needs to reenter the roadway af...

  11. Best practices in bus dispatch [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the National Center for Transit Research : sponsored a study of best practices in extraboard : operator management, finding that in most transit : agencies, extraboard manpower is managed by : dispatchers as one of their many functions. This...

  12. Development and Evaluation of Smart Bus System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-13

    Due to stochastic traffic conditions and fluctuated demand, transit passengers often suffer from unreliable services. Especially for buses, keeping on-time schedules is challenging as they share the right of way with non-transit traffic. With the adv...

  13. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  14. Emission Standards, Public Transit, and Infant Health.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nicole S

    Transit buses are an integral part of urban life. They reduce externalities generated from private vehicles and increase geographic mobility. However, unlike most private vehicles in the United States, they use diesel fuel and emit higher amounts of toxic pollutants. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set emission standards for transit buses starting in 1988 that have been continually updated, but their public health and economic impacts are unclear due to scarce emissions data. I construct a novel panel dataset for the New York City (NYC) Transit bus fleet between 1990 and 2009 and examine the impact of bus pollution on infant health by using bus vintage as a proxy for emissions. I exploit the variation in vintage as older buses are retired and replaced with newer, lower-emitting buses forced to adhere to stricter emission standards. I then assign maternal exposure to bus vintage at the census block level. Findings suggest that maternal exposure to the oldest, unregulated buses is associated with modest reductions in birth weight and gestational age relative to newer buses that abide by emissions policies. I then conduct a back-of-the-envelope cost-benefit calculation and find net economic benefits of $53.3 million resulting from improved emission standards for the 2009 birth cohort in NYC. Since the treatment in this study clearly maps to federal emissions policies, these results are the first to provide credible evidence that transit bus emission standards had a positive effect on infant health.

  15. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fuelingmore » infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas

  16. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  17. Modeling level-of-safety for bus stops in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhirui; Wang, Chao; Yu, Yongbo; Shi, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-17

    Safety performance at bus stops is generally evaluated by using historical traffic crash data or traffic conflict data. However, in China, it is quite difficult to obtain such data mainly due to the lack of traffic data management and organizational issues. In light of this, the primary objective of this study is to develop a quantitative approach to evaluate bus stop safety performance. The concept of level-of-safety for bus stops is introduced and corresponding models are proposed to quantify safety levels, which consider conflict points, traffic factors, geometric characteristics, traffic signs and markings, pavement conditions, and lighting conditions. Principal component analysis and k-means clustering methods were used to model and quantify safety levels for bus stops. A case study was conducted to show the applicability of the proposed model with data collected from 46 samples for the 7 most common types of bus stops in China, using 32 of the samples for modeling and 14 samples for illustration. Based on the case study, 6 levels of safety for bus stops were defined. Finally, a linear regression analysis between safety levels and the number of traffic conflicts showed that they had a strong relationship (R(2) value of 0.908). The results indicated that the method was well validated and could be practically used for the analysis and evaluation of bus stop safety in China. The proposed model was relatively easy to implement without the requirement of traffic crash data and/or traffic conflict data. In addition, with the proposed method, it was feasible to evaluate countermeasures to improve bus stop safety (e.g., exclusive bus lanes).

  18. Bus--carpool FWY lanes in San Francisco area

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, L.

    1976-11-01

    The California Department of Transportation is studying ways to increase the use of the urban freeway systems that will accommodate the maximum number of people with the least delay and the maximum possible safety in a cost-effective way. This paper describes operational features of four different projects under way, namely: a contraflow bus lane; a part-time bus lane in the same direction and unseparated from normal traffic; a bus-carpool lane also in the same direction and unseparated from normal traffic; and a preferential access to a metered freeway. (MCW)

  19. The Italian cross-sectional survey of the management of bone metastasis: ZeTa study

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Daniele; Bertoldo, Francesco; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Cecchini, Isabella; Fregosi, Stefania; Bortolussi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have emphasized the importance of the maintenance of bone health in a comprehensive cancer care. However, no survey about approach to bone metastasis care is currently available. The ZeTa study provides a picture of the Italian oncologists' therapeutics habits in this area, in a real clinical-practice scenario. Design This study was based on online questionnaire-based interviews to Italian oncologists that included 145 questions. The aim was to collect information on the treatment of bone metastasis, the current use of bisphosphonates, the awareness of guidelines and the concerns about ONJ, the use of vitamin D supplementation. Results 445 oncologists were contacted, 283 agreed to participate. The results show that the current management of bone metastasis is still sub-optimal, as the recommendations from current clinical guidelines are not completely followed by all specialists. Conclusions This survey highlights the urgent need to improve management of bone metastasis in cancer patients. PMID:26909253

  20. KSC-99pp1252

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus tours the KSC Visitor Complex for a test ride. In the background are a mock-up orbiter named Explorer (left) and a stack of solid rocket boosters and external tank (right), typically used on Shuttle launches. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept

  1. KSC-99pp1250

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    On view in front of the Headquarters Building, the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus attracts an interested group of employees, including Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left in foreground). Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27

  2. KSC-99pp1248

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    In front of the Headquarters Building at KSC, Center Director Roy Bridges (left) looks at the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27

  3. KSC-99pp1249

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    KSC employees, along with Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left), view the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27

  4. KSC-99pp1253

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus passes a mock-up orbiter named Explorer on a trek through the KSC Visitor Complex. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept

  5. Methodology for measurement of diesel particle size distributions from a city bus working in real traffic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, O.; Gómez, A.; Mata, C.

    2011-10-01

    The study of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides emissions of diesel engines is nowadays a necessary step towards pollutant emission reduction. For a complete evaluation of PM emissions and its size characterization, one of the most challenging goals is to adapt the available techniques and the data acquisition procedures to the measurement and to propose a methodology for the interpretation of instantaneous particle size distributions (PSD) of combustion-derived particles produced by a vehicle during real driving conditions. In this work, PSD from the exhaust gas of a city bus operated in real driving conditions with passengers have been measured. For the study, the bus was equipped with a rotating disk diluter coupled to an air supply thermal conditioner (with an evaporating tube), the latter being connected to a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer spectrometer. The main objective of this work has been to propose an alternative procedure for evaluating the influence of several transient sequences on PSD emitted by a city bus used in real driving conditions with passengers. The transitions studied were those derived from the combination of four possible sequences or categories during real driving conditions: idle, acceleration, deceleration with fuel consumption and deceleration without fuel consumption. The analysis methodology used in this work proved to be a useful tool for a better understanding of the phenomena related to the determination of PSD emitted by a city bus during real driving conditions with passengers.

  6. Bus drivers' mental conditions and their relation to bus passengers' accidents with a focus on the psychological stress concept.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Sugiura, Miyuki; Tanaka, Sumio; Mizuno, Yuki; Yanagiya, Toshio; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological factors of bus drivers' instability that were related to bus passengers' accidents according to the hypothesis model based on the stress concept of Lazarus and Folkman (1984). This research was carried out in 2006. Participants of the study were 39 Japanese male bus drivers. Their average age was 40.2 (SD: 11.1). The average duration of employment was 4.5 (SD:6.1) years. A questionnaire was used that was composed of items concerning the frequency of bus passengers' accidents, performance of safe driving, job stressors, stress reaction and recognition from others. Based on the results, a model assuming that stress reaction caused by job stressors disturbed the bus driver's safe driving and was associated with passengers' accidents in the bus was verified to some degree. Especially, melancholy and tired feeling toward passengers showed a strong relation to the passengers' accidents in the bus. This suggested much room for intervention. Moreover, the recognition from others of their job was confirmed to act as a control factor of the stress reaction.

  7. Classroom Activities in School Bus and Pedestrian Safety Education. Bulletin No. 93138.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Transportation, Madison.

    School bus and related pedestrian safety education is prevention-oriented so that students will learn how to avoid bus-related accidents. This manual provides lesson plans emphasizing the school bus stop, loading and unloading zones, emergency evacuation drills, and appropriate behavior on the school bus. The guide also recognizes demographic…

  8. A uniform transit safety records system for the Commonwealth of Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    This study was conceived as the first phase of a three-phase program to develop a safety data base for intracity bus transit. It involved reviewing the state of the art of general transportation safety management, examining the current intracity bus ...

  9. Commercial bus crashes in North Carolina 1995-1999

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-04-01

    Tables and figures are shown to depict a statistical representation of commercial bus crashes in North Carolina. Information displayed includes crash frequency, crashes by county, accident severity, time of day, month of the year, class of roadway, r...

  10. Comprehensive Study of Intercity Bus Service in Nebraska

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-03-01

    This study is prompted by the proposed abandonment of regular-route intercity : bus service across northern Nebraska. The current route, which is operated by : Black Hills Stage Lines, provides service from Omaha through Norfolk and Chadron : to Rapi...

  11. How to Reduce Those Costly School Bus Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    The deterrent to school bus accidents is preparedness. Training programs for drivers and mechanics, equipment specifications, and a community support base are some of the ways to prevent tragedy. (MLF)

  12. Evolution and Operations of the Reston Virginia Commuter Bus Service

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-08-01

    The report focuses on documenting and assessing the evolution and operations of the Reston Commuter Bus (RCB). RCB is a good example of a community group overcoming many legal, regulatory, and institutional constraints to develop and refine a viable ...

  13. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE C. 1930 GREYHOUND BUS GARAGE (CURRENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE C. 1930 GREYHOUND BUS GARAGE (CURRENT USE: RESTAURANT), LOCATED AT 100 NW JACKSON AVENUE, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Corvallis Downtown Historic District, Bounded by First & Sixth Streets, Van Buren & Western Avenues, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  14. View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the current distribution "bus" atop switching cabinets within the former transformer building. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  15. Impact of congestion on bus operations and costs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-10-01

    Traffic congestion in Northern New Jersey imposes substantial operational and monetary penalty on bus service. The purpose of this project was to quantify the additional time and costs due to traffic congestion. A regression model was developed that ...

  16. Analysis of movable bus stop boarding and alighting areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using movable and reusable boarding and alighting (B&A) pads at bus stops. : Potential design alternatives in terms of materials and structural support for these pads were evaluated. The review : focused on the ...

  17. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2008. 

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2008. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  18. VHDL resolved function based inner communication bus for FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses a method of building an internal, universal and parametric bus. The solution was designed for a variety of FPGA families and popular VHDL compilers. The algorithm of automatic configuration of address space and methods of receiving and sending addressed data are discussed. The basic solution realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form and chosen examples of practical use of the internal bus are presented in detail.

  19. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  20. HEARING IMPAIRMENT AND HYPERTENSION AMONG LONG DISTANCE BUS DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of possible hearing impairment and hypertension in long distance bus drivers compared to the city bus drivers in Abha city. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 62 long distance bus drivers and 46 city bus drivers from October 2001 to March 2002. A specially-designed questionnaire was administered to the drivers to explore some of their socioeconomic backgrounds. A pure tone air conduction audiometry and blood pressure measurements were performed. Results: Long distance bus drivers’ workload is significantly higher than that of city drivers (total weekly hours 64.0±14.3 compared to 46.7±5.5). Hearing impairment was significantly more among long distance drivers in the frequencies of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz especially in the left ear even after age corrections. The prevalence of mild hearing loss and hypertension were also higher among the long distance drivers (19.4% vs 4.5% and 38.7% vs 13% respectively). Conclusion and recommendations: This study showed more hearing affection and a higher prevalence of hypertension among long distance bus drivers than their counterparts operating in the city. Their hearing acuity should be tested before they start work and regularly afterwards. The stresses and strains of the job should be further studied and relieved; and regular health checks including blood pressure monitoring are to be instituted. PMID:23012034

  1. Planning criteria for express bus-fringe parking operations : volume I of express bus-fringe parking planning methodology.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-01-01

    Tripmaker reactions to two recent express bus-fringe parking operations in Richmond and Norfolk-Virginia Beach Virginia are examined. This travel behavior's interpreted to establish planning and design guidelines for locating and designing fringe lot...

  2. Support and power plant documentation for the gas turbine powered bus demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nigro, D. N.; Stewart, R. G.; Apple, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The operational experience obtained for the GT404-4 gas turbine engines in the intercity and intracity Bus Demonstration Programs is described for the period January 1980 through September 1981. Support for the engines and automatic transmissions involved in this program provided engineering and field service, spare parts and tools, training, and factory overhauls. the Greyhound (intercity) coaches accumulated 183,054 mi (294,595 km) and 5154 hr of total operation. The Baltimore Transit (intracity) coaches accumulated 40,567 mi (65,285 km) and 1840 hr of total operation. In service, the turbine powered Greyhound and Transit coaches achieved approximately 25% and 40% lower fuel mileage, respectively, than did the production diesel powered coaches. The gas turbine engine will require the advanced ceramic development currently being sponsored by the DOE and NASA to achieve fuel economy equivalent not only to that of today's diesel engines but also to the projected fuel economy of the advanced diesel engines of the 1990s. Sufficient experience was not achieved with the coaches prior to the start of service to identify and eliminate many of the problems associated with the startup of new equipment. Because of these problems, the mean miles between incident were unacceptably low. The future gas turbine system should be developed sufficiently to establish satisfactory durability prior to evaluation in revenue service. Commercialization of the gas turbine bus engine remains a viable goal for the future.

  3. Dose-dependent efficacy of the Vitex agnus castus extract Ze 440 in patients suffering from premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Ruediger; Zimmermann, Christian; Drewe, Jürgen; Hoexter, Godehard; Zahner, Catherine

    2012-11-15

    Preparations of Vitex agnus castus L. (VAC) have been shown to be effective to treat irregular menstrual cycles, cyclical mastalgia and symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, the dose-effect relationship for the treatment of PMS has not yet been established. This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of three different doses of the VAC extract Ze 440 in comparison to placebo in patients suffering from PMS. In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 162 female patients with PMS (18-45 years) were randomized to either placebo or different doses of Ze 440 (8, 20 and 30 mg) over three menstrual cycles. PMS symptoms' severity was assessed by patients using visual analog scales (VAS) for the symptoms irritability, mood alteration, anger, headache, bloating and breast fullness. Each of the treatments was well tolerated. Improvement in the total symptom score (TSS) in the 20mg group was significantly higher than in the placebo and 8 mg treatment group. The higher dose of 30 mg, on the other hand, did not significantly decrease symptom severity compared to the 20mg treatment, providing a rational for the usage of 20mg. Corresponding results were observed with the single PMS symptom scores. This study demonstrated that the VAC extract Ze 440 was effective in relieving symptoms of PMS, when applied in a dose of 20mg. Therefore, for patients suffering from PMS, 20mg Ze 440 should be the preferred daily dose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Physics on the Bus—How About Physics on Your Bus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, Robert H.

    2004-12-01

    Riders on the buses of UMass Transit (here in the "Five-College" area) and of the University of Georgia transit system have something other than the usual "Please don't eat on the bus" placards to read—simple physics questions in the overhead advertising racks, with appealing cats and dogs posing questions, giving partial answers (some flat-out wrong, some partially correct), ending up with "What do you think? … Visit our website." One sample is given below; others can be viewed at http://www.amherst.edu/˜physicsqanda. (More often than not, the dog gets it wrong; I'm a cat person.) This project was begun in collaboration with John King and was inspired by one of the many ideas described in his 2000 Oersted Medal address.

  5. Minimizing the health and climate impacts of emissions from heavy-duty public transportation bus fleets through operational optimization.

    PubMed

    Gouge, Brian; Dowlatabadi, Hadi; Ries, Francis J

    2013-04-16

    In contrast to capital control strategies (i.e., investments in new technology), the potential of operational control strategies (e.g., vehicle scheduling optimization) to reduce the health and climate impacts of the emissions from public transportation bus fleets has not been widely considered. This case study demonstrates that heterogeneity in the emission levels of different bus technologies and the exposure potential of bus routes can be exploited though optimization (e.g., how vehicles are assigned to routes) to minimize these impacts as well as operating costs. The magnitude of the benefits of the optimization depend on the specific transit system and region. Health impacts were found to be particularly sensitive to different vehicle assignments and ranged from worst to best case assignment by more than a factor of 2, suggesting there is significant potential to reduce health impacts. Trade-offs between climate, health, and cost objectives were also found. Transit agencies that do not consider these objectives in an integrated framework and, for example, optimize for costs and/or climate impacts alone, risk inadvertently increasing health impacts by as much as 49%. Cost-benefit analysis was used to evaluate trade-offs between objectives, but large uncertainties make identifying an optimal solution challenging.

  6. Bus Support Facilities: Conditions and Needs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-01-01

    This report represents one part of the effort by the Federal Transit Administration to develop information pursuant to the requirements of Section 308 of Title 49, United States Code. Section 308 requires the Secretary of Transportation to submit, in...

  7. Data analysis for bus planning and monitoring

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-01-01

    This synthesis report will be of interest to transit agency managers, their schedule and operations planning staffs and others that are responsible for information about systems operations and ridership. It will also be of interest to others who inte...

  8. Denali National Park: bus shuttle system analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-09-01

    This is the first in a series of briefs exploring best practices in the various ways to provide transit service in national parks. While Denali operates in a unique environment, the Visitor Transportation Service experience offers many lessons relate...

  9. Producing High-Performance, Stable, Sheared-Flow Z-Pinches in the FuZE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.,; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; University of Washington (UW) Collaboration; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment (FuZE) has made significant strides towards generating high-performance, stable Z-pinch plasmas with goals of ne = 1018 cm-3 and T =1 keV. The Z-pinch plasmas are stabilized with a sheared axial flow that is driven by a coaxial accelerator. The new FuZE device has been constructed and reproduces the major scientific achievements the ZaP project at the University of Washington; ne = 1016 cm-3,T = 100 eV, r<1 cm, and tstable >20 μs. These parameters are measured with an array of magnetic field probes, spectroscopy, and fast framing cameras. The plasma parameters are achieved using a small fraction of the maximum energy storage and gas injection capability of the FuZE device. Higher density, ne = 5×1017 cm-3, and temperature, T = 500 eV, Z-pinch plasmas are formed by increasing the pinch current. At the higher voltages and currents, the ionization rates in the accelerator increase. By modifying the neutral gas profile in the accelerator, the plasma flow from the accelerator is maintained, driving the flow shear. Formation and sustainment of the sheared-flow Z-pinch plasma will be discussed. Experimental data demonstrating high performance plasmas in a stable Z-pinches will be shown. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  10. Treating intermittent allergic rhinitis: a prospective, randomized, placebo and antihistamine-controlled study of Butterbur extract Ze 339.

    PubMed

    Schapowal, Andreas

    2005-06-01

    Intermittent allergic rhinitis (IAR) causes patients distress and impairs their work performance and quality of life. A variety of medicines are used by sufferers whose anguish frequently leads to trying new treatments, increasingly from herbal sources. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparison study of Butterbur extract (Ze 339; 8 mg total petasine; one tablet thrice-daily), fexofenadine (Telfast 180, one tablet once-daily) and placebo in 330 patients. Protocol and analysis were according to the latest guidelines on new treatments for allergic rhinitis. The primary efficacy variable was a change in symptoms from baseline to endpoint during daytime. The secondary efficacy variables were: (a) as per primary variable (evening/night); (b) Physician's global assessment; (c) Responder rates. Safety was closely monitored. Both active treatments were individually significantly superior to placebo (p<0.001) in improving symptoms of IAR, while there were no differences between the two active treatments (p=0.37). Superiority to placebo was similarly shown during the evening/night (p<0.001), by physicians' own assessment and by responder rates. Both treatments were well tolerated. Butterbur Ze 339 and Fexofenadine are comparably efficacious relative to placebo. Despite being a herbal drug, Butterbur Ze 339 has now been subject to a series of well controlled trials and should be considered as an alternative treatment for IAR. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Valerian extract Ze 911 inhibits postsynaptic potentials by activation of adenosine A1 receptors in rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Vissiennon, Z; Sichardt, K; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K

    2006-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the adenosine A1 receptor-mediated effect of valerian extract (Ze 911) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in pyramidal cells of the rat cingulate cortex in a slice preparation. We first observed that N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.01 - 10 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, inhibited PSPs in a concentration-dependent manner. The CPA (10 microM)-induced inhibition was antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. Ze 911 concentration dependently (0.1 - 15 mg/mL) inhibited PSPs in the presence of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC, 0.2 microM) and adenosine deaminase (1 U/mL). The maximal inhibition induced by 10 mg/mL was completely antagonised by DPCPX (0.1 microM), an A1 receptor blocker. The data suggest that activation of adenosine A1 receptors is involved in the pharmacological effects of the valerian extract Ze 911.

  12. Improvement of multiprocessing performance by using optical centralized shared bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuliang; Chen, Ray T.

    2004-06-01

    With the ever-increasing need to solve larger and more complex problems, multiprocessing is attracting more and more research efforts. One of the challenges facing the multiprocessor designers is to fulfill in an effective manner the communications among the processes running in parallel on multiple multiprocessors. The conventional electrical backplane bus provides narrow bandwidth as restricted by the physical limitations of electrical interconnects. In the electrical domain, in order to operate at high frequency, the backplane topology has been changed from the simple shared bus to the complicated switched medium. However, the switched medium is an indirect network. It cannot support multicast/broadcast as effectively as the shared bus. Besides the additional latency of going through the intermediate switching nodes, signal routing introduces substantial delay and considerable system complexity. Alternatively, optics has been well known for its interconnect capability. Therefore, it has become imperative to investigate how to improve multiprocessing performance by utilizing optical interconnects. From the implementation standpoint, the existing optical technologies still cannot fulfill the intelligent functions that a switch fabric should provide as effectively as their electronic counterparts. Thus, an innovative optical technology that can provide sufficient bandwidth capacity, while at the same time, retaining the essential merits of the shared bus topology, is highly desirable for the multiprocessing performance improvement. In this paper, the optical centralized shared bus is proposed for use in the multiprocessing systems. This novel optical interconnect architecture not only utilizes the beneficial characteristics of optics, but also retains the desirable properties of the shared bus topology. Meanwhile, from the architecture standpoint, it fits well in the centralized shared-memory multiprocessing scheme. Therefore, a smooth migration with substantial

  13. Review and Evaluation of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) for Electric Transit Applications

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    This research report provides a status review of emerging and existing Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technologies applicable to electric bus (EB) and rail transit. The WPT technology options discussed, especially Inductive Power Transfer (IPT), enabl...

  14. Oregon regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) integration program. Final phase III report, transit tracker information displays

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-11-14

    Transit Tracker uses global positioning system (GPS) technology to track how far a bus is along its scheduled route. This document presents the evaluation strategies and objectives, the data collection methodologies, and the results of the evaluation...

  15. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets : Current Status 2014

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-03

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including d...

  16. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets : Current Status 2015

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of ...

  17. The Westport Connecticut Integrated Transit System : service and methods demonstration program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-07-01

    Report evaluates the implementation, operations and impacts of the Westport Transit District's demonstration grant to examine the feasibility of combining shared ride taxi service and other paratransit services with conventional bus services. Report ...

  18. Miami urban partnership agreement (UPA) Pines Boulevard transit signal priority evaluation .report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-09-01

    The Miami Urban Partnership Agreement included the conversion of high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-95 to high occupancy toll : (HOT) lanes and additional express bus service. It also included funding for the installation of transit signal prior...

  19. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of ...

  20. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of ...

  1. Transit accessibility and labor force participation rate of at-risk groups : Dade County

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-01

    This report examines whether transit accessibility to jobs from individual traffic analysis zones has an impact on employment of different racial/ethnic groups. Demonstrations of cross-town bus routes making suburban employment more accessible have b...

  2. Fuel Cell Transit Bus Coordination and Evaluation Plan California Fuel Cell Transit Evaluation Team, DRAFT

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-10-29

    The objective of the DOE/NREL evaluation program is to provide comprehensive, unbiased evaluation results of advanced technology vehicle development and operations, evaluation of hydrogen infrastructure development and operation, and descriptions of ...

  3. Potential Influence of Metro on Bus: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, M.; Abishek Reddy, M.; Sathish, V.; Venkatesh, R.

    2018-06-01

    A modal shift occurs when one mode of transport has a comparative advantage in a similar market over another. The present work concerns with the development of modal shift model for urban travel in Chennai, India. The modal shift model was calibrated using binary logit technique and validated using hold-out sample method. The validated model was used to predict the probability of shift in selected corridor. The recent introduction of metro rail in Chennai has lead to an increasing competition among public transport modes. To study the influence of metro on bus transport, a Stated Preference (SP) survey was conducted among express bus travellers. Using the SP survey data, a modal shift model was calibrated to estimate the plausible shift from bus to metro. Results indicate that variables like fare- difference, age, and income play an important role in the shift behaviour. When metro fare increases with respect to express bus fare, bus passengers are less willing to use metro and vice-versa.

  4. 1393 Ring Bus at JPL: Description and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry R.

    2007-01-01

    Completed Ring Bus IC V&V Phase - Ring Bus Test Plan Completed for SIM Project - Applicable to Other Projects Implemented a Avionics Bus Based upon the IEEE 1393 Standard - Excellent Starting Point for a General Purpose High-Speed Spacecraft Bus - Designed to Meet SIM Requirements for - Real-time deterministic, distributed systems. - Control system requirements - Fault detection and recovery Other JPL Projects Considering Implementation F'light Software Ring Bus Driver Module Began in 2006, Continues Participating in Standard Revision. Search for Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and measure the masses and orbits of the planets it finds. Survey 2000 nearby stars for planetary systems to learn whether our Solar System is unusual, or typical. Make a new catalog of star position 100 times more accurate than current measurements. Learn how our galaxy formed and will evolve by studying the dynamics of its stars. Critically test models of exactly how stars shine, including exotic objects like black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs.

  5. A study on some urban bus transport networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong-Zhou; Li, Nan; He, Da-Ren

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present the empirical investigation results on the urban bus transport networks (BTNs) of four major cities in China. In BTN, nodes are bus stops. Two nodes are connected by an edge when the stops are serviced by a common bus route. The empirical results show that the degree distributions of BTNs take exponential function forms. Other two statistical properties of BTNs are also considered, and they are suggested as the distributions of so-called “the number of stops in a bus route” (represented by S) and “the number of bus routes a stop joins” (by R). The distributions of R also show exponential function forms, while the distributions of S follow asymmetric, unimodal functions. To explain these empirical results and attempt to simulate a possible evolution process of BTN, we introduce a model by which the analytic and numerical result obtained agrees well with the empirical facts. Finally, we also discuss some other possible evolution cases, where the degree distribution shows a power law or an interpolation between the power law and the exponential decay.

  6. Potential Influence of Metro on Bus: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, M.; Abishek Reddy, M.; Sathish, V.; Venkatesh, R.

    2018-03-01

    A modal shift occurs when one mode of transport has a comparative advantage in a similar market over another. The present work concerns with the development of modal shift model for urban travel in Chennai, India. The modal shift model was calibrated using binary logit technique and validated using hold-out sample method. The validated model was used to predict the probability of shift in selected corridor. The recent introduction of metro rail in Chennai has lead to an increasing competition among public transport modes. To study the influence of metro on bus transport, a Stated Preference (SP) survey was conducted among express bus travellers. Using the SP survey data, a modal shift model was calibrated to estimate the plausible shift from bus to metro. Results indicate that variables like fare-difference, age, and income play an important role in the shift behaviour. When metro fare increases with respect to express bus fare, bus passengers are less willing to use metro and vice-versa.

  7. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  8. Bus operators' responses to job strain: An experimental test of the job demand-control model.

    PubMed

    Cendales-Ayala, Boris; Useche, Sergio Alejandro; Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Bocarejo, Juan Pablo

    2017-10-01

    The research aim was to test the Job Demand-Control (JDC) Model demands × Control interaction (or buffering) hypothesis in a simulated bus driving experiment. The buffering hypothesis was tested using a 2 (low and high demands) × 2 (low and high decision latitude) design with repeated measures on the second factor. A sample of 80 bus operators were randomly assigned to the low (n = 40) and high demands (n = 40) conditions. Demands were manipulated by increasing or reducing the number of stops to pick up passengers, and decision latitude by imposing or removing restrictions on the Rapid Transit Bus (BRT) operators' pace of work. Outcome variables include physiological markers (heart rate [HR], heart rate variability [HRV], breathing rate [BR], electromyography [EMG], and skin conductance [SC]), objective driving performance and self-report measurements of psychological wellbeing (psychological distress, interest/enjoyment [I/E], perceived competence, effort/importance [E/I], and pressure/tension [P/T]). It was found that job decision latitude moderates the effect of job demands on both physiological arousal (BR: F(1, 74) = 4.680, p = .034, SC: F(1, 75) = 6.769, p = .011, and EMG: F(1, 75) = 6.550, p = .013) and psychological well-being (P/T: F(1, 75) = 4.289, p = .042 and I/E: F(1, 74) = 4.548, p = .036). Consistently with the JDC model buffering hypothesis, the experimental findings suggest that increasing job decision latitude can moderate the negative effect of job demands on different psychophysiological outcomes. This finding is useful for designing organizational and clinical interventions in an occupational group at high risk of work stress-related disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. 76 FR 68813 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public transportation, or private non... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Livability... Transportation's (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of projects funded under two...

  10. Experimental and Numerical Study on Supersonic Ejectors Working with R-1234ze(E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracik, Jan; Dvorak, Vaclav; Nguyen Van, Vu; Smierciew, Kamil

    2018-06-01

    These days, much effort is being put into lowering the consumption of electric energy and involving renewable energy sources. Many engineers and designers are trying to develop environment-friendly technologies worldwide. It is related to incorporating appropriate devices into such technologies. The object of this paper is to investigate these devices in connection with refrigeration systems. Ejectors can be considered such as these devices. The primary interest of this paper is to investigate the suitability of a numerical model for an ejector, which is incorporated into a refrigeration system. In the present paper, there have been investigated seven different test runs of working of the ejector with a working fluid R-1234ze(E). Some of the investigated cases seem to have a good agreement and there are no significant discrepancies between them, however, there are also cases that do not correspond to the experimental data at all. The ejector has been investigated in both on-design and off-design working modes. A comparison between the experimental and numerical data (CFD) performed by Ansys Fluent software is presented and discussed for both an ideal and a real gas model. In addition, an enhanced analytical model has been introduced for all runs of the ejector.

  11. Astrophysical ZeV acceleration in the jets from an accreting blackhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Toshiki; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Mizuta, Akira

    2017-10-01

    An accreting blackhole produces extreme amplitude Alfven waves whose wavelength (wave packet) size is characterized by its clumsiness. The ponderomotive force driven by the bow wake of these Alfven waves propagates along the AGN (blazar) jet, and accelerates protons/nuclei to extreme energies beyond Zetta-electron volt (ZeV = 1021 eV). Such acceleration is linear and does not suffer from the multiple scattering/bending involved in the Fermi acceleration that causes excessive synchrotron radiation loss beyond 1019 eV. This bow wake acceleration was confirmed one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. General relativistic Magneto-hydrodynamics simulations also show the intermittent eruptions of electro-magnetic waves from the innermost region of the accretion disk around a black hole. The production rate of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in M82 starburst galaxy is estimated from its gamma-ray luminosity and is found to be consistent with the observed flux of the northern hot spot by Telescope Array. We will discuss the possible acceleration in an intermediate mass black hole candidate M82 X-1 and the magnetic bending in the cosmological filaments in the local super cluster.

  12. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FuZE Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Harry S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on a flow-stabilized Z-pinch. Experiments performed on the ZaP and ZaP-HD devices have largely demonstrated the basic physics of sheared-flow stabilization at pinch currents up to 100 kA. Initial experiments on the FuZE device, a high-power upgrade of ZaP, have achieved 20 usec of stability at pinch current 100-200 kA and pinch diameter few mm for a pinch length of 50 cm. Scaling calculations based on a quasi-steady-state power balance show that extending stable duration to 100 usec at a pinch current of 1.5 MA and pinch length of 50 cm, results in a reactor plant Q 5. Future performance milestones are proposed for pinch currents of: 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1-2 keV; 700 kA, where DT fusion power would be expected to exceed pinch input power; and 1 MA, where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734770.

  13. The neurocognitive effects of Hypericum perforatum Special Extract (Ze 117) during smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Camfield, D A; Scholey, A B; Pipingas, A; Silberstein, R B; Kure, C; Zangara, A; Kras, M; Stough, C

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of current treatments for smoking cessation are relatively poor. More research is required to address the biological mechanisms underpinning nicotine withdrawal and drug treatments for smoking cessation. We assessed the neurocognitive effects of Remotiv® (Hypericum perforatum Special Extract - Ze 117), Nicabate CQ Nicotine Replacement therapy (NRT) and combined NRT/HP during conditions of smoking abstinence in 20 regular smokers aged between 18 and 60 years over a period of 10 weeks during smoking cessation. A Spatial Working Memory (SWM) task was completed at baseline, 4 weeks prior to quitting, as well as at the completion of the study, following the 10 weeks of treatment. Brain activity was recorded during the completion of the SWM task using Steady-State Probe Topography. Reaction time and accuracy on the SWM task were not found to be significantly different between treatment groups at retest. Differences in SSVEP treatment profiles at retest are discussed, including stronger SSVEP Amplitude increase in posterior-parietal regions for the HP and NRT groups and greater fronto-central SSVEP Phase Advance in the HP group. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Autonomous dial-a-ride transit : benefit-cost evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-08-01

    Among public transit and for-hire modes, fixed-route bus and rail are most effective in maintaining high ridership in high density areas such as urban centers. The cost effectiveness of fixed-route transit, however, depends on close proximity to the ...

  16. Spatial analysis of bus transport networks using network theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmukhappa, Tanuja; Ho, Ivan Wang-Hei; Tse, Chi Kong

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze the bus transport network (BTN) structure considering the spatial embedding of the network for three cities, namely, Hong Kong (HK), London (LD), and Bengaluru (BL). We propose a novel approach called supernode graph structuring for modeling the bus transport network. A static demand estimation procedure is proposed to assign the node weights by considering the points of interests (POIs) and the population distribution in the city over various localized zones. In addition, the end-to-end delay is proposed as a parameter to measure the topological efficiency of the bus networks instead of the shortest distance measure used in previous works. With the aid of supernode graph representation, important network parameters are analyzed for the directed, weighted and geo-referenced bus transport networks. It is observed that the supernode concept has significant advantage in analyzing the inherent topological behavior. For instance, the scale-free and small-world behavior becomes evident with supernode representation as compared to conventional or regular graph representation for the Hong Kong network. Significant improvement in clustering, reduction in path length, and increase in centrality values are observed in all the three networks with supernode representation. The correlation between topologically central nodes and the geographically central nodes reveals the interesting fact that the proposed static demand estimation method for assigning node weights aids in better identifying the geographically significant nodes in the network. The impact of these geographically significant nodes on the local traffic behavior is demonstrated by simulation using the SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility) tool which is also supported by real-world empirical data, and our results indicate that the traffic speed around a particular bus stop can reach a jammed state from a free flow state due to the presence of these geographically important nodes. A comparison

  17. High Performance ZVT with Bus Clamping Modulation Technique for Single Phase Full Bridge Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yinglai; Ayyanar, Raja

    2016-03-20

    This paper proposes a topology based on bus clamping modulation and zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) technique to realize zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) for all the main switches of the full bridge inverters, and inherent ZVS and/or ZCS for the auxiliary switches. The advantages of the strategy include significant reduction in the turn-on loss of the ZVT auxiliary switches which typically account for a major part of the total loss in other ZVT circuits, and reduction in the voltage ratings of auxiliary switches. The modulation scheme and the commutation stages are analyzed in detail. Finally, a 1kW, 500 kHz switching frequency inverter of the proposedmore » topology using SiC MOSFETs has been built to validate the theoretical analysis. The ZVT with bus clamping modulation technique of fixed timing and adaptive timing schemes are implemented in DSP TMS320F28335 resulting in full ZVS for the main switches in the full bridge inverter. The proposed scheme can save up to 33 % of the switching loss compared with no ZVT case.« less

  18. Design of temperature monitoring system based on CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    The remote temperature monitoring system based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is designed to collect the multi-node remote temperature. By using the STM32F103 as main controller and multiple DS18B20s as temperature sensors, the system achieves a master-slave node data acquisition and transmission based on the CAN bus protocol. And making use of the serial port communication technology to communicate with the host computer, the system achieves the function of remote temperature storage, historical data show and the temperature waveform display.

  19. Objectification of Public Bus Stop's Pavement Surface Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decký, Martin; Kováč, Matúš; Mužík, Juraj; Mičechová, Lenka; Ďuriš, Lukáš

    2018-06-01

    The article deals with the road pavement surface morphology objectification in term of the surface unevenness degradation during the life cycle of bus stop pavements. The article presents the results of long-term rut depth measurements performed during 25 years on selected bus stops which were intended to determine correlation dependences of pavement rut depth on a number of design axles. The article also presents different methods for rut depth measurements including the straightedge test, Profilograph GE, TRIMBLE CX, and dynamic Road Scanner.

  20. An evaluation of the Shirley Highway Express-Bus-on-Freeway Demonstration Project.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-01-01

    The Shirley Highway Express-Bus-on-Freeway Demonstration Project was initiated to test the hypothesis that the provision of rapid and convenient bus service over an exclusive lane would attract significant numbers of automobile passengers. Such a div...

  1. Shared-use bus priority lanes on city streets : case studies in design and management

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-01

    This report examines the policies and strategies governing the design and, especially, operations of bus lanes in major congested urban centers. It focuses on bus lanes that operate in mixed traffic conditions; the study does not examine practices co...

  2. Overview of drug and alcohol use among large truck and bus drivers, 2011–13.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-01

    This report provides a broad overview of drug and alcohol usage among large truck and bus drivers for 201113. Data sources for the overview are: testing results from motor carrier drug testing programs, roadside inspections on large trucks and bus...

  3. Development and evaluation of a pedestrian safety training program for elementary school bus riders

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a comprehensive pedestrian safety program for elementary (kindergarten through grade 6) school bus riders. Existing materials, crash data and state laws/regulations on school bus pedestrian safe...

  4. Performance Evaluation of UHF RFID Technologies for Real-Time Bus Recognition in the Taipei Bus Station

    PubMed Central

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses. PMID:23778192

  5. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection. S1. Scope. This standard establishes performance requirements for school bus rollover protection. S2...

  6. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and... VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.222 Standard No. 222; School bus... requirements for school bus passenger seating and restraining barriers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this...

  7. Effect of bus-stop spacing on mobile emissions in urban areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-01-01

    The operational effect of bus-stop spacing has been a critical issue. Closely spaced bus stops : disrupt the traffic flow on the bus route, particularly during peak hours because buses make frequent stops : to provide services to customers. The disru...

  8. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  9. School Bus Rider Safety Education Modules for Use with Drills on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Physical Education, Fitness, Health, Nutrition and Safety Services.

    Developed for teachers and members of the pupil transportation staff who conduct school bus drills, these 10 lesson outlines are intended for classroom instruction on school bus safety. Lessons may be adapted to fit the grade level, intelligence, and special needs of students. Topics covered are: preparing to ride the bus, boarding and proceeding…

  10. The Role of the Coroner in School Bus Accident Prevention: Some Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Following the deaths of two elementary school students in bus-related accidents in 1992, the Coroner of Quebec held extensive hearings investigating school bus safety and accident prevention. A subsequent report addressed responsibilities of government and school board officials to correct deficiencies in school bus services and provided…

  11. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  12. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Behavior on a Nursery School Bus: A Case Study.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Carol; Miller, Edward

    1973-01-01

    A case study is presented in which aggressive behavior of two pre-school boys on a nursery school bus was modified by the introduction of a negative punishment contingency in which the Ss were told they would be detained on the bus until the second time the bus passed their house (delay of reinforcement) if abusive behavior occurred. (Author)

  13. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for the school bus endorsement must satisfy the... for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and procedures for safely...

  14. What's Happening on the School Bus Performance Front?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Hanford L.

    The most urgent order of business in the national scene is to complete the development of a series of new performance tests for school bus bodies and chassis to establish a benchmark for safe construction that can be verified by independent testing agencies. Such performance tests should incorporate the new Federal Joint Strength Efficiency…

  15. Fatigue factors affecting metropolitan bus drivers: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Herbert; Dingsdag, Donald; Stenson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan bus drivers daily face work in a stressful and draining work environment, exposing them to the serious risk of driver fatigue. However, there has been a dearth of information exploring the unique antecedents and effects of such fatigue. To date, much of the research into metropolitan bus drivers has been under the umbrella of large heavy vehicle driving studies, which include a disproportionally large population of long-haul drivers, who are likely to face a significantly different set of fatigue factors [1]. The present study aimed to investigate which work and environmental factors may cause fatigue in metropolitan bus drivers by seeking drivers' own perspectives on the issues. To this end, focus groups were held at five bus depots in Sydney and Newcastle, with an effort made to include a stratified sample of drivers at each. Each of the groups were invited to nominate what factors they felt were most salient, with a number of common factors emerging across the depots. Key themes identified were: support from management; ticketing and related issues; interaction with passengers; cabin ergonomics; tight route schedules; turn-around and shift irregularity; extended shift cycles; interactions with other road users; and extended commute times.

  16. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  17. Manual of First Aid Practices for School Bus Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, William R.

    This manual is intended to assist local school authorities in California in providing the required course in instruction in first aid practices for school bus drivers. While it deals with basic principles of handling serious medical emergencies, major emphasis is on minor injuries or illnesses that are most likely to occur while students are…

  18. School Bus Safety Advisory Committee: 1999 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenberry, Dennis; Anderson, Barbara

    This report summarizes the deliberations and recommendations of Minnesota's School Bus Safety Advisory Committee (SBSAC). The committee, which operates under the auspices of the Minnesota Department of Public Safety, is charged to study issues affecting the safety of students on school buses, arrive at consensus on ways to improve student safety…

  19. Legal Self-Defense after a Bus Crash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ron

    1992-01-01

    After a South Carolina school bus accident, involving the death of an automobile driver, the district was faced with a lawsuit. Advises school administrators not to rely on police authorities to gather all the evidence but to compile a thorough school-system accident report, written in close cooperation with a school attorney. Lists report…

  20. Interface For MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic control-logic subsystem acts as interface between microcontroller and MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Subsystem made of relatively small number of integrated circuits. Advantages include low power, few integrated-circuit chips, and little need for control signals.