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Sample records for zealand intensive care

  1. Some prehistory of New Zealand intensive care medicine.

    PubMed

    Trubuhovich, R V

    2009-07-01

    In taking 1960 as the foundation year for the practice of intensive care medicine in New Zealand, this paper briefly looks into the previous two centuries for some interventions in life-threatening conditions. With the help of descriptions in early 19th century journals and books by perceptive observers, the author focuses on some beliefs and practices of the Maori people during pre-European and later times, as well as aspects of medical treatment in New Zealand for early settlers and their descendents. Dr Laurie Gluckman's book Tangiwai has proved a valuable resource for New Zealand's medical history prior to 1860, while the recent publication of his findings from the examination of coroners' records for Auckland, 1841 to 1864, has been helpful. Drowning is highlighted as a common cause of accidental death, and consideration is given to alcohol as a factor. Following the 1893 foundation of the New Zealand Medical Journal, a limited number of its papers which are historically relevant to today's intensive care are explored: topics include tetanus, laryngeal diphtheria, direct cardiac massage, traumatic shock, thiopentone management for fitting and the ventilatory failure due to poliomyelitis.

  2. Sample size calculations for cluster randomised crossover trials in Australian and New Zealand intensive care research.

    PubMed

    Arnup, Sarah J; McKenzie, Joanne E; Pilcher, David; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Forbes, Andrew B

    2018-06-01

    The cluster randomised crossover (CRXO) design provides an opportunity to conduct randomised controlled trials to evaluate low risk interventions in the intensive care setting. Our aim is to provide a tutorial on how to perform a sample size calculation for a CRXO trial, focusing on the meaning of the elements required for the calculations, with application to intensive care trials. We use all-cause in-hospital mortality from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database clinical registry to illustrate the sample size calculations. We show sample size calculations for a two-intervention, two 12-month period, cross-sectional CRXO trial. We provide the formulae, and examples of their use, to determine the number of intensive care units required to detect a risk ratio (RR) with a designated level of power between two interventions for trials in which the elements required for sample size calculations remain constant across all ICUs (unstratified design); and in which there are distinct groups (strata) of ICUs that differ importantly in the elements required for sample size calculations (stratified design). The CRXO design markedly reduces the sample size requirement compared with the parallel-group, cluster randomised design for the example cases. The stratified design further reduces the sample size requirement compared with the unstratified design. The CRXO design enables the evaluation of routinely used interventions that can bring about small, but important, improvements in patient care in the intensive care setting.

  3. Secretion clearance strategies in Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Ntoumenopoulos, George; Hammond, Naomi; Watts, Nicola R; Thompson, Kelly; Hanlon, Gabrielle; Paratz, Jennifer D; Thomas, Peter

    2017-06-26

    To describe the processes of care for secretion clearance in adult, intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Units (ICUs). A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted through the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) Point Prevalence Program. Forty-seven ICUs collected data from 230 patients intubated and ventilated on the study day. Secretion clearance techniques beyond standard suctioning were used in 84/230 (37%) of patients during the study period. Chest wall vibration 34/84 (40%), manual lung hyperinflation 24/84 (29%), chest wall percussion 20/84 (24%), postural drainage/patient positioning 17/84 (20%) and other techniques including mobilisation 15/84 (18%), were the most common secretion clearance techniques employed. On average (SD), patients received airway suctioning 8.8 (5.0) times during the 24-h study period. Mucus plugging events were infrequent (2.7%). The additional secretion clearance techniques were provided by physiotherapy staff in 24/47 (51%) ICUs and by both nursing and physiotherapy staff in the remaining 23/47 (49%) ICUs. One-third of intubated and ventilated patients received additional secretion clearance techniques. Mucus plugging events were infrequent with these additional secretion clearance approaches. Prospective studies must examine additional secretion clearance practices, prevalence of mucus plugging episodes and impact on patient outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intensive care unit mobility practices in Australia and New Zealand: a point prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Berney, Susan C; Harrold, Megan; Webb, Steven A; Seppelt, Ian; Patman, Shane; Thomas, Peter J; Denehy, Linda

    2013-12-01

    To develop a comprehensive set of items describing physiotherapy mobilisation practices for critically ill patients, and to document current practices in intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand, focusing on patients having > 48 hours of mechanical ventilation. Prospective, observational, multicentre, single-day, point prevalence study. All patients in 38 Australian and New Zealand ICUs at 10 am on one of three designated days in 2009 and 2010. Demographic data, admission diagnosis and mobilisation practices that had occurred in the previous 24 hours. 514 patients were enrolled, with 498 complete datasets. Mean age was 59.2 years (SD, 16.7 years) and 45% were mechanically ventilated. Mobilisation activities were classified into five categories that were not mutually exclusive: 140 patients (28%) completed an in-bed exercise regimen, 93 (19%) sat over the side of the bed, 182 (37%) sat out of bed, 124 (25%) stood and 89 (18%) walked. Predefined adverse events occurred on 24 occasions (5%). No patient requiring mechanical ventilation sat out of bed or walked. On the study day, 391 patients had been in ICU for > 48 hours. There were 384 complete datasets available for analysis and, of these, 332 patients (86%) were not walked. Of those not walked, 76 (23%) were in the ICU for ≥ 7 days. Patient mobilisation was shown to be low in a single-day point prevalence study. Future observational studies are required to confirm the results.

  5. Identifying unusual performance in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units from 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Adult Patient Database (APD) collects voluntary data on patient admissions to Australian and New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs). This paper presents an in-depth statistical analysis of risk-adjusted mortality of ICU admissions from 2000 to 2010 for the purpose of identifying ICUs with unusual performance. Methods A cohort of 523,462 patients from 144 ICUs was analysed. For each ICU, the natural logarithm of the standardised mortality ratio (log-SMR) was estimated from a risk-adjusted, three-level hierarchical model. This is the first time a three-level model has been fitted to such a large ICU database anywhere. The analysis was conducted in three stages which included the estimation of a null distribution to describe usual ICU performance. Log-SMRs with appropriate estimates of standard errors are presented in a funnel plot using 5% false discovery rate thresholds. False coverage-statement rate confidence intervals are also presented. The observed numbers of deaths for ICUs identified as unusual are compared to the predicted true worst numbers of deaths under the model for usual ICU performance. Results Seven ICUs were identified as performing unusually over the period 2000 to 2010, in particular, demonstrating high risk-adjusted mortality compared to the majority of ICUs. Four of the seven were ICUs in private hospitals. Our three-stage approach to the analysis detected outlying ICUs which were not identified in a conventional (single) risk-adjusted model for mortality using SMRs to compare ICUs. We also observed a significant linear decline in mortality over the decade. Distinct yearly and weekly respiratory seasonal effects were observed across regions of Australia and New Zealand for the first time. Conclusions The statistical approach proposed in this paper is intended to be used for the review of observed ICU and hospital mortality. Two important messages from our study are

  6. Identifying unusual performance in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Patricia J; Kasza, Jessica; Moran, John L

    2014-04-22

    The Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Adult Patient Database (APD) collects voluntary data on patient admissions to Australian and New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs). This paper presents an in-depth statistical analysis of risk-adjusted mortality of ICU admissions from 2000 to 2010 for the purpose of identifying ICUs with unusual performance. A cohort of 523,462 patients from 144 ICUs was analysed. For each ICU, the natural logarithm of the standardised mortality ratio (log-SMR) was estimated from a risk-adjusted, three-level hierarchical model. This is the first time a three-level model has been fitted to such a large ICU database anywhere. The analysis was conducted in three stages which included the estimation of a null distribution to describe usual ICU performance. Log-SMRs with appropriate estimates of standard errors are presented in a funnel plot using 5% false discovery rate thresholds. False coverage-statement rate confidence intervals are also presented. The observed numbers of deaths for ICUs identified as unusual are compared to the predicted true worst numbers of deaths under the model for usual ICU performance. Seven ICUs were identified as performing unusually over the period 2000 to 2010, in particular, demonstrating high risk-adjusted mortality compared to the majority of ICUs. Four of the seven were ICUs in private hospitals. Our three-stage approach to the analysis detected outlying ICUs which were not identified in a conventional (single) risk-adjusted model for mortality using SMRs to compare ICUs. We also observed a significant linear decline in mortality over the decade. Distinct yearly and weekly respiratory seasonal effects were observed across regions of Australia and New Zealand for the first time. The statistical approach proposed in this paper is intended to be used for the review of observed ICU and hospital mortality. Two important messages from our study are firstly, that comprehensive risk

  7. Certainty and uncertainty about end of life care nursing practices in New Zealand Intensive Care Units: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Maureen; Fulbrook, Paul; Donovan, Sarah; Tester, Rachel; deVries, Kay

    2015-05-01

    With end-of-life (EOL) central to the nursing role in intensive care, few studies have been undertaken to explore EOL care in the context of New Zealand (NZ) intensive care nursing. To investigate NZ intensive care nurses' experiences of, and attitudes towards EOL care. Sequential mixed methods study using cross sectional survey with follow-on focus groups. NZ intensive care nurses (N=465) across four large tertiary intensive care units (ICUs) were contacted to complete a 43-item web-based survey. A follow-on focus group was conducted in each of the sites to explore specific aspects of the survey findings. 203 fully completed surveys were returned (response rate 44%) from the four ICUs. Over half of nurses surveyed (55%, n=111) disagreed that withholding and withdrawing life support treatment were ethically the same. 78% (n=159) of nurses stated that withholding treatment was ethically more acceptable than withdrawing it. Whilst nurses generally supported reducing inspired oxygen to air for ventilated patients at EOL (71%, n=139) this was also an area that demonstrated one of the highest levels of uncertainty (21%, n=41). Just under a quarter of respondents were also uncertain about the use of continued nutritional support, continued passive limb exercises and use of deep sedation during EOL. The 18 nurses who participated in follow-on focus groups detailed the supportive, culturally sensitive, collaborative environment that EOL was conducted in. However diverse opinions and understandings were held on the use of passive limb and use of fluids at EOL. Whilst results from this NZ study broadly align with European studies, uncertainty about specific areas of EOL practices highlight that further guidance for nurses is required. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Target CLAB Zero: A national improvement collaborative to reduce central line-associated bacteraemia in New Zealand intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jonathon; Proudfoot, Suzanne; Power, Maxine; Bennett, Brandon; Wells, Sue; Seddon, Mary

    2015-09-04

    Central line-associated bacteraemia (CLAB) is a preventable cause of patient morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Target CLAB Zero was a national campaign that ran from October 2011 to March 2013 across all New Zealand ICUs (intensive care units). The campaign aimed to reduce the national CLAB rate to less than one incident per 1,000 line days and to establish a national measurement system for CLAB. We used Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Breakthrough Series methodology to structure the campaign. IHI bundles of care for catheter insertion and maintenance were implemented across 25 New Zealand ICUs. We collected monthly data on line days, CLAB infections and compliance with the bundles. Data were analysed using run charts. The rate of CLAB per 1,000 line days fell from 3.32 at baseline to an average of 0.28 between April 2012 and March 2013. In the final 3-month period, January to March 2013, average insertion bundle compliance was 80% and average maintenance bundle compliance was 75%. All ICUs participated in the collaborative. Over 90% of those invited attended all three national learning sessions and bi-monthly regional learning sessions. National collaboratives can effect improvement and shared learning in New Zealand. International evidence combined with New Zealand experience, a supportive methodology, partnership, clinical respect and an effective communication plan were keys to successful engagement.

  9. Research nurses in New Zealand intensive care units: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Mackle, Diane; Nelson, Katherine

    2018-04-20

    This study explored the role of the research nurse in New Zealand (NZ) Level III intensive care units (ICU). Little was known about this role in NZ prior to this study. To describe the role and responsibilities of NZ ICU research nurses. A qualitative, descriptive approach, using semi structured interviews was used. The study was conducted in six Level III ICUs throughout NZ that employed a research nurse. Interviews were conducted with research nurses (n = 11), principal investigators (n = 6) and nurse managers (n = 6), and the findings were triangulated. The views across all ICUs and stakeholders were generally similar, with differences only being in some operational areas. This study found that the primary role of the research nurse was trial management, where they coordinated all elements of trial conduct. Almost half of the research nurses were involved in trial design through their positions on management committees. Research nurses also played a vital role in patient and trial advocacy, and they bridged the knowledge gap by bringing research to staff nurses, patients and their families. The majority of research nurses reported to a nursing line manager, and had an informal accountability to the PI. The role of NZ ICU research nurses is similar to their international counterparts. This study provides clarity about the research nurse role and showcases their key contribution in ensuring that NZ ICUs undertake high quality research, thus contributing to potential improvements for future patients' outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Endotracheal suction in intensive care: A point prevalence study of current practice in New Zealand and Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilder, Eileen; Parke, Rachael L; Jull, Andrew

    2018-04-14

    Despite the evidence and available guidelines about endotracheal suction (ETS), a discrepancy between published guidelines and clinical practice persists. To date, ETS practice in the adult intensive care unit (ICU) population across New Zealand and Australia has not been described. To describe ICU nurses' ETS practice in New Zealand and Australia including the triggers for performing endotracheal suction. A single day, prospective observational, binational, multicentre point prevalence study in New Zealand and Australian ICUs. All adult patients admitted at 10:00 on the study day were included. In addition to patient demographic data, we assessed triggers for ETS, suction canister pressures, use of preoxygenation, measures of oxygenation, and ETS at extubation. There were 682 patients in the ICUs on the study day, and 230 were included in the study. Three of 230 patients were excluded for missing data. A total of 1891 ETS events were performed on 227 patients during the study day, a mean of eight interventions per patient. The main triggers reported were audible (n = 385, 63%) and visible (n = 239, 39%) secretions. Less frequent triggers included following auscultation (n = 142, 23%), reduced oxygen saturations (n = 140, 22%), and ventilator waveforms (n = 53, 9%). Mean suction canister pressure was -337 mmHg (standard deviation = 189), 67% of patients received preoxygenation (n = 413), and ETS at extubation was performed by 84% of nurses. Some practices were inconsistent with international guidelines, in particular concerning patient assessment for ETS and suction canister pressure. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluid bolus therapy in critically ill children: a survey of practice among paediatric intensive care doctors in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gelbart, Ben; Schlapbach, Luregn; Ganeshalingham, Anusha; Ganu, Subodh; Erickson, Simon; Oberender, Felix; Hoq, Monsurul; Williams, Gary; George, Shane; Festa, Marino

    2018-06-01

    Fluid bolus therapy (FBT) is a widely used intervention in paediatric critical illness. The aim of this study was to describe the attitudes and practices towards FBT of paediatric intensive care doctors in Australia and New Zealand. An internet-based survey of paediatric intensive care doctors in Australia and New Zealand between 7 and 30 November 2016. Paediatric intensive care units with greater than 400 admissions annually. Paediatric intensive care specialists and junior medical staff. Preferences for FBT and markers of fluid responsiveness. There were 106/175 respondents (61%); 0.9% saline and 4% albumin are used frequently or almost always by 86% and 57% of respondents respectively. The preferred volume and duration were 10 mL/kg in less than 10 minutes. The highest rated markers of fluid responsiveness were heart rate and blood pressure - rated as "good" or "very good" by 75% and 58% of respondents respectively. Central venous saturations and serum lactate were the highest rated biochemical markers. The most frequently expected magnitude of change for heart rate and blood pressure was 6-15% by 89% and 76% of respondents respectively. The preferred fluid composition for sepsis, trauma, traumatic brain injury and acute lung injury was 0.9% saline, and 4% albumin for post-operative cardiac surgery. Paediatric intensive care doctors prefer 0.9% saline and 4% albumin for FBT. Heart rate and blood pressure are the most preferred markers to assess fluid responsiveness. Preferences for FBT in specific conditions exist.

  12. The provision of family-centred intensive care bereavement support in Australia and New Zealand: Results of a cross sectional explorative descriptive survey.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marion; Coombs, Maureen; Wetzig, Krista

    2017-05-01

    Caring for the bereaved is an intrinsic part of intensive care practice with family bereavement support an important aspect of the nursing role at end of life. However, reporting on provision of intensive care family bereavement support at a national level has not been well reported since an Australian paper published ten years ago. The objective was to investigate provision of family bereavement support in intensive care units (ICU) across New Zealand (NZ) and Australia. A cross-sectional exploratory descriptive web-based survey was used. All ICUs [public/private, neonatal/pediatrics/adults] were included. The survey was distributed to one nursing leader from each identified ICU (n=229; 188 in Australia, 41 in NZ). Internal validity of the survey was established through piloting. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Ethical approval was received by the ethics committees of two universities. One-hundred and fifty-three (67%) responses were received from across New Zealand and Australia with 69.3% of respondents from the public sector. Whilst respondents reported common bereavement practices to include debriefing for staff after a traumatic death (87.9%), there was greater variation in sending a sympathy card to families (NZ 54.2%, Australia 20.8%). Fifty percent of responding New Zealand units had a bereavement follow-up service compared to 28.3% of Australian unit respondents. Of those with follow-up services, 92.3% of New Zealand units undertook follow-up calls to families compared to 76.5% of Australian units. Bereavement follow-up services were mainly managed by social workers in Australia and nursing staff in New Zealand. This is the first Australia and New Zealand-wide survey on ICU bereavement support services. Whilst key components of family bereavement support remain consistent over the past decade, there were fewer bereavement follow-up services in responding Australian ICUs in 2015. As a quality improvement initiative, support for this

  13. ICU staffing: identification and survey of staff involved in providing technical support services to Australian and New Zealand intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Carter, B G; Kiraly, N; Hochmann, M; Stephens, R; Osborne, A

    2007-04-01

    We conducted a survey of all (200) Australian and New Zealand intensive care units to determine the presence and nature of staff employed in a technical support role. Specifically, we attempted to identify staff who are formally employed in a role where they are directly responsible for the equipment used in intensive care. Of 130 returned surveys, 80 units (62%) reported not having any personnel in this role. In these units technical tasks were most commonly performed by registered nurses (79%) but were also performed by a variety of other personnel. Fifty units (38%), consisting of approximately 105 individuals providing a total of 84.3 EFTs and most commonly in public (84%) or metropolitan (70%) hospitals or level 3 (64%) intensive care units, did have one or more staff acting in a formal technical support role. The most common groups filling the technical support role were nurses (42%), technicians (24%), biomedical engineers (10%) and technologists (6%). The most common duties performed were equipment troubleshooting (92%), training (80%), equipment evaluation (80%), ordering supplies (77%), consumable evaluation (75%), equipment cleaning (73%), delivery of supplies (70%), handling product recalls (65%), equipment maintenance (65%) and sitting on hospital committees (52%). This is the first attempt to identify and understand the technical support role in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units. Numerous issues remain and future work will hopefully add to our findings, with the possibility of formal recognition of the role, training and/or accreditation and its extension into other hospital departments.

  14. A cross-sectional survey of Australian and New Zealand public opinion on methods totriage intensive care patients in an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Winston; Myburgh, John; McGuinness, Shay; Chalmers, Debra; Parke, Rachael; Blyth, Fiona; Seppelt, Ian; Parr, Michael; Hooker, Claire; Blackwell, Nikki; DeMonte, Shannon; Gandhi, Kalpesh; Kol, Mark; Kerridge, Ian; Nair, Priya; Saunders, Nicholas M; Saxena, Manoj K; Thanakrishnan, Govindasamy; Naganathan, Vasi

    2017-09-01

    An influenza pandemic has the potential to overwhelm intensive care resources, but the views of the general public on how resources should be allocated in such a scenario were unknown. We aimed to determine Australian and New Zealand public opinion on how intensive care unit beds should be allocated during an influenza pandemic. A postal questionnaire was sent to 4000 randomly selected registered voters; 2000 people each from the Australian Electoral Commission and New Zealand Electoral Commission rolls. The respondents' preferred method to triage ICU patients in an influenza pandemic. Respondents chose from six methods: use a "first in, first served" approach; allow a senior doctor to decide; use pre-determined health department criteria; use random selection; use the patient's ability to pay; use the importance of the patient to decide. Respondents also rated each of the triage methods for fairness. Australian respondents preferred that patients be triaged to the ICU either by a senior doctor (43.2%) or by pre-determined health department criteria (38.7%). New Zealand respondents preferred that triage be performed by a senior doctor (45.9%). Respondents from both countries perceived triage by a senior doctor and by pre-determined health department criteria to be fair, and the other four methods of triage to be unfair. In an influenza pandemic, when ICU resources would be overwhelmed, survey respondents preferred that ICU triage be performed by a senior doctor, but also perceived the use of pre-determined triage criteria to be fair.

  15. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the critically ill: a point prevalence survey of current practice in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Megan S; Nichol, Alistair D; Higgins, Alisa M; Bailey, Michael J; Presneill, Jeffrey J; Cooper, D James; Webb, Steven A; McArthur, Colin; MacIsaac, Christopher M

    2010-03-01

    Critically ill patients are at high risk of morbidity and mortality caused by venous thromboembolism (VTE). In addition to premorbid predisposing conditions, critically ill patients may be exposed to prolonged immobility, invasive intravascular catheters and frequent operative procedures, and further may have contraindications to pharmaceutical prophylactic measures designed to attenuate VTE risk. There are limited data describing current VTE prophylaxis regimens in Australia and New Zealand. To document current Australian and New Zealand management of VTE prophylaxis in a large mixed cohort of critically ill patients. Prospective, multicentre point prevalence survey endorsed by the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG). 30 public hospital ICUs in Australia and New Zealand surveyed on Wednesday 9 May 2007. For all patients in each ICU on the study day, demographic data, admission diagnosis and information on VTE prophylaxis were prospectively collected. 502 patients were included in the survey, and 431 of these (86%) received VTE prophylaxis. Of these, 64% (276/431) received pharmacological prophylaxis and 80% (345/431) received mechanical prophylaxis, with 44% (190/431) receiving both. Of those receiving pharmacological prophylaxis, unfractionated heparin was used in 74%, and enoxaparin (low molecular weight heparin) in 23%. Contraindications to pharmacological prophylaxis were reported in 122 patients. Overall, pharmacological prophylaxis was administered to 87% of potentially suitable patients. We observed a high prevalence of VTE prophylaxis, with many critically ill patients receiving two or more modalities of prophylaxis. These results show that the potential risk of VTE in critically ill patients is recognised in Australia and New Zealand, and strategies to mitigate this serious complication are widely implemented.

  16. Prevalence of bullying, discrimination and sexual harassment among trainees and Fellows of the College of Intensive Care Medicine of Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Bala; Corke, Charlie; Raper, Raymond; Pinder, Mary; Stephens, Dianne; Joynt, Gavin; Morley, Peter; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Bevan, Rob; Freebairn, Ross; Varghese, Benoj; Ashbolt, Michael; Hawker, Felicity; Jacobe, Stephen; Yong, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    Anecdotal reports about bullying behaviour in intensive care emerged during College of Intensive Care Medicine (CICM) hospital accreditation visits. Bullying, discrimination and sexual harassment (BDSH) in the medical profession, particularly in surgery, were widely reported in the media recently. This prompted the College to formally survey its Fellows and trainees to identify the prevalence of these behaviours in the intensive care workplace. An online survey of all trainees (n = 951) and Fellows (n = 970) of the CICM. The survey response rate was 51% (Fellows, 60%; trainees, 41%). The overall prevalences of bullying, discrimination and sexual harassment were 32%, 12% and 3%, respectively. The proportions of Fellows and trainees who reported being bullied and discriminated against were similar across all age groups. Women reported a greater prevalence of sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.97 [95% CI, 1.35-6.51]; P = 0.006) and discrimination (OR, 2.10 [95% CI, 1.39-3.17]; P = 0.0004) than men. Respondents who obtained their primary medical qualification in Asia or Africa appeared to have been at increased risk of discrimination (OR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.15-3.05]; P = 0.03). Respondents who obtained their degree in Australia, New Zealand or Hong Kong may have been at increased risk of being bullied. In all three domains of unprofessional behaviour, the perpetrators were predominantly consultants (70% overall), and the highest proportion of these was ICU consultants. The occurrence of BDSH appears to be common in the intensive care environment in Australia and New Zealand.

  17. Navigating communication with families during withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in intensive care: a qualitative descriptive study in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Melissa J; Endacott, Ruth; Ranse, Kristen; Coombs, Maureen A

    2017-03-01

    To explore how nurses navigate communication with families during withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in intensive care. Death in the intensive care unit is seldom unexpected and often happens following the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment. A family-centred approach to care relies on the development of a therapeutic relationship and understanding of what is happening to the patient. Whilst previous research has focused on the transition from cure to palliation and the nurse's role in supporting families, less is known about how nurses navigate communication with families during treatment withdrawal. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with adult critical care nurses from four intensive care units, two in Australia and two in New Zealand. Twenty-one nurses participated in the study. Inductive content analysis revealed five key themes relating to how nurses navigate family communication: (1) establishing the WHO; (2) working out HOW; (3) judging WHEN; (4) assessing the WHAT; and (5) WHERE these skills were learnt. Navigating an approach to family communication during treatment withdrawal is a complex and multifaceted nursing activity that is known to contribute to family satisfaction with care. There is need for support and ongoing education opportunities that develop the art of communication in this frequently encountered aspect of end-of-life care. How nurses navigate communication with families during treatment withdrawal is just as important as what is communicated. Nurses need access to supports and education opportunities in order to be able to perform this vital role. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Variable interpretation of ultrasonograms may contribute to variation in the reported incidence of white matter damage between newborn intensive care units in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D L; Bloomfield, F H; Teele, R L; Harding, J E

    2006-01-01

    Background The incidence of cerebral white matter damage reported to the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) varies between neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Hypothesis Differences in the capture, storage, and interpretation of the cerebral ultrasound scans could account for some of this variation. Methods A total of 255 infants of birth weight <1500 g and gestation <32 weeks born between 1997 and 2002 and drawn equally from each of the six NICUs in New Zealand were randomly selected from the ANZNN database. Half had early cerebral ultrasound scans previously reported to ANZNN as normal, and half had scans reported as abnormal. The original scans were copied, anonymised, and independently read by a panel of three experts using a standardised method of reviewing and reporting. Results There was considerable variation between NICUs in methods of image capture, quality, and completeness of the scans. There was only moderate agreement between the reviewers' reports and the original reports to the ANZNN (κ 0.45–0.51) and between the reviewers (κ 0.54–0.64). The reviewers reported three to six times more white matter damage than had been reported to the ANZNN. Conclusion Some of the reported variation in white matter damage between NICUs may be due to differences in capture and interpretation of cerebral ultrasound scans. PMID:16159954

  19. Intensive Care Research Coordinators in Australia and New Zealand: a cross-sectional survey of demographics, responsibilities, job satisfaction and importance.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brigit; Eastwood, Glenn M; Raunow, Heike; Howe, Belinda; Rickard, Claire M

    2011-11-01

    The achievement of successful clinical research projects depends on multiple team members including Research Coordinators (RCs), who are the link between the researcher and the trial participants. The RCs main responsibility is to ensure that all research is conducted according to the appropriate protocols, regulations and guidelines. Description of demographics, the role and associated responsibilities and assessment of items of importance to, and satisfaction with, various job related items. An observational web-based cross-sectional study of RCs working in Intensive Care Units (ICU) across Australia and New Zealand. Fifty-six participants completed the survey. Forty percent had more than 6 years experience in ICU research and one-third held a Masters Degree. Most respondents performed research related tasks including ethics submission, patient screening, education and data collection. Autonomy and work hours were the most satisfying job characteristics reported and aspects relating to autonomy were most important for the RCs. Inadequate remuneration was of great concern to the participants. Research Coordinators in Australia and New Zealand have many and varied roles with a significant workload. Unfortunately, the RCs do not feel their employers are adequately remunerating the demand on their time and efforts. The results indicate that RCs enjoy high levels of satisfaction with general conditions and facets of their work and its environment and they remain passionate about their role in the ICU setting. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conventional and advanced time series estimation: application to the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) adult patient database, 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Moran, John L; Solomon, Patricia J

    2011-02-01

    Time series analysis has seen limited application in the biomedical Literature. The utility of conventional and advanced time series estimators was explored for intensive care unit (ICU) outcome series. Monthly mean time series, 1993-2006, for hospital mortality, severity-of-illness score (APACHE III), ventilation fraction and patient type (medical and surgical), were generated from the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Society adult patient database. Analyses encompassed geographical seasonal mortality patterns, series structural time changes, mortality series volatility using autoregressive moving average and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity models in which predicted variances are updated adaptively, and bivariate and multivariate (vector error correction models) cointegrating relationships between series. The mortality series exhibited marked seasonality, declining mortality trend and substantial autocorrelation beyond 24 lags. Mortality increased in winter months (July-August); the medical series featured annual cycling, whereas the surgical demonstrated long and short (3-4 months) cycling. Series structural breaks were apparent in January 1995 and December 2002. The covariance stationary first-differenced mortality series was consistent with a seasonal autoregressive moving average process; the observed conditional-variance volatility (1993-1995) and residual Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity effects entailed a Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity model, preferred by information criterion and mean model forecast performance. Bivariate cointegration, indicating long-term equilibrium relationships, was established between mortality and severity-of-illness scores at the database level and for categories of ICUs. Multivariate cointegration was demonstrated for {log APACHE III score, log ICU length of stay, ICU mortality and ventilation fraction}. A system approach to understanding series time

  1. Statistical process control of mortality series in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) adult patient database: implications of the data generating process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Statistical process control (SPC), an industrial sphere initiative, has recently been applied in health care and public health surveillance. SPC methods assume independent observations and process autocorrelation has been associated with increase in false alarm frequency. Methods Monthly mean raw mortality (at hospital discharge) time series, 1995–2009, at the individual Intensive Care unit (ICU) level, were generated from the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Society adult patient database. Evidence for series (i) autocorrelation and seasonality was demonstrated using (partial)-autocorrelation ((P)ACF) function displays and classical series decomposition and (ii) “in-control” status was sought using risk-adjusted (RA) exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control limits (3 sigma). Risk adjustment was achieved using a random coefficient (intercept as ICU site and slope as APACHE III score) logistic regression model, generating an expected mortality series. Application of time-series to an exemplar complete ICU series (1995-(end)2009) was via Box-Jenkins methodology: autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and (G)ARCH ((Generalised) Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity) models, the latter addressing volatility of the series variance. Results The overall data set, 1995-2009, consisted of 491324 records from 137 ICU sites; average raw mortality was 14.07%; average(SD) raw and expected mortalities ranged from 0.012(0.113) and 0.013(0.045) to 0.296(0.457) and 0.278(0.247) respectively. For the raw mortality series: 71 sites had continuous data for assessment up to or beyond lag40 and 35% had autocorrelation through to lag40; and of 36 sites with continuous data for ≥ 72 months, all demonstrated marked seasonality. Similar numbers and percentages were seen with the expected series. Out-of-control signalling was evident for the raw mortality series with respect to RA-EWMA control limits; a seasonal ARMA model, with GARCH effects

  2. Statistical process control of mortality series in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) adult patient database: implications of the data generating process.

    PubMed

    Moran, John L; Solomon, Patricia J

    2013-05-24

    Statistical process control (SPC), an industrial sphere initiative, has recently been applied in health care and public health surveillance. SPC methods assume independent observations and process autocorrelation has been associated with increase in false alarm frequency. Monthly mean raw mortality (at hospital discharge) time series, 1995-2009, at the individual Intensive Care unit (ICU) level, were generated from the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Society adult patient database. Evidence for series (i) autocorrelation and seasonality was demonstrated using (partial)-autocorrelation ((P)ACF) function displays and classical series decomposition and (ii) "in-control" status was sought using risk-adjusted (RA) exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control limits (3 sigma). Risk adjustment was achieved using a random coefficient (intercept as ICU site and slope as APACHE III score) logistic regression model, generating an expected mortality series. Application of time-series to an exemplar complete ICU series (1995-(end)2009) was via Box-Jenkins methodology: autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and (G)ARCH ((Generalised) Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity) models, the latter addressing volatility of the series variance. The overall data set, 1995-2009, consisted of 491324 records from 137 ICU sites; average raw mortality was 14.07%; average(SD) raw and expected mortalities ranged from 0.012(0.113) and 0.013(0.045) to 0.296(0.457) and 0.278(0.247) respectively. For the raw mortality series: 71 sites had continuous data for assessment up to or beyond lag40 and 35% had autocorrelation through to lag40; and of 36 sites with continuous data for ≥ 72 months, all demonstrated marked seasonality. Similar numbers and percentages were seen with the expected series. Out-of-control signalling was evident for the raw mortality series with respect to RA-EWMA control limits; a seasonal ARMA model, with GARCH effects, displayed white-noise residuals

  3. Predictors of physician confidence to diagnose pneumonia and determine illness severity in ventilated patients. Australian and New Zealand practice in intensive care (ANZPIC II).

    PubMed

    Boots, R J; Lipman, J; Bellomo, R; Stephens, D; Heller, R E

    2005-02-01

    The manner in which elements of clinical history, physical examination and investigations influence subjectively assessed illness severity and outcome prediction is poorly understood. This study investigates the relationship between clinician and objectively assessed illness severity and the factors influencing clinician's diagnostic confidence and illness severity rating for ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia in the intensive care unit (ICU). A prospective study of fourteen ICUs included all ventilated admissions with a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia. Data collection included pneumonia type - community-acquired (CAP), hospital-acquired (HAP) and ventilator-associated (VAP), clinician determined illness severity (CDIS), diagnostic methods, clinical diagnostic confidence (CDC), microbiological isolates and antibiotic use. For 476 episodes of pneumonia (48% CAP, 24% HAP, 28% VAP), CDC was greatest for CAP (64% CAP, 50% HAP and 49% VAP, P<0.01) or when pneumonia was considered "life-threatening" (84% high CDC, 13% medium CDC and 3% low CDC, P<0. 001). "Life-threatening" pneumonia was predicted by worsening gas exchange (OR 4.8, CI 95% 2.3-10.2, P<0.001), clinical signs of consolidation (OR 2.0, CI 95% 1.2-3.2, P<0.01) and the Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score (OR 1.1, CI 95% 1.1-1.2, P<0.001). Diagnostic confidence increased with CDIS (OR 16.3, CI 95% 8.4-31.4, P<0.001), definite pathogen isolation (OR 3.3, CI 95% 2.0-5.6) and clinical signs of consolidation (OR 2.1, CI 95% 1.3-3.3, P=0.001). Although the CDIS, SOFA Score and the Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (SAPS II) were all associated with mortality, the SAPS II Score was the best predictor of mortality (P = 0. 02). Diagnostic confidence for pneumonia is moderate but increases with more classical presentations. A small set of clinical parameters influence subjective assessment. Objective assessment using SAPS II Scoring is a better predictor of mortality.

  4. Bioethical issues and health care chaplaincy in aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes survey and interview results from a cross-sectional study of New Zealand health care chaplaincy personnel concerning their involvement in multiple bioethical issues encountered by patients, families and clinical staff within the health care context. Some implications of this study concerning health care chaplaincy, ecclesiastical institutions, health care institutions and government responsibilities are discussed and recommendations presented.

  5. A review of statistical estimators for risk-adjusted length of stay: analysis of the Australian and new Zealand Intensive Care Adult Patient Data-Base, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Moran, John L; Solomon, Patricia J

    2012-05-16

    For the analysis of length-of-stay (LOS) data, which is characteristically right-skewed, a number of statistical estimators have been proposed as alternatives to the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression with log dependent variable. Using a cohort of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 2008-2009, 12 different methods were used for estimation of intensive care (ICU) length of stay. These encompassed risk-adjusted regression analysis of firstly: log LOS using OLS, linear mixed model [LMM], treatment effects, skew-normal and skew-t models; and secondly: unmodified (raw) LOS via OLS, generalised linear models [GLMs] with log-link and 4 different distributions [Poisson, gamma, negative binomial and inverse-Gaussian], extended estimating equations [EEE] and a finite mixture model including a gamma distribution. A fixed covariate list and ICU-site clustering with robust variance were utilised for model fitting with split-sample determination (80%) and validation (20%) data sets, and model simulation was undertaken to establish over-fitting (Copas test). Indices of model specification using Bayesian information criterion [BIC: lower values preferred] and residual analysis as well as predictive performance (R2, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), mean absolute error [MAE]) were established for each estimator. The data-set consisted of 111663 patients from 131 ICUs; with mean(SD) age 60.6(18.8) years, 43.0% were female, 40.7% were mechanically ventilated and ICU mortality was 7.8%. ICU length-of-stay was 3.4(5.1) (median 1.8, range (0.17-60)) days and demonstrated marked kurtosis and right skew (29.4 and 4.4 respectively). BIC showed considerable spread, from a maximum of 509801 (OLS-raw scale) to a minimum of 210286 (LMM). R2 ranged from 0.22 (LMM) to 0.17 and the CCC from 0.334 (LMM) to 0.149, with MAE 2.2-2.4. Superior residual behaviour was established for the log-scale estimators

  6. Before Five: Early Childhood Care and Education in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Dept. of Education, Wellington.

    This publication outlines the Government of New Zealand's new plans and policies for the administration of early childhood care and education. Specific features are discussed in detail in sections concerning: (1) early childhood care and education at the local level, specifically management structures and responsibilities, the use of Crown land,…

  7. Intensive Care, Intense Conflict: A Balanced Approach.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Erin Talati; Kolaitis, Irini N

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a child in a pediatric intensive care unit is emotionally and physically challenging and often leads to conflict. Skilled mediators may not always be available to aid in conflict resolution. Careproviders at all levels of training are responsible for managing difficult conversations with families and can often prevent escalation of conflict. Bioethics mediators have acknowledged the important contribution of mediation training in improving clinicians' skills in conflict management. Familiarizing careproviders with basic mediation techniques is an important step towards preventing escalation of conflict. While training in effective communication is crucial, a sense of fairness and justice that may only come with the introduction of a skilled, neutral third party is equally important. For intense conflict, we advocate for early recognition, comfort, and preparedness through training of clinicians in de-escalation and optimal communication, along with the use of more formally trained third-party mediators, as required. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  8. Pandemic influenza-implications for critical care resources in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Therese A; Hart, Graeme K; Kainer, Marion A

    2003-09-01

    To quantify resource requirements (additional beds and ventilator capacity), for critical care services in the event of pandemic influenza. Cross-sectional survey about existing and potential critical care resources. Participants comprised 156 of the 176 Australasian (Australia and New Zealand) critical care units on the database of the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Research Centre for Critical Care Resources. The Meltzer, Cox and Fukuda model was adapted to map a range of influenza attack rate estimates for hospitalisation and episodes likely to require intensive care and to predict critical care admission rates and bed day requirements. Estimations of ventilation rates were based on those for community-acquired pneumonia. The estimated extra number of persons requiring hospitalisation ranged from 8,455 (10% attack rate) to 150,087 (45% attack rate). The estimated number of additional admissions to critical care units ranged from 423 (5% admission rate, 10% attack rate) to 37,522 (25% admission rate, 45% attack rate). The potential number of required intensive care bed days ranged from 846 bed days (2 day length of stay, 10% attack rate) to 375,220 bed days (10 day length of stay, 45% attack rate). The number of persons likely to require mechanical ventilation ranged from 106 (25% of projected critical care admissions, 10% attack rate) to 28,142 (75% of projected critical care admissions, 45% attack rate). An additional 1,195 emergency ventilator beds were identified in public sector and 248 in private sector hospitals. Cancellation of elective surgery could release a potential 76,402 intensive care bed days (per annum), but in the event of pandemic influenza, 31,150 bed days could be required over an 8- to 12-week period. Australasian critical care services would be overwhelmed in the event of pandemic influenza. More work is required in relation to modelling, contingency plans, and resource allocation.

  9. Residential care workers and residents: the New Zealand story.

    PubMed

    Kiata, Liz; Kerse, Ngaire; Dixon, Robyn

    2005-05-06

    To describe the nature and size of long-term residential care homes in New Zealand; funding of facilities; and the ethnic and gender composition of residents and residential care workers nationwide. A postal, fax, and email survey of all long-term residential care homes in New Zealand. Completed surveys were received from an eligible 845 facilities (response rate: 55%). The majority of these (54%) facilities housed less than 30 residents. Of the 438 (94%) facilities completing the questions about residents' ethnicity, 432 (99%) housed residents from New Zealand European (Pakeha) descent, 156 (33%) housed at least 1 Maori resident, 71 (15%) at least 1 Pacific (Islands) resident, and 61 (13%) housed at least 1 Asian resident. Facilities employed a range of ethnically diverse staff, with 66% reporting Maori staff. Less than half of all facilities employed Pacific staff (43%) and Asian staff (33%). Registered nursing staff were mainly between 46 and 60 years (47%), and healthcare assistant staff were mostly between 25 and 45 years old (52%). Wide regional variation in the ethnic make up of staff was reported. About half of all staff were reported to have moved within the previous 2 years. The age and turnover of the residential care workforce suggests the industry continues to be under threat from staffing shortages. While few ethnic minority residents live in long-term care facilities, staff come from diverse backgrounds, especially in certain regions.

  10. Trampoline injury in New Zealand: emergency care.

    PubMed Central

    Hume, P A; Chalmers, D J; Wilson, B D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine trampoline related injuries resulting in emergency department attendance. METHODS: Cases were identified by searching free text descriptions of the circumstances of injury contained in the records of the emergency department of a large city hospital. RESULTS: 114 cases were identified for a 12 month period, giving an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 89 to 129) compared with 9.3 hospital admissions per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 8.3 to 10.4) for a corresponding period reported in earlier research from New Zealand. This suggested that for every one hospital admission there are approximately 12 emergency department attendances. Of the cases, 95% were aged less than 20 years. As for the earlier research, falls from the trampoline to the surrounding surface were the commonest cause of injury. In the present study, sprains and strains were the commonest type of injury (40%), and the body site most frequently involved was the lower limb (46%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the conclusion from earlier research that although existing trampoline standards address many of the issues relating to trampoline safety, the need remains for measures to reduce the impact of falls from the trampoline to the ground surface and to prohibit the use of trampolines as unsupervised "play equipment". PMID:9015596

  11. Intensive (pasture) beef cattle operations: the perspective of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, S C

    1997-08-01

    Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most

  12. Handover in Intensive Care.

    PubMed

    Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Chico Fernández, M; Gordo Vidal, F; García Arias, M; Holanda Peña, M S; Azcarate Ayerdi, B; Bisbal Andrés, E; Ferrándiz Sellés, A; Lorente García, P J; García García, M; Merino de Cos, P; Allegue Gallego, J M; García de Lorenzo Y Mateos, A; Trenado Álvarez, J; Rebollo Gómez, P; Martín Delgado, M C

    2018-04-01

    Handover is a frequent and complex task that also implies the transfer of the responsibility of the care. The deficiencies in this process are associated with important gaps in clinical safety and also in patient and professional dissatisfaction, as well as increasing health cost. Efforts to standardize this process have increased in recent years, appearing numerous mnemonic tools. Despite this, local are heterogeneous and the level of training in this area is low. The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of IT while providing a methodological structure that favors effective IT in ICU, reducing the risk associated with this process. Specifically, this document refers to the handover that is established during shift changes or nursing shifts, during the transfer of patients to other diagnostic and therapeutic areas, and to discharge from the ICU. Emergency situations and the potential participation of patients and relatives are also considered. Formulas for measuring quality are finally proposed and potential improvements are mentioned especially in the field of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. Contracting for intensive care services.

    PubMed

    Dorman, S

    1996-01-01

    Purchasers will increasingly expect clinical services in the NHS internal market to provide objective measures of their benefits and cost effectiveness in order to maintain or develop current funding levels. There is limited scientific evidence to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of intensive care services in terms of mortality/morbidity. Intensive care is a high-cost service and studies of cost-effectiveness need to take account of case-mix variations, differences in admission and discharge policies, and other differences between units. Decisions over development or rationalisation of intensive care services should be based on proper outcome studies of well defined patient groups. The purchasing function itself requires development in order to support effective contracting.

  14. Multimorbidity, clinical decision making and health care delivery in New Zealand Primary care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Tim; Tumilty, Emma; Doolan-Noble, Fiona; Gauld, Robin

    2017-04-05

    Multimorbidity is a major issue for primary care. We aimed to explore primary care professionals' accounts of managing multimorbidity and its impact on clinical decision making and regional health care delivery. Qualitative interviews with 12 General Practitioners and 4 Primary Care Nurses in New Zealand's Otago region. Thematic analysis was conducted using the constant comparative method. Primary care professionals encountered challenges in providing care to patients with multimorbidity with respect to both clinical decision making and health care delivery. Clinical decision making occurred in time-limited consultations where the challenges of complexity and inadequacy of single disease guidelines were managed through the use of "satisficing" (care deemed satisfactory and sufficient for a given patient) and sequential consultations utilising relational continuity of care. The New Zealand primary care co-payment funding model was seen as a barrier to the delivery of care as it discourages sequential consultations, a problem only partially addressed through the use of the additional capitation based funding stream of Care Plus. Fragmentation of care also occurred within general practice and across the primary/secondary care interface. These findings highlight specific New Zealand barriers to the delivery of primary care to patients living with multimorbidity. There is a need to develop, implement and nationally evaluate a revised version of Care Plus that takes account of these barriers.

  15. Appropriateness of red blood cell transfusion in Australasian intensive care practice.

    PubMed

    French, Craig J; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Finfer, Simon R; Lipman, Jeffery; Chapman, Marianne; Boyce, Neil W

    2002-11-18

    To determine the incidence and appropriateness of use of allogenic packed red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in Australian and New Zealand intensive care practice. Intensive care units of 18 Australian and New Zealand hospitals: March 2001. Prospective, observational, multicentre study. All admissions to participating intensive care units were screened and all patients who received a transfusion of RBC were enrolled. The indications for transfusion were recorded and compared with Australian National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines. Transfusions conforming to these guidelines were deemed appropriate. RBC transfusion in intensive care and transfusion appropriateness. 1808 admissions to intensive care units were screened: 357 (19.8%) admissions (350 patients) received an RBC transfusion while in intensive care. Overall, 1464 RBC units were administered in intensive care on 576 transfusion days. The most common indications for transfusion were acute bleeding (60.1%; 880/1464) and diminished physiological reserve (28.9%; 423/1464). The rate of inappropriate transfusion was 3.0% (44/1464). Diminished physiological reserve with haemogloblin level > or = 100 g/L was the indication in 50% (22/44) of inappropriate transfusions; no indication was provided for 31% (15/44). The rate of inappropriate transfusion in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units in 2001 was remarkably low.

  16. Third sector primary health care in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Crampton, P; Dowell, A C; Bowers, S

    2000-03-24

    To describe key organisational characteristics of selected third sector (non-profit and non-government) primary health care organisations. Data were collected, in 1997 and 1998, from 15 third sector primary care organisations that were members of a network of third sector primary care providers, Health Care Aotearoa (HCA). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews of managers and key informants using a semi-structured interview schedule, and from practice computer information systems. Overall the populations served were young: only 4% of patients were aged 65 years or older, and the ethnicity profile was highly atypical, with 21.8% European, 36% Maori, 22.7% Pacific Island, 12% other, and 7.5% not stated. Community services card holding rates were higher than recorded in other studies, and registered patients tended to live in highly deprived areas. HCA organisations had high patient to doctor ratios, in general over 2000:1, and there were significant differences in management structures between HCA practices and more traditional general practice. Third sector organisations provide services for populations that are disadvantaged in many respects. It is likely that New Zealand will continue to develop a diverse range of primary care organisational arrangements. Effort is now required to measure quality and effectiveness of services provided by different primary care organisations serving comparable populations.

  17. The Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand: progressing the evidence base for burn care.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Heather; Greenwood, John E; Wood, Fiona M; Read, David J; Wong She, Richard; Maitz, Peter; Castley, Andrew; Vandervord, John G; Simcock, Jeremy; Adams, Christopher D; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2016-03-21

    Analysis of data from the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ) to determine the extent of variation between participating units in treatment and in specific outcomes during the first 4 years of its operation. BRANZ, an initiative of the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association, is a clinical quality registry developed in accordance with the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare national operating principles. Patients with burn injury who fulfil pre-defined criteria are transferred to and managed in designated burn units. There are 17 adult and paediatric units in Australia and New Zealand that manage almost all patients with significant burn injury. Twelve of these units treat adult patients. Data on 7184 adult cases were contributed by ten acute adult burn units to the registry between July 2010 and June 2014.Major outcomes: In-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, skin grafting rates, and rates of admission to intensive care units. Considerable variations in unit profiles (including numbers of patients treated), in treatment and in outcomes were identified. Despite the highly centralised delivery of care to patients with severe or complex burn injury, and the relatively small number of specialist burn units, we found significant variation between units in clinical management and in outcomes. BRANZ data from its first 4 years of operation support its feasibility and the value of further development of the registry. Based on these results, the focus of ongoing research is to improve understanding of the reasons for variations in practice and of their effect on outcomes for patients, and to develop evidence-informed clinical guidelines for burn management in Australia and New Zealand.

  18. Nutritional Care in Iranian Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Shabanpur, Maryam; Nachvak, Seyed Mostafa; Moradi, Shima; Hedayati, Safora; Hosseinikia, Mahboobe; Pasdar, Yahya; Gholizadeh, Shahrbanoo; Samadi, Mehnoosh

    2018-04-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) provides intensive treatment medicine to avoid complications such as malnutrition, infection and even death. As very little is currently known about the nutritional practices in Iranian ICUs, this study attempted to assess the various aspects of current nutrition support practices in Iranian ICUs. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 150 critically ill patients at 18 ICUs in 12 hospitals located in 2 provinces of Iran from February 2015 to March 2016. Data were collected through interview with supervisors of ICUs, medical record reviews and direct observation of patients during feeding. Our study showed that hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas are the main formulas used in Iranian hospitals. None of the dietitians worked exclusively an ICU and only 30% of patients received diet counselling. Regular monitoring of nutritional status, daily energy and protein intake were not recorded in any of the participating ICUs. Patients were not monitored for anthropometric measurements such as mid-arm circumference (MAC) and electrolyte status. The nasogastric tube was not switched to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy (PEG/PEGJ) in approximately 85% of patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition (EN) support. Our findings demonstrated that the quality of nutritional care was inappropriate in Iranian ICUs and improvement of nutritional care services within Iranian ICUs is necessary.

  19. Nutritional Care in Iranian Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) provides intensive treatment medicine to avoid complications such as malnutrition, infection and even death. As very little is currently known about the nutritional practices in Iranian ICUs, this study attempted to assess the various aspects of current nutrition support practices in Iranian ICUs. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 150 critically ill patients at 18 ICUs in 12 hospitals located in 2 provinces of Iran from February 2015 to March 2016. Data were collected through interview with supervisors of ICUs, medical record reviews and direct observation of patients during feeding. Our study showed that hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas are the main formulas used in Iranian hospitals. None of the dietitians worked exclusively an ICU and only 30% of patients received diet counselling. Regular monitoring of nutritional status, daily energy and protein intake were not recorded in any of the participating ICUs. Patients were not monitored for anthropometric measurements such as mid-arm circumference (MAC) and electrolyte status. The nasogastric tube was not switched to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy (PEG/PEGJ) in approximately 85% of patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition (EN) support. Our findings demonstrated that the quality of nutritional care was inappropriate in Iranian ICUs and improvement of nutritional care services within Iranian ICUs is necessary. PMID:29713622

  20. A cultural analysis of New Zealand palliative care brochures.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Mary Louisa; Berryman, Kay; Oetzel, John; Iti, Tiwai; Reddy, Rangimahora

    2016-12-01

    Low utilization of palliative care services by Māori remains despite increases in services designed to meet Māori needs. The purpose of this study is to explore palliative care information brochures in the context of Māori principles of well-being and communication protocols, and health literacy. We examined 99 brochures from palliative care services in New Zealand and held two focus groups with 12 Māori elders (kaumātua) and extended family (whanau) members. Taking a cultural-discursive approach incorporating Māori worldviews, we analysed textual and conceptual features of the brochures. The findings centred on cultural connection and disconnection within the brochures and serve as a critique of the prominent messages currently presented in these brochures. The findings raise questions about the capacity of agencies to convey culturally resonant messages to kaumātua and their whānau. We identify implications of palliative care brochures for health literacy of provider organizations as well as kaumātua and whanau. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Concept for a department of intensive care].

    PubMed

    Nierhaus, A; de Heer, G; Kluge, S

    2014-10-01

    Demographic change and increasing complexity are among the reasons for high-tech critical care playing a major and increasing role in today's hospitals. At the same time, intensive care is one of the most cost-intensive departments in the hospital. To guarantee high-quality care, close cooperation of specialised intensive care staff with specialists of all other medical areas is essential. A network of the intensive care units within the hospital may lead to synergistic effects concerning quality of care, simultaneously optimizing the use of human and technical resources. Notwithstanding any organisational concepts, development and maintenance of the highest possible quality of care should be of overriding importance.

  2. New predictive equations for Arias intensity from crustal earthquakes in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Peter J.; Berrill, John B.; Pettinga, Jarg R.

    2009-01-01

    Arias Intensity (Arias, MIT Press, Cambridge MA, pp 438-483, 1970) is an important measure of the strength of a ground motion, as it is able to simultaneously reflect multiple characteristics of the motion in question. Recently, the effectiveness of Arias Intensity as a predictor of the likelihood of damage to short-period structures has been demonstrated, reinforcing the utility of Arias Intensity for use in both structural and geotechnical applications. In light of this utility, Arias Intensity has begun to be considered as a ground-motion measure suitable for use in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and earthquake loss estimation. It is therefore timely to develop predictive equations for this ground-motion measure. In this study, a suite of four predictive equations, each using a different functional form, is derived for the prediction of Arias Intensity from crustal earthquakes in New Zealand. The provision of a suite of models is included to allow for epistemic uncertainty to be considered within a PSHA framework. Coefficients are presented for four different horizontal-component definitions for each of the four models. The ground-motion dataset for which the equations are derived include records from New Zealand crustal earthquakes as well as near-field records from worldwide crustal earthquakes. The predictive equations may be used to estimate Arias Intensity for moment magnitudes between 5.1 and 7.5 and for distances (both rjb and rrup) up to 300 km.

  3. Managing social awkwardness when caring for morbidly obese patients in intensive care: A focused ethnography.

    PubMed

    Hales, Caz; de Vries, Kay; Coombs, Maureen

    2016-06-01

    Critically ill morbidly obese patients pose considerable healthcare delivery and resource utilisation challenges in the intensive care setting. These are resultant from specific physiological responses to critical illness in this population and the nature of the interventional therapies used in the intensive care environment. An additional challenge arises for this population when considering the social stigma that is attached to being obese. Intensive care staff therefore not only attend to the physical and care needs of the critically ill morbidly obese patient but also navigate, both personally and professionally, the social terrain of stigma when providing care. To explore the culture and influences on doctors and nurses within the intensive care setting when caring for critically ill morbidly obese patients. A focused ethnographic approach was adopted to elicit the 'situated' experiences of caring for critically ill morbidly obese patients from the perspectives of intensive care staff. Participant observation of care practices and interviews with intensive care staff were undertaken over a four month period. Analysis was conducted using constant comparison technique to compare incidents applicable to each theme. An 18 bedded tertiary intensive care unit in New Zealand. Sixty-seven intensive care nurses and 13 intensive care doctors involved with the care and management of seven critically ill patients with a body mass index ≥40kg/m(2). Interactions between intensive care staff and morbidly obese patients were challenging due to the social stigma surrounding obesity. Social awkwardness and managing socially awkward moments were evident when caring for morbidly obese patients. Intensive care staff used strategies of face-work and mutual pretence to alleviate feelings of discomfort when engaged in aspects of care and caring. This was a strategy used to prevent embarrassment and distress for both the patients and staff. This study has brought new understandings

  4. Intensive Care in Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Victoria A.; Walsh, Joan; Rudolf, Matthew; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell

    2007-01-01

    Context: Although critical access hospitals (CAHs) have limitations on number of acute care beds and average length of stay, some of them provide intensive care unit (ICU) services. Purpose: To describe the facilities, equipment, and staffing used by CAHs for intensive care, the types of patients receiving ICU care, and the perceived impact of…

  5. Chronic Care Management evolves towards Integrated Care in Counties Manukau, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rea, Harry; Kenealy, Tim; Wellingham, John; Moffitt, Allan; Sinclair, Gary; McAuley, Sue; Goodman, Meg; Arcus, Kim

    2007-04-13

    Despite anecdotes of many chronic care management and integrated care projects around New Zealand, there is no formal process to collect and share relevant learning within (but especially between) District Health Boards (DHBs). We wish to share our experiences and hope to stimulate a productive exchange of ongoing learning. We define chronic care management and integrated care, then summarise current theory and evidence. We describe national policy development (relevant to integrated care, since 2000) including the New Zealand Health Strategy, the NZ Primary Care Strategy, the development of Primary Health Organisations (PHOs), capitation payments, Care Plus, and Services to Improve Access funding. We then describe chronic care management in Counties Manukau, which evolved both prior to and during the international refinement of theory and evidence and the national policy development and implementation. We reflect on local progress to date and opportunities for (and barriers to) future improvements, aided by comparative reflections on the United Kingdom (UK). Our most important messages are addressed as follows: To policymakers and funders--a fragile culture change towards teamwork in the health system is taking place in New Zealand; this change needs to be specifically and actively supported. To PHOs--general practices need help to align their internal (within-practice) financial signals with the new world of capitation and integrated care. To primary and secondary care doctors, nurses, and other carers - systematic chronic care management and integrated care can improve patient quality of life; and if healthcare structures and systems are properly managed to support integration, then healthcare provider professional and personal satisfaction will improve.

  6. Quality Out-of-School Care in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Research shows that New Zealand has an approximate population of 600,000 children between the ages of five and fourteen years, and that approximately 80,000 of those children attend an out-of-school-care service each year. The New Zealand government allocates approximately $20 million to suitably approved programs, funding for families of lower…

  7. [Analgesia in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Ortlepp, J R; Luethje, F; Walz, R

    2016-02-01

    The administration of sedatives and analgesics on the intensive care unit (ICU) is routine daily practice. The correct discrimination between delirium, pain and anxiety or confusion is essential for the strategy and selection of medication. The correct pain therapy and sedation are essential for patient quality of life on the ICU and for the prognosis. The aim of this article is to present state of the art recommendations on the classification of pain and pain therapy on the ICU. An online search was carried out in PubMed for publications on the topics of "pain" and "ICU". Critical care patients are frequently subjected to many procedures and situations which can cause pain. The perception of pain is, among other things, influenced by the degree of orientation, anxiety and the degree of sedation. The administration of analgesics and non-pharmacological approaches are effective in reducing the stress perceived by patients. The main aim is improvement in the awareness of nursing and medical personnel for pain inducers and pain perception in ICU patients. The classification of pain must be made objectively. Therapeutic targets must be defined and in addition to the correct selection of pain medication, non-pharmacological approaches must also be consistently implemented.

  8. Moral decision making in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Chally, P S

    1992-01-01

    To gain information about the perspective that neonatal intensive-care unit nurses use to make moral decisions. Descriptive. Neonatal intensive-care unit of a large teaching hospital in the midwestern United States. Convenience sample of 26 female nurses working in a neonatal intensive-care unit. Audiotaped, semistructured interviews and demographic questionnaires. The results indicated that most (65%) of the nurses used the care perspective to make moral decisions. A small number (12%) used the justice perspective, and the remaining nurses (23%) used a combined care and justice perspective. Both the care and justice perspectives were found to be important for understanding how nurses make moral decisions.

  9. Intensive Hemodialysis and Mortality Risk in Australian and New Zealand Populations.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Mark R; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Kerr, Peter G; Hawley, Carmel M; Agar, John W M; McDonald, Stephen P

    2016-04-01

    Intensive hemodialysis (HD) is characterized by increased frequency and/or session length compared to conventional HD. Previous analyses from Australia and New Zealand did not suggest benefit with intensive HD, although recent research suggests that relationships have changed. We present updated analyses. Observational cohort study using marginal structural modeling to adjust for changes in renal replacement modality and time-varying medical comorbid conditions. Adults initiating renal replacement therapy since March 31, 1996, followed up through December 31, 2012; this analysis included 40,842 patients over 2,187,689 patient-months. Time-varying renal replacement modality: conventional facility HD (≤3 times per week, ≤6 hours per session), quasi-intensive facility HD (between conventional and intensive), intensive facility HD (≥5 times per week, any hours per session), conventional home HD, quasi-intensive home HD, intensive home HD, peritoneal dialysis, deceased donor kidney transplantation, and living donor kidney transplantation. Patient mortality, with a 3-month lag in primary analyses and 6- and 12-month lags in sensitivity analyses. Conventional facility HD was the reference group. Conventional home HD had a similar mortality risk. For quasi-intensive home HD, mortality risk was lower (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.44-0.73). For intensive home HD, mortality risk was nonsignificantly lower in primary analyses and significantly lower using a 6-month lag (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.20-0.85), but not using a 12-month lag. For quasi-intensive facility HD, mortality risk was nonsignificantly lower in primary analyses, although significantly lower using 6- (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.20-0.85) and 12-month lags (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44-0.80). Mortality risk was similar between intensive and conventional facility HD. For peritoneal dialysis, mortality risk was greater than for conventional facility HD (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12). Kidney transplantation had the lowest mortality risk

  10. Cultural democracy: the way forward for primary care of hard to reach New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Finau, Sitaleki A; Finau, Eseta

    2007-09-01

    The use of cultural democracy, the freedom to practice one's culture without fear, as a framework for primary care service provision is essential for improved health service in a multi cultural society like New Zealand. It is an effective approach to attaining health equity for all. Many successful health ventures are ethnic specific and have gone past cultural competency to the practice of cultural democracy. That is, the services are freely taking on the realities of clients without and malice from those of other ethnicities. In New Zealand the scientific health service to improve the health of a multi cultural society are available but there is a need to improve access and utilization by hard to reach New Zealanders. This paper discusses cultural democracy and provide example of how successful health ventures that had embraced cultural democracy were implemented. It suggests that cultural democracy will provide the intellectual impetus and robust philosophy for moving from equality to equity in health service access and utilization. This paper would provide a way forward to improved primary care utilization, efficiency, effectiveness and equitable access especially for the hard to reach populations. use the realities of Pacificans in New Zealand illustrate the use of cultural democracy, and thus equity to address the "inverse care law" of New Zealand. The desire is for primary care providers to take cognizance and use cultural democracy and equity as the basis for the design and practice of primary health care for the hard to reach New Zealanders.

  11. Care needs of older patients in the intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Yuh-Min; Su, Ching-Ching

    2012-03-01

    To explore the care needs of older patients in the intensive care units. Background.  As the numbers of older patients admitted to the intensive care units are growing, care quality of critically ill older patients has become an important issue. However, there are few studies directly investigating perceived care needs of hospitalised older patients and the studies on care needs of older patients in the intensive care units are even fewer. The identification of care needs from older patients' perspective will help develop qualified nursing practice. A qualitative exploratory design. Purposive sampling was performed to recruit 35 older patients from three hospitals in Taiwan. The interview transcripts were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The results revealed that care needs of older patients in the intensive care units are multidimensional, including physical, informational and psychosocial dimensions. Older patients' needs of the physical dimension included relieving pain and discomfort, starting oral intake as soon as possible and having continuous sleep. Informational needs included adequate explanations about their disease progression and prognosis and information on recovery-promoting activity. Psychosocial needs included caring behaviour of intensive care units staff, flexible visiting hours, increase in control ability and maintenance of good communication with intensive care units staff. The findings can assist nurses in understanding the interventions necessary to meet care needs of critically ill older patients. The critically ill older adults need more than medical-technical care. They need more holistic care. The psychosocial and informational needs must be considered commensurate with the presenting physical needs. Nurses have an important role in meeting intensive care units older patients' care needs. Intensive care units nurses should conduct comprehensive assessment regarding older patients' needs at the beginning and at various points

  12. Reforming primary health care: is New Zealand's primary health care strategy achieving its early goals?

    PubMed

    Cumming, Jacqueline; Mays, Nicholas; Gribben, Barry

    2008-11-06

    In 2001, the New Zealand government introduced its Primary Health Care Strategy (PHCS), aimed at strengthening the role of primary health care, in order to improve health and to reduce inequalities in health. As part of the Strategy, new funding was provided to reduce the fees that patients pay when they use primary health care services in New Zealand, to improve access to services and to increase service use. In this article, we estimate the impact of the new funding on general practitioner and practice nurse visit fees paid by patients and on consultation rates. The analyses involved before-and-after monitoring of fees and consultation rates in a random sample of 99 general practices and covered the period from June 2001 (pre-Strategy) to mid-2005. Fees fell particularly in Access (higher need, higher per capita funded) practices over time for doctor and nurse visits. Fees increased over time for many in Interim (lower need, lower per capita funded) practices, but they fell for patients aged 65 years and over as new funding was provided for this age group. There were increases in consultation rates across almost all age, funding model (Access or Interim), socio-demographic and ethnic groups. Increases were particularly high in Access practices. The Strategy has resulted in lower fees for primary health care for many New Zealanders, and consultation rates have also increased over the past few years. However, fees have not fallen by as much as expected in government policy given the amount of extra public money spent since there are limited requirements for practices to reduce patients' fees in line with increases in public funding for primary care.

  13. Reforming primary health care: is New Zealand's primary health care strategy achieving its early goals?

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Jacqueline; Mays, Nicholas; Gribben, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2001, the New Zealand government introduced its Primary Health Care Strategy (PHCS), aimed at strengthening the role of primary health care, in order to improve health and to reduce inequalities in health. As part of the Strategy, new funding was provided to reduce the fees that patients pay when they use primary health care services in New Zealand, to improve access to services and to increase service use. In this article, we estimate the impact of the new funding on general practitioner and practice nurse visit fees paid by patients and on consultation rates. The analyses involved before-and-after monitoring of fees and consultation rates in a random sample of 99 general practices and covered the period from June 2001 (pre-Strategy) to mid-2005. Results Fees fell particularly in Access (higher need, higher per capita funded) practices over time for doctor and nurse visits. Fees increased over time for many in Interim (lower need, lower per capita funded) practices, but they fell for patients aged 65 years and over as new funding was provided for this age group. There were increases in consultation rates across almost all age, funding model (Access or Interim), socio-demographic and ethnic groups. Increases were particularly high in Access practices. Conclusion The Strategy has resulted in lower fees for primary health care for many New Zealanders, and consultation rates have also increased over the past few years. However, fees have not fallen by as much as expected in government policy given the amount of extra public money spent since there are limited requirements for practices to reduce patients' fees in line with increases in public funding for primary care. PMID:18990236

  14. General practice registrars' views on maternity care in general practice in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Preston, Hanna; Jaye, Chrystal; Miller, Dawn L

    2015-12-01

    The number of general practitioners (GPs) providing maternity care in New Zealand has declined dramatically since legislative changes of the 1990s. The Ministry of Health wants GPs to provide maternity care again. To investigate New Zealand general practice registrars' perspectives on GPs' role in maternity care; specifically, whether maternity services should be provided by GPs, registrars' preparedness to provide such services, and training opportunities available or required to achieve this. An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed to all registrars enrolled in The Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners' (RNZCGP's) General Practice Education Programme (GPEP) in 2012, via their online learning platform OWL. 165 of the 643 general practice registrars responded (25.7% response rate). Most (95%) believe that GPs interested and trained in maternity care should consider providing antenatal, postnatal or shared care with midwives, and 95% believe women should be able to access maternity care from their general practice. When practising as a GP, 90% would consider providing antenatal and postnatal care, 47.3% shared care, and 4.3% full pregnancy care. Professional factors including training and adequate funding were most important when considering providing maternity care as a GP. Ninety-five percent of general practice registrars who responded to our survey believe that GPs should provide some maternity services, and about 90% would consider providing maternity care in their future practice. Addressing professional issues of training, support and funding are essential if more GPs are to participate in maternity care in New Zealand.

  15. [Quality management in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Braun, J-P

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of critical ill patients in the intensive care unit is tantamount to well-designed risk or quality management. Several tools of quality management and quality assurance have been developed in intensive care medicine. In addition to external quality assurance by benchmarking with regard to the intensive care medicine, peer review procedures have been established for external quality assurance in recent years. In the process of peer review of an intensive care unit (ICU), external physicians and nurses visit the ICU, evaluate on-site proceedings, and discuss with the managing team of the ICU possibilities for optimization. Furthermore, internal quality management in the ICU is possible based on the 10 quality indicators of the German Interdisciplinary Society for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI, "Deutschen Interdisziplinären Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin"). Thereby every ICU has numerous possibilities to improve their quality management system.

  16. [Quality management in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Braun, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Treatment of critical ill patients in the intensive care unit is tantamount to well-designed risk or quality management. Several tools of quality management and quality assurance have been developed in intensive care medicine. In addition to extern quality assurance by benchmarking with regard to the intensive care medicine, peer review procedures have been established for external quality assurance in recent years. In the process of peer review of an intensive care unit (ICU), external physicians and nurses visit the ICU, evaluate on-site proceedings, and discuss with the managing team of the ICU possibilities for optimization. Furthermore, internal quality management in the ICU is possible based on the 10 quality indicators of the German Interdisciplinary Society for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI, "Deutschen Interdisziplinären Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin"). Thereby every ICU has numerous possibilities to improve their quality management system.

  17. A conceptual framework of clinical nursing care in intensive care.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rafael Celestino; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção; Apostolidis, Thémistoklis; Brandão, Marcos Antônio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    to propose a conceptual framework for clinical nursing care in intensive care. descriptive and qualitative field research, carried out with 21 nurses from an intensive care unit of a federal public hospital. We conducted semi-structured interviews and thematic and lexical content analysis, supported by Alceste software. the characteristics of clinical intensive care emerge from the specialized knowledge of the interaction, the work context, types of patients and nurses characteristic of the intensive care and care frameworks. the conceptual framework of the clinic's intensive care articulates elements characteristic of the dynamics of this scenario: objective elements regarding technology and attention to equipment and subjective elements related to human interaction, specific of nursing care, countering criticism based on dehumanization.

  18. Intensive Care Management of Patients with Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jody C

    2018-06-01

    Cirrhosis is a major worldwide health problem which results in a high level of morbidity and mortality. Patients with cirrhosis who require intensive care support have high mortality rates of near 50%. The goal of this review is to address the management of common complications of cirrhosis in the ICU. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an increase in hospitalizations due to advanced liver disease with an associated increase in intensive care utilization. Given an increasing burden on the healthcare system, it is imperative that we strive to improve our management cirrhotic patients in the intensive care unit. Large studies evaluating the management of patients in the intensive care setting are lacking. To date, most recommendations are based on extrapolation of data from studies in cirrhosis outside of the ICU or by applying general critical care principles which may or may not be appropriate for the critically ill cirrhotic patient. Future research is required to answer important management questions.

  19. Apps and intensive care medicine.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Posadilla, D; Gómez-Marcos, V; Hernández-Tejedor, A

    2017-05-01

    Technological advances have played a key role over the last century in the development of humankind. Critical Care Medicine is one of the greatest examples of this revolution. Smartphones with multiple sensors constitute another step forward, and have led to the development of apps for use by both professionals and patients. We discuss their main medical applications in the field of Critical Care Medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Priorities for Evaluating Palliative Care Outcomes in Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Bakitas, Marie; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Kamal, Arif; Maguire, Jennifer M

    2015-09-01

    Defining the quality of intensive care unit (ICU) care when patients are dying is challenging. Palliative care has been recommended to improve outcomes of dying ICU patients; however, traditional ICU quality indicators do not always align with palliative care. Evidence suggests that some aspects of ICU care improve when palliative care is integrated; however, consensus is lacking concerning the outcomes that should be measured. Overcoming challenges to measuring palliative care will require consensus development and rigorous research on the best way to evaluate ICU palliative care services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Teamwork in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbosa, Vanessa Maziero

    2013-01-01

    Medical and technological advances in neonatology have prompted the initiation and expansion of developmentally supportive services for newborns and have incorporated rehabilitation professionals into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) multidisciplinary team. Availability of therapists specialized in the care of neonates, the roles of…

  2. New concepts in palliative care in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Cristina Bueno Terzi; Yankaskas, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Some patients admitted to an intensive care unit may face a terminal illness situation, which usually leads to death. Knowledge of palliative care is strongly recommended for the health care providers who are taking care of these patients. In many situations, the patients should be evaluated daily as the introduction of further treatments may not be beneficial to them. The discussions among health team members that are related to prognosis and the goals of care should be carefully evaluated in collaboration with the patients and their families. The adoption of protocols related to end-of-life patients in the intensive care unit is fundamental. A multidisciplinary team is important for determining whether the withdrawal or withholding of advanced care is required. In addition, patients and families should be informed that palliative care involves the best possible care for that specific situation, as well as respect for their wishes and the consideration of social and spiritual backgrounds. Thus, the aim of this review is to present palliative care as a reasonable option to support the intensive care unit team in assisting terminally ill patients. Updates regarding diet, mechanical ventilation, and dialysis in these patients will be presented. Additionally, the hospice-model philosophy as an alternative to the intensive care unit/hospital environment will be discussed. PMID:28977262

  3. Democratising health care governance? New Zealand's inaugural district health board elections, 2001.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Robin

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand's 'district health board' (DHB) system has been under implementation since the 1999 general election. A key factor motivating the change to DHBs is the democratisation of health care governance. A majority of the new DHB members are popularly elected. Previously, hospital board members were government appointees. Inaugural DHB elections were held in October 2001. This article reports on the election results and the wider operating context for DHBs. It notes organisational issues to be considered for the next DHB elections in 2004, and questions the extent to which the elections and DHB governance structure will enhance health care democratisation in New Zealand.

  4. Informatics for the Modern Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Diana C; Jackson, Ashley A; Halpern, Neil A

    Advanced informatics systems can help improve health care delivery and the environment of care for critically ill patients. However, identifying, testing, and deploying advanced informatics systems can be quite challenging. These processes often require involvement from a collaborative group of health care professionals of varied disciplines with knowledge of the complexities related to designing the modern and "smart" intensive care unit (ICU). In this article, we explore the connectivity environment within the ICU, middleware technologies to address a host of patient care initiatives, and the core informatics concepts necessary for both the design and implementation of advanced informatics systems.

  5. Burnout contagion among intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold B; Le Blanc, Pascale M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2005-08-01

    This paper reports a study investigating whether burnout is contagious. Burnout has been recognized as a problem in intensive care units for a long time. Previous research has focused primarily on its organizational antecedents, such as excessive workload or high patient care demands, time pressure and intensive use of sophisticated technology. The present study took a totally different perspective by hypothesizing that--in intensive care units--burnout is communicated from one nurse to another. A questionnaire on work and well-being was completed by 1849 intensive care unit nurses working in one of 80 intensive care units in 12 different European countries in 1994. The results are being reported now because they formed part of a larger study that was only finally analysed recently. The questionnaire was translated from English to the language of each of these countries, and then back-translated to English. Respondents indicated the prevalence of burnout among their colleagues, and completed scales to assess working conditions and job burnout. Analysis of variance indicated that the between-unit variance on a measure of perceived burnout complaints among colleagues was statistically significant and substantially larger than the within-unit variance. This implies that there is considerable agreement (consensus) within intensive care units regarding the prevalence of burnout. In addition, the results of multilevel analyses showed that burnout complaints among colleagues in intensive care units made a statistically significant and unique contribution to explaining variance in individual nurses' and whole units' experiences of burnout, i.e. emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Moreover, for both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, perceived burnout complaints among colleagues was the most important predictor of burnout at the individual and unit levels, even after controlling for the impact of well-known organizational

  6. [Pediatric intensive care in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Campos-Miño, S; Sasbón, J S; von Dessauer, B

    2012-01-01

    To describe the practice of pediatric intensive care in Latin America and compare it with two European countries. Analysis of data presented by member countries of the Sociedad Latinoamericana de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico (SLACIP), Spain and Portugal, in the context of a Symposium of Spanish and Portuguese - speaking pediatric intensivists during the Fifth World Congress on Pediatric Intensive Care. Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Pediatric intensivists in representation of each member country of the SLACIP, Spain and Portugal. None. Each country presented its data on child health, medical facilities for children, pediatric intensive care units, pediatric intensivists, certification procedures, equipment, morbidity, mortality, and issues requiring intervention in each participating country. Data from 11 countries was analyzed. Nine countries were from Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, México, Dominican Republic and Uruguay), and two from Europe (Spain and Portugal). Data from Bolivia and Guatemala were partially considered. Populational, institutional, and operative differences were identified. Mean PICU mortality was 13.29% in Latin America and 5% in the European countries (P=0.005). There was an inverse relationship between mortality and availability of pediatric intensive care units, pediatric intensivists, number of beds, and number of pediatric specialty centers. Financial and logistic limitations, as well as deficiencies in support disciplines, severity of diseases, malnutrition, late admissions, and inadequate initial treatments could be important contributors to mortality at least in some of these countries. There are important differences in population, morbidity and mortality in critically ill children among the participating countries. Mortality shows an inverse correlation to the availability of pediatric intensive care units, intensive care beds, pediatric intensivists, and pediatric subspecialty centers

  7. Spiritual Care in the Intensive Care Unit: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jim Q; Nguyen, Christopher D; Lopes, Richard; Ezeji-Okoye, Stephen C; Kuschner, Ware G

    2018-05-01

    Spiritual care is an important component of high-quality health care, especially for critically ill patients and their families. Despite evidence of benefits from spiritual care, physicians and other health-care providers commonly fail to assess and address their patients' spiritual care needs in the intensive care unit (ICU). In addition, it is common that spiritual care resources that can improve both patient outcomes and family member experiences are underutilized. In this review, we provide an overview of spiritual care and its role in the ICU. We review evidence demonstrating the benefits of, and persistent unmet needs for, spiritual care services, as well as the current state of spiritual care delivery in the ICU setting. Furthermore, we outline tools and strategies intensivists and other critical care medicine health-care professionals can employ to support the spiritual well-being of patients and families, with a special focus on chaplaincy services.

  8. Organizing Safe Transitions from Intensive Care

    PubMed Central

    Häggström, Marie; Bäckström, Britt

    2014-01-01

    Background. Organizing and performing patient transfers in the continuum of care is part of the work of nurses and other staff of a multiprofessional healthcare team. An understanding of discharge practices is needed in order to ultimate patients' transfers from high technological intensive care units (ICU) to general wards. Aim. To describe, as experienced by intensive care and general ward staff, what strategies could be used when organizing patient's care before, during, and after transfer from intensive care. Method. Interviews of 15 participants were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The results showed that the categories secure, encourage, and collaborate are strategies used in the three phases of the ICU transitional care process. The main category; a safe, interactive rehabilitation process, illustrated how all strategies were characterized by an intention to create and maintain safety during the process. A three-way interaction was described: between staff and patient/families, between team members and involved units, and between patient/family and environment. Discussion/Conclusions. The findings highlight that ICU transitional care implies critical care rehabilitation. Discharge procedures need to be safe and structured and involve collaboration, encouraging support, optimal timing, early mobilization, and a multidiscipline approach. PMID:24782924

  9. GP obstetricians' views of the model of maternity care in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dawn L; Mason, Zara; Jaye, Chrystal

    2013-02-01

    The Lead Maternity Carer (LMC) model of maternity care, and independent midwifery practice, was introduced to New Zealand in the 1990s. The LMC midwife or general practitioner obstetrician (GPO) has clinical and budgetary responsibility for women's primary maternity care. To determine views of practising GPOs and former GPOs about the LMC model of care, its impact on maternity care in general practice, and future of maternity care in general practice. 10 GPOs and 13 former GPOs were interviewed: one focus group (n = 3), 20 semi-structured interviews. The qualitative data analysis program ATLAS.ti assisted thematic analysis. Participants thought the LMC model isolates the LMC - particularly concerning during intrapartum care, in rural practice, and covering 24-hour call; Is not compatible with or adequately funded for GP participation; Excludes the GP from caring for their pregnant patients. Participants would like a flexible, locally adaptable, adequately funded maternity model, supporting shared care. Some thought work-life balance and low GPO numbers could deter future GPs from maternity practice. Others felt with political will, support of universities, and Royal New Zealand College of General Practice and Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, GPs could become more involved in maternity care again. Participants thought the LMC model isolates maternity practitioners, is incompatible with general practice and causes loss of continuity of general practice care. They support provision of maternity care in general practice; however, for more GPs to become involved, the LMC model needs review. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Disposable condenser humidifiers in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Oh, T E; Thompson, W R; Hayward, D R

    1981-11-01

    Two disposable condenser humidifiers were evaluated in nine ventilated intensive care patients. The Portex "Humid Vent" delivered end-inspired absolute humidities of 22--26.3 g/m3 at end-inspired temperatures of 27--28.3 degrees C. Corresponding humidities and temperatures with the Servo "Humidifier 150" were higher and were constant, at 27.7--29 g/m3 and 29.3--29.7 degrees C respectively. These disposable devices can be used for humidification in intensive care, but only for patients breathing room air, or on a short term basis.

  11. Family Perspectives on Overall Care in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lissi; Rosenkranz, Susan J; Mularski, Richard A; Leo, Michael C

    Family members' perspectives about satisfaction with care provided in the intensive care unit (ICU) have become an important part of quality assessment and improvement, but national and international differences may exist in care provided and family perspectives about satisfaction with care. The purpose of the research was to understand family members' perspectives regarding overall care of medical patients receiving intensive care. Family members of medical patients who remained 48 hours or more in two adult ICUS at two healthcare institutions in the U.S. Pacific Northwest took part by responding to the Family Satisfaction with Care in the Intensive Care Unit survey. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify major categories and subcategories in their complimentary (positive) or critical (negative) responses to open-ended questions. The number of comments in each category and subcategory was counted. Of 138 responding family members, 106 answered the open-ended questions. The 281 comments were more frequently complimentary (n = 126) than critical (n = 91). Three main categories (competent care, communication, and environment) and nine subcategories were identified. Comments about the subcategory of emotional/interrelational aspects of care occurred most frequently and were more positive than comments about practical aspects of care. Findings were similar to those reported from other countries. Emotional/interrelational aspects of care were integral to family member satisfaction with care provided. Findings suggest that improving communication and decision-making, supporting family members, and caring for family loved ones as a person are important care targets. Initiatives to improve ICU care should include assessments from families and opportunity for qualitative analysis to refine care targets and assess changes.

  12. Medicare Managed Care Spillovers and Treatment Intensity.

    PubMed

    Callison, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that the share of Medicare managed care enrollees in a region affects the costs of treating traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare beneficiaries; however, little is known about the mechanisms through which these 'spillover effects' operate. This paper examines the relationship between Medicare managed care penetration and treatment intensity for FFS enrollees hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of AMI. I find that increased Medicare managed care penetration is associated with a reduction in both the costs and the treatment intensity of FFS AMI patients. Specifically, as Medicare managed care penetration increases, FFS AMI patients are less likely to receive surgical reperfusion and mechanical ventilation and to experience an overall reduction in the number of inpatient procedures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Intensive care medicine-survival and prospect of life].

    PubMed

    Valentin, A

    2017-10-01

    Intensive care medicine has achieved a significant increase in survival rates from critical illness. In addition to short-term outcomes like intensive care unit or hospital mortality, long-term prognosis and prospect of life of intensive care patients have recently become increasingly important. Pure survival is no longer a sole goal of intensive care medicine. The prediction of an intensive care patient's individual course should include the period after intensive care. A relevant proportion of all intensive care patients is affected by physical, psychological, cognitive, and social limitations after discharge from the intensive care unit. The prognosis of the status of the patient after discharge from the intensive care unit is an important part of the decision-making process with respect to the implementation or discontinuation of intensive care measures. The heavy burden of intensive care treatment should not solely be argued by pure survival but an anticipated sound prospect of life.

  14. Perceptions of glasses as a health care product: a pilot study of New Zealand baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Davey, Janet; King, Chloe; Fitzpatrick, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Marketers have been slow to customize their strategies for the influential consumer segment of aging baby boomers. This qualitative research provides insights on New Zealand baby boomers' perceptions of glasses as a health care product. Appearance was a dominant theme; status was not a major concern, although style and fashion were. Wearing glasses had negative associations related to aging; however, both male and female participants recognized that glasses offered improved quality of life. Data relating to the theme of expense indicated that these New Zealand baby boomers made sophisticated perceptual associations and subsequent pragmatic trade-offs between price, quality, and style.

  15. Big bang and the policy prescription: health care meets the market in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gauld, R D

    2000-10-01

    This article discusses events that led up to and the aftermath of New Zealand's radical health sector restructuring of 1993. It suggests that "big bang" policy change facilitated the introduction of a set of market-oriented ideas describable as a policy prescription. In general, the new system performed poorly, in keeping with problems of market failure endemic in health care. The system was subsequently restructured, and elements of the 1993 structures were repackaged through a series of incremental changes. Based on the New Zealand experience, big bang produces change but not necessarily a predictive model, and the policy prescription has been oversold.

  16. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Richard D; Hall, Jesse B

    2010-03-01

    Severe weakness is being recognized as a complication that impacts significantly on the pace and degree of recovery and return to former functional status of patients who survive the organ failures that mandate life-support therapies such as mechanical ventilation. Despite the apparent importance of this problem, much remains to be understood about its incidence, causes, prevention, and treatment. Review from literature and an expert round-table. The Brussels Round Table Conference in 2009 convened more than 20 experts in the fields of intensive care, neurology, and muscle physiology to review current understandings of intensive care unit-acquired weakness and to improve clinical outcome. Formal electrophysiological evaluation of patients with intensive care unit-acquired weakness can identify peripheral neuropathies, myopathies, and combinations of these disorders, although the correlation of these findings to weakness measurable at the bedside is not always precise. For routine clinical purposes, bedside assessment of neuromuscular function can be performed but is often confounded by complicating factors such as sedative and analgesic administration. Risk factors for development of intensive care unit-acquired weakness include bed rest itself, sepsis, and corticosteroid exposure. A strong association exists between weakness and long-term ventilator dependence; weakness is a major determinant of patient outcomes after surviving acute respiratory failure and may be present for months, or indefinitely, in the convalescence phase of critical illness. Although much has been learned about the physiology and cell and molecular biology of skeletal and diaphragm dysfunction under conditions of aging, exercise, disuse, and sepsis, the application of these understandings to the bedside requires more study in both bench models and patients. Although a trend toward greater immobilization and sedation of patients has characterized the past several decades of intensive care

  17. Privacy issues and the monitoring of sumatriptan in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme.

    PubMed

    Coulter, D M

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how the New Zealand (NZ) Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) functions in relation to NZ privacy laws and to describe the attitudes of patients to drug safety monitoring and the privacy of their personal and health information. The IMMP undertakes prospective observational event monitoring cohort studies on new drugs. The cohorts are established from prescription data and the events are obtained using prescription event monitoring and spontaneous reporting. Personal details, prescribing history of the monitored drugs and adverse events data are stored in databases long term. The NZ Health Information Privacy Code is outlined and the monitoring of sumatriptan is used to illustrate how the IMMP functions in relation to the Code. Patient responses to the programme are described. Sumatriptan was monitored in 14,964 patients and 107,646 prescriptions were recorded. There were 2344 reports received describing 3987 adverse events. A majority of the patients were involved in the recording of events data either personally or by telephone interview. There were no objections to the monitoring process on privacy grounds. Given the fact that all reasonable precautions are taken to ensure privacy, patients perceive drug safety to have greater priority than any slight risk of breach of confidentiality concerning their personal details and health information.

  18. [Significance of scores in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Hainich, R; Rabe, H

    2012-02-01

    For nurses in intensive care units (ICUs), the use of scoring instruments is a familiar and important part of their work. Frequently, condition-referred instruments are used to assess various conditions, e.g., pain intensity or degree of alertness. Furthermore, ICU nurses use instruments to assess the risk, e.g., of developing pressure ulcers or to fall. A third important group of instruments are those used to document resource utilization by nurses. However, the estimation of the overall benefit of such scores in the intensive care setting is problematic. In Germany, assessment instruments are mainly required for use within the range of the SGB XI. With regard to intensive care settings, the majority of publications address the presentation of scores or the development of new instruments. From the nursing perspective, no clear conceptual distinction can be made between scores and scales; many instruments lack scientific proof of their benefit for nursing care. Discrepancies with the physicians' viewpoint may exist in some cases.

  19. Care of the family in the surgical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Tyrie, Leslie Steele; Mosenthal, Anne Charlotte

    2011-04-01

    In the surgical intensive care unit (SICU), the stress of having a critically ill loved one creates significant bereavement and emotional needs for family members. Surgical palliative care has expanded; clinicians do not just treat the patient, but now include the family within the scope of care. Understanding and treating complicated grief, and the emotional and educational needs of the family improves family outcome, improves the surrogate family's ability to act as decision makers, and ultimately may positively affect patient survivor outcome. Care of families in the SICU requires interdisciplinary teams and palliative care processes to appropriately address their needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Can patient safety indicators monitor medical and surgical care at New Zealand public hospitals?

    PubMed

    Hider, Phil; Parker, Karl; von Randow, Martin; Milne, Barry; Lay-Yee, Roy; Davis, Peter

    2014-11-07

    Increasing interest has focused on the safety of hospital care. The AusPSIs are a set of indicators developed from Australian administrative data to reliably identify inpatient adverse events in hospitals. The main aim of this study was to explore the application of the AHRQ/AusPSIs to New Zealand administrative hospital data related to medical and surgical care. Variation over time and across hospitals were also considered for a subset of the more common indicators. AHRQ/AusPSIs were adapted for use with New Zealand National Minimum Dataset administrative data for the period 2001-9. Crude positive event rates for each of the 16 indicators were assessed across New Zealand public hospitals. Variation over time for six more common indicators is presented using statistical control charts. Variation between hospitals was explored using rates adjusted for differences in patient variables including age, sex, ethnicity, rurality of residence, NZDep score and comorbidities. The AHRQ/AusPSIs were applied to New Zealand administrative hospital data and some 99,366 admissions were associated with a positive indicator event. However rates for some indicators were low (<1% of denominator admissions). Over the study period considerable variation in the rate of positive events was evident for the six most common indicators. Likewise there was substantial variation between hospitals in relation to risk adjusted positive event rates Patient safety indicators can be applied to New Zealand administrative hospital data. While infrequent rates hinder the use of some of the indicators, several could now be readily employed as warning flags to help monitor rates of adverse events at particular hospitals. In conjunction with other established or emerging tools, such as audit and trigger tools, the PSIs are now available to promote ongoing quality improvement activities in New Zealand hospitals.

  1. Case Series Analysis of New Zealand Reports of Rapid Intense Potentiation of Warfarin by Roxithromycin.

    PubMed

    Savage, Ruth L; Tatley, Michael V

    2018-05-01

    We undertook an analysis of all the reports to the New Zealand Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring of a roxithromycin/warfarin interaction after two recent reports described intense rapid warfarin potentiation. The interaction was first published in 1995. Cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition has been the proposed mechanism but has limited biologic plausibility. There are suggestions that the clinical significance of the interaction may be increased by severe illness, polypharmacy, renal dysfunction, older age and increased warfarin sensitivity. To investigate the potentiating effect of warfarin on roxithromycin in this New Zealand case series, the reports were reviewed to identify patients at risk, compare the reporting pattern with published Australian data and evaluate the appropriateness of current prescribing advice. Thirty patient reports were identified. The age range was 23-88 years, mean 66.8, median 73.0 (standard deviation 17.7) and the international normalised ratios after roxithromycin commencement ranged from 3.6 to 16.7 (mean 7.6, median 7.6, standard deviation 3.6). For eight patients with measurements on day 3, international normalised ratios were 4.3-16.7 (mean 10.4, median 8.8, standard deviation 4.4). Four patients had serious haemorrhage. Indications for roxithromycin were a range of respiratory tract infections. Anticoagulation was stable for most patients prior to acute infection. Serious infection occurred in 54.5% (12 of 22 patients with information). Polypharmacy (five or more medicines daily) was used by 36.7% of patients long term, increasing acutely to 83.3%, including additional potentially interacting medicines. Warfarin daily dose (1.5-13.0 mg, mean 4.4, median 4.0, standard deviation 2.2) was moderate to low. Pre-roxithromycin international normalised ratio values ranged from 1.4 to 3.7, mean and median 2.5, standard deviation 0.5. A high proportion of interactions were observed between warfarin and roxithromycin compared with other

  2. River water quality changes in New Zealand over 26 years: response to land use intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, Jason P.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Owsley, Braden; Davies-Colley, Robert J.; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle E.

    2017-02-01

    Relationships between land use and water quality are complex with interdependencies, feedbacks, and legacy effects. Most river water quality studies have assessed catchment land use as areal coverage, but here, we hypothesize and test whether land use intensity - the inputs (fertilizer, livestock) and activities (vegetation removal) of land use - is a better predictor of environmental impact. We use New Zealand (NZ) as a case study because it has had one of the highest rates of agricultural land intensification globally over recent decades. We interpreted water quality state and trends for the 26 years from 1989 to 2014 in the National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN) - consisting of 77 sites on 35 mostly large river systems. To characterize land use intensity, we analyzed spatial and temporal changes in livestock density and land disturbance (i.e., bare soil resulting from vegetation loss by either grazing or forest harvesting) at the catchment scale, as well as fertilizer inputs at the national scale. Using simple multivariate statistical analyses across the 77 catchments, we found that median visual water clarity was best predicted inversely by areal coverage of intensively managed pastures. The primary predictor for all four nutrient variables (TN, NOx, TP, DRP), however, was cattle density, with plantation forest coverage as the secondary predictor variable. While land disturbance was not itself a strong predictor of water quality, it did help explain outliers of land use-water quality relationships. From 1990 to 2014, visual clarity significantly improved in 35 out of 77 (34/77) catchments, which we attribute mainly to increased dairy cattle exclusion from rivers (despite dairy expansion) and the considerable decrease in sheep numbers across the NZ landscape, from 58 million sheep in 1990 to 31 million in 2012. Nutrient concentrations increased in many of NZ's rivers with dissolved oxidized nitrogen significantly increasing in 27/77 catchments, which we

  3. Midwifery-led care embedded within primary care: consumer satisfaction with a model in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Pullon, Sue; Gray, Ben; Steinmetz, Monika; Molineux, Claire

    2014-12-01

    Providing quality maternity care for high-needs, socially deprived women from ethnic minority groups is challenging. Consumer satisfaction with maternity services is an important aspect of service evaluation for this group. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using focus groups and interviews to gauge consumer satisfaction of maternity care by high-needs women, and to explore their perceptions of the Newtown Union Health Service (NUHS) model of a midwifery-led service embedded in primary care in Wellington, New Zealand (NZ). Following a previous audit of consumer satisfaction surveys collected over a six-year period, a qualitative pilot study using a thematic analytic approach was conducted at the NUHS in late 2011. The study assessed use of focus groups and interviews, interpreted where necessary, and considered the experiences reported by women about the model of care. Interviews and focus groups were successfully conducted with 11 women: two NZ European (individual interviews), six Cambodian (five in a focus group, one interview), and three Samoan (focus group). Using a thematic analytic approach, key themes identified from the focus group and interviews were: issues with survey form-filling; importance of accessibility and information; and relationships and communication with the midwifery team. Interviews and focus groups were well received, and indicated positive endorsement of the model of care. They also revealed some hitherto unknown concerns. Good quality feedback about satisfaction with a range of maternal and child health services helps service providers to provide the best possible start in life for children in high-needs families.

  4. [Refusal of care in the intensive care: how makes decision?].

    PubMed

    Borel, M; Veber, B; Villette-Baron, K; Hariri, S; Dureuil, B; Hervé, C

    2009-11-01

    Decision-making bringing to an admission or not in intensive care is complex. The aim of this study is to analyze with an ethical point of view the making decision process leading to the refusal and its consequences. It is proposed a setting in prospect through the principles of beneficence, non-maleficience, respect for autonomy, justice, and the Leonetti law. Prospective study in surgical reanimation at the University Hospital of Rouen over 9 months (November 2007-September 2008). Systematic collection for each non-admitted patient of the general characters, the methods of decision making, immediate becoming and within 48 h Constitution of two groups: patients for whom an admission in intensive care could be an unreasonable situation of obstinacy, and patients for whom an admission in reanimation would not be about unreasonable if it occurred. One hundred and fifty situations were analyzed. The potentially unreasonable character of an admission does not involve necessarily a refusal of care in intensive care. The question of the lack of place and equity in the access to the care is real but relative according to the typology of the patients. The research of the respect of the autonomy of the patient is difficult but could be facilitated. The Leonetti law does not appear to be able to be a framework with the situation of refusal of care in intensive care. It is not a question of going towards a systematic admission in intensive care of any patient proposed, but to make sure that so if there is a refusal, it is carried out according to a step ethically acceptable.

  5. Health care policy and community pharmacy: implications for the New Zealand primary health care sector.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Shaw, John

    2010-06-25

    The aim of our paper is to expose the challenges primary health care reform is exerting on community pharmacy and other groups. Our paper is underpinned by the notion that a broad understanding of the issues facing pharmacy will help facilitate engagement by pharmacy and stakeholders in primary care. New models of remuneration are required to deliver policy expectations. Equally important is redefining the place of community pharmacy, outlining the roles that are mooted and contributions that can be made by community pharmacy. Consistent with international policy shifts, New Zealand primary health care policy outlines broad directives which community pharmacy must respond to. Policymakers are calling for greater integration and collaboration, a shift from product to patient-centred care; a greater population health focus and the provision of enhanced cognitive services. To successfully implement policy, community pharmacists must change the way they think and act. Community pharmacy must improve relationships with other primary care providers, District Health Boards (DHBs) and Primary Health Organisations (PHOs). There is a requirement for DHBs to realign funding models which increase integration and remove the requirement to sell products in pharmacy in order to deliver services. There needs to be a willingness for pharmacy to adopt a user pays policy. General practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) need to be aware of the training and skills that pharmacists have, and to understand what pharmacists can offer that benefits their patients and ultimately general practice. There is also a need for GPs and PNs to realise the fiscal and professional challenges community pharmacy is facing in its attempt to improve pharmacy services and in working more collaboratively within primary care. Meanwhile, community pharmacists need to embrace new approaches to practice and drive a clearly defined agenda of renewal in order to meet the needs of health funders, patients

  6. Management challenges faced by managers of New Zealand long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Madas, E; North, N

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on a postal survey of 78 long-term care managers in one region of New Zealand, of whom 45 (58%) responded. Most long-term care managers (73.2%) were middle-aged females holding nursing but not management qualifications. Most long-term care facilities (69%) tended to be stand-alone facilities providing a single type of care (rest home or continuing care hospital). The most prominent issues facing managers were considered to be inadequate funding to match the growing costs of providing long-term care and occupancy levels. Managers believed that political/regulatory, economic and social factors influenced these issues. Despite a turbulent health care environment and the challenges facing managers, long-term care managers reported they were coping well and valued networking.

  7. Benefits of High-Intensity Intensive Care Unit Physician Staffing under the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Logani, Sachin; Green, Adam; Gasperino, James

    2011-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act signed into law by President Obama, with its value-based purchasing program, is designed to link payment to quality processes and outcomes. Treatment of critically ill patients represents nearly 1% of the gross domestic product and 25% of a typical hospital budget. Data suggest that high-intensity staffing patterns in the intensive care unit (ICU) are associated with cost savings and improved outcomes. We evaluate the literature investigating the cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes of high-intensity ICU physician staffing as recommended by The Leapfrog Group (a consortium of companies that purchase health care for their employees) and identify ways to overcome barriers to nationwide implementation of these standards. Hospitals that have implemented the Leapfrog initiative have demonstrated reductions in mortality and length of stay and increased cost savings. High-intensity staffing models appear to be an immediate cost-effective way for hospitals to meet the challenges of health care reform. PMID:22110908

  8. Reducing nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Eileen; Alderdice, Fiona; McCall, Emma; Jenkins, John; Craig, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    Nosocomial infection is a common problem in neonatal intensive care. A pilot quality improvement initiative focussing on hand hygiene and aimed at reducing nosocomial infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants was introduced in five Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Line associated laboratory confirmed bloodstream infection (LCBSI) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) were chosen as main outcome measures. In VLBW infants, the rate of line associated LCBSI per 1000 central venous catheter days fell by 24%. The rate of VAP per 1000 ventilator days in VLBW infants fell by 38%. Pre- and post-intervention questionnaires showed a statistically significant increase in use of alcohol-based gels and increased knowledge of hand hygiene.

  9. Magnesium in obstetric anesthesia and intensive care.

    PubMed

    Kutlesic, Marija S; Kutlesic, Ranko M; Mostic-Ilic, Tatjana

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium, one of the essential elements in the human body, has numerous favorable effects that offer a variety of possibilities for its use in obstetric anesthesia and intensive care. Administered as a single intravenous bolus dose or a bolus followed by continuous infusion during surgery, magnesium attenuates stress response to endotracheal intubation, and reduces intraoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic requirements, while at the same time preserving favorable hemodynamics. Applied as part of an intrathecal or epidural anesthetic mixture, magnesium prolongs the duration of anesthesia and diminishes total postoperative analgesic consumption with no adverse maternal or neonatal effects. In obstetric intensive care, magnesium represents a first-choice medication in the treatment and prevention of eclamptic seizures. If used in recommended doses with close monitoring, magnesium is a safe and effective medication.

  10. Moral distress in Turkish intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    Karagozoglu, Serife; Yildirim, Gulay; Ozden, Dilek; Çınar, Ziynet

    2017-03-01

    Moral distress is a common problem among professionals working in the field of healthcare. Moral distress is the distress experienced by a professional when he or she cannot fulfill the correct action due to several obstacles, although he or she is aware of what it is. The level of moral distress experienced by nurses working in intensive care units varies from one country/culture/institution to another. However, in Turkey, there is neither a measurement tool used to assess moral distress suffered by nurses nor a study conducted on the issue. The study aims to (a) validate the Turkish version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised to be used in intensive care units and to examine the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale, and (b) explore Turkish intensive care nurses' moral distress level. The sample of this methodological, descriptive, and cross-sectional design study comprises 200 nurses working in the intensive care units of internal medicine and surgical departments of four hospitals in three cities in Turkey. The data were collected with the Socio-Demographic Characteristics Form and The Turkish Version of Moral Distress Scale-Revised. Ethical considerations: The study proposal was approved by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University. All participating nurses provided informed consent and were assured of data confidentiality. In parallel with the original scale, Turkish version of Moral Distress Scale-Revised consists of 21 items, and shows a one-factor structure. It was determined that the moral distress total and item mean scores of the nurses participating in the study were 70.81 ± 48.23 and 3.36 ± 4.50, respectively. Turkish version of Moral Distress Scale-Revised can be used as a reliable and valid measurement tool for the evaluation of moral distress experienced by nurses working in intensive care units in Turkey. In line with our findings, it can be said that nurses suffered low level of moral distress

  11. Burnout Among Anesthetists and Intensive Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Mikalauskas, Audrius; Benetis, Rimantas; Širvinskas, Edmundas; Andrejaitienė, Judita; Kinduris, Šarūnas; Macas, Andrius; Padaiga, Žilvinas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and low personal accomplishment. Little is known about burnout in physicians. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of burnout among anesthetists and intensive care physicians, and associations between burnout and personal, as well as professional, characteristics. Methods In total, 220 anesthetists and intensive care physicians were contacted by email, asking them to participate in the study. For depression screening the PHQ-2 questionnaire, for problem drinking, CAGE items were used. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results Overall, 34% anesthetists and intensive care physicians indicated high levels of emotional exhaustion, 25% indicated high levels of depersonalization, and 38% showed low personal accomplishment. Burnout was found more frequent among subjects with problem drinking (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5–6.8), depressiveness (OR 10.2, 95% CI 4.6–22.6), cardiovascular disorders (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and digestive disorders (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–4.0). Some favorite after-work activities positively correlated with burnout, such as sedative medications abuse (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8–12.5), alcohol abuse (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3–4.5), eating more than usual (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.5), and transferring the accumulated stress to relatives (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.5). In contrast, reading of non-medical literature seemed to have a protective effect (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–0.9). Conclusions Burnout was highly prevalent among anesthetists and intensive care physicians with two fifths of them meeting diagnostic criteria. It was strongly correlated with problem drinking, depressiveness, cardiovascular and digestive disorders, use of sedatives and overeating. PMID:29666844

  12. Burnout Among Anesthetists and Intensive Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Mikalauskas, Audrius; Benetis, Rimantas; Širvinskas, Edmundas; Andrejaitienė, Judita; Kinduris, Šarūnas; Macas, Andrius; Padaiga, Žilvinas

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and low personal accomplishment. Little is known about burnout in physicians. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of burnout among anesthetists and intensive care physicians, and associations between burnout and personal, as well as professional, characteristics. In total, 220 anesthetists and intensive care physicians were contacted by email, asking them to participate in the study. For depression screening the PHQ-2 questionnaire, for problem drinking, CAGE items were used. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Overall, 34% anesthetists and intensive care physicians indicated high levels of emotional exhaustion, 25% indicated high levels of depersonalization, and 38% showed low personal accomplishment. Burnout was found more frequent among subjects with problem drinking (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.8), depressiveness (OR 10.2, 95% CI 4.6-22.6), cardiovascular disorders (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and digestive disorders (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0). Some favorite after-work activities positively correlated with burnout, such as sedative medications abuse (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-12.5), alcohol abuse (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5), eating more than usual (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), and transferring the accumulated stress to relatives (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.5). In contrast, reading of non-medical literature seemed to have a protective effect (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9). Burnout was highly prevalent among anesthetists and intensive care physicians with two fifths of them meeting diagnostic criteria. It was strongly correlated with problem drinking, depressiveness, cardiovascular and digestive disorders, use of sedatives and overeating.

  13. Differences in Breast Cancer Survival between Public and Private Care in New Zealand: Which Factors Contribute?

    PubMed

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Elwood, J Mark; Lawrenson, Ross; Campbell, Ian; Harvey, Vernon; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa

    2016-01-01

    Patients who received private health care appear to have better survival from breast cancer compared to those who received public care. This study investigated if this applied to New Zealand women and identified factors that could explain such disparities. This study involved all women who were diagnosed with primary breast cancer in two health regions in New Zealand, covering about 40% of the national population, between June 2000 and May 2013. Patients who received public care for primary treatment, mostly surgical treatment, were compared with those who received private care in terms of demographics, mode of presentation, disease factors, comorbidity index and treatment factors. Cox regression modelling was performed with stepwise adjustments, and hazards of breast cancer specific mortality associated with the type of health care received was assessed. Of the 14,468 patients, 8,916 (61.6%) received public care. Compared to patients treated in private care facilities, they were older, more likely to be Māori, Pacifika or Asian and to reside in deprived neighbourhoods and rural areas, and less likely to be diagnosed with early staged cancer and to receive timely cancer treatments. They had a higher risk of mortality from breast cancer (hazard ratio: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.75, 2.17), of which 80% (95% CI: 63%, 100%) was explained by baseline differences, particularly related to ethnicity, stage at diagnosis and type of loco-regional therapy. After controlling for these demographic, disease and treatment factors, the risk of mortality was still 14% higher in the public sector patients. Ethnicity, stage at diagnosis and type of loco-regional therapy were the three key contributors to survival disparities between patients treated in public and private health care facilities in New Zealand. The findings underscore the need for more efforts to improve the quality, timeliness and equitability of public cancer care services.

  14. Hand hygiene in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Pargger, Hans; Widmer, Andreas F

    2010-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections affect 1.4 million patients at any time worldwide, as estimated by the World Health Organization. In intensive care units, the burden of healthcare-associated infections is greatly increased, causing additional morbidity and mortality. Multidrug-resistant pathogens are commonly involved in such infections and render effective treatment challenging. Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of preventing healthcare-associated infections. In addition, it is equally important to stop transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, alcohol-based handrub should be used as the preferred means for routine hand antisepsis. Alcohols have excellent in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a variety of fungi, and most viruses. Some pathogens, however, such as Clostridium difficile, Bacillus anthracis, and noroviruses, may require special hand hygiene measures. Failure to provide user friendliness of hand hygiene equipment and shortage of staff are predictors for noncompliance, especially in the intensive care unit setting. Therefore, practical approaches to promote hand hygiene in the intensive care unit include provision of a minimal number of handrub dispensers per bed, monitoring of compliance, and choice of the most attractive product. Lack of knowledge of guidelines for hand hygiene, lack of recognition of hand hygiene opportunities during patient care, and lack of awareness of the risk of cross-transmission of pathogens are barriers to good hand hygiene practices. Multidisciplinary programs to promote increased use of alcoholic handrub lead to an increased compliance of healthcare

  15. Patients' experiences of technology and care in adult intensive care.

    PubMed

    Stayt, Louise Caroline; Seers, Kate; Tutton, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    To investigate patients' experiences of technology in an adult intensive care unit. Technology is fundamental to support physical recovery from critical illness in Intensive Care Units. As well as physical corollaries, psychological disturbances are reported in critically ill patients at all stages of their illness and recovery. Nurses play a key role in the physical and psychological care of patients;, however, there is a suggestion in the literature that the presence of technology may dehumanise patient care and distract the nurse from attending to patients psychosocial needs. Little attention has been paid to patients' perceptions of receiving care in a technological environment. This study was informed by Heideggerian phenomenology. The research took place in 2009-2011 in a university hospital in England. Nineteen participants who had been patients in ICU were interviewed guided by an interview topic prompt list. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Van Manen's framework. Participants described technology and care as inseparable and presented their experiences as a unified encounter. The theme 'Getting on with it' described how participants endured technology by 'Being Good' and 'Being Invisible'. 'Getting over it' described why participants endured technology by 'Bowing to Authority' and viewing invasive technologies as a 'Necessary Evil'. Patients experienced technology and care as a series of paradoxical relationships: alienating yet reassuring, uncomfortable yet comforting, impersonal yet personal. By maintaining a close and supportive presence and providing personal comfort and care nurses may minimize the invasive and isolating potential of technology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. End-of-Life Care in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Engelberg, Ruth A.; Bensink, Mark E.; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and costs of critical illness are increasing in the United States at a time when there is a focus both on limiting the rising costs of healthcare and improving the quality of end-of-life care. More than 25% of healthcare costs are spent in the last year of life, and approximately 20% of deaths occur in the intensive care unit (ICU). Consequently, there has been speculation that end-of-life care in the ICU represents an important target for cost savings. It is unclear whether efforts to improve end-of-life care in the ICU could significantly reduce healthcare costs. Here, we summarize recent studies suggesting that important opportunities may exist to improve quality and reduce costs through two mechanisms: advance care planning for patients with life-limiting illness and use of time-limited trials of ICU care for critically ill patients. The goal of these approaches is to ensure patients receive the intensity of care that they would choose at the end of life, given the opportunity to make an informed decision. Although these mechanisms hold promise for increasing quality and reducing costs, there are few clearly described, effective methods to implement these mechanisms in routine clinical practice. We believe basic science in communication and decision making, implementation research, and demonstration projects are critically important if we are to translate these approaches into practice and, in so doing, provide high-quality and patient-centered care while limiting rising healthcare costs. PMID:22859524

  17. Unhealthy Acts: interpreting narratives of community mental health care in Waikato, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Joseph, A. E; Kearns, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a regional commentary on the progress of deinstitutionalization in an era of restructuring in New Zealand. The commentary focuses on the Waikato region, where the transition to community-based psychiatric care has been underway since the announcement of the closure of Tokanui Hospital in 1993. We use media reports to construct a narrative illuminating the distinctive threads of alternative discourse on the re-placing of people with mental health problems and sites of treatment 'into the community'. Our interpretation of this local narrative is cast against a series of backdrops: firstly, we provide an abbreviated history of deinstitutionalization in New Zealand; secondly, we examine mental health care as a sector within a rapidly evolving health system; and, thirdly, we reflect on the implementation of community mental health care in a re-regulated civil society. We argue that the effective implementation of community care has been hampered by the lack of concerted policy in the mental health care sector, by a fiscal squeeze on the health care system and by the impingement of non-health care legislation (the Commerce Act, the Privacy Act and the Resource Management Act) on the local expression and management of community care. In the Waikato narrative, we also identify administrative practices that have recast people with mental health problems as criminals and re-established prisons as the site of treatment. We conclude that the media in New Zealand have a role that extends beyond simply reporting on events. Indeed, the media act as a reflexive conduit; journalists interpret issues and through their 'stories' help to shape the course of events.

  18. Family-Centered Care in Neonatal Intensive Care Units: Combining Intensive Care and Family Support.

    PubMed

    Araki, Shunsuke; Saito, Tomoko; Ichikawa, Saori; Saito, Kaori; Takada, Tsuzumi; Noguchi, Satoko; Yamada, Miki; Nakagawa, Fumi

    Advances in treatment in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for preterm and sick newborns have improved the mortality rate of patients, but admission to the NICU may disrupt parent-infant interaction, with adverse consequences for infants and their families because of physical, psychological, and emotional separation. The concept of family centered care (FCC), in which family members are part of the care team and infants are close to the family, is important and has become popular in NICU. In 2013, we created a team called "Kodomo-Kazoku Mannaka" to promote FCC in Japan, and visited the NICU at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden, which is internationally famous for FCC. Since this fruitful visit, we have been promoting FCC in Japan by exhibitions and presentations of the FCC ideas at academic conferences and using internet services. A questionnaire survey conducted in 2015 revealed that the importance and the benefits of FCC in NICU are recognized, although there are some barriers to FCC in each facility. It is hard to change facilities and social systems right away, but it is easier and more important to change people's minds. Our role is to spread the concept of FCC and to help each facility find its own way to adopt it. We will continue to make efforts encourage to promote FCC in Japan.

  19. Teamwork in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Vanessa Maziero

    2013-02-01

    Medical and technological advances in neonatology have prompted the initiation and expansion of developmentally supportive services for newborns and have incorporated rehabilitation professionals into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) multidisciplinary team. Availability of therapists specialized in the care of neonates, the roles of rehabilitation professionals, and models of service delivery vary from hospital to hospital based on philosophy, resources, and other considerations. To provide quality care for infants and families, cohesive team dynamics are required including professional competence, mutual respect, accountability, effective communication, and collaboration. This article highlights the contribution of each member of the NICU team. The dynamics of team collaboration are presented with the goal of improving outcomes of infants and families.

  20. Wound care in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Fox, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    The skin is a vital organ with key protective functions. Infants in the NICU are at risk for skin injury because of developmental immaturity and intensive care treatments. When skin injury occurs, the neonatal nurse is challenged to provide wound care to optimize functional and cosmetic healing. Optimal wound care requires basic knowledge of the mechanisms of injury, physiology of wound healing, host factors affecting wound healing, and wound assessment. This knowledge provides the basis for determining appropriate wound treatment, including dressing selection. Attention to pain issues associated with wound care is difficult because of the infant's developmental stage, but is essential because of the potentially negative life-long impact of pain. The premature infant's propensity for skin stripping limits the selection of appropriate dressing, as does the paucity of research examining wound care products in this population.

  1. Ethical challenges in neonatal intensive care nursing.

    PubMed

    Strandås, Maria; Fredriksen, Sven-Tore D

    2015-12-01

    Neonatal nurses report a great deal of ethical challenges in their everyday work. Seemingly trivial everyday choices nurses make are no more value-neutral than life-and-death choices. Everyday ethical challenges should also be recognized as ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to investigate which types of ethical challenges neonatal nurses experience in their day-to-day care for critically ill newborns. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews. Phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis was applied to interpret the data. Six nurses from neonatal intensive care units at two Norwegian hospitals were interviewed on-site. The study is designed to comply with Ethical Guidelines for Nursing Research in the Nordic Countries and the Helsinki declaration. Findings suggest that nurses experience a diverse range of everyday ethical challenges related to challenging interactions with parents and colleagues, emotional strain, protecting the vulnerable infant, finding the balance between sensitivity and authority, ensuring continuity of treatment, and miscommunication and professional disagreement. A major finding in this study is how different agents involved in caring for the newborn experience their realities differently. When these realities collide, ethical challenges arise. Findings suggest that acting in the best interests of the child becomes more difficult in situations involving many agents with different perceptions of reality. The study presents new aspects which increases knowledge and understanding of the reality of nursing in a neonatal intensive care unit, while also demanding increased research in this field of care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. New Zealand: long-term care in a decade of change.

    PubMed

    Ashton, T

    2000-01-01

    Long-term care in New Zealand incorporates a mix of public and private funding and provision. After a decade of structural change, the purchasing of almost all publicly funded health and social care is now the responsibility of one central agency. Services for older persons are poorly integrated, and there are problems of access to and quality of some services. Efforts are being made to address these problems. The challenge now is to ensure that this groundwork is not lost amid the turmoil of yet another round of restructuring by an enthusiastic, newly elected government.

  3. Ethical issues in neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xin-Ling

    2016-01-01

    On one hand, advances in neonatal care and rescue technology allow for the healthy survival or prolonged survival time of critically ill newborns who, in the past, would have been non-viable. On the other hand, many of the surviving critically ill infants have serious long-term disabilities. If an infant eventually cannot survive or is likely to suffer severe disability after surviving, ethical issues in the treatment process are inevitable, and this problem arises not only in developed countries but is also becoming increasingly prominent in developing countries. In addition, ethical concerns cannot be avoided in medical research. This review article introduces basic ethical guidelines that should be followed in clinical practice, including respecting the autonomy of the parents, giving priority to the best interests of the infant, the principle of doing no harm, and consent and the right to be informed. Furthermore, the major ethical concerns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China are briefly introduced.

  4. [Intensive care services resources in Spain].

    PubMed

    Martín, M C; León, C; Cuñat, J; del Nogal, F

    2013-10-01

    To identify the resources related to the care of critically ill patients in Spain, which are available in the units dependent of the Services of Intensive Care Medicine (ICM) or other services/specialties, analyzing their distribution according to characteristics of the hospitals and by autonomous communities. Prospective observational study. Spanish hospitals. Heads of the Services of ICM. Number of units and beds for critically ill patients and functional dependence. The total number of registries obtained with at least one Service of ICM was 237, with a total of 100,198 hospital beds. Level iii (43.5%) and level ii (35%) hospitals predominated. A total of 73% were public hospitals and 55.3% were non-university centers. The total number of beds for adult critically ill patients, was 4,738 (10.3/100,000 inhabitants). The services of ICM registered had available 258 intensive are units (ICUs), with 3,363 beds, mainly polyvalent ICUs (81%) and 43 intermediate care units. The number of patients attended in the Services of ICM in 2008 was 174,904, with a percentage of occupation of 79.5% A total of 228 units attending critically ill patients, which are dependent of other services with 2,233 beds, 772 for pediatric patients or neonates, were registered. When these last specialized units are excluded, there was a marked predominance of postsurgical units followed by coronary and cardiac units. Seventy one per cent of beds available in the Critical Care Units in Spain are characterized by attending severe adult patients, are dependent of the services of ICM, and most of them are polyvalent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Palliative care and the intensive care nurses: feelings that endure.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Natyele Rippel; Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira do; Rosa, Luciana Martins da; Jung, Walnice; Martins, Sabrina Regina; Fontes, Moisés Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    to know the feelings of nurses regarding palliative care in adult intensive care units. qualitative study, which adopted the theoretical framework of Social Representations, carried out with 30 nurses of the state of Santa Catarina included by Snowball sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted from April to August 2015, organized and analyzed through the Collective Subject Discourse. the results showed how central ideas are related to feelings of comfort, frustration, insecurity and anguish, in addition to the feeling that the professional training and performance are focused on the cure. the social representations of nurses regarding the feelings related to palliative care are represented mainly by negative feelings, probably as consequence of the context in which care is provided.

  6. Home to die from the intensive care unit: A qualitative descriptive study of the family's experience.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Amy L; Van Wissen, Kim A

    2017-12-01

    Many people would choose to die at home, and this can be an option for intensive care patients. However, there is limited exploration of the impact on the family. To gain insight into family members' experiences when an adult intensive care unit patient is taken home to die. Methodology is qualitative description, utilising purposeful sampling, unstructured interviews and thematic analysis. Four participants, from two different families were interviewed. The setting was a tertiary level Intensive Care Unit in New Zealand. The experience was described as a kaleidoscope of events with two main themes: 'value' family member's found in the patient going home, and their experience of the 'process'. 'Value' subthemes: going home being the patient's own decision, home as an end-of-life environment, and the patient's positive response to being at home. 'Process' subthemes: care and support received, stress of a family member being in intensive care, feeling that everything happened quickly, and concerns and uncertainties. Going home to die from the intensive care unit can be a positive but challenging experience for the family. Full collaboration between the patient, family and staff is essential, to ensure the family are appropriately supported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Health care and lost productivity costs of overweight and obesity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lal, Anita; Moodie, Marj; Ashton, Toni; Siahpush, Mohammad; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the costs of health care and lost productivity attributable to overweight and obesity in New Zealand (NZ) in 2006. A prevalence-based approach to costing was used in which costs were calculated for all cases of disease in the year 2006. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated based on the relative risks obtained from large cohort studies and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. For each disease, the PAF was multiplied by the total health care cost. The costs of lost productivity associated with premature mortality were estimated using both the Human Capital approach (HCA) and Friction Cost approach (FCA). Health care costs attributable to overweight and obesity were estimated to be NZ$686m or 4.5% of New Zealand's total health care expenditure in 2006. The costs of lost productivity using the FCA were estimated to be NZ$98m and NZ$225m using the HCA. The combined costs of health care and lost productivity using the FCA were $784m and $911m using the HCA. The cost burden of overweight and obesity in NZ is considerable. Policies and interventions are urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of obesity thereby decreasing these substantial costs. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Austerity, new public management and missed nursing care in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Willis, Eileen; Carryer, Jenny; Harvey, Clare; Pearson, Maria; Henderson, Julie

    2017-12-01

    To outline the way the culture of austerity arising from the Global Financial Crisis has been used by Australian and New Zealand governments to maintain and extend healthcare budget cuts, through new public management strategies leading to missed nursing care. Ten years on the cost of the Global Financial Crisis continues to be borne by tax payers and those employed by the welfare state, yet analysis shows clearly that it was caused by a failure to adequately regulate markets, particularly the banks and multinational corporations. In health care, one of the impacts is increased workload for nurses leading to missed care. Registered Nurses and midwives (n = 7,302) completed the MISSCARE surveys between 2012 - 2015, in four Australian states and New Zealand providing quantitative and qualitative responses. The qualitative comments were analysed using a template analysis approach based on key features of New Public Management. Sixty-two qualitative responses identified measures in place directly linked to austerity and new public management strategies that impacted on the quality of patient care and nursing work, as well as contributing to missed care. Opportunities for resistance may lie outside public and private health organizations in civil society, in the nurse union movements and other health and nursing professional associations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Data privacy considerations in Intensive Care Grids.

    PubMed

    Luna, Jesus; Dikaiakos, Marios D; Kyprianou, Theodoros; Bilas, Angelos; Marazakis, Manolis

    2008-01-01

    Novel eHealth systems are being designed to provide a citizen-centered health system, however the even demanding need for computing and data resources has required the adoption of Grid technologies. In most of the cases, this novel Health Grid requires not only conveying patient's personal data through public networks, but also storing it into shared resources out of the hospital premises. These features introduce new security concerns, in particular related with privacy. In this paper we survey current legal and technological approaches that have been taken to protect a patient's personal data into eHealth systems, with a particular focus in Intensive Care Grids. However, thanks to a security analysis applied over the Intensive Care Grid system (ICGrid) we show that these security mechanisms are not enough to provide a comprehensive solution, mainly because the data-at-rest is still vulnerable to attacks coming from untrusted Storage Elements where an attacker may directly access them. To cope with these issues, we propose a new privacy-oriented protocol which uses a combination of encryption and fragmentation to improve data's assurance while keeping compatibility with current legislations and Health Grid security mechanisms.

  10. Hyperbaric intensive care technology and equipment.

    PubMed

    Millar, Ian L

    2015-03-01

    In an emergency, life support can be provided during recompression or hyperbaric oxygen therapy using very basic equipment, provided the equipment is hyperbaric-compatible and the clinicians have appropriate experience. For hyperbaric critical care to be provided safely on a routine basis, however, a great deal of preparation and specific equipment is needed, and relatively few facilities have optimal capabilities at present. The type, size and location of the chamber are very influential factors. Although monoplace chamber critical care is possible, it involves special adaptations and inherent limitations that make it inappropriate for all but specifically experienced teams. A large, purpose-designed chamber co-located with an intensive care unit is ideal. Keeping the critically ill patient on their normal bed significantly improves quality of care where this is possible. The latest hyperbaric ventilators have resolved many of the issues normally associated with hyperbaric ventilation, but at significant cost. Multi-parameter monitoring is relatively simple with advanced portable monitors, or preferably installed units that are of the same type as used elsewhere in the hospital. Whilst end-tidal CO₂ readings are changed by pressure and require interpretation, most other parameters display normally. All normal infusions can be continued, with several examples of syringe drivers and infusion pumps shown to function essentially normally at pressure. Techniques exist for continuous suction drainage and most other aspects of standard critical care. At present, the most complex life support technologies such as haemofiltration, cardiac assist devices and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation remain incompatible with the hyperbaric environment.

  11. Severe Legionnaire's disease requiring intensive care treatment.

    PubMed

    van Riemsdijk-van Overbeeke, I C; van den Berg, B

    1996-11-01

    Legionnaire's disease is well known as severe pneumonia requiring intensive care treatment in many cases. In this study the clinical course is described of patients admitted to the medical ICU of the University Hospital of Rotterdam for respiratory distress due to Legionnaire's disease. From the register of admissions to the medical ICU all patients suffering from Legionnaire's disease were identified. All data on clinical signs and symptoms present on admission were collected. The circumstances in which the infections were contracted were sought, as well as the tests establishing the diagnosis. The occurrence of various organ failures and complications were noted, as were the causes of death on the ICU. From 1978 till 1995 the diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia was made in 17 patients admitted to the ICU: in 13 patients a community-acquired infection was established. As in 12 patients Legionnaire's disease was diagnosed on serological tests, it took several weeks before the diagnosis could be established in these patients. In all patients the circumstances predisposing to Legionnaire's disease were noted. Respiratory distress was present in all patients, ventilatory support was required in 14. Apart from this, both profound shock and renal failure were commonly encountered. As complications jaundice, rhabdomyolysis and polyneuropathy were frequently noted. Three patients died: 2 due to irreversible shock and 1 due to hospital-acquired sepsis. Legionnaire's disease can develop into life-threatening pneumonia requiring intensive care treatment in previously healthy subjects. As the clinical features are aspecific, careful search for predisposing circumstances such as recent travel or use of a contaminated water-supply is mandatory. As the diagnosis required positive serological tests in most patients, a considerable delay in diagnosis was noted. Despite the frequent occurrence of multiple organ failure, a favourable outcome can be anticipated in most cases.

  12. Innovation and Technology: Electronic Intensive Care Unit Diaries.

    PubMed

    Scruth, Elizabeth A; Oveisi, Nazanin; Liu, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Hospitalization in the intensive care unit can be a stressful time for patients and their family members. Patients' family members often have difficulty processing all of the information that is given to them. Therefore, an intensive care unit diary can serve as a conduit for synthesizing information, maintaining connection with patients, and maintaining a connection with family members outside the intensive care unit. Paper intensive care unit diaries have been used outside the United States for many years. This article explores the development of an electronic intensive care unit diary using a rapid prototyping model to accelerate the process. Initial results of design testing demonstrate that it is feasible, useful, and desirable to consider the implementation of electronic intensive care unit diaries for patients at risk for post-intensive care syndrome. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  13. [Management of technology in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Madureira, C R; Veiga, K; Sant'ana, A F

    2000-12-01

    The lives of hospitalized patients depend on diagnostic-therapeutic procedures and on the care provided by the health team. It also depends on the quality and availability of factors such as: physical structure and material and human and financial resources. The need to optimize these resources and re-establish patients' health has brought about the Intensive Care Units (ICU), whose design must consider the physical environment and clinical equipment which are indispensable in health care. Aiming at identifying the level of knowledge of health professionals as to technical and operational information in equipment manuals and the perception of the interviewed professionals in relation to the adequacy of the physical and electrical installations of such units, we conducted a descriptive study in an ICU of a public hospital in Salvador, Brazil. The results show that such installations were considered to be unsuitable for the safe development of activities and that most of the health team members did not know the technical or operational specifications in the equipment manuals.

  14. Noise in contemporary neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amber L; van Drongelen, Wim; Lasky, Robert E

    2007-05-01

    Weekly sound surveys (n = 63) were collected, using 5 s sampling intervals, for two modern neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Median weekly equivalent sound pressure levels (LEQ) for NICU A ranged from 61 to 63 dB (A weighted), depending on the level of care. NICU B L(EQ) measurements ranged from 55 to 60 dB (A weighted). NICU B was recently built with a focus on sound abatement, explaining much of the difference between the two NICUs. Sound levels exceeded 45 dB (A weighted), recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, more than 70% of the time for all levels of care. Hourly L(EQ)s below 50 dB (A weighted) and hourly L10s below 55 dB (A weighted), recommended by the Sound Study Group (SSG) of the National Resource Center, were also exceeded in more than 70% of recorded samples. A third SSG recommendation, that the 1 s L(MAX), should not exceed 70 dB (A weighted), was exceeded relatively infrequently (< 11% of the time). Peak impulse measurements exceeded 90 dB for 6.3% of 5 s samples recorded from NICU A and 2.8% of NICU B samples. Twenty-four h periodicities in sound levels as a function of regular staff activities were apparent, but short-term variability was considerable.

  15. An osteoarthritis model of care should be a national priority for New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jennifer; Briggs, Andrew; Bagg, Warwick; Larmer, Peter

    2017-12-15

    Osteoarthritis is highly prevalent, disabling and costly to the person and the community. The burden of this chronic condition is predicted to increase dramatically over the coming decades. Healthcare spending on osteoarthritis is unsustainable and action is needed to improve care delivery. At present, there is an over-emphasis on surgical and pharmacological interventions, despite evidence supporting conservative treatments such as exercise, weight loss and education. While clinical guidelines provide recommendations regarding best practice (ie, what to do), they fail to address how to operationalise these recommendations into clinical practice. Models of care (MoCs) can help bridge the evidence-practice gap by outlining evidence-informed interventions as well as how to implement them within a local system. However, New Zealand has no osteoarthritis MoC. The Mobility Action Programme, funded by the Ministry of Health, is delivering evidence-informed, multi-disciplinary care for osteoarthritis through local initiatives. Although the programme remains under evaluation it presents an opportunity to inform development of a national osteoarthritis MoC for New Zealand. A policy framework, such as a MoC, is needed to scale up successful programs and deliver best practice care nationwide. Ultimately, addressing the burden of osteoarthritis will require system-wide approaches involving public policy responses to target primary prevention.

  16. Sibutramine usage in New Zealand: an analysis of prescription data by the Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme.

    PubMed

    Hill, Geraldine R; Ashton, Janelle; Harrison-Woolrych, Mira

    2007-11-01

    To describe patterns of sibutramine usage in New Zealand during the first 3 years of marketing using data acquired during post-marketing safety surveillance. Demographic and prescription data were examined from a nationwide cohort of 17 298 patients prescribed sibutramine between 1 February 2001 and 31 March 2004. Outcome measures were age and sex distribution of the cohort; period prevalence of sibutramine usage for each ethnic group; duration of treatment and reasons for cessation of therapy. Limited BMI data were also examined. About 0.5% of the NZ population were prescribed sibutramine in the period studied. Overwhelmingly, the highest users of sibutramine were NZ European women aged 30-59 years. Maori and Pacific Peoples were under-represented in the cohort, despite the higher prevalence of obesity among these populations. Sibutramine usage was predominantly short-term: 59% of the cohort used sibutramine for 90 days or less, half of whom used it for only 1 month. There has been extensive use of sibutramine in New Zealand. Sibutramine has been relatively under-utilised by Maori and Pacific ethnic groups, compared to New Zealand Europeans, despite their higher prevalence of obesity. A number of factors may have contributed to the predominantly short-term use of this medicine, including the cost of the medicine to the consumer, weight loss not meeting expectations and adverse effects of the medicine.

  17. [Psychiatric disorders in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Ampélas, J F; Pochard, F; Consoli, S M

    2002-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in intensive care patients have been for a long time neglected. They are nowadays better recognized and managed. These disorders are mainly: delirium; anxiety disorders, from simple anxiety to panic disorder with agitation; adaptation disorders with depressive mood; brief psychotic disorders with persecution ideas. The manifestations of psychiatric disorders occur not only during the stay in intensive care unit (ICU) but also after transfer from ICU and several months after discharge from hospital. Part of psychiatric disorders is caused by organic or toxic causes (metabolic disturbances, electrolyte imbalance, withdrawal syndromes, infection, vascular disorders and head trauma). Nevertheless some authors estimate that they are due to the particular environment of ICU. The particularities of these units are: a high sound level (noise level average between 50 and 60 dBA), the absence of normal day-night cycle, a sleep deprivation, a sensory deprivation, the inability for intubated patients to talk, the pain provoked by some medical procedures, the possibility to witness other patients' death. Although most patients feel secure in ICU, some of them perceive ICU's environment as threatening. Simple environmental modifications could prevent the apparition of some psychiatric manifestations: efforts should be made to decrease noise generated by equipment and staff conversations, to provide external windows, visible clocks and calendar, to ensure adequate sleep with normal day-night cycle and to encourage more human contact. Psychotropic drugs are useful but a warm and empathetic attitude can be very helpful. Some authors described specific psychotherapeutic interventions in ICU (hypnosis, coping strategies.). To face anxiety, many patients have defense attitudes as psychological regression and denial. Patient's family is suffering too. Relative's hospitalization causes a crisis in family. Unpredicted illnesses often

  18. Safety devices for neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Neuman, M R; Flammer, C M; O'Connor, E

    1982-01-01

    Three relatively simple devices for improving safety in neonatal intensive care are described. When umbilical artery catheters are used, an inexpensive pressure switch is utilized to detect abnormally low pressures associated with catheter withdrawal or excessive fluid leakage from the catheter system. A capacitive, intravenous-line air bubble detector, consisting of a section of the intravenous line as the dielectric of a capacitor, is used to alert the clinical staff when air bubbles pass between the capacitor plates. An electronic temperature controller maintains the temperature of neonatal breathing gases to avoid temperature variations which occur with presently used techniques. These are relatively simple and inexpensive devices which can be fabricated by most hospital clinical engineering services.

  19. Sedation in the neurologic intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Mark T

    2008-03-01

    Providing adequate sedation in the neurologic intensive care unit (ICU) depends on determination of proper goals for sedation, adequate assessment of the level of sedation, and appropriate choice of drug based on the patient's physiology. The management of sedation in the ICU will influence long-term outcome. Delirium, anxiety, and pain must be identified and treated separately. The use of protocols can improve compliance with published evidence-based recommendations. Propofol and dexmedetomidine may be used for rapidly titratable sedation, benzodiazepines for anxiolysis, neuroleptics for treatment of delirium, and opiates for analgesia. Unique aspects of patients with acute brain disease, such as elevated intracranial pressure or status epilepticus, require adaptation of sedative regimens. Processed EEG monitoring and volatile anesthetic agents have not yet proven beneficial or practical for use in the ICU.

  20. Extreme metabolic alkalosis in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Swagata

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a commonly seen imbalance in the intensive care unit (ICU). Extreme metabolic alkalemia, however, is less common. A pH greater than 7.65 may carry a high risk of mortality (up to 80%). We discuss the entity of life threatening metabolic alkalemia by means of two illustrative cases - both with a pH greater than 7.65 on presentation. The cause, modalities of managing and complications of this condition is discussed from the point of view of both the traditional method of Henderson and Hasselbalch and the mathematical model based on physiochemical model described by Stewart. Special mention to the pitfalls in managing patients of metabolic alkalosis with concomitant renal compromise is made.

  1. The critical care costs of the influenza A/H1N1 2009 pandemic in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Pettilä, V; Harris, A H; Bailey, M; Lipman, J; Seppelt, I M; Webb, S A

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the critical care and associated hospital costs for 2009 influenza A/H1N1 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) in Australia and New Zealand during the southern hemisphere winter All 762 patients admitted to ICUs in Australian and New Zealand between 1 June and 31 August 2009 with confirmed 2009 H1N1 influenza A were included. Costs were assigned based on ICU and hospital length-of-stay, using data from a single Australian ICU which estimated the daily cost of an ICU bed, along with published costs for a ward bed. Additional costs were assigned for allied health, overheads and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation services. The median (interquartile range) ICU and total hospital costs per patient were AU$35,942 ($10,269 to $82,152) and AU$51,294 ($22,849 to $110,340) respectively, while the mean (standard deviation) ICU and total hospital costs per patient were AU$63,298 ($78,722) and AU$85,395 ($147,457), respectively. A multivariate analysis found death was significantly associated with a reduction in the log of total costs, while the use of mechanical ventilation and ICU admission with viral pneumonitis/acute respiratory distress syndrome or secondary bacterial pneumonia were significantly associated with an increase in the log of total costs. The cost of 2009 H1N1 patients in ICU was significantly higher than the previously published costs for an average ICU admission, and the total cost of treating 2009 H1N1 patients in ICU admitted during winter 2009 was more than $65,000,000.

  2. Care coordination in intensive care units: communicating across information spaces.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anne; Weinger, Matthew B; Buerhaus, Peter; Dietrich, Mary S

    2010-04-01

    This study explores the interactions among phases of team coordination, patient-related information, decision-making levels, and role holders in intensive care units (ICUs). The effects of communication improvement initiatives on adverse patient events or improved outcomes have been difficult to establish. Conceptual inconsistencies and methodological shortcomings suggest insufficient understanding about clinical communication and care coordination. Data were collected by shadowing a charge nurse, fellow, resident, and nurse in each of eight ICUs and recording each of their conversations during 12 hrs (32 role holders during 350 hrs). Hierarchical log linear analyses show statistically significant three-way interactions between the patient information, phases of team coordination, and decision levels, chi2(df = 75) = 212, p < .0001; between roles, phases of team coordination, and decision levels, chi2(df = 60) = 109, p < .0001; and between roles, patient information, and decision levels, chi2(df = 60) = 155, p < .0001. Differences among levels of the variables were evaluated with the use of standardized parameter estimates and 95% confidence intervals. ICU communication and care coordination involve complex decision structures and role interactions across two information spaces. Different role holders mediate vertical and lateral process flows with goals and directions representing an important conceptual transition. However, lateral isolation within decision levels (charge nurses) and information overload (residents) are potential communication and care coordination vulnerabilities. Results are consistent with and extend the findings of previous studies. The profile of ICU communication and care coordination provides a systemic framework that may inform future interventions and research.

  3. Patterns of antibacterials use in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Santos, Edilson Floriano Dos; Lauria-Pires, Liana

    2010-06-01

    To know and compare the patterns of antimicrobials use in intensive care units (ICUs) based on the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD) system. a prospective cohort study was conducted in three medical-surgical intensive care units, two of them in public hospitals and one in a private hospital. Simple random, independent samples of patients admitted from 10/2004 to 09/2005 to the selected intensive care units were used. The antibiotics use was assessed using the ATC/DDD system. The amount of antibacterials used in each intensive care unit, in grams, was transformed in daily defined dose (DDD). The number of DDDs was divided by the number of patient-days, multiplied by one thousand, to obtain the average density of consumption (DC) per thousand patient-days (DDD1000). 1,728 patients-days and 2,918.6 DDDs were examined in the three intensive care units, corresponding to an average density of consumption of 1,689.0 DDD1000. The median number of DDDs of antibiotics use in the public hospitals’ intensive care units was significantly higher (p=0.002) versus the private hospital’s intensive care unit. The consumption of antibiotics in the private hospital’s intensive care unit (DC=2,191.7 DDD1000) was significantly higher (p<0.001) versus the intensive care units of public hospitals (1,499.5 DDD1000). The most used antibiotics groups in the three intensive care units were 3rd generation cephalosporins, penicillins/betalactamases inhibitors, carbapenems and fluorquinolones. The pattern of antibiotics use in the three examined intensive care units was not uniform. The private hospital’s intensive care unit used a significantly larger amount versus the public hospitals’ intensive care units. Nevertheless, the most used antibiotics groups were similar in the three intensive care units.

  4. From Caring "about" to Caring "for": Case Studies of New Zealand and Japanese Schools Post Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Peter; Takahashi, Nozomu

    2014-01-01

    On 22 February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake killed 185 people in Christchurch, New Zealand. On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck eastern Japan, and was followed by a devastating tsunami and a nuclear plant crisis. As of 16 November 2011, the official death toll in Japan had reached 15,839, with a further 3467 people still…

  5. Reducing false asystole alarms in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Dekimpe, Remi; Heldt, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    High rates of false monitoring alarms in intensive care can desensitize staff and therefore pose a significant risk to patient safety. Like other critical arrhythmia alarms, asystole alarms require immediate attention by the care providers as a true asystole event can be acutely life threatening. Here, it is illustrated that most false asystole alarms can be attributed to poor signal quality, and we propose and evaluate an algorithm to identify data windows of poor signal quality and thereby help suppress false asystole alarms. The algorithm combines intuitive signal-quality features (degree of signal saturation and baseline wander) and information from other physiological signals that might be available. Algorithm training and testing was performed on the MIMIC II and 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge databases, respectively. The algorithm achieved an alarm specificity of 81.0% and sensitivity of 95.4%, missing only one out of 22 true asystole alarms. On a separate neonatal data set, the algorithm was able to reject 89.7% (890 out of 992) of false asystole alarms while keeping all 22 true events. The results show that the false asystole alarm rate can be significantly reduced through basic signal quality evaluation.

  6. Exploring performance obstacles of intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Ayse P; Carayon, Pascale

    2009-05-01

    High nursing workload, poor patient safety, and poor nursing quality of working life (QWL) are major issues in intensive care units (ICUs). Characteristics of the ICU and performance obstacles may contribute to these issues. The goal of this study was to comprehensively identify the performance obstacles perceived by ICU nurses. We used a qualitative research design and conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 ICU nurses of a medical-surgical ICU. Based on this qualitative study and a previously reported quantitative study, we identified seven main types of performance obstacles experienced by ICU nurses. Obstacles related to the physical environment (e.g., noise, amount of space), family relations (e.g., distractions caused by family, lack of time to spend with family), and equipment (e.g., unavailability, misplacement) were the most frequently experienced performance obstacles. The qualitative interview data provided rich information regarding the factors contributing to the performance obstacles. Overall, ICU nurses experience a variety of performance obstacles in their work on a daily basis. Future research is needed to understand the impact of performance obstacles on nursing workload, nursing QWL, and quality and safety of care.

  7. Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Randall S.; Gehlbach, Brian K.; Schwab, Richard J.; Weinhouse, Gerald L.; Jones, Shirley F.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important physiologic process, and lack of sleep is associated with a host of adverse outcomes. Basic and clinical research has documented the important role circadian rhythm plays in biologic function. Critical illness is a time of extreme vulnerability for patients, and the important role sleep may play in recovery for intensive care unit (ICU) patients is just beginning to be explored. This concise clinical review focuses on the current state of research examining sleep in critical illness. We discuss sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities that occur in ICU patients and the challenges to measuring alterations in circadian rhythm in critical illness and review methods to measure sleep in the ICU, including polysomnography, actigraphy, and questionnaires. We discuss data on the impact of potentially modifiable disruptors to patient sleep, such as noise, light, and patient care activities, and report on potential methods to improve sleep in the setting of critical illness. Finally, we review the latest literature on sleep disturbances that persist or develop after critical illness. PMID:25594808

  8. Maintaining patient dignity in intensive care settings.

    PubMed

    Turnock, C; Kelleher, M

    2001-06-01

    Maintenance of the dignity of intensive care unit (ICU) patients, particularly minimizing exposure of genitalia, may be problematic. The aim of the study was to develop strategies to maximize the dignity of ICU patients using an action research methodology. The first stage assessed current practice through 62 hours of non-participant observation of patient care. Patient dignity was maintained in almost one-third of observed cases. However, more intimate areas such as bosom and genitalia were exposed in over 40% of the incidents. Whilst screens were fully used in over one-third of exposure incidents, full screening did not occur for all or part of the remaining incidents. Significant factors (P < 0.05) influencing exposure included gender and age. Female and younger (< 60 years) patients were more likely to be exposed; older patients (> 70 years) were less likely to be screened when exposed. The next stage involved identification of solutions to the problem of inappropriate patient exposure through the medium of a multi-disciplinary focus group. The focus group recommended raising staff awareness and documentation of situations that may compromise maintenance of dignity. The final stage of the study involved an audit of these recommendations. The main audit findings were more adequate clothing of patients plus a high level of staff awareness of patients' dignity needs.

  9. [Management of dysphagia in internal intensive-care medicine].

    PubMed

    Michels, G; Motzko, M; Weinert, M; Bruckner, M; Pfister, R; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2015-04-01

    Physicians specializing in dysphagia are needed in modern intensive care medicine. Long-term intubation is associated with aspiration and swallowing disorders. Early and standardised dysphagia management should be initiated during a patient's stay on intensive care unit. A clinically experienced, interdisciplinary team is required to provide optimal care for critically ill patients with dysphagia. Intensive care physicians should therefore know about basics in dysphagiology.

  10. Communication with parents in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Orzalesi, Marcello; Aite, Lucia

    2011-10-01

    The psycho-relational problems in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) are complex and multifaceted and have only recently been properly addressed. Some specific factors make communication in NICU particularly problematic; the baby's clinical condition, the emotional and working conditions of the medical staff, the emotional state of the parents and the setting of the NICU and the interaction of multiple professional figures with the parents. The purpose of communication in NICUs is not only to inform parents of their child's clinical condition; the medical and nursing staff must also educate and guide parents so that they can actively participate in caring for their child and become true "partners" with the medical team in the decision-making process. Furthermore, the staff must also use their communication skills to understand and contain the anxieties and emotions of parents, supporting and comforting them through the most critical moments of their child's illness and possibly even bereavement. Given the number and complexity of the interpersonal exchanges that take place in the NICU, the risk of misunderstanding, misinterpretation and conflict is high. One could say that the interpersonal aspect is an area where the risk of iatrogenesis is elevated. It is recognized that poor staff-family interactions not only reflect negatively on the baby's care and are a source of distress and discontent for the parents, but are also a major cause of medico-legal litigation and increase the incidence of "burnout". Therefore, specific training of the staff in communication is essential if the optimal results, obtained through modern technology, are not to be invalidated.

  11. Restructuring Primary Health Care Markets in New Zealand: from Welfare Benefits to Insurance Markets

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Bronwyn

    2005-01-01

    Background New Zealand's Primary Health Care Strategy (NZPHCS) was introduced in 2002. Its features are substantial increases in government funding delivered as capitation payments, and newly-created service-purchasing agencies. The objectives are to reduce health disparities and to improve health outcomes. Analysis The NZPHCS changes New Zealand's publicly-funded primary health care payments from targeted welfare benefits to universal, risk-rated insurance premium subsidies. Patient contributions change from fee-for-service top-ups to insurance premium top-ups, and are collected by service providers who, depending upon their contracts with purchasers, may also be either insurance agents or risk-bearing insurance companies. The change invokes the tensions associated with allocating risk-bearing amongst providers, patients and insurance companies that accompany all insurance-based funding instruments. These include increases in existing incentives for over-consumption and new incentives for insurers to limit their exposure to variations in patient health states by engaging in active patient pool selection. The New Zealand scheme is complex, but closely resembles United States insurance-based, risk-rated managed care schemes. The key difference is that unlike classic managed care models, where provider remuneration is determined by the insurer, the historic right for general practitioners to autonomously set patient charges alters the fiscal incentives normally available to managed care organisations. Consequently, the insurance role is being devolved to individual service providers with very small patient pools, who must recoup the premium top-ups from insured individuals. Premium top-ups are being collected only from those individuals consuming care, in proportion to the number of times care is sought. Co-payments thus constitute perfectly risk-rated premium levies set by inefficiently small insurers, raising questions about the efficiency and equity of a

  12. Measuring Outcomes of an Intensive Care Unit Family Diary Program.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Truong-Giang; Covalesky, Miranda; Sinclair, Samantha; Gunter, Heather; Norton, Tamara; Chen, Alice; Yi, Cassia

    2017-01-01

    Patients discharged from intensive care units are at risk of short- and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms known as post-intensive care syndrome. Family members of intensive care unit patients are at risk of similar symptoms known as post-intensive care syndrome-family. Both syndromes are common, and strategies to reduce risk factors should be employed. An intensive care unit diary project to help reduce these syndromes was implemented in 2 intensive care units using an evidence-based framework. The effects of these diaries were studied using the Family Satisfaction with Care in the Intensive Care Unit survey. Rates of referrals to a postintensive care unit recovery clinic were also observed in relation to the diaries. Although preliminary data did not reveal a significant increase in family satisfaction, the surveys provided important staff feedback. The diaries fostered feelings of compassion and caring as well as built trust between staff and family members of intensive care unit patients. The diaries increased referrals to the postintensive care unit recovery clinic. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  13. Job satisfaction of neonatal intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katie; Rubarth, Lori Baas; Miers, Linda J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the job satisfaction of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses in the Midwestern United States. The factors explored in job satisfaction were monetary compensation (pay), job stress, caring for patients in stressful situations, level of autonomy, organizational support, level of knowledge of the specialty, work environment, staffing levels, communication with physicians, communication with neonatal nurse practitioners, interdisciplinary communication, team spirit, and the amount of required "floating" to other nursing units. Participants were 109 NICU nurses working as either staff nurses (n = 72) or advanced practice nurses (n = 37). Of the participants, 96% worked in a level 3 NICU. A descriptive, correlational design was used to study job satisfaction among NICU nurses. Nurses were recruited at 2 regional NICU conferences in 2009 and 2010. The questionnaire was a researcher-developed survey consisting of 14 questions in a Likert-type response rating 1 to 5, with an area for comments. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to analyze the resulting data. The majority of participants were moderately satisfied overall in their current position and workplace (mean ranking = 4.07 out of 5.0). Kendall's Tau b (TB) revealed that the strongest positive correlations were between organizational support and team spirit with overall job satisfaction (TB = 0.53). : The individual factors with the highest mean scores were caring for patients in a stressful situation, level of autonomy, and communication between nurses and neonatal nurse practitioners. This indicates that our population of NICU nurses feels most satisfied caring for patients in stressful situations (m = 4.48), are satisfied with their level of autonomy (M = 4.17), and are satisfied with the interdisciplinary communication in their units (m = 4.13). Nurses in the NICU are relatively satisfied with their jobs. The small sample size (n = 109) of Midwest NICU

  14. [Artificial nutrition in pediatric intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Navero, J L; Dorao Martínez-Romillo, P; López-Herce Cid, J; Ibarra de la Rosa, I; Pujol Jover, M; Hermana Tezanos, María T

    2005-02-01

    To perform an epidemiologic study of artificial nutrition in critically-ill pediatric patients. A multicenter, prospective and descriptive study was conducted in 23 Spanish intensive care units (ICU) (18 pediatric ICUs and five pediatric/neonatal ICUs) over a 1-month period. Artificial nutrition (AN) was required by 165 critically-ill patients (21.4 %). Data on diagnosis, severity, treatment, type of nutrition administered and complications were analyzed. A total of 54.4 % of the participants were younger than 1 year, 19.4 % were aged between 1 and 5 years old, 15.7 % between 5 and 10 years old and 13.4 % were older than 10 years. ICU mean length stay was 11 days. One hundred six patients were administered enteral nutrition (EN): 67.9 % continuous nasogastric EN, 27.4 intermittent nasogastric EN, 16 % nasojejunal EN, 2.8 % gastrostomy EN. Eighty patients required parenteral nutrition (PN): 86.3 % central PN, 20 % peripheral PN. No significant differences were found between patients with EN and PN in mean energy intake, days receiving AN, diagnosis at admission to the ICU, disease severity (measured by PRISM III) or intensive support techniques. The EN group required greater inotropic support. Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation had equal mortality independent of the type of AN. The most common complications in EN were: 17.9 % emesis, 13.2 % abdominal distension, 11.3 % diarrhea, 4.7 % gastric residual volumes, and 6.6 % hypokalemia. In PN complications consisted of: 5 % catheter related infection, 1.3 % thrombophlebitis, 7.5 % hyponatremia, 3.8 % hypoglycemia, 6.3 % hypophosphatemia and 3.8 % hypertriglyceridemia. EN provides critically-ill children with adequate energy intake and is well tolerated. Therefore, if there are no contraindications, EN should be the system of choice in the critically-ill patient requiring AN.

  15. Intensive care window: real-time monitoring and analysis in the intensive care environment.

    PubMed

    Stylianides, Nikolas; Dikaiakos, Marios D; Gjermundrød, Harald; Panayi, George; Kyprianou, Theodoros

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel, open-source middleware framework for communication with medical devices and an application using the middleware named intensive care window (ICW). The middleware enables communication with intensive care unit bedside-installed medical devices over standard and proprietary communication protocol stacks. The ICW application facilitates the acquisition of vital signs and physiological parameters exported from patient-attached medical devices and sensors. Moreover, ICW provides runtime and post-analysis procedures for data annotation, data visualization, data query, and analysis. The ICW application can be deployed as a stand-alone solution or in conjunction with existing clinical information systems providing a holistic solution to inpatient medical condition monitoring, early diagnosis, and prognosis.

  16. Spiritual care and kidney disease in NZ: a qualitative study with New Zealand renal specialists.

    PubMed

    Egan, Richard; Macleod, Rod; Tiatia, Ramona; Wood, Sarah; Mountier, Jane; Walker, Rob

    2014-11-01

    People with chronic kidney disease have a shortened life expectancy and carry a high symptom burden. Research suggests that attending to renal patients' spiritual needs may contribute to an improvement in their quality of life. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the provision of spiritual care in New Zealand renal units from the perspective of specialists. The study followed a generic qualitative approach and included semi-structured interviews with specialists recruited from New Zealand's ten renal centres. Five specialist doctors and nine specialist nurses were recruited for interviews. Understandings of spirituality were broad, with most participants having an inclusive understanding. Patients' spiritual needs were generally acknowledged and respected though formal spiritual assessments were not done. Consideration of death was discussed as an often-unexamined need. The dominant position was that the specialists did not provide explicit spiritual care of patients but there was some ad hoc provision offered through pre-dialysis educators, family meetings, Māori liaison staff members and the efforts of individuals. Chaplains were well used in some services. Participants had received no pre and little in-service training or education in spiritual care. Suggestions for improvements included in-service training, better utilization of chaplaincy services and training in advance care planning. Most participants indicated they would attempt to provide some form of spiritual care, either directly or by referring the patient to appropriate services. However, participants generally demonstrated a lack of confidence in addressing a patient's spiritual needs. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  17. Pilot Testing of an Intensive Cooking Course for New Zealand Adolescents: The Create-Our-Own Kai Study

    PubMed Central

    Black, Katherine; Thomson, Carla; Chryssidis, Themis; Finigan, Rosie; Hann, Callum; Jackson, Rosalie; Robinson, Caleb; Toldi, Olivia; Skidmore, Paula

    2018-01-01

    The role of cooking on health and wellbeing is a recent area of scientific interest. In order to investigate this role, a cooking program that is suitable for each target population is needed e.g., a program designed for American or Australian children might not be appropriate for teenagers in New Zealand. As there was no similar previously evaluated program already available, the study’s purpose was to test an intensive cooking intervention on cooking confidence and knowledge amongst a group of adolescents from Dunedin, New Zealand, and to assess its acceptability to participants. This five-day program comprised interactive cooking sessions and informal nutrition education and ran from 9 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., Monday to Friday during school holidays. Participants completed questionnaires on cooking skills and confidence at baseline and the end of intervention and took part in a group interview, which aimed to investigate the acceptability and outcome of the program. Twenty-one participants aged between 12 and 16 years old completed the program. At the end of the program, significant increases were seen in both skills and confidence levels, and feedback from the group interview indicated that the participants enjoyed the program and that it provided additional results other than those that were cooking related. PMID:29710863

  18. Patterns of Colorectal Cancer Care in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men worldwide. In this study, we used MEDLINE to conduct a systematic review of existing literature published in English between 2000 and 2010 on patterns of colorectal cancer care. Specifically, this review examined 66 studies conducted in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand to assess patterns of initial care, post-diagnostic surveillance, and end-of-life care for colorectal cancer. The majority of studies in this review reported rates of initial care, and limited research examined either post-diagnostic surveillance or end-of-life care for colorectal cancer. Older colorectal cancer patients and individuals with comorbidities generally received less surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Patients with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to receive treatment, and variations in patterns of care were observed by patient demographic and clinical characteristics, geographical location, and hospital setting. However, there was wide variability in data collection and measures, health-care systems, patient populations, and population representativeness, making direct comparisons challenging. Future research and policy efforts should emphasize increased comparability of data systems, promote data standardization, and encourage collaboration between and within European cancer registries and administrative databases. PMID:23962509

  19. Recovery-based services in a psychiatric intensive care unit - the consumer perspective.

    PubMed

    Ash, David; Suetani, Shuichi; Nair, Jayakrishnan; Halpin, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    To describe the implementation of recovery-based practice into a psychiatric intensive care unit, and report change in seclusion rates over the period when these changes were introduced (2011-2013). Recovery-based practices including collaborative care, safety care plans, a comfort room, and debriefing after coercive interventions were introduced. A carer consultant was employed. A restraint and seclusion review committee, chaired by a peer worker, was established. A consumer exit interview was introduced and these data were collected, reviewed by staff and the peer worker and used to improve the ward environment. Rates of seclusion were measured during the period when recovery-based practices were introduced. Consumer feedback indicated that positive aspects of the psychiatric intensive care unit included approachable, helpful staff and completion of a safety care plan. Negative aspects included lack of involvement in decisions about admission and about medications, the non-smoking policy, and being placed in seclusion or restraint. There was a significant reduction in the number of consumers secluded and the total number of seclusions. Recovery principles can be successfully introduced in a psychiatric intensive care unit environment. Introduction of recovery based practice was associated with a reduction in seclusion. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  20. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  1. An airborne intensive care facility (fixed wing).

    PubMed

    Gilligan, J E; Goon, P; Maughan, G; Griggs, W; Haslam, R; Scholten, A

    1996-04-01

    A fixed-wing aircraft (Beechcraft KingAir B200 C) fitted as an airborne intensive care facility is described. It completed 2000 missions from 1987-1992 for distances up to 1300 km. Features include: 1. Space for carriage of two stretchers, medical cabin crew of up to five persons and equipment and two-pilot operation if necessary. A third stretcher may be carried in emergencies. 2. Two CARDIOCAP (TM) fixed monitors for ECG, invasive and noninvasive pressures pulse oximetry and end-tidal C02 plus SIEMENS 630(TM)/PROPAQ(TM) compact monitors for the ground transport phase of missions, or the total duration. 3. A medical oxygen reservoir of 4650 litres sufficient for two patients on IPPV with FiO2 = 1.0 for a four-hour trip. The medical suction system is powered from the engine or a vacuum pump. 4. Other medical equipment and drugs in portable packs, for ground transport and resuscitation needs and for replenishment by nursing staff at the parent hospitals. 5. Stretchers compatible with helicopter and road ambulance vehicles used. 6. A stretcher loading device energized from the aircraft, operating through a wide (cargo) door. 7. Provision of 24Ov AC (alternating current) and 28v DC (direct current) electrical energy. 8. Pressurization and climate control. 9. Satisfactory aviation performance for conditions encountered, with single-pilot operation.

  2. The craft of intensive care medicine.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Simon

    2013-06-01

    The practice of medicine is often represented as a dualism: is medicine a 'science' or an 'art'? This dualism has been long-lasting, with evident appeal for the medical profession. It also appears to have been rhetorically powerful, for example in enabling clinicians to resist the encroachment of 'scientific' evidence-based medicine into core areas of medical work such as individual clinical judgement. In this article I want to make the case for a more valid conceptualisation of medical practice: that it is a 'craft' activity. The case I make is founded on a theoretical synthesis of the concept of craft, combined with an analysis of ethnographic observations of routine medical practice in intensive care. For this context the craft aspects of medical work can be seen in how biomedical and other types of knowledge are used in practice, the embodied skills and practical judgement of practitioners and the technological and material environment. These aspects are brought together in two conceptual dimensions for 'craft': first, the application of knowledge; second, interaction with the material world. Some practical and political implications of a 'craft' metaphor for medical practice are noted. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. MRSA acquisition in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Dancer, Stephanie J; Coyne, Michael; Speekenbrink, A; Samavedam, Sam; Kennedy, Julie; Wallace, Peter G M

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes a retrospective investigation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in an 8-bed intensive care unit (ICU) over a 5-month period. Clinical and microbiologic data were collected from the ICU, including MRSA detection dates, patient dependency scores, standardized environmental screening data, weekly bed occupancies, number of admissions, and nurse staffing levels. MRSA acquisition weeks were defined as weeks during which initial delivery of MRSA occurred before sampling and laboratory confirmation. Weekly workloads were plotted against staffing levels and modelled against MRSA acquisition weeks and hygiene failures. Of 174 patients admitted into the ICU, 28 (16%) were found to have MRSA; 12 of these (7%) acquired MRSA on the ICU within 7 of the 23 weeks studied. Six of these 7 weeks were associated with a deficit of trained nurses during the day and 5 with hygiene failures (data unavailable for 2). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles demonstrated relationships between staphylococci from staff hands, hand-touch sites, and patients' blood. MRSA acquisition in the ICU was temporally associated with reduced numbers of trained nurses and hygiene failures predominantly involving hand-touch sites. Epidemiologic analysis suggested that patient acquisitions were 7 times more likely to occur during periods of nurse understaffing.

  4. International learning on increasing the value and effectiveness of primary care (I LIVE PC) New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Gauld, Robin; Cumming, Jacqueline; O'Keefe, Bev; Pert, Harry; McCormack, Paul

    2012-03-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has a central government-driven, tax-funded health system with the state as dominant payer. The NZ experience precedes and endorses the US concept of patient-centered medical homes providing population-based, nonepisodic care supported by network organizations. These networks provide administration, budget holding, incentivized programs, data feedback, peer review, education, human relations, and health information technology support and resources. Key elements include enrolled populations; an interdisciplinary team approach; health information technology interoperability and access between all providers as well as patients; devolution of hospital-based services into the community; intersectorial integration; blended payments (a combination of universal capitated funding, patient copayments, and targeted fee-for-service for specific items); and a balance of clinical, corporate, and community governance. In this article, we discuss reforms to NZ's primary care arrangements over the past 2 decades and reflect on the lessons learned, their relevance to the United States, and issues that remain to be resolved.

  5. Patients' perceptions of service quality dimensions: an empirical examination of health care in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Clemes, M D; Ozanne, L K; Laurensen, W L

    2001-01-01

    The 1984 liberalization of the New Zealand economy has resulted in a health care sector that has become very competitive (Zwier and Clarke, 1999). The private sector is now able to supply health care services and, as a result, a greater value is being placed on patient satisfaction (Zwier and Clarke, 1999). However, despite the increasing focus on customer satisfaction, research into health care patients' perceptions of the dimensions of service quality is scarce. This can be problematic, as quality of care is an essential issue in the strategic marketing of health care services (Turner and Pol, 1995). This study takes a step towards addressing this deficiency by identifying patients' perceptions of the dimensions of service quality in health care. The findings of this study are based on the empirical analysis of a sample of 389 respondents interviewed by telephone. The findings indicate that the service quality dimensions identified in this health care specific study differ in number and dimensional structure from the widely adopted service quality dimensions first identified by Parasuraman, Berry and Zeithaml (1988): reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibles. The service quality dimensions identified in this study were: reliability, tangibles, assurance, empathy, food, access, outcome, admission, discharge and responsiveness. In addition, health care patients perceive the service quality dimensions relating to the core product in health care delivery (for example, outcome and reliability) as more important than the service quality dimensions relating to the peripheral product in health care delivery (for example, food, access and tangibles). Finally, the results of this study suggest that patients with different geographic, demographic, and behavioristic characteristics have different needs and wants during health care delivery and therefore perceive different service quality dimensions as important.

  6. Perspectives of hospital emergency department staff on trauma-informed care for injured children: An Australian and New Zealand analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoysted, Claire; Babl, Franz E; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Landolt, Markus A; Jobson, Laura; Curtis, Sarah; Kharbanda, Anupam B; Lyttle, Mark D; Parri, Niccolò; Stanley, Rachel; Alisic, Eva

    2017-09-01

    To examine Australian and New Zealand emergency department (ED) staff's training, knowledge and confidence regarding trauma-informed care for children after trauma, and barriers to implementation. ED staff's perspectives on trauma-informed care were assessed using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Participants included 468 ED staff (375 nursing and 111 medical staff) from hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, χ 2 tests and multiple regressions. Over 90% of respondents had not received training in trauma-informed care and almost all respondents (94%) wanted training in this area. While knowledge was associated with a respondent's previous training and profession, confidence was associated with the respondent's previous training, experience level and workplace. Dominant barriers to the implementation of trauma-informed care were lack of time and lack of training. There is a need and desire for training and education of Australian and New Zealand ED staff in trauma-informed care. This study demonstrates that experience alone is not sufficient for the development of knowledge of paediatric traumatic stress reactions and trauma-informed care practices. Existing education materials could be adapted for use in the ED and to accommodate the training preferences of Australian and New Zealand ED staff. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. A new patient registration method for intensive care department management.

    PubMed

    Van Aken, P; Bossaert, L; Gilot, C; Tielemans, L

    1987-01-01

    A new method to describe intensive care department performance is presented. The method is a complication of available administrative and medical data, completed with a severity of illness measure (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, APACHE) and the registration of nursing care intensity. The development of this latter patient stratification system (Intensive Care Activity Score, INCAS) is described. The performance of the method is demonstrated by a study of 200 consecutive admissions.

  8. Analysis of family satisfaction in intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Neves, Flávia Branco Cerqueira Serra; Dantas, Maíra Pereira; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Vieira, Patrícia Sena; Magalhães, Lis Thomazini; Teles, José Mário Meira; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Messeder, Octávio Henrique Coelho

    2009-03-01

    To know the needs and level of family members' satisfaction is an essential part of the care provided to critically ill patients in intensive care units. The objective of this study was to identify the level of family members' satisfaction in an intensive care unit. A descriptive survey was carried out in the general adult intensive care unit of the Hospital Português (Salvador - BA) from November 2007 to January 2008. Jonhson's 14-question modified version of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory was used to evaluate satisfaction of family members. Fifty three family members were included, mean age was 44 years and 68% were female. The median of family members satisfaction level was 11 (IQI = 9-13). Critical Care Family Need Inventory, questions with higher percentiles of satisfaction were those stating that family members felt that the patient was receiving the best possible care (96%) and that the information provided was honest (96%). The questions with lower percentiles of satisfaction were those stating that family members believed that someone in the intensive care unit had shown interest in their feelings (45%) and that a healthcare professional had explained how the intensive care unit equipment was used (41%). Most family members positively evaluated the intensive care unit professionals in the questions related to communication, attitude and patient care. However, there was a lower level of satisfaction in the questions related to the intensive care unit professionals' ability to comfort family members.

  9. Developing a response to family violence in primary health care: the New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Gear, Claire; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Wilson, Denise; Clark, Faye

    2016-08-20

    Despite primary health care being recognised as an ideal setting to effectively respond to those experiencing family violence, responses are not widely integrated as part of routine health care. A lack of evidence testing models and approaches for health sector integration, alongside challenges of transferability and sustainability, means the best approach in responding to family violence is still unknown. The Primary Health Care Family Violence Responsiveness Evaluation Tool was developed as a guide to implement a formal systems-led response to family violence within New Zealand primary health care settings. Given the difficulties integrating effective, sustainable responses to family violence, we share the experience of primary health care sites that embarked on developing a response to family violence, presenting the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain family violence response development. In this qualitative descriptive study data were collected from two sources. Firstly semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted during 24-month follow-up evaluation visits of primary health care sites to capture the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain a response to family violence. Secondly the outcomes of a group activity to identify response development barriers and implementation strategies were recorded during a network meeting of primary health care professionals interested in family violence prevention and intervention; findings were triangulated across the two data sources. Four sites, representing three PHOs and four general practices participated in the focus group interviews; 35 delegates from across New Zealand attended the network meeting representing a wider perspective on family violence response development within primary health care. Enablers and barriers to developing a family violence response were identified across four themes: 'Getting started', 'Building effective

  10. Neonatal intensive care: satisfaction measured from a parent's perspective.

    PubMed

    Conner, J M; Nelson, E C

    1999-01-01

    Health care systems today are complex, technically proficient, competitive, and market-driven. One outcome of this environment is the recent phenomenon in the health care field of "consumerism." Strong emphasis is placed on customer service, with organized efforts to understand, measure, and meet the needs of customers served. The purpose of this article is to describe the current understanding and measurement of parent needs and expectations with neonatal intensive care services from the time the expectant parents enter the health care system for the birth through the discharge process and follow-up care. Through literature review, 11 dimensions of care were identified as important to parents whose infants received neonatal intensive care: assurance, caring, communication, consistent information, education, environment, follow-up care, pain management, participation, proximity, and support. Five parent satisfaction questionnaires-the Parent Feedback Questionnaire, Neonatal Index of Parent Satisfaction, Inpatient Parent Satisfaction-Children's Hospital Minneapolis, Picker Institute-Inpatient Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Survey, and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit-Parent Satisfaction Form-are critically reviewed for their ability to measure parent satisfaction within the framework of the neonatal care delivery process. An immense gap was found in our understanding about what matters most and when to parents going through the neonatal intensive care experience. Additional research is required to develop comprehensive parent satisfaction surveys that measure parent perceptions of neonatal care within the framework of the care delivery process.

  11. Pressure injury prevalence in intensive care versus non-intensive care patients: A state-wide comparison.

    PubMed

    Coyer, Fiona; Miles, Sandra; Gosley, Sandra; Fulbrook, Paul; Sketcher-Baker, Kirstine; Cook, Jane-Louise; Whitmore, Jacqueline

    2017-09-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure injury is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and considered to be largely preventable. Pressure injury prevalence is regarded as a marker of health care quality. To compare the state-wide prevalence, severity and location of pressure injuries of intensive care unit patients compared to patients in non-intensive care wards. The study employed a secondary data analysis design to extract and analyse de-identified pressure injury data from all Queensland Health hospitals with level I-III intensive care facilities that participated in Queensland Bedside Audits between 2012-2014. The sample included all adult ICU and non-ICU patients that provided consent for the Queensland Bedside Audits, excluding those in mental health units. Excluding Stage I, overall hospital-acquired pressure injury prevalence from 2012 to 2014 was 11% for intensive care patients and 3% for non-intensive care patients. Intensive care patients were 3.8 times more likely (RR 2.7-5.4, 95% CI) than non-intensive care patients to develop a pressure injury whilst in hospital. The sacrum/coccyx was the most common site of hospital-acquired pressure injury in all patients (intensive care patients 22%; non-intensive care patients 35%) however, mucosal pressure injury proportion was significantly higher in intensive care patients (22%) than in non-intensive care patients (2%). Stage II HAPI prevalence was the most common stage reported, 53% for intensive care patients compared to 63% for non-intensive care patients. There are significant differences in hospital-acquired pressure injury prevalence by stage and location between intensive care and non-intensive care patients reflecting the possible impact of critical illness on the development of skin injury. This has implications for resource funding for pressure injury prevention and the imposition of government initiated financial penalties for hospital-acquired pressure injury. For future comparisons to be effective

  12. Repertoire of Intensive Care Unit Pneumonia Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Bousbia, Sabri; Papazian, Laurent; Saux, Pierre; Forel, Jean Marie; Auffray, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Claude; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Despite the considerable number of studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely identified. We comprehensively applied modern and traditional laboratory diagnostic techniques to identify microbiota in patients who were admitted to or developed pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs). During a three-year period, we tested the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, non-ventilator ICU pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, and compared the results with those from patients without pneumonia (controls). Samples were tested by amplification of 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA genes followed by cloning and sequencing and by PCR to target specific pathogens. We also included culture, amoeba co-culture, detection of antibodies to selected agents and urinary antigen tests. Based on molecular testing, we identified a wide repertoire of 160 bacterial species of which 73 have not been previously reported in pneumonia. Moreover, we found 37 putative new bacterial phylotypes with a 16S rDNA gene divergence ≥98% from known phylotypes. We also identified 24 fungal species of which 6 have not been previously reported in pneumonia and 7 viruses. Patients can present up to 16 different microorganisms in a single BAL (mean ± SD; 3.77±2.93). Some pathogens considered to be typical for ICU pneumonia such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species can be detected as commonly in controls as in pneumonia patients which strikingly highlights the existence of a core pulmonary microbiota. Differences in the microbiota of different forms of pneumonia were documented. PMID:22389704

  13. [Medical records, DRG and intensive care patients].

    PubMed

    Aardal, Sidsel; Berge, Kjersti; Breivik, Kjell; Flaatten, Hans K

    2005-04-07

    In order to control the quality of the medical report after a hospital stay with regards to the stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), and to cheque for correct DRG grouping, this study of 428 patients treated in our ICU in 2003 was conducted. All ICU patients from 2003 were found in our database, which includes specific ICD-10 diagnosis and specific ICU procedures. The medical record summarising the hospital stay (epicrisis) was retrieved for each patient from the hospital's electronic patient files and controlled for correct information regarding the ICU stay. DRG groups for each patient were retrieved from the hospital's administrative database. All stays were re-coded, with all information about the ICU stay was also included. The new DRG codes were compared with the old ones, and the difference in DRG points computed. The description of the stay in the ICU was missing or very insufficient in 46% of the records. In the DRG control we found that an additional 347.37 DRG points (18.4% of the original sum of all DRG points) were missing, corresponding to a loss to the hospital of 6.2 million NOK. In addition we discovered missing codes for tracheostomy corresponding to 2.8 million NOK, giving a total loss of 9 million NOK. This study confirms that an adequate description of the stay in the ICU is insufficient in a large number of medical records. This also leads to incorrect DRG grouping of many patients and significant financial losses to the hospital.

  14. Demographics, lifestyle and veterinary care of cats in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Laura; Szczepanski, Julia; McDonagh, Phillip

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The aim of this survey was to provide up-to-date information on the demographics, lifestyle and veterinary care of cats in Australia and New Zealand. Methods An online survey consisting of 19 questions was created using SurveyMonkey. Cat owners were invited to participate through advertisements in veterinary clinics and social media. Results The average number of cats in a household was two. The majority of cats lived in free-standing houses (78%) in the suburbs (66%). The majority of cats were desexed (94% [49% female neutered; 45% male neutered]). A total of 57% of cats had been strays or came from an animal shelter. A total of 40% of owners had intended not to let the cats outside when they first acquired them. A total of 63% of cats were described as indoor-outdoor cats. Although owners described 34% of cats as 'indoor only', 58% of those cats had access to the outdoors. The majority of respondents' cats were vaccinated annually (63%) and visited a vet at least annually (79%). The most common reasons to take a cat to the vet were vaccinations or the cat being unwell. The most common reasons not to regularly take the cat to the vet were that the cat was never unwell, cost or stress for the cat. Conclusions and relevance Consideration of the lifestyle of cats is important to optimise veterinary care. Cats across Australia and New Zealand have a variety of different and changing lifestyles. Therefore, careful owner questioning is required at each visit to maximise healthcare outcomes for cats.

  15. A Visit to a New Zealand School: Informal but On-Task, Strict but Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfengardner, Jerrold D.; O'Dell, Frank L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a visit by two educators to a primary school in Auckland, New Zealand. Discusses the development of children, educational goals, traditions, curricula, administration, and facilities of this New Zealand school. Finds the major difference is the New Zealand school's child-centered approach. (MS)

  16. What drives perceived work intensity in neonatal intensive care units? Empirical evidence from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sülz, Sandra; Langhammer, Kristina; Becker-Peth, Michael; Roth, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the drivers of perceived work intensity among neonatal intensive care unit nurses. The consequences of high work intensity have been studied extensively, yet setting-specific drivers have received less attention. Prospective, longitudinal and monocentric study design. The study combined data from standardized diary surveys and passive observations of study nurses. Data were collected over a period of 6 months in 2015. We considered two scenarios: (1) the perception of normal work intensity relative to non-normal work intensity; and (2) the perception of high work intensity relative to non-high work intensity. Perceived work intensity was then analysed using mixed-effects probit regression models. We found that when direct and indirect care were provided more frequently than administrative and other duties were performed, the evaluated nurses perceived their work intensity to be higher. We also found that nurses who more frequently provided care for sick and preterm infants were less likely to perceive their work intensity as normal and this effect was stronger among nurses who cared for infants under mechanical ventilation than nurses who cared for infants receiving non-invasive respiratory support. In the interest of both nurses and infants and the pursuit of a reduction in perceived work intensity and the provision of better neonatal care, caution must be applied when assigning infants to nurses. Further research is needed to validate these findings using a multicentre study design. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Factors Contributing to High PhD Completion Rates: A Case Study in a Research-Intensive University in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Cameron, Claire; Quigg, Robin

    2018-01-01

    This exploratory study determined PhD completions at a research-intensive university in New Zealand and considered factors affecting PhD completions. Completion data were calculated for PhD cohorts at the University of Otago from 2000 to 2012 (n = 2770) and survival models determined whether gender, enrolment status, age at admission, citizenship,…

  18. Outcomes of physiological and active third stage labour care amongst women in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Lesley; Tracy, Sally K; Guilliland, Karen; Fletcher, Lynn; Hendry, Chris; Pairman, Sally

    2013-01-01

    during the third stage of labour there are two approaches for care provision - active management or physiological (expectant) care. The aim of this research was to describe, analyse and compare the midwifery care pathway and outcomes provided to a selected cohort of New Zealand women during the third stage of labour between the years 2004 and 2008. These women received continuity of care from a midwife Lead Maternity Carer and gave birth in a variety of birth settings (home, primary, secondary and tertiary maternity units). retrospective aggregated clinical information was extracted from the New Zealand College of Midwives research database. Factors such as type of third stage labour care provided; estimated blood loss; rate of treatment (separate to prophylaxis) with a uterotonic; and placental condition were compared amongst women who had a spontaneous onset of labour and no further assistance during the labour and birth. The results were adjusted for age, ethnicity, parity, place of birth, length of labour and weight of the baby. the rates of physiological third stage care (expectant) and active management within the cohort were similar (48.1% vs. 51.9%). Women who had active management had a higher risk of a blood loss of more than 500mL, the risk was 2.761 when a woman was actively managed (95% CI: 2.441-3.122) when compared to physiological management. Women giving birth at home and in a primary unit were more likely to have physiological management. A longer labour and higher parity increased the odds of having active management. Manual removal of the placenta was more likely with active management (0.7% active management - 0.2% physiological p<0.0001). For women who were given a uterotonic drug as a treatment rather than prophylaxis a postpartum haemorrhage of more than 500mL was twice as likely in the actively managed group compared to the physiological managed group (6.9% vs. 3.7%, RR 0.54, CI: 0.5, 0.6). the use of physiological care during the third

  19. Tracheotomy in the intensive care unit: Guidelines from a French expert panel: The French Intensive Care Society and the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Trouillet, Jean-Louis; Collange, Olivier; Belafia, Fouad; Blot, François; Capellier, Gilles; Cesareo, Eric; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Demoule, Alexandre; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Guinot, Pierre-Grégoire; Jegoux, Franck; L'Her, Erwan; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Mahjoub, Yazine; Mayaux, Julien; Quintard, Hervé; Ravat, François; Vergez, Sébastien; Amour, Julien; Guillot, Max

    2018-06-01

    Tracheotomy is widely used in intensive care units, albeit with great disparities between medical teams in terms of frequency and modality. Indications and techniques are, however, associated with variable levels of evidence based on inhomogeneous or even contradictory literature. Our aim was to conduct a systematic analysis of the published data in order to provide guidelines. We present herein recommendations for the use of tracheotomy in adult critically ill patients developed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) method. These guidelines were conducted by a group of experts from the French Intensive Care Society (Société de réanimation de langue française) and the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (Société francaise d'anesthésie réanimation) with the participation of the French Emergency Medicine Association (Société française de médecine d'urgence), the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology. Sixteen experts and two coordinators agreed to consider questions concerning tracheotomy and its practical implementation. Five topics were defined: indications and contraindications for tracheotomy in intensive care, tracheotomy techniques in intensive care, modalities of tracheotomy in intensive care, management of patients undergoing tracheotomy in intensive care, and decannulation in intensive care. The summary made by the experts and the application of GRADE methodology led to the drawing up of 8 formal guidelines, 10 recommendations, and 3 treatment protocols. Among the 8 formal guidelines, 2 have a high level of proof (Grade 1±) and 6 a low level of proof (Grade 2±). For the 10 recommendations, GRADE methodology was not applicable and instead 10 expert opinions were produced. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  20. Using constructed wetlands to treat subsurface drainage from intensively grazed dairy pastures in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tanner, C C; Nguyen, M Long; Sukias, J P S

    2003-01-01

    Performance data, during the start-up period, are presented for constructed wetlands treating subsurface drainage from dairy pastures in Waikato (rain-fed) and Northland (irrigated), North Island, New Zealand. The wetlands comprised an estimated 1 and 2% of the drained catchment areas, respectively. Nitrate concentrations were high in the drainage inflows at both sites (medians 10 g m(-3) at Waikato and 6.5 g m(-3) at Northland), but organic N was also an important form of N at Waikato (37% of TN). Comparison of wetland inflow and outflow nutrient concentrations showed overall nutrient reductions during passage through the wetlands for NO3-N (34 and 94% for medians, respectively), TN (56 and 33%, respectively), and DRP (80%, Northland only). Median NH4-N (both sites) and DRP (Waikato) concentrations showed apparent increases between the wetland inlets and outlets. However, a mass balance calculated for the 3 month preliminary monitoring periods showed substantial mass removal of DRP (80%) and all measured forms of N (NO3-N 78%, NH4-N 41%, Org-N 99.8% and TN 96%) in the Waikato wetland. Monitoring of these systems needs to be continued through a range of seasons and years to fully assess their long-term performance.

  1. Insulin therapy in the pediatric intensive care unit

    Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit. Insulin therapy has emerged in adult intensive care units, and several pediatric studies are currently being conducted. This review discusses hyperglycemia and the effects of insulin on metabolic a...

  2. Potential intravenous drug interactions in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Maiara Benevides; Mesquita, Maria Gefé da Rosa; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição; Paes, Graciele Oroski

    2017-07-20

    To analyze potential intravenous drug interactions, and their level of severity associated with the administration of these drugs based on the prescriptions of an intensive care unit. Quantitative study, with aretrospective exploratory design, and descriptive statistical analysis of the ICU prescriptions of a teaching hospital from March to June 2014. The sample consisted of 319 prescriptions and subsamples of 50 prescriptions. The mean number of drugs per patient was 9.3 records, and a higher probability of drug interaction inherent to polypharmacy was evidenced. The study identified severe drug interactions, such as concomitant administration of Tramadol with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs (e.g., Metoclopramide and Fluconazole), increasing the risk of seizures due to their epileptogenic actions, as well as the simultaneous use of Ranitidine-Fentanyl®, which can lead to respiratory depression. A previous mapping of prescriptions enables the characterization of the drug therapy, contributing to prevent potential drug interactions and their clinical consequences. Analisar as potenciais interações medicamentosas intravenosas e seu grau de severidade associadas à administração desses medicamentos a partir das prescrições do Centro de Terapia Intensiva. Estudo quantitativo, tipologia retrospectiva exploratória, com análise estatística descritiva das prescrições medicamentosas do Centro de Terapia Intensiva de um Hospital Universitário, no período de março-junho/2014. A amostra foi composta de 319 prescrições e subamostras de 50 prescrições. Constatou-se que a média de medicamentos por paciente foi de 9,3 registros, e evidenciou-se maior probabilidade para ocorrência de interação medicamentosa inerente à polifarmácia. O estudo identificou interações medicamentosas graves, como a administração concomitante de Tramadol com medicamentos inibidores seletivos da recaptação da serotonina, (exemplo: Metoclopramida e Fluconazol

  3. Quantification of diabetes consultations by the main primary health care nurse groups in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Daly, Barbara; Arroll, Bruce; Sheridan, Nicolette; Kenealy, Timothy; Scragg, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes prevalence continues to increase, with most diabetes patients managed in primary care. This report quantifies the number of diabetes consultations undertaken by primary healthcare nurses in Auckland, New Zealand. Of 335 primary healthcare nurses randomly selected, 287 (86%) completed a telephone interview in 2006-2008. On a randomly sampled day (from the past seven) for each nurse, 42% of the nurses surveyed (n=120) consulted 308 diabetes patients. From the proportion of nurses sampled in the study, it is calculated that the number of diabetes patients consulted by primary healthcare nurses per week in Auckland between September 2006 and February 2008 was 4210, with 61% consulted by practice, 23% by specialist and 16% by district nurses. These findings show that practice nurses carry out the largest number of community diabetes consultations by nurses. Their major contribution needs to be incorporated into future planning of the community management of diabetes.

  4. New Zealand among global social media initiative leaders for primary care advocacy.

    PubMed

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Scott-Jones, Joseph; Pinho-Costa, Luís

    2016-06-01

    The international '#1WordforFamilyMedicine' initiative explores the identity of General Practitioners (GPs) and Family Physicians (FPs) by allowing the international Family Medicine community to collaborate on advocating for the discipline via social media. The New Zealand version attracted 83 responses on social media. Thematic analysis was performed on the responses and a 'word cloud' image was created based on an image identifying the country around the world - that of the silver fern. The '#1WorldforFamilyMedicine' project was promoted by WONCA (World Organisation of Family Doctors) globally to help celebrate World Family Doctor Day on 19 May 2015. To date, over 80 images have been created in 60 different countries on six continents. The images represent GPs' love for their profession and the community they serve. We hope that this initiative will help inspire current and future Family Medicine and Primary Care providers.

  5. Learning needs assessment for registered nurses in two large acute care hospitals in Urban New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Lyn; Hedgecock, Bronwyn; Tomkins, Sharon; Cooke, Gordon

    2009-11-01

    Ongoing education for the nursing workforce is necessary to ensure currency of knowledge in order to enable evidence based client care. The cost of education is high to the organisation and the individual, and must therefore be cost-effective, relevant and appropriate. According to research, education for nurses is not always systematically planned and developed and often relies on the interest area and assessment of the nurse educators. To survey the learning needs of clinically based registered nurses within an acute care setting. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect the data. Two groups completed the questionnaire: all eligible registered nurses in two acute care hospitals located in urban New Zealand and their senior nurses such as clinical nurse managers, specialists and educators. The study found agreement on learning needs and also noted differing opinions between the Registered Nurses (RNs), and their senior RNs, RNs initially registered overseas and between levels of practice, on selection and ranking of learning needs. This survey identified a number of high learning needs for RNs working within acute care settings. Differences in perception of learning needs for RNs, between the nurses themselves and the Senior RNs exist, as well as among sub groups of RNs. As a result, educators and managers are encouraged to collaborate to realise the opportunity which exists for the provision of education across specialty areas and to work with the different groups and the individual to ensure unique learning needs are met.

  6. Health equity in the New Zealand health care system: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Nicolette F; Kenealy, Timothy W; Connolly, Martin J; Mahony, Faith; Barber, P Alan; Boyd, Mary Anne; Carswell, Peter; Clinton, Janet; Devlin, Gerard; Doughty, Robert; Dyall, Lorna; Kerse, Ngaire; Kolbe, John; Lawrenson, Ross; Moffitt, Allan

    2011-10-20

    In all countries people experience different social circumstances that result in avoidable differences in health. In New Zealand, Māori, Pacific peoples, and those with lower socioeconomic status experience higher levels of chronic illness, which is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and inequitable health outcomes. Whilst the health system can enable a fairer distribution of good health, limited national data is available to measure health equity. Therefore, we sought to find out whether health services in New Zealand were equitable by measuring the level of development of components of chronic care management systems across district health boards. Variation in provision by geography, condition or ethnicity can be interpreted as inequitable. A national survey of district health boards (DHBs) was undertaken on macro approaches to chronic condition management with detail on cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and diabetes. Additional data from expert informant interviews on program reach and the cultural needs of Māori and Pacific peoples was sought. Survey data were analyzed on dimensions of health equity relevant to strategic planning and program delivery. Results are presented as descriptive statistics and free text. Interviews were transcribed and NVivo 8 software supported a general inductive approach to identify common themes. Survey responses were received from the majority of DHBs (15/21), some PHOs (21/84) and 31 expert informants. Measuring, monitoring and targeting equity is not systematically undertaken. The Health Equity Assessment Tool is used in strategic planning but not in decisions about implementing or monitoring disease programs. Variable implementation of evidence-based practices in disease management and multiple funding streams made program implementation difficult. Equity for Māori is embedded in policy, this is not so for other ethnic groups or by geography. Populations

  7. Health equity in the New Zealand health care system: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In all countries people experience different social circumstances that result in avoidable differences in health. In New Zealand, Māori, Pacific peoples, and those with lower socioeconomic status experience higher levels of chronic illness, which is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and inequitable health outcomes. Whilst the health system can enable a fairer distribution of good health, limited national data is available to measure health equity. Therefore, we sought to find out whether health services in New Zealand were equitable by measuring the level of development of components of chronic care management systems across district health boards. Variation in provision by geography, condition or ethnicity can be interpreted as inequitable. Methods A national survey of district health boards (DHBs) was undertaken on macro approaches to chronic condition management with detail on cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and diabetes. Additional data from expert informant interviews on program reach and the cultural needs of Māori and Pacific peoples was sought. Survey data were analyzed on dimensions of health equity relevant to strategic planning and program delivery. Results are presented as descriptive statistics and free text. Interviews were transcribed and NVivo 8 software supported a general inductive approach to identify common themes. Results Survey responses were received from the majority of DHBs (15/21), some PHOs (21/84) and 31 expert informants. Measuring, monitoring and targeting equity is not systematically undertaken. The Health Equity Assessment Tool is used in strategic planning but not in decisions about implementing or monitoring disease programs. Variable implementation of evidence-based practices in disease management and multiple funding streams made program implementation difficult. Equity for Māori is embedded in policy, this is not so for other ethnic groups or

  8. Impact of a clinical microbiology-intensive care consulting program in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Arena, Fabio; Scolletta, Sabino; Marchetti, Luca; Galano, Angelo; Maglioni, Enivarco; Giani, Tommaso; Corsi, Elisabetta; Lombardi, Silvia; Biagioli, Bonizella; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2015-09-01

    A preintervention-postintervention study was carried out over a 4-year period to assess the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention, based on clinical microbiologist ward rounds (clinical microbiology-intensive care partnership [CMICP]), at a cardiothoracic intensive care unit. Comparison of clinical data for 37 patients with diagnosis of bacteremia (18 from preintervention period, 19 from postintervention period) revealed that CMICP implementation resulted in (1) significant increase of appropriate empirical treatments (+34%, P = .029), compliance with guidelines (+28%, P = .019), and number of de-escalations (+42%, P = .032); and (2) decrease (average = 2.5 days) in time to optimization of antimicrobial therapy and levofloxacin (Δ 2009-2012 = -74 defined daily dose [DDD]/1,000 bed days) and teicoplanin (Δ 2009-2012 = -28 DDD/1,000 bed days) use. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adjustment of inpatient care reimbursement for nursing intensity.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Zone-Smith, Laurie; Fischer, Mary H

    2006-11-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has begun an ambitious recalibration of the inpatient prospective payment system, the first since its introduction in 1983. Unfortunately, inpatient nursing care has been overlooked in the new payment system and continues to be treated as a fixed cost and billed at a set per-diem "room and board" fee despite the known variability of nursing intensity across different care settings and diagnoses. This article outlines the historical influences regarding costing, billing, and reimbursement of inpatient nursing care and provides contemporary evidence about the variability of nursing intensity and costs at acute care hospitals in the United States. A remedy is proposed to overcome the existing limitations of the Inpatient Prospective Payment System by creating a new nursing cost center and nursing intensity adjustment by DRG for each routine-and intensive-care day of stay to allow independent costing, billing, and reimbursement of inpatient nursing care.

  10. 'Targeting' sedation: the lived experience of the intensive care nurse.

    PubMed

    Everingham, Kirsty; Fawcett, Tonks; Walsh, Tim

    2014-03-01

    To discuss the findings from a phenomenological study that provides insights into the intensive care nurses' 'world' following changes in the sedation management of patients in an intensive care unit. Intensive care sedation practices have undergone significant changes. Patients, where possible, are now managed on lighter levels of sedation, often achieved through the performance of sedation holds (SHs). The performance of SHs is normally carried out by the bedside nurse but compliance is reported to be poor. There has been little exploration of the nurses' experiences of these changes and the implications of SHs and subsequent wakefulness on their delivery of care. Following ethical approval, 16 intensive care nurses, experienced and inexperienced, from within a general intensive care unit. A Heideggerian phenomenological approach was used. Data collection consisted of interviews guided by an aide memoir and a framework adapted from Van Manen informed the analysis. The findings reveal new insights into the world of the intensive care nurse in the light of the changes to sedation management. They demonstrate that there have been unforeseen outcomes from well-intentioned initiatives to improve the quality of patients' care. There were implications from the changes introduced for the nurses care delivery. The main themes that emerged were 'working priorities' and 'unintended consequences', in turn revealing embedded tensions between evidence-based targets and holistic care. Intensive care nurses find that the current approach to the changes in sedation management can threaten their professional obligation and personal desire to provide holistic care. The 'targeted' approach by healthcare organisations is perceived to militate against the patient-centred care they want to deliver. Sedation management is complex and needs further consideration particularly the potential constraints 'target-led' care has on nursing practice. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Nursing workload in public and private intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Koike, Karina Mitie; Sardinha, Débora Souza; Padilha, Katia Grillo; de Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study sought to compare patients at public and private intensive care units according to the nursing workload and interventions provided. Methods This retrospective, comparative cohort study included 600 patients admitted to 4 intensive care units in São Paulo. The nursing workload and interventions were assessed using the Nursing Activities Score during the first and last 24 hours of the patient's stay at the intensive care unit. Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney test, and Student's t test were used to compare the patient groups. Results The average Nursing Activities Score upon admission to the intensive care unit was 61.9, with a score of 52.8 upon discharge. Significant differences were found among the patients at public and private intensive care units relative to the average Nursing Activities Score upon admission, as well as for 12 out of 23 nursing interventions performed during the first 24 hours of stay at the intensive care units. The patients at the public intensive care units exhibited a higher average score and overall more frequent nursing interventions, with the exception of those involved in the "care of drains", "mobilization and positioning", and "intravenous hyperalimentation". The groups also differed with regard to the evolution of the Nursing Activities Score among the total case series as well as the groups of survivors from the time of admission to discharge from the intensive care unit. Conclusion Patients admitted to public and private intensive care units exhibit differences in their nursing care demands, which may help managers with nursing manpower planning. PMID:24213086

  12. Occupational Variation in End-of-Life Care Intensity.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Joseph A; Haring, R Sterling; Sturgeon, Daniel; Gazarian, Priscilla K; Jiang, Wei; Cooper, Zara; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Prigerson, Holly G; Weissman, Joel S

    2018-03-01

    End-of-life (EOL) care intensity is known to vary by secular and geographic patterns. US physicians receive less aggressive EOL care than the general population, presumably the result of preferences shaped by work-place experience with EOL care. We investigated occupation as a source of variation in EOL care intensity. Across 4 states, we identified 660 599, nonhealth maintenance organization Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥66 years who died between 2004 and 2011. Linking death certificates, we identified beneficiaries with prespecified occupations: nurses, farmers, clergy, mortuary workers, homemakers, first-responders, veterinary workers, teachers, accountants, and the general population. End-of-life care intensity over the last 6 months of life was assessed using 5 validated measures: (1) Medicare expenditures, rates of (2) hospice, (3) surgery, (4) intensive care, and (5) in-hospital death. Occupation was a source of large variation in EOL care intensity across all measures, before and after adjustment for sex, education, age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index, race/ethnicity, and hospital referral region. For example, absolute and relative adjusted differences in expenditures were US$9991 and 42% of population mean expenditure ( P < .001 for both). Compared to the general population on the 5 EOL care intensity measures, teachers (5 of 5), homemakers (4 of 5), farmers (4 of 5), and clergy (3 of 5) demonstrated significantly less aggressive care. Mortuary workers had lower EOL care intensity (4 of 5) but small numbers limited statistical significance. Occupations with likely exposure to child development, death/bereavement, and naturalistic influences demonstrated lower EOL care intensity. These findings may inform patients and clinicians navigating choices around individual EOL care preferences.

  13. A restorative home care intervention in New Zealand: perceptions of paid caregivers.

    PubMed

    King, Anna I I; Parsons, Matthew; Robinson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Paid caregivers possess an essential role in home care services. However, recruitment and retention issues are extensive within this workforce, largely in relation to poor working conditions. This article primarily focuses on the qualitative data extracted from a large randomised controlled trial in New Zealand and is supported by some quantitative findings. The aim was to explore paid caregiver perceptions of a restorative home care intervention in comparison with usual home care. The purpose of the qualitative exploration was to gather rich descriptive data that highlight differences between the two services with an emphasis on the workforce viewpoint. Four focus groups were undertaken with paid caregivers, two at baseline (4 and 5 participants in the control and intervention groups, respectively) and two at 14 months (eight participants in each focus group). Focus group data were collected in December 2005 and February 2007. A general inductive approach was used to analyse focus group transcripts. Two themes emerged from both the control and intervention focus groups: relationship with older people and issues with home care service delivery. A further two themes were pertinent to the intervention group: job satisfaction and preintervention. Findings revealed the intervention had a substantial positive impact on paid caregiver job satisfaction in comparison with usual care. This appeared to be due to improved training, increased support and supervision, and more flexibility. The intervention resulted in positive changes from the paid caregiver perspective and substantially reduced turnover in comparison with usual home care. However, both groups identified the need for further improvements to their working conditions. In addition, the need to regulate this vulnerable workforce is discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Nursing management and organizational ethics in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Wlody, Ginger Schafer

    2007-02-01

    This article describes organizational ethics issues involved in nursing management of an intensive care unit. The intensive care team and medical center management have the dual responsibility to create an ethical environment in which to provide optimum patient care. Addressing organizational ethics is key to creating that ethical environment in the intensive care unit. During the past 15-20 yrs, increasing costs in health care, competitive markets, the effect of high technology, and global business changes have set the stage for business and healthcare organizational conflicts that affect the ethical environment. Studies show that critical care nurses experience moral distress and are affected by the ethical climate of both the intensive care unit and the larger organization. Thus, nursing moral distress may result in problems related to recruitment and retention of staff. Other issues with organizational ethics ramifications that may occur in the intensive care unit include patient safety issues (including those related to disruptive behavior), intensive care unit leadership style, research ethics, allocation of resources, triage, and other economic issues. Current organizational ethics conflicts are discussed, a professional practice model is described, and multidisciplinary recommendations are put forth.

  15. Understanding and safeguarding patient dignity in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, Linda; Koskinen, Camilla A-L

    2017-06-01

    Dignity has been highlighted in previous research as one of the most important ethical concerns in nursing care. According to Eriksson, dignified caring is related to treating the patient as a unique human being and respecting human value. Intensive care unit patients are vulnerable to threatened dignity, and maintaining dignity may be challenging as a consequence of critical illness. The aim is to highlight how nurses in an intensive care setting understand patient dignity, what threatens patient dignity and how nurses can safeguard patient dignity. Research design and participants: Data materials were collected through a survey questionnaire which contained open questions about patient dignity, and the text was analysed using hermeneutic reading and text interpretation. Totally, 25 nurses employed in an intensive care unit in Finland participated in the study. Ethical considerations: The study follows the guidelines for good scientific practice by the Finnish Advisory Board on Research Integrity and the ethical principles according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Findings revealed that nurses recognize the patients' absolute dignity by regarding them as unique human beings. The nurses also recognize the importance of shared humanity in preserving patient dignity. Intensive care patients' dignity is threatened by negative attitudes and when their integrity is not being protected. Dignity is also threatened when patients and nurses are not part of the patients' care and patient care decisions, when patients receive care against their will and because of the acute nature of intensive care.

  16. Organizational and Teamwork Factors of Tele-Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Michael S; Marcin, James P; Ritter, Lois A; Pruitt, Sherilyn

    2016-09-01

    Use of tele-intensive care involves organizational and teamwork factors across geographic locations. This situation adds to the complexity of collaboration in providing quality patient-centered care. To evaluate cross-agency teamwork of health care professionals caring for patients in tele-intensive care units in rural and urban regions. A national qualitative study was conducted in 3 US geographic regions with tele-intensive care programs. Discussions and interviews were held with key participants during site visits at 3 hub sites (specialist services location) and 8 rural spoke sites (patient location). The effects of communication and culture between the hub team and the spoke team on use of the services and effectiveness of care were evaluated. A total of 34 participants were interviewed. Specific organizational and teamwork factors significantly affect the functionality of a tele-intensive care unit. Key operational and cultural barriers that limit the benefits of the units include unrealistic expectations about operational capabilities, lack of trust, poorly defined leadership, and a lack of communication policies. Potential solutions include education on spoke facility resources, clearly defined expectations and role reversal education, team-building activities, and feedback mechanisms to share concerns, successes, and suggestions. Proper administration and attention to important cultural and teamwork factors are essential to making tele-intensive care units effective, practical, and sustainable. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  17. Self-reported experience of racial discrimination and health care use in New Zealand: results from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Tobias, Martin; Yeh, Li-Chia; Talamaivao, Natalie; Minster, Joanna; Timutimu, Roimata

    2012-05-01

    We investigated whether reported experience of racial discrimination in health care and in other domains was associated with cancer screening and negative health care experiences. We used 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey data (n = 12 488 adults). We used logistic regression to examine the relationship of reported experience of racial discrimination in health care (unfair treatment by a health professional) and in other domains (personal attack, unfair treatment in work and when gaining housing) to breast and cervical cancer screening and negative patient experiences adjusted for other variables. Racial discrimination by a health professional was associated with lower odds of breast (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.14, 0.996) and cervical cancer (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.30, 0.87) screening among Maori women. Racial discrimination by a health professional (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.14) and racial discrimination more widely (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.35, 1.79) were associated with negative patient experiences for all participants. Experience of racial discrimination in both health care and other settings may influence health care use and experiences of care and is a potential pathway to poor health.

  18. Self-Reported Experience of Racial Discrimination and Health Care Use in New Zealand: Results From the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cormack, Donna; Tobias, Martin; Yeh, Li-Chia; Talamaivao, Natalie; Minster, Joanna; Timutimu, Roimata

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether reported experience of racial discrimination in health care and in other domains was associated with cancer screening and negative health care experiences. Methods. We used 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey data (n = 12 488 adults). We used logistic regression to examine the relationship of reported experience of racial discrimination in health care (unfair treatment by a health professional) and in other domains (personal attack, unfair treatment in work and when gaining housing) to breast and cervical cancer screening and negative patient experiences adjusted for other variables. Results. Racial discrimination by a health professional was associated with lower odds of breast (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.14, 0.996) and cervical cancer (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.30, 0.87) screening among Maori women. Racial discrimination by a health professional (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.14) and racial discrimination more widely (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.35, 1.79) were associated with negative patient experiences for all participants. Conclusions. Experience of racial discrimination in both health care and other settings may influence health care use and experiences of care and is a potential pathway to poor health. PMID:22420811

  19. Rethinking the intensive care environment: considering nature in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Minton, Claire; Batten, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    With consideration of an environmental concept, this paper explores evidence related to the negative impacts of the intensive care unit environment on patient outcomes and explores the potential counteracting benefits of 'nature-based' nursing interventions as a way to improve care outcomes. The impact of the environment in which a patient is nursed has long been recognised as one determinant in patient outcomes. Whilst the contemporary intensive care unit environment contains many features that support the provision of the intensive therapies the patient requires, it can also be detrimental, especially for long-stay patients. This narrative review considers theoretical and evidence-based literature that supports the adoption of nature-based nursing interventions in intensive care units. Research and theoretical literature from a diverse range of disciplines including nursing, medicine, psychology, architecture and environmental science were considered in relation to patient outcomes and intensive care nursing practice. There are many nature-based interventions that intensive care unit nurses can implement into their nursing practice to counteract environmental stressors. These interventions can also improve the environment for patients' families and nurses. Intensive care unit nurses must actively consider and manage the environment in which nursing occurs to facilitate the best patient outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Self-reported preparedness of New Zealand acute care providers to mass emergencies before the Canterbury Earthquakes: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    Disasters occur more frequently. Acute care providers are the first to respond to mass emergencies from the healthcare sector. The preparedness of acute care providers in New Zealand to respond to mass emergencies has not been previously studied. To assess the self-reported training and experience of New Zealand acute care providers to respond to mass emergencies and the factors associated with strong preparedness. A cross-sectional national survey of 1500 acute care providers in New Zealand carried out between 2009 and 2010. The survey assessed experience, training and self-reported preparedness. It also determined the factors associated with strong perceived preparedness. The response rate to this survey was 60.7%. Nurses had a higher response rate than doctors or paramedics. Only 29.2% of acute care providers reported responding to a previous mass emergency event. There were 53.5% of acute care providers who reported having formal training in how to deal with mass emergencies, whereas 58.1% of participants reported that they were aware of their role during a healthcare mass emergency response. The factors associated with self-reported strong preparedness to deal with mass emergencies included: being a paramedic, previous training, participation in a drill, willingness to report to work during an infection or man-made emergency, ability to triage and general awareness of the role during a mass emergency. Almost half of New Zealand acute healthcare providers have no training in dealing with mass emergency events. Training and general awareness of the role during a mass emergency response were the main factors associated with strong self-reported preparedness of acute care providers. The apparent efficacy of training allied to lack of availability means that it should be a national priority. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  1. Intensive care of the neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Koterba, A M; Drummond, W H; Kosch, P

    1985-04-01

    The basic concepts of diagnosis and treatment in the abnormal neonatal foal are presented. Methods of restraint, sedation, and general nursing care are discussed, as well as more specific techniques of respiratory and circulatory system support.

  2. Quality use of antipsychotic medicines inresidential aged care facilities in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ndukwe, Henry C; Nishtala, Prasad S; Wang, Ting; Tordoff, June M

    2016-12-01

    INTRODUCTION Antipsychotic medicines are used regularly or when required in residential aged care facilities to treat symptoms of dementia, but have been associated with several adverse effects. AIM The aim of this study was to examine 'quality use' of antipsychotic medicines in residential aged care facilities in New Zealand, by surveying nurse managers. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was mailed to 318 nurse managers working in a nationally representative sample of aged care facilities. A purpose-developed, pre-tested, 22-item structured questionnaire was used to explore practice related to the quality use of antipsychotic medicines. RESULTS Overall, 31.4% of nurse managers responded to the survey. They mostly (88%) had ≥ 1 year's relevant work experience and 83% of facilities provided care for those within the range of 21 to 100 residents. Respondents reported that staff education on dementia management occurred early in employment. Two-thirds of participants reported non-pharmacological interventions were commonly used for managing challenging behaviours, while less than half (45%) cited administering antipsychotic medicine. Respondents reported 'managing behavioural symptoms' (81%) as one of the main indications for antipsychotic use. Frequently identified adverse effects of antipsychotic medicines were drowsiness or sedation (64%) and falls (61%). Over 90% reported general practitioners reviewed antipsychotic use with respect to residents' target behaviour 3-monthly, and two-thirds used an assessment tool to appraise residents' behaviour. DISCUSSION Staff education on dementia management soon after employment and resident 3-monthly antipsychotic medicine reviews were positive findings. However, a wider use of behavioural assessment tools might improve the care of residents with dementia and the quality use of antipsychotic medicines.

  3. [Structure and functional organization of integrated cardiac intensive care].

    PubMed

    Scherillo, Marino; Miceli, Domenico; Tubaro, Marco; Guiducci, Umberto

    2007-05-01

    The early invasive strategy for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and the increasing number of older and sicker patients requiring prolonged and more complex intensive care have induced many changes in the function of the intensive care units. These changes include the statement that specially trained cardiologists and cardiac nurses who can manage patients with acute cardiac conditions should staff the intensive care units. This document indicates the structure of the units and specific recommendations for the number of beds, monitoring system, respirators, pacemaker/defibrillators and additional equipment.

  4. Sleep and sedation in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Carno, Margaret-Ann; Connolly, Heidi V

    2005-09-01

    Sleep is an important and necessary function of the human body. Somatic growth and cellular repair occur during sleep. Critically ill children have disturbed sleep while in the pediatric intensive care unit related both to the illness itself and to light, noise, and caregiver activities disrupting an environment conducive to sleep. Medications administered in the pediatric intensive care unit can also disrupt sleep. This article reviews what is known about sleep in the pediatric intensive care unit and the effects of common sedation medications on sleep.

  5. Decision making in the neonatal intensive care environment.

    PubMed

    Rivers, R P

    1996-04-01

    Consideration as to whether withdrawal of intensive care support might be a more appropriate line of action than to continue with full intensive care has become a part of the life and death decision making process undertaken in neonatal intensive care units. After outlining the moral objectives of delivery of health care, the arguments for taking quality of life and its various components into account during these deliberations are presented. The circumstances in which the appropriateness of continuing care should be considered are highlighted and the care options presented. The crucial importance of allowing time for parents to come to terms with the situation is emphasised as is the need for giving clear guidelines to junior staff over resuscitation issues. Finally, an environment for providing optimal family support during the process of withdrawal is suggested.

  6. Diabetes knowledge of nurses providing community care for diabetes patients in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Daly, Barbara; Arroll, Bruce; Sheridan, Nicolette; Kenealy, Timothy; Scragg, Robert

    2014-10-01

    To quantify and compare knowledge of diabetes including risk factors for diabetes-related complications among the three main groups of primary health care nurses. In a cross-sectional survey of practice, district and specialist nurses (n=1091) in Auckland, New Zealand, 31% were randomly sampled to complete a self-administered questionnaire and telephone interview, designed to ascertain nurses' knowledge of diabetes and best practice, in 2006-2008. All 287 nurses (response rate 86%) completed the telephone interview and 284 the self-administered questionnaire. Major risk factors identified by nurses were excess body weight for type 2 diabetes (96%) and elevated plasma glucose levels or glycosylated haemoglobin (86%) for diabetes-related complications. In contrast, major cardiovascular risk factors were less well identified, particularly smoking, although by more specialist nurses (43%) than practice (14%) and district (12%) nurses (p=0.0005). Cardiovascular complications, particularly stroke, were less well known than microvascular complications, and by significantly fewer practice (13%) and district (8%) nurses than specialist nurses (36%, p=0.002). In general, nurses had better knowledge of overweight as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated plasma glucose levels as a risk factor for diabetes-related complications compared with knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of psychotropic medicines in residential care facilities for older people in Hawke's Bay, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Marilyn; Hosford, Ian

    2008-05-23

    To audit the use of various categories of psychotropic medicines in residential care facilities in Hawke's Bay. Data on psychotropic medicines use for all residents in participating residential care facilities were extracted from community pharmacy records and analysed. These data were compared to a similar study performed in 1990. 54.7% of residents were prescribed one or more psychotropic medicines, a similar proportion to that recorded in 1990. The use of regular benzodiazepines reduced from 29.6% to 12.4% while the use of antidepressant medicines increased from 15.5% to 30.6%. Most residents on antipsychotic medicines are now on 'atypical' agents at relatively low doses, and overall use of antipsychotic medication has not changed significantly. The use of psychotropic medicines in Hawke's Bay, New Zealand does not differ much from other countries where similar audits have been performed. The increase in use of antidepressants is likely to reflect better diagnosis and management of depression in nursing homes. The use of benzodiazepines and sedative medication is probably still excessive.

  8. Childhood immunisations in Northland, New Zealand: declining care and the journey through the immunisation pathway.

    PubMed

    Rumball-Smith, Juliet; Kenealy, Timothy

    2016-07-15

    In a region with high rates of immunisation refusal, we examine whether refusing an immunisation at 6 weeks (the first scheduled immunisation) predicts the pattern for subsequent scheduled immunisations, and the characteristics of those who declined these immunisations. We used data from the National Immunisation Register to identify 11,972 children born between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 (inclusive), and who had their first immunisation (due at 6 weeks age) in Northland, New Zealand. At each immunisation event, individual vaccines are recorded as being delivered or declined. This cohort was 'followed' to determine which of these children received or declined the scheduled 3-month and 5-month immunisations. Immunisation providers delivered a full immunisation programme to 10,828/11,927 (90%) of the cohort. Caregivers of 897 (7%) of children declined the 6-week vaccination. Of this group, 872 (97%) also declined the 3-month and 850 (95%) declined the 5-month immunisations, constituting 872/962 (91%) and 850/923 (92%) of all declined immunisations, respectively. In the decline group, there was variability with primary care practice, and differences according to ethnic group and deprivation profile. Increasing Northland's immunisation coverage may require primary care providers to more actively engage with declining caregivers prior to the 3-month and 5-month vaccinations. Immunisation information and decision-making programmes targeted at parents and providers in the antenatal and prenatal period may also be of benefit, in addition to considering regulatory and incentive strategies.

  9. Team working in intensive care: current evidence and future endeavors.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Joanne; West, Michael A; Cuthbertson, Brian H

    2010-12-01

    It has recently been argued that the future of intensive care medicine will rely on high quality management and teamwork. Therefore, this review takes an organizational psychology perspective to examine the most recent research on the relationship between teamwork, care processes, and patient outcomes in intensive care. Interdisciplinary communication within a team is crucial for the development of negotiated shared treatment goals and short-team patient outcomes. Interventions for maximizing team communication have received substantial interest in recent literature. Intensive care coordination is not a linear process, and intensive care teams often fail to discuss how to implement goals, trigger and align activities, or reflect on their performance. Despite a move toward interdisciplinary team working, clinical decision-making is still problematic and continues to be perceived as a top-down and authoritative process. The topic of team leadership in intensive care is underexplored and requires further research. Based on findings from the most recent research evidence in medicine and management, four principles are identified for improving the effectiveness of team working in intensive care: engender professional efficacy, create stable teams and leaders, develop trust and participative safety, and enable frequent team reflexivity.

  10. [Quality assurance in intensive care: the situation in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Frutiger, A

    1999-10-30

    The movement for quality in medicine is starting to take on the dimensions of a crusade. Quite logically it has also reached the intensive care community. Due to their complex multidisciplinary functioning and because of the high costs involved, ICUs are model services reflecting the overall situation in our hospitals. The situation of Swiss intensive care is particularly interesting, because for over 25 years standards for design and staffing of Swiss ICUs have been in effect and were enforced via onsite visits by the Swiss Society of Intensive Care without government involvement. Swiss intensive care thus defined its structures long before the word "accreditation" had even been used in this context. While intensive care in Switzerland is practised in clearly defined, well equipped and adequately staffed units, much less is known about process quality and outcomes of these services. Statistics on admissions, length of stay and length of mechanical ventilation, as well as severity data based on a simple classification system, are collected nationwide and allow some limited insight into the overall process of care. Results of intensive care are not systematically assessed. In response to the constant threat of cost containment, Swiss ICUs should increasingly focus on process quality and results, while maintaining their existing good structures.

  11. Nursing staff stress in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Lochoff, R V; Cane, R D; Buchanan, N; Cox, H J

    1977-12-03

    The stresses associated with nursing in an intensive care unit were assessed. A comparison was drawn between a group of Black and a group of White nurses. Proposals aimed at reducing the observed stress patterns are suggested.

  12. Two Intense Decades of 19th Century Whaling Precipitated Rapid Decline of Right Whales around New Zealand and East Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Emma L.; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D.

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24690918

  13. Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and East Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time.

  14. A case of botulism in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Duncan; Deverall, Eamonn; Balm, Michelle; Nesdale, Annette; Rosemergy, Ian

    2015-11-20

    We describe the first case of food-borne botulism seen in New Zealand for 30 years. Botulism is an important diagnosis to consider in a patient with rapidly progressive descending paralysis and normal sensorium. Early recognition, timely institution of intensive care support and administration of botulism antitoxin are the most important aspects of management.

  15. Ethics and law in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Danbury, C M; Waldmann, C S

    2006-12-01

    Intensive Care Medicine epitomises the difficulties inherent in modern medicine. In this chapter we examine some key medicolegal and ethical areas that are evolving. The principles of autonomy and consent are well established, but developments in UK caselaw have shown that the courts may be moving away from their traditional deference of the medical profession. We examine some recent cases and discuss the impact that these cases may have on practice in Intensive Care.

  16. Myasthenic crisis patients who require intensive care unit management.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hideya; Yamashita, Satoshi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kimura, En; Maeda, Yasushi; Uchino, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this report was to investigate predictive factors that necessitate intensive care in myasthenic crisis (MC). We retrospectively reviewed MC patients at our institution and compared ICU and ward management groups. Higher MG-ADL scale scores, non-ocular initial symptoms, infection-triggered findings, and higher MGFA classification were observed more frequently in the ICU group. In patients with these prognostic factors, better outcomes may be obtained with early institution of intensive care. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Clinical Risk Assessment in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Asefzadeh, Saeed; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Nikpey, Ahmad; Atighechian, Golrokh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinical risk management focuses on improving the quality and safety of health care services by identifying the circumstances and opportunities that put patients at risk of harm and acting to prevent or control those risks. The goal of this study is to identify and assess the failure modes in the ICU of Qazvin's Social Security Hospital (Razi Hospital) through Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Methods: This was a qualitative-quantitative research by Focus Discussion Group (FDG) performed in Qazvin Province, Iran during 2011. The study population included all individuals and owners who are familiar with the process in ICU. Sampling method was purposeful and the FDG group members were selected by the researcher. The research instrument was standard worksheet that has been used by several researchers. Data was analyzed by FMEA technique. Results: Forty eight clinical errors and failure modes identified, results showed that the highest risk probability number (RPN) was in respiratory care “Ventilator's alarm malfunction (no alarm)” with the score 288, and the lowest was in gastrointestinal “not washing the NG-Tube” with the score 8. Conclusions: Many of the identified errors can be prevented by group members. Clinical risk assessment and management is the key to delivery of effective health care. PMID:23930171

  18. Bringing quality improvement into the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Tracy R; Hyzy, Robert C

    2007-02-01

    During the last several years, many governmental and nongovernmental organizations have championed the application of the principles of quality improvement to the practice of medicine, particularly in the area of critical care. To review the breadth of approaches to quality improvement in the intensive care unit, including measures such as mortality and length of stay, and the use of protocols, bundles, and the role of large, multiple-hospital collaboratives. Several agencies have participated in the application of the quality movement to medicine, culminating in the development of standards such as the intensive care unit core measures of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Although "zero defects" may not be possible in all measurable variables of quality in the intensive care unit, several measures, such as catheter-related bloodstream infections, can be significantly reduced through the implementation of improved processes of care, such as care bundles. Large, multiple-center, quality improvement collaboratives, such as the Michigan Keystone Intensive Care Unit Project, may be particularly effective in improving the quality of care by creating a "bandwagon effect" within a geographic region. The quality revolution is having a significant effect in the critical care unit and is likely to be facilitated by the transition to the electronic medical record.

  19. Variable changes in nematode infection prevalence and intensity after Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus emerged in wild rabbits in Scotland and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Alexander D; Boag, Brian; Neilson, Roy; Forrester, Naomi L

    2018-08-01

    The myxoma virus (a microparasite) reduced wild rabbit numbers worldwide when introduced in the 1950s, and is known to interact with co-infecting helminths (macroparasites) causing both increases and decreases in macroparasite population size. In the 1990s Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) infected rabbits and also significantly reduced rabbit numbers in several countries. However, not much is known about RHDV interactions with macroparasites. In this study, we compare prevalence and intensity of infection for three gastrointestinal nematode species ( Trichostrongylus retortaeformis , Graphidium strigosum and Passalurus ambiguus ) before and after RHDV spread across host populations in Scotland and New Zealand. During one common season, autumn, prevalence of T. retortaeformis was higher after RHDV spread in both locations, whereas it was lower for G. strigosum and P. ambiguus after RHDV arrived in New Zealand, but higher in Scotland. Meanwhile, intensity of infection for all species decreased after RHDV arrived in New Zealand, but increased in Scotland. The impact of RHDV on worm infections was generally similar across seasons in Scotland, and also similarities in seasonality between locations suggested effects on infection patterns in one season are likely similar year-round. The variable response by macroparasites to the arrival of a microparasite into Scottish and New Zealand rabbits may be due to differences in the environment they inhabit, in existing parasite community structure, and to some extent, in the relative magnitude of indirect effects. Specifically, our data suggest that bottom-up processes after the introduction of a more virulent strain of RHDV to New Zealand may affect macroparasite co-infections by reducing the availability of their shared common resource, the rabbits. Clearly, interactions between co-infecting micro- and macroparasites vary in host populations with different ecologies, and significantly impact parasite community

  20. ICT in the ICU: using Web 2.0 to enhance a community of practice for intensive care physicians.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Anthony R; Elliott, Doug; Hansen, Margaret M

    2009-06-01

    Contemporary information and communicationstechnology (ICT), particularly applications termed "Web2.0", can facilitate practice development and knowledgemanagement for busy clinicians. Just as importantly, theseapplications might also enhance professional socialinteraction and the development of an interprofessionalcommunity of practice that transcends the boundaries ofthe intensive care unit, health service, jurisdiction andnation.We explore the development of Web 2.0 applications inhealth care, and their application to intensive care practicein Australia and New Zealand. The opportunities for usingpodcasts, blogs, wikis and virtual worlds to support cliniciandevelopment and knowledge exchange are clear in theory.However, strategic leadership from the Colleges is neededto fully exploit these technologies and to enable thedevelopment of a strong and sustainable ICU community ofpractice.

  1. New Zealand rural primary health care workforce in 2005: more than just a doctor shortage.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Janes, Ron

    2008-02-01

    To obtain a 2005 snapshot of New Zealand (NZ) rural primary health care workforce, specifically GPs, general practice nurses and community pharmacists. Postal questionnaires, November 2005. NZ-wide rural general practices and community pharmacies. Rural general practice managers, GPs, nurses, community pharmacy managers and pharmacists. Self-reported data: demographics, country of training, years in practice, business ownership, hours worked including on-call, intention to leave rural practice. General practices: response rate 95% (206/217); 70% GP-owned, practice size ranged from one GP/one nurse to 12 GPs/nine nurses. PHARMACIES: Response rate 90% (147/163). Majority had one (33%) or two (32%) pharmacists; <10% had more than three pharmacists. GPs: response rate 64% (358/559), 71% male, 73% aged >40, 61% full-time, 79% provide on-call, 57% overseas-trained, 78% male and 57% female GPs aged >40; more full-time male GPs (76%) than female (37%) . Nurses: response rate 65% (445/685), 97% female, 72% aged >40, 31% full-time, 28% provide on-call, 84% NZ-trained, 45% consulted independently in 'nurse-clinics' within practice setting. Pharmacists: response rate 96% (248/258), 52% male, 66% aged >40, 71% full-time, 33% provide on-call, 92% NZ-trained, 55% sole/partner pharmacy owners. Many intend to leave NZ rural practice within 5 years: GPs (34%), nurses (25%) and pharmacists (47%). This is the first NZ-wide rural workforce survey to include a range of rural primary health care providers (GPs, nurses and pharmacists). Ageing rural primary health care workforce and intentions to leave herald worsening workforce shortages.

  2. Neuromuscular disorders in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, William A; Leatherman, James W

    2002-10-01

    Neuromuscular disorders encountered in the ICU can be categorized as muscular diseases that lead to ICU admission and those that are acquired in the ICU. This article discusses three neuromuscular disorders can lead to ICU admission and have a putative immune-mediated pathogenesis: the Guillian-Barré syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and dermatomyositis/polymyositis. It also reviews critical care polyneuropathy and ICU acquired myopathy, two disorders that, alone or in combination, are responsible for nearly all cases of severe ICU acquired muscle weakness.

  3. Predictors of intensive care unit refusal in French intensive care units: a multiple-center study.

    PubMed

    Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Montuclard, Luc; Timsit, Jean-François; Reignier, Jean; Desmettre, Thibault; Karoubi, Philippe; Moreau, Delphine; Montesino, Laurent; Duguet, Alexandre; Boussat, Sandrine; Ede, Christophe; Monseau, Yannick; Paule, Thierry; Misset, Benoit; Carlet, Jean

    2005-04-01

    To identify factors associated with granting or refusing intensive care unit (ICU) admission, to analyze ICU characteristics and triage decisions, and to describe mortality in admitted and refused patients. Observational, prospective, multiple-center study. Four university hospitals and seven primary-care hospitals in France. None. Age, underlying diseases (McCabe score and Knaus class), dependency, hospital mortality, and ICU characteristics were recorded. The crude ICU refusal rate was 23.8% (137/574), with variations from 7.1% to 63.1%. The reasons for refusal were too well to benefit (76/137, 55.4%), too sick to benefit (51/137, 37.2%), unit too busy (9/137, 6.5%), and refusal by the family (1/137). In logistic regression analyses, two patient-related factors were associated with ICU refusal: dependency (odds ratio [OR], 14.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.27-38.25; p < .0001) and metastatic cancer (OR, 5.82; 95% CI, 2.22-15.28). Other risk factors were organizational, namely, full unit (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.88-5.31), center (OR, 3.81; 95% CI, 2.27-6.39), phone admission (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14-0.40), and daytime admission (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.84). The Standardized Mortality Ratio was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.19-1.69) for immediately admitted patients, 1.75 (95% CI, 1.60-1.84) for refused patients, and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.28-1.75) for later-admitted patients. ICU refusal rates varied greatly across ICUs and were dependent on both patient and organizational factors. Efforts to define ethically optimal ICU admission policies might lead to greater homogeneity in refusal rates, although case-mix variations would be expected to leave an irreducible amount of variation across ICUs.

  4. Intensive Care in India: The Indian Intensive Care Case Mix and Practice Patterns Study.

    PubMed

    Divatia, Jigeeshu V; Amin, Pravin R; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Kapadia, Farhad N; Todi, Subhash; Sahu, Samir; Govil, Deepak; Chawla, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Atul P; Samavedam, Srinivas; Jani, Charu K; Rungta, Narendra; Samaddar, Devi Prasad; Mehta, Sujata; Venkataraman, Ramesh; Hegde, Ashit; Bande, B D; Dhanuka, Sanjay; Singh, Virendra; Tewari, Reshma; Zirpe, Kapil; Sathe, Prachee

    2016-04-01

    To obtain information on organizational aspects, case mix and practices in Indian Intensive Care Units (ICUs). An observational, 4-day point prevalence study was performed between 2010 and 2011 in 4209 patients from 124 ICUs. ICU and patient characteristics, and interventions were recorded for 24 h of the study day, and outcomes till 30 days after the study day. Data were analyzed for 4038 adult patients from 120 ICUs. On the study day, mean age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were 54.1 ± 17.1 years, 17.4 ± 9.2 and 3.8 ± 3.6, respectively. About 46.4% patients had ≥1 organ failure. Nearly, 37% and 22.2% patients received mechanical ventilation (MV) and vasopressors or inotropes, respectively. Nearly, 12.2% patients developed an infection in the ICU. About 28.3% patients had severe sepsis or septic shock (SvSpSS) during their ICU stay. About 60.7% patients without infection received antibiotics. There were 546 deaths and 183 terminal discharges (TDs) from ICU (including left against medical advice or discharged on request), with ICU mortality 729/4038 (18.1%). In 1627 patients admitted within 24 h of the study day, the standardized mortality ratio was 0.67. The APACHE II and SOFA scores, public hospital ICUs, medical ICUs, inadequately equipped ICUs, medical admission, self-paying patient, presence of SvSpSS, acute respiratory failure or cancer, need for a fluid bolus, and MV were independent predictors of mortality. The high proportion of TDs and the association of public hospitals, self-paying patients, and inadequately equipped hospitals with mortality has important implications for critical care in India.

  5. Patient stress in intensive care: comparison between a coronary care unit and a general postoperative unit

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Douglas de Sá; Resende, Mariane Vanessa; Diniz, Gisele do Carmo Leite Machado

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare stressors identified by patients of a coronary intensive care unit with those perceived by patients of a general postoperative intensive care unit. Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in the coronary intensive care and general postoperative intensive care units of a private hospital. In total, 60 patients participated in the study, 30 in each intensive care unit. The stressor scale was used in the intensive care units to identify the stressors. The mean score of each item of the scale was calculated followed by the total stress score. The differences between groups were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results The mean ages of patients were 55.63 ± 13.58 years in the coronary intensive care unit and 53.60 ± 17.47 years in the general postoperative intensive care unit. For patients in the coronary intensive care unit, the main stressors were “being in pain”, “being unable to fulfill family roles” and “being bored”. For patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit, the main stressors were “being in pain”, “being unable to fulfill family roles” and “not being able to communicate”. The mean total stress scores were 104.20 ± 30.95 in the coronary intensive care unit and 116.66 ± 23.72 (p = 0.085) in the general postoperative intensive care unit. When each stressor was compared separately, significant differences were noted only between three items. “Having nurses constantly doing things around your bed” was more stressful to the patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit than to those in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.013). Conversely, “hearing unfamiliar sounds and noises” and “hearing people talk about you” were the most stressful items for the patients in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.046 and 0.005, respectively). Conclusion The perception of major stressors and the total stress score were similar between patients

  6. Screening for mental health needs of New Zealand youth in secure care facilities using the MAYSI-2.

    PubMed

    McArdle, Sean; Lambie, Ian

    2018-06-01

    Young people admitted to secure facilities generally have particularly high rates of mental, emotional and behavioural problems, but little is known about the mental health needs of this group in New Zealand. To describe prevalence of probable mental health disorder and related needs among young people in secure facilities in New Zealand. Massachusetts youth screening instrument - second version (MAYSI-2) data were obtained from the records of young people admitted to one secure care facility (n = 204) within a 12 month period. We used descriptive statistics to determine prevalence of problems overall and multivariate analysis of variance to compare MAYSI-2 scores between gender and ethnic groups. Nearly 80% of these young people scored above the 'caution' or 'warning' cut-off on the MAYSI-2, a substantially higher proportion than reported in studies in other countries. There was a tendency for girls and for Maori and Pacific Islander subgroups to have a higher rate of probable psychopathology. Young people in secure facilities in New Zealand have substantial service needs. Early intervention that engages them in services upon first contact with the youth justice system might help reduce this burden. Further validation of the MAYSI-2 in New Zealand may be warranted because of the unique ethnic make-up of these young offenders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Physical Therapy Intervention in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Eilish; Garber, June

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these interventions is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

  8. Infrastructure for Big Data in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Zelechower, Javier; Astudillo, José; Traversaro, Francisco; Redelico, Francisco; Luna, Daniel; Quiros, Fernan; San Roman, Eduardo; Risk, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    The Big Data paradigm can be applied in intensive care unit, in order to improve the treatment of the patients, with the aim of customized decisions. This poster is about the infrastructure necessary to built a Big Data system for the ICU. Together with the infrastructure, the conformation of a multidisciplinary team is essential to develop Big Data to use in critical care medicine.

  9. Coping with Poor Prognosis in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, David A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The intensive care pediatrician who prophesies to parents that their child's illness is irreversible may encounter denial and hostility. Four cases are reported in which parents rejected their child's hopeless prognosis, counterprophesied miraculous cures, resolved to obtain exorcism, criticized the care, or accused nurses of neglect. Journal…

  10. Family centred care before and during life-sustaining treatment withdrawal in intensive care: A survey of information provided to families by Australasian critical care nurses.

    PubMed

    Ranse, Kristen; Bloomer, Melissa; Coombs, Maureen; Endacott, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    A core component of family-centred nursing care during the provision of end-of-life care in intensive care settings is information sharing with families. Yet little is known about information provided in these circumstances. To identify information most frequently given by critical care nurses to families in preparation for and during withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment. An online cross-sectional survey. During May 2015, critical care nurses in Australia and New Zealand were invited to complete the Preparing Families for Treatment Withdrawal questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics to identify areas of information most and least frequently shared with families. Cross tabulations with demographic data were used to explore any associations in the data. From the responses of 159 critical care nurses, information related to the emotional care and support of the family was most frequently provided to families in preparation for and during withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment. Variation was noted in the frequency of provision of information across body systems and their associated physical changes during the dying process. Significant associations (p<0.05) were identified between the variables gender, nursing experience and critical care experiences and some of the information items most and least frequently provided. The provision of information during end-of-life care reflects a family-centred care approach by critical care nurses with information pertaining to emotional care and support of the family paramount. The findings of this study provide a useful framework for the development of interventions to improve practice and support nurses in communicating with families at this time. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting experiences of intensive care patients in Turkey: patient outcomes in critical care setting.

    PubMed

    Demir, Yurdanur; Korhan, Esra Akin; Eser, Ismet; Khorshid, Leyla

    2013-07-01

    To determine the factors affecting a patient's intensive care experience. The descriptive study was conducted at an intensive care unit in the Aegean Region of Turkey, and comprised 158 patients who spent at least 48 hours at the unit between June and November 2009. A questionnaire form and the Intensive Care Experience Scale were used as data collection tools. SPSS 11.5 was used for statistical analysis of the data. Of the total, 86 (54.4%) patients related to the surgical unit, while 72 (45.5%) spent time at the intensive care unit. Most of the subjects (n=113; 71.5%) reported that they constantly experienced pain during hospitalisation. Patients receiving mechanical ventilation support and patients reporting no pain had significantly higher scores on the intensive care experience scale. Patients who reported pain remembered their experiences less than those having no pain. Interventions are needed to make the experiences of patients in intensive care more positive.

  12. Is routine alcohol screening and brief intervention feasible in a New Zealand primary care environment.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Heather; Paton, Sue; Cvitanovic, Lynley; McMenamin, John; Newton, Chloe

    2012-05-11

    To test the feasibility of a systemised ABC alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) approach in general practice in a New Zealand region. Data were collected on patients over 15 years who had their alcohol status recorded using the AUDIT tool. A concurrent independent process evaluation was conducted to assess effectiveness of ABC alcohol SBI related training and implementation of intervention. In an 8-month period, general practices in the Whanganui region documented alcohol consumption of 43% of their patients. Of the 43% of patients screened 24% were drinking contrary to ALAC's low risk drinking advice. Of these, 36% received brief advice or referral. Success of the approach can be attributed to the use of the Patient Dashboard reminder software and linked alcohol recording form. Other success factors included the use of a clinical champion and project leader, education and training, funding for extra GP and nurse assessment time and linking of the ABC alcohol SBI approach to existing services. Primary care in Whanganui has demonstrated the capacity to routinely query patient alcohol use and offer brief advice. If the approach was more widely adopted, there is considerable scope for general practice nationally to address potentially harmful patient alcohol use.

  13. Candida Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit?

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Ronny M.; Linssen, Catharina F.; Guion, Nele; van Mook, Walther N.; Bergmans, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned if Candida pneumonia exists as a clinical entity. Only histopathology can establish the definite diagnosis. Less invasive diagnostic strategies lack specificity and have been insufficiently validated. Scarcity of this pathomechanism and nonspecific clinical presentation make validation and the development of a clinical algorithm difficult. In the present study, we analyze whether Candida pneumonia exists in our critical care population. We used a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen database that we have built in a structural diagnostic approach to ventilator-associated pneumonia for more than a decade consisting of 832 samples. Microbiological data were linked to clinical information and available autopsy data. We searched for critically ill patients with respiratory failure with no other microbiological or clinical explanation than exclusive presence of Candida species in BAL fluid. Five cases could be identified with Candida as the likely cause of pneumonia. PMID:25734099

  14. Mounting evidence favoring single-family room neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Stevens, D; Thompson, P; Helseth, C; Pottala, J

    2015-01-01

    Controversy regarding the optimal design for neonatal intensive care has existed for more than 20 years. Recent evidence confirms that in comparison with the traditional open-bay design, the single-room facility provides for improved control of excessive noise and light, improved staff and parental satisfaction with care and equal, or possibly reduced, cost of care. Single-room care was not associated with any increase in adverse outcomes. To optimize long term developmental outcomes, single-room care must be augmented with appropriate developmental therapy and programs to actively support parental involvement.

  15. [The coma awakening unit, between intensive care and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    After intensive care and before classic neurological rehabilitation is possible, patients in an altered state of consciousness are cared for at early stages in so-called coma awakening units. The care involves, on the one hand, the complex support of the patient's awakening from coma as a neurological and existential process, and on the other, support for their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The knowledge of intensive care professionals about diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Lordani, Cláudia Regina Felicetti; Eckert, Raquel Goreti; Tozetto, Altevir Garcia; Lordani, Tarcísio Vitor Augusto; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the opinions and practices of intensive care professionals with regard to diarrhea in critically ill patients. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted among health care professionals working at three adult intensive care units. Participants responded individually to a self-administered questionnaire about their length of work experience in intensive care; the definition, characterization, and causes of diarrhea; types of records in the patient's medical record; and training received. Results A total of 78 professionals participated in this study, of whom 59.0% were nurse technicians, 25.7% were nurses, and 15.3% were physicians; 77.0% of them had worked in intensive care for over 1 year. Only 37.2% had received training on this topic. Half of the interviewees defined diarrhea as "liquid and/or pasty stools" regardless of frequency, while the other 50.0% defined diarrhea based on the increased number of daily bowel movements. The majority of them mentioned diet as the main cause of diarrhea, followed by "use of medications" (p<0.001). Distinct nutritional practices were observed among the analyzed professionals regarding episodes of diarrhea, such as discontinuing, maintaining, or reducing the volume of enteral nutrition; physicians reported that they do not routinely communicate the problem to other professionals (for example, to a nutritionist) and do not routinely record and quantify diarrhea events in patients' medical records. Conclusion Different opinions and practices were observed in intensive care professionals with regard to diarrhea. PMID:25295825

  17. Intensity of interprofessional collaboration among intensive care nurses at a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Gemes, G; Rich-Ruiz, M

    To measure the intensity of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in nurses of an intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary hospital, to check differences between the dimensions of the Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire, and to identify the influence of personal variables. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 63 intensive care nurses selected by simple random sampling. Explanatory variables: age, sex, years of experience in nursing, years of experience in critical care, workday type and work shift type; variable of outcome: IPC. The IPC was measured by: Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analysis (IPC and its dimensions with explanatory variables). 73.8% were women, with a mean age of 46.54 (±6.076) years. The average years experience in nursing and critical care was 23.03 (±6.24) and 14.25 (±8.532), respectively. 77% had a full time and 95.1% had a rotating shift. 62.3% obtained average IPC values. Statistically significant differences were found (P<.05) between IPC (overall score) and overall assessment with years of experience in critical care. This study shows average levels of IPC; the nurses with less experience in critical care obtained higher IPC and overall assessment scores. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Organizational Factors Associated With Perceived Quality of Patient Care in Closed Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Nathalie; Oppel, Eva; Mohr, David; Meterko, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Improving patient care quality in intensive care units is increasingly important as intensive care unit services account for a growing proportion of hospital services. Organizational factors associated with quality of patient care in such units have been identified; however, most were examined in isolation, making it difficult to assess the relative importance of each. Furthermore, though most intensive care units now use a closed model, little research has been done in this specific context. To examine the relative importance of organizational factors associated with patient care quality in closed intensive care units. In a national exploratory, cross-sectional study focused on intensive care units at US Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals, unit directors were surveyed about nurse and physician staffing, work resources and training, patient care coordination, rounding, and perceptions of patient care quality. Administrative records yielded data on patient volume and facility teaching status. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and regression modeling were used for data analysis. Sixty-nine completed surveys from directors of closed intensive care units were returned. Regression model results showed that better patient care coordination (β = 0.43; P = .01) and having adequate work resources (β = 0.26; P = .02) were significantly associated with higher levels of patient care quality in such units ( R 2 = 0.22). Augmenting work resources and/or focusing limited hospital resources on improving patient care coordination may be the most productive ways to improve patient care quality in closed intensive care units. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. Assessing the Impact of Telemedicine on Nursing Care in Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Kleinpell, Ruth; Barden, Connie; Rincon, Teresa; McCarthy, Mary; Zapatochny Rufo, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Information on the impact of tele-intensive care on nursing and priority areas of nursing care is limited. To conduct a national benchmarking survey of nurses working in intensive care telemedicine facilities in the United States. In a 2-phased study, an online survey was used to assess nurses' perceptions of intensive care telemedicine, and a modified 2-round Delphi study was used to identify priority areas of nursing. In phase 1, most of the 1213 respondents agreed to strongly agreed that using tele-intensive care enables them to accomplish tasks more quickly (63%), improves collaboration (65.9%), improves job performance (63.6%) and communication (60.4%), is useful in nursing assessments (60%), and improves care by providing more time for patient care (45.6%). Benefits of tele-intensive care included ability to detect trends in vital signs, detect unstable physiological status, provide medical management, and enhance patient safety. Barriers included technical problems (audio and video), interruptions in care, perceptions of telemedicine as an interference, and attitudes of staff. In phase 2, 60 nurses ranked 15 priority areas of care, including critical thinking skills, intensive care experience, skillful communication, mutual respect, and management of emergency patient care. The findings can be used to further inform the development of competencies for tele-intensive care nursing, match the tele-intensive care nursing practice guidelines of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, and highlight concepts related to the association's standards for establishing and sustaining healthy work environments. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  20. Explaining variation in hospice visit intensity for routine home care.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Sally C; Sheingold, Steven; Zuckerman, Rachael B

    2014-01-01

    Medicare pays a flat per diem rate by level of hospice service without case-mix adjustment, although previous research shows that visit intensity varies considerably over the course of hospice episodes. Concerns pertain to the inherent financial incentives for routine home care, the most frequently used level, and whether payment efficiency can be improved using case-mix adjustment. The aim of this study was to assess variation in hospice visit intensity during hospice episodes by patient, hospice, and episode characteristics to inform policy discussions regarding hospice payment methods. This observational study used Medicare claims for hospice episodes in 2010. Multiple observations were constructed per episode phase (eg, days 1-14, 15-30, etc.). Episode phase and observed characteristics were regressed on average routine home care visit intensity per day; patient and hospice fixed effects controlled for unobserved characteristics. Visit intensity was constructed using national wages to weight visits by provider type. Observed patient characteristics included age, sex, race, diagnoses, venue of care, use of other hospice levels of care, and discharge status; hospice characteristics included ownership, affiliation, size, and urban/state location. Visit intensity varied substantially by episode phase. This pattern was largely invariant to observed patient and hospice characteristics, which explained <4% of variation in visit intensity per day after adjusting for episode phase. Unobserved patient characteristics explained approximately 85% of remaining variation. These results show that case-mix adjustment based on commonly observed factors would only minimally improve hospice payment methodology.

  1. Ethnic differences in Type 2 diabetes care and outcomes in Auckland: a multiethnic community in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tom; Simmons, David; Scott, David; Howard, Eileen; Pickering, Karen; Cutfield, Rick; Baker, John; Patel, Ashwin; Wellingham, John; Morton, Sara

    2006-06-02

    In New Zealand, Maori and Pacific (mostly of Samoan, Tongan, Niuean, or Cook Islands origin) people with Type 2 diabetes are more likely to suffer poor outcomes than other New Zealanders. Responsibility for addressing this outcome differential is falling on primary care and general practice in particular. This paper compares the general practice care provided to people with Type 2 diabetes in South and West Auckland, according to ethnicity. An external audit of general practice diabetes care is carried out in South and West Auckland by the Diabetes Care Support Service. The results of 5917 routine patient audits carried out in 2003 are included in this study. Number of visits, recording of important information, risk factors, and treatments are compared between different ethnic groups. Maori and Pacific people with diabetes who attend a regular GP had a higher average number of consultations than Europeans (5.7, 5.4, and 4.8 visits per year respectively). They were as likely as Europeans to have undergone important regular examinations and investigations. Maori were more likely than Europeans to be on some treatments. However, Maori and Pacific people were more likely to have a range of adverse risk factors for diabetes complications than Europeans. These include being a smoker (35, 18, and 13% respectively), having an HbA1c greater than 8% (50, 56, 23%), and having microalbuminuria (55, 50, 27%). Although there were no large differences in the process measures of general practice diabetes care provided to different ethnic groups in South and West Auckland, Maori and Pacific people were not achieving the same outcomes of care in terms of risk factors for diabetes complications. Many of these risk factors are influenced by other factors in the wider community; however the New Zealand health system needs to consider how it can better address these differences.

  2. Strength of primary care service delivery: a comparative study of European countries, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada.

    PubMed

    Pavlič, Danica R; Sever, Maja; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Švab, Igor; Vainieri, Milena; Seghieri, Chiara; Maksuti, Alem

    2018-05-01

    AimWe sought to examine strength of primary care service delivery as measured by selected process indicators by general practitioners from 31 European countries plus Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. We explored the relation between strength of service delivery and healthcare expenditures. The strength of a country's primary care is determined by the degree of development of a combination of core primary care dimensions in the context of its healthcare system. This study analyses the strength of service delivery in primary care as measured through process indicators in 31 European countries plus Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. A comparative cross-sectional study design was applied using the QUALICOPC GP database. Data on the strength of primary healthcare were collected using a standardized GP questionnaire, which included 60 questions divided into 10 dimensions related to process, structure, and outcomes. A total of 6734 general practitioners participated. Data on healthcare expenditure were obtained from World Bank statistics. We conducted a correlation analysis to analyse the relationship between strength and healthcare expenditures.FindingsOur findings show that the strength of service delivery parameters is less than optimal in some countries, and there are substantial variations among countries. Continuity and comprehensiveness of care are significantly positively related to national healthcare expenditures; however, coordination of care is not.

  3. Fatigue in Intensive Care Nurses and Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Sevim; Taşdemir, Nurten; Kurt, Aylin; İlgezdi, Ebru; Kubalas, Özge

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue negatively affects the performance of intensive care nurses. Factors contributing to the fatigue experienced by nurses include lifestyle, psychological status, work organization and sleep problems. To determine the level of fatigue among nurses working in intensive care units and the related factors. This descriptive study was conducted with 102 nurses working in intensive care units in the West Black Sea Region of Turkey. Data were collected between February and May 2014 using a personal information form, the Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. The intensive care nurses in the study were found to be experiencing fatigue. Significant correlations were observed between scores on the VAS-F Fatigue and anxiety (p=0.01), depression (p=0.002), and sleep quality (p<0.001). Anxiety, depression and quality of sleep were significantly affected by the intensive care nurses' levels of fatigue. These results can be of benefit in taking measures which may be used to reduce fatigue in nurses, especially the fatigue related to work organization and social life.

  4. Complementary Health Approaches Used in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Zeynep; Atik, Derya

    Intensive care units are care centers where, in order to provide the maximum benefit to individuals whose life is in danger, many lifesaving technological tools and devices are present, and morbidity and mortality rates are high. In the intensive care unit, when classic treatments fail or become unbearable because of side effects, complementary methods have been suggested to be the best alternative. Complementary health approaches are methods that are used both for the continuation and the improvement of the well-being of an individual and as additions to medical treatments that are based on a holistic approach. These applications are especially helpful in the treatment of the stresses, anxieties, and other symptoms of unstable patients in the intensive care unit who do not tolerate traditional treatment methods well, increasing their psychological and physiological well-being, helping them sleep and rest. In intensive care patients, in order to decrease the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation, antiemetic and medicine needs, mechanical ventilation duration, and the intensity of the disease as well as to cope with symptoms such as pain, anxiety, physiological parameters, dyspnea, and sleep problems, body-mind interventions such as massage, reflexology, acupressure, aromatherapy, music therapy, energy therapies (healing touch, therapeutic touch, the Yakson method), and prayer are used as complementary health approaches.

  5. Geriatric patient profile in the cardiovascular surgery intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Korhan, Esra Akin; Hakverdioglu, Gulendam; Ozlem, Maryem; Ozlem, Maryem; Yurekli, Ismail; Gurbuz, Ali; Alp, Nilgun Akalin

    2013-11-01

    To determine hospitalization durations and mortalities of elderly in the Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit. The retrospective study was conducted in a Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit in Turkey and comprised patient records from January 1 to December 31, 2011. Computerized epicrisis reports of 255, who had undergone a cardiac surgery were collected. The patients were grouped according to their ages, Group I aged 65-74 and Group II aged 75 and older. European society for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation scores of the two groups were compared using SPSS 17. Overall, there were 80 (31.37%) females and 175 (68.62%) males. There were 138 (54.1%) patients in Group I and 117 (45.9%) in Group II. Regarding their hospitalization reasons, it was determined that 70 (27.5%) patients in Group I and 79 (30.9%) patients in Group II were treated with the diagnosis ofcoronary artery disease. The average hospitalization duration of patients in the intensive care unit was determined to be 11.57 +/- 0.40 days. Regarding the EuroSCORE score intervals of patients, 132 (51.8%) had 3-5 and 225 (88.2%) patients were transferred to the Cardiovascular Surgery and then all of them were discharged; 5 (4.1%) had a mortal course; and 11 (7.7%) were transferred to the anaesthesia intensive care unit. The general mortality rates are very low in the Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit and the patients have a good prognosis.

  6. The development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Krister; Ekström-Jodal, Barbro; Meretoja, Olli; Valentin, Niels; Wagner, Kari

    2015-05-01

    The initiation and development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care have much in common in the Scandinavian countries. The five countries had to initiate close relations and cooperation in all medical disciplines. The pediatric anesthesia subspecialty took its first steps after the Second World War. Relations for training and exchange of experiences between Scandinavian countries with centers in Europe and the USA were a prerequisite for development. Specialized pediatric practice was not a full-time position until during the 1950s, when the first pediatric anesthesia positions were created. Scandinavian anesthesia developed slowly. In contrast, Scandinavia pioneered both adult and certainly pediatric intensive care. The pioneers were heavily involved in the teaching and training of anesthetists and nurses. This was necessary to manage the rapidly increasing work. The polio epidemics during the 1950s initiated a combination of clinical development and technical innovations. Blood gas analyses technology and interpretation in combination with improved positive pressure ventilators were developed in Scandinavia contributing to general and pediatric anesthesia and intensive care practice. Scandinavian specialist training and accreditation includes both anesthesia and intensive care. Although pediatric anesthesia/intensive care is not a separate specialty, an 'informal accreditation' for a specialist position is obtained after training. The pleasure of working in a relatively small group of devoted colleagues and staff has persisted from the pioneering years. It is still one of the most inspiring and pleasant gifts for those working in this demanding specialty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Position paper of the German Society for Medical Intensive Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine (DGIIN) on medical intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Riessen, R; Janssens, U; Buerke, M; Kluge, S

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the German Society for Medical Intensive Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine (DGIIN) provides statements regarding the importance and advancement of Medical Intensive Care Medicine within the structures of Internal Medicine in Germany. Of pivotal importance are the training of medical intensivists, the cooperation with intensivists from other disciplines and the collaboration with emergency departments. In order to fulfil the various and challenging tasks in patient care, training, research and medical education competently and on an international level, more intensivists in leading positions especially in academic institutions are essential.

  8. The Intensive Care Lifeboat: a survey of lay attitudes to rationing dilemmas in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Arora, C; Savulescu, J; Maslen, H; Selgelid, M; Wilkinson, D

    2016-11-08

    Resuscitation and treatment of critically ill newborn infants is associated with relatively high mortality, morbidity and cost. Guidelines relating to resuscitation have traditionally focused on the best interests of infants. There are, however, limited resources available in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), meaning that difficult decisions sometimes need to be made. This study explores the intuitions of lay people (non-health professionals) regarding resource allocation decisions in the NICU. The study design was a cross-sectional quantitative survey, consisting of 20 hypothetical rationing scenarios. There were 119 respondents who entered the questionnaire, and 109 who completed it. The respondents were adult US and Indian participants of the online crowdsourcing platform Mechanical Turk. Respondents were asked to decide which of two infants to treat in a situation of scarce resources. Demographic characteristics, personality traits and political views were recorded. Respondents were also asked to respond to a widely cited thought experiment involving rationing. The majority of respondents, in all except one scenario, chose the utilitarian option of directing treatment to the infant with the higher chance of survival, higher life expectancy, less severe disability, and less expensive treatment. As discrepancy between outcomes decreased, however, there was a statistically significant increase in egalitarian responses and decrease in utilitarian responses in scenarios involving chance of survival (P = 0.001), life expectancy (P = 0.0001), and cost of treatment (P = 0.01). In the classic 'lifeboat' scenario, all but two respondents were utilitarian. This survey suggests that in situations of scarcity and equal clinical need, non-health professionals support rationing of life-saving treatment based on probability of survival, duration of survival, cost of treatment or quality of life. However, where the difference in prognosis or cost is very

  9. Artificial intelligence applications in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Hanson, C W; Marshall, B E

    2001-02-01

    To review the history and current applications of artificial intelligence in the intensive care unit. The MEDLINE database, bibliographies of selected articles, and current texts on the subject. The studies that were selected for review used artificial intelligence tools for a variety of intensive care applications, including direct patient care and retrospective database analysis. All literature relevant to the topic was reviewed. Although some of the earliest artificial intelligence (AI) applications were medically oriented, AI has not been widely accepted in medicine. Despite this, patient demographic, clinical, and billing data are increasingly available in an electronic format and therefore susceptible to analysis by intelligent software. Individual AI tools are specifically suited to different tasks, such as waveform analysis or device control. The intensive care environment is particularly suited to the implementation of AI tools because of the wealth of available data and the inherent opportunities for increased efficiency in inpatient care. A variety of new AI tools have become available in recent years that can function as intelligent assistants to clinicians, constantly monitoring electronic data streams for important trends, or adjusting the settings of bedside devices. The integration of these tools into the intensive care unit can be expected to reduce costs and improve patient outcomes.

  10. Female specialists in intensive care medicine: job satisfaction, challenges and work-life balance.

    PubMed

    Hawker, Felicity H

    2016-06-01

    Women are under-represented in the intensive care medicine (ICM) specialist workforce. I aimed to better understand the challenges these women face so they can be considered in the training and support of ICM specialists. All female Fellows of the College of Intensive Care Medicine (CICM) of Australia and New Zealand were surveyed using an online questionnaire. The study was approved by the Cabrini Human Research Ethics Committee. Thirty respondents with children volunteered to complete a second questionnaire. I surveyed demographic and workforce data and women's experiences in the ICM specialist workforce in the first survey, and experiences with child-rearing in the second survey. The response rate was 80.3% (127/158). The median age bracket was 40-45 years, and 118 respondents were practising ICM, 85 full-time in a tertiary intensive care unit. Eighteen were ICU directors and 23 were CICM-appointed supervisors of training. Sixty-five women were mothers, and 70% returned to full-time work after their maternity leave. Child care was most commonly undertaken by family members or a nanny. Overall, 81% were satisfied with their experiences, but 37% felt they had been disadvantaged because of their sex. Fewer women with leadership roles felt disadvantaged. Their major challenges included the on-call work affecting child-rearing and family life, sexism in the workplace and difficulties with academic advancement. The participation and satisfaction rates of women working in the ICM specialist workforce are encouraging. Although challenges exist, women contemplating a career in ICM should see it as achievable and rewarding.

  11. Interdisciplinary approach to neurocritical care in the intensive care nursery.

    PubMed

    Glass, Hannah C; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Peloquin, Susan; Bonifacio, Sonia L

    2014-12-01

    Neurocritical care is a multidisciplinary subspecialty that combines expertise in critical care medicine, neurology, and neurosurgery, and has led to improved outcomes in adults who have critical illnesses. Advances in resuscitation and critical care have led to high rates of survival among neonates with life-threatening conditions such as perinatal asphyxia, extreme prematurity, and congenital malformations. The sequelae of neurologic conditions arising in the neonatal period include lifelong disabilities such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy, as well as intellectual and behavioral disabilities. Centers of excellence have adapted the principles of neurocritical care to reflect the needs of the developing newborn brain, including early involvement of a neurologist for recognition and treatment of neurologic conditions, attention to physiology to help prevent secondary brain injury, a protocol-driven approach for common conditions like seizures and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and education of specialized teams that use brain monitoring and imaging to evaluate the effect of critical illness on brain function and development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Rotation placements help students' understanding of intensive care.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Lisa

    2011-07-01

    It is vital that children's nursing students are fit for practice when they qualify and are able to meet various essential skills as defined by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). To gain the knowledge and skills required, students need placements in areas where high dependency and potentially intensive care are delivered. Efforts to maximise the number of students experiencing intensive care as a placement have led to the development of the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rotation, increasing placements on the PICU from 5 to 40 per cent of the student cohort per year. The lecturer practitioner organises the rotation, providing credible links between university and practice areas, while supporting students and staff in offering a high-quality placement experience. Students say the rotation offers a positive insight into PICU nursing, helping them develop knowledge and skills in a technical area and creating an interest in this specialty.

  13. Change of focus: from intensive care towards organ donation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Käthe; Bjørk, Ida T

    2008-02-01

    To progress from identifying a potential organ donor to implementing the actual organ donation effectively is a challenging process for all involved. The nurses might find the change of focus difficult, as the donor organ acquisition process often starts before the relatives had been informed and have had the time to reorient themselves about the severe situation of the patient and have been briefed on the option of organ donation. The purpose was to investigate the hospital-based education in organ donation at the 28 Norwegian donor hospitals, and elicit the needs of the intensive care nurses for imparting of required knowledge and support in shifting their focus from intensive care towards the process of organ procurement. Hospital-based education and guidelines in organ donation were analyzed by scrutinizing the documents available. Eleven units were found to have their own guidelines and only three hospitals had organ donation in their educational programme. Intensive care nurses at three hospitals participated in focus groups. The main finding was the need for collaboration and mutual understanding within the treatment team. Nurses expounded the multiple responsibilities that they discharged during the course of intensive care. In reorienting their focus from intensive care to donor organ procurement, the time of death was explained as the crucial turning point. The knowledge of intensive care staff and professional competence were crucial in winning the relatives' trust and were central in the communication processes. Donor hospitals should implement systematic training and debriefing, where both nurses and physicians contribute to this process. Well-prepared protocols for organ donation at hospitals can define responsibilities assigned to different members of the donor organ acquisition team.

  14. Changing the balance of social care for older people: simulating scenarios under demographic ageing in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lay-Yee, Roy; Pearson, Janet; Davis, Peter; von Randow, Martin; Kerse, Ngaire; Brown, Laurie

    2017-05-01

    The demographic ageing of New Zealand society, as elsewhere in the developed world, has dramatically increased the proportion of older people (aged 65 years and over) in the population. This has major policy implications for the future organisation of social care. Our objective was to test the effects on social care use, first, of putative changes in the overall disability profile of older people, and second, of alterations to the balance of their care, i.e. whether it was community-based or residential. In order to undertake these experiments, we developed a microsimulation model of the later life course using individual-level data from two official national survey series on health and disability, respectively, to generate a synthetic version which replicated original data and parameter settings. A baseline projection under current settings from 2001 to 2021 showed moderate increases in disability and associated social care use. Artificially decreasing disability levels, below the baseline projection, only moderately reduced the use of community care (both informal and formal). Scenarios implemented by rebalancing towards informal care use moderately reduced formal care use. However, only moderate compensatory increases in community-based care were required to markedly decrease the transition to residential care. The disability impact of demographic ageing may not have a major negative effect on system resources in developed countries like New Zealand. As well as healthy ageing, changing the balance of social care may alleviate the impact of increasing demand due to an expanding population of older people. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Residential aged care in Auckland, New Zealand 1988-2008: do real trends over time match predictions?

    PubMed

    Broad, Joanna B; Boyd, Michal; Kerse, Ngaire; Whitehead, Noeline; Chelimo, Carol; Lay-Yee, Roy; von Randow, Martin; Foster, Susan; Connolly, Martin J

    2011-07-01

    in Auckland, New Zealand in 1988, 7.7% of those aged over 65 years lived in licenced residential aged care. Age-specific rates approximately doubled for each 5-year age group after the age of 65 years. Even with changes in policies and market forces since 1988, population increases are forecast to drive large growth in demand. This study shows previously unrecognised 20-year trends in rates of care in a geographically defined population. four cross-sectional surveys of all facilities (rest homes and hospitals) licenced for long-term care of older people were conducted in Auckland, New Zealand in 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2008. Facility staff completed survey forms for each resident. Numbers of licenced and occupied beds and trends in age-specific and age-standardised rates in residential aged care are reported. over the 20-year period, Auckland's population aged over 65 years increased by 43% (from 91,000 to 130,000) but actual numbers in care reduced slightly. Among those aged over 65 years, the proportion living in care facilities reduced from 1 in 13 to 1 in 18. Age-standardised rates in rest-home level care reduced from 65 to 33 per thousand, and in hospital level care, from 29 to 23 per thousand. Had rates remained stable, over 13,200 people, 74% more than observed, would have been in care in 2008. growth predicted in the residential aged care sector is not yet evident. The introduction of standardised needs assessments before entry, increased availability of home-based services, and growth in retirement villages may have led to reduced utilisation.

  16. Job satisfaction and importance for intensive care unit research coordinators: results from binational survey.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Claire M; Roberts, Brigit L; Foote, Jonathon; McGrail, Matthew R

    2007-09-01

    To measure Intensive Care Unit Research coordinator job satisfaction and importance and to identify priorities for role development. Research coordinator numbers are growing internationally in response to increasing clinical research activity. In Australia, 1% of registered nurses work principally in research, many as Research coordinators. Internationally, the Association of Clinical Research Professionals currently has 6536 certified Research coordinators in 13 countries, with likely additional large numbers practicing without the voluntary certification. Research coordinators are almost always nurses, but little is know about this emerging specialty. Design. Cross-sectional study using anonymous self-report questionnaire. After ethics approval, the McCloskey-Mueller Satisfaction Scale and McCloskey-Mueller Importance Scale were administered via the Internet. The sample was 49 (response rate 71%) Research coordinators from the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Unit Research coordinators' Interest Group. Research coordinators were satisfied with structural aspects of the position working business hours; flexibility of working hours; high levels of responsibility and control over their work. Dissatisfaction was expressed regarding: remuneration and recognition; compensation for weekend work; salary package; career advancement opportunities; and childcare facilities. High priorities for role development are those rated highly important but with much lower satisfaction. These are: compensation for weekend call-out work; salary and remuneration package; recognition by management and clinicians; career advancement opportunities; departmental research processes; encouragement and feedback; and number of working hours. Increasing numbers of nurses have been attracted to this clinically based research position. These data contribute to the understanding and development of the role.

  17. Abnormal environmental light exposure in the intensive care environment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Emily P; Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C; Maas, Matthew B

    2017-08-01

    We sought to characterize ambient light exposure in the intensive care unit (ICU) environment to identify patterns of light exposure relevant to circadian regulation. A light monitor was affixed to subjects' bed at eye level in a modern intensive care unit and continuously recorded illuminescence for at least 24h per subject. Blood was sampled hourly and measured for plasma melatonin. Subjects underwent hourly vital sign and bedside neurologic assessments. Care protocols and the ICU environment were not modified for the study. A total of 67,324 30-second epochs of light data were collected from 17 subjects. Light intensity peaked in the late morning, median 64.1 (interquartile range 19.7-138.7) lux. The 75th percentile of light intensity exceeded 100lx only between 9AM and noon, and never exceeded 150lx. There was no correlation between melatonin amplitude and daytime, nighttime or total light exposure (Spearman's correlation coefficients all <0.2 and p>0.5). Patients' environmental light exposure in the intensive care unit is consistently low and follows a diurnal pattern. No effect of nighttime light exposure was observed on melatonin secretion. Inadequate daytime light exposure in the ICU may contribute to abnormal circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hospitalisation of older people before and after long-term care entry in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Michal; Broad, Joanna B; Zhang, Tony Xian; Kerse, Ngaire; Gott, Merryn; Connolly, Martin J

    2016-07-01

    global population projections forecast large growth in demand for long-term care (LTC) and acute hospital services for older people. Few studies report changes in hospitalisation rates before and after entry into LTC. This study compares hospitalisation rates 1 year before and after LTC entry. the Older Persons' Ability Level (OPAL) study was a 2008 census-type survey of LTC facilities in Auckland, New Zealand. OPAL resident hospital admissions and deaths were obtained from routinely collected national databases. all 2,244 residents (66% = female) who entered LTC within 12 months prior to OPAL were included. There were 3,363 hospitalisations, 2,424 in 12 months before and 939 in 12 months after entry, and 364 deaths. In the 6 to 12 months before LTC entry, the hospitalisation rate/100 person-years was 67.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62.5-72.1). Weekly rates then rose steeply to over 450/100 person-years in the 6 months immediately before LTC entry. In the 6 months after LTC entry, the rate fell to 49.1 (CI 44.9-53.3; RR 0.73 (CI 0.65-0.82, P < 0.0001)) and decreased further 6 to 12 months after entry to 41.1 (CI 37.1-45.1; rate ratio [RR] 0.61 (CI 0.54-0.69, P < 0.0001)). increased hospitalisations a few months before LTC entry suggest functional and medical instability precipitates LTC entry. New residents utilise hospital beds less frequently than when at home before that unstable period. Further research is needed to determine effective interventions to avoid some hospitalisations and possibly also LTC entry. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Nutrition Considerations in the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Patient.

    PubMed

    Justice, Lindsey; Buckley, Jason R; Floh, Alejandro; Horsley, Megan; Alten, Jeffrey; Anand, Vijay; Schwartz, Steven M

    2018-05-01

    Adequate caloric intake plays a vital role in the course of illness and the recovery of critically ill patients. Nutritional status and nutrient delivery during critical illness have been linked to clinical outcomes such as mortality, incidence of infection, and length of stay. However, feeding practices with critically ill pediatric patients after cardiac surgery are variable. The Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society sought to provide an expert review on provision of nutrition to pediatric cardiac intensive care patients, including caloric requirements, practical considerations for providing nutrition, safety of enteral nutrition in controversial populations, feeding considerations with chylothorax, and the benefits of feeding beyond nutrition. This article addresses these areas of concern and controversy.

  20. Nurturing nursing students during intensive care unit clinical practicum.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Marlienne; Kautz, Donald D

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one-third of new graduates will quit their jobs in the first year. When nurses leave, vacant positions result in increased overtime for the remaining staff, which eventually results in burnout. Burnout leads to even more turnover. This article describes how the staff transformed a neurosurgical intensive care unit and nurture students through the application of Jean Watson's 10 Caritas processes. When nursing students complete their clinical practicum in the unit, learning is enhanced, the students seek to continue to work in the intensive care unit, recruitment and retention are encouraged, and burnout may be prevented.

  1. Fighting antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit using antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Nienke L; Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; van Duijn, Pleun J; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global and increasing problem that is not counterbalanced by the development of new therapeutic agents. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is especially high in intensive care units with frequently reported outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms. In addition to classical infection prevention protocols and surveillance programs, counterintuitive interventions, such as selective decontamination with antibiotics and antibiotic rotation have been applied and investigated to control the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review provides an overview of selective oropharyngeal and digestive tract decontamination, decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic rotation as strategies to modulate antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit.

  2. Designing a low cost bedside workstation for intensive care units.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, A.; Zörb, L.; Dudeck, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the design and implementation of a software architecture for a low cost bedside workstation for intensive care units. The development is fully integrated into the information infrastructure of the existing hospital information system (HIS) at the University Hospital of Giessen. It provides cost efficient and reliable access for data entry and review from the HIS database from within patient rooms, even in very space limited environments. The architecture further supports automatical data input from medical devices. First results from three different intensive care units are reported. PMID:8947771

  3. Regional variations in health care intensity and physician perceptions of quality of care.

    PubMed

    Sirovich, Brenda E; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Welch, H Gilbert; Fisher, Elliott S

    2006-05-02

    Research has documented dramatic differences in health care utilization and spending across U.S. regions with similar levels of patient illness. Although patient outcomes and quality of care have been found to be no better in regions of high health care intensity, it is unknown whether physicians in these regions feel more capable of providing good patient care than those in low-intensity regions. To determine whether physicians in high-intensity regions feel better able to care for patients than physicians in low-intensity regions. Physician telephone survey. 51 metropolitan and 9 nonmetropolitan areas of the United States and a supplemental national sample. 10,577 physicians who provided care to adults in 1998 or 1999 were surveyed for the Community Tracking Study (response rate, 61%). The End-of-Life Expenditure Index, a measure of spending that reflects differences in the overall quantity of medical services provided rather than differences in illness or price, was used to determine health care intensity in the physicians' community. Outcomes included physicians' perceived availability of clinical services, ability to provide high-quality care to patients, and career satisfaction. Although the highest-intensity regions have substantially more hospital beds and specialists per capita, physicians in these regions reported more difficulty obtaining needed services for their patients. The proportion of physicians who felt able to obtain elective hospital admissions ranged from 50% in high-intensity regions to 64% in the lowest-intensity region (P < 0.001 for the relationship between intensity and perceived ability to obtain hospital admissions); the proportion of physicians who felt able to obtain high-quality specialist referrals ranged from 64% in high-intensity regions to 79% in low-intensity regions (P < 0.001). Compared with low-intensity regions, fewer physicians in high-intensity regions felt able to maintain good ongoing patient relationships (range, 62% to

  4. Neonatal intensive care practices: perceptions of parents, professionals, and managers.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Björn; Ottosson, Cornelia

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the differences and similarities in opinions of neonatal intensive care issues between parents, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) healthcare professionals (nurses and physicians), and managers (neonatal unit managers and pediatric division managers). An exploratory survey (n = 624) was conducted in Sweden during 2012-2013 on the basis of a validated questionnaire composed of 92 neonatal care-related Likert items. A total of 141 parents, 443 professionals, and 40 managers completed the survey. The parents were recruited consecutively from 5 NICUs of the Västra Götaland region in Sweden and the professionals and managers from all 40 NICUs in Sweden. Data were analyzed with analysis of variances, and post hoc analyses were conducted through pairwise t tests with Bonferroni corrections. Professionals and managers differed significantly on 1 item. Parents, however, found 54 items significantly less important than professionals did, but found only 4 to be significantly more important than professionals did. In line with previous research, we found that a gap exists between views of neonatal intensive care practices, with parents on one side and professionals and managers on the other. The nature of this gap, however, differs substantially from previous research, where parents found many items to be more important than professionals did. To develop and improve neonatal intensive care, this gap must be acknowledged and addressed, both in research and in practice. NICU managers need to develop strategies and routines that allow professionals to understand and adjust to the specific priorities of individual parents and families.

  5. Scope of Nursing Care in Polish Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Wysokiński, Mariusz; Ksykiewicz-Dorota, Anna; Fidecki, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The TISS-28 scale, which may be used for nursing staff scheduling in ICU, does not reflect the complete scope of nursing resulting from varied cultural and organizational conditions of individual systems of health care. Aim. The objective of the study was an attempt to provide an answer to the question what scope of nursing care provided by Polish nurses in ICU does the TISS-28 scale reflect? Material and Methods. The methods of working time measurement were used in the study. For the needs of the study, 252 hours of continuous observation (day-long observation) and 3.697 time-schedule measurements were carried out. Results. The total nursing time was 4125.79 min. (68.76 hours), that is, 60.15% of the total working time of Polish nurses during the period analyzed. Based on the median test, the difference was observed on the level of χ 2 = 16945.8,P < 0.001 between the nurses' workload resulting from performance of activities qualified into the TISS-28 scale and load resulting from performance of interventions within the scopes of care not considered in this scale in Polish ICUs. Conclusions. The original version of the TISS-28 scale does not fully reflect the workload among Polish nurses employed in ICUs. PMID:24490162

  6. Measuring technical efficiency of output quality in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Junoy, J P

    1997-01-01

    Presents some examples of the implications derived from imposing the objective of maximizing social welfare, subject to limited resources, on ethical care patients management in respect of quality performance of health services. Conventional knowledge of health economics points out that critically ill patients are responsible for increased use of technological resources and that they receive a high proportion of health care resources. Attempts to answer, from the point of view of microeconomics, the question: how do we measure comparative efficiency in the management of intensive care units? Analyses this question through data from an international empirical study using micro-economic measures of productive efficiency in public services (data envelopment analysis). Results show a 28.8 per cent level of technical inefficiency processing data from 25 intensive care units in the USA.

  7. [Rationing, prioritisation, rationalizing: Significance in everyday intensive care].

    PubMed

    Gretenkort, P

    2015-11-01

    Rationing, even in the treatment of critically ill patients, is the reality on intensive care units. Severity of illnesses and urgency of care are posing high ethical barriers for explicit cost-saving orders. Nevertheless, implicit rationing decisions are a daily ethical minefield, which is not always appreciated by healthcare providers. In this article, typical decision-making situations are described, where limitation of resources plays a role. The idea of saving resources by rationalising rather than rationing results from the fact that not every patient benefits from the full scope of services available in the intensive care unit, and not every patient desires the full scope of care to be supplied to them. Thus, the irrational use of resources can sometimes be avoided to save them for cases where they are necessary.

  8. A nurse-led intensive care after-care programme - development, experiences and preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Karin A M; Corrigan, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of critical care follow-up services include increased understanding of the long-term consequences of intensive care and entail helping patients and their next of kin to come to terms with their problems and distress following critical illness and intensive care treatment. To establish an intensive care after-care programme and to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the follow-up service from the patients' and relatives' perspectives in a general intensive care unit (ICU) in Sweden. A descriptive and evaluative design was used, and data from the first year of the after-care programme were collected. The final programme was nurse led and included five main points; a patient diary with colour photographs, ward visits, a patient information pamphlet, a follow-up consultation 2-3 months after intensive care discharge and feedback to the ICU staff. An evaluation questionnaire was handed out to patients and next of kin attending the follow-up clinic, e.g. asking the respondents to rate their satisfaction of the consultation on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The first year of after-care statistics showed that 170 survivors with a stay of 48 h or more were discharged from the ICU, resulting in 190 ward visits and 79 follow-up consultations. The preliminary evaluation revealed that the 2-month follow-up consultation achieved a median VAS rating of 9.8 (ranging from 1 to 10, poor to excellent) from both patients and next of kin. The development and preliminary evaluation of this nurse-led intensive care programme resulted in a feasible programme, requiring modest resources, with a high level of patient and relative satisfaction. This paper attempts to share with professional colleagues important steps during the developmental process of establishing an intensive care follow-up service and presents the content and preliminary evaluation of a nurse-led intensive care after-care programme focusing on the patients' and relatives' perspectives.

  9. The experience of intensive care nurses caring for patients with delirium: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allana; Bourbonnais, Frances Fothergill; Harrison, Denise; Tousignant, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to seek to understand the lived experience of intensive care nurses caring for patients with delirium. The objectives of this inquiry were: 1) To examine intensive care nurses' experiences of caring for adult patients with delirium; 2) To identify factors that facilitate or hinder intensive care nurses caring for these patients. This study utilised an interpretive phenomenological approach as described by van Manen. Individual conversational interviews were conducted with eight intensive care nurses working in a tertiary level, university-affiliated hospital in Canada. The essence of the experience of nurses caring for patients with delirium in intensive care was revealed to be finding a way to help them come through it. Six main themes emerged: It's Exhausting; Making a Picture of the Patient's Mental Status; Keeping Patients Safe: It's aReally Big Job; Everyone Is Unique; Riding It Out With Families and Taking Every Experience With You. The findings contribute to an understanding of how intensive care nurses help patients and their families through this complex and distressing experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Ethic rounds in intensive care. Possible instrument for a clinical-ethical assessment in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Scheffold, N; Paoli, A; Gross, J; Riemann, U; Hennersdorf, M

    2012-10-01

    Ethical problems, such as medical end-of-life decisions or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment are viewed as an essential task in intensive care units. This article presents the ethics rounds as an instrument for evaluation of ethical problems in intensive care medicine units. The benchmarks of ethical reflection during the ethics rounds are considerations of ethical theory of principle-oriented medical ethics. Besides organizational aspects and the institutional framework, the role of the ethicist is described. The essential evaluation steps, as a basis of the ethics rounds are presented. In contrast to the clinical ethics consultation, the ethicist in the ethics rounds model is integrated as a member of the ward round team. Therefore ethical problems may be identified and analyzed very early before the conflict escalates. This preventive strategy makes the ethics rounds a helpful instrument in intensive care units.

  11. Continuing care for the preterm infant after dismissal from the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J A; Berseth, C L

    1987-07-01

    As more low-birth-weight babies survive, primary-care physicians are facing the responsibility of providing continuing care for those who have been dismissed from neonatal intensive-care units. Premature infants often require outpatient care for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, apnea, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage, hearing loss, hypothyroxinemia, anemia, neurodevelopmental sequelae, assessment of growth and nutrition, immunizations, and psychosocial stress. In this review, we present guidelines for the primary-care physician for the management of these conditions in preterm infants.

  12. Cardiovascular risk management of different ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes in primary care in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Elley, C Raina; Kenealy, Tim; Robinson, Elizabeth; Bramley, Dale; Selak, Vanessa; Drury, Paul L; Kerse, Ngaire; Pearson, Janet; Lay-Yee, Roy; Arroll, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    To examine cardiovascular preventive and renal protective treatment for different ethnic groups with diabetes in primary care. The study population included patients with type 2 diabetes attending an annual review in New Zealand primary care during 2004. Primary care data were linked to hospital admission data to identify previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). For those without previous CVD, 5-year cardiovascular risk was calculated. Proportions on, and predictors of appropriate treatment according to guidelines were investigated. Data were available on 29,179 patients. Maori and Pacific participants had high rates of obesity, poor glycaemic control and albuminuria. Two thirds of all participants with previous CVD (68% of Maori and 70% of Pacific) and 44% with high CVD risk received appropriate CVD treatment; 73% of Maori, 62% of Pacific and 65% of European patients with albuminuria received ACE-inhibitors. Those with high CVD risk were more likely, and those that were young were less likely, to receive anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment after controlling for other factors. Maori and Pacific people were receiving similar high rates of appropriate CVD and renal preventive drug therapy to Europeans, but their prevalence of smoking, obesity, raised HbA1c and albuminuria were substantially higher. Non-drug components of preventive care also need to be addressed to reduce major ethnic disparities in diabetes-related morbidity and mortality in New Zealand.

  13. Does age influence the intensity of care in a managed care organization?

    PubMed

    Long, Michael J; Lescoe-Long, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether an inverse relationship between age and the intensity of care prevailed in an elderly, functionally impaired population enrolled in a managed care organization. The secondary objective was to determine whether those who died during the study were treated more intensively than the survivors. A total of 278 enrollees in a managed care organization who were 75 years and over, had a severe functional disability, excessive hospital or Emergency Department use, volunteered to take part in a 2-year study. Seventy-seven clients died during the study. We calculated indices of outpatient care intensity and hospital care intensity for the study period. With minor exceptions, the results clearly show that, for this group of clients, the intensity of outpatient care was clearly, inversely related to age. The intensity of hospital care was also inversely related to age, thereby ruling out the hypothesis that it was being substituted for outpatient care. The results also clearly show that, for this population, those who died during the study period were treated more intensively than the survivors. We found strong support for our hypotheses. An investigation of the reasons for these findings was beyond the scope of our data.

  14. Useful References in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care: The 2017 Update.

    PubMed

    Uzark, Karen C; Costello, John M; DeSena, Holly C; Thiagajaran, Ravi; Smith-Parrish, Melissa; Gist, Katja M

    2018-03-10

    Pediatric cardiac intensive care continues to evolve, with rapid advances in knowledge and improvement in clinical outcomes. In the past, the Board of Directors of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society created and subsequently updated a list of sentinel references focused on the care of critically ill children with congenital and acquired heart disease. The objective of this article is to provide clinicians with a compilation and brief summary of updated and useful references that have been published since 2012. Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society members were solicited via a survey sent out between March 20, 2017, and April 28, 2017, to provide important references that have impacted clinical care. The survey was sent to approximately 523 members. Responses were received from 45 members, of which some included multiple references. Following review of the list of references, and removing editorials, references were compiled by the first and last author. The final list was submitted to members of the society's Research Briefs Committee, who ranked each publication. Rankings were compiled and the references with the highest scores included. Research Briefs Committee members ranked the articles from 1 to 3, with one being highly relevant and should be included and 3 being less important and should be excluded. Averages were computed, and the top articles included in this article. The first (K.C.U.) and last author (K.M.G.) reviewed and developed summaries of each article. This article contains a compilation of useful references for the critical care of children with congenital and acquired heart disease published in the last 5 years. In conjunction with the prior version of this update in 2012, this article may be used as an educational reference in pediatric cardiac intensive care.

  15. Evaluation of extracurricular internships in the adult's intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Diego Teixeira; Dias, Maria Almeida; Mota, Rodrigo de Sousa; Barberino, Luciana; Durães, Larissa; Santos, Paulo André Jesuino Dos

    2008-12-01

    Students of Salvador - BA, Brazil were trained in critical care medicine by accomplishing extracurricular internships. This study aims to detect changes in attitude and interest of students who concluded these internships as well as the most frequent activities developed. Descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted with students who did extracurricular internships in adult intensive care units during the second semester of 2006. A self-administered questionnaire was given using objective questions. We evaluated 49 students. Interest in becoming an intensivist was classified as high/very high by 32.7% before internship, after which 61.2% reported increased interest. Before internship, students on a 1 to 5 scale rated the importance of critical care medicine as 4.55 ± 0.70. After internship, 98% felt more confident to refer a patient to the intensive care unit, 95.9% to evaluate with supervision, patients admitted to intensive care units and 89.8% to attend patients in the emergency room. The most common procedures observed were: central venous access (100%), peripheral venous access (91.8%) and orotracheal intubation (91.8%). Topics ranked in terms of interest from 1 to 5 were: systemic inflammatory response syndrome/sepsis (4.82 ± 0.48), shock (4.81 ± 0.44) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (4.77 ± 0.55). This study showed that internships in adult intensive care units of Salvador (BA), Brazil provided students with greater assurance to evaluate critical patients, increased their interest to follow an intensivist physician career and allowed contact with the main procedures and topics related to critical care medicine.

  16. Efficacy beliefs predict collaborative practice among intensive care unit nurses.

    PubMed

    Le Blanc, Pascale M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Nap, Raoul E

    2010-03-01

    This paper is a report of an investigation of whether intensive care nurses' efficacy beliefs predict future collaborative practice, and to test the potential mediating role of team commitment in this relationship. Recent empirical studies in the field of work and organizational psychology have demonstrated that (professional) efficacy beliefs are reciprocally related to workers' resources and well-being over time, resulting in a positive gain spiral. Moreover, there is ample evidence that workers' affective commitment to their organization or work-team is related to desirable work behaviours such as citizenship behaviour. A longitudinal design was applied to questionnaire data from the EURICUS-project. Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyse the data. The sample consisted of 372 nurses working in 29 different European intensive care units. Data were collected in 1997 and 1998. However, our research model deals with fundamental psychosocial processes that are not time-dependent. Moreover, recent empirical literature shows that there is still room for improvement in ICU collaborative practice. The hypotheses that (i) the relationship between efficacy beliefs and collaborative practice is mediated by team commitment and (ii) efficacy beliefs, team commitment and collaborative practice are reciprocally related were supported, suggesting a potential positive gain spiral of efficacy beliefs. Healthcare organizations should create working environments that provide intensive care unit nurses with sufficient resources to perform their job well. Further research is needed to design and evaluate interventions for the enhancement of collaborative practice in intensive care units.

  17. [The prevention of pressure sores in paediatric intensive care].

    PubMed

    Thueux, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    In paediatric intensive care, children develop pressure sores as a result of various mechanical and clinical factors. The prevention and assessment of the risk of pressure sores constitute a key concern for the nursing teams which establish prevention strategies adapted to the young patients.

  18. Safety of milrinone use in neonatal intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Raman, Sudha R.; van den Anker, John N.; McHutchison, Kerstin; Hornik, Christoph P.; Clark, Reese H.; Smith, P. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Milrinone use in the neonatal intensive care unit has increased over the last 10 years despite a paucity of published safety data in infants. We sought to determine the safety of milrinone therapy among infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Methods We conducted a retrospective data analysis, identifying all infants exposed to milrinone discharged from 322 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 1997–2010. We identified adverse events (AEs) during milrinone exposure. The unit of observation for clinical AEs was the first course of milrinone and for laboratory AEs was an infant-day of exposure to milrinone. Results Overall, 1446 of 716,821 (0.2%) infants received milrinone for a total of 6894 infant-days. The proportion of infants exposed to milrinone increased from 0 in 1997 to 4/1000 infant cases in 2010. Persistent pulmonary hypertension (40%) was the most commonly reported diagnosis at the start of milrinone administration. Overall, 606/1446 (42%) of infants had at least 1 clinical AE recorded during milrinone therapy. Hypotension requiring pressors and thrombocytopenia (<100,000/mm3) were the most commonly reported clinical and laboratory AEs, respectively. Death was reported in 8% of infants during the first course of milrinone therapy. Conclusion Among infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit, there was an increase in the use of milrinone over the past 13 years. The safety, dosing, and efficacy of milrinone in infants should be determined in prospective clinical trials. PMID:25460254

  19. [Ulcerating Herpes simplex infections in intensive care patients].

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Wohlrab, J; Radke, J; Marsch, W C; Soukup, J

    2002-11-01

    Herpes simplex infections are potentially a life-threatening situation for immunocompromised as well as critically ill patients. The correct diagnosis is made more difficult in comatose patients by the fact that the characteristic symptom of extreme pain cannot be registered. The clinical dermatological findings (polycyclic configuration, easily bleeding ulcers) are thus especially important in patients under intensive care conditions. As examples, the cases of 3 critically ill patients (subarachnoid bleeding or head injury) developing therapy-resistant, flat sacral or perioral skin ulcers with peripheral blisters are presented. Herpes simplex virus was confirmed immunohistologically and in the smear test. All patients subsequently died. These cases emphasize that patients in the intensive care unit are in danger of developing a chronic persistent Herpes simplex infection due to latent immunosuppression. Chronic persistent Herpes infections may be underrated in intensive therapy, and must always be ruled out in case of therapy-resistant erosions or ulcerations.

  20. Effect of Primary Care Intervention on Breastfeeding Duration and Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Stuebe, Alison; Barnett, Josephine; Labbok, Miriam H.; Fletcher, Jason; Bernstein, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the effectiveness of primary care–based, and pre- and postnatal interventions to increase breastfeeding. Methods. We conducted 2 trials at obstetrics and gynecology practices in the Bronx, New York, from 2008 to 2011. The Provider Approaches to Improved Rates of Infant Nutrition & Growth Study (PAIRINGS) had 2 arms: usual care versus pre- and postnatal visits with a lactation consultant (LC) and electronically prompted guidance from prenatal care providers (EP). The Best Infant Nutrition for Good Outcomes (BINGO) study had 4 arms: usual care, LC alone, EP alone, or LC+EP. Results. In BINGO at 3 months, high intensity was greater for the LC+EP (odds ratio [OR] = 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 6.84) and LC (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.14, 9.09) groups versus usual care, but not for the EP group alone. In PAIRINGS at 3 months, intervention rates exceeded usual care (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.21, 6.76); the number needed to treat to prevent 1 dyad from nonexclusive breastfeeding at 3 months was 10.3 (95% CI = 5.6, 50.7). Conclusions. LCs integrated into routine care alone and combined with EP guidance from prenatal care providers increased breastfeeding intensity at 3 months postpartum. PMID:24354834

  1. [Nurses' perception, experience and knowledge of palliative care in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Piedrafita-Susín, A B; Yoldi-Arzoz, E; Sánchez-Fernández, M; Zuazua-Ros, E; Vázquez-Calatayud, M

    2015-01-01

    Adequate provision of palliative care by nursing in intensive care units is essential to facilitate a "good death" to critically ill patients. To determine the perceptions, experiences and knowledge of intensive care nurses in caring for terminal patients. A literature review was conducted on the bases of Pubmed, Cinahl and PsicINFO data using as search terms: cuidados paliativos, UCI, percepciones, experiencias, conocimientos y enfermería and their alternatives in English (palliative care, ICU, perceptions, experiences, knowledge and nursing), and combined with AND and OR Boolean. Also, 3 journals in intensive care were reviewed. Twenty seven articles for review were selected, most of them qualitative studies (n=16). After analysis of the literature it has been identified that even though nurses perceive the need to respect the dignity of the patient, to provide care aimed to comfort and to encourage the inclusion of the family in patient care, there is a lack of knowledge of the end of life care in intensive care units' nurses. This review reveals that to achieve quality care at the end of life, is necessary to encourage the training of nurses in palliative care and foster their emotional support, to conduct an effective multidisciplinary work and the inclusion of nurses in decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of oral care to prevent VAP in mechanically ventilated Intensive Care Unit patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Gupta, A; Singh, T K; Saxsena, A

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in Intensive Care Unit. One major factor causing VAP is the aspiration of oral colonization because of poor oral care practices. We feel the role of simple measure like oral care is neglected, despite the ample evidence of it being instrumental in preventing VAP.

  3. Communication and Decision-Making About End-of-Life Care in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Laura Anne; Manias, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Patricia

    2017-07-01

    Clinicians in the intensive care unit commonly face decisions involving withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining therapy, which present many clinical and ethical challenges. Communication and shared decision-making are key aspects relating to the transition from active treatment to end-of-life care. To explore the experiences and perspectives of nurses and physicians when initiating end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. The study was conducted in a 24-bed intensive care unit in Melbourne, Australia. An interpretative, qualitative inquiry was used, with focus groups as the data collection method. Intensive care nurses and physicians were recruited to participate in a discipline-specific focus group. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and subjected to thematic data analysis. Five focus groups were conducted; 17 nurses and 11 physicians participated. The key aspects discussed included communication and shared decision-making. Themes related to communication included the timing of end-of-life care discussions and conducting difficult conversations. Implementation and multidisciplinary acceptance of end-of-life care plans and collaborative decisions involving patients and families were themes related to shared decision-making. Effective communication and decision-making practices regarding initiating end-of-life care in the intensive care unit are important. Multidisciplinary implementation and acceptance of end-of-life care plans in the intensive care unit need improvement. Clear organizational processes that support the introduction of nurse and physician end-of-life care leaders are essential to optimize outcomes for patients, family members, and clinicians. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  4. Review of noise in neonatal intensive care units regional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Abril, A.; Terrón, A.; Boschi, C.; Gómez, M.

    2007-11-01

    This work is about the problem of noise in neonatal incubators and in the environment in the neonatal intensive care units. Its main objective is to analyse the impact of noise in hospitals of Mendoza and La Rioja. Methodology: The measures were taken in different moments in front of higher or lower severity level in the working environment. It is shown that noise produces severe damages and changes in the behaviour and the psychological status of the new born babies. Results: The noise recorded inside the incubators and the neonatal intensive care units together have many components but the noise of motors, opening and closing of access gates have been considered the most important ones. Values above 60 db and and up to 120 db in some cases were recorded, so the need to train the health staff in order to manage the new born babies, the equipment and the instruments associated with them very carefully is revealed.

  5. [Economy in intensive care medicine--a contradiction?].

    PubMed

    Janssens, U

    2015-05-01

    Medical progress and demographic changes will lead to increasing budgetary constraints in the health care system in the coming years. With respect to economic, medical, and ethical aspects, intensive care medicine has a particular role within the health system. Nonetheless, financial restriction will be inevitable in the near future. A literature review was performed. In an era of economic decline accompanied by widespread recognition that healthcare costs are on a consistent upward spiral, rationalization and rationing are unavoidable. Priorization models will play a pivotal role in allocation of resources. Individual ethics (respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence) as well as justice are essential in daily practice. Economic thinking and acting as well as being ethically responsible are not mutually exclusive. On the contrary, acting in an ethically responsible manner will be of considerable significance given the pressure of increasing costs in intensive care medicine.

  6. Bacterial contamination of stethoscopes on the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Whittington, A M; Whitlow, G; Hewson, D; Thomas, C; Brett, S J

    2009-06-01

    We assessed how often bedside stethoscopes in our intensive care unit were cleaned and whether they became colonised with potentially pathogenic bacteria. On two separate days the 12 nurses attending the bedspaces were questioned about frequency of stethoscope cleaning on the unit and the bedside stethoscopes were swabbed before and after cleaning to identify colonising organisms. Twenty-two health care providers entering the unit were asked the same questions and had their personal stethoscopes swabbed. All 32 non-medical staff cleaned their stethoscopes at least every day; however only three out of the 12 medical staff cleaned this often. Out of 24 intensive care unit bedside stethoscopes tested, two diaphragms and five earpieces were colonised with pathogenic bacteria. MRSA cultured from one earpiece persisted after cleaning. Three out of the 22 personal stethoscope diaphragms and five earpieces were colonised with pathogens. After cleaning, two diaphragms and two earpieces were still colonised, demonstrating the importance of regular cleaning.

  7. Sepsis in the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Derek S.; Jeffries, Howard E.; Zimmerman, Jerry J.; Wong, Hector R.; Carcillo, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The survival rate for children with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased significantly coincident with improved techniques in cardiothoracic surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass, and myocardial protection, and post-operative care. Cardiopulmonary bypass, likely in combination with ischemia-reperfusion injury, hypothermia, and surgical trauma, elicits a complex, systemic inflammatory response that is characterized by activation of the complement cascade, release of endotoxin, activation of leukocytes and the vascular endothelium, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This complex inflammatory state causes a transient immunosuppressed state, which may increase the risk of hospital-acquired infection in these children. Postoperative sepsis occurs in nearly 3% of children undergoing cardiac surgery and significantly increases length of stay in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit as well as the risk for mortality. Herein, we review the epidemiology, pathobiology, and management of sepsis in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. PMID:22337571

  8. Impact of Noise on Nurses in Pediatric Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Watson, J'ai; Kinstler, Angela; Vidonish, William P; Wagner, Michael; Lin, Li; Davis, Kermit G; Kotowski, Susan E; Daraiseh, Nancy M

    2015-09-01

    Excessive exposure to noise places nurses at risk for safety events, near-misses, decreased job performance, and fatigue. Noise is particularly a concern in pediatric intensive care units, where highly skilled providers and vulnerable patients require a quiet environment to promote healing. To measure noise levels and noise duration on specialty pediatric intensive care units to explore sources of noise and its effects on the health of registered nurses. In a cross-sectional pilot study, levels and sources of noise in 3 different specialty pediatric intensive care units were assessed. Fifteen nurses were observed for 4-hour sessions during a 24-hour period. Sound pressure levels (noise) and heart rate were measured continuously, and stress ratings were recorded. Descriptive statistics were calculated for noise (level, source, location, and activity), heart rate, and stress. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the relationship between heart rate and noise. Mean noise level was 71.9 (SD, 9.2) dBA. Mean heart rate was 85.2/min (SD, 15.8/min) and was significantly associated with noise, unit, within-unit location, nurse sources, and noise activities. The most frequent sources of noise were patients' rooms, care activities, and staff communications. Noise levels in pediatric intensive care units exceed recommended thresholds and require immediate attention through effective interventions. Although noise was not associated with stress, a significant correlation with increased heart rate indicates that noise may be associated with adverse health outcomes. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  9. Patient's dignity in intensive care unit: A critical ethnography.

    PubMed

    Bidabadi, Farimah Shirani; Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining patient's dignity in intensive care units is difficult because of the unique conditions of both critically-ill patients and intensive care units. The aim of this study was to uncover the cultural factors that impeded maintaining patients' dignity in the cardiac surgery intensive care unit. The study was conducted using a critical ethnographic method proposed by Carspecken. Participants and research context: Participants included all physicians, nurses and staffs working in the study setting (two cardiac surgery intensive care units). Data collection methods included participant observations, formal and informal interviews, and documents assessment. In total, 200 hours of observation and 30 interviews were performed. Data were analyzed to uncover tacit cultural knowledge and to help healthcare providers to reconstruct the culture of their workplace. Ethical Consideration: Ethical approval for the study from Ethics committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was obtained. The findings of the study fell into the following main themes: "Presence: the guarantee for giving enough attention to patients' self-esteem", "Instrumental and objectified attitudes", "Adherence to the human equality principle: value-action gap", "Paternalistic conduct", "Improper language", and "Non-interactive communication". The final assertion was "Reductionism as a major barrier to the maintaining of patient's dignity". The prevailing atmosphere in subculture of the CSICU was reductionism and paternalism. This key finding is part of the biomedical discourse. As a matter of fact, it is in contrast with dignified care because the latter necessitate holistic attitudes and approaches. Changing an ICU culture is not easy; but through increasing awareness and critical self-reflections, the nurses, physicians and other healthcare providers, may be able to reaffirm dignified care and cure in their therapeutic relationships.

  10. Family-centred care in the paediatric intensive care unit: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ashleigh; Copnell, Beverley; Willetts, Georgina

    2014-08-01

    To review extant research on family-centred care in a paediatric intensive care environment and identify gaps in the literature. Family-centred care is currently a core concept in paediatric nursing, focusing on the premise that families are central to a child's well-being, and as such, should be included as equal members of the child's healthcare team. Due to the nature of critical care, family-centred care may be challenging to implement and maintain. An integrative literature review. The review was conducted using the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, OVID MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases, from 1990 to present. The search focused on the following terms: 'p(a)ediatric critical care', 'paediatric intensive care unit', 'family cent(e)red care', 'parental needs', 'family presence' and 'family/nurse roles'. Additionally, the search was limited to studies conducted in a developed country and published in English. Eighteen studies were included in the review. The results demonstrated that implementing family-centred care into a paediatric intensive care environment posed several challenges. The discrepancy between nurses' and parents' perception of their roles, the reluctance of medical staff to share potentially negative or rapidly changing information, restrictive family presence and poor understanding of family needs emerged as the key difficulties. No studies evaluated strategies to improve family-centred care practice. Family-centred care presents many challenges in a paediatric intensive care environment; however, nurses are uniquely positioned to foster relationships with families, encourage accurate and honest information sharing and advocate for families to be present when they choose. This review outlines the extant research to enhance awareness of the unique state of family-centred care in paediatric intensive care and makes recommendations for future research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Point-of-care-testing--the intensive care laboratory].

    PubMed

    Müller, M M; Hackl, W; Griesmacher, A

    1999-01-01

    After successful centralization of laboratory analyses since more than 30 years, advances in biosensors, microprocessors, measurement of undiluted whole blood and miniaturization of laboratory analyzers are leading nowadays more and more to a re-decentralization in the laboratory medicine. Point-of-care-testing (POCT), which is defined as any laboratory test performed outside central or decentralized laboratories, is becoming more and more popular. The theoretical advantages of POCT are faster turn-around-times (TAT), more rapid medical decisions, avoidance of sample identification and sample transport problems and the need of only small specimen volumes. These advantages are frequently mentioned, but are not associated with a clear clinical benefit. The disadvantages of POCT such as incorrect handling and/or maintenance of the analyzers by nontrained clinical staff, inadequate or even absent calibrations and/or quality controls, lack of cost-effectiveness because of an increased number of analyzers and more expensive reagents, insufficient documentation and difficult comparability of the obtained POCT-results with routine laboratory results, are strongly evident. According to the authors' opinion the decision for the establishing of POCT has only to be made in a close co-operation between physicians and laboratorians in order to vouch for necessity and high quality of the analyses. Taking the local situation into consideration (24-h-central laboratory, etc.) the spectrum of parameters measured by means of POCT should be rigorously restricted to the vital functions. Such analytes should be: hemoglobin or hematocrit, activated whole blood clotting time, blood gases, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, creatinine, ammonia and lactate.

  12. Current status of neonatal intensive care in India.

    PubMed

    Karthik Nagesh, N; Razak, Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Globally, newborn health is now considered as high-level national priority. The current neonatal and infant mortality rate in India is 29 per 1000 live births and 42 per 1000 live births, respectively. The last decade has seen a tremendous growth of neonatal intensive care in India. The proliferation of neonatal intensive care units, as also the infusion of newer technologies with availability of well-trained medical and nursing manpower, has led to good survival and intact outcomes. There is good care available for neonates whose parents can afford the high-end healthcare, but unfortunately, there is a deep divide and the poor rural population is still underserved with lack of even basic newborn care in few areas! There is increasing disparity where the 'well to do' and the 'increasingly affordable middle class' is able to get the most advanced care for their sick neonates. The underserved urban poor and those in rural areas still contribute to the overall high neonatal morbidity and mortality in India. The recent government initiative, the India Newborn Action Plan, is the step in the right direction to bridge this gap. A strong public-private partnership and prioritisation is needed to achieve this goal. This review highlights the current situation of neonatal intensive care in India with a suggested plan for the way forward to achieve better neonatal care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. [Palliative care in the intensive cardiac care unit: a new competence for the cardiac intensivist].

    PubMed

    Romanò, Massimo; Bertona, Roberta; Zorzoli, Federica; Villani, Rosvaldo

    2017-10-01

    Admissions to the intensive care unit at the end of life of patients with chronic non-malignant diseases are increasing. This involves the need for the development of palliative care culture and competence, also in the field of intensive cardiology. Palliative care should be implemented in the treatment of all patients with critical stages of disease, irrespective of prognosis, in order to improve the quality of care at the end of life.This review analyzes in detail the main clinical, ethical and communicational issues to move toward the introduction of basics of palliative care in cardiac intensive care units. It outlines the importance of shared decision-making with the patient and his family, with special attention to withholding/withdrawing of life-sustaining treatments, palliative sedation, main symptom control, patient and family psychological support.

  14. Preparing your intensive care unit to respond in crisis: considerations for critical care clinicians.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Elizabeth L; Rubinson, Lewis

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, healthcare disaster planning has grown from its early place as an occasional consideration within the manuals of emergency medical services and emergency department managers to a rapidly growing field, which considers continuity of function, surge capability, and process changes across the spectrum of healthcare delivery. A detailed examination of critical care disaster planning was undertaken in 2007 by the Task Force for Mass Critical Care of the American College of Chest Physicians Critical Care Collaborative Initiative. We summarize the Task Force recommendations and available updated information to answer a fundamental question for critical care disaster planners: What is a prepared intensive care unit and how do I ensure my unit's readiness? Database searches and review of relevant published literature. Preparedness is essential for successful response, but because intensive care units face many competing priorities, without defining "preparedness for what," the task can seem overwhelming. Intensive care unit disaster planners should, therefore, along with the entire hospital, participate in a hospital or regionwide planning process to 1) identify critical care response vulnerabilities; and 2) clarify the hazards for which their community is most at risk. The process should inform a comprehensive written preparedness plan targeting the most worrisome scenarios and including specific guidance on 1) optimal use of space, equipment, and staffing for delivery of critical care to significantly increased patient volumes; 2) allocation of resources for provision of essential critical care services under conditions of absolute scarcity; 3) intensive care unit evacuation; and 4) redundant internal communication systems and means for timely data collection. Critical care disaster planners have a complex, challenging task. Experienced planners will agree that no disaster response is perfect, but careful planning will enable the prepared intensive care

  15. ACCCN national nursing workforce survey of intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Williams, S; Ogle, K R; Leslie, G

    2001-05-01

    A descriptive study was designed and implemented by the Australian College of Critical Care Nurses (ACCCN) Workforce Planning Advisory Committee to capture data pertaining to workforce issues of intensive care nurses. All intensive care units (ICUs) within Australia were mailed a self reporting survey. Despite a low response rate (52 per cent) and difficulty reported by respondents in gaining the appropriate data requested, the results revealed an interesting snapshot of the intensive care nursing workforce. Types of services offered by units varied considerably; paid overtime hours were low (< 2 per cent of total hours worked) and use of both part-time and agency staff was also low (10 per cent of total hours worked). Private hospitals utilised a greater proportion of part-time and agency nursing staff than public hospitals (20:10 per cent). The turnover rate for registered nursing staff was estimated at 18 per cent, with education, skill acquisition and improved communication reported as the major incentives used by managers to attract and retain staff. This study demonstrated that valuable data are currently uncaptured and recommends a more refined process of a national database to record and manage this important information for future workforce planning.

  16. Multiple nosocomial infections: a risk of modern intensive care.

    PubMed

    Leviten, D L; Shulman, S T

    1980-03-01

    Many components of modern medical care greatly predispose subjects to nosocomial infection. These include cancer chemotherapy, organ transplantation, immunosuppression, and intensive supportive care, particularly in conjunction with mechanical ventilatory support, invasive monitoring devices and prolonged central or peripheral intravenous therapy. The hazard of nosocomial infection associated with residence in a modern intensive care unit is dramatized by the case history of a near-drowning victim whose hospital course was complicated by an unusually large number and variety of nosocomial bacterial infections. Sixteen different bacterial organisms were isolated from cultures of blood, purulent thoracostomy tube drainage, or purulent tracheal secretions during the patient's prolonged hospital course. Factors which predisposed this patient to nosocomial infections included prolonged positive pressure mechanical ventilation, long-term broad spectrum antibiotics, indwelling arterial and central venous lines, violation of anatomic barriers by foreign bodies such as multiple thoracostomy tubes, and residence in an intensive care unit. This patient's case demonstrates that effective means to prevent nosocomial colonization and infection are urgently needed.

  17. Nurse-Patient Communication Interactions in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth; Garrett, Kathryn; Thomas, Dana DiVirgilio; Tate, Judith; George, Elisabeth; Houze, Martin; Radtke, Jill; Sereika, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background The inability to speak during critical illness is a source of distress for patients, yet nurse-patient communication in the intensive care unit has not been systematically studied or measured. Objectives To describe communication interactions, methods, and assistive techniques between nurses and nonspeaking critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Methods Descriptive observational study of the nonintervention/usual care cohort from a larger clinical trial of nurse-patient communication in a medical and a cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit. Videorecorded interactions between 10 randomly selected nurses (5 per unit) and a convenience sample of 30 critically ill adults (15 per unit) who were awake, responsive, and unable to speak because of respiratory tract intubation were rated for frequency, success, quality, communication methods, and assistive communication techniques. Patients self-rated ease of communication. Results Nurses initiated most (86.2%) of the communication exchanges. Mean rate of completed communication exchange was 2.62 exchanges per minute. The most common positive nurse act was making eye contact with the patient. Although communication exchanges were generally (>70%) successful, more than one-third (37.7%) of communications about pain were unsuccessful. Patients rated 40% of the communication sessions with nurses as somewhat difficult to extremely difficult. Assistive communication strategies were uncommon, with little to no use of assistive communication materials (eg, writing supplies, alphabet or word boards). Conclusions Study results highlight specific areas for improvement in communication between nurses and nonspeaking patients in the intensive care unit, particularly in communication about pain and in the use of assistive communication strategies and communication materials. PMID:21362711

  18. Barriers to early initiation of antenatal care in a multi-ethnic sample in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Sarah; Chelimo, Carol; Okesene-Gafa, Kara

    2014-10-17

    To identify barriers to early initiation of antenatal care amongst pregnant women in South Auckland, New Zealand. Women in late pregnancy (>37 weeks gestation) or who had recently delivered (<6 weeks postnatal) completed a questionnaire about their antenatal care. Logistic regression analysis evaluated whether late booking for antenatal care was associated with demographic factors and potential barriers to accessing care. Of the 826 women who participated, 137 (17%) booked for antenatal care at >18 weeks (late bookers). The ethnic composition of the sample was: 43% Pacific Peoples, 20% Maori, 14% Asian, and 21% European or other ethnicities. The multivariate analysis indicated that women were significantly more likely to book late for antenatal care if they had limited resources (OR=1.86; 95% CI=1.17-2.93), no tertiary education (OR=1.96; 95% CI=1.23-3.15), or were not living with a husband/partner (OR=2.34; 95% CI=1.48-3.71). In addition, the odds of late booking for antenatal care was almost six times higher among Maori (OR=5.70; 95% CI=2.57-12.64) and Pacific (OR=5.90; 95% CI=2.83-12.29) women compared to those of European and other ethnicities. Late booking for antenatal care in the Counties Manukau District Health Board area (South Auckland) is associated with sociodemographic factors, social deprivation, and inadequate social support.

  19. [Intensive and palliative care medicine. From academic distance to caring affection].

    PubMed

    Burchardi, H

    2014-02-01

    Intensive care medicine has made great contributions to the immense success of modern curative medicine. However, emotional care and empathy for the patient and his family seem to be sparse. There is an assumed constraint to objectivity and efficiency, as well as a massive economic pressure which transfers the physician into an agent of the disease instead of a trustee of the ill human being. The physician struggles against the disease and feels the death of his patient as his personal defeat. However, in futile situations the intensivist must learn to let go. He is responsible for futile overtreatment as well as for successful treatment. Today, in futile situations in the intensive care unit (ICU), it is possible to change the goal from curative treatment to palliative care. This is a consequent further development from critical care medicine. In end-of-life situations in the intensive care unit, emotional care and empathy are mandatory using intensive dialogues with the family. Despite great workload stress enough time for such conversation should be taken, because the physician will generously be repaid by the way he sees his medical activity. The maintenance of a culture of empathy within the intensive care team is a major task for the leader. In this manner, the ICU will become and remain a place for living humanity.

  20. Organizational climate and intensive care unit nurses' intention to leave.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patricia W; Larson, Elaine L; Mooney-Kane, Cathy; Smolowitz, Janice; Lin, Susan X; Dick, Andrew W

    2006-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to a) estimate the incidence of intensive care units nurses' intention to leave due to working conditions; and b) identify factors predicting this phenomenon. Cross-sectional design. Hospitals and critical care units. Registered nurses (RNs) employed in adult intensive care units. Organizational climate, nurse demographics, intention to leave, and reason for intending to leave were collected using a self-report survey. Nurses were categorized into two groups: a) those intending to leave due to working conditions; and b) others (e.g., those not leaving or retirees). The measure of organizational climate had seven subscales: professional practice, staffing/resource adequacy, nurse management, nursing process, nurse/physician collaboration, nurse competence, and positive scheduling climate. Setting characteristics came from American Hospital Association data and a survey of chief nursing officers. A total of 2,323 RNs from 66 hospitals and 110 critical care units were surveyed across the nation. On average, the RN was 39.5 yrs old (SD = 9.40), had 15.6 yrs (SD = 9.20) experience in health care, and had worked in his or her current position for 8.0 yrs (SD = 7.50). Seventeen percent (n = 391) of the respondents indicated intending to leave their position in the coming year. Of those, 52% (n = 202) reported that the reason was due to working conditions. Organizational climate factors that had an independent effect on intensive care unit nurse intention to leave due to working conditions were professional practice, nurse competence, and tenure (p < .05). Improving professional practice in the work environment and clinical competence of the nurses as well as supporting new hires may reduce turnover and help ensure a stable and qualified workforce.

  1. [Visitation policy, design and comfort in Spanish intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Escudero, D; Martín, L; Viña, L; Quindós, B; Espina, M J; Forcelledo, L; López-Amor, L; García-Arias, B; del Busto, C; de Cima, S; Fernández-Rey, E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the design and comfort in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs), by analysing visiting hours, information, and family participation in patient care. Descriptive, multicentre study. Spanish ICUs. A questionnaire e-mailed to members of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Critical and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC), subscribers of the Electronic Journal Intensive Care Medicine, and disseminated through the blog Proyecto HU-CI. A total of 135 questionnaires from 131 hospitals were analysed. Visiting hours: 3.8% open 24h, 9.8% open daytime, and 67.7% have 2 visits a day. Information: given only by the doctor in 75.2% of the cases, doctor and nurse together in 4.5%, with a frequency of once a day in 79.7%. During weekends, information is given in 95.5% of the cases. Information given over the phone 74.4%. Family participation in patient care: hygiene 11%, feeding 80.5%, physiotherapy 17%. Personal objects allowed: mobile phone 41%, computer 55%, sound system 77%, and television 30%. Architecture and comfort: all individual cubicles 60.2%, natural light 54.9%, television 7.5%, ambient music 12%, clock in the cubicle 15.8%, environmental noise meter 3.8%, and a waiting room near the ICU 68.4%. Visiting policy is restrictive, with a closed ICU being the predominating culture. On average, technological communication devices are not allowed. Family participation in patient care is low. The ICU design does not guarantee privacy or provide a desirable level of comfort. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Delirium in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Educational Strategies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Judith M; Van Aman, M Nancy; Schneiderhahn, Mary Elizabeth; Edelman, Robin; Ercole, Patrick M

    2017-05-01

    Delirium is an acute brain dysfunction associated with poor outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Critical care nurses play an important role in the prevention, detection, and management of delirium, but they must be able to accurately assess for it. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) instrument is a reliable and valid method to assess for delirium, but research reveals most nurses need practice to use it proficiently. A pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the success of a multimodal educational strategy (i.e., online learning module coupled with standardized patient simulation experience) on critical care nurses' knowledge and confidence to assess and manage delirium using the CAM-ICU. Participants (N = 34) showed a significant increase (p < .001) in confidence in their ability to assess and manage delirium following the multimodal education. No statistical change in knowledge of delirium existed following the education. A multimodal educational strategy, which included simulation, significantly added confidence in critical care nurses' performance using the CAM-ICU. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(5):239-244. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Computer assisted data analysis in intensive care: the ICDEV project--development of a scientific database system for intensive care (Intensive Care Data Evaluation Project).

    PubMed

    Metnitz, P G; Laback, P; Popow, C; Laback, O; Lenz, K; Hiesmayr, M

    1995-01-01

    Patient Data Management Systems (PDMS) for ICUs collect, present and store clinical data. Various intentions make analysis of those digitally stored data desirable, such as quality control or scientific purposes. The aim of the Intensive Care Data Evaluation project (ICDEV), was to provide a database tool for the analysis of data recorded at various ICUs at the University Clinics of Vienna. General Hospital of Vienna, with two different PDMSs used: CareVue 9000 (Hewlett Packard, Andover, USA) at two ICUs (one medical ICU and one neonatal ICU) and PICIS Chart+ (PICIS, Paris, France) at one Cardiothoracic ICU. CONCEPT AND METHODS: Clinically oriented analysis of the data collected in a PDMS at an ICU was the beginning of the development. After defining the database structure we established a client-server based database system under Microsoft Windows NI and developed a user friendly data quering application using Microsoft Visual C++ and Visual Basic; ICDEV was successfully installed at three different ICUs, adjustment to the different PDMS configurations were done within a few days. The database structure developed by us enables a powerful query concept representing an 'EXPERT QUESTION COMPILER' which may help to answer almost any clinical questions. Several program modules facilitate queries at the patient, group and unit level. Results from ICDEV-queries are automatically transferred to Microsoft Excel for display (in form of configurable tables and graphs) and further processing. The ICDEV concept is configurable for adjustment to different intensive care information systems and can be used to support computerized quality control. However, as long as there exists no sufficient artifact recognition or data validation software for automatically recorded patient data, the reliability of these data and their usage for computer assisted quality control remain unclear and should be further studied.

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder in intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Caiuby, Andrea Vannini Santesso; Andreoli, Paola Bruno de Araújo; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2010-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been detected in patients after treatment in intensive care unit. The main goal of this study is to review the psychological aspects and therapeutic interventions on those patients after their treatment on intensive care unit. Thirty eight articles have been included. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder has varied from 17% up to 30% and the incidence from 14% to 24%. The risk factors were: previous anxiety historic, depression or panic, having delusional traumatic memories (derived from psychic formations as dreams and delirium), belief effects, depressive behavior, stressing experiences and mechanical ventilation. High doses of opiates, symptoms caused by sedation or analgesia reduction and the use of lorazepam were related with the increase of delirium and delusional memory. The disorder sintomatology can be reduced with hydrocortisone administration, with daily sedation interruption. No other effectiveness psychological intervention study was found.

  5. [Quality assurance and quality management in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Notz, K; Dubb, R; Kaltwasser, A; Hermes, C; Pfeffer, S

    2015-11-01

    Treatment success in hospitals, particularly in intensive care units, is directly tied to quality of structure, process, and outcomes. Technological and medical advancements lead to ever more complex treatment situations with highly specialized tasks in intensive care nursing. Quality criteria that can be used to describe and correctly measure those highly complex multiprofessional situations have only been recently developed and put into practice.In this article, it will be shown how quality in multiprofessional teams can be definded and assessed in daily clinical practice. Core aspects are the choice of a nursing theory, quality assurance measures, and quality management. One possible option of quality assurance is the use of standard operating procedures (SOPs). Quality can ultimately only be achieved if professional groups think beyond their boundaries, minimize errors, and establish and live out instructions and SOPs.

  6. ISO 9001 in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Vitner, Gad; Nadir, Erez; Feldman, Michael; Yurman, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the process for approving and certifying a neonatal intensive care unit to ISO 9001 standards. The process started with the department head's decision to improve services quality before deciding to achieve ISO 9001 certification. Department processes were mapped and quality management mechanisms were developed. Process control and performance measurements were defined and implemented to monitor the daily work. A service satisfaction review was conducted to get feedback from families. In total, 28 processes and related work instructions were defined. Process yields showed service improvements. Family satisfaction improved. The paper is based on preparing only one neonatal intensive care unit to the ISO 9001 standard. The case study should act as an incentive for hospital managers aiming to improve service quality based on the ISO 9001 standard. ISO 9001 is becoming a recommended tool to improve clinical service quality.

  7. Predictors of burnout syndrome in intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Eduardo Motta de; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De

    2018-06-07

    To identify the prevalence and analyse the existence of predictors of burnout syndrome in intensive care nurses. The quantitative, descriptive, cross sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Two instruments were used to collect data in July 2014: a sociodemographic form and the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey. Pearson's Chi-Square test or Fisher's exact test were applied to verify the association between the occurrence of burnout and the categorical variables. Burnout affected 14.3% of the sample. Of the studied variables, only the duration of holidays had a significant association with the occurrence of burnout (p = 0034/OR = 3.92). The prevalence of burnout in the nurses was 14.3%. Duration of the holidays was the only variable that showed a significant association with the occurrence of burnout.

  8. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Eduardo Motta de; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De; França, Salomão Patrício de Souza

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  9. [Factors affecting the recovery in the intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Turkov, P N; Nikitin, V V; Antsupova, M A; Podkopaev, V N; Panfilova, R P; Ivanova, I N; Nesterova, L I

    2013-01-01

    Urgency of the problem is defined by economical, regulatory and legislative acts, regional social and moral factors. There is critical situation in Russian Pediatric Healthcare system. This situation is due to inadequate funding, high medical technologies inaccessibility for some Russian children, their adverse health state. The article presents a retrospective analysis of intensive therapy and resuscitation outcomes with technical equipment and work environment assessment in the intensive care unit of Tushinskaya city pediatric clinic for the period from 2007 to 2011. Anaesthetic and emergency care quality and safety depend on several factors: permanent equipment improvement, comprehensive analysis of every fatal case and full implementation of "Anti-epidemic (prophylactic) actions plan" and "Program of monitoring compliance with the sanitary norms".

  10. Competence of nurses in the intensive cardiac care unit

    PubMed Central

    Nobahar, Monir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Competence of nurses is a complex combination of knowledge, function, skills, attitudes, and values. Delivering care for patients in the Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU) requires nurses’ competences. This study aimed to explain nurses’ competence in the ICCU. Methods This was a qualitative study in which purposive sampling with maximum variation was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 participants during 2012–2013. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by using the content-analysis method. Results The main categories were “clinical competence,” comprising subcategories of ‘routine care,’ ‘emergency care,’ ‘care according to patients’ needs,’ ‘care of non-coronary patients’, as well as “professional competence,” comprising ‘personal development,’ ‘teamwork,’ ‘professional ethics,’ and ‘efficacy of nursing education.’ Conclusion The finding of this study revealed dimensions of nursing competence in ICCU. Benefiting from competence leads to improved quality of patient care and satisfaction of patients and nurses and helps elevate nursing profession, improve nursing education, and clinical nursing. PMID:27382450

  11. Reliability of diagnostic coding in intensive care patients

    PubMed Central

    Misset, Benoît; Nakache, Didier; Vesin, Aurélien; Darmon, Mickael; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Mourvillier, Bruno; Adrie, Christophe; Pease, Sébastian; de Beauregard, Marie-Aliette Costa; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Métais, Elisabeth; Timsit, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Administrative coding of medical diagnoses in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is mandatory in order to create databases for use in epidemiological and economic studies. We assessed the reliability of coding between different ICU physicians. Method One hundred medical records selected randomly from 29,393 cases collected between 1998 and 2004 in the French multicenter Outcomerea ICU database were studied. Each record was sent to two senior physicians from independent ICUs who recoded the diagnoses using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: Tenth Revision (ICD-10) after being trained according to guidelines developed by two French national intensive care medicine societies: the French Society of Intensive Care Medicine (SRLF) and the French Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SFAR). These codes were then compared with the original codes, which had been selected by the physician treating the patient. A specific comparison was done for the diagnoses of septicemia and shock (codes derived from A41 and R57, respectively). Results The ICU physicians coded an average of 4.6 ± 3.0 (range 1 to 32) diagnoses per patient, with little agreement between the three coders. The primary diagnosis was matched by both external coders in 34% (95% confidence interval (CI) 25% to 43%) of cases, by only one in 35% (95% CI 26% to 44%) of cases, and by neither in 31% (95% CI 22% to 40%) of cases. Only 18% (95% CI 16% to 20%) of all codes were selected by all three coders. Similar results were obtained for the diagnoses of septicemia and/or shock. Conclusion In a multicenter database designed primarily for epidemiological and cohort studies in ICU patients, the coding of medical diagnoses varied between different observers. This could limit the interpretation and validity of research and epidemiological programs using diagnoses as inclusion criteria. PMID:18664267

  12. Attitudes towards fever amongst UK paediatric intensive care staff.

    PubMed

    Brick, Thomas; Agbeko, Rachel S; Davies, Patrick; Davis, Peter J; Deep, Akash; Fortune, Peter-Marc; Inwald, David P; Jones, Amy; Levin, Richard; Morris, Kevin P; Pappachan, John; Ray, Samiran; Tibby, Shane M; Tume, Lyvonne N; Peters, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    The role played by fever in the outcome of critical illness in children is unclear. This survey of medical and nursing staff in 35 paediatric intensive care units and transport teams in the United Kingdom and Ireland established attitudes towards the management of children with fever. Four hundred sixty-two medical and nursing staff responded to a web-based survey request. Respondents answered eight questions regarding thresholds for temperature control in usual clinical practice, indications for paracetamol use, and readiness to participate in a clinical trial of permissive temperature control. The median reported threshold for treating fever in clinical practice was 38 °C (IQR 38-38.5 °C). Paracetamol was reported to be used as an analgesic and antipyretic but also for non-specific comfort indications. There was a widespread support for a clinical trial of a permissive versus a conservative approach to fever in paediatric intensive care units. Within a trial, 58% of the respondents considered a temperature of 39 °C acceptable without treatment. Staff on paediatric intensive care units in the United Kingdom and Ireland tends to treat temperatures within the febrile range. There was a willingness to conduct a randomized controlled trial of treatment of fever. What is known: • The effect of fever on the outcome in paediatric critical illness is unknown. • Paediatricians have traditionally been reluctant to allow fever in sick children. What is new: • Paediatric intensive care staff report a tendency towards treating fever, with a median reported treatment threshold of 38 °C. • There is widespread support amongst PICU staff in the UK for a randomized controlled trial of temperature in critically ill children. • Within a trial setting, PICU staff attitudes to fever are more permissive than in clinical practice.

  13. [FRC measurement in intensive care patients. A definition of standards].

    PubMed

    Wauer, H J; Lorenz, B A; Kox, W J

    1998-10-01

    Determination of Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) can be performed through washout methods, indicator gas dilution or bodyplethysmography. Some of these techniques have been adapted for use in intensive care patients whilst being mechanically ventilated. However, most measurement setups are bulky, cumbersome to use and their running costs are high. Hence FRC measurement has not become a routine method in intensive care although it offers considerable advantages in the management of ventilated patients such as the determination of "best PEEP", the detection of progressive alveolar collapse in the course of acute lung injury and during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Up to now most efforts to improve and simplify FRC measurement were made at the expense of accuracy. An ideal method ought to be accurate, easy to handle and cost-effective. It should supply not only FRC data but also information about intrapulmonary gas distribution and dead space. These demands can be met using modern data acquisition software. The pros and cons of all methods available for FRC measurement are discussed in view of their suitability for intensive care patients. A conventional nitrogen washout using emission spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen concentration gives satisfying exact values for the determination of the parameters mentioned above. The measurement error can be lowered under 5% by special corrections for flow and nitrogen signal (delay and rise times, changes of gas viscosity). For flow measurement a normal pneumotachograph can be used. Using a laptop computer for data acquisition the bed-side monitor fulfills most of the demands in intensive care. It is then also possible to measure indices of intrapulmonary gas distribution such as Alveolar Mixing Efficiency and Lung Clearance Index.

  14. Mobility decline in patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Fábio Santos; Paim, Daniel de Macedo; Brito, Juliana de Oliveira; Barros, Idiel de Araujo; Nogueira, Thiago Barbosa; Martinez, Bruno Prata; Pires, Thiago Queiroz

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the variation in mobility during hospitalization in an intensive care unit and its association with hospital mortality. Methods This prospective study was conducted in an intensive care unit. The inclusion criteria included patients admitted with an independence score of ≥ 4 for both bed-chair transfer and locomotion, with the score based on the Functional Independence Measure. Patients with cardiac arrest and/or those who died during hospitalization were excluded. To measure the loss of mobility, the value obtained at discharge was calculated and subtracted from the value obtained on admission, which was then divided by the admission score and recorded as a percentage. Results The comparison of these two variables indicated that the loss of mobility during hospitalization was 14.3% (p < 0.001). Loss of mobility was greater in patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours in the intensive care unit (p < 0.02) and in patients who used vasopressor drugs (p = 0.041). However, the comparison between subjects aged 60 years or older and those younger than 60 years indicated no significant differences in the loss of mobility (p = 0.332), reason for hospitalization (p = 0.265), SAPS 3 score (p = 0.224), use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.117), or hospital mortality (p = 0.063). Conclusion There was loss of mobility during hospitalization in the intensive care unit. This loss was greater in patients who were hospitalized for more than 48 hours and in those who used vasopressors; however, the causal and prognostic factors associated with this decline need to be elucidated. PMID:27410406

  15. [Principles and challenges of mobilisation in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Simons, Julien; Thévoz, David; Piquilloud, Lise

    2016-06-01

    The harmful consequences of bed rest and inactivity in patients in intensive care have been widely described. The point at which these patients should be mobilised and the methods used however still remain unclear. It is nevertheless important that the mobilisation is implemented early and often, adapted to the condition of the patient and overseen by a cross-disciplinary team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypophosphatemia associated risk factors in pediatric intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Şan, Emine Sibel; Erdoğan, Seher; Boşnak, Mehmet; Şan, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Şan ES, Erdoğan S, Boşnak M, Şan M. Hypophosphatemia associated risk factors in pediatric intensive care patients. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 35-41. The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hypophosphatemia in pediatric patients admitted to intensive care unit. The study was performed prospectively in patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between June 2014 and December 2014. Fifty-seven patients were included in the study. The mean age of the study population was 24 months (2-192 months); 25 patients (43.9%) were male and 32 were female (56.1%). The mean body weight z-score was -1.47 ± 2.23, and 23 (40.4%) patients had malnutrition. On admission 16 (28.1%) patients had hypophosphatemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the hypophosphatemic patient group and normophosphatemic patient groups in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics. There were also no significant differences between the two groups in terms of risk factors. Potassium and creatinine levels were significantly lower in the hypophosphatemic group, compared to the normophosphatemic group. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors for hypophosphatemia were low potassium level (OR: 16.76; 95% CI: 2.09 - 134.72; p: 0.008), malignant solid tumors (OR: 52.40; 95% CI: 2.04 - 1,344.32; p: 0.017, p: 0.036). and female gender (OR: 6.18; 95% CI: 1.12 - 34.00; p: 0.036). Prospective studies with larger sample size should be conducted to study the prevalence and risk factors of hypophosphatemia at pediatric intensive care unit.

  17. Safety of milrinone use in neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Raman, Sudha R; van den Anker, John N; McHutchison, Kerstin; Hornik, Christoph P; Clark, Reese H; Brian Smith, P

    2015-01-01

    Milrinone use in the neonatal intensive care unit has increased over the last 10 years despite a paucity of published safety data in infants. We sought to determine the safety of milrinone therapy among infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. We conducted a retrospective data analysis, identifying all infants who were exposed to milrinone and discharged from 322 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 1997-2010. We identified adverse events (AEs) during milrinone exposure. The unit of observation for clinical AEs was the first course of milrinone and for laboratory AEs it was an infant-day of exposure to milrinone. Overall, 1446 of 716,821 (0.2%) infants received milrinone for a total of 6894 infant-days. The proportion of infants exposed to milrinone increased from 0 in 1997 to 4/1000 infant cases in 2010. Persistent pulmonary hypertension (40%) was the most commonly reported diagnosis at the start of milrinone administration. Overall, 606/1446 (42%) of infants had at least 1 clinical AE recorded during milrinone therapy. Hypotension requiring pressors and thrombocytopenia (<100,000/mm(3)) were the most commonly reported clinical and laboratory AEs, respectively. Death was reported in 8% of infants during the first course of milrinone therapy. Among infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit, there was an increase in the use of milrinone over the past 13 years. The safety, dosing, and efficacy of milrinone in infants should be determined in prospective clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prediction and Outcome of Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Paresis.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas, Oscar; Muriel, Alfonso; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Fan, Eddy; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Rios, Fernando; Nin, Nicolás; Thille, Arnaud W; González, Marco; Villagomez, Asisclo J; Davies, Andrew R; Du, Bin; Maggiore, Salvatore M; Matamis, Dimitrios; Abroug, Fekri; Moreno, Rui P; Kuiper, Michael A; Anzueto, Antonio; Ferguson, Niall D; Esteban, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired paresis (ICUAP) is associated with poor outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate predictors for ICUAP and the short-term outcomes associated with this condition. A secondary analysis of a prospective study including 4157 mechanically ventilated adults in 494 intensive care units from 39 countries. After sedative interruption, patients were screened for ICUAP daily, which was defined as the presence of symmetric and flaccid quadriparesis associated with decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes. A multinomial logistic regression was used to create a predictive model for ICUAP. Propensity score matching was used to estimate the relationship between ICUAP and short-term outcomes (ie, weaning failure and intensive care unit [ICU] mortality). Overall, 114 (3%) patients had ICUAP. Variables associated with ICUAP were duration of mechanical ventilation (relative risk ratio [RRR] per day, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.12), steroid therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8), insulin therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7), sepsis (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.9), acute renal failure (RRR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.3), and hematological failure (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Coefficients were used to generate a weighted scoring system to predict ICUAP. ICUAP was significantly associated with both weaning failure (paired rate difference of 22.1%; 95% CI 9.8-31.6%) and ICU mortality (paired rate difference 10.5%; 95% CI 0.1-24.0%). Intensive care unit-acquired paresis is relatively uncommon but is significantly associated with weaning failure and ICU mortality. We constructed a weighted scoring system, with good discrimination, to predict ICUAP in mechanically ventilated patients at the time of awakening.

  19. Factors associated with maternal death in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Saintrain, Suzanne Vieira; de Oliveira, Juliana Gomes Ramalho; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Bruno, Zenilda Vieira; Borges, Juliana Lima Nogueira; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; da Silva Jr, Geraldo Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with maternal death in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a maternal intensive care unit. All medical records of patients admitted from January 2012 to December 2014 were reviewed. Pregnant and puerperal women were included; those with diagnoses of hydatidiform mole, ectopic pregnancy, or anembryonic pregnancy were excluded, as were patients admitted for non-obstetrical reasons. Death and hospital discharge were the outcomes subjected to comparative analysis. Results A total of 373 patients aged 13 to 45 years were included. The causes for admission to the intensive care unit were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, followed by heart disease, respiratory failure, and sepsis; complications included acute kidney injury (24.1%), hypotension (15.5%), bleeding (10.2%), and sepsis (6.7%). A total of 28 patients died (7.5%). Causes of death were hemorrhagic shock, multiple organ failure, respiratory failure, and sepsis. The independent risk factors associated with death were acute kidney injury (odds ratio [OR] = 6.77), hypotension (OR = 15.08), and respiratory failure (OR = 3.65). Conclusion The frequency of deaths was low. Acute kidney injury, hypotension, and respiratory insufficiency were independent risk factors for maternal death. PMID:28099637

  20. [Intercultural competence. Management of foreignness in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Bein, T

    2015-08-01

    Living in a multicultural society is characterized by different attitudes caused by a variety of religions and cultures. In intensive care medicine such a variety of cultural aspects with respect to pain, shame, bodiliness, dying and death is of importance in this scenario. To assess the importance of cultural and religious attitudes in the face of foreignness in intensive care medicine and nursing. Notification of misunderstandings and misinterpretations in communication and actions. An analysis of the scientific literature was carried out and typical intercultural conflict burden situations regarding the management of brain death, organ donation and end of life decisions are depicted. Specific attitudes are found in various religions or cultures regarding the change of a therapeutic target, the value of the patient's living will and the organization of rituals for dying. Intercultural conflicts are mostly due to misunderstandings, assessment differences, discrimination and differences in values. Intercultural competence is crucial in intensive care medicine and includes knowledge of social and cultural influences of different attitudes on health and illness, the abstraction from own attitudes and the acceptance of other or foreign attitudes.

  1. Percutaneous dilatational versus conventional surgical tracheostomy in intensive care patients

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Tarek F.; Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat; Saber, Aly

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tracheostomy is usually performed in patients with difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation or some catastrophic neurologic insult. Conventional tracheostomy involves dissection of the pretracheal tissues and insertion of the tracheostomy tube into the trachea under direct vision. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is increasingly popular and has gained widespread acceptance in many intensive care unit and trauma centers. Aim: Aim of the study was to compare percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy versus conventional tracheostomy in intensive care patients. Patients and Methods: 64 critically ill patients admitted to intensive care unit subjected to tracheostomy and randomly divided into two groups; percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy and conventional tracheostomy. Results: Mean duration of the procedure was similar between the two procedures while the mean size of tracheostomy tube was smaller in percutaneous technique. In addition, the Lowest SpO2 during procedure, PaCO2 after operation and intra-operative bleeding for both groups were nearly similar without any statistically difference. Postoperative infection after 7 days seen to be statistically lowered and the length of scar tend to be smaller among PDT patients. Conclusion: PDT technique is effective and safe as CST with low incidence of post operative complication. PMID:22361497

  2. [Factors causing stress in patients in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Pérez de Ciriza, A; Otamendi, S; Ezenarro, A; Asiain, M C

    1996-01-01

    Intensive care units have been considered stress generating areas. Knowing the causes why this happens will allow us to take specific measures to prevent or minimize it. This study has been performed with the aim to identify stress raising factors, as they are perceived by intensive care patients. The study has been performed in 49 patients most of whom were being attended in postoperatory control. The valuation of the degree of stress was performed using the "Scale of Environmental Stressors in Intensive Care" by Ballard in 1981, modified and adapted to our environment, with a result of 43 items distributed in six groups; Immobilization, Isolation, Deprivation of sleep, Time-spacial disorientation, Sensorial deprivation and overestimulation, and depersonalization and loss of autocontrol. The level of stress perceived by patients was low. The factors considered as most stressing were those related to physical aspects; presence of tubes in nose and mouth, impossibility to sleep and presence of noise, whereas those less stressing referred to Nursing attention. We conclude that patients perceive ICU as a little stressing place in spite of the excessive noise, remark the presence of invasive tubes and the difficulty to sleep as the most stressing factors, and in the same way, express a high degree of satisfaction about the attention received.

  3. [Safety in intensive care medicine. Can we learn from aviation?].

    PubMed

    Graf, J; Pump, S; Maas, W; Stüben, U

    2012-05-01

    Safety is of extraordinary value in commercial aviation. Therefore, sophisticated and complex systems have been developed to ensure safe operation. Within this system, the pilots are of specific concern: they form the human-machine interface and have a special responsibility in controlling and monitoring all aircraft systems. In order to prepare pilots for their challenging task, specific selection of suitable candidates is crucial. In addition, for every commercial pilot regulatory requirements demand a certain number of simulator training sessions and check flights to be completed at prespecified intervals. In contrast, career choice for intensive care medicine most likely depends on personal reasons rather than eligibility or aptitude. In intensive care medicine, auditing, licensing, or mandatory training are largely nonexistent. Although knowledge of risk management and safety culture in aviation can be transferred to the intensive care unit, the diversity of corporate culture and tradition of leadership and training will represent a barrier for the direct transfer of standards or procedures. To accomplish this challenging task, the analysis of appropriate fields of action with regard to structural requirements and the process of change are essential.

  4. No Exit: Identifying Avoidable Terminal Oncology Intensive Care Unit Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Hantel, Andrew; Wroblewski, Kristen; Balachandran, Jay S.; Chow, Selina; DeBoer, Rebecca; Fleming, Gini F.; Hahn, Olwen M.; Kline, Justin; Liu, Hongtao; Patel, Bhakti K.; Verma, Anshu; Witt, Leah J.; Fukui, Mayumi; Kumar, Aditi; Howell, Michael D.; Polite, Blase N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Terminal oncology intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations are associated with high costs and inferior quality of care. This study identifies and characterizes potentially avoidable terminal admissions of oncology patients to ICUs. Methods: This was a retrospective case series of patients cared for in an academic medical center’s ambulatory oncology practice who died in an ICU during July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013. An oncologist, intensivist, and hospitalist reviewed each patient’s electronic health record from 3 months preceding terminal hospitalization until death. The primary outcome was the proportion of terminal ICU hospitalizations identified as potentially avoidable by two or more reviewers. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify characteristics associated with avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations. Results: Seventy-two patients met inclusion criteria. The majority had solid tumor malignancies (71%), poor performance status (51%), and multiple encounters with the health care system. Despite high-intensity health care utilization, only 25% had documented advance directives. During a 4-day median ICU length of stay, 81% were intubated and 39% had cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Forty-seven percent of these hospitalizations were identified as potentially avoidable. Avoidable hospitalizations were associated with factors including: worse performance status before admission (median 2 v 1; P = .01), worse Charlson comorbidity score (median 8.5 v 7.0, P = .04), reason for hospitalization (P = .006), and number of prior hospitalizations (median 2 v 1; P = .05). Conclusion: Given the high frequency of avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations, health care leaders should develop strategies to prospectively identify patients at high risk and formulate interventions to improve end-of-life care. PMID:27601514

  5. Is Postoperative Intensive Care Unit Care Necessary following Cranial Vault Remodeling for Sagittal Synostosis?

    PubMed

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Howell, Lori K; Fahradyan, Artur; Azadgoli, Beina; McComb, J Gordon; Urata, Mark M

    2017-12-01

    Of U.S. craniofacial and neurosurgeons, 94 percent routinely admit patients to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for correction of sagittal synostosis. This study aims to examine the outcomes and cost of direct ward admission following primary cranial vault remodeling for sagittal synostosis. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review was undertaken of the records of all patients who underwent primary cranial vault remodeling for isolated sagittal craniosynostosis from 2009 to 2015 at a single pediatric hospital. Patient demographics, perioperative course, and outcomes were recorded. One hundred ten patients met inclusion criteria with absence of other major medical problems. Average age at operation was 6.7 months, with a mean follow-up of 19.8 months. Ninety-eight patients (89 percent) were admitted to a general ward for postoperative care, whereas the remaining 12 (11 percent) were admitted to the intensive care unit for preoperative or perioperative concerns. Among ward-admitted patients, there were four (3.6 percent) minor complications; however, there were no major adverse events, with none necessitating intensive care unit transfers from the ward and no mortalities. Average hospital stay was 3.7 days. The institution's financial difference in cost of intensive care unit stay versus ward bed was $5520 on average per bed per day. Omitting just one intensive care unit postoperative day stay for this patient cohort would reduce projected health care costs by a total of $540,960 for the study period. Despite the common practice of postoperative admission to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for sagittal craniosynostosis, the authors suggest that postoperative care be considered on an individual basis, with only a small percentage requiring a higher level of care. Therapeutic, III.

  6. [Costs and consumption of material resources in pediatric intensive and semi-intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Larissa Lenotti; Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; de Castro, Liliana Cristina; Soler, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes

    2012-01-01

    Cost management of hospital material resources is a trendy research topic, especially in specialized health units. Nurses are pointed out as the main managers for costs and consumption of hospital materials resources. This study aimed to characterize Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive Care Units of a teaching hospital and investigate costs and consumption of material resources used to treat patients admitted to these units. This is a descriptive exploratory study with retrospective data and quantitative approach. Data were obtained from a Hospital Information System and analyzed according to the ABC classification. The average expenditures were similar in both the neonatal and cardiac units, and lower in Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive care units. There was a significant variation in the monthly consumption of materials. Higher cost materials had a greater impact on the budget of the studied units. The data revealed the importance of using a systematic method for the analysis of materials consumption and expenditure in pediatric units. They subsidize administrative and economic actions.

  7. Spectrum of care: Current management of childhood autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thabrew, Hiran; Eggleston, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the current status of assessment and intervention for New Zealand children and adolescents who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with recommendations outlined in the 2008 New Zealand ASD Guideline. ASD coordinators and New Zealand District Health Board (DHB) staff working with children and adolescents who have ASD were electronically surveyed. Responses were received from 32 staff in 17 (85%) surveyed DHBs. Positive findings included the presence of ASD coordinators in 85% of DHBs, clear pathways for management in 73.1% of DHBs and good communications between paediatric, psychiatric and educational teams in some DHBs regions. Areas for improvement included wait times to assessment, access to longer-term support and intervention for families, and training for staff in ASD and cultural issues. Since the launch of the NZ ASD Guidelines, significant progress has been made. However, further work is needed to ensure services for children and adolescents with ASD are accessible, well-coordinated and focussed on both assessment and intervention.

  8. Assessing the impact of a restorative home care service in New Zealand: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    King, Anna I I; Parsons, Matthew; Robinson, Elizabeth; Jörgensen, Diane

    2012-07-01

    Due to the ageing population, there is an increased demand for home care services. Restorative care is one approach to improving home care services, although there is little evidence to support its use in the community setting. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the impact of a restorative home care service for community-dwelling older people. The study was a cluster randomised controlled trial undertaken at a home care agency in New Zealand. The study period was from December 2005 to May 2007. Older people were interviewed face-to-face at baseline, four and 7 months. A total of 186 older people who received assistance from a home care agency participated in the study, 93 received restorative home care and 93 older people received usual home care. The primary outcome measure was change in health-related quality of life (measured by the Short Form 36 [SF36] Health Survey). Secondary outcomes were the physical, mental, and social well-being of older people (Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living, Timed Up and Go, Mastery scale, Duke Social Support Index). Findings revealed that compared with usual care, the intervention demonstrated a statistically significant benefit in health-related quality of life (SF36) at 7 months for older people (mean difference 3.8, 95% CI -0.0 to 7.7, P = 0.05). There were no changes in other scale measurements for older people in either group over time. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of older people in the intervention group identified for reduced hours or discharge (29%) compared with the control group (0%) (P < 0.001). In conclusion, a restorative home care service may be of benefit to older people, and improves home care service efficacy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Care zoning in a psychiatric intensive care unit: strengthening ongoing clinical risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Antony; Drinkwater, Vincent; Lewin, Terry J

    2014-03-01

    To implement and evaluate the care zoning model in an eight-bed psychiatric intensive care unit and, specifically, to examine the model's ability to improve the documentation and communication of clinical risk assessment and management. Care zoning guides nurses in assessing clinical risk and planning care within a mental health context. Concerns about the varying quality of clinical risk assessment prompted a trial of the care zoning model in a psychiatric intensive care unit within a regional mental health facility. The care zoning model assigns patients to one of 3 'zones' according to their clinical risk, encouraging nurses to document and implement targeted interventions required to manage those risks. An implementation trial framework was used for this research to refine, implement and evaluate the impact of the model on nurses' clinical practice within the psychiatric intensive care unit, predominantly as a quality improvement initiative. The model was trialled for three months using a pre- and postimplementation staff survey, a pretrial file audit and a weekly file audit. Informal staff feedback was also sought via surveys and regular staff meetings. This trial demonstrated improvement in the quality of mental state documentation, and clinical risk information was identified more accurately. There was limited improvement in the quality of care planning and the documentation of clinical interventions. Nurses' initial concerns over the introduction of the model shifted into overall acceptance and recognition of the benefits. The results of this trial demonstrate that the care zoning model was able to improve the consistency and quality of risk assessment information documented. Care planning and evaluation of associated outcomes showed less improvement. Care zoning remains a highly applicable model for the psychiatric intensive care unit environment and is a useful tool in guiding nurses to carry out routine patient risk assessments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons

  10. [Environmental noise levels in 2 intensive care units in a tertiary care centre].

    PubMed

    Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel; Zárate-Coronado, Olivia; Gaxiola-González, Fabiola; Neyoy-Sombra, Venigna

    2017-04-03

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) has established a maximum noise level of 40 decibels (dB) for an intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to compare the noise levels in 2 different intensive care units at a tertiary care centre. Using a cross-sectional design study, an analysis was made of the maximum noise level was within the intensive coronary care unit and intensive care unit using a digital meter. A measurement was made in 4 different points of each room, with 5minute intervals, for a period of 60minutes 7:30, 14:30, and 20:30. The means of the observations were compared with descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U. An analysis with Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to the mean noise level. The noise observed in the intensive care unit had a mean of 64.77±3.33dB (P=.08), which was similar to that in the intensive coronary care unit, with a mean of 60.20±1.58dB (P=.129). Around 25% or more of the measurements exceeded the level recommended by the WHO by up to 20 points. Noise levels measured in intensive care wards exceed the maximum recommended level for a hospital. It is necessary to design and implement actions for greater participation of health personnel in the reduction of environmental noise. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Advance Care Planning in palliative care: a qualitative investigation into the perspective of Paediatric Intensive Care Unit staff.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah; Dale, Jeremy

    2015-04-01

    The majority of children and young people who die in the United Kingdom have pre-existing life-limiting illness. Currently, most such deaths occur in hospital, most frequently within the intensive care environment. To explore the experiences of senior medical and nursing staff regarding the challenges associated with Advance Care Planning in relation to children and young people with life-limiting illnesses in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit environment and opportunities for improvement. Qualitative one-to-one, semi-structured interviews were conducted with Paediatric Intensive Care Unit consultants and senior nurses, to gain rich, contextual data. Thematic content analysis was carried out. UK tertiary referral centre Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. Eight Paediatric Intensive Care Unit consultants and six senior nurses participated. Four main themes emerged: recognition of an illness as 'life-limiting'; Advance Care Planning as a multi-disciplinary, structured process; the value of Advance Care Planning and adverse consequences of inadequate Advance Care Planning. Potential benefits of Advance Care Planning include providing the opportunity to make decisions regarding end-of-life care in a timely fashion and in partnership with patients, where possible, and their families. Barriers to the process include the recognition of the life-limiting nature of an illness and gaining consensus of medical opinion. Organisational improvements towards earlier recognition of life-limiting illness and subsequent Advance Care Planning were recommended, including education and training, as well as the need for wider societal debate. Advance Care Planning for children and young people with life-limiting conditions has the potential to improve care for patients and their families, providing the opportunity to make decisions based on clear information at an appropriate time, and avoid potentially harmful intensive clinical interventions at the end of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. The intensive care unit family meeting: Making it happen☆

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Elizabeth B.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Bassett, Rick D.; Nelson, Judith E.

    2012-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) family meeting is an important forum for discussion about the patient’s condition, prognosis, and care preferences; for listening to the family’s concerns; and for decision making about appropriate goals of treatment. For patients, families, clinicians, and health care systems, the benefits of early and effective communication through these meetings have been clearly established. Yet, evidence suggests that family meetings still fail to occur in a timely way for most patients in ICUs. In this article, we address the “quality gap” between knowledge and practice with respect to regular implementation of family meetings. We first examine factors that may serve as barriers to family meetings. We then share practical strategies that may be helpful in overcoming some of these barriers. Finally, we describe performance improvement initiatives by ICUs in different parts of the country that have achieved striking successes in making family meetings happen. PMID:19327312

  13. Cardiovascular disease risk prediction equations in 400 000 primary care patients in New Zealand: a derivation and validation study.

    PubMed

    Pylypchuk, Romana; Wells, Sue; Kerr, Andrew; Poppe, Katrina; Riddell, Tania; Harwood, Matire; Exeter, Dan; Mehta, Suneela; Grey, Corina; Wu, Billy P; Metcalf, Patricia; Warren, Jim; Harrison, Jeff; Marshall, Roger; Jackson, Rod

    2018-05-12

    Most cardiovascular disease risk prediction equations in use today were derived from cohorts established last century and with participants at higher risk but less socioeconomically and ethnically diverse than patients they are now applied to. We recruited a nationally representative cohort in New Zealand to develop equations relevant to patients in contemporary primary care and compared the performance of these new equations to equations that are recommended in the USA. The PREDICT study automatically recruits participants in routine primary care when general practitioners in New Zealand use PREDICT software to assess their patients' risk profiles for cardiovascular disease, which are prospectively linked to national ICD-coded hospitalisation and mortality databases. The study population included male and female patients in primary care who had no prior cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or congestive heart failure. New equations predicting total cardiovascular disease risk were developed using Cox regression models, which included clinical predictors plus an area-based deprivation index and self-identified ethnicity. Calibration and discrimination performance of the equations were assessed and compared with 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations (PCEs). The additional predictors included in new PREDICT equations were also appended to the PCEs to determine whether they were independent predictors in the equations from the USA. Outcome events were derived for 401 752 people aged 30-74 years at the time of their first PREDICT risk assessment between Aug 27, 2002, and Oct 12, 2015, representing about 90% of the eligible population. The mean follow-up was 4·2 years, and a third of participants were followed for 5 years or more. 15 386 (4%) people had cardiovascular disease events (1507 [10%] were fatal, and 8549 [56%] met the PCEs definition of hard atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease) during 1 685 521

  14. The mourning before: can anticipatory grief theory inform family care in adult intensive care?

    PubMed

    Coombs, Maureen A

    2010-12-01

    Although anticipatory grief is a much-debated and critiqued bereavement concept, it does offer a way of understanding and exploring expected loss that may be helpful in certain situations. In end-of-life care in adult intensive care units, families often act as proxy decision makers for patients in the transition from curative treatment efforts to planned treatment withdrawal. Despite there being a developed evidence base to inform care of families at this time, few of the clinical studies that provided this evidence were underpinned by bereavement theory. Focusing on end-of-life intensive care practices, this paper integrates work on anticipatory grief and family interventions to present a family-centred framework of care. Through this it is argued that the complex needs of families must be more comprehensively understood by doctors and nurses and that interventions must be more systematically planned to improve quality end-of-life care for families in this setting.

  15. Safe paediatric intensive care. Part 1: Does more medical care lead to improved outcome?

    PubMed

    Frey, Bernhard; Argent, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    Neonatal and paediatric intensive care has improved the prognosis for seriously sick infants and children. This has happened because of a pragmatic approach focused on stabilisation of vital functions and immense technological advances in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, the belief that more medical care must inevitably lead to improved health is increasingly being questioned. This issue is especially relevant in developing countries where the introduction of highly specialised paediatric intensive care may not lead to an overall fall in child mortality. Even in developed countries, the complexity and availability of therapeutics and invasive procedures may put seriously ill children at additional risk. In both developing and industrialised countries the use of safe and simple procedures for appropriate periods, particular attention to drug prescription patterns and selection of appropriate aims and modes of therapy, including non-invasive methods, may minimise the risks of paediatric intensive care.

  16. Transition from neonatal intensive care unit to special care nurseries: experiences of parents and nurses.

    PubMed

    Helder, Onno K; Verweij, Jos C M; van Staa, AnneLoes

    2012-05-01

    To explore parents' and nurses' experiences with the transition of infants from the neonatal intensive care unit to a special care nursery. Qualitative explorative study in two phases. Level IIID neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital and special care nurseries (level II) in five community hospitals in the Netherlands. Twenty-one pairs of parents and 18 critical care nurses. Semistructured interviews were used. Thematic analysis and comparison of themes across participants were performed. Trust was a central theme for parents. Three subthemes, related to the chronological stages of transition, were identified: gaining trust; betrayal of trust; and rebuilding confidence. Trust was associated with five other themes: professional attitude; information management; coordination of transfer; different environments; and parent participation. Although nurses at an early stage repeatedly mentioned a possible transition to community hospitals, the actual announcement took many parents by surprise. Parents felt excluded during the actual transfer and most questioned its necessity. In the special care nursery, parents found it difficult to adjust to new routines and to gain trust in new caregivers, but eventually their worries dissolved. In contrast to neonatal intensive care unit nurses, special care nursery nurses quite understood the impact of transition on parents. Both parents and nurses considered present transitional arrangements to be inadequate. Nurses should provide more effective discharge planning and transitional care. A positive labeling of the transition as a first step to home discharge for the newborn seems appropriate. Parents need to be better-informed and should be involved in the planning process.

  17. The Chinese family-centered care survey for adult intensive care unit: A psychometric study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Feng, Jui-Ying; Wang, Chi-Jen; Chen, Jing-Huei

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a family-centered care survey for Chinese adult intensive care units and to establish the survey's psychometric properties. Family-centered care (FCC) is widely recognized as an ideal model of care. Few studies have explored FCC perceptions among family members of adult critical care patients in Asian countries, and no Chinese FCC measurement has been developed. An English version of the 3-factor family-centered care survey for adult intensive care units (FCCS-AICU) was translated into Chinese using a modified back translation procedure. Based on the literature review, two additional concepts, information and empowerment, were added to the Chinese FCCS-AICU. The psychometric properties of the Chinese FCCS-AICU were determined with 249 family members from a medical center in Taiwan and were tested for construct and convergent validity, and internal consistency. Both the monolingual and bilingual equivalence tests of the English and Chinese versions of the 3-factor FCCS-AICU were supported. Exploratory factor analysis supported the 5-factor structure of the Chinese FCCS-AICU with a total explained variance of 58.34%. The Chinese FCCS-AICU was correlated with the Chinese Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. Internal consistency, determined by Cronbach's α, for the overall scale was .94. The Chinese FCCS-AICU is a valid and reliable tool for measuring perceptions of FCC by family members of adult intensive care patients within Chinese-speaking communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology of Australian Influenza-Related Paediatric Intensive Care Unit Admissions, 1997-2013.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Marlena C; Ware, Robert S; Coulthard, Mark G; McEniery, Julie; Lambert, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus predictably causes an annual epidemic resulting in a considerable burden of illness in Australia. Children are disproportionately affected and can experience severe illness and complications, which occasionally result in death. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study using data collated in the Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care (ANZPIC) Registry of influenza-related intensive care unit (ICU) admissions over a 17-year period (1997-2013, inclusive) in children <16 years old. National laboratory-confirmed influenza notifications were used for comparison. Between 1997 and 2013, a total of 704 influenza-related ICU admissions were recorded, at a rate of 6.2 per 1,000 all-cause ICU admissions. Age at admission ranged from 0 days and 15.9 years (median = 2.1 years), with 135 (19.2%) aged <6 months. Pneumonia/pneumonitis and bronchiolitis were the most common primary diagnoses among influenza-related admissions (21.9% and 13.6%, respectively). More than half of total cases (59.2%) were previously healthy (no co-morbidities recorded), and in the remainder, chronic lung disease (16.7%) and asthma (12.5%) were the most common co-morbidities recorded. Pathogen co-detection occurred in 24.7% of cases, most commonly with respiratory syncytial virus or a staphylococcal species. Median length of all ICU admissions was 3.2 days (range 2.0 hours- 107.4 days) and 361 (51.3%) admissions required invasive respiratory support for a median duration of 4.3 days (range 0.2 hours- 107.5 days). There were 27 deaths recorded, 14 (51.9%) in children without a recorded co-morbidity. Influenza causes a substantial number of ICU admissions in Australian children each year with the majority occurring in previously healthy children.

  19. Caring for dying infants: experiences of neonatal intensive care nurses in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yam, B M; Rossiter, J C; Cheung, K Y

    2001-09-01

    Ten registered nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit in Hong Kong were interviewed to explore their experiences of caring for infants whose disease is not responsive to curative treatment, their perceptions of palliative care, and factors influencing their care. Eight categories emerged from the content analysis of the interviews: disbelieving; feeling ambivalent and helpless; protecting emotional self; providing optimal physical care to the infant; providing emotional support to the family; expressing empathy; lack of knowledge and counselling skills; and conflicting values in care. The subtle cultural upbringing and socialization in nurse training and workplace environment also contributed to their moral distress. Hospital and nurse administrators should consider different ways of facilitating palliative care in their acute care settings. For example, by culture-specific death education, peer support groups, bereavement teams, modification of departmental policies, and a supportive work environment. Future research could include the identification of family needs and coping as well as ethical decision-making among nurses.

  20. Aberdeen polygons: computer displays of physiological profiles for intensive care.

    PubMed

    Green, C A; Logie, R H; Gilhooly, K J; Ross, D G; Ronald, A

    1996-03-01

    The clinician in an intensive therapy unit is presented regularly with a range of information about the current physiological state of the patients under care. This information typically comes from a variety of sources and in a variety of formats. A more integrated form of display incorporating several physiological parameters may be helpful therefore. Three experiments are reported that explored the potential use of analogue, polygon diagrams to display physiological data from patients undergoing intensive therapy. Experiment 1 demonstrated that information can be extracted readily from such diagrams comprising 8- or 10-sided polygons, but with an advantage for simpler polygons and for information displayed at the top of the diagram. Experiment 2 showed that colour coding removed these biases for simpler polygons and the top of the diagram, together with speeding the processing time. Experiment 3 used polygons displaying patterns of physiological data that were consistent with typical conditions observed in the intensive care unit. It was found that physicians can readily learn to recognize these patterns and to diagnose both the nature and severity of the patient's physiological state. These polygon diagrams appear to have some considerable potential for use in providing on-line summary information of a patient's physiological state.

  1. Meaning of caring in pediatric intensive care unit from the perspective of parents: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Janet Yvonne; Arman, Maria; Castren, Maaret; Forsner, Maria

    2014-12-01

    When children are critically ill, parents still strive to be present and participate in the care of their child. Pediatric intensive care differs from other realms of pediatric care as the nature of care is technically advanced and rather obstructing than encouraging parental involvement or closeness, either physically or emotionally, with the critically ill child. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of caring in the pediatric intensive care unit from the perspective of parents. The design of this study followed Benner's interpretive phenomenological method. Eleven parents of seven children participated in observations and interviews. The following aspects of caring were illustrated in the themes arising from the findings: being a bridge to the child on the edge, building a sheltered atmosphere, meeting the child's needs, and adapting the environment for family life. The overall impression is that the phenomenon of caring is experienced exclusively when it is directed toward the exposed child. The conclusion drawn is that caring is present when providing expert physical care combined with fulfilling emotional needs and supporting continuing daily parental care for the child in an inviting environment. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Measuring Family Satisfaction With Care Delivered in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kathleen; Milner, Kerry A; Beck, Marlene; Mason, Virginia

    2016-12-01

    In our competitive health care environment, measuring the experience of family members of patients in the intensive care unit to ensure that health care providers are meeting families' needs is critical. Surveys from Press Ganey and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are unable to capture families' satisfaction with care in this setting. To implement a sustainable measure for family satisfaction in a 12-bed medical and surgical intensive care unit. To assess the feasibility of the selected tool for measuring family satisfaction and to make recommendations that are based on the results. A descriptive survey design using the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire to measure satisfaction with care and decision-making. Forty family members completed the survey. Overall, the mean score for families' satisfaction with care was 72.24% (SD, 14.87%) and the mean score for families' satisfaction with decision-making was 72.03% (SD, 16.61%). Families reported that nurses put them at ease and provided understandable explanations. Collaboration, inclusion of families in clinical discussions, and timely information regarding changes in the patient's condition were the most common points brought up in free-text responses from family members. Written communication, including directions and expectations, would have improved the families' experience. Although patients' family members reported being satisfied with their experience in the intensive care unit, there is room for improvement. Effective communication among the health care team, patients' families, and patients will be targeted for quality improvement initiatives. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  3. Radiation control in the intensive care unit for high intensity iridium-192 brain implants

    SciT

    Sewchand, W.; Drzymala, R.E.; Amin, P.P.

    A bedside lead cubicle was designed to minimize the radiation exposure of intensive care unit staff during routine interstitial brain irradiation by removable, high intensity iridium-192. The cubicle shields the patient without restricting intensive care routines. The design specifications were confirmed by exposure measurements around the shield with an implanted anthropomorphic phantom simulating the patient situation. The cubicle reduces the exposure rate around an implant patient by as much as 90%, with the exposure level not exceeding 0.1 mR/hour/mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir. Evaluation of data accumulated for the past 3 years has shown that the exposure levels of individualmore » attending nurses are 0.12 to 0.36 mR/mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir per 12-hour shift. The corresponding range for entire nursing teams varies between 0.18 and 0.26. A radiation control index (exposure per mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir per nurse-hour) is thus defined for individual nurses and nursing teams; this index is a significant guide to the planning of nurse rotations for brain implant patients with various /sup 192/Ir loads. The bedside shield reduces exposure from /sup 192/Ir implants by a factor of about 20, as expected, and the exposure from the lower energy radioisotope iodine-125 is barely detectable.« less

  4. Palliative care need and management in the acute hospital setting: a census of one New Zealand Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving palliative care management in acute hospital settings has been identified as a priority internationally. The aim of this study was to establish the proportion of inpatients within one acute hospital in New Zealand who meet prognostic criteria for palliative care need and explore key aspects of their management. Methods A prospective survey of adult hospital inpatients (n = 501) was undertaken. Case notes were examined for evidence that the patient might be in their last year of life according to Gold Standards Framework (GSF) prognostic indicator criteria. For patients who met GSF criteria, clinical and socio-demographic information were recorded. Results Ninety-nine inpatients met GSF criteria, representing 19.8% of the total census population. The patients’ average age was 70 years; 47% had a primary diagnosis of cancer. Two thirds had died within 6 months of their admission. Seventy-eight of the 99 cases demonstrated evidence that a palliative approach to care had been adopted; however documentation of discussion about goals of care was very limited and only one patient had evidence of an advance care plan. Conclusion One fifth of hospital inpatients met criteria for palliative care need, the majority of whom were aged >70 years. Whilst over three quarters were concluded to be receiving care in line with a palliative care approach, very little documented evidence of discussion with patients and families regarding end of life issues was evident. Future research needs to explore how best to support ‘generalist’ palliative care providers in initiating, and appropriately recording, such discussions. PMID:23537092

  5. Intensive care unit research ethics and trials on unconscious patients.

    PubMed

    Gillett, G R

    2015-05-01

    There are widely acknowledged ethical issues in enrolling unconscious patients in research trials, particularly in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. An analysis of those issues shows that, by and large, patients are better served in units where research is actively taking place for several reasons: i) they do not fall prey to therapeutic prejudices without clear evidential support, ii) they get a chance of accessing new and potentially beneficial treatments, iii) a climate of careful monitoring of patients and their clinical progress is necessary for good clinical research and affects the care of all patients and iv) even those not in the treatment arm of a trial of a new intervention must receive best current standard care (according to international evidence-based treatment guidelines). Given that we have discovered a number of 'best practice' regimens of care that do not optimise outcomes in ICU settings, it is of great benefit to all patients (including those participating in research) that we are constantly updating and evaluating what we do. Therefore, the practice of ICU-based clinical research on patients, many of whom cannot give prospective informed consent, ticks all the ethical boxes and ought to be encouraged in our health system. It is very important that the evaluation of protocols for ICU research should not overlook obvious (albeit probabilistic) benefits to patients and the acceptability of responsible clinicians entering patients into well-designed trials, even though the ICU setting does not and cannot conform to typical informed consent procedures and requirements.

  6. Echocardiography in the intensive care unit: from evolution to revolution?

    PubMed

    Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Slama, Michel; Cholley, Bernard; Janvier, Gérard; Vignon, Philippe

    2008-02-01

    Over recent decades, echocardiography has become a pivotal diagnostic tool for the assessment of patients with hemodynamic compromise in general intensive care units (ICUs). In addition to its imaging capability, echocardiography provides a detailed cardiovascular assessment, based on the combination of real-time two-dimensional evaluation of cardiac structure and function and hemodynamic information provided by Doppler measurement of blood flow velocity. However, despite its ease of use, portability and accuracy, the diffusion of echocardiography among ICUs has been limited by various factors. We discuss here the main reasons for the slow acceptance by the critical care community of echocardiography as a first-line diagnostic tool for the evaluation of hemodynamically unstable patients. One of these reasons is probably the absence, in most countries, of a training program in echocardiography specifically dedicated to intensivists. We report recent French experience in the organization of specific echocardiographic certification aimed at intensivists and anesthesiologists. We strongly believe that a broader use of echocardiography would be beneficial in terms of diagnostic capability and patient management. Therefore, we would like to involve colleagues from other countries and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine in defining the objectives of echocardiography training for intensivists and in organizing postgraduate courses and training programs aimed at developing the use of echocardiography in ICUs. This would allow the current "evolution" in mentalities to become a true "revolution" in our daily practice.

  7. Nursing diagnosis in intensive care unit: the Turkey experience.

    PubMed

    Korhan, Esra Akn; Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Erdemir, Firdevs; Müller-Staub, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine intensive care unit nurses diagnostic abilities and diagnoses that they provide. A vignette study was performed. The vignette contained a patient's history, treatment, and signs/symptoms of 18 nursing diagnoses based on NANDA-I as the criterion standard. Turkish intensive care unit nurses (N = 45) stated nursing diagnoses described by patient data in the vignette. The resulting nursing diagnoses were grouped into Gordon's Functional Health Patterns, and descriptive analyses were performed. One-way analysis of variance was used to detect possible differences in diagnostic abilities based on nurses' education levels. Nurses identified 14 nursing diagnoses. Four of the predetermined psychosocial nursing diagnoses were not identified. The highest percentage of diagnoses was risk for impaired skin integrity (62.2%) and impaired oral mucous membrane (60.0%). The lowest number of diagnoses was impaired verbal communication (2.2%). A statistically significant difference was found between the educational level of nurses and their abilities to determine nursing diagnoses (P < .05). The findings are important for nursing education. They demonstrate the need to focus on patients as complete human beings, covering not only biological aspects but also cultural and social values, as well as emotional and spiritual care needs.

  8. A Business Case for Tele-Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Coustasse, Alberto; Deslich, Stacie; Bailey, Deanna; Hairston, Alesia; Paul, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A tele-intensive care unit (tele-ICU) uses telemedicine in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting, applying technology to provide care to critically ill patients by off-site clinical resources. The purpose of this review was to examine the implementation, adoption, and utilization of tele-ICU systems by hospitals to determine their efficiency and efficacy as identified by cost savings and patient outcomes. Methods: This literature review examined a large number of studies of implementation of tele-ICU systems in hospitals. Results: The evidence supporting cost savings was mixed. Implementation of a tele-ICU system was associated with cost savings, shorter lengths of stay, and decreased mortality. However, two studies suggested increased hospital cost after implementation of tele-ICUs is initially expensive but eventually results in cost savings and better clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Intensivists working these systems are able to more effectively treat ICU patients, providing better clinical outcomes for patients at lower costs compared with hospitals without a tele-ICU. PMID:25662529

  9. [Intensive care medicine on medical undergraduation: student's perspective].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Alessandro de Moura; Albuquerque, Ligia Carvalho; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Rolim, Carlos Eduardo Cerqueira; Godinho, Tiana Mascarenhas; Liberato, Maurício Valverde; Oliveira Filho, Fernando Cezar Cabral; Azevedo, Ana Bárbara Galvão de; Neves, Ana Paula Soares da Silva; Martins, Marcelo de Jesus; Silva, João Paulo Maciel; Jesuíno, Paulo André; Souza Filho, Sydney Agareno de

    2007-12-01

    There are deficiencies on Intensive Medicine (IM) teaching in most of medical undergraduate schools. Those deficiencies may imply damages on their clinical competence. The objective of this study was to analyze current status of IM teaching and the medical undergraduate student interest in this speciality. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2005. We applied a self-reported questionnaire to enrolled students between the sixth and the last semesters of two medical schools from Salvador-Bahia. The questionnaire contained questions about students' interest and knowledge on IM, and opinion on IM teaching in their schools. We studied 570 students. Most of them (57.5%) had never realized a clerkship in intensive care unit (ICU) despite classifying its usefulness as high (mean of 4.14 ± 1.05, in a scale from 1 to 5). IM interest was high or very high in 53.7% of sample. Almost all students (97%) thought that IM topics should be more explored at their curriculum. Only 42.1% reported to be able to assess a critical care patient and this assurance was higher among students with previous clerkship in ICU (p < 0.001). Shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and sepsis were the most interesting topics in ICU for students' opinion. This study revealed a high interest in IM among medical undergraduate students. However, most had never practice a clerkship in ICU, demonstrating to be an important factor on undergraduate student performance faced to a critical care patient.

  10. Shame feeling in the Intensive Care Unit patient's family members.

    PubMed

    Koulouras, Vasilios; Konstanti, Zoe; Lepida, Dimitra; Papathanakos, Georgios; Gouva, Mary

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the levels of internal and external shame among family members of critically ill patients. This prospective study was conducted in 2012/2013 on family members of Intensive Care Unit patients using the Others As Shamer Scale and the Experiential Shame Scale questionnaires. Greek university hospital. Two hundred and twenty-three family members mean-aged (41.5±11.9) were studied, corresponding to 147 ICU patients. Out of these 223, 81 (36.3%) were men and 142 (63.7%) were women, while 79 (35.4%) lived with the patient. Family members who lived with the patient experienced higher internal and external shame compared to those who did not live with the patient (p=0.046 and p=0.028 respectively). Elementary and Junior High School graduates scored significantly higher than the other grades graduates in total Others As Shamer Scale, inferiority and emptiness scale (p<0.001). Intensive Care Unit patients' family members are prone to shame feelings, especially when being of low educational level. Health professionals have to take into consideration the possible implications for the patients and their care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of the use, effectiveness and safety of bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin in normal clinical practice using the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP)

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Peter W; Clark, David WJ; Williams, Sheila M; Coulter, David M

    1999-01-01

    Aims Because of the importance of treating dyslipidaemia in the prevention of ischaemic heart disease and because patient selection criteria and outcomes in clinical trials do not necessarily reflect what happens in normal clinical practice, we compared outcomes from bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin therapy under conditions of normal use. Methods A random sample of 200 patients was selected from the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme’s (IMMP) patient cohorts for each drug. Questionnaires sent to prescribers requested information on indications, risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, lipid profiles with changes during treatment and reasons for stopping therapy. Results 80% of prescribers replied and 83% of these contained useful information. The three groups were similar for age, sex and geographical region, but significantly more patients on bezafibrate had diabetes and/or hypertension than those on gemfibrozil or simvastatin. After treatment and taking the initial measure into account, the changes in serum lipid values were consistent with those generally observed, but with gemfibrozil being significantly less effective than expected. More patients (15.8%) stopped gemfibrozil because of an inadequate response compared with bezafibrate (5.4%) and simvastatin (1.6%). Gemfibrozil treatment was also withdrawn significantly more frequently due to a possible adverse reaction compared with the other two drugs. Conclusions In normal clinical practice in New Zealand gemfibrozil appears less effective and more frequently causes adverse effects leading to withdrawal of treatment than either bezafibrate or simvastatin. PMID:10073746

  12. Advancing Neurologic Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with a Neonatal Neurologist

    PubMed Central

    Mulkey, Sarah B.; Swearingen, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal neurology is a growing sub-specialty area. Given the considerable amount of neurologic problems present in the neonatal intensive care unit, a neurologist with expertise in neonates is becoming more important. We sought to evaluate the change in neurologic care in the neonatal intensive care unit at our tertiary care hospital by having a dedicated neonatal neurologist. The period post-neonatal neurologist showed a greater number of neurology consultations (P<0.001), number of neurology encounters per patient (P<0.001), a wider variety of diagnoses seen, and an increase in the use of video-electroencephalography (P=0.022), compared to the pre-neonatal neurologist period. The neonatologists expressed appreciation for having a dedicated neurologist available. Standardized protocols for treating hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and neonatal seizures were also developed. Overall, by having a neonatal neurologist, neurology became part of the multi-disciplinary team providing focused neurologic care to newborns. PMID:23271754

  13. The positive financial impact of using an Intensive Care Information System in a tertiary Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Eric; Hoti, Emir; de La Serna, Sofia; Habouchi, Houssam; Ichai, Philippe; Saliba, Faouzi; Samuel, Didier; Azoulay, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    In the French healthcare system, the intensive care budget allocated is directly dependent on the activity level of the center. To evaluate this activity level, it is necessary to code the medical diagnoses and procedures performed on Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using an Intensive Care Information System (ICIS) on the incidence of coding errors and its impact on the ICU budget allocated. Since 2005, the documentation on and monitoring of every patient admitted to our ICU has been carried out using an ICIS. However, the coding process was performed manually until 2008. This study focused on two periods: the period of manual coding (year 2007) and the period of computerized coding (year 2008) which covered a total of 1403 ICU patients. The time spent on the coding process, the rate of coding errors (defined as patients missed/not coded or wrongly identified as undergoing major procedure/s) and the financial impact were evaluated for these two periods. With computerized coding, the time per admission decreased significantly (from 6.8 ± 2.8 min in 2007 to 3.6 ± 1.9 min in 2008, p<0.001). Similarly, a reduction in coding errors was observed (7.9% vs. 2.2%, p<0.001). This decrease in coding errors resulted in a reduced difference between the potential and real ICU financial supplements obtained in the respective years (€194,139 loss in 2007 vs. a €1628 loss in 2008). Using specific computer programs improves the intensive process of manual coding by shortening the time required as well as reducing errors, which in turn positively impacts the ICU budget allocation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Awareness of holistic care practices by intensive care nurses in north-western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Albaqawi, Hamdan M.; Butcon, Vincent R.; Molina, Roger R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine awareness of holistic patient care by staff nurses in the intensive care units of hospitals in the city of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative correlational study design was used to investigate relationships between intensive care nurse’s awareness of holistic practices and nurses’ latest performance review. Intensive care staff nurses (n=99) from 4 public sector hospitals in Hail were surveyed on their awareness of variables across 5 holistic domains: physiological, sociocultural, psychological, developmental, and spiritual. Data were collected between October and December 2015 using written survey, and performance evaluations obtained from the hospital administrations. Results were statistically analyzed and compared (numerical, percentage, Pearson’s correlation, Chronbach’s alpha). Results: The ICU staff nurses in Hail City were aware of the secular aspects of holistic care, and the majority had very good performance evaluations. There were no demographic trends regarding holistic awareness and nurse performance. Further, awareness of holistic care was not associated with nurse performance. Conclusion: A caring-enhancement workshop and a mentoring program for non-Saudi nurses may increase holistic care awareness and enhance its practice in the ICUs. PMID:28762435

  15. Awareness of holistic care practices by intensive care nurses in north-western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Albaqawi, Hamdan M; Butcon, Vincent R; Molina, Roger R

    2017-08-01

    To examine awareness of holistic patient care by staff nurses in the intensive care units of hospitals in the city of Hail, Saudi Arabia.  Methods: A quantitative correlational study design was used to investigate relationships between intensive care nurse's awareness of holistic practices and nurses' latest performance review. Intensive care staff nurses (n=99) from 4 public sector hospitals in Hail were surveyed on their awareness of variables across 5 holistic domains: physiological, sociocultural, psychological, developmental, and spiritual. Data were collected between October and December 2015 using written survey, and performance evaluations obtained from the hospital administrations. Results were statistically analyzed and compared (numerical, percentage, Pearson's correlation, Chronbach's alpha). Results: The ICU staff nurses in Hail City were aware of the secular aspects of holistic care, and the majority had very good performance evaluations. There were no demographic trends regarding holistic awareness and nurse performance. Further, awareness of holistic care was not associated with nurse performance.  Conclusion: A caring-enhancement workshop and a mentoring program for non-Saudi nurses may increase holistic care awareness and enhance its practice in the ICUs.

  16. [Application and evalauation of care plan for patients admitted to Intensive Care Units].

    PubMed

    Cuzco Cabellos, C; Guasch Pomés, N

    2015-01-01

    Assess whether the use of the nursing care plans improves outcomes of nursing care to patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The study was conducted in a University Hospital of Barcelona in Spain, using a pre- and post-study design. A total of 61 patient records were analysed in the pre-intervention group. A care plan was applied to 55 patients in the post-intervention group. Specific quality indicators in a medical intensive care unit to assess the clinical practice of nursing were used. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the degree of association between quality indicators in the two groups. A total of 116 records of 121 patients were evaluated: 61 pre-intervention and 55 post-intervention. Fisher test: The filling of nursing records, p=.0003. Checking cardiorespiratory arrest equipment, p <.001. Central vascular catheter related bacteraemia (B-CVC) p=.622. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) p=.1000. Elevation of the head of the bed more than 30° p=.049, and the pain management in non-sedated patients p=.082. The implementation of nursing care plans in patients admitted to the intensive care area may contribute to improvement in the outcomes of nursing care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Increasing Access to Palliative Care Services in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, Caitlin Marie

    The Institute of Medicine's report, Dying in America, highlights the critical need for the widespread implementation of palliative care to improve end-of-life care. Approximately 20% of all deaths in America occur during or shortly after an intensive care unit (ICU) admission; therefore, it is important for critical care units to have systems in place to facilitate patient access to palliative care services. The aim of this quality improvement (QI) project was to develop and implement a palliative care screening tool using evidence-based triggers to help increase the proportion of palliative care consultations in the ICU setting. A QI project was designed and implemented in a 14-bed medical-surgical ICU in the southeastern United States using the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle. A palliative care screening tool was developed by an interdisciplinary team of key stakeholders in the ICU using evidence-based triggers, and staff were educated on the intervention. The proportion of ICU patients who received a palliative care consultation was compared preintervention and postintervention to determine whether the QI project contributed to an increased proportion of palliative care consultations. The proportion of palliative care consultations among patients admitted to the ICU by the pulmonary critical care team increased from 1 of 10 preintervention to 3 of 10 postintervention, resulting in a promising increase in patients receiving palliative care services consistent with evidence-based recommendations. The use of an evidence-based screening tool to trigger palliative care consultation in the ICU setting can aid in increasing the proportion of critical care patients who receive a palliative care referral. The increase in the proportion of palliative care referrals by the pulmonary critical care service warrants expansion of the intervention to include additional medical subspecialists who frequently admit patients in this ICU setting. Further assessment of the intervention is

  18. [Analysis of informed consent readibility in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Puerta, M R; Fernández-Fernández, R; Frías-Pareja, J C; Yuste-Ossorio, M E; Narbona-Galdó, S; Peñas-Maldonado, L

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the readability of informed consent documents (IC) used in an intensive care department and in the Andalusian Healthcare System (AHS). A descriptive study was carried out. The Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary Hospital, and the AHS. A review and analysis was made of the existing 14 IC models in the Intensive Care Unit and of another 14 IC models offered by the AHS, using the following readability scores: Flesch, Sentence complexity, LEGIN, Fernández-Huerta, Szigriszt and INFLESZ. Twenty-four IC (85.7%) failed to satisfy some of the indexes, while three (10.7%) did not satisfy any of them. Four documents (14.3%) satisfied all the indexes analyzed, and therefore are easy to understand. Flesch score: satisfied by one of the ICU IC (7.1%) and by three of the AHS documents (21.4%). Sentence complexity score: satisfied by 11 of the ICU IC (78.6%) and by 13 of the AHS documents (92.8%). Fernández-Huerta score: satisfied by four of the ICU IC (28.6%) and by 13 of the AHS documents (92.8%). Szigriszt score: satisfied by two of the ICU IC (14.3%) and by 11 of the AHS documents (64.3%). INFLESZ score: satisfied by two of the ICU IC (14.3%) and by 10 of the AHS documents (71.4%). The documents analyzed are generally difficult to read and understand by most people, and do not satisfy the basic purpose for which they were drafted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Noise pollution in intensive care units and emergency wards.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Gholamreza; Roudi, Masoumeh; Shah Farhat, Ahmad; Shahabian, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    The improvement of technology has increased noise levels in hospital Wards to higher than international standard levels (35-45 dB). Higher noise levels than the maximum level result in patient's instability and dissatisfaction. Moreover, it will have serious negative effects on the staff's health and the quality of their services. The purpose of this survey is to analyze the level of noise in intensive care units and emergency wards of the Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Mashhad. This research was carried out in November 2009 during morning shifts between 7:30 to 12:00. Noise levels were measured 10 times at 30-minute intervals in the nursing stations of 10 wards of the emergency, the intensive care units, and the Nephrology and Kidney Transplant Departments of Imam Reza University Hospital, Mashhad. The noise level in the nursing stations was tested for both the maximum level (Lmax) and the equalizing level (Leq). The research was based on the comparison of equalizing levels (Leq) because maximum levels were unstable. In our survey the average level (Leq) in all wards was much higher than the standard level. The maximum level (Lmax) in most wards was 85-86 dB and just in one measurement in the Internal ICU reached 94 dB. The average level of Leq in all wards was 60.2 dB. In emergency units, it was 62.2 dB, but it was not time related. The highest average level (Leq) was measured at 11:30 AM and the peak was measured in the Nephrology nursing station. The average levels of noise in intensive care units and also emergency wards were more than the standard levels and as it is known these wards have vital roles in treatment procedures, so more attention is needed in this area.

  20. Clinical Profile of Hypertensive Emergencies in an Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Dhadke, Shubhangi V; Dhadke, Vithal N; Batra, Dhruv S

    2017-05-01

    To study the prevalence of hypertensive emergencies in an ICU set up and to study the clinical presentation of hypertensive emergencies related to cardiovascular, neurological and renovascular system. Type of Study: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Two years from 1st December 2011 till 30th November 2013. 50 patients of hypertensive emergencies admitted to the intensive care unit of Dr. V.M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur were studied. Inclusion criteria All patients above 18 years of age. Systolic blood pressure > 180 mmHg Diastolic blood pressure > 120 mm Hg Exclusion criteria Pregnancy Patients with diabetes mellitus We classified as hypertensive emergencies all cases in which the increase in blood pressure was associated with one or more of the following types of acute or ongoing end-organ damage: hypertensive encephalopathy; stroke (cerebral infarction or intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack); acute pulmonary edema, left ventricular failure; acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina, progressive renal insufficiency features suggestive of retinopathy. All these conditions were diagnosed clinically or by approprriate diagnostic tests. most common presenting complaint in patients was breathlessness seen in 17 patients (34%), followed by neurological deficit in 14 patients (28%). Thirteen patients (26%) had complaints of headache, whereas 12 (24%) patients complained of chest pain on admission. Other symptoms included vomiting, giddiness, psychomotor agitation, and decreased urine output. Out of a total of 4076 admissions during the study period in the intensive care unit we had 50 cases of hypertensive emergencies with prevalence of 1.22% in our intensive care unit. Most common organ involvement was the retina followed by cardiovascular system, renal and then the central nervous system.

  1. Registrar sleep patterns and supervision during two different rosters in a tertiary Australasian intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Poynter, Chris J; Garden, Alexander; Young, Paul J

    2012-03-01

    To compare registrar sleep and supervision hours before and after a change in roster to accommodate more senior registrar (SR) positions, and to identify risky patterns of sleep on night shifts. Prospective study of 21 registrars on two different roster templates from September 2010 to May 2011 in the intensive care unit of Wellington Regional Hospital, Wellington, New Zealand. Roster change from 13 registrars and one SR to 10 registrars and four SRs. Mean sleep and supervision hours by shift; episodes of sleep ≤ 5 hours, wakefulness ≥17 hours, sleep during shift, waking before 16:00 before night shifts. 990 sleep surveys were analysed. There was no significant difference between groups in mean sleep or supervision hours for any shift. Two hundred and thirty-six night shifts were analysed. Registrars slept ≤5 hours before 19/236 (8.1%) night shifts; had ≥17 hours wakefulness before 79/236 night shifts (33.5%); woke by 16:00 107/ 236 (45.3%) times; and slept during 86/236 (36.4%) night shifts. Registrars arrived at work having either woken before 16:00 or had ≤5 hours of sleep on 114/236 (48.3%) night shifts. Changing the registrar roster to meet the training demands of our senior trainees did not adversely affect registrar sleep or supervision. Registrars may be taking on unnecessary risk due to poor sleep hygiene around night shifts. We suggest sleep education and scheduled sleep time during night shifts.

  2. Withholding treatment, withdrawing treatment, and palliative care in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Walther, Frans J

    2005-12-01

    Advances in pharmacology and technology have sharply reduced mortality of extremely preterm infants at the expense of an increasing number of survivors with handicaps and disabilities. The EURONIC study among neonatal intensive care units across Europe demonstrates that treatment of infants born at the limits of viability raises challenging ethical, moral, legal, and emotional dilemmas among neonatologists, nurses, and parents alike. When is it wise to withhold or withdraw intensive care and, if so, what are the needs of the nonviable or dying infant, family, and neonatal staff to provide a humane and compassionate death? This process begins with a thorough determination of diagnosis and prognosis, followed by decision making on the basis of futility of treatment or quality-of-life issues, and counseling of parents. Withholding or withdrawing of intensive care should be synonymous with palliative care. Perinatal audit and after-care of the family complete the process. The Dutch viewpoint and practice guidelines on withholding and withdrawing of neonatal intensive care are presented.

  3. Attendance for general practitioner asthma care by children with moderate to severe asthma in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Buetow, Stephen; Richards, Deborah; Mitchell, Ed; Gribben, Barry; Adair, Vivienne; Coster, Gregor; Hight, Makere

    2004-11-01

    Attendance for general practitioner (GP) care of childhood asthma varies widely in New Zealand (NZ). There is little current research to account for the variations, although groups such as Māori and Pacific peoples have traditionally faced barriers to accessing GP care. This paper aims to describe and account for attendance levels for GP asthma care among 6-9 year-olds with moderate to severe asthma in Auckland, NZ. During 2002, randomly selected schools identified all 6-9 year-olds with possible breathing problems. Completion of a questionnaire by each parent/guardian indicated which children had moderate to severe asthma, and what characteristics influenced their access to GP asthma care. A multilevel, negative binomial regression model (NBRM) was fitted to account for the number of reported GP visits for asthma, with adjustment for clustering within schools. Twenty-six schools (89.7 percent) identified 931 children with possible breathing problems. Useable questionnaires were returned to schools by 455 children (48.9 percent). Results indicated 209 children with moderate to severe asthma, almost one in every three reportedly making 5 or more GP visits for asthma in the previous year. Māori, Pacific and Asian children were disproportionately represented among these 'high attendees'. Low attendees (0-2 visits) were mainly NZ Europeans. The NBRM (n=155) showed that expected visits were increased by perceived need, ill-health, asthma severity and, in particular, Māori and Pacific child ethnicity. It may be that Māori and Pacific children no longer face significant barriers to accessing GP asthma care. However, more likely is that barriers apply only to accessing routine, preventative care, leading to poor asthma control, exacerbations requiring acute care, and paradoxically an increase in GP visits. That barriers may increase total numbers of visits challenges the assumption, for all health systems, that access can be defined in terms of barriers that must be

  4. Predictors of inadequate prenatal care in methamphetamine-using mothers in New Zealand and the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Lagasse, Linda L; Wouldes, Trecia A; Arria, Amelia M; Wilcox, Tara; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M; Neal, Charles R; Huestis, Marilyn A; Dellagrotta, Sheri; Lester, Barry M

    2013-04-01

    This study compared patterns of prenatal care among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy and non-using mothers in the US and New Zealand (NZ), and evaluated associations among maternal drug use, child protective services (CPS) referral, and inadequate prenatal care in both countries. The sample consisted of 182 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 196 in the Comparison groups in the US, and 107 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 112 in the Comparison groups in NZ. Positive toxicology results and/or maternal report of MA use during pregnancy were used to identify MA use. Information about sociodemographics, prenatal care and prenatal substance use was collected by maternal interview. MA-use during pregnancy is associated with lower socioeconomic status, single marital status, and CPS referral in both NZ and the US. Compared to their non-using counterparts, MA-using mothers in the US had significantly higher rates of inadequate prenatal care. No association was found between inadequate care and MA-use in NZ. In the US, inadequate prenatal care was associated with CPS referral, but not in NZ. Referral to CPS for drug use only composed 40 % of all referrals in the US, but only 15 % of referrals in NZ. In our study population, prenatal MA-use and CPS referral eclipse maternal sociodemographics in explanatory power for inadequate prenatal care. The predominant effect of CPS referral in the US is especially interesting, and should encourage further research on whether the US policy of mandatory reporting discourages drug-using mothers from seeking antenatal care.

  5. Occupational Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Mark; Herman, Jennifer; Dickason, Stephanie; Mayo, Helen

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the available literature on occupational therapy interventions performed in the adult intensive care unit (ICU). The databases of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and CINAHL databases were systematically searched from inception through August 2016 for studies of adults who received occupational therapy interventions in the ICU. Of 1,938 citations reviewed, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. Only one study explicitly discussed occupational therapy interventions performed and only one study specifically tested the efficacy of occupational therapy. Future research is needed to clarify the specific interventions and role of occupational therapy in the ICU and the efficacy of these interventions.

  6. Preventing clostridium difficile infection in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Zilberberg, Marya D; Shorr, Andrew F

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a formidable problem in the twenty-first century. Because of injudicious use of antibiotics, the emergence of the hypervirulent epidemic strain of this organism has been difficult to contain. The NAP1/BI/027 strain causes more-severe disease than other widely prevalent strains and affects patients who were not traditionally thought to be at risk for Clostridium difficile infection. Critically ill patients remain at high risk for this pathogen, and preventive measures, such as meticulous contact precautions, hand hygiene, environmental disinfection, and, most importantly, antibiotic stewardship, are the cornerstones of mitigation in the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rhythmic artifact of physiotherapy in intensive care unit EEG recordings.

    PubMed

    Young, Bryan; Raihan, Syed; Ladak, H; Kelly, Martin

    2007-06-01

    Intensive care unit EEG recordings are often contaminated by artifacts that are unseen elsewhere and are usually not documented. One is the rhythmic artifact of physiotherapy (RAP), which can follow the frequency of chest percussion or vibration with either fundamental or harmonic sinusoidal wave forms, affecting single or multiple channels. The occipital electrodes are the most commonly affected, but others can be involved separately or in combination. RAP can easily be mistaken for cerebrally originating rhythms, including seizures. RAP is most easily detected by examining the ECG channel, which usually captures the artifact, but video EEG provides another means, at least for chest percussion.

  8. Technics of touch in the neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    van Manen, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Medical technologies, although often crucial for the provision of healthcare, may carry unintended significance for patients and their families. The highly technicised neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is the place where parents of hospitalised baby have their early encounters with their child. The aim of this study is to investigate phenomenologically how the contact and relation between parent and child may be affected by the mediating presence and use of the techno-medical features and equipments of the NICU. Three common technologies are examined for the ways they condition the kinds of contact afforded between parents and child: the isolette, the feeding tube and the brain imaging equipment. The concluding recommendations speak of the need for understanding the relational experiences of parents of hospitalised babies, and the tactful sensitivities required of the healthcare teams who provide care to these families.

  9. Use of hypothermia in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Corry, Jesse J

    2012-01-01

    Used for over 3600 years, hypothermia, or targeted temperature management (TTM), remains an ill defined medical therapy. Currently, the strongest evidence for TTM in adults are for out-of-hospital ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest, intracerebral pressure control, and normothermia in the neurocritical care population. Even in these disease processes, a number of questions exist. Data on disease specific therapeutic markers, therapeutic depth and duration, and prognostication are limited. Despite ample experimental data, clinical evidence for stroke, refractory status epilepticus, hepatic encephalopathy, and intensive care unit is only at the safety and proof-of-concept stage. This review explores the deleterious nature of fever, the theoretical role of TTM in the critically ill, and summarizes the clinical evidence for TTM in adults. PMID:24701408

  10. Modern trends in infection control practices in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Gandra, Sumanth; Ellison, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There has been an increasing effort to prevent HAIs, and infection control practices are paramount in avoiding these complications. In the last several years, numerous developments have been seen in the infection prevention strategies in various health care settings. This article reviews the modern trends in infection control practices to prevent HAIs in ICUs with a focus on methods for monitoring hand hygiene, updates in isolation precautions, new methods for environmental cleaning, antimicrobial bathing, prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and Clostridium difficile infection. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Medical staffing in Ontario neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Paes, B; Mitchell, A; Hunsberger, M; Blatz, S; Watts, J; Dent, P; Sinclair, J; Southwell, D

    1989-06-01

    Advances in technology have improved the survival rates of infants of low birth weight. Increasing service commitments together with cutbacks in Canadian training positions have caused concerns about medical staffing in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Ontario. To determine whether an imbalance exists between the supply of medical personnel and the demand for health care services, in July 1985 we surveyed the medical directors, head nurses and staff physicians of nine tertiary level NICUs and the directors of five postgraduate pediatric residency programs. On the basis of current guidelines recommending an ideal neonatologist:patient ratio of 1:6 (assuming an adequate number of support personnel) most of the NICUs were understaffed. Concern about the heavy work pattern and resulting lifestyle implications has made Canadian graduates reluctant to enter this subspecialty. We propose strategies to correct staffing shortages in the context of rapidly increasing workloads resulting from a continuing cutback of pediatric residency positions and restrictions on immigration of foreign trainees.

  12. Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chien-Huai; Tseng, Pei-Chi; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Burnout has been described as a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stress on the job that is often the result of a period of expending excessive effort at work while having too little recovery time. Healthcare workers who work in a stressful medical environment, especially in an intensive care unit (ICU), may be particularly susceptible to burnout. In healthcare workers, burnout may affect their well-being and the quality of professional care they provide and can, therefore, be detrimental to patient safety. The objectives of this study were: to determine the prevalence of burnout in the ICU setting; and to identify factors associated with burnout in ICU professionals. The original articles for observational studies were retrieved from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science in June 2016 using the following MeSH terms: "burnout" and "intensive care unit". Articles that were published in English between January 1996 and June 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts identified using our search criteria prior to full text review. To be included in the final analysis, studies were required to have employed an observational study design and examined the associations between any risk factors and burnout in the ICU setting. Overall, 203 full text articles were identified in the electronic databases after the exclusion of duplicate articles. After the initial review, 25 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of burnout in ICU professionals in the included studies ranged from 6% to 47%. The following factors were reported to be associated with burnout: age, sex, marital status, personality traits, work experience in an ICU, work environment, workload and shift work, ethical issues, and end-of-life decision-making. The impact of the identified factors on burnout remains poorly understood. Nevertheless, this review presents important information, suggesting that ICU professionals may suffer from a high level

  13. Multisite experimental cost study of intensive psychiatric community care.

    PubMed

    Rosenheck, R; Neale, M; Leaf, P; Milstein, R; Frisman, L

    1995-01-01

    A 2-year experimental cost study of 10 Intensive Psychiatric Community Care (IPCC) programs was conducted at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers in the Northeast. High hospital users were randomly assigned to either IPCC (n = 454) or standard VA care (n = 419) at four neuropsychiatric (NP) and six general medical and surgical (GMS) hospitals. National computerized data were used to track all VA health care service usage and costs for 2 years following program entry. At 9 of the 10 sites, IPCC treatment resulted in reduced inpatient service usage. Overall, for IPCC patients compared with control patients, average inpatient usage was 89 days (33%) less while average cost per patient (for IPCC inpatient, and outpatient services) was $15,556 (20%) less. Additionally, costs for IPCC patients compared with control patients were $33,295 (29%) less at NP sites but were $6,273 (15%) greater at GMS sites. At both NP and GMS sites, costs were lower for IPCC patients in two subgroups: veterans over age 45 and veterans with high levels of inpatient service use before program entry. No interaction was noted between the impact of IPCC on costs and other clinical or sociodemographic characteristics. Similarly, no linear relationship was observed between the intensity of IPCC services and the impact of IPCC on VA costs, although the two sites that did not fully implement the IPCC program had the poorest results. With these sites excluded, the total cost of care for IPCC patients at GMS sites was $579 (3%) more per year than that for the control patients.

  14. Strategies to address management challenges in larger intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Matlakala, M C; Bezuidenhout, M C; Botha, A D H

    2015-10-01

    To illustrate the need for and suggest strategies that will enhance sustainable management of a large intensive care unit (ICU). The challenges faced by intensive care nursing in South Africa are well documented. However, there appear to be no strategies available to assist nurses to manage large ICUs or for ICU managers to deal with problems as they arise. Data sources to illustrate the need for strategies were challenges described by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. A purposive sample of managers was included in individual interviews during compilation of evidence regarding the challenges experienced in the management of large ICUs. The challenges were presented at the Critical Care Society of Southern Africa Congress held on 28 August to 2 September 2012 in Sun City North-West province, South Africa. Five strategies are suggested for the challenges identified: divide the units into sections; develop a highly skilled and effective nursing workforce to ensure delivery of quality nursing care; create a culture to retain an effective ICU nursing team; manage assets; and determine the needs of ICU nurses. ICUs need measures to drive the desired strategies into actions to continuously improve the management of the unit. Future research should be aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the strategies identified. This research highlights issues relating to large ICUs and the strategies will assist ICU managers to deal with problems related to large unit sizes, shortage of trained ICU nurses, use of agency nurses, shortage of equipment and supplies and stressors in the ICU. The article will make a contribution to the body of nursing literature on management of ICUs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hospital sector choice and support for public hospital care in New Zealand: Results from a labeled discrete choice survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Panattoni, Laura; Cameron, Linda; Knox, Stephanie; Ashton, Toni; Tenbensel, Tim; Windsor, John

    2015-09-01

    This study uses a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to measure patients' preferences for public and private hospital care in New Zealand. A labeled DCE was administered to 583 members of the general public, with the choice between a public and private hospital for a non-urgent surgery. The results suggest that cost of surgery, waiting times for surgery, option to select a surgeon, convenience, and conditions of the hospital ward are important considerations for patients. The most important determinant of hospital choice was whether it was a public or private hospital, with respondents far more likely to choose a public hospital than a private hospital. The results have implications for government policy toward using private hospitals to clear waiting lists in public hospitals, with these results suggesting the public might not be indifferent to policies that treat private hospitals as substitutes for public hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of a bus network in access to primary health care in Metropolitan Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C M; McGuire, S; Whyman, R; Kruger, E; Tennant, M

    2015-09-01

    Background: This study examined the spatial accessibility of the population of metropolitan Auckland, New Zealand to the bus network, to connect them to primary health providers, in this case doctors (GP) and dentists. Analysis of accessibility by ethnic identity and socio-economic status were also carried out, because of existing health inequalities along these dimensions. The underlying hypothesis was that most people would live within easy reach of primary health providers, or easy bus transport to such providers. An integrated geographic model of bus transport routes and stops, with population and primary health providers (medical. and dental practices) was developed and analysed. Although the network of buses in metropolitan Auckland is substantial and robust it was evident that many people live more than 150 metres from a stop. Improving the access to bus stops, particularly in areas of high primary health care need (doctors and dentists), would certainly be an opportunity to enhance spatial access in a growing metropolitan area.

  17. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Layout and Nurses' Work.

    PubMed

    Doede, Megan; Trinkoff, Alison M; Gurses, Ayse P

    2018-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) remain one of the few areas in hospitals that still use an open bay (OPBY) design for patient stays greater than 24 hr, housing multiple infants, staff, and families in one large room. This creates high noise levels, contributes to the spread of infection, and affords families little privacy. These problems have given rise to the single-family room NICU. This represents a significant change in the care environment for nurses. This literature review answers the question: When compared to OPBY layout, how does a single family room layout impact neonatal nurses' work? Thirteen studies published between 2006 and 2015 were located. Many studies reported both positive and negative effects on nurses' work and were therefore sorted by their cited advantages and disadvantages. Advantages included improved quality of the physical environment; improved quality of patient care; improved parent interaction; and improvements in nurse job satisfaction, stress, and burnout. Disadvantages included decreased interaction among the NICU patient care team, increased nurse workload, decreased visibility on the unit, and difficult interactions with family. This review suggests that single-family room NICUs introduce a complex situation in which trade-offs occur for nurses, most prominently the trade-off between visibility and privacy. Additionally, the literature is clear on what elements of nurses' work are impacted, but how the built environment influences these elements, and how these elements interact during nurses' work, is not as well understood. The current level of research and directions for future research are also discussed.

  18. Intermittent Demand Forecasting in a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Meng-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Forecasts of the demand for medical supplies both directly and indirectly affect the operating costs and the quality of the care provided by health care institutions. Specifically, overestimating demand induces an inventory surplus, whereas underestimating demand possibly compromises patient safety. Uncertainty in forecasting the consumption of medical supplies generates intermittent demand events. The intermittent demand patterns for medical supplies are generally classified as lumpy, erratic, smooth, and slow-moving demand. This study was conducted with the purpose of advancing a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit's efforts to achieve a high level of accuracy in its forecasting of the demand for medical supplies. On this point, several demand forecasting methods were compared in terms of the forecast accuracy of each. The results confirm that applying Croston's method combined with a single exponential smoothing method yields the most accurate results for forecasting lumpy, erratic, and slow-moving demand, whereas the Simple Moving Average (SMA) method is the most suitable for forecasting smooth demand. In addition, when the classification of demand consumption patterns were combined with the demand forecasting models, the forecasting errors were minimized, indicating that this classification framework can play a role in improving patient safety and reducing inventory management costs in health care institutions.

  19. Innovation in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care: An Exponential Convergence Toward Transformation of Care.

    PubMed

    Maher, Kevin O; Chang, Anthony C; Shin, Andrew; Hunt, Juliette; Wong, Hector R

    2015-10-01

    The word innovation is derived from the Latin noun innovatus, meaning renewal or change. Although companies such as Google and Apple are nearly synonymous with innovation, virtually all sectors in our current lives are imbued with yearn for innovation. This has led to organizational focus on innovative strategies as well as recruitment of chief innovation officers and teams in a myriad of organizations. At times, however, the word innovation seems like an overused cliché, as there are now more than 5,000 books in print with the word "innovation" in the title. More recently, innovation has garnered significant attention in health care. The future of health care is expected to innovate on a large scale in order to deliver sustained value for an overall transformative care. To date, there are no published reports on the state of the art in innovation in pediatric health care and in particular, pediatric cardiac intensive care. This report will address the issue of innovation in pediatric medicine with relevance to cardiac intensive care and delineate possible future directions and strategies in pediatric cardiac intensive care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Safety and efficacy of an intensive insulin protocol in a burn-trauma intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Amalia; Davis, Lynn; Morris, Stephen E; Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive glycemic management in critically ill patients with acute burn injury or life-threatening soft-tissue infections has not been thoroughly evaluated. An intensive insulin protocol with target glucose values of less than 120 mg/dl was implemented in October 2005 in our regional Burn-Trauma intensive care unit. We reviewed our initial experience with this protocol to evaluate the safety and efficacy of aggressive glycemic control in these patient groups. Patients were placed on the intensive insulin protocol based upon the need for glycemic management during their hospitalization for burn or soft-tissue disease. Patient information prospectively collected while on protocol included all measured blood glucose values, total daily insulin use, and incidence of hypoglycemic episodes, defined as serum glucose <60 mg/dl. Thirty patients (17 burns, 13 soft-tissue infections) were placed on the intensive insulin protocol during the first 16 months of use. The mean daily blood glucose level for burn patients was 115.9 mg/dl and for soft-tissue disease patients was 119.5 mg/dl. There was a 5% incidence of hypoglycemic episodes per protocol day. All hypoglycemic episodes were treated by holding the insulin infusion, and no episode had known adverse effects. Hyperglycemia in critically ill patients with burns and extensive soft-tissue disease can be effectively managed with an insulin protocol that targets blood glucose values of less than 120 mg/dl with minimal incidence of hypoglycemia. A multicenter prospective randomized trial would provide the ideal forum for evaluating clinical outcome benefits of using an intensive insulin protocol.

  1. Intensive Care Nurses' Attitude on Palliative and End of Life Care.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Swagata; Routray, Pragyan K; Mishra, Jagdish C

    2017-10-01

    Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses have a vital role in the implementation of end of life (EOL) care. There is limited data on the attitude of ICU nurses toward EOL and palliation. This study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of intensive care nurses in eastern India toward EOL. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to delegates in two regional critical care nurses' training programs. Of 178 questionnaires distributed, 138 completed, with a response rate of 75.5*. About half (48.5*) had more than 1 year ICU experience. A majority (81.9*) agreed that nurses should be involved in and initiate (62.3*) EOL discussions. Terms "EOL care or palliative care in ICU" were new for 19.6*; 21* and 55.8* disagreed with allowing peaceful death in terminal patients and unrestricted family visits, respectively. Work experience was associated with wanting unrestricted family visitation, discontinuing monitoring and investigations at EOL, equating withholding and withdrawal of treatment, and being a part of EOL team discussions ( P = 0.005, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.001), respectively. Religiousness was associated with a greater desire to initiate EOL discussions ( P = 0.001). Greater emphasis on palliative care in critical care curriculum may improve awareness among critical care nurses.

  2. Core measures for developmentally supportive care in neonatal intensive care units: theory, precedence and practice

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Mary; Gibbins, Sharyn; Hoath, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Title Core measures for developmentally supportive care in neonatal intensive care units: theory, precedence and practice. Aim This paper is a discussion of evidence-based core measures for developmental care in neonatal intensive care units. Background Inconsistent definition, application and evaluation of developmental care have resulted in criticism of its scientific merit. The key concept guiding data organization in this paper is the United States of America’s Joint Commission’s concept of ‘core measures’ for evaluating and accrediting healthcare organizations. This concept is applied to five disease- and procedure-independent measures based on the Universe of Developmental Care model. Data sources Electronically accessible, peer reviewed studies on developmental care published in English were culled for data supporting the selected objective core measures between 1978 and 2008. The quality of evidence was based on a structured predetermined format that included three independent reviewers. Systematic reviews and randomized control trials were considered the strongest level of evidence. When unavailable, cohort, case control, consensus statements and qualitative methods were considered the strongest level of evidence for a particular clinical issue. Discussion Five core measure sets for evidence-based developmental care were evaluated: (1) protected sleep, (2) pain and stress assessment and management, (3) developmental activities of daily living, (4) family-centred care, and (5) the healing environment. These five categories reflect recurring themes that emerged from the literature review regarding developmentally supportive care and quality caring practices in neonatal populations. This practice model provides clear metrics for nursing actions having an impact on the hospital experience of infant-family dyads. Conclusion Standardized disease-independent core measures for developmental care establish minimum evidence-based practice expectations and

  3. Intensive Care in a Patient with Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a serious adverse drug reaction with high lethality, which usually requires intensive-medical care. A 44-year-old man developed generalized exanthema with increasing exfoliation and mucosal involvement after taking allopurinol, ibuprofen, and etoricoxib. The clinical diagnosis of TEN was histologically confirmed. Prednisolone therapy with 3 mg/kg body weight (BW) was not able to prevent further progress to finally 80% of the body surface, and infliximab 5 mg/kg BW was given as a single dose. This prevented further progression of the TEN. Despite marked improvement in skin findings, the ICU stay was prolonged by a complex analgosedation, transient kidney failure, volume management, positioning therapy, and vegetatively impeded weaning. Moreover, there was colonization with multiresistant bacteria (MRSA and VRE). Nonetheless, the patient could be restored to health and was released after four weeks. Infliximab seems to be effective in the treatment of TEN, especially in cases of rapid progression. Moreover, patients with TEN are difficult to handle in intensive-medical care, whereby attention should especially be paid to sufficient pain therapy, and the positioning of the patient is a particular challenge. PMID:29225976

  4. Supporting the scholar role in intensive care nursing.

    PubMed

    Melles, M; Freudenthal, A; de Ridder, H

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how future informatics applications can support and challenge intensive care nurses (ICU nurses) to grow and learn continuously. To this end a research-and-design tool is introduced which is based on a model of the nursing process that starts from the idea that a nurse fulfills three different roles: the role of practitioner (using information immediately to base actions upon), the role of scholar (using information later on to learn from) and the role of human (coping with stress and dealing with emotions). In this paper the focus is on the scholar role. Twenty-eight intensive care staff members from six different hospitals were asked to recount an imposing experience from the perspective of each role. Regarding the scholar role, the participants mentioned 77 learning strategies they adopt for individual as well as organizational learning. Individual learning concerned reflection on former patient cases, reflection on current patient cases to anticipate a change in the patient's condition and reflection on personal behavior and decisions. Organizational learning concerned reflection on former patient cases. Examples of specific strategies were formal team evaluations focused on procedure and understanding the perspective of team members, being present at autopsies, and giving feedback on the nursing skills of colleagues. Based on these strategies design implications are defined for future nursing informatics applications, which will be presented.

  5. Do intensive care data on respiratory infections reflect influenza epidemics?

    PubMed

    Koetsier, Antonie; van Asten, Liselotte; Dijkstra, Frederika; van der Hoek, Wim; Snijders, Bianca E; van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Donker, Gé A; de Lange, Dylan W; de Keizer, Nicolette F; Peek, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Severe influenza can lead to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. We explored whether ICU data reflect influenza like illness (ILI) activity in the general population, and whether ICU respiratory infections can predict influenza epidemics. We calculated the time lag and correlation between ILI incidence (from ILI sentinel surveillance, based on general practitioners (GP) consultations) and percentages of ICU admissions with a respiratory infection (from the Dutch National Intensive Care Registry) over the years 2003-2011. In addition, ICU data of the first three years was used to build three regression models to predict the start and end of influenza epidemics in the years thereafter, one to three weeks ahead. The predicted start and end of influenza epidemics were compared with observed start and end of such epidemics according to the incidence of ILI. Peaks in respiratory ICU admissions lasted longer than peaks in ILI incidence rates. Increases in ICU admissions occurred on average two days earlier compared to ILI. Predicting influenza epidemics one, two, or three weeks ahead yielded positive predictive values ranging from 0.52 to 0.78, and sensitivities from 0.34 to 0.51. ICU data was associated with ILI activity, with increases in ICU data often occurring earlier and for a longer time period. However, in the Netherlands, predicting influenza epidemics in the general population using ICU data was imprecise, with low positive predictive values and sensitivities.

  6. Ethical publishing in intensive care medicine: A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Wiedermann, Christian J

    2016-01-01

    Ethical standards in the context of scientific publications are increasingly gaining attention. A narrative review of the literature concerning publication ethics was conducted as found in PubMed, Google Scholar, relevant news articles, position papers, websites and other sources. The Committee on Publication Ethics has produced guidelines and schedules for the handling of problem situations that have been adopted by professional journals and publishers worldwide as guidelines to authors. The defined requirements go beyond the disclosure of conflicts of interest or the prior registration of clinical trials. Recommendations to authors, editors and publishers of journals and research institutions were formulated with regard to issues of authorship, double publications, plagiarism, and conflicts of interest, with special attention being paid to unethical research behavior and data falsification. This narrative review focusses on ethical publishing in intensive care medicine. As scientific misconduct with data falsification damage patients and society, especially if fraudulent studies are considered important or favor certain therapies and downplay their side effects, it is important to ensure that only studies are published that have been carried out with highest integrity according to predefined criteria. For that also the peer review process has to be conducted in accordance with the highest possible scientific standards and making use of available modern information technology. The review provides the current state of recommendations that are considered to be most relevant particularly in the field of intensive care medicine. PMID:27652208

  7. Assessing organizational performance in intensive care units: a French experience.

    PubMed

    Minvielle, Etienne; Aegerter, Philippe; Dervaux, Benoît; Boumendil, Ariane; Retbi, Aurélia; Jars-Guincestre, Marie Claude; Guidet, Bertrand

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess and to explain variation of organizational performance in intensive care units (ICUs). This was a prospective multicenter study. The study involved 26 ICUs located in the Paris area, France, participating in a regional database. Data were collected through answers of 1000 ICU personnel to the Culture, Organization, and Management in Intensive Care questionnaire and from the database. Organizational performance was assessed through a composite score related to 5 dimensions: coordination and adaptation to uncertainty, communication, conflict management, organizational change, and organizational learning, Skills developed in relationship with patients and their families. Statistical comparisons between ICUs were performed by analysis of variance with a Scheffé pairwise procedure. A multilevel regression model was used to analyze both individual and structural variables explaining differences of ICU's organizational performance. The organizational performance score differed among ICUs. Some cultural values were negatively correlated with a high level of organizational performance, suggesting improvement potential. Several individual and structural factors were also related to the quality of ICU organization, including absence of burnout, older staff, satisfaction to work, and high workload (P < .02 for each). A benchmarking approach can be used by ICU managers to assess the organizational performance of their ICU based on a validated questionnaire. Differences are mainly explained by cultural values and individual well-being factors, introducing new requirements for managing human resources in ICUs.

  8. Constipation in intensive care unit: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Antonio Paulo; da Silva, Fernanda Maria Queiroz; de Cleva, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Although gastrointestinal motility disorders are common in critically ill patients, constipation and its implications have received very little attention. We aimed to determine the incidence of constipation to find risk factors and its implications in critically ill patients During a 6-month period, we enrolled all patients admitted to an intensive care unit from an universitary hospital who stayed 3 or more days. Patients submitted to bowel surgery were excluded. Constipation occurred in 69.9% of the patients. There was no difference between constipated and not constipated in terms of sex, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, type of admission (surgical, clinical, or trauma), opiate use, antibiotic therapy, and mechanical ventilation. Early (<24 hours) enteral nutrition was associated with less constipation, a finding that persisted at multivariable analysis (P < .01). Constipation was not associated with greater intensive care unit or mortality, length of stay, or days free from mechanical ventilation. Constipation is very common among critically ill patients. Early enteral nutrition is associated with earlier return of bowel function.

  9. Noise pollution levels in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Bree; Joshi, Prashant; Heard, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Patients and staff may experience adverse effects from exposure to noise. This study assessed noise levels in the pediatric intensive care unit and evaluated family and staff opinion of noise. Noise levels were recorded using a NoisePro DLX. The microphone was 1 m from the patient's head. The noise level was averaged each minute and levels above 70 and 80 dBA were recorded. The maximum, minimum, and average decibel levels were calculated and peak noise level great than 100 dBA was also recorded. A parent questionnaire concerning their evaluation of noisiness of the bedside was completed. The bedside nurse also completed a questionnaire. The average maximum dB for all patients was 82.2. The average minimum dB was 50.9. The average daily bedside noise level was 62.9 dBA. The average % time where the noise level was higher than 70 dBA was 2.2%. The average percent of time that the noise level was higher than 80 dBA was 0.1%. Patients experienced an average of 115 min/d where peak noise was greater than 100 dBA. The parents and staff identified the monitors as the major contribution to noise. Patients experienced levels of noise greater than 80 dBA. Patients experience peak noise levels in excess of 100 dB during their pediatric intensive care unit stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Approach to hypophosphataemia in intensive care units - a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Geerse, D A; Bindels, A J; Kuiper, M A; Roos, A N; Spronk, P E; Schultz, M J

    2012-11-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for monitoring of serum phosphate levels and for the treatment of hypophosphataemia in critically ill patients are lacking. The aim of this survey was to evaluate current practice with respect to diagnosis and treatment of hypophosphataemia in critically ill patients among intensive care unit (ICU) physicians in the Netherlands. A survey was conducted among all hospitals with an ICU in the Netherlands. Paediatric ICUs were excluded from participation. A questionnaire was sent, with questions on practice regarding serum phosphate monitoring and treatment of hypophosphataemia. Respondents returned the questionnaire either by mail or through a web-based survey. A response was received from 67÷89 ICUs (75%). Respondents mentioned renal replacement therapy, sepsis and malnutrition, as well as surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass as the most important causes of hypophosphataemia in intensive care unit patients. Of all respondents, 46% reported to measure serum phosphate levels on a daily basis, whereas in 12% serum phosphate levels were measured only on clinical indication. Less than half of the respondents had some sort of guideline for correction of hypophosphataemia. In a vast majority (79%), correction of hypophosphataemia was reported to start with serum phosphate levels.

  11. Australasian neonatal intensive care enteral nutrition survey: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Cormack, Barbara; Sinn, John; Lui, Kei; Tudehope, David

    2013-04-01

    This survey investigated standardised feeding guidelines and nutrition policy in Australasian neonatal intensive care units and compared these with previously published surveys and international consensus nutrition recommendations. An electronic survey on enteral nutrition comprising a wide range of questions about clinical practice was e-mailed to all 25 Australasian neonatal intensive care unit directors of tertiary perinatal centres. Twenty-five surveys were distributed; 24 (96%) were completed. All respondents preferred breast milk as the first feed. For infants <1000 g, 58% started feeds at 1 mL every 4 hours and 83% started enteral feeds on day 0-2 in the absence of contraindications. The identification of bile-stained gastric aspirates significant enough to withhold feeds varied. Multicomponent breast milk fortifiers were added by 58% when enteral feeds reached 150 mL/kg day, while 21% added these earlier at 120 mL/kg day or less. Iron supplementation was started at 4 weeks by 63% and at 6 weeks by 27%. Only 42% of units had a neonatal dietitian. Of the 24 units who responded, 58% had no written enteral feeding guidelines. Enteral nutrition was initiated earlier than in the past. Great variation remains in clinical practices. Nutritional implications are discussed. Standardisation of feeding guidelines and enteral nutrition policy based on current evidence and international consensus nutrition recommendations may be beneficial and should be encouraged. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Prognosis of patients with rheumatic diseases admitted to intensive care.

    PubMed

    Beil, M; Sviri, S; de la Guardia, V; Stav, I; Ben-Chetrit, E; van Heerden, P V

    2017-01-01

    Variable mortality rates have been reported for patients with rheumatic diseases admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Due to the absence of appropriate control groups in previous studies, it is not known whether the presence of a rheumatic disease constitutes a risk factor. Moreover, the accuracy of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score for predicting outcome in this group of patients has been questioned. The primary goal of this study was to compare outcome of patients with rheumatic diseases admitted to a medical ICU to those of controls. The records of all patients admitted between 1 April 2003 and 30 June 2014 (n=4020) were screened for the presence of a rheumatic disease during admission (n=138). The diagnosis of a rheumatic disease was by standard criteria for these conditions. An age- and gender-matched control group of patients without a rheumatic disease was extracted from the patient population in the database during the same period (n=831). Mortality in ICU, in hospital and after 180 days did not differ significantly between patients with and without rheumatic diseases. There was no difference in the performance of the APACHE II score for predicting outcome in patients with rheumatic diseases and controls. This score, as well as a requirement for the use of inotropes or vasopressors, accurately predicted hospital mortality in the group of patients with rheumatic diseases. In conclusion, patients with a rheumatic condition admitted to intensive care do not do significantly worse than patients without such a disease.

  13. Is There a Starling Curve for Intensive Care?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large differences exist in the provision of ICU beds worldwide, with a complicated mix of risks and benefits to the population of having either too few or too many beds. Having too few beds can result in delayed admission of patients to the ICU or no admission at all, with either scenario potentially increasing mortality. Potential societal benefits of having few beds include lower costs for health care and less futile intensive care at the end of life. With added ICU beds for a population, mortality benefit should accrue, but there is still the question of whether the addition of beds always means that more lives will be saved or whether there is a point at which no additional mortality benefit is gained. With an abundance of ICU beds may come the possibility of increasing harm in the forms of unnecessary costs, poor quality of deaths (ie, excessively intensive), and iatrogenic complications. The possibility of harm may be likened to the concept of falling off a Starling curve, which is traditionally used to describe worsening heart function when overfilling occurs. This commentary examines the possible implications of having too few or too many ICU beds and proposes the concept of a family of Starling curves as a way to conceptualize the balance of societal benefits and harms associated with different availability of ICU beds for a population. PMID:22670019

  14. Transition to intensive care nursing: establishing a starting point.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Martin; Butcher, Rand; Conyers, Vicki; Kendrick, Tina; MacNamara, Mary; Lang, Susie

    2008-11-01

    There is a shortage of intensive care (IC) nurses. A supported transition to IC nursing has been identified as a key strategy for recruitment and retention. In 2004 a discussion document relating to transition of IC nurses was presented to the New South Wales (NSW) Chief Nursing Officer (CNO). A workshop was held with key stakeholders and a Steering Group was established to develop a state-wide transition to IC nursing program. To survey orientation programs and educational resources and develop definitions, goals, learning objectives and clinical competencies relating to transition to IC nursing practice. A questionnaire and a draft document of definitions, target group, goals, learning objectives and clinical competencies for IC transition was distributed to 43 NSW IC units (ICUs). An iterative process of anonymous feedback and modification was undertaken to establish agreement on content. Responses were received from 29 units (return rate of 67%). The survey of educational resources indicated ICUs had access to educational support and there was evidence of a lack of a common standard or definition for "orientation" or "transition". The definitions, target group, goals and competency statements from the draft document were accepted with minor editorial change. Seventeen learning objectives or psychomotor skills were modified and an additional 19 were added to the draft as a result of the process. This work has established valid definitions, goals, learning objectives and clinical competencies that describe transition to intensive care nursing.

  15. Experience with intubated patients does not affect the accidental extubation rate in pediatric intensive care units and intensive care nurseries.

    PubMed

    Frank, B S; Lewis, R J

    1997-06-01

    Accidental extubation is a potentially serious event for pediatric or neonatal patients with respiratory failure, especially in clinical settings in which personnel capable of performing reintubation may not be readily available. Thus the rate of accidental extubation in small intensive care units that operate without 24-hour in-house physician availability may be an important quality assurance indicator. The objective of this study were to determine the accidental extubation rate at a single small pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and compare it with published reports. This study was carried out in a six-bed PICU at Washoe Medical Center in Reno, Nevada, with a relatively low level of patient acuity, as measured by PRISM score and the frequency of intubation, and without 24-hour in-house physician availability. All intubated patients admitted during the 5-year period from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1993 were included. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of accidental extubation. We observed only two accidental extubations in 1,749 intubated-patient-days (IPD) (0.114 accidental extubations/100 IPD [95% confidence interval 0.014-0.413 accidental extubations/ 100 IPD]). This rate of accidental extubation was compared with data in published reports from neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and PICUs, which ranged from 0.14 accidental extubations/100 IPD to 4.36 accidental extubations/100 IPD. The dependence of the observed accidental extubation rate on unit size and institutional experience with intubated patients, as measured by the average number of intubated patients, was examined. We found no evidence that the accidental extubation rate is higher in smaller units or units with less institutional experience. Low rates can be achieved in small units with low acuity.

  16. Confidential inquiry into quality of care before admission to intensive care

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, Peter; Pilkington, Sally; Allan, Alison; Taylor, Bruce; Short, Alasdair; Morgan, Giles; Nielsen, Mick; Barrett, David; Smith, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence, nature, causes, and consequences of suboptimal care before admission to intensive care units, and to suggest possible solutions. Design: Prospective confidential inquiry on the basis of structured interviews and questionnaires. Setting: A large district general hospital and a teaching hospital. Subjects: A cohort of 100 consecutive adult emergency admissions, 50 in each centre. Main outcome measures: Opinions of two external assessors on quality of care especially recognition, investigation, monitoring, and management of abnormalities of airway, breathing, and circulation, and oxygen therapy and monitoring. Results: Assessors agreed that 20 patients were well managed (group 1) and 54 patients received suboptimal care (group 2). Assessors disagreed on quality of management of 26 patients (group 3). The casemix and severity of illness, defined by the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score, were similar between centres and the three groups. In groups 1, 2, and 3 intensive care mortalities were 5 (25%), 26 (48%), and 6 (23%) respectively (P=0.04) (group 1 versus group 2, P=0.07). Hospital mortalities were 7 (35%), 30 (56%), and 8 (31%) (P=0.07) and standardised hospital mortality ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.23 (0.49 to 2.54), 1.4 (0.94 to 2.0), and 1.26 (0.54 to 2.48) respectively. Admission to intensive care was considered late in 37 (69%) patients in group 2. Overall, a minimum of 4.5% and a maximum of 41% of admissions were considered potentially avoidable. Suboptimal care contributed to morbidity or mortality in most instances. The main causes of suboptimal care were failure of organisation, lack of knowledge, failure to appreciate clinical urgency, lack of supervision, and failure to seek advice. Conclusions: The management of airway, breathing, and circulation, and oxygen therapy and monitoring in severely ill patients before admission to intensive care units may frequently be suboptimal

  17. Effects of stress management program on the quality of nursing care and intensive care unit nurses

    PubMed Central

    Pahlavanzadeh, Saied; Asgari, Zohreh; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: High level of stress in intensive care unit nurses affects the quality of their nursing care. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of a stress management program on the quality of nursing care of intensive care unit nurses. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial that was conducted on 65 nurses. The samples were selected by stratified sampling of the nurses working in intensive care units 1, 2, 3 in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran and were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group underwent an intervention, including 10 sessions of stress management that was held twice a week. In the control group, placebo sessions were held simultaneously. Data were gathered by demographic checklist and Quality Patient Care Scale before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention in both groups. Then, the data were analyzed by Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) through SPSS software version 18. Results: Mean scores of overall and dimensions of quality of care in the intervention group were significantly higher immediately after and 1 month after the intervention, compared to pre-intervention (P < 0.001). The results showed that the quality of care in the intervention group was significantly higher immediately after and 1 month after the intervention, compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: As stress management is an effective method to improve the quality of care, the staffs are recommended to consider it in improvement of the quality of nursing care. PMID:27186196

  18. Parents' experiences with neonatal home care following initial care in the neonatal intensive care unit: a phenomenological hermeneutical interview study.

    PubMed

    Dellenmark-Blom, Michaela; Wigert, Helena

    2014-03-01

    A descriptive study of parents' experiences with neonatal home care following initial care in the neonatal intensive care unit. As survival rates improve among premature and critically ill infants with an increased risk of morbidity, parents' responsibilities for neonatal care grow in scope and degree under the banner of family-centred care. Concurrent with medical advances, new questions arise about the role of parents and the experience of being provided neonatal care at home. An interview study with a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Parents from a Swedish neonatal (n = 22) home care setting were extensively interviewed within one year of discharge. Data were collected during 2011-2012. The main theme of the findings is that parents experience neonatal home care as an inner emotional journey, from having a child to being a parent. This finding derives from three themes: the parents' experience of leaving the hospital milieu in favour of establishing independent parenthood, maturing as a parent and processing experiences during the period of neonatal intensive care. This study suggests that neonatal home care is experienced as a care structure adjusted to incorporate parents' needs following discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal home care appears to bridge the gap between hospital and home, supporting the family's adaptation to life in the home setting. Parents become empowered to be primary caregivers, having nurse consultants serving the needs of the whole family. Neonatal home care may therefore be understood as the implementation of family-centred care during the transition from NICU to home. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The mapping competences of the nurse Case/Care Manager in the context of Intensive Care.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Emanuela; Ferrini, Anna Chiara; Gianfrancesco, Francesca; Lise, Gianluca; Messana, Giovanni; Tirelli, Lorenzo; Lorenzo, Ana; Sarli, Leopoldo

    2017-03-15

    Since the recent introduction of the Case/Care Manager's professional figure, it is quite difficult to identify properly his/her own particular features, which could be mainly be found revising mainly in American studies. Therefore, the present study intended to identify the Case/Care Manager's skills and professional profile in an Intensive Care Unit experience, taking into consideration the staff's activities, perception and expectations towards the Case/Care Manager. In particular, it has been compared the experience of an Intensive Care Units where the Case/Care Manager's profile is operational to a different Unit where a Case/Care Manager is not yet in force. a Levati's model was used to map the Case/Care Manager's skills, involving each unit whole working staff, executives and caregivers through semi-structured interviews. It has been taken into consideration the Anaesthesia Unit and Emergency Unit of Cesena's healthcare organisation (AUSL of Romagna) and a Cardiology Intensive Care Unit of Piacenza's healthcare organisation, where the Case/Care Manager's profile has not been experimented yet. Firstly, it a data collection in each healthcare organization has been organised. Subsequently, semi-structured interviews to doctors, unit nurses, caregivers, nurses' coordinators and medical staff have been used to compare each healthcare system. The interviewees' described their expectations in relation to the Case/Care Manager working in a critical area. Then, every data collected during interviews has been organised to map a Case/Care Manager's essential professional profile to work in a critical area together with medical staff. Piacenza's O.U. critical area experience reported a major demand for patients' and patient's families' assistance. On the other hand, the very same aspects seem to have been better achieved in Cesena's O.U., where a Case/Care Manager's recent introduction has actually helped to overcome the void in organising systems. a Case/Care Manager

  20. Stressful life events and acute kidney injury in intensive and semi-intensive care unities.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Denise Para; Marques, Daniella Aparecida; Blay, Sérgio Luis; Schor, Nestor

    2012-03-01

    Several studies point out that pathophysiological changes related to stress may influence renal function and are associated with disease onset and evolution. However, we have not found any studies about the influence of stress on renal function and acute kidney injury. To evaluate the association between stressful life events and acute kidney injury diagnosis, specifying the most stressful classes of events for these patients in the past 12 months. Case-control study. The study was carried out at Hospital São Paulo, in Universidade Federal de São Paulo and at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado de São Paulo, in Brazil. Patients with acute kidney injury and no chronic disease, admitted to the intensive or semi-intensive care units were included. Controls included patients in the same intensive care units with other acute diseases, except for the acute kidney injury, and also with no chronic disease. Out of the 579 patients initially identified, 475 answered to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) questionnaire and 398 were paired by age and gender (199 cases and 199 controls). The rate of stressful life events was statistically similar between cases and controls. The logistic regression analysis to detect associated effects of the independent variables to the stressful events showed that: increasing age and economic classes A and B in one of the hospitals (Hospital São Paulo - UNIFESP) increased the chance of a stressful life event (SLE). This study did not show association between the Acute Kidney Injury Group with a higher frequency of stressful life events, but that old age, higher income, and type of clinical center were associated.

  1. Caring and technology in an intensive care unit: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Price, Ann M

    2013-11-01

    Critical care practice is a mixture of caring and technological activities. There is debate about whether the balance between these two elements is correct and a concern that critical care units can dehumanize the patient. This research sought to examine aspects that might affect this balance between the caring and technology within the critical care setting. What aspects affect registered health care professionals' ability to care for patients within the technological environment of a critical care unit? A qualitative approach using ethnography was utilized as this methodology focuses on the cultural elements within a situation. Data collection involved participant observation, document review and semi-structured interviews to triangulate methods as this aids rigour for this approach. A purposeful sample to examine registered health care professionals currently working within the study area was used. A total of 19 participants took part in the study; 8 nurses were observed and 16 health care professionals were interviewed, including nurses, a doctor and 2 physiotherapists. The study took place on a District General Hospital intensive care unit and ethical approval was gained. An overarching theme of the 'Crafting process' was developed with sub themes of 'vigilance', 'focus of attention, 'being present' and 'expectations' with the ultimate goal of achieving the best interests for the individual patient. The areas reflected in this study coincide with the care, compassion, competency, commitment, communication and courage ideas detailed by the Department of Health (2012). Thus, further research to detail more specifically how these areas are measured within critical care may be useful. Caring is a complex concept that is difficult to outline but this article can inform practitioners about the aspects that help and hinder caring in the technical setting to inform training. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  2. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: Report from the Task Force of World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, John; Abillama, Fayez; Chiumello, Davide; Dobb, Geoff; Jacobe, Stephen; Kleinpell, Ruth; Koh, Younsuk; Martin, Claudio; Michalsen, Andej; Pelosi, Paolo; Torra, Lluis Blanch; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Yeager, Susan; Zimmerman, Janice

    2016-08-01

    End-of-life care in the intensive care unit (ICU) was identified as an objective in a series of Task Forces developed by the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine Council in 2014. The objective was to develop a generic statement about current knowledge and to identify challenges relevant to the global community that may inform regional and local initiatives. An updated summary of published statements on end-of-life care in the ICU from national Societies is presented, highlighting commonalities and differences within and between international regions. The complexity of end-of-life care in the ICU, particularly relating to withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment while ensuring the alleviation of suffering, within different ethical and cultural environments is recognized. Although no single statement can therefore be regarded as a criterion standard applicable to all countries and societies, the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine endorses and encourages the role of Member Societies to lead the debate regarding end-of-life care in the ICU within each country and to take a leading role in developing national guidelines and recommendations within each country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Introduced mammalian predators induce behavioural changes in parental care in an endemic New Zealand bird

    Massaro, M.; Starling-Windhof, A.; Briskie, J.V.; Martin, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of predatory mammals to oceanic islands has led to the extension of many birds. Although introduced predators should favour changes that reduce predation risk in surviving bird species, the ability of island birds to respond to such novel changes remains unstudied. We tested whether novel predation risk imposed by introduced mammalian predators has altered the parental behaviour of the endemic New Zealand bellbird (Anthomis melanura). We examined parental behaviour of billbnirds at three woodlands sites in New Zealand that differed in predation risk: 1) a mainland site with exotic predators present (high predation risk), 2) a mainland site with exotic predators experimentally removed (low risk recently) and, 3) an off-shore island where exotic predators were never introduced (low risk always). We also compared parental behavior of bellbirds with two closely related Tasmanian honeyeaters (Phylidonyris spp) that evolved with native nest predators (high risk always). Increased nest predation risk has been postulated to favour reduced parental activity, and we tested whether island bellbirds responded to variation in predation risk. We found that females spent more time on the nest per incubating bout with increased risk of predation, a strategy that minimised activity at the nest during incubation. Parental activity during the nestling period, measured as number of feeding visits/hr, also decreased with increasing nest predation risk across sites, and was lowest among the honeyeaters in Tasmania that evolved with native predators. These results demonstrates that some island birds are able to respond to increased risk of predation by novel predators in ways that appear adaptive. We suggest that conservation efforts may be more effective if they take advantage of the ability of island birds to respond to novel predators, especially when the elimination of exotic predators is not possible.

  4. [Analgesia and sedation in neonatal-pediatric intensive care].

    PubMed

    Schlünder, C; Houben, F; Hartwig, S; Theisohn, M; Roth, B

    1991-01-01

    In pediatric intensive care, analgesia and sedation has become increasingly important for newborns as well as prematures in recent years. However, its importance is frequently not well recognized and sedation is confounded with analgesia. In our intensive-care unit (ICU), fentanyl and midazolam have proved to be useful. In newborn and premature infants, fentanyl alone has been sufficient because of its analgesic and sedative action. In a study on 20 newborns and prematures suffering from severe respiratory problems as compared with a historical group that did not receive fentanyl, we could show that in subjects receiving fentanyl, considerably less treatment with sedatives and other analgesics was necessary. Cardiopulmonary tolerance was satisfactory. The highest bilirubin values were reached about 1 day earlier and were slightly higher than those measured in the control group, but oral nutrition could be initiated sooner. In small infants, additional midazolam was given after cardiac surgery. During the first 72 h, we found a correlation between serum levels of midazolam and the depth of sedation; however, after 72 h of medication, the dose had to be raised because of an increase in metabolic clearance. During the concomitant administration of midazolam and fentanyl, significantly less midazolam was needed to achieve appropriate analog-sedation. Prior to the administration of analgesics and sedatives, care should be taken to ensure that circulatory conditions are stable and that there is no hypovolemia, and the drugs must be given slowly during several minutes. Especially in a pediatric ICU, light and noise should be diminished and contact between the parents and the child should be encouraged, even when the child is undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  5. Hyperdynamic left ventricular ejection fraction in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Paonessa, Joseph R; Brennan, Thomas; Pimentel, Marco; Steinhaus, Daniel; Feng, Mengling; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2015-08-07

    Limited information exists on the etiology, prevalence, and significance of hyperdynamic left ventricular ejection fraction (HDLVEF) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Our aim in the present study was to compare characteristics and outcomes of patients with HDLVEF with those of patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction in the ICU using a large, public, deidentified critical care database. We conducted a longitudinal, single-center, retrospective cohort study of adult patients who underwent echocardiography during a medical or surgical ICU admission at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center using the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II database. The final cohort had 2867 patients, of whom 324 had HDLVEF, defined as an ejection fraction >70%. Patients with an ejection fraction <55% were excluded. Compared with critically ill patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction, the finding of HDLVEF in critically ill patients was associated with female sex, increased age, and the diagnoses of hypertension and cancer. Patients with HDLVEF had increased 28-day mortality compared with those with normal ejection fraction in multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, Elixhauser score for comorbidities, vasopressor use, and mechanical ventilation use (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.039-1.842, p =0.02). The presence of HDLVEF portended increased 28-day mortality, and may be helpful as a gravity marker for prognosis in patients admitted to the ICU. Further research is warranted to gain a better understanding of how these patients respond to common interventions in the ICU and to determine if pharmacologic modulation of HDLVEF improves outcomes.

  6. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Environmental Stressors and Supports

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristen G.; Patel, Kayla T.; Stausmire, Julie M.; Mathis, Mary W.; Barkin, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between maternal mental health and infant development has been established in the literature. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a particularly challenging environment for new mothers as several natural processes are disrupted. The objective of this study is to elucidate protective factors and environmental deficits associated with the NICU. The experiences of forty-six (n = 46) mothers of infants admitted to a Level III NICU in the Midwestern United States, who responded to a related open-ended question, were analyzed thematically. Five themes related to the NICU environment emerged as being either stressful or helpful: (1) amount and quality of communication with medical staff, (2) bedside manner of medical staff, (3) feeling alienated from infant’s care, (4) support from other NICU mothers and families, and (5) NICU Physical Environment and Regulations. There is a need for medical staff training on awareness, communication, empathy, and other behaviors that might improve maternal (and parental) experiences in the NICU. The physical environment, including rules and regulations of the NICU, should be reexamined with family comfort in mind in addition to the clinical care of the infant. PMID:29301343

  7. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Environmental Stressors and Supports.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristen G; Patel, Kayla T; Stausmire, Julie M; Bridges, Christy; Mathis, Mary W; Barkin, Jennifer L

    2018-01-03

    The relationship between maternal mental health and infant development has been established in the literature. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a particularly challenging environment for new mothers as several natural processes are disrupted. The objective of this study is to elucidate protective factors and environmental deficits associated with the NICU. The experiences of forty-six ( n = 46) mothers of infants admitted to a Level III NICU in the Midwestern United States, who responded to a related open-ended question, were analyzed thematically. Five themes related to the NICU environment emerged as being either stressful or helpful: (1) amount and quality of communication with medical staff, (2) bedside manner of medical staff, (3) feeling alienated from infant's care, (4) support from other NICU mothers and families, and (5) NICU Physical Environment and Regulations. There is a need for medical staff training on awareness, communication, empathy, and other behaviors that might improve maternal (and parental) experiences in the NICU. The physical environment, including rules and regulations of the NICU, should be reexamined with family comfort in mind in addition to the clinical care of the infant.

  8. Standardizing intensive care device data to enable secondary usages.

    PubMed

    Ingenerf, Josef; Kock, Ann-Kristin; Poelker, Marcel; Seidl, Konrad; Zeplin, Georg; Mersmann, Stefan; Handels, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    To represent medical device observations in a format that is consumable by clinical software, standards like HL7v3 and ISO/IEEE 11073 should be used jointly. This is demonstrated in a project with Dräger Medical GmbH focusing on their Patient Data Management System (PDMS) in intensive care, called Integrated Care Manager (ICM). Patient and device data of interest should be mapped to suitable formats to enable data exchange and decision support. Instead of mapping device data to target formats bilaterally we use a generic HL7v3 Refined Message Information Model (RMIM) with device specific parts adapted to ISO/IEEE 11073 DIM. The generality of the underlying model (based on Yuksel et al. [1]) allows the flexible inclusion of IEEE 11073 conformant device models of interest on the one hand and the generation of needed artifacts for secondary usages on the other hand, e.g. HL7 V2 messages, HL7 CDA documents like the Personal Health Monitoring Report (PHMR) or web services. Hence, once the medical device data are obtained in the RMIM format, it can quite easily be transformed into HL7-based standard interfaces through XSL transformations because these interfaces all have their building blocks from the same RIM. From there data can be accessed uniformly, e.g. as needed by Dräger´s decision support system SmartCare [2] for automated control and optimization of weaning from mechanical ventilation.

  9. Noise, stress, and annoyance in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Wynne E; Haas, Ellen C; Shaffner, Donald H; Garrett, Elizabeth S; Fackler, James C

    2003-01-01

    To measure and describe hospital noise and determine whether noise can be correlated with nursing stress measured by questionnaire, salivary amylase, and heart rate. Cohort observational study. Tertiary care center pediatric intensive care unit. Registered nurses working in the unit. None. Eleven nurse volunteers were recruited. An audiogram, questionnaire data, salivary amylase, and heart rate were collected in a quiet room. Each nurse was observed for a 3-hr period during patient care. Heart rate and sound level were recorded continuously; saliva samples and stress/annoyance ratings were collected every 30 mins. Variables assessed as potential confounders were years of nursing experience, caffeine intake, patients' Pediatric Risk of Mortality Score, shift assignment, and room assignment. Data were analyzed by random effects multiple linear regression using Stata 6.0. The average daytime sound level was 61 dB(A), nighttime 59 dB(A). Higher average sound levels significantly predicted higher heart rates (p =.014). Other significant predictors of tachycardia were higher caffeine intake, less nursing experience, and daytime shift. Ninety percent of the variability in heart rate was explained by the regression equation. Amylase measurements showed a large variability and were not significantly affected by noise levels. Higher average sound levels were also predictive of greater subjective stress (p =.021) and annoyance (p =.016). In this small study, noise was shown to correlate with several measures of stress including tachycardia and annoyance ratings. Further studies of interventions to reduce noise are essential.

  10. Evaluation of noise in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Benini, F; Magnavita, V; Lago, P; Arslan, E; Pisan, P

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated the noise level inside the incubators in a neonatal intensive care unit and identified its sources in order to attempt to reduce it. Although noise is not a proven risk factor as far as the sensory integrity of newborns is concerned, it is certainly an important cause of stress to them and a source of serious and dangerous changes in their behavioral and physiologic states. Noise recorded inside the incubators had two components. The first was background noise from the incubator motors, which varied from 74.2 to 79.9 dB, and was similar to environmental noise. The second source was impulsive events beyond 80 dB. These events were the result of voluntary and involuntary contact with the incubators' Plexiglas surface or to the abrupt opening and closing of their access ports. Considering its decibel levels and frequency, this latter component is undoubtedly an important source of stress to newborns. Moreover, these data reveal the need to train health care personnel on how to reduce such noise by taking more care in the handling of infants.

  11. Let Them In: Family Presence during Intensive Care Unit Procedures.

    PubMed

    Beesley, Sarah J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Francis, Leslie; Chapman, Diane; Johnson, Joclynn; Johnson, Nathanael; Brown, Samuel M

    2016-07-01

    Families have for decades advocated for full access to intensive care units (ICUs) and meaningful partnership with clinicians, resulting in gradual improvements in family access and collaboration with ICU clinicians. Despite such advances, family members in adult ICUs are still commonly asked to leave the patient's room during invasive bedside procedures, regardless of whether the patient would prefer family to be present. Physicians may be resistant to having family members at the bedside due to concerns about trainee education, medicolegal implications, possible effects on the technical quality of procedures due to distractions, and procedural sterility. Limited evidence from parallel settings does not support these concerns. Family presence during ICU procedures, when the patient and family member both desire it, fulfills the mandates of patient-centered care. We anticipate that such inclusion will increase family engagement, improve patient and family satisfaction, and may, on the basis of studies of open visitation, pediatric ICU experience, and family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, decrease psychological distress in patients and family members. We believe these goals can be achieved without compromising the quality of patient care, increasing provider burden significantly, or increasing risks of litigation. In this article, we weigh current evidence, consider historical objections to family presence at ICU procedures, and report our clinical experience with the practice. An outline for implementing family procedural presence in the ICU is also presented.

  12. Assessing antibacterial pharmacoeconomics in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, M C; Hassett, J M; Schentag, J J; Paladino, J A

    1997-12-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) represent areas of high use of antibacterials and other pharmacy goods and services. Many institutions view their ICUs as a target for drug-use surveillance and cost-containment programmes. Economic assessment of antibacterial interventions in the ICU should include all direct costs and patient outcomes. Nonetheless, many of these institutions focus their efforts at reducing antibacterial costs without considering the consequences of these actions. It is possible that devoting more resources to antibacterials can have an overall positive economic impact if more appropriate antibacterial use reduces length of stay, decreases bacterial resistance or lowers frequency of adverse complications. Two consequences of antibacterial use which can result in substantial economic burdens to institutions are drug-induced complications (toxicities and adverse events) and the development of antibacterial-resistant organisms. These events are logical targets for performing pharmacoeconomic studies to evaluate appropriate and inappropriate antibacterial use. Either of these problems can increase length of stay, which is the single most important variable influencing the overall cost of patient care. The primary goal of patient care is to hasten patients' clinical improvement. This will result in decreased antibacterial acquisition costs, decreased lengths of ICU and hospital stays, and ultimately decreased consumption of hospital resources. These can be accomplished by using strategies to guide antibacterial use in order to reduce failures, adverse events, toxicity and antimicrobial resistance.

  13. Intensive care nurses' knowledge of enteral nutrition: A descriptive questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Morphet, Julia; Clarke, Angelique B; Bloomer, Melissa J

    2016-12-01

    Nurses have an important role in the delivery and management of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients, to prevent iatrogenic malnutrition. It is not clear how nurses source enteral nutrition information. This study aimed to explore Australian nurses' enteral nutrition knowledge and sources of information. Data were collected from members of the Australian College of Critical Care Nurses in May 2014 using an online questionnaire. A combination of descriptive statistics and non-parametric analyses were undertaken to evaluate quantitative data. Content analysis was used to evaluate qualitative data. 359 responses were included in data analysis. All respondents were Registered Nurses with experience working in an Australian intensive care unit or high dependency unit. Most respondents reported their enteral nutrition knowledge was good (n=205, 60.1%) or excellent (n=35, 10.3%), but many lacked knowledge regarding the effect of malnutrition on patient outcomes. Dietitians and hospital protocols were the most valuable sources of enteral nutrition information, but were not consistently utilised. Significant knowledge deficits in relation to enteral nutrition were identified. Dietitians were the preferred source of nurses' enteral nutrition information, however their limited availability impacted their efficacy as an information resource. Educational opportunities for nurses need to be improved to enable appropriate nutritional care in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Surveillance of infection events in neonatal intensive care].

    PubMed

    Decembrino, L; Perrini, S; Stronati, M

    2010-06-01

    Nosocomial infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). They result in prolonged hospital stays and increased hospital costs. Neonates are susceptible hosts because of prematurity of organ systems, immaturity of immune system, low birth weight and the use of invasive devices. Most infections are endemic others can occur during outbreaks. As advances in medical technology improve mortality in the tiniest of infants, it is imperative that health care providers identify effective interventions to minimize the risks of nosocomial infections in the NICU. Recommended infection control and prevention strategies are: hand washing promotion, decreased use of invasive procedures, limited antitibiotic exposure, environmental hygiene. In this context infection surveillance is the first step to recognize and analyze problems, to effectively target infection control measures and feedback. Any suspicion of an outbreak should lead to a review of general infection control procedures to prevent the spread of the pathogens as quickly as possible. A multidisciplinary approach can be an effective means of developing a plan of action to apply prolonged and strict adherence to isolation precautions', to detect potential reservoirs or source of infections, to educate every member of the patient care team and to review NICU protocols.

  15. Can formal collaborative methodologies improve quality in primary health care in New Zealand? Insights from the EQUIPPED Auckland Collaborative.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Celia; Bycroft, Janine; Healey, Kate; Field, Adrian; Ghafel, Mazin

    2012-12-01

    Auckland District Health Board was one of four District Health Boards to trial the Breakthrough Series (BTS) methodology to improve the management of long-term conditions in New Zealand, with support from the Ministry of Health. To improve clinical outcomes, facilitate planned care and promote quality improvement within participating practices in Auckland. Implementation of the Collaborative followed the improvement model / Institute for Healthcare Improvement methodology. Three topic areas were selected: system redesign, cardio-vascular disease/diabetes, and self-management support. An expert advisory group and the Improvement Foundation Australia helped guide project development and implementation. Primary Health Organisation facilitators were trained in the methodology and 15 practice teams participated in the three learning workshops and action periods over 12 months. An independent evaluation study using both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted. Improvements were recorded in cardiovascular disease risk assessment, practice-level systems of care, self-management systems and follow-up and coordination for patients. Qualitative research found improvements in coordination and teamwork, knowledge of practice populations and understanding of managing long-term conditions. The Collaborative process delivered some real improvements in the systems of care for people with long-term conditions and a change in culture among participating practices. The findings suggest that by strengthening facilitation processes, improving access to comprehensive population audit tools and lengthening the time frame, the process has the potential to make significant improvements in practice. Other organisations should consider this approach when investigating quality improvement programmes.

  16. The health care system is making 'too much noise' to provide family-centred care in neonatal intensive care units: Perspectives of health care providers and hospital administrators.

    PubMed

    Benzies, Karen M; Shah, Vibhuti; Aziz, Khalid; Lodha, Abhay; Misfeldt, Renée

    2018-05-11

    To describe the perspectives of health care providers and hospital administrators on their experiences of providing care for infants in Level II neonatal intensive care units and their families. We conducted 36 qualitative interviews with neonatal health care providers and hospital administrators and analysed data using a descriptive interpretive approach. 10 Level II Neonatal Intensive Care Units in a single, integrated health care system in one Canadian province. Three major themes emerged: (1) providing family-centred care, (2) working amidst health care system challenges, and (3) recommending improvements to the health care system. The overarching theme was that the health care system was making 'too much noise' for health care providers and hospital administrators to provide family-centred care in ways that would benefit infants and their families. Recommended improvements included: refining staffing models, enhancing professional development, providing tools to deliver consistent care, recognising parental capacity to be involved in care, strengthening continuity of care, supporting families to be with their infant, and designing family-friendly environments. When implementing family-centred care initiatives, health care providers and hospital administrators need to consider the complexity of providing care in Level II Neonatal Intensive Care Units, and recognise that health care system changes may be necessary to optimise implementation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Capacity and Utilization in Health Care: The Effect of Empty Beds on Neonatal Intensive Care Admission

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Because geographic variation in medical care utilization is jointly determined by both supply and demand, it is difficult to empirically estimate whether capacity itself has a causal impact on utilization in health care. In this paper, I exploit short-term variation in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) capacity that is unlikely to be correlated with unobserved demand determinants. I find that available NICU beds have little to no effect on NICU utilization for the sickest infants, but do increase utilization for those in the range of birth weights where admission decisions are likely to be more discretionary. PMID:27942353

  18. Life-sustaining treatment decisions in Portuguese intensive care units: a national survey of intensive care physicians.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Teresa; Fonseca, Teresa; Pereira, Sofia; Lencastre, Luís

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the opinion of Portuguese intensive care physicians regarding 'do-not-resuscitate' (DNR) orders and decisions to withhold/withdraw treatment. A questionnaire was sent to all physicians working on a full-time basis in all intensive care units (ICUs) registered with the Portuguese Intensive Care Society. A total of 266 questionnaires were sent and 175 (66%) were returned. Physicians from 79% of the ICUs participated. All participants stated that DNR orders are applied in their units, and 98.3% stated that decisions to withhold treatment and 95.4% stated that decisions to withdraw treatment are also applied. About three quarters indicated that only the medical group makes these decisions. Fewer than 15% of the responders stated that they involve nurses, 9% involve patients and fewer than 11% involve patients' relatives in end-of-life decisions. Physicians with more than 10 years of clinical experience more frequently indicated that they involve nurses in these decisions (P < 0.05), and agnostic/atheist doctors more frequently involve patients' relatives in decisions to withhold/withdraw treatment (P < 0.05). When asked about who they thought should be involved, more than 26% indicated nurses, more than 35% indicated the patient and more than 25% indicated patients' relatives. More experienced doctors more frequently felt that nurses should be involved (P < 0.05), and male doctors more frequently stated that patients' relatives should be involved in DNR orders (P < 0.05). When a decision to withdraw treatment is made, 76.8% of 151 respondents indicated that they would initiate palliative care; no respondent indicated that they would administer drugs to accelerate the expected outcome. The probability of survival from the acute episode and patients' wishes were the most important criteria influencing end-of-life decisions. These decisions are made only by the medical group in most of the responding ICUs, with little

  19. Characterizing critical care physician staffing in rural America: a description of Iowa intensive care unit staffing.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Collier, John; Hassebroek, Elizabeth; Groth, Heather

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize intensive care unit (ICU) physician staffing patterns in a predominantly rural state. A prospective telephone survey of ICU nurse managers in all Iowa hospitals with an ICU was conducted. Of 122 Iowa hospitals, 64 ICUs in 58 (48%) hospitals were identified, and 46 (72%) responded to the survey. Most ICUs (96%) used an open admission model and cared for undifferentiated medical and surgical patients (88%), and only 27% of open ICUs required critical care or pulmonary consultation for admitted patients. Most (59%) Iowa ICUs had a critical care physician or pulmonologist available, and high-intensity staffing was practiced in 30% of ICUs. Most physicians identified as practicing critical care (63%) were not board certified in critical care. Critical care physicians were available in a minority of hospitals routinely for inpatient intubation and cardiac arrest management (29% and 10%, respectively), and emergency physicians and other practitioners commonly responded to emergencies throughout the hospital. Many Iowa hospitals have ICUs, and staffing patterns in Iowa ICUs mirror closely national staffing practices. Most ICUs are multispecialty, open ICUs in community hospitals. These factors should inform training and resource allocation for intensivists in rural states. © 2014.

  20. Developing family-centred care in a neonatal intensive care unit: An action research study.

    PubMed

    Skene, Caryl; Gerrish, Kate; Price, Fiona; Pilling, Elizabeth; Bayliss, Pauline; Gillespie, Siobhan

    2018-06-21

    To develop, implement and evaluate family-centred interventions to promote parental involvement in caregiving in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. A participatory action research approach was used to implement two changes in practice a) improved skin-to-skin contact b) unlimited parental presence at the cot-side. The changes were underpinned by a family-centred philosophy of care and education. Data were collected from staff using a questionnaire, focus groups and interviews, and from parents using focus groups and interviews. Qualitative data were analysed using Framework and quantitative data analysed using descriptive and t-test statistics. A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in England. Changes in practice were successfully implemented. Nurses reported positively on improvements in Family Centred Care; most notably information-sharing with parents, providing family support, enabling parental participation in care and improved competence supporting parents in care-giving. These changes were reflected in parental feedback. Understanding the context of the neonatal unit can support cultural change when change is actively facilitated and owned by the staff concerned. Acknowledging parents as the main caregiver can be challenging for nurses and they require support and education to enable them to manage the changes necessary to provide Family-Centred Care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How do patients with exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experience care in the intensive care unit?

    PubMed Central

    Torheim, Henny; Kvangarsnes, Marit

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to gain insight into how patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience care in the acute phase. The study has a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. The empirics consist of qualitative in-depth interviews with ten patients admitted to the intensive care units in two Norwegian hospitals. The interviews were carried out from November 2009 to June 2011. The data have been analysed through meaning condensation, in accordance with Amadeo Giorgi's four-step method. Kari Martinsen's phenomenological philosophy of nursing has inspired the study. An essential structure of the patients' experiences of care in the intensive care unit by acute COPD-exacerbation may be described as: Feelings of being trapped in a life-threatening situation in which the care system assumes control over their lives. This experience is conditioned not only by the medical treatment, but also by the entire interaction with the caregivers. The essence of the phenomenon is presented through three themes which describe the patient's lived experience: preserving the breath of life, vulnerable interactions and opportunities for better health. Acute COPD-exacerbation is a traumatic experience and the patients become particularly vulnerable when they depend on others for breathing support. The phenomenological analysis shows that the patients experience good care during breath of life preservation when the care is performed in a way that gives patients more insight into their illness and gives new opportunities for the future. PMID:24313779

  2. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe.

  3. Risk model of prolonged intensive care unit stay in Chinese patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Zhang, Guan-xin; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Fang-lin; Li, Bai-ling; Xu, Ji-bin; Han, Lin; Xu, Zhi-yun

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a preoperative risk prediction model and an scorecard for prolonged intensive care unit length of stay (PrlICULOS) in adult patients undergoing heart valve surgery. This is a retrospective observational study of collected data on 3925 consecutive patients older than 18 years, who had undergone heart valve surgery between January 2000 and December 2010. Data were randomly split into a development dataset (n=2401) and a validation dataset (n=1524). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken using the development dataset to identify independent risk factors for PrlICULOS. Performance of the model was then assessed by observed and expected rates of PrlICULOS on the development and validation dataset. Model calibration and discriminatory ability were analysed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, respectively. There were 491 patients that required PrlICULOS (12.5%). Preoperative independent predictors of PrlICULOS are shown with odds ratio as follows: (1) age, 1.4; (2) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.8; (3) atrial fibrillation, 1.4; (4) left bundle branch block, 2.7; (5) ejection fraction, 1.4; (6) left ventricle weight, 1.5; (7) New York Heart Association class III-IV, 1.8; (8) critical preoperative state, 2.0; (9) perivalvular leakage, 6.4; (10) tricuspid valve replacement, 3.8; (11) concurrent CABG, 2.8; and (12) concurrent other cardiac surgery, 1.8. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic was not statistically significant in both development and validation dataset (P=0.365 vs P=0.310). The ROC curve for the prediction of PrlICULOS in development and validation dataset was 0.717 and 0.700, respectively. We developed and validated a local risk prediction model for PrlICULOS after adult heart valve surgery. This model can be used to calculate patient-specific risk with an equivalent predicted risk at our centre in

  4. Medicare intensive care unit use: analysis of incidence, cost, and payment.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Liesl M; Linde-Zwirble, Walter T

    2004-11-01

    To determine the incidence, cost, and payment for intensive care unit services among Medicare beneficiaries. Retrospective observational database cohort study. All nonfederal hospitals with intensive care unit beds (n = 5003) paid through the inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS). We used all fiscal year 2000 Medicare IPPS hospitalizations with consistent payment information (n = 10,657,587). None. We examined the distribution of cost and payments overall, by hospital type, and by diagnosis related group. Intensive care was used in 2,353,208 cases (21.1%). The overall incidence was 59.8 cases per thousand beneficiaries in the aged (65+) population, increasing with age from 36.2 (65-69) to 91.6 (85+). Intensive care unit patients cost nearly three times floor patients (4,135 dollars vs. 5,571 dollars), with two thirds of costs associated with the intensive care unit portion of the stay, 2,278 dollars per intensive care unit day. However, intensive care unit cases were paid at a rate only twice floor cases (11,704 dollars vs. 5,835 dollars). Only 83% of costs were paid for intensive care unit patients, compared with 105% for floor patients, generating a 5.8 billion dollars loss to hospitals when intensive care unit care is required. There was a linear association between the percent intensive care unit in a diagnosis related group and the percent paid, with payment >90% of cost only in diagnosis related groups with >/=60% intensive care unit cases. We found that teaching hospitals were better paid than nonteaching hospitals (87% vs. 78% of costs, respectively), but this was only due to indirect medical education payments. Intensive care is common, expensive, and poorly paid in the Medicare population. Few diagnosis related groups have a large enough intensive care unit population to ensure adequate payment. Additional diagnosis related groups for conditions common to the intensive care unit would improve payment and enable incentives for efficiency.

  5. Racial differences in parental satisfaction with neonatal intensive care unit nursing care.

    PubMed

    Martin, A E; D'Agostino, J A; Passarella, M; Lorch, S A

    2016-11-01

    Nurses provide parental support and education in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), but it is unknown if satisfaction and expectations about nursing care differ between racial groups. A prospective cohort was constructed of families with a premature infant presenting to primary care between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2013 (N=249, 52% white, 42% black). Responses to questions about satisfaction with the NICU were analyzed in ATLAS.ti using the standard qualitative methodology. One hundred and twenty (48%) parents commented on nursing. Fifty-seven percent of the comments were positive, with black parents more negative (58%) compared with white parents (33%). Black parents were most dissatisfied with how nurses supported them, wanting compassionate and respectful communication. White parents were most dissatisfied with inconsistent nursing care and lack of education about their child. Racial differences were found in satisfaction and expectations with neonatal nursing care. Accounting for these differences will improve parental engagement during the NICU stay.

  6. [Comparative study of burnout in Intensive Care and Emergency Care nursing staff].

    PubMed

    Ríos Risquez, M I; Godoy Fernández, C; Peñalver Hernández, F; Alonso Tovar, A R; López Alcaraz, F; López Romera, A; Garnés González, S; Salmerón Saura, E; López Real, M D; Ruiz Sánchez, R; Simón Domingo, P; Manzanera Nicolás, J L; Menchón Almagro, M A; Liébanas Bellón, R

    2008-01-01

    To assess and compare the burnout level between Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Unit, and study its association with the sociodemographic and work characteristics of the professionals surveyed. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Emplacement. Intensive Care Unit of the university hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia-Spain. STUDIED SAMPLE: 97 nursing professionals: 55 professionals belong to the Emergency Department, and 42 professionals belong to the Intensive Care Department. Two evaluation tools were used: a sociodemographic and work survey, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, 1986. Quantitative variables expressed as mean +/- SD compared with the Student's T test and qualitative variables compared with the chi2 test. SPSS 12.0(c). The comparative analysis of the burnout dimensions shows that emotional exhaustion level is significantly higher in the intensive care service than in the emergency one (25.45 +/- 11.15 vs 22.09 +/- 10.99) p < 0.05. The rest of burnout dimensions do not show significant differences between both departments. The masculine gender obtains a higher score in the depersonalization dimension of burnout (10.12 +/- 5.38) than female one (6.7 +/- 5.21) p < 0.01. There is greater vulnerability to emotional exhaustion among the professional group with more than 15 years of work experience (F = 3.592; p = 0.031). The burnout levels are moderate to high among the nursing professionals studied. A total of 5.15% of the sample studied achieves a high score in the three dimensions of the burnout syndrome. The intensive care professionals are the most vulnerable to suffering high levels of emotional exhaustion, and the masculine gender is more susceptible to depersonalization attitudes.

  7. Palliative care for patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Paola Nóbrega; de Miranda, Erique José Peixoto; Cruz, Ronaldo; Forte, Daniel Neves

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of patients with HIV/AIDS and to compare the therapeutic interventions and end-of-life care before and after evaluation by the palliative care team. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to the intensive care unit of the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas who were evaluated by a palliative care team between January 2006 and December 2012. Results Of the 109 patients evaluated, 89% acquired opportunistic infections, 70% had CD4 counts lower than 100 cells/mm3, and only 19% adhered to treatment. The overall mortality rate was 88%. Among patients predicted with a terminally ill (68%), the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy decreased from 50.0% to 23.1% (p = 0.02), the use of antibiotics decreased from 100% to 63.6% (p < 0.001), the use of vasoactive drugs decreased from 62.1% to 37.8% (p = 0.009), the use of renal replacement therapy decreased from 34.8% to 23.0% (p < 0.0001), and the number of blood product transfusions decreased from 74.2% to 19.7% (p < 0.0001). Meetings with the family were held in 48 cases, and 23% of the terminally ill patients were discharged from the intensive care unit. Conclusion Palliative care was required in patients with severe illnesses and high mortality. The number of potentially inappropriate interventions in terminally ill patients monitored by the palliative care team significantly decreased, and 26% of the patients were discharged from the intensive care unit. PMID:27737420

  8. [Care of mothers of newborns in intensive care units: experiences, feelings and expectations of the mothers].

    PubMed

    Belli, M A

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.

  9. [Autonomy in intensive care unit: let us start by caring ourselves].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ambrosina Oliveira; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

    2010-01-01

    This study, a qualitative investigation anchored in Foucaltian analysis with approximations to post-structuralist theory, explores the question of autonomy as one of the tensions of nursing performance/knowledge which can be discursively articulated to bioethics and to techno biomedicine. From such perspective, from the multiples vies that may emerge to completing a critical reading of the analyzed texts (articles produced by nurses) and of the interviews with intensive care nurses, the theme of autonomy was analytically explored from the concept of self care, unfolding itself into categories which express privileging: morals as obedience to the Law; conduct and morals concerning technical knowledge; self-governing in its confront with technique. These are configured as ethical possibilities for the intensive care nurse/subject, not as sequential or competitive stages, but connected and confluent in the experience of the current historical period.

  10. PAs reduce rounding interruptions in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Hascall, Rebecca L; Perkins, R Serene; Kmiecik, Lauren; Gupta, Priya R; Shelak, Carolyn F; Demirel, Shaban; Buchholz, Mark T

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the proportion of encounters that were interrupted during family-centered rounds in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) to determine whether the use of a physician assistant (PA) significantly affected the proportion of interrupted encounters. We evaluated 2,657 rounding encounters in our 24-bed regional referral unit. The duration of each rounding encounter and total rounding duration were recorded. The presence or absence of a PA during each rounding encounter, the occurrence of an interruption, and other potential predictors of interruptions were recorded. The presence of a PA during PICU rounds was significantly associated (P < .001) with a 35.4% lower likelihood of an interruption. Family-centered rounds in the PICU are less likely to be interrupted when a PA is present. PAs help physicians and improve rounding efficiency by safely and effectively handling certain interruptions.

  11. Targeted temperature management in neurological intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat; Srivilaithon, Winchana

    2017-01-01

    Targeted temperature management (TTM) shows the most promising neuroprotective therapy against hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In addition, TTM is also useful for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). HIE and elevated ICP are common catastrophic conditions in patients admitted in Neurologic intensive care unit (ICU). The most common cause of HIE is cardiac arrest. Randomized control trials demonstrate clinical benefits of TTM in patients with post-cardiac arrest. Although clinical benefit of ICP control by TTM in some specific critical condition, for an example in traumatic brain injury, is still controversial, efficacy of ICP control by TTM is confirmed by both in vivo and in vitro studies. Several methods of TTM have been reported in the literature. TTM can apply to various clinical conditions associated with hypoxic/ischemic brain injury and elevated ICP in Neurologic ICU. PMID:28706860

  12. Touch: a nursing strategy in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, C A

    1989-07-01

    In this article findings are reported from a qualitative study that examined touch from the perspective of intensive care (ICU) nurses. In-depth interviews with eight experienced ICU nurses and participant observation were used to collect data. Three distinct kinds of touch were identified, as well as normative patterns of touch among ICU nurses. The findings indicate that an understanding of touch is predicated on knowledge about the structural components of touch and the contextual variables and conditions that determine norms of touching. Touch is described as a multipurpose nursing strategy in the ICU. A need was identified to study a wider range of potential therapeutic and nontherapeutic touch meanings for nurses and patients than has previously been reported.

  13. Clinical review: Airway hygiene in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Jelic, Sanja; Cunningham, Jennifer A; Factor, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance of airway secretion clearance, or airway hygiene, is important for the preservation of airway patency and the prevention of respiratory tract infection. Impaired airway clearance often prompts admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can be a cause and/or contributor to acute respiratory failure. Physical methods to augment airway clearance are often used in the ICU but few are substantiated by clinical data. This review focuses on the impact of oral hygiene, tracheal suctioning, bronchoscopy, mucus-controlling agents, and kinetic therapy on the incidence of hospital-acquired respiratory infections, length of stay in the hospital and the ICU, and mortality in critically ill patients. Available data are distilled into recommendations for the maintenance of airway hygiene in ICU patients. PMID:18423061

  14. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Scheuer, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Continuous EEG (CEEG) monitoring allows uninterrupted assessment of cerebral cortical activity with good spatial resolution and excellent temporal resolution. Thus, this procedure provides a means of constantly assessing brain function in critically ill obtunded and comatose patients. Recent advances in digital EEG acquisition, storage, quantitative analysis, and transmission have made CEEG monitoring in the intensive care unit (ICU) technically feasible and useful. This article summarizes the indications and methodology of CEEG monitoring in the ICU, and discusses the role of some quantitative EEG analysis techniques in near real-time remote observation of CEEG recordings. Clinical examples of CEEG use, including monitoring of status epilepticus, assessment of ongoing therapy for treatment of seizures in critically ill patients, and monitoring for cerebral ischemia, are presented. Areas requiring further development of CEEG monitoring techniques and indications are discussed.

  15. [Influenza infection in intensive cardiac care unit patients].

    PubMed

    Ciuraszkiewicz, Katrzyna; Sielski, Janusz; Janion-Sadowska, Agnieszka; Stern, Agnieszka; Zychowicz, Joanna; Kaziród-Wolski, Karol; Paluchowski, Marian

    2014-03-01

    Infection with influenza type A virus may cause serious cardiovascular complications, such as myocarditis, heart failure, acute myocardial infarction. Also infection with influenza type AH1N1 may contribute to aggravation of cardiac disorders, i.e. acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, severe ventricular arrythmias. One of the most fatal complication of influenza is pneumonia leading to acute respiratory insufficiency requiring artifitial ventilation. Symptoms of respiratory tract infections durnig influenza epidemy should always be treated with a high index of suspicion. Early diagnosis and adequate antiviral treatment may prevent those complications. A series of four cases of patients hospitalised in intensive cardiac care unit due to suspected cardiac dyspnea and finally diagnosed as a cardiac disease complicated by influenza pneumonia is presented.

  16. Parents' experiences of their child's admission to paediatric intensive care.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    Admission of a child to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) may be one of the most stressful events for parents because the outcome is often uncertain. So how do parents cope, and how can we as nurses help them? To explore the lived experiences of parents whose children have been admitted to a PICU. Using Heidegger's school of interpretative phenomenology, six unstructured interviews were conducted. These were transcribed and analysed following interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants were chosen through purposive sampling. Each participant had different emergent themes. Themes included trauma, responsibility, anxiety about where the child is, post-traumatic stress symptoms and transfer to the ward. The lived experience of a parent is fraught with varying different emotions, with the beginning of the journey and the ending of the PICU admission causing the most anxiety.

  17. Involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in intensive care-acquired quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Cartagena, A M; Jog, M; Young, G B

    2012-02-01

    The syndrome of involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in the setting of acute intensive care-acquired quadriplegia (critical illness neuromyopathy) following sepsis-associated encephalopathy has not been previously described. We suggest a localization and treatment for this disabling condition. Three patients (2 female) from our center were quadriplegic from critical illness neuromyopathy when they developed involuntary craniofacial lingual movements following sepsis-associated encephalopathy. Extensive investigations failed to identify an etiology for the abnormal movements. Movements were of large amplitude, of moderate speed, and semi-rhythmic in the jaw, tongue, and palate, persistent and extremely bothersome to all patients. Injection with Botulinum toxin type A was very beneficial. Involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in the setting of flaccid quadriplegia following sepsis-associated encephalopathy are consistent with focal craniofacial brainstem myoclonus and constitutes a new syndrome. Botulinum toxin type A treatment maybe helpful in treatment.

  18. Supporting Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Parents Through Social Media.

    PubMed

    Dzubaty, Dolores R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit may often find themselves seeking healthcare information from online and social media sources. Social media applications are available to healthcare consumers and their families, as well as healthcare providers, in a variety of formats. Information that parents gather on their own, and information that is explained by providers, is then used when parents make healthcare decisions regarding their infants. Parents also seek support from peers and family while making healthcare decisions. The combination of knowledge obtained and social support given may empower the parent to feel more confident in their decision making. Healthcare professionals can guide parents to credible resources. The exchange of information between providers and parents can occur using a variety of communication methods. Misperceptions can be corrected, support given, open sharing of information occurs, and parent empowerment may result.

  19. Decentralized safety concept for closed-loop controlled intensive care.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Jan; Brendle, Christian; Stollenwerk, André; Schweigler, Martin; Kowalewski, Stefan; Janisch, Thorsten; Rossaint, Rolf; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian; Kopp, Rüdger

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a decentralized safety concept for networked intensive care setups, for which a decentralized network of sensors and actuators is realized by embedded microcontroller nodes. It is evaluated for up to eleven medical devices in a setup for automated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) therapy. In this contribution we highlight a blood pump supervision as exemplary safety measure, which allows a reliable bubble detection in an extracorporeal blood circulation. The approach is validated with data of animal experiments including 35 bubbles with a size between 0.05 and 0.3 ml. All 18 bubbles with a size down to 0.15 ml are successfully detected. By using hidden Markov models (HMMs) as statistical method the number of necessary sensors can be reduced by two pressure sensors.

  20. Cognitive and behavioral deficits in premature graduates of intensive care.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2002-12-01

    A substantial number of VLBW graduates of intensive care develop cognitive and behavioral problems, even in the absence of neuroimaging abnormalities. Although this article has highlighted the potential, important, contributing role of medical and stressful, neonatal, environmental conditions to the development of these deficits, it is not all-encompassing, and there are additional prenatal (ie, in utero stress, drug exposure) and neonatal (ie, infectious) contributing factors. The long-term, outcome data presented in this article are pertinent to the more mature, VLBW infant, and it remains unclear and critically important to delineate the long-term, neurobehavioral outcome of those extremely low birth-weight survivors born at the cutting limit of viability.

  1. Temporal abstraction for the analysis of intensive care information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Alejandro J.; Evin, Diego A.; Drozdowicz, Bartolomé; Chiotti, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for the analysis of time-stamped series data from multiple monitoring devices of intensive care units, using Temporal Abstraction concepts. This scheme is oriented to obtain a description of the patient state evolution in an unsupervised way. The case of study is based on a dataset clinically classified with Pulmonary Edema. For this dataset a trends based Temporal Abstraction mechanism is proposed, by means of a Behaviours Base of time-stamped series and then used in a classification step. Combining this approach with the introduction of expert knowledge, using Fuzzy Logic, and multivariate analysis by means of Self-Organizing Maps, a states characterization model is obtained. This model is feasible of being extended to different patients groups and states. The proposed scheme allows to obtain intermediate states descriptions through which it is passing the patient and that could be used to anticipate alert situations.

  2. A clinical decision support system prototype for cardiovascular intensive care.

    PubMed

    Lau, F

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a decision-support system prototype that can help manage hypovolemic hypotension in the Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit (CVICU). The prototype uses physiologic pattern-matching, therapeutic protocols, computational drug-dosage response modeling and expert reasoning heuristics in its selection of intervention strategies and choices. As part of model testing, the prototype simulated real-time operation by processing historical physiologic and intervention data on a patient sequentially, generating alerts on questionable data, critiques of interventions instituted and recommendations on preferred interventions. Bench-testing with 399 interventions from 13 historical cases showed therapies for bleeding and fluid replacement proposed by the prototype were significantly more consistent (p < 0.0001) than those instituted by the staff when compared against expert critiques (80% versus 44%). This study has demonstrated the feasibility of formalizing hemodynamic management of CVICU patients in a manner that may be implemented and evaluated in a clinical setting.

  3. Adaptive control of bivalirudin in the cardiac intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Edrich, Thomas; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch

    2015-02-01

    Bivalirudin is a direct thrombin inhibitor used in the cardiac intensive care unit when heparin is contraindicated due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Since it is not a commonly used drug, clinical experience with its dosing is sparse. In earlier work [1], we developed a dynamic system model that accurately predicts the effect of bivalirudin given dosage over time and patient physiological characteristics. This paper develops adaptive dosage controllers that regulate its effect to desired levels. To that end, and in the case that bivalirudin model parameters are available, we develop a Model Reference Control law. In the case that model parameters are unknown, an indirect Model Reference Adaptive Control scheme is applied to estimate model parameters first and then adapt the controller. Alternatively, direct Model Reference Adaptive Control is applied to adapt the controller directly without estimating model parameters first. Our algorithms are validated using actual patient data from a large hospital in the Boston area.

  4. Nutritional support of children in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed Central

    Seashore, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Nutritional support is an integral and essential part of the management of 5-10 percent of hospitalized children. Children in the intensive care unit are particularly likely to develop malnutrition because of the nature and duration of their illness, and their inability to eat by mouth. This article reviews the physiology of starvation and the development of malnutrition in children. A method of estimating the nutritional requirements of children is presented. The techniques of nutritional support, including enteral, peripheral, and central parenteral nutrition are discussed in detail. Appropriate formulas are given for different age groups. Electrolyte, vitamin, and mineral supplements are discussed. Guidelines are provided for choosing between peripheral and central total parenteral nutrition. A monitoring protocol is suggested and complications of nutritional therapy are reviewed. Safe and effective nutritional support requires considerable investment of time and effort by members of the nutrition team. PMID:6433586

  5. Cultural dilemmas of choice: Deconstructing consumer choice in health communication between maternity-care providers and ethnic Chinese mothers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shujie Phoebe; Munshi, Debashish; Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Simpson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This article critically analyses the discourse of consumer choice embedded in health communication interactions between maternity-care providers and migrant ethnic Chinese mothers in New Zealand. Findings indicate that Chinese mothers, as the customers of the New Zealand maternity and health care services, are encouraged to "fit in" with the Western discourse of choice. However, the mothers' cultural predispositions for childbirth and communication have a significant impact on the ways in which they respond to and resist this discourse. Drawing on theoretical insights from postcolonialism and Third World feminism, this article contributes to the study of intercultural health communication by examining cultural dilemmas in the discourse of choice that is often taken for granted in Western health contexts. In doing so, it builds a platform for an inclusive maternity care and health environment in multicultural societies.

  6. [Update: studies in intensive care medicine. Results of the last 12 months].

    PubMed

    Knapp, J; Marx, G; Weismüller, K; Steinebach, S; Lichtenstern, C; Popp, E; Mayer, K; Brunkhorst, F M; Weigand, M A; Bernhard, M

    2011-11-01

    Intensive care medicine plays an important role in the medical care of patients as well as the economic success of hospitals. Knowledge and implementation of recent relevant scientific evidence are prerequisites for high quality care in intensive care medicine. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the most important publications in intensive care medicine published in 2010 and the first half of the year 2011 and to comment on their attributable clinical relevance for intensive care practitioners. In 2010 and up to June 2011 many studies with high patient numbers have been published. The main topics were the treatment of respiratory failure, sepsis and investigations to improve analgosedation.

  7. Communication of mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Carina Isabel Ferreira; Rodrigues, Inês Tello Rato Milheiras

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to translate and culturally and linguistically adapt the Ease of Communication Scale and to assess the level of communication difficulties for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation with orotracheal intubation, relating these difficulties to clinical and sociodemographic variables. Methods This study had three stages: (1) cultural and linguistic adaptation of the Ease of Communication Scale; (2) preliminary assessment of its psychometric properties; and (3) observational, descriptive-correlational and cross-sectional study, conducted from March to August 2015, based on the Ease of Communication Scale - after extubation answers and clinical and sociodemographic variables of 31 adult patients who were extubated, clinically stable and admitted to five Portuguese intensive care units. Results Expert analysis showed high agreement on content (100%) and relevance (75%). The pretest scores showed a high acceptability regarding the completion of the instrument and its usefulness. The Ease of Communication Scale showed excellent internal consistency (0.951 Cronbach's alpha). The factor analysis explained approximately 81% of the total variance with two scale components. On average, the patients considered the communication experiences during intubation to be "quite hard" (2.99). No significant correlation was observed between the communication difficulties reported and the studied sociodemographic and clinical variables, except for the clinical variable "number of hours after extubation" (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study translated and adapted the first assessment instrument of communication difficulties for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units into European Portuguese. The preliminary scale validation suggested high reliability. Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation reported that communication during intubation was "quite hard", and these communication difficulties apparently existed regardless of the

  8. Incidence of constipation in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Tatiana Lopes de Souza; Mendonça, Simone Sotero; Guimarães Marshall, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the incidence of constipation in critical patients on enteral nutrition in a hospital intensive care unit and to correlate this incidence with the variables found for critical patients. Methods The present investigation was a retrospective analytical study conducted in the intensive care unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte (DF) via the analysis of medical records of patients admitted during the period from January to December 2011. Data on the incidence of constipation and enteral nutritional support, gastrointestinal changes, stool frequency, ventilatory support, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results The initial sample consisted of 127 patients admitted to the unit during the period from January to December 2011. Eighty-four patients were excluded, and the final sample consisted of 43 patients. The incidence of constipation, defined as no bowel movement during the first 4 days of hospitalization, was 72% (n=31). The patients were divided into a control group and a constipated group. The group of constipated patients reached the caloric target, on average, at 6.5 days, and the control group reached the caloric target in 5.6 days (p=0.51). Constipation was not associated with the length of hospital stay, suspension of nutritional support, or outcome of hospitalization. There was an association between evacuation during hospitalization and a longer duration of hospitalization for a subgroup of patients who did not evacuate during the entire period (p=0.009). Conclusion The incidence of constipation in the unit studied was 72%. Only the absence of evacuation during hospitalization was associated with longer hospital stays. Constipation was not associated with the length of hospital stay, suspension of nutritional support, or outcome of hospitalization. PMID:23917972

  9. Incidence of constipation in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Tatiana Lopes de Souza; Mendonça, Simone Sotero; Marshall, Norma Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of constipation in critical patients on enteral nutrition in a hospital intensive care unit and to correlate this incidence with the variables found for critical patients. The present investigation was a retrospective analytical study conducted in the intensive care unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte (DF) via the analysis of medical records of patients admitted during the period from January to December 2011. Data on the incidence of constipation and enteral nutritional support, gastrointestinal changes, stool frequency, ventilatory support, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. The initial sample consisted of 127 patients admitted to the unit during the period from January to December 2011. Eighty-four patients were excluded, and the final sample consisted of 43 patients. The incidence of constipation, defined as no bowel movement during the first 4 days of hospitalization, was 72% (n=31). The patients were divided into a control group and a constipated group. The group of constipated patients reached the caloric target, on average, at 6.5 days, and the control group reached the caloric target in 5.6 days (p=0.51). Constipation was not associated with the length of hospital stay, suspension of nutritional support, or outcome of hospitalization. There was an association between evacuation during hospitalization and a longer duration of hospitalization for a subgroup of patients who did not evacuate during the entire period (p=0.009). The incidence of constipation in the unit studied was 72%. Only the absence of evacuation during hospitalization was associated with longer hospital stays. Constipation was not associated with the length of hospital stay, suspension of nutritional support, or outcome of hospitalization.

  10. Outcome of Encephalitis in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Tsang, Yin Ching K; Chan, Lawrence C N; Tsang, Hing Wing; Wong, Kit Ying Kitty; Wu, Yuet Hong Gordon; Chan, Paul K S; Cheung, Kam Lau; Ng, Eric Y K; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2016-10-01

    To review pathogens, morbidity and mortality in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients with viral and infectious encephalitis. Retrospective chart review of all patients with encephalitis admitted to the PICU between 2002 and 2014 was done. Encephalitis (n = 46) accounted for 2.7 % of PICU admissions, but 11.8 % PICU mortality over a 12-y period. A microorganism (primarily virus) was identified in 59 % of encephalitis patients in the PICU. Enteroviruses and herpes viruses were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Respiratory viruses [such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza viruses] and enteric viruses (such as rotavirus and norovirus) were obtained in the nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool respectively, but undetectable from the CSF. More than one-fourth patients with encephalitis died in the PICU. Boys accounted for 85 % of nonsurvivors and 52 % survivors (p = 0.038). Mechanical ventilation, inotrope, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and corticosteroid usage were significantly higher among non-survivors (p 0.001-0.044). Binomial logistic regression showed that patients who received corticosteroid had a lower chance of survival than those who did not after adjusting for gender, IVIG and mechanical ventilation (adjusted odd ratio = 0.071, 95 % CI 0.006-0.881; p 0.039). Eighteen (55 %) of the survivors had moderate-to-severe neurodevelopmental impairments. Encephalitis is associated with significant mortality despite intensive care. Over 25 % case died and 55 % of survivors had moderate-to-severe neurodevelopmental impairments. There appeared to be no emerging outbreaks of encephalitis during the 15-y study period.

  11. Multifaceted bench comparative evaluation of latest intensive care unit ventilators.

    PubMed

    Garnier, M; Quesnel, C; Fulgencio, J-P; Degrain, M; Carteaux, G; Bonnet, F; Similowski, T; Demoule, A

    2015-07-01

    Independent bench studies using specific ventilation scenarios allow testing of the performance of ventilators in conditions similar to clinical settings. The aims of this study were to determine the accuracy of the latest generation ventilators to deliver chosen parameters in various typical conditions and to provide clinicians with a comprehensive report on their performance. Thirteen modern intensive care unit ventilators were evaluated on the ASL5000 test lung with and without leakage for: (i) accuracy to deliver exact tidal volume (VT) and PEEP in assist-control ventilation (ACV); (ii) performance of trigger and pressurization in pressure support ventilation (PSV); and (iii) quality of non-invasive ventilation algorithms. In ACV, only six ventilators delivered an accurate VT and nine an accurate PEEP. Eleven devices failed to compensate VT and four the PEEP in leakage conditions. Inspiratory delays differed significantly among ventilators in invasive PSV (range 75-149 ms, P=0.03) and non-invasive PSV (range 78-165 ms, P<0.001). The percentage of the ideal curve (concomitantly evaluating the pressurization speed and the levels of pressure reached) also differed significantly (range 57-86% for invasive PSV, P=0.04; and 60-90% for non-invasive PSV, P<0.001). Non-invasive ventilation algorithms efficiently prevented the decrease in pressurization capacities and PEEP levels induced by leaks in, respectively, 10 and 12 out of the 13 ventilators. We observed real heterogeneity of performance amongst the latest generation of intensive care unit ventilators. Although non-invasive ventilation algorithms appear to maintain adequate pressurization efficiently in the case of leakage, basic functions, such as delivered VT in ACV and pressurization in PSV, are often less reliable than the values displayed by the device suggest. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  12. Excess mortality in winter in Finnish intensive care.

    PubMed

    Reinikainen, M; Uusaro, A; Ruokonen, E; Niskanen, M

    2006-07-01

    In the general population, mortality from acute myocardial infarctions, strokes and respiratory causes is increased in winter. The winter climate in Finland is harsh. The aim of this study was to find out whether there are seasonal variations in mortality rates in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). We analysed data on 31,040 patients treated in 18 Finnish ICUs. We measured severity of illness with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores and intensity of care with therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) scores. We assessed mortality rates in different months and seasons and used logistic regression analysis to test the independent effect of various seasons on hospital mortality. We defined 'winter' as the period from December to February, inclusive. The crude hospital mortality rate was 17.9% in winter and 16.4% in non-winter, P = 0.003. Even after adjustment for case mix, winter season was an independent risk factor for increased hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005). In particular, the risk of respiratory failure was increased in winter. Crude hospital mortality was increased during the main holiday season in July. However, the severity of illness-adjusted risk of death was not higher in July than in other months. An increase in the mean daily TISS score was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality. Severity of illness-adjusted hospital mortality for Finnish ICU patients is higher in winter than in other seasons.

  13. [Peritonitis: main reason of severe sepsis in surgical intensive care].

    PubMed

    Weiss, G; Steffanie, W; Lippert, H

    2007-04-01

    Aim of the study was to determine the epidemiology of sepsis in an university surgical intensive care unit. We were mainly interested in getting information about incidence, reason and clinical course of peritonitis. The results should give more information about diagnostic and therapy of sepsis in the surgical intensive care. We analyzed our 2 676 ICU-patients from 2000 to 2002 with infection as main diagnosis. By means of medical report we analyzed the kind of infection and the clinical course of 561 (21 %) patients. For 356 (13.3 %) patients with peritonitis we observed the kind, the reason and the severity of infection and further the special events in the clinical course. The incidence of severe sepsis was 14.8 %. With 63 % the peritonitis is the main infectiological diagnosis on admission to ICU. 33.8 % of infections are hospital acquired. 71.3 % of patients with peritonitis developed a severe sepsis or septic shock during the clinical course. On average 4.7 further abdominal surgical interventions and 5.1 new occurring nosocomial infections marked a difficult surgical and infectious treatment course. Hospital acquired infections (70 %), high value of scoring and inadequate surgical treatment (23.7 %) have proved to be a good prognostic instrument for the development of tertiary peritonitis. With a share of 17 % from patients with peritonitis and a mortality of 35 % they have a strong influence on the ICU-mortality. Peritonitis is the main reason of severe sepsis on the surgical ICU. Hospital acquired infections especially the tertiary peritonitis have the highest mortality. High mortality is the consequence from the large number of difficult clinical courses and high rates of severe sepsis and septic shock. "Second hits" play a crucial role for the therapy and the prognosis of these patients. To decline the mortality future studies must more consider the problem of hospital acquired and tertiary abdominal infections.

  14. Advance directives in intensive care: Health professional competences.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Sanz, T R; Rayón-Valpuesta, E

    2016-04-01

    To identify knowledge, skills and attitudes among physicians and nurses of adults' intensive care units (ICUs), referred to advance directives or living wills. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out. Nine hospitals in the Community of Madrid (Spain). Physicians and nurses of adults' intensive care. A qualitative Likert-type scale and multiple response survey were made. Knowledge, skills and attitudes about the advance directives. A descriptive statistical analysis based on percentages was made, with application of the chi-squared test for comparisons, accepting p < 0.05 as representing statistical significance. A total of 331 surveys were collected (51%). It was seen that 90.3% did not know all the measures envisaged by the advance directives. In turn, 50.2% claimed that the living wills are not respected, and 82.8% believed advance directives to be a useful tool for health professionals in the decision making process. A total of 85.3% the physicians stated that they would respect a living will, in cases of emergencies, compared to 66.2% of the nursing staff (p = 0.007). Lastly, only 19.1% of the physicians and 2.3% of the nursing staff knew whether their patients had advance directives (p < 0.001). Although health professionals displayed poor knowledge of advance directives, they had a favorable attitude toward their usefulness. However, most did not know whether their patients had a living will, and some professionals even failed to respect such instructions despite knowledge of the existence of advance directives. Improvements in health professional education in this field are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Organizational and safety culture in Canadian intensive care units: relationship to size of intensive care unit and physician management model.

    PubMed

    Dodek, Peter M; Wong, Hubert; Jaswal, Danny; Heyland, Daren K; Cook, Deborah J; Rocker, Graeme M; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Dale, Craig; Fowler, Robert; Ayas, Najib T

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe organizational and safety culture in Canadian intensive care units (ICUs), to correlate culture with the number of beds and physician management model in each ICU, and to correlate organizational culture and safety culture. In this cross-sectional study, surveys of organizational and safety culture were administered to 2374 clinical staff in 23 Canadian tertiary care and community ICUs. For the 1285 completed surveys, scores were calculated for each of 34 domains. Average domain scores for each ICU were correlated with number of ICU beds and with intensivist vs nonintensivist management model. Domain scores for organizational culture were correlated with domain scores for safety culture. Culture domain scores were generally favorable in all ICUs. There were moderately strong positive correlations between number of ICU beds and perceived effectiveness at recruiting/retaining physicians (r = 0.58; P < .01), relative technical quality of care (r = 0.66; P < .01), and medical director budgeting authority (r = 0.46; P = .03), and moderately strong negative correlations with frequency of events reported (r = -0.46; P = .03), and teamwork across hospital units (r = -0.51; P = .01). There were similar patterns for relationships with intensivist management. For most pairs of domains, there were weak correlations between organizational and safety culture. Differences in perceptions between staff in larger and smaller ICUs highlight the importance of teamwork across units in larger ICUs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Managed care. Its impact on health care in the USA, especially on anesthesia and intensive care].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Bach, A

    1998-06-01

    Managed care, i.e., the integration of health insurance and delivery of care under the direction of one organization, is gaining importance in the USA health market. The initial effects consisted of a decrease in insurance premiums, a very attractive feature for employers. Managed care promises to contain expenditures for health care. Given the shrinking public resources in Germany, managed care seems attractive for the German health system, too. In this review the development of managed care, the principal elements, forms of organisation and practical tools are outlined. The regulation of the delivery of care by means of controlling and financial incentives threatens the autonomy of physicians: the physician must act as a "double agent", caring for the interest for the individual patient and being restricted by the contract with the managed care organisation. Cost containment by managed care was achieved by reducing the fees for physicians and hospitals (and partly by restricting care for patients). Only a fraction of this cost reduction was handed over to the enrollee or employer, and most of the money was returned with profit to the shareholders of the managed care organisations. The preeminent role of primary care physicians as gatekeepers of the health network led to a reduced demand for specialist services in general and for university hospitals and anesthesiologists in particular. The paradigm of managed care, i.e., to guide the patient and the care giver through the health care system in order to achieve cost-effective and high quality care, seems very attractive. The stress on cost minimization by any means in the daily practice of managed care makes it doubtful if managed care should be an option for the German health system, in particular because there are a number of restrictions on it in German law.

  17. A comparison of intensive care unit care of surgical patients in teaching and nonteaching hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Fakhry, S M; Buehrer, J L; Sheldon, G F; Meyer, A A

    1991-01-01

    Three hundred forty-eight teaching (TH) and 282 nonteaching (NTH) hospitals were surveyed to determine how intensive care unit (ICU) care is delivered to surgical patients and current views on surgical critical care. Teaching hospitals were more likely than NTHs to have a separate surgical ICU (92% versus 37%), a dedicated ICU service/physician (37% versus 7%), and a surgeon as director of the ICU (67% versus 29%). All THs and 33% of NTHs provided 24 hour in-house coverage for the ICU. A majority of respondents preferred a surgeon as ICU director (TH, 85%; NTH, 67%) and felt that critical care was an essential part of surgery (THs, 87%; NTHs, 74%). Most (THs, 58%; NTHs, 56%) thought that a cooperative effort between the primary service and an ICU service provided better patient care, but only 37% of THs and 22% of NTHs provided care with such a system. Many (THs, 45%; NTHs, 33%) thought that surgeons are willingly relinquishing ICU care. Surgeons continue to desire responsibility for their patients in the ICU and most prefer ICU service involvement provided by surgeons. This discrepancy between what is practiced and what is desired, along with proposed changes in reimbursement for surgery and the recent definition of critical care as an essential part of surgery, may stimulate greater involvement of surgeons in critical care. PMID:2064466

  18. The nocturnal acoustical intensity of the intensive care environment: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Lori J; Currie, Marian J; Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Lopez, Violeta; Litton, Edward; Van Haren, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) environment exposes patients to noise levels that may result in substantial sleep disruption. There is a need to accurately describe the intensity pattern and source of noise in the ICU in order to develop effective sound abatement strategies. The objectives of this study were to determine nocturnal noise levels and their variability and the related sources of noise within an Australian tertiary ICU. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a 24-bed open-plan ICU. Sound levels were recorded overnight during three nights at 5-s epochs using Extech (SDL 600) sound monitors. Noise sources were concurrently logged by two research assistants. The mean recorded ambient noise level in the ICU was 52.85 decibels (dB) (standard deviation (SD) 5.89), with a maximum noise recording at 98.3 dB (A). All recorded measurements exceeded the WHO recommendations. Noise variability per minute ranged from 9.9 to 44 dB (A), with peak noise levels >70 dB (A) occurring 10 times/hour (SD 11.4). Staff were identified as the most common source accounting for 35% of all noise. Mean noise levels in single-patient rooms compared with open-bed areas were 53.5 vs 53 dB ( p  = 0.37), respectively. Mean noise levels exceeded those recommended by the WHO resulting in an acoustical intensity of 193 times greater than the recommended and demonstrated a high degree of unpredictable variability, with the primary noise sources coming from staff conversations. The lack of protective effects of single rooms and the contributing effects that staffs have on noise levels are important factors when considering sound abatement strategies.

  19. Burnout and Job Engagement in Emergency and Intensive Care Nurses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argentero, Piergiorgio; Dell'Olivo, Bianca

    Burnout phenomenon emerges from a constellation of factors which cannot be described in terms of cause-effect relationships. This study investigated levels of burnout in nurses working in Critical Care Units with a systemic approach, giving evidence of relation between nurses staff burnout and psychosocial workplace factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between job burnout in emergency and intensive care nurse with specific areas of work life in their organizations, using Maslach and Leiter work life model [23]. A cross-sectional survey was designed using the Italian version of the "Organizational Checkup System" in a sample of 180 Italian nurses. Results showed that high burnout levels were strongly related to high demands, low control, low fairness, lack of social support, and individual disagreement on values in the workplace. High professional efficacy levels were instead correlated to professional reward and leadership involvement. The article concludes by suggesting the possible areas for intervention in order to prevent job burnout and building job engagement.

  20. Metabolic Profiling in Patients with Pneumonia on Intensive Care.

    PubMed

    Antcliffe, David; Jiménez, Beatriz; Veselkov, Kirill; Holmes, Elaine; Gordon, Anthony C

    2017-04-01

    Clinical features and investigations lack predictive value when diagnosing pneumonia, especially when patients are ventilated and when patients develop ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). New tools to aid diagnosis are important to improve outcomes. This pilot study examines the potential for metabolic profiling to aid the diagnosis in critical care. In this prospective observational study ventilated patients with brain injuries or pneumonia were recruited in the intensive care unit and serum samples were collected soon after the start of ventilation. Metabolic profiles were produced using 1D 1 H NMR spectra. Metabolic data were compared using multivariate statistical techniques including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). We recruited 15 patients with pneumonia and 26 with brain injuries, seven of whom went on to develop VAP. Comparison of metabolic profiles using OPLS-DA differentiated those with pneumonia from those with brain injuries (R 2 Y=0.91, Q 2 Y=0.28, p=0.02) and those with VAP from those without (R 2 Y=0.94, Q 2 Y=0.27, p=0.05). Metabolites that differentiated patients with pneumonia included lipid species, amino acids and glycoproteins. Metabolic profiling shows promise to aid in the diagnosis of pneumonia in ventilated patients and may allow a more timely diagnosis and better use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Operations research in intensive care unit management: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Fügener, Andreas; Schoenfelder, Jan; Brunner, Jens O

    2018-03-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is a crucial and expensive resource largely affected by uncertainty and variability. Insufficient ICU capacity causes many negative effects not only in the ICU itself, but also in other connected departments along the patient care path. Operations research/management science (OR/MS) plays an important role in identifying ways to manage ICU capacities efficiently and in ensuring desired levels of service quality. As a consequence, numerous papers on the topic exist. The goal of this paper is to provide the first structured literature review on how OR/MS may support ICU management. We start our review by illustrating the important role the ICU plays in the hospital patient flow. Then we focus on the ICU management problem (single department management problem) and classify the literature from multiple angles, including decision horizons, problem settings, and modeling and solution techniques. Based on the classification logic, research gaps and opportunities are highlighted, e.g., combining bed capacity planning and personnel scheduling, modeling uncertainty with non-homogenous distribution functions, and exploring more efficient solution approaches.

  2. Birth Tourism and Neonatal Intensive Care: A Children's Hospital Experience.

    PubMed

    Mikhael, Michel; Cleary, John P; Dhar, Vijay; Chen, Yanjun; Nguyen, Danh V; Chang, Anthony C

    2016-12-01

    Objective  The aim of this article is to examine characteristics of birth tourism (BT) neonates admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods  This was a retrospective review over 3 years; BT cases were identified, and relevant perinatal, medical, social, and financial data were collected and compared with 100 randomly selected non-birth tourism neonates. Results  A total of 46 BT neonates were identified. They were more likely to be born to older women (34 vs. 29 years; p  < 0.001), via cesarean delivery (72 vs. 48%; p  = 0.007), and at a referral facility (80 vs. 32%; p  < 0.001). BT group had longer hospital stay (15 vs. 7 days; p  = 0.02), more surgical intervention (50 vs. 21%; p  < 0.001), and higher hospital charges (median $287,501 vs. $103,105; p  = 0.003). One-third of BT neonates were enrolled in public health insurance program and four BT neonates (10%) were placed for adoption. Conclusion  Families of BT neonates admitted to the NICU face significant challenges. Larger studies are needed to better define impacts on families, health care system, and society. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Failure of nasogastric omeprazole suspension in pediatric intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Haizlip, Julie A; Lugo, Ralph A; Cash, Jared J; Vernon, Donald D

    2005-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of nasogastric admi