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Sample records for zealand leaky buildings

  1. Leaky GFD problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumakova, Lyubov; Rzeznik, Andrew; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    2017-11-01

    In many dispersive/conservative wave problems, waves carry energy outside of the domain of interest and never return. Inside the domain of interest, this wave leakage acts as an effective dissipation mechanism, causing solutions to decay. In classical geophysical fluid dynamics problems this scenario occurs in the troposphere, if one assumes a homogeneous stratosphere. In this talk we present several classic GFD problems, where we seek the solution in the troposphere alone. Assuming that upward propagating waves that reach the stratosphere never return, we demonstrate how classic baroclinic modes become leaky, with characteristic decay time-scales that can be calculated. We also show how damping due to wave leakage changes the classic baroclinic instability problem in the presence of shear. This presentation is a part of a joint project. The mathematical approach used here relies on extending the classical concept of group velocity to leaky waves with complex wavenumber and frequency, which will be presented at this meeting by A. Rzeznik in the talk ``Group Velocity for Leaky Waves''. This research is funded by the Royal Soc. of Edinburgh, Scottish Government, and NSF.

  2. Comparison of main-shock and aftershock fragility curves developed for New Zealand and US buildings

    Uma, S.R.; Ryu, H.; Luco, N.; Liel, A.B.; Raghunandan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic risk assessment involves the development of fragility functions to express the relationship between ground motion intensity and damage potential. In evaluating the risk associated with the building inventory in a region, it is essential to capture 'actual' characteristics of the buildings and group them so that 'generic building types' can be generated for further analysis of their damage potential. Variations in building characteristics across regions/countries largely influence the resulting fragility functions, such that building models are unsuitable to be adopted for risk assessment in any other region where a different set of building is present. In this paper, for a given building type (represented in terms of height and structural system), typical New Zealand and US building models are considered to illustrate the differences in structural model parameters and their effects on resulting fragility functions for a set of main-shocks and aftershocks. From this study, the general conclusion is that the methodology and assumptions used to derive basic capacity curve parameters have a considerable influence on fragility curves.

  3. Post-earthquake building safety inspection: Lessons from the Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquakes

    Marshall, J.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Gould, N.; Turner, F.; Lizundia, B.; Barnes, J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss some of the unique aspects and lessons of the New Zealand post-earthquake building safety inspection program that was implemented following the Canterbury earthquake sequence of 2010–2011. The post-event safety assessment program was one of the largest and longest programs undertaken in recent times anywhere in the world. The effort engaged hundreds of engineering professionals throughout the country, and also sought expertise from outside, to perform post-earthquake structural safety inspections of more than 100,000 buildings in the city of Christchurch and the surrounding suburbs. While the building safety inspection procedure implemented was analogous to the ATC 20 program in the United States, many modifications were proposed and implemented in order to assess the large number of buildings that were subjected to strong and variable shaking during a period of two years. This note discusses some of the key aspects of the post-earthquake building safety inspection program and summarizes important lessons that can improve future earthquake response.

  4. Building an educated health informatics workforce--the New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Parry, David; Hunter, Inga; Honey, Michelle; Holt, Alec; Day, Karen; Kirk, Ray; Cullen, Rowena

    2013-01-01

    New Zealand has a rapidly expanding health information technology (IT) development industry and wide-ranging use of informatics, especially in the primary health sector. The New Zealand government through the National Health IT Board (NHITB) has promised to provide shared care health records of core information for all New Zealanders by 2014. One of the major barriers to improvement in IT use in healthcare is the dearth of trained and interested clinicians, management and technical workforce. Health Informatics New Zealand (HINZ) and the academic community in New Zealand are attempting to remedy this by raising awareness of health informatics at the "grass roots" level of the existing workforce via free "primer" workshops and by developing a sustainable cross-institutional model of educational opportunities. Support from the NHITB has been forthcoming, and the workshops started in early 2013, reaching out to clinical and other staff in post around New Zealand.

  5. Building a Future-Oriented Science Education System in New Zealand: How Are We Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jane; Bull, Ally

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes the case for deep and radical change to New Zealand's approach to science education. It discusses the implications of recent science education research and policy work, and argues New Zealand still has a long way to go to developing a future-oriented science education system. It explores what needs to change and contains…

  6. Using Mixed Methods to Build Research Capacity within the Spinal Cord Injured Population of New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Martin; Derrett, Sarah; Paul, Charlotte; Beaver, Carolyn; Stace, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, a 4-year longitudinal study of all people admitted to the two New Zealand spinal units commenced. It aims to (a) explore interrelationship(s) of body, self, and society for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and (b) investigate how entitlement to rehabilitation and compensation through New Zealand's Accident Compensation Corporation…

  7. Group Velocity for Leaky Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzeznik, Andrew; Chumakova, Lyubov; Rosales, Rodolfo

    2017-11-01

    In many linear dispersive/conservative wave problems one considers solutions in an infinite medium which is uniform everywhere except for a bounded region. In general, localized inhomogeneities of the medium cause partial internal reflection, and some waves leak out of the domain. Often one only desires the solution in the inhomogeneous region, with the exterior accounted for by radiation boundary conditions. Formulating such conditions requires definition of the direction of energy propagation for leaky waves in multiple dimensions. In uniform media such waves have the form exp (d . x + st) where d and s are complex and related by a dispersion relation. A complex s is required since these waves decay via radiation to infinity, even though the medium is conservative. We present a modified form of Whitham's Averaged Lagrangian Theory along with modulation theory to extend the classical idea of group velocity to leaky waves. This allows for solving on the bounded region by representing the waves as a linear combination of leaky modes, each exponentially decaying in time. This presentation is part of a joint project, and applications of these results to example GFD problems will be presented by L. Chumakova in the talk ``Leaky GFD Problems''. This work is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-1614043, DMS-1719637, and 1122374, and by the Hertz Foundation.

  8. Narratives from Aotearoa New Zealand: Building Communities in Early Childhood through the Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuemana-Foa'i, Lisa; Pohio, Lesley; Terreni, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects the voices of the authors who are three early childhood tertiary educators and who have presented at the Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Arts Educators Conference held in Wellington in July 2007. The authors revealed many common threads that interwove throughout their individual presentations and made visible an emerging…

  9. Building Capacity in a Self-Managing Schooling System: The New Zealand Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Viviane M. J.; McNaughton, Stuart; Timperley, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate two recent examples of the New Zealand Ministry of Education's approach to reducing the persistent disparities in achievement between students of different social and ethnic groups. The first example is cluster-based school improvement, and the second is the development of national standards for…

  10. Spatial mode discriminator based on leaky waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Jialing; Shi, Hongkang; Chen, Yuntian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a conceptually simple and experimentally compatible configuration to discriminate the spatial mode based on leaky waveguides, which are inserted in-between the transmission link. The essence of such a spatial mode discriminator is to introduce the leakage of the power flux on purpose for detection. Importantly, the leaky angle of each individual spatial mode with respect to the propagation direction are different for non-degenerated modes, while the radiation patterns of the degenerated spatial modes in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction are also distinguishable. Based on these two facts, we illustrate the operation principle of the spatial mode discriminators via two concrete examples; a w-type slab leaky waveguide without degeneracy, and a cylindrical leaky waveguide with degeneracy. The correlation between the leakage angle and the spatial mode distribution for a slab leaky waveguide, as well as differences between the in-plane radiation patterns of degenerated modes in a cylindrical leaky waveguide, are verified numerically and analytically. Such findings can be readily useful in discriminating the spatial modes for optical communication or optical sensing.

  11. Quantized mode of a leaky cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, S. M.; Nienhuis, G.

    2000-12-01

    We use Thomson's classical concept of mode of a leaky cavity to develop a quantum theory of cavity damping. This theory generalizes the conventional system-reservoir theory of high-Q cavity damping to arbitrary Q. The small system now consists of damped oscillators corresponding to the natural modes of the leaky cavity rather than undamped oscillators associated with the normal modes of a fictitious perfect cavity. The formalism unifies semiclassical Fox-Li modes and the normal modes traditionally used for quantization. It also lays the foundations for a full quantum description of excess noise. The connection with Siegman's semiclassical work is straightforward. In a wider context, this theory constitutes a radical departure from present models of dissipation in quantum mechanics: unlike conventional models, system and reservoir operators no longer commute with each other. This noncommutability is an unavoidable consequence of having to use natural cavity modes rather than normal modes of a fictitious perfect cavity.

  12. Carrying BioMath education in a Leaky Bucket.

    PubMed

    Powell, James A; Kohler, Brynja R; Haefner, James W; Bodily, Janice

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a project-based mathematical lab implemented in our Applied Mathematics in Biology course. The Leaky Bucket Lab allows students to parameterize and test Torricelli's law and develop and compare their own alternative models to describe the dynamics of water draining from perforated containers. In the context of this lab students build facility in a variety of applied biomathematical tools and gain confidence in applying these tools in data-driven environments. We survey analytic approaches developed by students to illustrate the creativity this encourages as well as prepare other instructors to scaffold the student learning experience. Pedagogical results based on classroom videography support the notion that the Biology-Applied Math Instructional Model, the teaching framework encompassing the lab, is effective in encouraging and maintaining high-level cognition among students. Research-based pedagogical approaches that support the lab are discussed.

  13. Political Projects and Micro-Practices of Globalising Education: Building an International Education Industry in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the framing of globalising education as an industry in New Zealand. It traces the development of industry institutions to promote and regulate cross-border educational relations and practices. The paper argues that the making of a national "international education industry" has framed entrepreneurial education…

  14. The Opportunities to Build on Existing Expertise in Writing Classrooms: A Study of Writing Lessons in New Zealand Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesson, Rebecca N.; Cockle, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated 15 Year 4-6 classrooms in two multicultural schools in New Zealand to understand what opportunities students had to draw on their diverse experiences of texts. A mixed-methods approach was taken, including classroom observations and student interviews. Results suggested that lessons were characterised by a consistent…

  15. Building an Amphibious Capability for New Zealand in the 21st Century: Essential in an Uncertain Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-04

    Solomon Islands. Fiji has had five military coups in the past twenty-seven years21. In addition, natural disasters (predominantly cyclones) necessitate...to assist with development and relief packages within the Pacific Islands, particularly emergency response to natural disasters . This is where the...secured Apia4. From this genesis, New Zealand and the NZDF have continued to conduct military operations in the South Pacific; from disaster relief

  16. Effects Of Leaky Sewers On Groundwater Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of urban areas on groundwater quality has become an emerging research field in hydrogeology. Urban subsurface infrastructures like sewer networks are often leaky, so untreated wastewater may enter the urban aquifer. The transport of wastewater into the groundwater is still not well understood under field conditions. In the research platform WASSER Leipzig (Water And Sewershed Study of Environmental Risk in Leipzig- Germany) the effects of leaky sewers on the groundwater quality are investigated. The research is focused on the occurrence and transport of so-called "xenobiotics" such as pharmaceuticals and personal care product additives. Xenobiotics may pose a threat on human health, but can also be considered a marker for an urban impact on water resources. A new test site was established in Leipzig to quantify mass fluxes of xenobiotics into the groundwater from a leaky sewer. Corresponding to the leaks which were detected by closed circuit television inspections, monitoring wells were installed up- and downstream of the sewer. Concentrations of eight xenobiotics (technical-nonylphenol, bisphenol-a, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, phenazone, ethinylestradiol) obtained from first sampling programmes were found to be highly heterogeneous, but a relation between the position of the sampling points and the sewer could not be clearly identified. However, concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and nitrate increased significantly downstream of the sewer which may be due to wastewater exfiltration, since no other source is known on the water flowpath from the upstream to the downstream wells. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of xenobiotics at the test site, a monitoring concept was developed comprising both high-resolution sampling and an integral approach to obtain representative average concentrations. Direct-push techniques were used to gain insight into the fine-scale spatial distribution of the target compounds

  17. Simpson's Paradox in the Interpretation of "Leaky Pipeline" Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Paul H.; Walton, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional "leaky pipeline" plots are widely used to inform gender equality policy and practice. Herein, we demonstrate how a statistical phenomenon known as Simpson's paradox can obscure trends in gender "leaky pipeline" plots. Our approach has been to use Excel spreadsheets to generate hypothetical "leaky…

  18. Tunable ferrite-based metamaterial structure and its application to a leaky-wave antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berneti, Elahe Kargar; Ghalibafan, Javad

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a new magnetically tunable substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) with composite right/left-handed (CRLH) response is presented. The structure consists of an array of interdigital slots on the upper wall of a SIW line with normally magnetized ferrite substrate. The electromagnetic properties of this structure are studied and the dispersion diagram is considered. The simulated results show that the proposed structure has a separate right- and left-handed leakage frequency region which can be simply controlled by varying the applied ferrite magnetic bias field. As an application, this leakage frequency band is exploited to build a new leaky-wave antenna (LWA) which its radiation pattern can be independently scanned by varying the frequency or the magnetic bias field. As another advantage, there is not any mechanical switch or electrical tuning chip in the proposed leaky-wave antenna.

  19. Breakthroughs in Low-Profile Leaky-Wave HPM Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    presentation of our work at the 17th annual DEPS conference. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Leaky-wave Antennas. High Power Microwaves (HPM) Antennas. Low-profile...the performance, behavior, and design of innovative High Power Microwave (HPM, GW-class) antennas of the forward-traveling, fast-wave, leaky-wave...Conformal Antennas. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON (Monitor

  20. Breakthroughs in Low-Profile Leaky-Wave HPM Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-21

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and... traveling , fast-wave, leaky-wave class. 1.1. Overview of Previous Activities (1st thru 11th Quarter) During the first quarter, we prepared and...theory to guide the design of high-gain configurations (again, limited to 2D, H-plane representations) for linear, forward traveling -wave, leaky

  1. Openings between Defective Endothelial Cells Explain Tumor Vessel Leakiness

    PubMed Central

    Hashizume, Hiroya; Baluk, Peter; Morikawa, Shunichi; McLean, John W.; Thurston, Gavin; Roberge, Sylvie; Jain, Rakesh K.; McDonald, Donald M.

    2000-01-01

    Leakiness of blood vessels in tumors may contribute to disease progression and is key to certain forms of cancer therapy, but the structural basis of the leakiness is unclear. We sought to determine whether endothelial gaps or transcellular holes, similar to those found in leaky vessels in inflammation, could explain the leakiness of tumor vessels. Blood vessels in MCa-IV mouse mammary carcinomas, which are known to be unusually leaky (functional pore size 1.2–2 μm), were compared to vessels in three less leaky tumors and normal mammary glands. Vessels were identified by their binding of intravascularly injected fluorescent cationic liposomes and Lycopersicon esculentum lectin and by CD31 (PECAM) immunoreactivity. The luminal surface of vessels in all four tumors had a defective endothelial monolayer as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. In MCa-IV tumors, 14% of the vessel surface was lined by poorly connected, overlapping cells. The most superficial lining cells, like endothelial cells, had CD31 immunoreactivity and fenestrae with diaphragms, but they had a branched phenotype with cytoplasmic projections as long as 50 μm. Some branched cells were separated by intercellular openings (mean diameter 1.7 μm; range, 0.3–4.7 μm). Transcellular holes (mean diameter 0.6 μm) were also present but were only 8% as numerous as intercellular openings. Some CD31-positive cells protruded into the vessel lumen; others sprouted into perivascular tumor tissue. Tumors in RIP-Tag2 mice had, in addition, tumor cell-lined lakes of extravasated erythrocytes. We conclude that some tumor vessels have a defective cellular lining composed of disorganized, loosely connected, branched, overlapping or sprouting endothelial cells. Openings between these cells contribute to tumor vessel leakiness and may permit access of macromolecular therapeutic agents to tumor cells. PMID:10751361

  2. Subsonic leaky Rayleigh waves at liquid-solid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mozhaev, V G; Weihnacht, M

    2002-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of leaky Rayleigh waves at liquid-solid interfaces close to the border of the existence domain of these modes. The real and complex roots of the secular equation are computed for interface waves at the boundary between water and a binary isotropic alloy of gold and silver with continuously variable composition. The change of composition of the alloy allows one to cross a critical velocity for the existence of leaky waves. It is shown that, contrary to popular opinion, the critical velocity does not coincide with the phase velocity of bulk waves in liquid. The true threshold velocity is found to be smaller, the correction being of about 1.45%. Attention is also drawn to the fact that using the real part of the complex phase velocity as a velocity of leaky waves gives only approximate value. The most interesting feature of the waves under consideration is the presence of energy leakage in the subsonic range of the phase velocities where, at first glance, any radiation by harmonic waves is not permitted. A simple physical explanation of this radiation with due regard for inhomogeneity of radiated and radiating waves is given. The controversial question of the existence of leaky Rayleigh waves at a water/ice interface is reexamined. It is shown that the solution considered previously as a leaky wave is in fact the solution of the bulk-wave-reflection problem for inhomogeneous waves.

  3. Exhumation History of an Oblique Plate Boundary: Investigating Kaikoura Mountain-building within the Marlborough Fault System, NE South Island New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, C.; Duvall, A. R.; Flowers, R. M.; Tucker, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Kaikoura Mountains stand high as topographic anomalies in the oblique Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone known as the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), NE South Island New Zealand. The base of both the Inland and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges are bound on the SE by major, steeply NW-dipping, right lateral, active strike-slips (Clarence and Hope faults of the MFS, respectively). Previous geologic mapping, observations of predominantly horizontal fault slip at the surface from GPS and offset Quaternary deposits, and uplift of marine terraces, provide evidence for shortening and mountain-building via distributed deformation off of the main MFS strike-slip faults. However, quantitative estimates of the magnitude and spatial patterns of exhumation and of the timing of mountain-building in the Kaikouras are needed to understand more fully the nature of oblique deformation in the MFS. We present new apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from opposite sides of the Hope and Clarence faults, spanning over 2 km of relief within the Kaikoura Mountains to identify spatial and temporal changes in exhumation rates in relation to the adjacent faults. Young (~3 Ma) apatite He ages and rapid (potentially > 1 mm/yr) exhumation rates from opposite sides of the faults are consistent with previously mentioned evidence of recent, regional, distributed deformation off of the main MFS faults. Moreover, early Miocene zircon He ages imply that parts of this region experienced an earlier phase of fault-related exhumation. Large changes in zircon He ages across the faults from ~20 Ma to > 100 Ma support hypotheses that portions of the Marlborough Faults may be re-activated, early Miocene thrusts. The zircon data are also consistent with the hypothesis of an early Miocene initiation of the oblique Pacific-Australian plate boundary in this region. Evidence for this comes from a change in sedimentation during this time from fine marine sediments to coarse, terrigenous conglomerates. Observing more

  4. Leukemic Cells "Gas Up" Leaky Bone Marrow Blood Vessels.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Tomer; Rafii, Shahin

    2017-09-11

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Passaro et al. demonstrate how leukemia through aberrant induction of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production trigger marrow vessel leakiness, instigating pro-leukemic function. Disrupted tumor blood vessels promote exhaustion of non-malignant stem and progenitor cells and may facilitate leukemia relapse following chemotherapeutic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Breakthroughs in Low-Profile Leaky-Wave HPM Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-21

    conical horn antenna, as was commonly done in the 1980s) yields a low-gain pattern with a null on the axis. This is inconvenient for both effects testing ...Line Oscillator," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 312-319, Jun 1998. Honey , R.C., “A Flush-Mounted Leaky-Wave Antenna with Predictable

  6. Leaky coaxial cable signal transmission for remote facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. F.; Crutcher, R. I.

    To develop reliable communications methods to meet the rigorous requirements for nuclear hot cells and similar environments, including control of cranes, transporters, and advanced servomanipulators, the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted extensive tests of numerous technologies to determine their applicability to remote operations. To alleviate the need for large bundles of cables that must accommodate crane/transporter motion relative to the boundaries of the cell, several transmission techniques are available, including slotted-line radio-frequency couplers, infrared beams, fiber-optic cables, free-space microwave, and inductively coupled leaky coaxial cable. This paper discusses the general characteristics, mode of operation, and proposed implementation of leaky coaxial cable technology in a waste-handling facility scheduled to be built in the near future at ORNL. In addition, specific system hardware based around the use of leaky coaxial cable is described in detail. Finally, data from a series of radiation exposure tests conducted by the CFRP on several samples of the basic leaky coaxial cable and associated connectors are presented.

  7. Characterization of Anisotropic Leaky Mode Modulators for Holovideo

    PubMed Central

    Gneiting, Scott; Kimball, Jacob; Henrie, Andrew; McLaughlin, Stephen; DeGraw, Taylor; Smalley, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Holovideo displays are based on light-bending spatial light modulators. One such spatial light modulator is the anisotropic leaky mode modulator. This modulator is particularly well suited for holographic video experimentation as it is relatively simple and inexpensive to fabricate1-3. Some additional advantages of leaky mode devices include: large aggregate bandwidth, polarization separation of signal light from noise, large angular deflection and frequency control of color1. In order to realize these advantages, it is necessary to be able to adequately characterize these devices as their operation is strongly dependent on waveguide and transducer parameters4. To characterize the modulators, the authors use a commercial prism coupler as well as a custom characterization apparatus to identify guided modes, calculate waveguide thickness and finally to map the device's frequency input and angular output of leaky mode modulators. This work gives a detailed description of the measurement and characterization of leaky mode modulators suitable for full-color holographic video. PMID:27023115

  8. Middle School Girls and the "Leaky Pipeline" to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Mary; Grossman, Diane; Carter, Suzanne; Martin, Karyn; Deyton, Patricia; Hammer, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Why do girls perform so well academically yet lose ground as professional women? This diminishing number of women up the leadership hierarchy is often referred to as the "leaky pipeline," and attributed to many factors: external ones such as work environments not conducive to work/life balance, and internal ones such as women's own…

  9. Leader neurons in leaky integrate and fire neural network simulations.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Cyrille

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we highlight the topological properties of leader neurons whose existence is an experimental fact. Several experimental studies show the existence of leader neurons in population bursts of activity in 2D living neural networks (Eytan and Marom, J Neurosci 26(33):8465-8476, 2006; Eckmann et al., New J Phys 10(015011), 2008). A leader neuron is defined as a neuron which fires at the beginning of a burst (respectively network spike) more often than we expect by chance considering its mean firing rate. This means that leader neurons have some burst triggering power beyond a chance-level statistical effect. In this study, we characterize these leader neuron properties. This naturally leads us to simulate neural 2D networks. To build our simulations, we choose the leaky integrate and fire (lIF) neuron model (Gerstner and Kistler 2002; Cessac, J Math Biol 56(3):311-345, 2008), which allows fast simulations (Izhikevich, IEEE Trans Neural Netw 15(5):1063-1070, 2004; Gerstner and Naud, Science 326:379-380, 2009). The dynamics of our lIF model has got stable leader neurons in the burst population that we simulate. These leader neurons are excitatory neurons and have a low membrane potential firing threshold. Except for these two first properties, the conditions required for a neuron to be a leader neuron are difficult to identify and seem to depend on several parameters involved in the simulations themselves. However, a detailed linear analysis shows a trend of the properties required for a neuron to be a leader neuron. Our main finding is: A leader neuron sends signals to many excitatory neurons as well as to few inhibitory neurons and a leader neuron receives only signals from few other excitatory neurons. Our linear analysis exhibits five essential properties of leader neurons each with different relative importance. This means that considering a given neural network with a fixed mean number of connections per neuron, our analysis gives us a way of

  10. Radial flow towards well in leaky unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, P. K.; Kuhlman, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An analytical solution is developed for three-dimensional flow towards a partially penetrating large- diameter well in an unconfined aquifer bounded below by a leaky aquitard of finite or semi-infinite extent. The analytical solution is derived using Laplace and Hankel transforms, then inverted numerically. Existing solutions for flow in leaky unconfined aquifers neglect the unsaturated zone following an assumption of instantaneous drainage due to Neuman. We extend the theory of leakage in unconfined aquifers by (1) including water flow and storage in the unsaturated zone above the water table, and (2) allowing the finite-diameter pumping well to partially penetrate the aquifer. The investigation of model-predicted results shows that aquitard leakage leads to significant departure from the unconfined solution without leakage. The investigation of dimensionless time-drawdown relationships shows that the aquitard drawdown also depends on unsaturated zone properties and the pumping-well wellbore storage effects.

  11. Filtering higher-order laser modes using leaky plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjević, B. Z.; Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma structures based on leaky channels are proposed to filter higher-order laser mode content. The evolution and propagation of non-Gaussian laser pulses in leaky channels are studied, and it is shown that, for appropriate laser-plasma parameters, the higher-order laser mode content of the pulse may be removed while the fundamental mode remains well-guided. The behavior of multi-mode laser pulses is described analytically and numerically using envelope equations, including the derivation of the leakage coefficients, and compared to particle-in-cell simulations. Laser pulse propagation, with reduced higher-order mode content, improves guiding in parabolic plasma channels, enabling extended interaction lengths for laser-plasma accelerator applications.

  12. Holographic leaky-wave metasurfaces for dual-sensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun Bo; Li, Lian Lin; Cai, Ben Geng; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-12-10

    Metasurfaces have huge potentials to develop new type imaging systems due to their abilities of controlling electromagnetic waves. Here, we propose a new method for dual-sensor imaging based on cross-like holographic leaky-wave metasurfaces which are composed of hybrid isotropic and anisotropic surface impedance textures. The holographic leaky-wave radiations are generated by special impedance modulations of surface waves excited by the sensor ports. For one independent sensor, the main leaky-wave radiation beam can be scanned by frequency in one-dimensional space, while the frequency scanning in the orthogonal spatial dimension is accomplished by the other sensor. Thus, for a probed object, the imaging plane can be illuminated adequately to obtain the two-dimensional backward scattered fields by the dual-sensor for reconstructing the object. The relativity of beams under different frequencies is very low due to the frequency-scanning beam performance rather than the random beam radiations operated by frequency, and the multi-illuminations with low relativity are very appropriate for multi-mode imaging method with high resolution and anti- noise. Good reconstruction results are given to validate the proposed imaging method.

  13. New Zealand

    2017-12-08

    This image taken from the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument of New Zealand was collected on January 9, 2015 when the phytoplankton were blooming — particularly to the east of the islands and along the Chatham Rise. Derived from the Greek words phyto (plant) and plankton (made to wander or drift), phytoplankton are microscopic organisms that live in watery environments, both salty and fresh. Credit: NASA/Goddard/NPP NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Dynamic stability analysis of fractional order leaky integrator echo state neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahnehkolaei, Seyed Mehdi Abedi; Alfi, Alireza; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    The Leaky integrator echo state neural network (Leaky-ESN) is an improved model of the recurrent neural network (RNN) and adopts an interconnected recurrent grid of processing neurons. This paper presents a new proof for the convergence of a Lyapunov candidate function to zero when time tends to infinity by means of the Caputo fractional derivative with order lying in the range (0, 1). The stability of Fractional-Order Leaky-ESN (FO Leaky-ESN) is then analyzed, and the existence, uniqueness and stability of the equilibrium point are provided. A numerical example demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed method.

  15. Isotope effects accompanying evaporation of water from leaky containers.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Chmura, Lukasz

    2008-03-01

    Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying isotope effects associated with partial evaporation of water from leaky containers have been performed under three different settings: (i) evaporation into dry atmosphere, performed in a dynamic mode, (ii) evaporation into dry atmosphere, performed in a static mode, and (iii) evaporation into free laboratory atmosphere. The results demonstrate that evaporative enrichment of water stored in leaky containers can be properly described in the framework of the Craig-Gordon evaporation model. The key parameter controlling the degree of isotope enrichment is the remaining fraction of water in the leaking containers. Other factors such as temperature, relative humidity, or extent of kinetic fractionation play only minor roles. Satisfactory agreement between observed and predicted isotope enrichments for both (18)O and (2)H in experiments for the case of evaporation into dry atmosphere could be obtained only when molecular diffusivity ratios of isotope water molecules as suggested recently by Cappa et al. [J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4525-4535, (2003).] were adopted. However, the observed and modelled isotope enrichments for (2)H and (18)O could be reconciled also for the ratios of molecular diffusivities obtained by Merlivat [J. Chem. Phys., 69, 2864-2871 (1978).], if non-negligible transport resistance in the viscous liquid sub-layer adjacent to the evaporating surface is considered. The evaporation experiments revealed that the loss of mass of water stored in leaky containers in the order of 1%, will lead to an increase of the heavy isotope content in this water by ca. 0.35 and 1.1 per thousand, for delta (18)O and delta (2)H, respectively.

  16. Leaky electronic states for photovoltaic photodetectors based on asymmetric superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penello, Germano Maioli; Pereira, Pedro Henrique; Pires, Mauricio Pamplona; Sivco, Deborah; Gmachl, Claire; Souza, Patricia Lustoza

    2018-01-01

    The concept of leaky electronic states in the continuum is used to achieve room temperature operation of photovoltaic superlattice infrared photodetectors. A structural asymmetric InGaAs/InAlAs potential profile is designed to create states in the continuum with the preferential direction for electron extraction and, consequently, to obtain photovoltaic operation at room temperature. Due to the photovoltaic operation and virtual increase in the bandoffset, the device presents both low dark current and low noise. The Johnson noise limited specific detectivity reaches values as high as 1.4 × 1011 Jones at 80 K. At 300 K, the detectivity obtained is 7.0 × 105 Jones.

  17. Feasibility of graphene CRLH metamaterial waveguides and leaky wave antennas

    SciT

    Chu, Derrick A.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Hon, Philip W. C.

    2016-07-07

    The feasibility of composite right/left-handed (CRLH) metamaterial waveguides based upon graphene plasmons is demonstrated via numerical simulation. Designs are presented that operate in the terahertz frequency range along with their various dimensions. Dispersion relations, radiative and free-carrier losses, and free-carrier based tunability are characterized. Finally, the radiative characteristics are evaluated, along with its feasibility for use as a leaky-wave antenna. While CRLH waveguides are feasible in the terahertz range, their ultimate utility will require precise nanofabrication, and excellent quality graphene to mitigate free-carrier losses.

  18. Polarization dependence of the propagation constant of leaky guided modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pick, Adi; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2018-04-01

    We show that transverse-magnetic (TM) leaky modes can propagate further than transverse electric (TE) modes in real-index dielectric waveguides. We compute the density of states and find that while the TE spectrum contains only overlapping resonances, the TM spectrum typically contains several isolated peaks. By transforming the TM equation into a Schrödinger-type equation, we show that these isolated peaks arise due to δ -function barriers at the core-cladding interface. Our theory is useful for a range of applications, including filtering TM modes from initially unpolarized light and transferring information between distant waveguides.

  19. Building workforce capacity in Australia and New Zealand: a profile of psychiatrists with an interest in intellectual and developmental disability mental health.

    PubMed

    Cvejic, Rachael C; Eagleson, Claire; Weise, Janelle; Davies, Kimberley; Hopwood, Malcolm; Jenkins, Kym; Trollor, Julian N

    2018-06-01

    To describe the characteristics of psychiatrists working in the area of intellectual and developmental disability mental health (IDDMH) across Australia and New Zealand. A secondary analysis of data collected by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014 workforce survey. Characteristics of the IDDMH workforce ( n=146 psychiatrists) were compared with those of the broader psychiatry workforce ( n=1050 psychiatrists). The IDDMH workforce were more likely than the broader psychiatry workforce to be working across both the public and private health sectors, be engaged in outreach work, endorse specialty practice areas pertinent to IDDMH, treat younger patients and work more clinical hours per week. Part-time status and retirement plans of the IDDMH workforce matched those of the broader psychiatry workforce. While some elements of the IDDMH workforce profile suggest this workforce is tailored to the needs of the population, the potential shortage of IDDMH psychiatrists highlights the need for the development of a specific training programme and pathway in this area.

  20. Laser Generated Leaky Acoustic Waves for Needle Visualization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai-Wen; Wang, Yi-An; Li, Pai-Chi

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided needle operation is usually used to visualize both tissue and needle position such as tissue biopsy and localized drug delivery. However, the transducer-needle orientation is limited due to reflection of the acoustic waves. We proposed a leaky acoustic wave method to visualize the needle position and orientation. Laser pulses are emitted on top of the needle to generate acoustic waves; then, these acoustic waves propagate along the needle surface. Leaky wave signals are detected by the US array transducer. The needle position can be calculated by phase velocities of two different wave modes and their corresponding emission angles. In our experiments, a series of needles was inserted into a tissue mimicking phantom and porcine tissue to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The results show that the detection depth is up to 51 mm and the insertion angle is up to 40° with needles of different diameters. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach outperforms the conventional B-mode US-guided needle operation in terms of the detection range while achieving similar accuracy. The proposed method reveals the potentials for further clinical applications.

  1. Monitoring of atopic dermatitis using leaky coaxial cable.

    PubMed

    Dong, Binbin; Ren, Aifeng; Shah, Syed Aziz; Hu, Fangming; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Xiaodong; Haider, Daniyal; Zhang, Zhiya; Zhao, Wei; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain

    2017-12-01

    In our daily life, inadvertent scratching may increase the severity of skin diseases (such as atopic dermatitis etc.). However, people rarely pay attention to this matter, so the known measurement behaviour of the movement is also very little. Nevertheless, the behaviour and frequency of scratching represent the degree of itching, and the analysis of scratching frequency is helpful to the doctor's clinical dosage. In this Letter, a novel system is proposed to monitor the scratching motion of a sleeping human body at night. The core device of the system is just a leaky coaxial cable (LCX) and a router. Commonly, LCX is used in the blind field or semi-blindfield in wireless communication. The new idea is that the leaky cable is placed on the bed, and then the state information of physical layer of wireless communication channels is acquired to identify the scratching motion and other small body movements in the human sleep process. The results show that it can be used to detect the movement and its duration. Channel state information (CSI) packet is collected by card installed in the computer based on the 802.11n protocol. The characterisation of the scratch motion in the collected CSI is unique, so it can be distinguished from the wireless channel amplitude variation trend.

  2. Monitoring of atopic dermatitis using leaky coaxial cable

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Binbin; Ren, Aifeng; Shah, Syed Aziz; Hu, Fangming; Zhao, Nan; Haider, Daniyal; Zhang, Zhiya; Zhao, Wei; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain

    2017-01-01

    In our daily life, inadvertent scratching may increase the severity of skin diseases (such as atopic dermatitis etc.). However, people rarely pay attention to this matter, so the known measurement behaviour of the movement is also very little. Nevertheless, the behaviour and frequency of scratching represent the degree of itching, and the analysis of scratching frequency is helpful to the doctor's clinical dosage. In this Letter, a novel system is proposed to monitor the scratching motion of a sleeping human body at night. The core device of the system is just a leaky coaxial cable (LCX) and a router. Commonly, LCX is used in the blind field or semi-blindfield in wireless communication. The new idea is that the leaky cable is placed on the bed, and then the state information of physical layer of wireless communication channels is acquired to identify the scratching motion and other small body movements in the human sleep process. The results show that it can be used to detect the movement and its duration. Channel state information (CSI) packet is collected by card installed in the computer based on the 802.11n protocol. The characterisation of the scratch motion in the collected CSI is unique, so it can be distinguished from the wireless channel amplitude variation trend. PMID:29383259

  3. Transient well flow in leaky multiple-aquifer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1985-10-01

    A previously developed eigenvalue analysis approach to groundwater flow in leaky multiple aquifers is used to derive exact solutions for transient well flow problems in leaky and confined systems comprising any number of aquifers. Equations are presented for the drawdown distribution in systems of infinite extent, caused by wells penetrating one or more of the aquifers completely and discharging each layer at a constant rate. Since the solution obtained may be regarded as a combined analytical-numerical technique, a type of one-dimensional modelling can be applied to find approximate solutions for several complicating conditions. Numerical evaluations are presented as time-drawdown curves and include effects of storage in the aquitard, unconfined conditions, partially penetrating wells and stratified aquifers. The outcome of calculations for relatively simple systems compares very well with published corresponding results. The proposed multilayer solution can be a valuable tool in aquifer test evaluation, as it provides the analytical expression required to enable the application of existing computer methods to the determination of aquifer characteristics.

  4. Ultra-wideband optical leaky-wave slot antennas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Helmy, Amr S; Eleftheriades, George V

    2011-06-20

    We propose and investigate an ultra-wideband leaky-wave antenna that operates at optical frequencies for the purpose of efficient energy coupling between localized nanoscale optical circuits and the far-field. The antenna consists of an optically narrow aluminum slot on a silicon substrate. We analyze its far-field radiation pattern in the spectral region centered around 1550 nm with a 50% bandwidth ranging from 2000 nm to 1200 nm. This plasmonic leaky-wave slot produces a maximum far-field radiation angle at 32° and a 3 dB beamwidth of 24° at its center wavelength. The radiation pattern is preserved within the 50% bandwidth suffering only insignificant changes in both the radiation angle and the beamwidth. This wide-band performance is quite unique when compared to other optical antenna designs. Furthermore, the antenna effective length for radiating 90% and 99.9% of the input power is only 0.5λ(0) and 1.5λ(0) respectively at 1550 nm. The versatility and simplicity of the proposed design along with its small footprint makes it extremely attractive for integration with nano-optical components using existing technologies.

  5. Building a sustainable clinical academic workforce to meet the future healthcare needs of Australia and New Zealand: report from the first summit meeting.

    PubMed

    Windsor, J; Searle, J; Hanney, R; Chapman, A; Grigg, M; Choong, P; Mackay, A; Smithers, B M; Churchill, J A; Carney, S; Smith, J A; Wainer, Z; Talley, N J; Gladman, M A

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of healthcare that meets the requirements for quality, safety and cost-effectiveness relies on a well-trained medical workforce, including clinical academics whose career includes a specific commitment to research, education and/or leadership. In 2011, the Medical Deans of Australia and New Zealand published a review on the clinical academic workforce and recommended the development of an integrated training pathway for clinical academics. A bi-national Summit on Clinical Academic Training was recently convened to bring together all relevant stakeholders to determine how best to do this. An important part understood the lessons learnt from the UK experience after 10 years since the introduction of an integrated training pathway. The outcome of the summit was to endorse strongly the recommendations of the medical deans. A steering committee has been established to identify further stakeholders, solicit more information from stakeholder organisations, convene a follow-up summit meeting in late 2015, recruit pilot host institutions and engage the government and future funders. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Non-leaky modes and bandgaps of surface acoustic waves in wrinkled stiff-film/compliant-substrate bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo-Yang; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Yang; Cao, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have found a wide variety of technical applications, including SAW filters, SAW resonators, microfluidic actuators, biosensors, flow measurement devices, and seismic wave shields. Stretchable/flexible electronic devices, such as sensory skins for robotics, structural health monitors, and wearable communication devices, have received considerable attention across different disciplines. Flexible SAW devices are essential building blocks for these applications, wherein piezoelectric films may need to be integrated with the compliant substrates. When piezoelectric films are much stiffer than soft substrates, SAWs are usually leaky and the devices incorporating them suffer from acoustic losses. In this study, the propagation of SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system is investigated, and our analysis shows that non-leaky modes can be achieved by engineering stress patterns through surface wrinkles in the system. Our analysis also uncovers intriguing bandgaps (BGs) related to the SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system; these are caused by periodic deformation patterns, which indicate that diverse wrinkling patterns could be used as metasurfaces for controlling the propagation of SAWs.

  7. Characterization of Defects in Composite Material Using Rapidly Acquired Leaky Lamb Wave Dispersion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mal, A.; Chang, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of Leaky Lamb Wave (LLW) in composite materials was first observed in 1982 using a Schlieren system. It has been studied extensively by numerous investigators and successfully shown to be an effective quantitative NDE tool.

  8. Building an 18 000-year-long paleo-earthquake record from detailed deep-sea turbidite characterisation in Poverty Bay, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouderoux, H.; Lamarche, G.; Proust, J.-N.

    2012-06-01

    Two ~20 m-long sedimentary cores collected in two neighbouring mid-slope basins of the Paritu Turbidite System in Poverty Bay, east of New Zealand, show a high concentration of turbidites (5 to 6 turbidites per meter), interlaid with hemipelagites, tephras and a few debrites. Turbidites occur as both stacked and single, and exhibit a range of facies from muddy to sandy turbidites. The age of each turbidite is estimated using the statistical approach developed in the OxCal software from an exceptionally dense set of tephrochronology and radiocarbon ages (~1 age per meter). The age, together with the facies and the petrophysical properties of the sediment (density, magnetic susceptibility and P-wave velocity), allows the correlation of turbidites across the continental slope (1400-2300 m water depth). We identify 73 synchronous turbidites, named basin events, across the two cores between 819 ± 191 and 17 729 ± 701 yr BP. Compositional, foraminiferal and geochemical signatures of the turbidites are used to characterise the source area of the sediment, the origin of the turbidity currents, and their triggering mechanism. Sixty-seven basin events are interpreted as originated from slope failures on the upper continental slope in water depth ranging from 150 to 1200 m. Their earthquake trigger is inferred from the heavily gullied morphology of the source area and the water depth at which slope failures originated. We derive an earthquake mean return time of ~230 yr, with a 90% probability range from 10 to 570 yr. The earthquake chronology indicates cycles of progressive decrease of earthquake return times from ~400 yr to ~150 yr at 0-7 kyr, 8.2-13.5 kyr, 14.7-18 kyr. The two 1.2 kyr-long intervals in between (7-8.2 kyr and 13.5-14.7 kyr) correspond to basin-wide reorganisations with anomalous turbidite deposition (finer deposits and/or non deposition) reflecting the emplacement of two large mass transport deposits much more voluminous than the "classical" earthquake

  9. Directional Emission from Dielectric Leaky-Wave Nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Manuel; Hildebrandt, Andre; Schlickriede, Christian; Gharib, Kimia; Zentgraf, Thomas; Förstner, Jens; Linden, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    An important source of innovation in nanophotonics is the idea to scale down known radio wave technologies to the optical regime. One thoroughly investigated example of this approach are metallic nanoantennas which employ plasmonic resonances to couple localized emitters to selected far-field modes. While metals can be treated as perfect conductors in the microwave regime, their response becomes Drude-like at optical frequencies. Thus, plasmonic nanoantennas are inherently lossy. Moreover, their resonant nature requires precise control of the antenna geometry. A promising way to circumvent these problems is the use of broadband nanoantennas made from low-loss dielectric materials. Here, we report on highly directional emission from active dielectric leaky-wave nanoantennas made of Hafnium dioxide. Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots deposited in the nanoantenna feed gap serve as a local light source. The emission patterns of active nanoantennas with different sizes are measured by Fourier imaging. We find for all antenna sizes a highly directional emission, underlining the broadband operation of our design.

  10. Influence of Hydraulic Fracturing on Overlying Aquifers in the Presence of Leaky Abandoned Wells.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Joshua W; James, Scott C; Yelderman, Joe C

    2016-11-01

    The association between hydrocarbon-rich reservoirs and organic-rich source rocks means unconventional oil and gas plays usually occur in mature sedimentary basins-where large-scale conventional development has already taken place. Abandoned wells in proximity to hydraulic fracturing could be affected by increased fluid pressures and corresponding newly generated fractures that directly connect (frac hit) to an abandoned well or to existing fractures intersecting an abandoned well. If contaminants migrate to a pathway hydraulically connected to an abandoned well, upward leakage may occur. Potential effects of hydraulic fracturing on upward flow through a particular type of leaky abandoned well-abandoned oil and gas wells converted into water wells were investigated using numerical modeling. Several factors that affect flow to leaky wells were considered including proximity of a leaky well to hydraulic fracturing, flowback, production, and leaky well abandonment methods. The numerical model used historical records and available industry data for the Eagle Ford Shale play in south Texas. Numerical simulations indicate that upward contaminant migration could occur through leaky converted wells if certain spatial and hydraulic conditions exist. Upward flow through leaky converted wells increased with proximity to hydraulic fracturing, but decreased when flowback and production occurred. Volumetric flow rates ranged between 0 and 0.086 m 3 /d for hydraulic-fracturing scenarios. Potential groundwater impacts should be paired with plausible transport mechanisms, and upward flow through leaky abandoned wells could be unrelated to hydraulic fracturing. The results also underscore the need to evaluate historical activities. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  11. An analytical solution of groundwater level fluctuation in a U-shaped leaky coastal aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fu-Kuo; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Wang, Shu-chuan

    2017-04-01

    Tide-induced groundwater level fluctuations in coastal aquifers have attracted much attention in past years, especially for the issues associated with the impact of the coastline shape, multi-layered leaky aquifer system, and anisotropy of aquifers. In this study, a homogeneous but anisotropic multi-layered leaky aquifer system with U-shaped coastline is considered, where the subsurface system consisting of an unconfined aquifer, a leaky confined aquifer, and a semi-permeable layer between them. The analytical solution of the model obtained herein may be considered as an extended work of two solutions; one was developed by Huang et al. (Huang et al. Tide-induced groundwater level fluctuation in a U-shaped coastal aquifer, J. Hydrol. 2015; 530: 291-305) for two-dimensional interacting tidal waves bounded by three water-land boundaries while the other was by Li and Jiao (Li and Jiao. Tidal groundwater level fluctuations in L-shaped leaky coastal aquifer system, J. Hydrol. 2002; 268: 234-243) for two-dimensional interacting tidal waves of leaky coastal aquifer system adjacent to a cross-shore estuary. In this research, the effects of leakage and storativity of the semi-permeable layer on the amplitude and phase shift of the tidal head fluctuation, and the influence of anisotropy of the aquifer are all examined for the U-shaped leaky coastal aquifer. Some existing solutions in literatures can be regarded as the special cases of the present solution if the aquifer system is isotropic and non-leaky. The results obtained will be beneficial to coastal development and management for water resources.

  12. Astronomy in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Although New Zealand is a young country, astronomy played a significant role in its early exploration and discovery during the three voyages of Cook from 1769. In the later 19th century several expeditions came to New Zealand to observe the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 and New Zealand's rich history of prominent amateur astronomers dates from this time. The Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand (founded in 1920) has catered for the amateur community. Professional astronomy however had a slow start in New Zealand. The Carter Observatory was founded in 1941. But it was not until astronomy was taken up by New Zealand's universities, notably by the University of Canterbury from 1963, that a firm basis for research in astronomy and astrophysics was established. Mt John University Observatory with its four optical telescopes (largest 1.8 m) is operated by the University of Canterbury and is the main base for observational astronomy in the country. However four other New Zealand universities also have an interest in astronomical research at the present time. There is also considerable involvement in large international projects such as MOA, SALT, AMOR, IceCube and possibly SKA.

  13. Focusing Leaky Waves: A Class of Electromagnetic Localized Waves with Complex Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuscaldo, Walter; Comite, Davide; Boesso, Alessandro; Baccarelli, Paolo; Burghignoli, Paolo; Galli, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    Localized waves, i.e., the wide class of limited-diffraction, limited-dispersion solutions to the wave equation are generally characterized by real wave numbers. We consider the role played by localized waves with generally complex "leaky" wave numbers. First, the impact of the imaginary part of the wave number (i.e., the leakage constant) on the diffractive (spatial broadening) features of monochromatic localized solutions (i.e., beams) is rigorously evaluated. Then general conditions are derived to show that only a restricted class of spectra (either real or complex) allows for generating a causal localized wave. It turns out that backward leaky waves fall into this category. On this ground, several criteria for the systematic design of wideband radiators, namely, periodic radial waveguides based on backward leaky waves, are established in the framework of leaky-wave theory. An effective design method is proposed to minimize the frequency dispersion of the proposed class of devices and the impact of the "leakage" on the dispersive (temporal broadening) features of polychromatic localized solutions (i.e., pulses) is accounted for. Numerical results corroborate the concept, clearly highlighting the advantages and limitations of the leaky-wave approach for the generation of localized pulses at millimeter-wave frequencies, where energy focusing is in high demand in modern applications.

  14. Analysis of non-Gaussian laser mode guidance and evolution in leaky plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Blagoje; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2016-10-01

    The evolution and propagation of a non-Gaussian laser pulse under varying circumstances, including a typical matched parabolic channel as well as leaky channels, are investigated. It has previously been shown for a Gaussian pulse that matched guiding can be achieved using parabolic plasma channels. In the low power regime, it can be shown directly that for multi-mode pulses there is significant transverse beating. Given the adverse behavior of non-Gaussian pulses in traditional guiding designs, we examine the use of leaky channels to filter out higher modes as a means of optimizing laser conditions. The interaction between different modes can have an adverse effect on the laser pulse as it propagates through the primary channel. To improve guiding of the pulse we propose using leaky channels. Realistic plasma channel profiles are considered. Higher order mode content is lost through the leaky channel, while the fundamental mode remains well-guided. This is demonstrated using both numerical simulations as well as the source-dependent Laguerre-Gaussian modal expansion. In conclusion, an idealized plasma lens based on leaky channels is found to filter out the higher order modes and leave a near-Gaussian profile before the pulse enters the primary channel.

  15. Topologically-protected one-way leaky waves in nonreciprocal plasmonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani Gangaraj, S. Ali; Monticone, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    We investigate topologically-protected unidirectional leaky waves on magnetized plasmonic structures acting as homogeneous photonic topological insulators. Our theoretical analyses and numerical experiments aim at unveiling the general properties of these exotic surface waves, and their nonreciprocal and topological nature. In particular, we study the behavior of topological leaky modes in stratified structures composed of a magnetized plasma at the interface with isotropic conventional media, and we show how to engineer their propagation and radiation properties, leading to topologically-protected backscattering-immune wave propagation, and highly directive and tunable radiation. Taking advantage of the non-trivial topological properties of these leaky modes, we also theoretically demonstrate advanced functionalities, including arbitrary re-routing of leaky waves on the surface of bodies with complex shapes, as well as the realization of topological leaky-wave (nano)antennas with isolated channels of radiation that are completely independent and separately tunable. Our findings help shedding light on the behavior of topologically-protected modes in open wave-guiding structures, and may open intriguing directions for future antenna generations based on topological structures, at microwaves and optical frequencies.

  16. New Zealand Southern Alps

    2001-06-20

    This anaglyph from the MISR instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft shows the rugged Southern Alps extending some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand South Island. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  17. Coupled Particle Transport and Pattern Formation in a Nonlinear Leaky-Box Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; El-Nemr, K. W.; Baird, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of particle-particle coupling on particle characteristics in nonlinear leaky-box type descriptions of the acceleration and transport of energetic particles in space plasmas are examined in the framework of a simple two-particle model based on the Fokker-Planck equation in momentum space. In this model, the two particles are assumed coupled via a common nonlinear source term. In analogy with a prototypical mathematical system of diffusion-driven instability, this work demonstrates that steady-state patterns with strong dependence on the magnetic turbulence but a rather weak one on the coupled particles attributes can emerge in solutions of a nonlinearly coupled leaky-box model. The insight gained from this simple model may be of wider use and significance to nonlinearly coupled leaky-box type descriptions in general.

  18. Analysis and Synthesis of Leaky-Wave Devices in Planar Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Ros, Alejandro Javier

    The work developed along this doctoral thesis has been focused on the analysis and synthesis of microwave devices in planar technology. In particular, several types of devices based on the radiation mechanism of leaky waves have been studied. Typically, the radiation properties in leaky-wave devices are determined by the complex propagation constant of the leaky mode, wherein the phase constant is responsible for the pointing angle and the leakage rate for the intensity of the radiated fields. In this manner, by controlling both amplitude and phase of the leaky mode, an effective control over the device's radiation diagram can be obtained. Moreover, with the purpose of efficiently obtaining the leaky mode's radiation properties as function of the main geometrical parameters of the structure, several modal tools based on the transverse resonance analysis of the structure have been performed. In order to demonstrate this simultaneous control over the complex propagation constant in planar technology, several types of leaky-wave devices, including antennas (LWAs), multiplexors and near-field focusing systems, have been designed and manufactured in the technology of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). This recently proposed technology, allows the design of devices based on classical waveguide technology with standard manufacturing techniques used for printed circuit board (PCB) designs. In this way, most of the parts that form a communication system can be integrated into a single substrate, thus reducing its cost and providing a more robust and compact device, which has less losses compared to other planar technologies such as the microstrip. El trabajo llevado a cabo durante la realizacion de esta tesis doctoral, se ha centrado en el analisis y sintesis de dispositivos de microondas en tecnologia planar. En concreto, se han estudiado diferentes tipos de dispositivos basados en radiacion por ondas de fuga "leaky waves", en los cuales las propiedades de radiacion

  19. Genetic and biochemical characterization of periplasmic-leaky mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaroni, J C; Portalier, R C

    1981-01-01

    Periplasmic-leaky mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 were isolated after nitrosoguanidine-induced mutagenesis. They released periplasmic enzymes into the extracellular medium. Excretion of alkaline phosphatase, which started immediately in the early exponential phase of growth, could reach up to 90% of the total enzyme production in the stationary phase. Leaky mutants were sensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, cholic acid, and the antibiotics rifampin, chloramphenicol, mitomycin C, and ampicillin. Furthermore, they were resistant to colicin E1 and partially resistant to phage TuLa. Their genetic characterization showed that the lky mutations mapped between the suc and gal markers, near or in the tolPAB locus. A biochemical analysis of cell envelope components showed that periplasmic-leaky mutants contained reduced amounts of major outer membrane protein OmpF and increased amounts of a 16,000-dalton outer membrane protein. Images PMID:7009581

  20. Real-Time Characterization of Materials Degradation Using Leaky Lamb Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiuh, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Leaky Lamb wave (LLW) propagation in composite materials has been studied extensively since it was first observed in 1982. The wave is induced using a pitch-catch arrangement and the plate wave modes are detected by searching minima in the reflected spectra.

  1. How to Say "No" to a Nonword: A Leaky Competing Accumulator Model of Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model of the lexical decision task that can be used as a response/decision module for any computational model of word recognition. The LCA model uses evidence for a word, operationalized as some measure of lexical activity, as input to the "YES" decision node. Input to the "NO" decision node is…

  2. SOLUTIONS APPROXIMATING SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A LEAKY AQUIFER RECEIVING WASTEWATER INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model amenable to analytical solution techniques is developed for the investigation of contaminant transport from an injection well into a leaky aquifer system, which comprises a pumped and an unpumped aquifer connected to each other by an aquitard. A steady state ...

  3. Linking the "Leaky Edges" of the Outside with the Individual Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David Lee

    2007-01-01

    Throughout seven years of teaching in urban schools, the author discovered that the most effective ways to teach difficult literary texts was to refer to students' out-of-school activities. In other words, to connect the "leaky edges of the "social outside"" with the "individual inside" is to create a curriculum of…

  4. A generalized leaky FxLMS algorithm for tuning the waterbed effect of feedback active noise control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lifu; Qiu, Xiaojun; Guo, Yecai

    2018-06-01

    To tune the noise amplification in the feedback system caused by the waterbed effect effectively, an adaptive algorithm is proposed in this paper by replacing the scalar leaky factor of the leaky FxLMS algorithm with a real symmetric Toeplitz matrix. The elements in the matrix are calculated explicitly according to the noise amplification constraints, which are defined based on a simple but efficient method. Simulations in an ANC headphone application demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can adjust the frequency band of noise amplification more effectively than the FxLMS algorithm and the leaky FxLMS algorithm.

  5. A Review of the Ginzburg-Syrovatskii's Galactic Cosmic-Ray Propagation Model and its Leaky-Box Limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Phenomenological models of galactic cosmic-ray propagation are based on a diffusion equation known as the Ginzburg-Syrovatskii s equation, or variants (or limits) of this equation. Its one-dimensional limit in a homogeneous volume, known as the leaky-box limit or model, is sketched here. The justification, utility, limitations, and a typical numerical implementation of the leaky-box model are examined in some detail.

  6. Saturated-unsaturated flow in a compressible leaky-unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Phoolendra K.; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.

    2012-06-01

    An analytical solution is developed for three-dimensional flow towards a partially penetrating large-diameter well in an unconfined aquifer bounded below by a leaky aquitard of finite or semi-infinite extent. The analytical solution is derived using Laplace and Hankel transforms, then inverted numerically. Existing solutions for flow in leaky unconfined aquifers neglect the unsaturated zone following an assumption of instantaneous drainage due to Neuman. We extend the theory of leakage in unconfined aquifers by (1) including water flow and storage in the unsaturated zone above the water table, and (2) allowing the finite-diameter pumping well to partially penetrate the aquifer. The investigation of model-predicted results shows that aquitard leakage leads to significant departure from the unconfined solution without leakage. The investigation of dimensionless time-drawdown relationships shows that the aquitard drawdown also depends on unsaturated zone properties and the pumping-well wellbore storage effects.

  7. FIBER AND INTEGRATED OPTICS: Excitation of leaky modes in a system of coupled waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usievich, B. A.; Nurligareev, J. Kh; Sychugov, V. A.; Golant, K. M.

    2007-06-01

    A system of coupled single-mode waveguides with the number M of guided modes lower than the number N of single-mode waveguides is studied. Leaky modes in this system are investigated in detail. It is shown, in particular, that these modes can be excited by light incident on the side surface of the system when the reflection coefficient vanishes. It is found that the angular dependence of the coefficient of reflection from the side surface of the system can be used to refine the dispersion curve for leaky modes. It is shown that light incident at a grazing angle can propagate in the system in the direction considerably different from the propagation direction of a beam incident from a substrate, even in the case of a small difference in the refractive indices.

  8. Refractive index sensor based on the leaky radiation of a microfiber.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Liu, H; Sheng, C; Zhu, C; Zhu, S N

    2014-05-19

    In this work we present a refractive index sensor based on the leaky radiation of a microfiber. The 5.3um diameter microfiber is fabricated by drawing a commercial optical fiber. When the microfiber is immersed into a liquid with larger refractive index than the effective index of fiber mode, the light will leak out through the leaky radiation process. The variation of refractive index of liquid can be monitored by measuring radiation angle of light. The refractive index sensitivity can be over 400 degree/RIU in theory. In the experiment, the variation value 0.001 of refractive index of liquid around this microfiber can be detected through this technique. This work provides a simple and sensitive method for refractive index sensing application.

  9. Acoustically Driven Fluid and Particle Motion in Confined and Leaky Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnkob, Rune; Nama, Nitesh; Ren, Liqiang; Huang, Tony Jun; Costanzo, Francesco; Kähler, Christian J.

    2018-01-01

    The acoustic motion of fluids and particles in confined and acoustically leaky systems is receiving increasing attention for its use in medicine and biotechnology. A number of contradicting physical and numerical models currently exist, but their validity is uncertain due to the unavailability of hard-to-access experimental data for validation. We provide experimental benchmarking data by measuring 3D particle trajectories and demonstrate that the particle trajectories can be described numerically without any fitting parameter by a reduced-fluid model with leaky impedance-wall conditions. The results reveal the hitherto unknown existence of a pseudo-standing wave that drives the acoustic streaming as well as the acoustic radiation force on suspended particles.

  10. New Zealand Glaciers

    2017-03-09

    New Zealand contains over 3,000 glaciers, most of which are in the Southern Alps on the South Island. Since 1890, the glaciers have been retreating, with short periods of small advances, as shown in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft. The image cover an area of 39 by 46 km, and are located at 43.7 degrees south, 170 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21509

  11. Entropic lattice Boltzmann model for charged leaky dielectric multiphase fluids in electrified jets.

    PubMed

    Lauricella, Marco; Melchionna, Simone; Montessori, Andrea; Pisignano, Dario; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Succi, Sauro

    2018-03-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann model for charged leaky dielectric multiphase fluids in the context of electrified jet simulations, which are of interest for a number of production technologies including electrospinning. The role of nonlinear rheology on the dynamics of electrified jets is considered by exploiting the Carreau model for pseudoplastic fluids. We report exploratory simulations of charged droplets at rest and under a constant electric field, and we provide results for charged jet formation under electrospinning conditions.

  12. Response of a grounded dielectric slab to an impulse line source using leaky modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Dean G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes how expansions in leaky (or improper) modes may be used to represent the continuous spectrum in an open radiating waveguide. The technique requires a thorough knowledge of the life history of the improper modes as they migrate from improper to proper Riemann surfaces. The method is illustrated by finding the electric field resulting from an impulsively forced current located in the free space above a grounded dielectric slab.

  13. Shallow boomerang-shaped influenza hemagglutinin G13A mutant structure promotes leaky membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Lai, Alex L; Tamm, Lukas K

    2010-11-26

    Our previous studies showed that an angled boomerang-shaped structure of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) fusion domain is critical for virus entry into host cells by membrane fusion. Because the acute angle of ∼105° of the wild-type fusion domain promotes efficient non-leaky membrane fusion, we asked whether different angles would still support fusion and thus facilitate virus entry. Here, we show that the G13A fusion domain mutant produces a new leaky fusion phenotype. The mutant fusion domain structure was solved by NMR spectroscopy in a lipid environment at fusion pH. The mutant adopted a boomerang structure similar to that of wild type but with a shallower kink angle of ∼150°. G13A perturbed the structure of model membranes to a lesser degree than wild type but to a greater degree than non-fusogenic fusion domain mutants. The strength of G13A binding to lipid bilayers was also intermediate between that of wild type and non-fusogenic mutants. These membrane interactions provide a clear link between structure and function of influenza fusion domains: an acute angle is required to promote clean non-leaky fusion suitable for virus entry presumably by interaction of the fusion domain with the transmembrane domain deep in the lipid bilayer. A shallower angle perturbs the bilayer of the target membrane so that it becomes leaky and unable to form a clean fusion pore. Mutants with no fixed boomerang angle interacted with bilayers weakly and did not promote any fusion or membrane perturbation.

  14. Shallow Boomerang-shaped Influenza Hemagglutinin G13A Mutant Structure Promotes Leaky Membrane Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Alex L.; Tamm, Lukas K.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that an angled boomerang-shaped structure of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) fusion domain is critical for virus entry into host cells by membrane fusion. Because the acute angle of ∼105° of the wild-type fusion domain promotes efficient non-leaky membrane fusion, we asked whether different angles would still support fusion and thus facilitate virus entry. Here, we show that the G13A fusion domain mutant produces a new leaky fusion phenotype. The mutant fusion domain structure was solved by NMR spectroscopy in a lipid environment at fusion pH. The mutant adopted a boomerang structure similar to that of wild type but with a shallower kink angle of ∼150°. G13A perturbed the structure of model membranes to a lesser degree than wild type but to a greater degree than non-fusogenic fusion domain mutants. The strength of G13A binding to lipid bilayers was also intermediate between that of wild type and non-fusogenic mutants. These membrane interactions provide a clear link between structure and function of influenza fusion domains: an acute angle is required to promote clean non-leaky fusion suitable for virus entry presumably by interaction of the fusion domain with the transmembrane domain deep in the lipid bilayer. A shallower angle perturbs the bilayer of the target membrane so that it becomes leaky and unable to form a clean fusion pore. Mutants with no fixed boomerang angle interacted with bilayers weakly and did not promote any fusion or membrane perturbation. PMID:20826788

  15. See-through Detection and 3D Reconstruction Using Terahertz Leaky-Wave Radar Based on Sparse Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Koji; Murano, Kosuke; Watanabe, Issei; Kasamatsu, Akifumi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Monnai, Yasuaki

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate see-through detection and 3D reconstruction using terahertz leaky-wave radar based on sparse signal processing. The application of terahertz waves to radar has received increasing attention in recent years for its potential to high-resolution and see-through detection. Among others, the implementation using a leaky-wave antenna is promising for compact system integration with beam steering capability based on frequency sweep. However, the use of a leaky-wave antenna poses a challenge on signal processing. Since a leaky-wave antenna combines the entire signal captured by each part of the aperture into a single output, the conventional array signal processing assuming access to a respective antenna element is not applicable. In this paper, we apply an iterative recovery algorithm "CoSaMP" to signals acquired with terahertz leaky-wave radar for clutter mitigation and aperture synthesis. We firstly demonstrate see-through detection of target location even when the radar is covered with an opaque screen, and therefore, the radar signal is disturbed by clutter. Furthermore, leveraging the robustness of the algorithm against noise, we also demonstrate 3D reconstruction of distributed targets by synthesizing signals collected from different orientations. The proposed approach will contribute to the smart implementation of terahertz leaky-wave radar.

  16. A Novel Computational Method to Reduce Leaky Reaction in DNA Strand Displacement.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Xun; Song, Tao; Lu, Wei; Chen, Zhihua; Shi, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    DNA strand displacement technique is widely used in DNA programming, DNA biosensors, and gene analysis. In DNA strand displacement, leaky reactions can cause DNA signals decay and detecting DNA signals fails. The mostly used method to avoid leakage is cleaning up after upstream leaky reactions, and it remains a challenge to develop reliable DNA strand displacement technique with low leakage. In this work, we address the challenge by experimentally evaluating the basic factors, including reaction time, ratio of reactants, and ion concentration to the leakage in DNA strand displacement. Specifically, fluorescent probes and a hairpin structure reporting DNA strand are designed to detect the output of DNA strand displacement, and thus can evaluate the leakage of DNA strand displacement reactions with different reaction time, ratios of reactants, and ion concentrations. From the obtained data, mathematical models for evaluating leakage are achieved by curve derivation. As a result, it is obtained that long time incubation, high concentration of fuel strand, and inappropriate amount of ion concentration can weaken leaky reactions. This contributes to a method to set proper reaction conditions to reduce leakage in DNA strand displacement.

  17. A Novel Computational Method to Reduce Leaky Reaction in DNA Strand Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Wang, Xun; Song, Tao; Lu, Wei; Chen, Zhihua; Shi, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    DNA strand displacement technique is widely used in DNA programming, DNA biosensors, and gene analysis. In DNA strand displacement, leaky reactions can cause DNA signals decay and detecting DNA signals fails. The mostly used method to avoid leakage is cleaning up after upstream leaky reactions, and it remains a challenge to develop reliable DNA strand displacement technique with low leakage. In this work, we address the challenge by experimentally evaluating the basic factors, including reaction time, ratio of reactants, and ion concentration to the leakage in DNA strand displacement. Specifically, fluorescent probes and a hairpin structure reporting DNA strand are designed to detect the output of DNA strand displacement, and thus can evaluate the leakage of DNA strand displacement reactions with different reaction time, ratios of reactants, and ion concentrations. From the obtained data, mathematical models for evaluating leakage are achieved by curve derivation. As a result, it is obtained that long time incubation, high concentration of fuel strand, and inappropriate amount of ion concentration can weaken leaky reactions. This contributes to a method to set proper reaction conditions to reduce leakage in DNA strand displacement. PMID:26491602

  18. Nonlinear electrohydrodynamics of leaky dielectric drops in the Quincke regime: Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Debasish; Saintillan, David

    2015-11-01

    The deformation of leaky dielectric drops in a dielectric fluid medium when subject to a uniform electric field is a classic electrohydrodynamic phenomenon best described by the well-known Melcher-Taylor leaky dielectric model. In this work, we develop a three-dimensional boundary element method for the full leaky dielectric model to systematically study the deformation and dynamics of liquid drops in strong electric fields. We compare our results with existing numerical studies, most of which have been constrained to axisymmetric drops or have neglected interfacial charge convection by the flow. The leading effect of convection is to enhance deformation of prolate drops and suppress deformation of oblate drops, as previously observed in the axisymmetric case. The inclusion of charge convection also enables us to investigate the dynamics in the Quincke regime, in which experiments exhibit a symmetry-breaking bifurcation leading to a tank-treading regime. Our simulations confirm the existence of this bifurcation for highly viscous drops, and also reveal the development of sharp interfacial charge gradients driven by convection near the drop's equator. American Chemical Society, Petroleum Research Fund.

  19. Fabrication of bundle-structured tube-leaky optical fibers for infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Katagiri, T.; Matsuura, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Bundled glass tubular fibers were fabricated by glass drawing technique for endoscopic infrared-thermal imaging. The bundle fibers were made of borosilicate glass and have a structure like a photonic crystal fiber having multiple hollow cores. Fabricated fibers have a length of 90 cm and each pixel sizes are less than 80 μm. By setting the thickness of glass wall to a quarter-wavelength optical thickness, light is confined in the air core as a leaky mode with a low loss owing to the interference effect of the thin glass wall and this type of hollow-core fibers is known as tube leaky fibers. The transmission losses of bundled fibers were firstly measured and it was found that bundled tube-leaky fibers have reasonably low transmission losses in spite of the small pixel size. Then thermal images were delivered by the bundled fibers combining with an InSb infrared camera. Considering applications with rigid endoscopes, an imaging system composed of a 30-cm long fiber bundle and a half-ball lens with a diameter of 2 mm was fabricated. By using this imaging system, a metal wire with a thickness of 200 μm was successfully observed and another test showed that the minimum detected temperature was 32.0 °C and the temperature resolution of the system was around 0.7 °C.

  20. Frequency dependent steering with backward leaky waves via photonic crystal interface layer.

    PubMed

    Colak, Evrim; Caglayan, Humeyra; Cakmak, Atilla O; Villa, Alessandro D; Capolino, Filippo; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2009-06-08

    A Photonic Crystal (PC) with a surface defect layer (made of dimers) is studied in the microwave regime. The dispersion diagram is obtained with the Plane Wave Expansion Method. The dispersion diagram reveals that the dimer-layer supports a surface mode with negative slope. Two facts are noted: First, a guided (bounded) wave is present, propagating along the surface of the dimer-layer. Second, above the light line, the fast traveling mode couple to the propagating spectra and as a result a directive (narrow beam) radiation with backward characteristics is observed and measured. In this leaky mode regime, symmetrical radiation patterns with respect to the normal to the PC surface are attained. Beam steering is observed and measured in a 70 degrees angular range when frequency ranges in the 11.88-13.69 GHz interval. Thus, a PC based surface wave structure that acts as a frequency dependent leaky wave antenna is presented. Angular radiation pattern measurements are in agreement with those obtained via numerical simulations that employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD). Finally, the backward radiation characteristics that in turn suggest the existence of a backward leaky mode in the dimer-layer are experimentally verified using a halved dimer-layer structure.

  1. Non-contact ultrasonic gas flow metering using air-coupled leaky Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zichuan; Jiang, Wentao; Wright, William M D

    2018-04-23

    This paper describes a completely non-contact ultrasonic method of gas flow metering using air-coupled leaky Lamb waves. To show proof of principle, a simplified representation of gas flow in a duct, comprising two separated thin isotropic plates with a gas flowing between them, has been modelled and investigated experimentally. An airborne compression wave emitted from an air-coupled capacitive ultrasonic transducer excited a leaky Lamb wave in the first plate in a non-contact manner. The leakage of this Lamb wave crossed the gas flow at an angle between the two plates as a compression wave, and excited a leaky Lamb wave in the second plate. An air-coupled capacitive ultrasonic transducer on the opposite side of this second plate then detected the airborne compression wave leakage from the second Lamb wave. As the gas flow shifted the wave field between the two plates, the point of Lamb wave excitation in the second plate was displaced in proportion to the gas flow rate. Two such measurements, in opposite directions, formed a completely non-contact contra-propagating Lamb wave flow meter, allowing measurement of the flow velocity between the plates. A COMSOL Multiphysics® model was used to visualize the wave fields, and accurately predicted the time differences that were then measured experimentally. Experiments using different Lamb wave frequencies and plate materials were also similarly verified. This entirely non-contact airborne approach to Lamb wave flow metering could be applied in place of clamp-on techniques in thin-walled ducts or pipes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A General Solution for Groundwater Flow in Estuarine Leaky Aquifer System with Considering Aquifer Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Chia; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the urban and industrial developments near the coastal area are rapid and therefore the associated population grows dramatically. More and more water demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on heavy pumping in coastal area. The decline of groundwater table may result in the problems of seawater intrusion and/or land subsidence. Since the 1950s, numerous studies focused on the effect of tidal fluctuation on the groundwater flow in the coastal area. Many studies concentrated on the developments of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) analytical solutions describing the tide-induced head fluctuations. For example, Jacob (1950) derived an analytical solution of 1D groundwater flow in a confined aquifer with a boundary condition subject to sinusoidal oscillation. Jiao and Tang (1999) derived a 1D analytical solution of a leaky confined aquifer by considered a constant groundwater head in the overlying unconfined aquifer. Jeng et al. (2002) studied the tidal propagation in a coupled unconfined and confined costal aquifer system. Sun (1997) presented a 2D solution for groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary. Tang and Jiao (2001) derived a 2D analytical solution in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water. This study aims at developing a general analytical solution describing the head fluctuations in a 2D estuarine aquifer system consisted of an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer, and an aquitard between them. Both the confined and unconfined aquifers are considered to be anisotropic. The predicted head fluctuations from this solution will compare with the simulation results from the MODFLOW program. In addition, the solutions mentioned above will be shown to be special cases of the present solution. Some hypothetical cases regarding the head fluctuation in costal aquifers will be made to investigate the dynamic effects of water table fluctuation, hydrogeological conditions, and

  3. Experimental evaluation of leaky least-mean-square algorithms for active noise reduction in communication headsets.

    PubMed

    Cartes, David A; Ray, Laura R; Collier, Robert D

    2002-04-01

    An adaptive leaky normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) algorithm has been developed to optimize stability and performance of active noise cancellation systems. The research addresses LMS filter performance issues related to insufficient excitation, nonstationary noise fields, and time-varying signal-to-noise ratio. The adaptive leaky NLMS algorithm is based on a Lyapunov tuning approach in which three candidate algorithms, each of which is a function of the instantaneous measured reference input, measurement noise variance, and filter length, are shown to provide varying degrees of tradeoff between stability and noise reduction performance. Each algorithm is evaluated experimentally for reduction of low frequency noise in communication headsets, and stability and noise reduction performance are compared with that of traditional NLMS and fixed-leakage NLMS algorithms. Acoustic measurements are made in a specially designed acoustic test cell which is based on the original work of Ryan et al. ["Enclosure for low frequency assessment of active noise reducing circumaural headsets and hearing protection," Can. Acoust. 21, 19-20 (1993)] and which provides a highly controlled and uniform acoustic environment. The stability and performance of the active noise reduction system, including a prototype communication headset, are investigated for a variety of noise sources ranging from stationary tonal noise to highly nonstationary measured F-16 aircraft noise over a 20 dB dynamic range. Results demonstrate significant improvements in stability of Lyapunov-tuned LMS algorithms over traditional leaky or nonleaky normalized algorithms, while providing noise reduction performance equivalent to that of the NLMS algorithm for idealized noise fields.

  4. Calculating ground water transit time of horizontal flow through leaky aquifers.

    PubMed

    Braunsfurth, Angelika C; Schneider, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of ground water transit times is one important factor in ground water protection. In this paper, we present an analytical solution for the transit time for a Dupuit-type flow system applicable to saturated flow through a horizontal leaky aquifer discharging to a downgradient fixed-head boundary under steady-state conditions. We investigate the influence of leakage when comparing the resulting travel times of our model based on head-dependent leakage with the commonly used model with no leakage and a simplified model with constant leakage. The results show significant differences in the position of the water divide and transit time, suggesting that leakage cannot be ignored.

  5. Leaky unstable modes and electromagnetic radiation amplification by an anisotropic plasma slab

    SciT

    Vagin, K. Yu., E-mail: vagin@sci.lebedev.ru; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru

    2015-09-15

    The interaction between electromagnetic radiation and a photoionized plasma slab with an anisotropic electron velocity distribution is studied. It is shown that the fields of leaky modes are amplified due to the development of aperiodic instability in the slab, which leads to an increase in both the reflected and transmitted fields. The transmitted field can significantly increase only if the slab thickness does not exceed the ratio of the speed of light to the electron plasma frequency, whereas there is no upper bound on the slab thickness for the reflected signal to be amplified.

  6. Measurement of leaky Lamb wave dispersion curves with application on coating characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yung-Chun; Cheng, Sheng Wen

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a new measurement system for measuring dispersion curves of leaky Lamb waves. The measurement system is based on a focusing PVDF transducer, the defocusing measurement, the V(f,z) waveform processing method, and an image displaying technique. The measurement system is applied for the determination of thin-film elastic properties, namely Young's modulus and shear modulus, by the inversion of dispersion curves measured from a thin-film/plate configuration. Elastic constants of electro-deposited nickel layers are determined with this method.

  7. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Moving backwards, moving forward: the experiences of older Filipino migrants adjusting to life in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Montayre, Jed; Neville, Stephen; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2017-12-01

    To explore the experiences of older Filipino migrants adjusting to living permanently in New Zealand. The qualitative descriptive approach taken in this study involved 17 individual face-to-face interviews of older Filipino migrants in New Zealand. Three main themes emerged from the data. The first theme was "moving backwards and moving forward", which described how these older Filipino migrants adjusted to challenges they experienced with migration. The second theme was "engaging with health services" and presented challenges relating to the New Zealand healthcare system, including a lack of knowledge of the nature of health services, language barriers, and differences in cultural views. The third theme, "new-found home", highlighted establishing a Filipino identity in New Zealand and adjusting to the challenges of relocation. Adjustment to life in New Zealand for these older Filipino migrants meant starting over again by building new values through learning the basics and then moving forward from there.

  9. The principal time balls of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinns, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Accurate time signals in New Zealand were important for navigation in the Pacific. Time balls at Wellington and Lyttelton were noted in the 1880 Admiralty list of time signals, with later addition of Otago. The time ball service at Wellington started in March 1864 using the first official observatory in New Zealand, but there was no Wellington time ball service during a long period of waterfront redevelopment during the 1880s. The time ball service restarted in November 1888 at a different harbour location. The original mechanical apparatus was used with a new ball, but the system was destroyed by fire in March 1909 and was never replaced. Instead, a time light service was inaugurated in 1912. The service at Lyttelton, near Christchurch, began in December 1876 after construction of the signal station there. It used telegraph signals from Wellington to regulate the time ball. By the end of 1909, it was the only official time ball in New Zealand, providing a service that lasted until 1934. The Lyttelton time ball tower was an iconic landmark in New Zealand that had been carefully restored. Tragically, the tower collapsed in the 2011 earthquakes and aftershocks that devastated Christchurch. A daily time ball service at Port Chalmers, near Dunedin, started in June 1867, initially using local observatory facilities. The service appears to have been discontinued in October 1877, but was re-established in April 1882 as a weekly service, with control by telegraph from Wellington. The service had been withdrawn altogether by the end of 1909. Auckland never established a reliable time ball service, despite provision of a weekly service for mariners by a public-spirited citizen between August 1864 and June 1866. A time ball was finally installed on the Harbour Board building in 1901, but the signal was unreliable and it ceased in 1902. Complaints from ships' masters led to various proposals to re-establish a service. These concluded with erection of a time ball on the new

  10. Bundle-sheath leakiness in C4 photosynthesis: a careful balancing act between CO2 concentration and assimilation.

    PubMed

    Kromdijk, Johannes; Ubierna, Nerea; Cousins, Asaph B; Griffiths, Howard

    2014-07-01

    Crop species with the C4 photosynthetic pathway are generally characterized by high productivity, especially in environmental conditions favouring photorespiration. In comparison with the ancestral C3 pathway, the biochemical and anatomical modifications of the C4 pathway allow spatial separation of primary carbon acquisition in mesophyll cells and subsequent assimilation in bundle-sheath cells. The CO2-concentrating C4 cycle has to operate in close coordination with CO2 reduction via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle in order to keep the C4 pathway energetically efficient. The gradient in CO2 concentration between bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells facilitates diffusive leakage of CO2. This rate of bundle-sheath CO2 leakage relative to the rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylation (termed leakiness) has been used to probe the balance between C4 carbon acquisition and subsequent reduction as a result of environmental perturbations. When doing so, the correct choice of equations to derive leakiness from stable carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) during gas exchange is critical to avoid biased results. Leakiness responses to photon flux density, either short-term (during measurements) or long-term (during growth and development), can have important implications for C4 performance in understorey light conditions. However, recent reports show leakiness to be subject to considerable acclimation. Additionally, the recent discovery of two decarboxylating C4 cycles operating in parallel in Zea mays suggests that flexibility in the transported C4 acid and associated decarboxylase could also aid in maintaining C4/CBB balance in a changing environment. In this paper, we review improvements in methodology to estimate leakiness, synthesize reports on bundle-sheath leakiness, discuss different interpretations, and highlight areas where future research is necessary. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology

  11. Translational repression of mouse mu opioid receptor expression via leaky scanning

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyu Young; Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Chun Sung; Choi, Hack Sun; Law, Ping-Yee; Wei, Li-Na; Loh, Horace H.

    2007-01-01

    Mu opioid receptor (MOR) expression is under temporal and spatial controls, but expression levels of the MOR gene are relatively low in vivo. In addition to transcriptional regulations, upstream AUGs (uAUGs) and open reading frames (uORFs) profoundly affect the translation of the primary ORF and thus the protein levels in several genes. The 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of mouse MOR mRNA contains three uORFs preceding the MOR main initiation codon. In MOR-fused EGFP or MOR promoter/luciferase reporter constructs, mutating each uAUG individually or in combinations increased MOR transient heterologous expression in neuroblastoma NMB and HEK293 cells significantly. Translation of such constructs increased up to 3-fold without altering the mRNA levels if either the third uAUG or both the second and third AUGs were mutated. Additionally, these uAUG-mediated translational inhibitions were independent of their peptide as confirmed by internal mutation analyses in each uORF. Translational studies indicated that protein syntheses were initiated at these uAUG initiation sites, with the third uAUG initiating the highest translation level. These results support the hypothesis that uORFs in mouse MOR mRNA act as negative regulators through a ribosome leaky scanning mechanism. Such leaky scanning resulted in the suppression of mouse MOR under normal conditions. PMID:17284463

  12. Continuous Beam Steering Through Broadside Using Asymmetrically Modulated Goubau Line Leaky-Wave Antennas.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Qingfeng; Hu, Sanming; Zhuang, Yaqiang; Kandwal, Abhishek; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Yifan

    2017-09-15

    Goubau line is a single-conductor transmission line, featuring easy integration and low-loss transmission properties. Here, we propose a periodic leaky-wave antenna (LWA) based on planar Goubau transmission line on a thin dielectric substrate. The leaky-wave radiations are generated by introducing periodic modulations along the Goubau line. In this way, the surface wave, which is slow-wave mode supported by the Goubau line, achieves an additional momentum and hence enters the fast-wave region for radiations. By employing the periodic modulations, the proposed Goubau line LWAs are able to continuously steer the main beam from backward to forward within the operational frequency range. However, the LWAs usually suffer from a low radiation efficiency at the broadside direction. To overcome this drawback, we explore both transversally and longitudinally asymmetrical modulations to the Goubau line. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental results are given in comparison with the symmetrical LWAs. It is demonstrated that the asymmetrical modulations significantly improve the radiation efficiency of LWAs at the broadside. Furthermore, the measurement results agree well with the numerical ones, which experimentally validates the proposed LWA structures. These novel Goubau line LWAs, experimentally demonstrated and validated at microwave frequencies, show also great potential for millimeter-wave and terahertz systems.

  13. Leaky Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Provides background information on landfills and describes an activity where students learn how a modern landfill is constructed and develop an understanding of the reasons for several regulations regarding modern landfill construction. Students design and construct working models of three types of landfills. (PR)

  14. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

    This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

    The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National

  15. Communication with extraterrestrial intelligences - Possibilities, chances, and perspectives with special attention given to the leaky-embargo hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebag, Johannes

    1989-12-01

    Present SETI projects are described, emphasizing search methods alternative to investigations in the radio range. The possibility that the human race is being studied by alien presences within the solar system is addressed in the context of the 'zoo hypothesis' and the 'leaky embargo' hypothesis. In the former, the aliens prevent any contact with humans, while in the latter occasional contact is permitted.

  16. Real-Time Leaky Lamb Wave Spectrum Measurement and Its Application to NDE of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1999-01-01

    Numerous analytical and theoretical studies of the behavior of leaky Lamb waves (LLW) in composite materials were documented in the literature. One of the key issues that are constraining the application of this method as a practical tool is the amount of data that needs to be acquired and the slow process that is involved with such experiments. Recently, a methodology that allows quasi real-time acquisition of LLW dispersion data was developed. At each angle of incidence the reflection spectrum is available in real time from the experimental setup and it can be used for rapid detection of the defects. This technique can be used to rapidly acquire the various plate wave modes along various angles of incidence for the characterization of the material elastic properties. The experimental method and data acquisition technique will be described in this paper. Experimental data was used to examine a series of flaws including porosity and delaminations and demonstrated the efficiency of the developed technique.

  17. A compact time reversal emitter-receiver based on a leaky random cavity

    PubMed Central

    Luong, Trung-Dung; Hies, Thomas; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Time reversal acoustics (TRA) has gained widespread applications for communication and measurements. In general, a scattering medium in combination with multiple transducers is needed to achieve a sufficiently large acoustical aperture. In this paper, we report an implementation for a cost-effective and compact time reversal emitter-receiver driven by a single piezoelectric element. It is based on a leaky cavity with random 3-dimensional printed surfaces. The random surfaces greatly increase the spatio-temporal focusing quality as compared to flat surfaces and allow the focus of an acoustic beam to be steered over an angle of 41°. We also demonstrate its potential use as a scanner by embedding a receiver to detect an object from its backscatter without moving the TRA emitter. PMID:27811957

  18. A biophysical observation model for field potentials of networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons.

    PubMed

    Beim Graben, Peter; Rodrigues, Serafim

    2012-01-01

    We present a biophysical approach for the coupling of neural network activity as resulting from proper dipole currents of cortical pyramidal neurons to the electric field in extracellular fluid. Starting from a reduced three-compartment model of a single pyramidal neuron, we derive an observation model for dendritic dipole currents in extracellular space and thereby for the dendritic field potential (DFP) that contributes to the local field potential (LFP) of a neural population. This work aligns and satisfies the widespread dipole assumption that is motivated by the "open-field" configuration of the DFP around cortical pyramidal cells. Our reduced three-compartment scheme allows to derive networks of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) models, which facilitates comparison with existing neural network and observation models. In particular, by means of numerical simulations we compare our approach with an ad hoc model by Mazzoni et al. (2008), and conclude that our biophysically motivated approach yields substantial improvement.

  19. Leaky gate model: intensity-dependent coding of pain and itch in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuohao; Xu, Qian; Guo, Changxiong; Guan, Yun; Liu, Qin; Dong, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Coding of itch versus pain has been heatedly debated for decades. However, the current coding theories (labeled line, intensity and selectivity theory) cannot accommodate all experimental observations. Here we identified a subset of spinal interneurons, labeled by gastrin releasing peptide (Grp), that receive direct synaptic input from both pain and itch primary sensory neurons. When activated, these Grp+ neurons generated rarely-seen simultaneous robust pain and itch responses that were intensity-dependent. Accordingly, we propose a “leaky gate” model, in which Grp+ neurons transmit both itch and weak pain signals, however upon strong painful stimuli the recruitment of endogenous opioids works to close this gate, reducing overwhelming pain generated by parallel pathways. Consistent with our model, loss of these Grp+ neurons increased pain responses while itch was decreased. Our new model serves as an example of non-monotonic coding in the spinal cord and better explains observations in human psychophysical studies. PMID:28231466

  20. Design of Planar Leaky Wave Antenna Fed by Substrate Integrated Waveguide Horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yang; Zhang, Yingsong; Qian, Zuping

    2017-12-01

    A metal strip grating leaky wave antenna (MSG-LWA) fed by substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) horn is proposed. The planar horn shares the same substrate with the MSG-LWA, which leads to a compact structure of the proposed antenna. Furthermore, through introducing phase-corrected structure by embedding metallized vias into the SIW horn, a nearly uniform phase distribution at the horn aperture is obtained, which effectively enhances the radiating performance of the MSG-LWA. Results indicate that the proposed antenna scans from -50° to -25° in the frequency band ranging from 15.3 GHz to 17.3 GHz. Besides, effectiveness of the proposed design is validated by comparing with a same MSG-LWA fed by an ideal rectangular waveguide.

  1. Theoretical studies on leaky-SAW properties influenced by layers on anisotropic piezoelectric crystals.

    PubMed

    Wallner, P; Ruile, W; Weigel, R

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical studies on the behavior of leaky-SAW (LSAW) properties in layered structures were performed. For these calculations rotYX LiTaO (3) and rotYX LiNbO(3) LSAW crystal cuts were used, assuming different layer materials. For LSAWs both the velocity and the inherent loss due to bulk wave emission into the substrate are strongly influenced by distinct layer parameters. As a result, these layer properties like elastic constants or thickness have shown a strong influence on the crystal cut angle of minimum LSAW loss. Moreover, for soft and stiff layer materials, a different shift of the LSAW loss minimum can occur. Therefore, using double-layer structures, the shift of the LSAW loss minimum can be influenced by appropriate chosen layers and ratios.

  2. A Block Iterative Finite Element Model for Nonlinear Leaky Aquifer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambolati, Giuseppe; Teatini, Pietro

    1996-01-01

    A new quasi three-dimensional finite element model of groundwater flow is developed for highly compressible multiaquifer systems where aquitard permeability and elastic storage are dependent on hydraulic drawdown. The model is solved by a block iterative strategy, which is naturally suggested by the geological structure of the porous medium and can be shown to be mathematically equivalent to a block Gauss-Seidel procedure. As such it can be generalized into a block overrelaxation procedure and greatly accelerated by the use of the optimum overrelaxation factor. Results for both linear and nonlinear multiaquifer systems emphasize the excellent computational performance of the model and indicate that convergence in leaky systems can be improved up to as much as one order of magnitude.

  3. Gut-liver axis in liver cirrhosis: How to manage leaky gut and endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A “leaky gut” may be the cutting edge for the passage of toxins, antigens or bacteria into the body, and may play a pathogenic role in advanced liver cirrhosis and its complications. Plasma endotoxin levels have been admitted as a surrogate marker of bacterial translocation and close relations of endotoxemia to hyperdynamic circulation, portal hypertension, renal, cardiac, pulmonary and coagulation disturbances have been reported. Bacterial overgrowth, increased intestinal permeability, failure to inactivate endotoxin, activated innate immunity are all likely to play a role in the pathological states of bacterial translocation. Therapeutic approach by management of the gut-liver axis by antibiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, prebiotics and their combinations may improve the clinical course of cirrhotic patients. Special concern should be paid on anti-endotoxin treatment. Adequate management of the gut-liver axis may be effective for prevention of liver cirrhosis itself by inhibiting the progression of fibrosis. PMID:25848468

  4. Radiation-pressure acceleration of ion beams from nanofoil targets: the leaky light-sail regime.

    PubMed

    Qiao, B; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M; Dromey, B; Geissler, M; Karmakar, A; Gibbon, P

    2010-10-08

    A new ion radiation-pressure acceleration regime, the "leaky light sail," is proposed which uses sub-skin-depth nanometer foils irradiated by circularly polarized laser pulses. In the regime, the foil is partially transparent, continuously leaking electrons out along with the transmitted laser field. This feature can be exploited by a multispecies nanofoil configuration to stabilize the acceleration of the light ion component, supplementing the latter with an excess of electrons leaked from those associated with the heavy ions to avoid Coulomb explosion. It is shown by 2D particle-in-cell simulations that a monoenergetic proton beam with energy 18 MeV is produced by circularly polarized lasers at intensities of just 10¹⁹  W/cm². 100 MeV proton beams are obtained by increasing the intensities to 2 × 10²⁰  W/cm².

  5. A biophysical observation model for field potentials of networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons

    PubMed Central

    beim Graben, Peter; Rodrigues, Serafim

    2013-01-01

    We present a biophysical approach for the coupling of neural network activity as resulting from proper dipole currents of cortical pyramidal neurons to the electric field in extracellular fluid. Starting from a reduced three-compartment model of a single pyramidal neuron, we derive an observation model for dendritic dipole currents in extracellular space and thereby for the dendritic field potential (DFP) that contributes to the local field potential (LFP) of a neural population. This work aligns and satisfies the widespread dipole assumption that is motivated by the “open-field” configuration of the DFP around cortical pyramidal cells. Our reduced three-compartment scheme allows to derive networks of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) models, which facilitates comparison with existing neural network and observation models. In particular, by means of numerical simulations we compare our approach with an ad hoc model by Mazzoni et al. (2008), and conclude that our biophysically motivated approach yields substantial improvement. PMID:23316157

  6. Experimental investigation of leaky lamb modes by an optically induced grating.

    PubMed

    Van de Rostyne, Kris; Glorieux, Christ; Gao, Weimin; Lauriks, Walter; Thoen, Jan

    2002-09-01

    By removing the symmetry of a free plate configuration, fluid loading significantly modifies the nature of acoustic waves travelling along a plate, and it even gives existence to new acoustic modes. We present theoretical predictions for the existence, dispersive behavior, and spatial distribution of leaky Lamb waves in a fluid-loaded film. Although Lamb modes are often investigated by studying the radiated fluid waves resulting from their leakage, here their properties are assessed by detecting the wave displacements directly using laser beam deflection. By using crossed laser beam excitation, the detection and analysis of the different modes is done at a fixed wavelength, allowing one to verify the existence, the velocity, and the damping of each predicted mode in a simple and unambiguous way. Our theoretical predictions for the nature of the modes in a water-loaded Plexiglas film, including parts of looping modes, are experimentally confirmed.

  7. Leaky Bodies, Bawdy Books: Gonorrhea and Reading in Eighteenth-Century Britain.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Darren N

    In eighteenth-century Britain, reading lewd books was understood to exacerbate gonorrhea. That pathology corresponded to a specific physiological model, which historians describe as the leaky male body. This article demonstrates how the connection between reading and gonorrhea correlated to three phenomena: 1) the neuro-sexual economy of bodily fluids; 2) the effects of reading on the sensible mind and body; and 3) the crossover of erotic and medical literatures. Aware of the physiological power of imagination, authors intentionally wrote to elicit strong physiological and sexual responses in readers. Concerns about the pathological and moral consequences of reading provocative material similarly informed criticisms of both the outright pornographic and the ostensibly medical. Partly in response to such criticisms, medical authors developed a more careful, decorous, and objective tone for writing about sexual topics. Ultimately, the culture of sensibility receded, as did anxieties about involuntary leaks of bodily fluids caused by reading.

  8. The combination of circle topology and leaky integrator neurons remarkably improves the performance of echo state network on time series prediction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fangzheng; Li, Qian; Li, Xiumin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, echo state network (ESN) has attracted a great deal of attention due to its high accuracy and efficient learning performance. Compared with the traditional random structure and classical sigmoid units, simple circle topology and leaky integrator neurons have more advantages on reservoir computing of ESN. In this paper, we propose a new model of ESN with both circle reservoir structure and leaky integrator units. By comparing the prediction capability on Mackey-Glass chaotic time series of four ESN models: classical ESN, circle ESN, traditional leaky integrator ESN, circle leaky integrator ESN, we find that our circle leaky integrator ESN shows significantly better performance than other ESNs with roughly 2 orders of magnitude reduction of the predictive error. Moreover, this model has stronger ability to approximate nonlinear dynamics and resist noise than conventional ESN and ESN with only simple circle structure or leaky integrator neurons. Our results show that the combination of circle topology and leaky integrator neurons can remarkably increase dynamical diversity and meanwhile decrease the correlation of reservoir states, which contribute to the significant improvement of computational performance of Echo state network on time series prediction.

  9. Neuronal Spike Timing Adaptation Described with a Fractional Leaky Integrate-and-Fire Model

    PubMed Central

    Teka, Wondimu; Marinov, Toma M.; Santamaria, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    The voltage trace of neuronal activities can follow multiple timescale dynamics that arise from correlated membrane conductances. Such processes can result in power-law behavior in which the membrane voltage cannot be characterized with a single time constant. The emergent effect of these membrane correlations is a non-Markovian process that can be modeled with a fractional derivative. A fractional derivative is a non-local process in which the value of the variable is determined by integrating a temporal weighted voltage trace, also called the memory trace. Here we developed and analyzed a fractional leaky integrate-and-fire model in which the exponent of the fractional derivative can vary from 0 to 1, with 1 representing the normal derivative. As the exponent of the fractional derivative decreases, the weights of the voltage trace increase. Thus, the value of the voltage is increasingly correlated with the trajectory of the voltage in the past. By varying only the fractional exponent, our model can reproduce upward and downward spike adaptations found experimentally in neocortical pyramidal cells and tectal neurons in vitro. The model also produces spikes with longer first-spike latency and high inter-spike variability with power-law distribution. We further analyze spike adaptation and the responses to noisy and oscillatory input. The fractional model generates reliable spike patterns in response to noisy input. Overall, the spiking activity of the fractional leaky integrate-and-fire model deviates from the spiking activity of the Markovian model and reflects the temporal accumulated intrinsic membrane dynamics that affect the response of the neuron to external stimulation. PMID:24675903

  10. Susceptibility to gut leakiness: a possible mechanism for endotoxaemia in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Ashkan; Gundlapalli, Sushama; Shaikh, Maliha; Frantzides, Constantine; Harrell, Laura; Kwasny, Mary M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction One of the proposed second hit mechanisms in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is hepatic oxidative stress triggered by elevated levels of endotoxin. We investigated one possible mechanism for the endotoxaemia – disruption of intestinal barrier integrity. Methods We enrolled 16 subjects with fatty liver (10 NASH; 6 steatosis) and 12 healthy subjects. Steatosis and NASH were diagnosed by liver biopsy using the Brunt criteria. Gastrointestinal permeability was measured using urinary excretion of 5-h lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio and 24-h sucralose. Permeability testing was repeated after aspirin challenge. Results Groups had similar baseline urinary 0–5 h L/M ratio (small bowel permeability) and 0–24 h sucralose (whole-gut permeability). Aspirin increased 0–5 h urinary L/M in most subjects. In contrast, aspirin significantly increased whole-gut permeability only in NASH subjects. In fact, the major increase in the urinary sucralose occurred in the 6–24 h samples, which points towards the colon as the major site responsible for aspirin-induced leakiness in NASH patients. Serum endotoxin levels were significantly higher in NASH subjects. Discussion Our findings suggest that aspirin acts on the colon to unmask a susceptibility to gut leakiness in patients with NASH. This effect may be the underlying mechanism for increased serum endotoxin, which is the second hit (after altered lipid metabolism) that is required to initiate a necroinflammatory cascade in hepatocytes which are already primed with obesity-induced abnormal lipid homoeostasis. PMID:18397235

  11. The safety experience of New Zealand adventure tourism operators.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.

  12. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    SciT

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematicmore » variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.« less

  13. Performing Manaaki and New Zealand Refugee Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazou, Rand T.

    2018-01-01

    In September 2015, and in response to the Syrian refugee crisis, there were widespread calls in New Zealand urging the Government to raise its annual Refugee Quota. Maori Party co-leader Marama Fox argued that New Zealand could afford to take on more refugees as part of its global citizenship and suggested that New Zealand's policy might be shaped…

  14. Learning from Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    Last February, in search of expanded thinking, the author led a group of 20 early childhood professionals on a study tour to Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). The group included two Canadians and two Aussies, with everyone else from the United States. While they knew they had much to learn from the overall system of early childhood education in NZ, the…

  15. Ethics committees in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant; Douglass, Alison

    2012-12-01

    The ethical review of research in New Zealand after the Cartwright Report of 1988 produced a major change in safeguards for and empowerment of participants in health care research. Several reforms since then have streamlined some processes but also seriously weakened some of the existing safeguards. The latest reforms, against the advice of various ethics bodies and the New Zealand Law Society, further reduced and attenuated the role of ethics committees so that New Zealand has moved from being a world leader in ethical review processes to there being serious doubt whether it is in conformity to international Conventions and codes. The latest round of reforms, seemingly driven by narrow economic aspirations, anecdote and innuendo, have occurred without any clear evidence of dysfunction in the system nor any plans for the resourcing required to improve quality of ethical review or to audit the process. It is of serious concern both to ethicists and medical lawyers in New Zealand that such hasty and poorly researched changes should have been made which threaten the hard-won gains of the Cartwright reforms.

  16. Stereo Pair: Wellington, New Zealand

    2000-05-11

    Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, is located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor at the south end of North Island. The city was founded in 1840 by British emigrants and now has a regional population of more than 400,000 residents.

  17. Public Education in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Wellington (New Zealand).

    Intended to stimulate public discussion on the aims and policies of New Zealand education, this background paper has three major sections. The first section discusses the role of education in relation to equal opportunity, democracy, cultural difference, national development, and personal development. In part two, graphs, tables, and text give a…

  18. Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand

    2017-12-08

    All around the world, people live in places where the threat of natural disaster is high. On the North Island of New Zealand, the Mount Ruapehu volcano is just such a threat. A towering, active stratovolcano (the classic cone-shaped volcano), snow-capped Ruapehu Volcano is pictured in this enhanced-color image. The image is made from topography data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000, and imagery collected by the Landsat satellite on October 23, 2002. Ruapehu is one of New Zealand’s most active volcanoes, with ten eruptions since 1861. The eruptions aren’t the only threat from the volcano, however. Among the most serious threats is a volcanic mudflow called a lahar. In between eruptions, a lake forms in the volcano’s caldera from melting snow. If a previous eruption has deposited a dam of ash, rocks and mud in the lake’s natural overflow point, then the lake becomes dangerously full, held back only by the temporary dam. In this scene, the lake is nestled among the ridges at the top of the volcano. Eventually, the dam gives way and a massive flow of mud and debris churns down the mountain toward farmland and towns below. Scientists estimate that Ruapehu has experienced 60 lahars in the last 150 years. A devastating lahar in 1953 killed more than 150 people, who died when a passenger train plunged into a ravine when a railroad bridge was taken out by the lahar. The flank of the volcano below the lake is deeply carved by the path of previous lahars; the gouge can be seen just left of image center. Currently scientists in the region are predicting that the lake will overflow in a lahar sometime in the next year. There is great controversy about how to deal with the threat. News reports from the region indicate that the government is planning to invest in a high-tech warning system that will alert those who might be affected well in advance of any catastrophic release. Others feel

  19. Comparison of distributed reacceleration and leaky-box models of cosmic-ray abundances (Z = 3-28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letaw, John R.; Silberberg, Rein; Tsao, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    A large collection of elemental and isotopic cosmic-ray data has been analyzed using the leaky-box transport model with and without reacceleration in the interstellar medium. Abundances of isotopes and elements with charges Z = 3-28 and energies E = 10 MeV/nucleon-1 TeV/nucleon were explored. Our results demonstrate that reacceleration models make detailed and accurate predictions with the same number of parameters or fewer as standard leaky-box models. Ad hoc fitting parameters in the standard model are replaced by astrophysically significant reacceleration parameters. Distributed reacceleration models explain the peak in secondary-to-primary ratios around 1 GeV/nucleon. They diminish the discrepancy between rigidity-dependent leakage and energy-independent anisotropy. They also offer the possibility of understanding isotopic anomalies at low energy.

  20. Leaky vaccines protect highly exposed recipients at a lower rate: implications for vaccine efficacy estimation and sieve analysis.

    PubMed

    Edlefsen, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    "Leaky" vaccines are those for which vaccine-induced protection reduces infection rates on a per-exposure basis, as opposed to "all-or-none" vaccines, which reduce infection rates to zero for some fraction of subjects, independent of the number of exposures. Leaky vaccines therefore protect subjects with fewer exposures at a higher effective rate than subjects with more exposures. This simple observation has serious implications for analysis methodologies that rely on the assumption that the vaccine effect is homogeneous across subjects. We argue and show through examples that this heterogeneous vaccine effect leads to a violation of the proportional hazards assumption, to incomparability of infected cases across treatment groups, and to nonindependence of the distributions of the competing failure processes in a competing risks setting. We discuss implications for vaccine efficacy estimation, correlates of protection analysis, and mark-specific efficacy analysis (also known as sieve analysis).

  1. Evaluation of confidence intervals for a steady-state leaky aquifer model

    Christensen, S.; Cooley, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The fact that dependent variables of groundwater models are generally nonlinear functions of model parameters is shown to be a potentially significant factor in calculating accurate confidence intervals for both model parameters and functions of the parameters, such as the values of dependent variables calculated by the model. The Lagrangian method of Vecchia and Cooley [Vecchia, A.V. and Cooley, R.L., Water Resources Research, 1987, 23(7), 1237-1250] was used to calculate nonlinear Scheffe-type confidence intervals for the parameters and the simulated heads of a steady-state groundwater flow model covering 450 km2 of a leaky aquifer. The nonlinear confidence intervals are compared to corresponding linear intervals. As suggested by the significant nonlinearity of the regression model, linear confidence intervals are often not accurate. The commonly made assumption that widths of linear confidence intervals always underestimate the actual (nonlinear) widths was not correct. Results show that nonlinear effects can cause the nonlinear intervals to be asymmetric and either larger or smaller than the linear approximations. Prior information on transmissivities helps reduce the size of the confidence intervals, with the most notable effects occurring for the parameters on which there is prior information and for head values in parameter zones for which there is prior information on the parameters.The fact that dependent variables of groundwater models are generally nonlinear functions of model parameters is shown to be a potentially significant factor in calculating accurate confidence intervals for both model parameters and functions of the parameters, such as the values of dependent variables calculated by the model. The Lagrangian method of Vecchia and Cooley was used to calculate nonlinear Scheffe-type confidence intervals for the parameters and the simulated heads of a steady-state groundwater flow model covering 450 km2 of a leaky aquifer. The nonlinear confidence

  2. In-situ Mechanical Manipulation of Wellbore Cements as a Solution to Leaky Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupresan, D.; Radonjic, M.; Heathman, J.

    2013-12-01

    mechanical manipulation (shear stress). The main advantage of this methodology is that mechanical manipulation of cement can induce healing of existing fractures, channels and microannulus seal in a wellbore without introducing new materials (e.g. cement squeeze jobs). Furthermore, this methodology is less sensitive to the influence of downhole conditions such as pressure, temperature and formation fluids, since it uses cement pore water as a medium to alter cement sheath. Based on lab experiments observation, it is possible to perceive that once tested at the industrial scale and if successful, the implementation of this method in the field can potentially mitigate leaky wells in CO2 sequestration projects, wellbores completed for hydraulic-fracturing and other conventional oil and gas producing wells. Key words: Wellbore cement integrity; Leaky wells; Cement microstructures; Casing expansion effect on cement mineralogy alterations.

  3. Infrared wavelength dependence of leaky mode losses and steady state distribution in W-type glass optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevich, Alexandar; Simović, Ana; Savović, Svetislav; Drljača, Branko

    2018-07-01

    Infrared wavelength dependence of leaky mode losses and steady state distribution (SSD) in W-type glass optical fibers (doubly clad fibers with three layers) is investigated in this paper for parametrically varied depths and widths of the fiber's intermediate optical layer. This enables a tailoring of configuration of the W-type fiber to suit an application at hand. We have shown that the proposed W-type fiber has better transmission characteristics at longer infrared wavelengths.

  4. Leaky Integrate-and-Fire Neuron Circuit Based on Floating-Gate Integrator

    PubMed Central

    Kornijcuk, Vladimir; Lim, Hyungkwang; Seok, Jun Yeong; Kim, Guhyun; Kim, Seong Keun; Kim, Inho; Choi, Byung Joon; Jeong, Doo Seok

    2016-01-01

    The artificial spiking neural network (SNN) is promising and has been brought to the notice of the theoretical neuroscience and neuromorphic engineering research communities. In this light, we propose a new type of artificial spiking neuron based on leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) behavior. A distinctive feature of the proposed FG-LIF neuron is the use of a floating-gate (FG) integrator rather than a capacitor-based one. The relaxation time of the charge on the FG relies mainly on the tunnel barrier profile, e.g., barrier height and thickness (rather than the area). This opens up the possibility of large-scale integration of neurons. The circuit simulation results offered biologically plausible spiking activity (<100 Hz) with a capacitor of merely 6 fF, which is hosted in an FG metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. The FG-LIF neuron also has the advantage of low operation power (<30 pW/spike). Finally, the proposed circuit was subject to possible types of noise, e.g., thermal noise and burst noise. The simulation results indicated remarkable distributional features of interspike intervals that are fitted to Gamma distribution functions, similar to biological neurons in the neocortex. PMID:27242416

  5. The Leaky Dielectric Model as a Weak Electrolyte Limit of an Electrodiffusion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yoichiro; Young, Yuan-Nan

    2017-11-01

    The Taylor-Melcher (TM) model is the standard model for the electrohydrodynamics of poorly conducting leaky dielectric fluids under an electric field. The TM model treats the fluid as an ohmic conductor, without modeling ion dynamics. On the other hand, electrodiffusion models, which have been successful in describing electokinetic phenomena, incorporates ionic concentration dynamics. Mathematical reconciliation between electrodiffusion and the TM models has been a major issue for electrohydrodynamic theory. Here, we derive the TM model from an electrodiffusion model where we explicitly model the electrochemistry of ion dissociation. We introduce salt dissociation reaction in the bulk and take the limit of weak salt dissociation (corresponding to poor conductors in the TM model.) Assuming small Debye length we derive the TM model with or without the surface charge advection term depending upon the scaling of relevant dimensionless parameters. Our analysis also gives a description of the ionic concentration distribution within the Debye layer, which hints at possible scenarios for electrohydrodynamic singularity formation. In our analysis we also allow for a jump in voltage across the liquid interface which causes a drifting velocity for a liquid drop under an electric field. YM is partially supported by NSF-DMS-1516978 and NSF-DMS-1620316. YNY is partially supported by NSF-DMS-1412789 and NSF-DMS-1614863.

  6. General well function for pumping from a confined, leaky, or unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perina, Tomas; Lee, Tien-Chang

    2006-02-01

    A general well function for groundwater flow toward an extraction well with non-uniform radial flux along the screen and finite-thickness skin, partially penetrating an unconfined, leaky-boundary flux, or confined aquifer is derived via the Laplace and generalized finite Fourier transforms. The mixed boundary condition at the well face is solved as the discretized Fredholm integral equation. The general well function reduces to a uniform radial flux solution as a special case. In the Laplace domain, the relation between the drawdown in the extraction well and flowrate is linear and the formulations for specified flowrate or specified drawdown pumping are interchangeable. The deviation in drawdown of the uniform from non-uniform radial flux solutions depends on the relative positions of the extraction and observation well screens, aquifer properties, and time of observation. In an unconfined aquifer the maximum deviation occurs during the period of delayed drawdown when the effect of vertical flow is most apparent. The skin and wellbore storage in an observation well are included as model parameters. A separate solution is developed for a fully penetrating well with the radial flux being a continuous function of depth.

  7. Composite Materials NDE Using Enhanced Leaky Lamb Wave Dispersion Data Acquisition Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mal, Ajit; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu

    1999-01-01

    The leaky Lamb wave (LLW) technique is approaching a maturity level that is making it an attractive quantitative NDE tool for composites and bonded joints. Since it was first observed in 1982, the phenomenon has been studied extensively, particularly in composite materials. The wave is induced by oblique insonification using a pitch-catch arrangement and the plate wave modes are detected by identifying minima in the reflected spectra to obtain the dispersion data. The wave behavior in multi-orientation laminates has been well documented and corroborated experimentally with high accuracy. The sensitivity of the wave to the elastic constants of the material and to the boundary conditions led to the capability to measure the elastic properties of bonded joints. Recently, the authors significantly enhanced the LLW method's capability by increasing the speed of the data acquisition, the number of modes that can be identified and the accuracy of the data inversion. In spite of the theoretical and experimental progress, methods that employ oblique insonification of composites are still not being applied as standard industrial NDE methods. The authors investigated the issues that are hampering the transition of the LLW to industrial applications and identified 4 key issues. The current capability of the method and the nature of these issues are described in this paper.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of leaky dielectrics with application to electrohydrodynamic atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owkes, Mark; Desjardins, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) have the potential to greatly enhance liquid break-up, as demonstrated in numerical simulations by Van Poppel et al. (JCP (229) 2010). In liquid-gas EHD flows, the ratio of charge mobility to charge convection timescales can be used to determine whether the charge can be assumed to exist in the bulk of the liquid or at the surface only. However, for EHD-aided fuel injection applications, these timescales are of similar magnitude and charge mobility within the fluid might need to be accounted for explicitly. In this work, a computational approach for simulating two-phase EHD flows including the charge transport equation is presented. Under certain assumptions compatible with a leaky dielectric model, charge transport simplifies to a scalar transport equation that is only defined in the liquid phase, where electric charges are present. To ensure consistency with interfacial transport, the charge equation is solved using a semi-Lagrangian geometric transport approach, similar to the method proposed by Le Chenadec and Pitsch (JCP (233) 2013). This methodology is then applied to EHD atomization of a liquid kerosene jet, and compared to results produced under the assumption of a bulk volumetric charge.

  9. Normal overall leakiness of microvasculature for albumin in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD).

    PubMed

    Henriksen, J H; Kok-Jensen, A

    1984-04-01

    The overall extravasation rate of albumin, TER (i.e. the fraction of the intravascular albumin mass (IVM) passing into, and during steady state returning from, the extravascular space per unit time) was determined from the disappearance of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin in seven patients with severe chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) and in seven normal controls. Arterial oxygen tension in patients with COLD was median 60 mmHg (range 47-80, normal greater than 75 mmHg), vital capacity was on the average 55% of expected normal value (median 1.80 litre, range 1.45-1.95), and forced expired volume in first sec was decreased to 21% of expected normal value (median 0.55 litre, range 0.40-0.70). Right-heart catheterization revealed pulmonary hypertension in all but one patient. TER in patients with COLD was median 6.1% IVM/h (range 3.5-10.1) as compared to that of normal controls 6.0% IVM/h (range 4.3-7.4), indicating that no significant change in microvascular leakiness to albumin could be found in patients with COLD. Thus, the results bring no support to a generally increased microvascular permeability to proteins in patients with COLD.

  10. Associative memory of phase-coded spatiotemporal patterns in leaky Integrate and Fire networks.

    PubMed

    Scarpetta, Silvia; Giacco, Ferdinando

    2013-04-01

    We study the collective dynamics of a Leaky Integrate and Fire network in which precise relative phase relationship of spikes among neurons are stored, as attractors of the dynamics, and selectively replayed at different time scales. Using an STDP-based learning process, we store in the connectivity several phase-coded spike patterns, and we find that, depending on the excitability of the network, different working regimes are possible, with transient or persistent replay activity induced by a brief signal. We introduce an order parameter to evaluate the similarity between stored and recalled phase-coded pattern, and measure the storage capacity. Modulation of spiking thresholds during replay changes the frequency of the collective oscillation or the number of spikes per cycle, keeping preserved the phases relationship. This allows a coding scheme in which phase, rate and frequency are dissociable. Robustness with respect to noise and heterogeneity of neurons parameters is studied, showing that, since dynamics is a retrieval process, neurons preserve stable precise phase relationship among units, keeping a unique frequency of oscillation, even in noisy conditions and with heterogeneity of internal parameters of the units.

  11. Concentration history during pumping from a leaky aquifer with stratified initial concentration

    Goode, Daniel J.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Wood, Warren W.; Kraemer, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    Analytical and numerical solutions are employed to examine the concentration history of a dissolved substance in water pumped from a leaky aquifer. Many aquifer systems are characterized by stratification, for example, a sandy layer overlain by a clay layer. To obtain information about separate hydrogeologic units, aquifer pumping tests are often conducted with a well penetrating only one of the layers. When the initial concentration distribution is also stratified (the concentration varies with elevation only), the concentration breakthrough in the pumped well may be interpreted to provide information on aquifer hydraulic and transport properties. To facilitate this interpretation, we present some simple analytical and numerical solutions for limiting cases and illustrate their application to a fractured bedrock/glacial drift aquifer system where the solute of interest is dissolved radon gas. In addition to qualitative information on water source, this method may yield estimates of effective porosity and saturated thickness (or fracture transport aperture) from a single-hole test. Little information about dispersivity is obtained because the measured concentration is not significantly affected by dispersion in the aquifer.

  12. Mechanical Expansion of Steel Tubing as a Solution to Leaky Wellbores

    PubMed Central

    Radonjic, Mileva; Kupresan, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Wellbore cement, a procedural component of wellbore completion operations, primarily provides zonal isolation and mechanical support of the metal pipe (casing), and protects metal components from corrosive fluids. These are essential for uncompromised wellbore integrity. Cements can undergo multiple forms of failure, such as debonding at the cement/rock and cement/metal interfaces, fracturing, and defects within the cement matrix. Failures and defects within the cement will ultimately lead to fluid migration, resulting in inter-zonal fluid migration and premature well abandonment. Currently, there are over 1.8 million operating wells worldwide and over one third of these wells have leak related problems defined as Sustained Casing Pressure (SCP)1. The focus of this research was to develop an experimental setup at bench-scale to explore the effect of mechanical manipulation of wellbore casing-cement composite samples as a potential technology for the remediation of gas leaks. The experimental methodology utilized in this study enabled formation of an impermeable seal at the pipe/cement interface in a simulated wellbore system. Successful nitrogen gas flow-through measurements demonstrated that an existing microannulus was sealed at laboratory experimental conditions and fluid flow prevented by mechanical manipulation of the metal/cement composite sample. Furthermore, this methodology can be applied not only for the remediation of leaky wellbores, but also in plugging and abandonment procedures as well as wellbore completions technology, and potentially preventing negative impacts of wellbores on subsurface and surface environments. PMID:25490436

  13. An analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal fluctuation in a leaky confined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Tang, Zhonghua

    1999-03-01

    An analytical solution is derived to investigate the influence of leakage on tidal response in a coastal leaky confined aquifer system. The analytical solution developed here is more general than the traditional solution obtained by Ferris [1951], which can be regarded as a special case of the solution presented in this paper. This solution is based on a conceptual model under the assumption that the groundwater level in the confined aquifer fluctuates in response to sea tide while that of the overlying unconfined aquifer remains constant. This conceptual model is supported by numerous field studies by previous researchers which have demonstrated that the tidal response in an unconfined aquifer may be negligible compared to that in a confined aquifer. The leakage has a significant impact on the tidal behavior of the confined aquifer. Hypothetical studies indicate that both tidal amplitude of groundwater head in the aquifer and the distance over which the aquifer can be disturbed by the sea tide will be considerably reduced because of the existence of leakage. This analytical solution is used to investigate the tidal and piezometer data at the Chek Lap Kok airport, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China.

  14. A numerical study on charging mechanism in leaky dielectric liquids inside the electrostatic atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashir, Babak; Perri, Anthony; Yarin, Alexander L.; Mashayek, Farzad

    2017-11-01

    The charging of leaky dielectric liquids inside an electrostatic atomizer is studied numerically by developed codes based on OpenFOAM platform. Faradaic reactions are taken into account as the electrification mechanism. The impact of ionic finite size (steric terms) in high voltages is also investigated. The fundamental electrohydrodynamic understanding of the charging mechanism is aimed in the present work where the creation of polarized near-electrode layer and the movement of charges due to hydrodynamic flow are studied in conjunction with the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. The case of a micro channel electrohydrodynamic flow subjected to two electrodes of the opposite polarity is considered as an example, with the goal to predict the resulting net charge at the exit. Even though the electrodes constitute a small portion of the channel wall, otherwise insulated, it is indicated that the channel length plays a dominant role in the discharging net charge. The ionic fluxes at the electrode surfaces are accounted through the Frumkin-Butler-Volmer relation found from the concurrent in-house experimental investigations. This projects was supported by National science Foundation (NSF) GOALI Grant CBET-1505276.

  15. Mechanical expansion of steel tubing as a solution to leaky wellbores.

    PubMed

    Radonjic, Mileva; Kupresan, Darko

    2014-11-20

    Wellbore cement, a procedural component of wellbore completion operations, primarily provides zonal isolation and mechanical support of the metal pipe (casing), and protects metal components from corrosive fluids. These are essential for uncompromised wellbore integrity. Cements can undergo multiple forms of failure, such as debonding at the cement/rock and cement/metal interfaces, fracturing, and defects within the cement matrix. Failures and defects within the cement will ultimately lead to fluid migration, resulting in inter-zonal fluid migration and premature well abandonment. Currently, there are over 1.8 million operating wells worldwide and over one third of these wells have leak related problems defined as Sustained Casing Pressure (SCP). The focus of this research was to develop an experimental setup at bench-scale to explore the effect of mechanical manipulation of wellbore casing-cement composite samples as a potential technology for the remediation of gas leaks. The experimental methodology utilized in this study enabled formation of an impermeable seal at the pipe/cement interface in a simulated wellbore system. Successful nitrogen gas flow-through measurements demonstrated that an existing microannulus was sealed at laboratory experimental conditions and fluid flow prevented by mechanical manipulation of the metal/cement composite sample. Furthermore, this methodology can be applied not only for the remediation of leaky wellbores, but also in plugging and abandonment procedures as well as wellbore completions technology, and potentially preventing negative impacts of wellbores on subsurface and surface environments.

  16. Runaway Train: A Leaky Radiosensitive SCID with Skin Lesions and Multiple Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Fevang, Børre; Fagerli, Unn Merete; Sorte, Hanne; Aarset, Harald; Hov, Håkon; Langmyr, Marit; Keil, Thomas Morten; Bjørge, Ellen; Aukrust, Pål; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    The nuclease Artemis is essential for the development of T-cell and B-cell receptors and repair of DNA double-strand breaks, and a loss of expression or function will lead to a radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency with no functional T-cells or B-cells (T-B-SCID). Hypomorphic mutations in the Artemis gene can lead to a functional, but reduced, T-cell and B-cell repertoire with a more indolent clinical course called "leaky" SCID. Here, we present the case of a young man who had increasingly aggressive lymphoproliferative skin lesions from 2 years of age which developed into multiple EBV+ B-cell lymphomas, where a hypomorphic mutation in the Artemis gene was found in a diagnostic race against time using whole exome sequencing. The patient was given a haploidentical stem cell transplant while in remission for his lymphomas and although the initial course was successful, he succumbed to a serious Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia 5 months after the transplant. The case underscores the importance of next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of patients with suspected severe immunodeficiency.

  17. Chimeras in leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks: effects of reflecting connectivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigkri-DeSmedt, Nefeli Dimitra; Hizanidis, Johanne; Schöll, Eckehard; Hövel, Philipp; Provata, Astero

    2017-07-01

    The effects of attracting-nonlocal and reflecting connectivity are investigated in coupled Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) elements, which model the exchange of electrical signals between neurons. Earlier investigations have demonstrated that repulsive-nonlocal and hierarchical network connectivity can induce complex synchronization patterns and chimera states in systems of coupled oscillators. In the LIF system we show that if the elements are nonlocally linked with positive diffusive coupling on a ring network, the system splits into a number of alternating domains. Half of these domains contain elements whose potential stays near the threshold and they are interrupted by active domains where the elements perform regular LIF oscillations. The active domains travel along the ring with constant velocity, depending on the system parameters. When we introduce reflecting coupling in LIF networks unexpected complex spatio-temporal structures arise. For relatively extensive ranges of parameter values, the system splits into two coexisting domains: one where all elements stay near the threshold and one where incoherent states develop, characterized by multi-leveled mean phase velocity profiles.

  18. Unusual energy properties of leaky backward Lamb waves in a submerged plate.

    PubMed

    Nedospasov, I A; Mozhaev, V G; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-05-01

    It is found that leaky backward Lamb waves, i.e. waves with negative energy-flux velocity, propagating in a plate submerged in a liquid possess extraordinary energy properties distinguishing them from any other type of waves in isotropic media. Namely, the total time-averaged energy flux along the waveguide axis is equal to zero for these waves due to opposite directions of the longitudinal energy fluxes in the adjacent media. This property gives rise to the fundamental question of how to define and calculate correctly the energy velocity in such an unusual case. The procedure of calculation based on incomplete integration of the energy flux density over the plate thickness alone is applied. The derivative of the angular frequency with respect to the wave vector, usually referred to as the group velocity, happens to be close to the energy velocity defined by this mean in that part of the frequency range where the backward mode exists in the free plate. The existence region of the backward mode is formally increased for the submerged plate in comparison to the free plate as a result of the liquid-induced hybridization of propagating and nonpropagating (evanescent) Lamb modes. It is shown that the Rayleigh's principle (i.e. equipartition of total time-averaged kinetic and potential energies for time-harmonic acoustic fields) is violated due to the leakage of Lamb waves, in spite of considering nondissipative media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaky phenotype of X-linked agammaglobulinaemia in a Japanese family

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, H; Kawamoto, N; Asano, T; Mabuchi, Y; Horikoshi, H; Teramoto, T; JIN-RONG; Matsui, E; Kondo, M; Fukao, T; Kasahara, K; Kondo, N

    2005-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) is an inherited immunodeficiency that is caused by a block in early B-cell differentiation. Whereas early B precursors in the bone marrow are present in substantial numbers, XLA-affected individuals have dramatically reduced numbers of circulating mature B cells, plasma cells and immunoglobulins of all isotypes. We report on a Japanese family with 3 XLA patients, in whom the serum immunoglobulin levels and number of B cells showed a significant difference among them in spite of harbouring the same splice donor site mutation in the BTK gene. We developed concise method for detection of this mutation, which is helpful for discovering the carrier. Patient 2 showed a significant serum immunoglobulin levels of all isotypes, including allergen-specific IgE. Expression of a normal and truncated size BTK gene was detected in patient 2′s peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Expression of BTK protein was also detected in some B cells. These results suggest that the leaky phenotype in patient 2 was caused in part by the expression of a normal BTK gene transcript. The increased frequency of infection with age expanded the number of B cells with normal BTK gene expression and produced the serum immunoglobulin, including IgE. PMID:15932514

  20. Apoptosis of enterocytes and nitration of junctional complex proteins promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver injury.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Eun; Yu, Li-Rong; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A; Yoo, Seong-Ho; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2018-07-01

    Binge alcohol exposure causes gut leakiness, contributing to increased endotoxemia and inflammatory liver injury, although the molecular mechanisms are still elusive. This study was aimed at investigating the roles of apoptosis of enterocytes and nitration followed by degradation of intestinal tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins in binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness. The levels of intestinal (ileum) junctional complex proteins, oxidative stress markers and apoptosis-related proteins in rodents, T84 colonic cells and autopsied human ileums were determined by immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and mass-spectral analyses. Binge alcohol exposure caused apoptosis of gut enterocytes with elevated serum endotoxin and liver injury. The levels of intestinal CYP2E1, iNOS, nitrated proteins and apoptosis-related marker proteins were significantly elevated in binge alcohol-exposed rodents. Differential, quantitative mass-spectral analyses of the TJ-enriched fractions of intestinal epithelial layers revealed that several TJ, AJ and desmosome proteins were decreased in binge alcohol-exposed rats compared to controls. Consistently, the levels of TJ proteins (claudin-1, claudin-4, occludin and zonula occludens-1), AJ proteins (β-catenin and E-cadherin) and desmosome plakoglobin were very low in binge alcohol-exposed rats, wild-type mice, and autopsied human ileums but not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Additionally, pretreatment with specific inhibitors of CYP2E1 and iNOS prevented disorganization and/or degradation of TJ proteins in alcohol-exposed T84 colonic cells. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblot confirmed that intestinal TJ and AJ proteins were nitrated and degraded via ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, resulting in their decreased levels. These results demonstrated for the first time the critical roles of CYP2E1, apoptosis of enterocytes, and nitration followed by ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic degradation of the

  1. Technological Innovation of Higher Education in New Zealand: A Wicked Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand, like many countries, faces the challenge of building and sustaining an educated population. Particular challenges are posed by the need to educate an increasing proportion of the population to higher levels in order to support the growth of a modern skills and knowledge economy, as opposed to an economy built on low-cost labour and…

  2. New Zealand geothermal: Wairakei -- 40 years

    SciT

    NONE

    This quarterly bulletin highlights the geothermal developments in New Zealand with the following articles: A brief history of the Wairakei geothermal power project; Geothermal resources in New Zealand -- An overview; Domestic and commercial heating and bathing -- Rotorua area; Kawerau geothermal development: A case study; Timber drying at Kawerau; Geothermal greenhouses at Kawerau; Drying of fibrous crops using geothermal steam and hot water at the Taupo Lucerne Company; Prawn Park -- Taupo, New Zealand; Geothermal orchids; Miranda hot springs; and Geothermal pipeline.

  3. Electronic Medical Consultation: A New Zealand Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brebner, Campbell; Jones, Raymond; Marshall, Wendy; Parry, Graham

    2001-01-01

    Electronic medical consultation is available worldwide through access to the World Wide Web (WWW). This article outlines a research study on the adoption of electronic medical consultation as a means of health delivery. It focuses on the delivery of healthcare specifically for New Zealanders, by New Zealanders. It is acknowledged that the WWW is a global marketplace and that it is therefore difficult to identify New Zealanders' use of such a global market; nevertheless, we attempt to provide a New Zealand perspective on electronic medical consultation. PMID:11720955

  4. Critical health psychology in New Zealand: Developments, directions and reflections.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Kerry; Lyons, Antonia C; Stephens, Christine

    2018-03-01

    We examine how critical health psychology developed in New Zealand, taking an historical perspective to document important influences. We discuss how academic appointments created a confluence of critical researchers at Massey University, how interest in health psychology arose and expanded, how the critical turn eventuated and how connections, both local and international, were important in building and sustaining these developments. We discuss the evolution of teaching a critical health psychology training programme, describe the research agendas and professional activities of academic staff involved and how this sustains the critical agenda. We close with some reflections on progress and attainment.

  5. Understanding the leaky engineering pipeline: Motivation and job adaptability of female engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswathiamma, Manjusha Thekkedathu

    This dissertation is a mixed-method study conducted using qualitative grounded theory and quantitative survey and correlation approaches. This study aims to explore the motivation and adaptability of females in the engineering profession and to develop a theoretical framework for both motivation and adaptability issues. As a result, this study endeavors to design solutions for the low enrollment and attenuation of female engineers in the engineering profession, often referred to as the "leaky female engineering pipeline." Profiles of 123 female engineers were studied for the qualitative approach, and 98 completed survey responses were analyzed for the quantitative approach. The qualitative, grounded-theory approach applied the constant comparison method; open, axial, and selective coding was used to classify the information in categories, sub-categories, and themes for both motivation and adaptability. The emergent themes for decisions motivating female enrollment include cognitive, emotional, and environmental factors. The themes identified for adaptability include the seven job adaptability factors: job satisfaction, risk- taking attitude, career/skill development, family, gender stereotyping, interpersonal skills, and personal benefit, as well as the self-perceived job adaptability factor. Illeris' Three-dimensional Learning Theory was modified as a model for decisions motivating female enrollment. This study suggests a firsthand conceptual parallelism of McClusky's Theory of Margin for the adaptability of female engineers in the profession. Also, this study attempted to design a survey instrument to measure job adaptability of female engineers. The study identifies two factors that are significantly related to job adaptability: interpersonal skills (< p = 0.01) and family (< p = 0.05); gender stereotyping and personal benefit are other factors that are also significantly (< p = 0.1) related.

  6. Leaky RAG Deficiency in Adult Patients with Impaired Antibody Production against Bacterial Polysaccharide Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Christoph B.; Piller, Alexander; Linder, Angela; Sauerwein, Kai M. T.; Eibl, Martha M.; Wolf, Hermann M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function mutations in the recombination activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 have been reported to cause a T-B-NK+ type of severe combined immunodeficiency. In addition identification of hypomorphic mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 has led to an expansion of the spectrum of disease to include Omenn syndrome, early onset autoimmunity, granuloma, chronic cytomegalovirus- or EBV-infection with expansion of gamma/delta T-cells, idiophatic CD4 lymphopenia and a phenotype resembling common variable immunodeficiency. Herein we describe a novel presentation of leaky RAG1 and RAG2 deficiency in two unrelated adult patients with impaired antibody production against bacterial polysaccharide antigens. Clinical manifestation included recurrent pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media and in one patient recurrent cutaneous vasculitis. Both patients harbored a combination of a null mutation on one allele with a novel hypomorphic RAG1/2 mutation on the other allele. One of these novel mutations affected the start codon of RAG1 and resulted in an aberrant gene and protein expression. The second novel RAG2 mutation leads to a truncated RAG2 protein, lacking the C-terminus with intact core RAG2 and reduced VDJ recombination capacity as previously described in a mouse model. Both patients presented with severely decreased numbers of naïve CD4+ T cells and defective T independent IgG responses to bacterial polysaccharide antigens, while T cell-dependent IgG antibody formation e.g. after tetanus or TBEV vaccination was intact. In conclusion, hypomorphic mutations in genes responsible for SCID should be considered in adults with predominantly antibody deficiency. PMID:26186701

  7. Flexible or leaky attention in creative people? Distinct patterns of attention for different types of creative thinking.

    PubMed

    Zabelina, Darya; Saporta, Arielle; Beeman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Creativity has been putatively linked to distinct forms of attention, but which aspects of creativity and which components of attention remains unclear. Two experiments examined how divergent thinking and creative achievement relate to visual attention. In both experiments, participants identified target letters (S or H) within hierarchical stimuli (global letters made of local letters), after being cued to either the local or global level. In Experiment 1, participants identified the targets more quickly following valid cues (80% of trials) than following invalid cues. However, this smaller validity effect was associated with higher divergent thinking, suggesting that divergent thinking was related to quicker overcoming of invalid cues, and thus to flexible attention. Creative achievement was unrelated to the validity effect. Experiment 2 examined whether divergent thinking (or creative achievement) is related to "leaky attention," so that when cued to one level of a stimulus, some information is still processed, or leaks in, from the non-cued level. In this case, the cued stimulus level always contained a target, and the non-cued level was congruent, neutral, or incongruent with the target. Divergent thinking did not relate to stimulus congruency. In contrast, high creative achievement was related to quicker responses to the congruent than to the incongruent stimuli, suggesting that real-world creative achievement is indeed associated with leaky attention, whereas standard laboratory tests of divergent thinking are not. Together, these results elucidate distinct patterns of attention for different measures of creativity. Specifically, creative achievers may have leaky attention, as suggested by previous literature, whereas divergent thinkers have selective yet flexible attention.

  8. A two-dimensional analytical model for groundwater flow in a leaky aquifer extending finite distance under the estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Hung, Chi-Tung; -Yen Lin, Wen; Ma, Kuo-chen

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, cities and industries in the vicinity of the estuarine region have developed rapidly, resulting in a sharp increase in the population concerned. The increasing demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on massive pumping of water in estuarine area. Since the 1950s, numerous studies have focused on the effects of tidal fluctuations on groundwater flow in the estuarine area. Tide-induced head fluctuation in a two-dimensional estuarine aquifer system is complicated and rather important in dealing with many groundwater management or remediation problems. The conceptual model of the aquifer system considered is multi-layered with estuarine bank and the leaky aquifer extend finite distance under the estuary. The solution of the model describing the groundwater head distribution in such an estuarine aquifer system and subject to the tidal fluctuation effects from estuarine river is developed based on the method of separation of variables along with river boundary. The solutions by Sun (Sun H. A two-dimensional analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary, Water Resour. Res. 1997; 33:1429-35) as well as Tang and Jiao (Tang Z. and J. J. Jiao, A two-dimensional analytical solution for groundwater flow in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water, Hydrological Processes, 2001; 15: 573-585) can be shown to be special cases of the present solution. On the basis of the analytical solution, the groundwater head distribution in response to estuarine boundary is examined and the influences of leakage, hydraulic parameters, and loading effect on the groundwater head fluctuation due to tide are investigated and discussed. KEYWORDS: analytical model, estuarine river, groundwater fluctuation, leaky aquifer.

  9. Selection of School Counsellors in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthei, R. J.

    This paper presents the views of the New Zealand Counselling and Guidance Association regarding the need for changes in the system of selecting individuals for training as school counselors in New Zealand. A number of options are offered for improving the mechanics of selection, recommending selection criteria, and suggesting procedures for…

  10. California's coast redwood in New Zealand

    Tom Gaman

    2012-01-01

    New Zealanders are making a significant effort to develop their forest industry to benefit from rapid growth exhibited by Sequoia sempervirens on both the North Island and South Island. US and New Zealand forest products companies have established redwood plantations in the past decade, and have found that microclimate, site preparation, soil chemistry, fertilization...

  11. Evolution of campylobacter species in New Zealand

    New Zealand is an isolated archipelago in the South-West Pacific with a unique fauna and flora, a feature partly attributable to it being the last sizable land mass to be colonized by man. In this chapter we test the hypothesis that different periods in the history of New Zealand – from pre-history ...

  12. Early Childhood Services in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oborn, Glennie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the types and characteristics of New Zealand early childhood education services. Specific areas addressed include: (1) Te Whaariki, the New Zealand early childhood curriculum; (2) great outdoors as a feature of early education; (3) education and care centers; (4) kindergartens and playcenters; and (5) Te Kohanga Reo, Maori language and…

  13. The Cost Efficiency New Zealand's Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Malcolm; Doucouliagos, Hristos

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand the most important institutions that are responsible for the delivery of vocational education and training programs are the government owned and operated tertiary education institutions known as polytechnics. The New Zealand polytechnics deliver programs at the certificate, diploma and degree level. During the course of the 1990s,…

  14. New Zealand Police and Restorative Justice Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…

  15. Obesity and Intellectual Disability in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Kurstyn V.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international literature suggests that obesity is likely to be more pronounced in the population of people with intellectual disability (ID). However, there are no published New Zealand data for this population. Method: We accessed a database containing anonymous data for a New Zealand ID population. Ninety-eight people of 141 had…

  16. The Andes Hantavirus NSs Protein Is Expressed from the Viral Small mRNA by a Leaky Scanning Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D.; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism. PMID:22156529

  17. The Andes hantavirus NSs protein is expressed from the viral small mRNA by a leaky scanning mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism.

  18. Two-dimensional beam steering array using planar eight-element composite right/left-handed leaky-wave antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Atsushi

    2008-08-01

    A two-dimensional beam steering array composed of an eight-element antenna array using composite right/left-handed leaky-wave antennas fed by an 8 × 8 Butler matrix network is designed at X-band. An eight-way beam switching in one direction by input port switching and a continuous beam steering in the other direction by frequency sweep are achieved. A wide range beam steering operation covering from -55 to +53 degrees by port switching and from -37 to +27 degrees by frequency sweep is demonstrated with the maximum gain of 9.2 dBi.

  19. Leaky polarizing beam splitter with adjustable leak ratio for operation in the wavelength range of 440-690 nm.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Bartlett, C L; Erwin, J K; Mansuripur, M

    1997-07-01

    We discuss the optomechanical design and fabrication of a novel wideband (440-690-nm), leaky polarizing beam splitter with an adjustable leak ratio. This beam splitter is an important component of a multiwavelength dynamic testbed that we have constructed for testing optical disks. The multilayer thin-film structure of the beam splitter is essentially a stacked pair of narrow-band dielectric reflectors that have been fine tuned for optimal performance. The characteristics of the fabricated device are in good agreement with our theoretical calculations.

  20. An indigenous and migrant critique of principles and innovation in education in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kěpa, Mere; Manu'Atu, Linitā

    2011-12-01

    This paper questions notions of individualism underpinning technocratic approaches to education that marginalise indigenous and migrant peoples' knowledges in tertiary education. Focusing on New Zealand ( Aotearoa) with its colonial and immigrant history, its Māori and Pacific Islander citizens, the authors ask whether education, as its process is being communicated there, leaves indigenous and migrant people vulnerable and marginalised in the dominant, English-speaking, New Zealand European ( Pākehā) mainstream society. The question is whether education refers to capacity-building and strengthening the potential of marginalised students' language and culture; or whether it is only geared towards sustaining English-language ascendancy and technical virtuosity. Taking on board the cultural heritage of Pacific Islanders ( Pasifika) resident in New Zealand, a new teacher training diploma was introduced by the Auckland University of Technology in 2004. Both authors are involved in the panel meetings ( Fono) where the papers presented during the diploma course are evaluated.

  1. Flow Generated by a Partially Penetrating Well in a Leaky Two-Aquifer System with a Storative Semiconfining Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulveda, N.; Rohrer, K.

    2008-05-01

    The permeability of the semiconfining layers of the highly productive Floridan Aquifer System may be large enough to invalidate the assumptions of the leaky aquifer theory. These layers are the intermediate confining and the middle semiconfining units. The analysis of aquifer-test data with analytical solutions of the ground-water flow equation developed with the approximation of a low hydraulic conductivity ratio between the semiconfining layer and the aquifer may lead to inaccurate hydraulic parameters. An analytical solution is presented here for the flow in a confined leaky aquifer, the overlying storative semiconfining layer, and the unconfined aquifer, generated by a partially penetrating well in a two-aquifer system, and allowing vertical and lateral flow components to occur in the semiconfining layer. The equations describing flow caused by a partially penetrating production well are solved analytically to provide a method to accurately determine the hydraulic parameters in the confined aquifer, semiconfining layer, and unconfined aquifer from aquifer-test data. Analysis of the drawdown data from an aquifer test performed in central Florida showed that the flow solution presented here for the semiconfining layer provides a better match and a more unique identification of the hydraulic parameters than an analytical solution that considers only vertical flow in the semiconfining layer.

  2. Transportation of single cell and microbubbles by phase-shift introduced to standing leaky surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Long; Cai, Feiyan; Zhang, Zidong; Niu, Lili; Jin, Qiaofeng; Yan, Fei; Wu, Junru; Wang, Zhanhui; Zheng, Hairong

    2011-01-01

    A microfluidic device was developed to precisely transport a single cell or multiple microbubbles by introducing phase-shifts to a standing leaky surface acoustic wave (SLSAW). The device consists of a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) microchannel and two phase-tunable interdigital transducers (IDTs) for the generation of the relative phase for the pair of surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating along the opposite directions forming a standing wave. When the SAW contacts the fluid medium inside the microchannel, some of SAW energy is coupled to the fluid and the SAW becomes the leaky surface wave. By modulating the relative phase between two IDTs, the positions of pressure nodes of the SLSAW in the microchannel change linearly resulting in the transportation of a single cell or microbubbles. The results also reveal that there is a good linear relationship between the relative phase and the displacement of a single cell or microbubbles. Furthermore, the single cell and the microbubbles can be transported over a predetermined distance continuously until they reach the targeted locations. This technique has its distinct advantages, such as precise position-manipulation, simple to implement, miniature size, and noninvasive character, which may provide an effective method for the position-manipulation of a single cell and microbubbles in many biological and biomedical applications. PMID:22662056

  3. Classification of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Eight-Layer Convolutional Neural Network with Leaky Rectified Linear Unit and Max Pooling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shui-Hua; Phillips, Preetha; Sui, Yuxiu; Liu, Bin; Yang, Ming; Cheng, Hong

    2018-03-26

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease. The goal of this study is to provide a new computer-vision based technique to detect it in an efficient way. The brain-imaging data of 98 AD patients and 98 healthy controls was collected using data augmentation method. Then, convolutional neural network (CNN) was used, CNN is the most successful tool in deep learning. An 8-layer CNN was created with optimal structure obtained by experiences. Three activation functions (AFs): sigmoid, rectified linear unit (ReLU), and leaky ReLU. The three pooling-functions were also tested: average pooling, max pooling, and stochastic pooling. The numerical experiments demonstrated that leaky ReLU and max pooling gave the greatest result in terms of performance. It achieved a sensitivity of 97.96%, a specificity of 97.35%, and an accuracy of 97.65%, respectively. In addition, the proposed approach was compared with eight state-of-the-art approaches. The method increased the classification accuracy by approximately 5% compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) causes intestinal histopathology and inflammatory changes consistent with increased gut leakiness in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zou, X; Ji, J; Wang, J; Qu, H; Shu, D M; Guo, F Y; Luo, C L

    2018-04-01

    1. The clinical severity, histological changes, indicators of gut leakiness and inflammatory cytokine profiles were studied in chickens with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation. 2. The experimental groups (1.25%, 1.5% and 2.5% DSS) showed clinical signs, such as loose stools and weight loss, which increased with additional treatment days and, as expected, the effects of DSS-induced intestinal inflammation were time and dose-dependent. 3. After 10 d, histological manifestations were evident, including goblet cell depletion, mucus layer loss, significantly shorter villi and a thinner total ileal mucosa. 4. The d(-)-lactate value, which was used as a gut leakiness indicator, was significantly increased in the 2.5% DSS group. 5. Expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1Beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 in the serum significantly increased with DSS treatment. 6. This study indicates that the experimental intestinal inflammation induced by DSS is an ideal model to study the pathogenic mechanisms of intestinal inflammation in chickens and to test the efficacy of therapies.

  5. Creativity and sensory gating indexed by the P50: selective versus leaky sensory gating in divergent thinkers and creative achievers.

    PubMed

    Zabelina, Darya L; O'Leary, Daniel; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Nusslock, Robin; Beeman, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Creativity has previously been linked with atypical attention, but it is not clear what aspects of attention, or what types of creativity are associated. Here we investigated specific neural markers of a very early form of attention, namely sensory gating, indexed by the P50 ERP, and how it relates to two measures of creativity: divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement. Data from 84 participants revealed that divergent thinking (assessed with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking) was associated with selective sensory gating, whereas real-world creative achievement was associated with "leaky" sensory gating, both in zero-order correlations and when controlling for academic test scores in a regression. Thus both creativity measures related to sensory gating, but in opposite directions. Additionally, divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement did not interact in predicting P50 sensory gating, suggesting that these two creativity measures orthogonally relate to P50 sensory gating. Finally, the ERP effect was specific to the P50 - neither divergent thinking nor creative achievement were related to later components, such as the N100 and P200. Overall results suggest that leaky sensory gating may help people integrate ideas that are outside of focus of attention, leading to creativity in the real world; whereas divergent thinking, measured by divergent thinking tests which emphasize numerous responses within a limited time, may require selective sensory processing more than previously thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Moving backwards, moving forward: the experiences of older Filipino migrants adjusting to life in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Montayre, Jed; Neville, Stephen; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore the experiences of older Filipino migrants adjusting to living permanently in New Zealand. Method: The qualitative descriptive approach taken in this study involved 17 individual face-to-face interviews of older Filipino migrants in New Zealand. Results: Three main themes emerged from the data. The first theme was “moving backwards and moving forward”, which described how these older Filipino migrants adjusted to challenges they experienced with migration. The second theme was “engaging with health services” and presented challenges relating to the New Zealand healthcare system, including a lack of knowledge of the nature of health services, language barriers, and differences in cultural views. The third theme, “new-found home”, highlighted establishing a Filipino identity in New Zealand and adjusting to the challenges of relocation. Conclusion: Adjustment to life in New Zealand for these older Filipino migrants meant starting over again by building new values through learning the basics and then moving forward from there. PMID:28705087

  7. CULTURE, PSYCHIATRY AND NEW ZEALAND

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A.N.; Dobson, Teara Wharemate

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a critical appraisal of the importance of cultural perspective in the psychiatric diagnosis and management plan. The working philosophy of mental health services in New Zealand is primarily monocultural and based on Western medical conceptualisation of diagnosis and treatment protocol. In view of the emphasis on bicultural health perspectives in recent years and in tune with the objectives of the Treaty of Waitangi's ethnocultural partnership, the provision of a culturally safe and sensitive mental health coverage of Maori and Pacific Islander clients has become an important health issue in the country. The present discussion of the ethnocultural influence on clinical psychiatry highlights some of the relevant issues from the transcultural perspective. PMID:21206600

  8. [Current situation of acupuncture in New Zealand].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoji; Hu, Youping

    2017-04-12

    The beginning of TCM acupuncture in New Zealand dates back to the middle of 19th century. After self-improvement for more than 100 years, TCM acupuncture has gained a considerable development. From the perspective of history and current situation, the development of acupuncture in New Zealand was elaborated in this article; in addition, the sustainable development of acupuncture was discussed from the perspective of education and training. In New Zealand, the TCM acupuncture and dry needling have played a dominant role in acupuncture treatments, which are practiced by TCM practitioners and physical therapists. The TCM acupuncture is widely applied in department of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, and pediatrics, etc., while the dry needling is li-mited for traumatology and pain disorder. Therefore, including TCM acupuncture into the public medical and educational system in New Zealand should be an essential policy of Ministry of Health to provide welfare for the people.

  9. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  10. Anaglyph, Landsat Overlay: Wellington, New Zealand

    2000-05-11

    This anaglyph, from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, is of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  11. Bicentenary 2016: The First New Zealand School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alison; Jenkins, Kuni Kaa

    2016-01-01

    Maori leaders visiting Australia invited a Pakeha (in this case, English) teacher to come to New Zealand to teach the children to read and write. On 12th August 1816, 200 years ago this year, the first school in New Zealand opened. Twenty-four Maori children came on that day, and each had his or her name written down. The teacher Thomas Kendall…

  12. New Zealand's National Landslide Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, B.; Dellow, S.; Haubrook, S.; Glassey, P.

    2016-12-01

    Since 1780, landslides have caused an average of about 3 deaths a year in New Zealand and have cost the economy an average of at least NZ$250M/a (0.1% GDP). To understand the risk posed by landslide hazards to society, a thorough knowledge of where, when and why different types of landslides occur is vital. The main objective for establishing the database was to provide a centralised national-scale, publically available database to collate landslide information that could be used for landslide hazard and risk assessment. Design of a national landslide database for New Zealand required consideration of both existing landslide data stored in a variety of digital formats, and future data, yet to be collected. Pre-existing databases were developed and populated with data reflecting the needs of the landslide or hazard project, and the database structures of the time. Bringing these data into a single unified database required a new structure capable of storing and delivering data at a variety of scales and accuracy and with different attributes. A "unified data model" was developed to enable the database to hold old and new landslide data irrespective of scale and method of capture. The database contains information on landslide locations and where available: 1) the timing of landslides and the events that may have triggered them; 2) the type of landslide movement; 3) the volume and area; 4) the source and debris tail; and 5) the impacts caused by the landslide. Information from a variety of sources including aerial photographs (and other remotely sensed data), field reconnaissance and media accounts has been collated and is presented for each landslide along with metadata describing the data sources and quality. There are currently nearly 19,000 landslide records in the database that include point locations, polygons of landslide source and deposit areas, and linear features. Several large datasets are awaiting upload which will bring the total number of landslides to

  13. Design of a compact static Fourier transform spectrometer in integrated optics based on a leaky loop structure.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bruno; Morand, Alain; Benech, Pierre; Leblond, Gregory; Blaize, Sylvain; Lerondel, Gilles; Royer, Pascal; Kern, Pierre; Le Coarer, Etienne

    2009-01-15

    A compact static Fourier transform spectrometer for integrated optics is proposed. It is based on a plane leaky loop structure combined with a plane waveguide. The interference pattern produced in the loop structure leaks outside of it and is guided in the plane waveguide to the photodetector array. This configuration allows one to control the shape of the field pattern at the end of the plane waveguide. A large fringe pattern with a high interference fringe contrast is obtained. A two-dimensional model based on an aperiodic Fourier modal method is used to modelize the coupling between the bent and the plane waveguides, completed with the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff propagation. This concept gives access to plan and compact spectrometers requiring only a single low-cost realization process step. The simulation has been done to realize a spectrometer in glass integrated optics (Deltalambda=6.1 nm at 1500 nm).

  14. Auto- and Crosscorrelograms for the Spike Response of Leaky Integrate-and-Fire Neurons with Slow Synapses

    SciT

    Moreno-Bote, Ruben; Parga, Nestor; Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York 10032-2695

    2006-01-20

    An analytical description of the response properties of simple but realistic neuron models in the presence of noise is still lacking. We determine completely up to the second order the firing statistics of a single and a pair of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons receiving some common slowly filtered white noise. In particular, the auto- and cross-correlation functions of the output spike trains of pairs of cells are obtained from an improvement of the adiabatic approximation introduced previously by Moreno-Bote and Parga [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 028102 (2004)]. These two functions define the firing variability and firing synchronization between neurons, and aremore » of much importance for understanding neuron communication.« less

  15. Demonstration of a directional sonic prism in two dimensions using an air-acoustic leaky wave antenna

    SciT

    Naify, Christina J., E-mail: christina.naify@nrl.navy.mil; Rohde, Charles A.; Calvo, David C.

    Analysis and experimental demonstration of a two-dimensional acoustic leaky wave antenna is presented for use in air. The antenna is comprised of a two-dimensional waveguide patterned with radiating acoustic shunts. When excited using a single acoustic source within the waveguide, the antenna acts as a sonic prism that exhibits frequency steering. This design allows for control of acoustic steering angle using only a single source transducer and a patterned aperture. Aperture design was determined using transmission line analysis and finite element methods. The designed antenna was fabricated and the steering angle measured. The performance of the measured aperture was withinmore » 9% of predicted angle magnitudes over all examined frequencies.« less

  16. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  17. Rapid biological speciation driven by tectonic evolution in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craw, Dave; Upton, Phaedra; Burridge, Christopher P.; Wallis, Graham P.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2016-02-01

    Collisions between tectonic plates lead to the rise of new mountain ranges that can separate biological populations and ultimately result in new species. However, the identification of links between tectonic mountain-building and biological speciation is confounded by environmental and ecological factors. Thus, there are surprisingly few well-documented examples of direct tectonic controls on terrestrial biological speciation. Here we present examples from New Zealand, where the rapid evolution of 18 species of freshwater fishes has resulted from parallel tectonic landscape evolution. We use numerical models to reconstruct changes in the deep crustal structure and surface drainage catchments of the southern island of New Zealand over the past 25 million years. We show that the island and mountain topography evolved in six principal tectonic zones, which have distinct drainage catchments that separated fish populations. We use new and existing phylogenetic analyses of freshwater fish populations, based on over 1,000 specimens from more than 400 localities, to show that fish genomes can retain evidence of this tectonic landscape development, with a clear correlation between geologic age and extent of DNA sequence divergence. We conclude that landscape evolution has controlled on-going biological diversification over the past 25 million years.

  18. Decentralisation of general management within the New Zealand health system.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, L; Alp, B; Bryson, J

    1994-11-01

    The radical organisation changes implemented in the New Zealand health system in recent years are discussed and analysed in this study which is based upon a review of documents and interviews with general managers of area health boards. Service management, which involves the decentralisation of general management to programme or product groupings (medicine, child health etc) has been widely implemented in almost all boards completely replacing the traditional disciplinary hierarchies. It is also leading to a population-rather than an institutional-based system of management. General managers report positively on the achievements of service management including greater accountability and commitment of clinical staff, innovation and team building, improved performance and service quality, the integration of hospital and community-based care and a customer rather than an occupational orientation. There is an increasing trend towards the recognition of primary health care as a key service entity.

  19. Cat allergen levels in public places in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Martin, I R; Wickens, K; Patchett, K; Kent, R; Fitzharris, P; Siebers, R; Lewis, S; Crane, J; Holbrook, N; Town, G I; Smith, S

    1998-09-25

    Cat allergen (Fel d 1) is a known risk factor for asthma. Studies have demonstrated Fel d 1 in both public buildings and domestic dwellings where cats have never been. The aims of this study were to measure reservoir Fel d 1 levels in public buildings in New Zealand, to examine determinants of these levels and to compare them with previously measured domestic levels. Dust was obtained in two centres (Wellington and Christchurch) from hotels, hospitals, rest homes, churches, primary schools, childcare centres, cinemas, bank head offices and aeroplanes; and from North Island ski lodges. Measurements of temperature and relative humidity were taken. Information was collected on building characteristics. Fel d 1 levels (microg/g of fine dust) for floors (n=203), beds (n=64) and seats (n=24) were expressed as geometric means (95% confidence intervals). Detectable Fel d 1 levels were found in 95% of floor samples, 91% of bed samples and 100% of seat samples. Fel d 1 levels [geometric mean (95% confidence intervals)] were significantly higher on cinema and domestic aircraft seats [36.8 (20.8-65.3) microg/g and 33.3 (28.0-39.7) microg/g respectively] than on floors [3.6 (2.5-5.1) microg/g and 2.4 (1.8-3.0) microg/g respectively]. Floor Fel d 1 levels in the public buildings sampled were lower than those of domestic dwellings without cats [0.9 (0.6-1.4) microg/g vs 1.7 (1.2-2.4)] microg/g in Wellington and [2.0 (1.6-2.6) microg/g vs 4.0 (2.7-6.0] microg/g in Christchurch. After controlling for potential confounders, floor Fel d 1 levels were higher with carpeted floors (p<0.001) and lower in banks and hospitals (p<0.001). Fel d 1 levels in public buildings are low in New Zealand public places except for cinema and domestic aircraft seats where all but one sample had Fel d 1 levels potentially high enough to precipitate asthma symptoms in sensitised individuals.

  20. An overview of New Zealand's trauma system.

    PubMed

    Paice, Rhondda

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of trauma and trauma systems in New Zealand are similar to those in Australia. Both countries have geographical considerations, terrain and distance, that can cause delay to definitive care. There are only 7 hospitals in New Zealand that currently manage major trauma patients, and consequently, trauma patients are often hospitalized some distance from their homes. The prehospital services are provided by one major provider throughout the country, with a high level of volunteers providing these services in the rural areas. New Zealand has a national no-fault accident insurance system, the Accident Compensation Corporation, which funds all trauma-related healthcare from the roadside to rehabilitation. This insurance system provides 24-hour no-fault personal injury insurance coverage. The Accident Compensation Corporation provides bulk funding to hospitals for resources to manage the care of trauma patients. Case managers are assigned for major trauma patients. This national system also has a rehabilitation focus. The actual funds are managed by the hospitals, and this allows hospital staff to provide optimum care for trauma patients. New Zealand works closely with Australia in the development of a national trauma registry, research, and education in trauma care for patients in Australasia (the islands of the southern Pacific Ocean, including Australia, New Zealand, and New Guinea).

  1. Services Available to Visually Impaired Persons in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrow, S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Royal New Zealand Foundation for the Blind is primarily responsible for services to visually impaired people in New Zealand. The article describes its history, structure, services, and plans for the future. (Author/JDD)

  2. Predator-Free New Zealand: Conservation Country.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Innes, John G; Brown, Philip H; Byrom, Andrea E

    2015-05-01

    Eradications of invasive species from over 1000 small islands around the world have created conservation arks, but to truly address the threat of invasive species to islands, eradications must be scaled by orders of magnitude. New Zealand has eradicated invasive predators from 10% of its offshore island area and now proposes a vision to eliminate them from the entire country. We review current knowledge of invasive predator ecology and control technologies in New Zealand and the biological research, technological advances, social capacity and enabling policy required. We discuss the economic costs and benefits and conclude with a 50-year strategy for a predator-free New Zealand that is shown to be ecologically obtainable, socially desirable, and economically viable. The proposal includes invasive predator eradication from the two largest offshore islands, mammal-free mainland peninsulas, very large ecosanctuaries, plus thousands of small projects that will together merge eradication and control concepts on landscape scales.

  3. Electroconvulsive Therapy Practice in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark Wilkinson; Morrison, John; Jones, Paul Anthony

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in New Zealand. A 53-item questionnaire was sent to all services providing ECT as of December 2015. Electroconvulsive therapy was provided by 16 services covering 15 district health boards funded by the New Zealand government. No private facilities provided ECT. All services providing ECT responded to an online survey questionnaire. Rates of ECT utilization were low relative to similar countries. Survey results indicated ECT was practiced to an overall good standard. Several resource and logistical issues potentially contributing to low ECT utilization were identified. Electroconvulsive therapy in New Zealand is provided using modern equipment and practices. However, overall rates of utilization remain low, perhaps as a result of controversy surrounding ECT and some resourcing issues.

  4. Predator-Free New Zealand: Conservation Country

    PubMed Central

    Russell, James C.; Innes, John G.; Brown, Philip H.; Byrom, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Eradications of invasive species from over 1000 small islands around the world have created conservation arks, but to truly address the threat of invasive species to islands, eradications must be scaled by orders of magnitude. New Zealand has eradicated invasive predators from 10% of its offshore island area and now proposes a vision to eliminate them from the entire country. We review current knowledge of invasive predator ecology and control technologies in New Zealand and the biological research, technological advances, social capacity and enabling policy required. We discuss the economic costs and benefits and conclude with a 50-year strategy for a predator-free New Zealand that is shown to be ecologically obtainable, socially desirable, and economically viable. The proposal includes invasive predator eradication from the two largest offshore islands, mammal-free mainland peninsulas, very large ecosanctuaries, plus thousands of small projects that will together merge eradication and control concepts on landscape scales. PMID:26955079

  5. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T

    2010-08-02

    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine

  6. New Zealand environmental standards and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vant, William N.; McGlinchy, Brian J.

    1983-11-01

    This paper describes the primary energy resources of New Zealand and their relative importance. It describes the principal legislation that provides environmental protection and public participation with which State and private agencies are bound to comply. The paper then discusses air pollution in further detail and cites three examples where there is cause for concern. By international standards, air pollution is not a serious problem in New Zealand and so the economic consequences have received little attention Two simple examples are cited. A map showing the main centers and the location of facilities referred to in the text is included

  7. Marine Biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Dennis P.; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A.; Ahyong, Shane T.

    2010-01-01

    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30° of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine diversity

  8. An Overview of New Zealand Career Development Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Career development services have existed in New Zealand since the early part of the 20th century. In many aspects, the profession has developed in New Zealand parallel to the development of career guidance and counselling in other Western countries but New Zealand also represents a unique context. In acknowledgement of the distinctive…

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United...

  10. The New Zealand Curriculum: Emergent Insights and Complex Renderings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovens, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The launch of New Zealand Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007) brings into question the future of the reforms introduced in the 1999 curriculum, Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand National Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 1999). The aim of this paper is to critique recent physical education curriculum policy in New Zealand and…

  11. The adaptive capacity of New Zealand communities to wildfire

    Pamela J. Jakes; E.R. Langer

    2012-01-01

    When we think of natural disasters in New Zealand, we tend to think of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. However, a series of events is placing New Zealand communities at greater risk of wildfire. In a case study of a rural New Zealand community that experienced wildfire, process elements such as networks and relationships among locals, development and application of...

  12. Buildings | NREL

    the energy efficiency of both residential and commercial buildings, and to accelerate the integration Commercial Buildings team focuses on providing large institutional and private sector commercial building

  13. Lubiprostone improves intestinal permeability in humans, a novel therapy for the leaky gut: A prospective randomized pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Yasushi; Kurita, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Akito; Sato, Takamitsu; Kessoku, Takaomi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Ogawa, Yuji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Usuda, Haruki; Wada, Koichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The barrier function of the small intestinal mucosa prevents the introduction of undesired pathogens into the body. Breakdown of this barrier function increases intestinal permeability. This has been proposed to induce not only gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but also various other diseases, including allergies, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, and collagen diseases, which are associated with this so called “leaky gut syndrome.” As such, a method to prevent leaky gut syndrome would have substantial clinical value. However, no drugs have been demonstrated to improve disturbed intestinal permeability in humans to date. Therefore, we investigated whether a drug used to treat chronic constipation, lubiprostone, was effective for this purpose. Methods Healthy male volunteers were treated with lubiprostone (24 μg/day) for 28 days. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by measuring the lactulose-mannitol ratio (LMR) after administration of diclofenac and compared with an untreated group. The examination was conducted three times in total, i.e., at baseline before diclofenac administration and after 14 and 28 days of lubiprostone treatment. Blood endotoxin activity was also evaluated at the same time points. Results The final analysis was conducted on 28 subjects (14 in the lubiprostone group and 14 in the untreated group). The LMR after 28 days of treatment was significantly lower in the lubiprostone group than that in the untreated group (0.017 vs. 0.028, respectively; 95% confidence interval, −0.022–−0.0001; p = 0.049). Blood endotoxin activity exhibited almost no change over time in the lubiprostone and untreated groups and displayed no significant differences at any time point of examination. Conclusions This study is the first to report an improvement in leaky gut using an available drug in humans. The result suggests that lubiprostone may prevent and ameliorate “leaky

  14. Lubiprostone improves intestinal permeability in humans, a novel therapy for the leaky gut: A prospective randomized pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takayuki; Honda, Yasushi; Kurita, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Akito; Sato, Takamitsu; Kessoku, Takaomi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Ogawa, Yuji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Usuda, Haruki; Wada, Koichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    The barrier function of the small intestinal mucosa prevents the introduction of undesired pathogens into the body. Breakdown of this barrier function increases intestinal permeability. This has been proposed to induce not only gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but also various other diseases, including allergies, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, and collagen diseases, which are associated with this so called "leaky gut syndrome." As such, a method to prevent leaky gut syndrome would have substantial clinical value. However, no drugs have been demonstrated to improve disturbed intestinal permeability in humans to date. Therefore, we investigated whether a drug used to treat chronic constipation, lubiprostone, was effective for this purpose. Healthy male volunteers were treated with lubiprostone (24 μg/day) for 28 days. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by measuring the lactulose-mannitol ratio (LMR) after administration of diclofenac and compared with an untreated group. The examination was conducted three times in total, i.e., at baseline before diclofenac administration and after 14 and 28 days of lubiprostone treatment. Blood endotoxin activity was also evaluated at the same time points. The final analysis was conducted on 28 subjects (14 in the lubiprostone group and 14 in the untreated group). The LMR after 28 days of treatment was significantly lower in the lubiprostone group than that in the untreated group (0.017 vs. 0.028, respectively; 95% confidence interval, -0.022--0.0001; p = 0.049). Blood endotoxin activity exhibited almost no change over time in the lubiprostone and untreated groups and displayed no significant differences at any time point of examination. This study is the first to report an improvement in leaky gut using an available drug in humans. The result suggests that lubiprostone may prevent and ameliorate "leaky gut syndrome". However, a pivotal trial is needed to confirm

  15. Toward a Pedagogical Framework: New Zealand Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Squirrel

    2007-01-01

    Educators in New Zealand (NZ) stand poised to shift from a humanistic to a pedagogical viewpoint in their induction practices. Survey results discussed in this research brief are part of the first study to combine qualitative and quantitative methods in low-socio-economic primary schools. As part of her research for the New Teachers Center in…

  16. A case of botulism in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Duncan; Deverall, Eamonn; Balm, Michelle; Nesdale, Annette; Rosemergy, Ian

    2015-11-20

    We describe the first case of food-borne botulism seen in New Zealand for 30 years. Botulism is an important diagnosis to consider in a patient with rapidly progressive descending paralysis and normal sensorium. Early recognition, timely institution of intensive care support and administration of botulism antitoxin are the most important aspects of management.

  17. School Property Funding in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2004

    2004-01-01

    New Zealand's special funding system allows state schools a greater level of independence in managing their property compared to most other countries. Schools receive a fixed budget as an entitlement from the three "pots" of the educational property funding structure. The government's unique use of accrual accounting together with a new…

  18. Critical Health Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Katie; Burrows, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Health education in Aotearoa New Zealand is an enigma. Premised on ostensibly open and holistic philosophical premises, the school curriculum not only permits, but in some ways prescribes, pedagogies and teacher dispositions that engage with the diversity of young people at its centre. A capacity, to not only understand contemporary health…

  19. Ten Ideas Worth Stealing from New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarchow, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    New Zealand educators have some ideas worth stealing, including morning tea-time, the lie-flat manifold duplicate book for recording classroom observation comments, school uniforms, collegial planning and grading of college assignments, good meeting etiquette, a whole-child orientation, portable primary architecture, group employment interviews…

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  1. New Zealand Dairy Farmers as Organisational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Claire; Hurley, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    A strategy for improving learning and competitiveness in the New Zealand dairy industry examined barriers to farmers' learning and adopted action research with a group of women farmers. This form of participant involvement appeared to facilitate individual learning and technology transfer. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  2. Tsunami Forecasting and Monitoring in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, William; Gale, Nora

    2011-06-01

    New Zealand is exposed to tsunami threats from several sources that vary significantly in their potential impact and travel time. One route for reducing the risk from these tsunami sources is to provide advance warning based on forecasting and monitoring of events in progress. In this paper the National Tsunami Warning System framework, including the responsibilities of key organisations and the procedures that they follow in the event of a tsunami threatening New Zealand, are summarised. A method for forecasting threat-levels based on tsunami models is presented, similar in many respects to that developed for Australia by Allen and Greenslade (Nat Hazards 46:35-52, 2008), and a simple system for easy access to the threat-level forecasts using a clickable pdf file is presented. Once a tsunami enters or initiates within New Zealand waters, its progress and evolution can be monitored in real-time using a newly established network of online tsunami gauge sensors placed at strategic locations around the New Zealand coasts and offshore islands. Information from these gauges can be used to validate and revise forecasts, and assist in making the all-clear decision.

  3. Lessons from New Zealand: Leadership for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Sarah; Borthwick, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    Last February, members of ISTE's Special Interest Group for Teacher Educators (SIGTE) traveled to New Zealand as part of a SIG-sponsored study tour. While there, the 13-member group visited seven schools and attended the Learning@School 2010 conference. In this third and final installment about their trip, they share observations about New…

  4. Earthquakes in the New Zealand Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Cleland

    1995-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of earthquakes in New Zealand, discussing plate tectonics, seismic measurement, and historical occurrences. Includes 10 figures illustrating such aspects as earthquake distribution, intensity, and fissures in the continental crust. Tabular data includes a list of most destructive earthquakes and descriptive effects…

  5. Development Education Revisited: The New Zealand Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the educational implications of the "no-comparison message" that is present in almost all of the publicity material produced by New Zealand-based agencies working in the area of aid and development. Calls for a radical reorientation of the messages being promoted and actions undertaken. Contains 20 references. (AMA)

  6. Ethics Education in New Zealand Medical Schools.

    PubMed

    McMillan, John; Malpas, Phillipa; Walker, Simon; Jonas, Monique

    2018-07-01

    This article describes the well-developed and long-standing medical ethics teaching programs in both of New Zealand's medical schools at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland. The programs reflect the awareness that has been increasing as to the important role that ethics education plays in contributing to the "professionalism" and "professional development" in medical curricula.

  7. Worker Education in Australia and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagglund, George

    The history of the recent development of worker education in Australia and New Zealand shows that, in just the past 15 years or so, very significant improvements have occurred in delivery of trade union education. To a very large degree these developments took place because of the existence of a close relationship between the union movement and…

  8. Fractures in New Zealand Elementary School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubie-Davies, Christine M.; Townsend, Michael A. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is a need for greater international understanding of student safety in schools. This New Zealand study investigated the causes and school location of fractures sustained by students attending elementary school, with special emphasis on the types of fractures sustained following falls from playground equipment of various heights.…

  9. Culture and Crisis Response in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jean; Dean, Shelley; Henry, Geoff; McGhie, Desiree; Phillipson, Roger

    2010-01-01

    New Zealand is a bicultural nation, founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by the native Maori and the British Crown. It is also home to people from many countries, cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, culturally-relevant response to crisis events has become a significant aspect of the Ministry of Education's interdisciplinary Traumatic…

  10. Teaching Gender Geography in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand universities, gender is still not a substantial part of the curriculum in most geography departments. Although at the University of Waikato, the situation is different. Its specific history of radical scholarship has enabled feminist academics in a variety of disciplines including geography to have had a stronger voice than in other…

  11. Project ACTIVate: Innovations from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelas, Janet; Engles, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This case study discusses a collaborative three year project involving two school clusters located in the North Island and South Island of New Zealand. The project was named "Project ACTIVate" and its main thrust was to study how the use of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) combined with teaching, learning and research across schools. The…

  12. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN NEW ZEALAND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    NEW ZEALAND HAS A POPULATION OF 2.6 MILLION AND AN ECONOMY BASED UPON AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS. THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. EDUCATION IS FREE, COMPULSORY, AND SECULAR FOR ALL TO AGE 15, AND FREE TO AGE 19. IN THE FIRST 2 YEARS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION, BEGINNING AT AGE 13, STUDY IS IN GENERAL SUBJECTS…

  13. Health Promoting Schools: A New Zealand Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Penni

    2008-01-01

    In the last 20 years the health promoting schools movement has gained momentum internationally. Without strong national leadership and direction its development in New Zealand has been ad hoc and sporadic. However, as the evidence supporting the role of health promoting schools in contributing to students' health and academic outcomes becomes more…

  14. Workload and Stress in New Zealand Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Sally; Wylie, Cathy

    This study examined the workloads of academic, general, support, library, and technical staff of New Zealand universities. It focused on current levels of workload, changes in workload levels and content, connections between workload and stress, and staff attitudes towards the effects of workload changes and educational reforms on the quality of…

  15. Collaboration and Development of Radio Astronomy in Australasia and South-Pacific Region: New Zealand Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, S.; Natusch, T.

    2006-08-01

    Radio telescopes in the Asia-Pacific region form a natural network for VLBI observations, similar to the very successful networks in North America (Network Users Group) and Europe (European VLBI Network). New Zealand's VLBI facility, which we are developing since 2005, has the potential to strengthen the Asian-Pacific VLBI network and its role in astronomy, geodesy and geoscience. It will positively influence regional and international activities in geoscience and geodesy that advance New Zealand's national interests. A self-contained radio astronomy system for VLBI, including a 1.658 GHz (centre frequency), 16 MHz bandwidth RF system (feed and downconversion system locked to a Rubidium maser and GPS clock), an 8-bit sampler/digitisation system, and a disk-based recording system built around a commodity PC was developed in New Zealand Centre for Radiophysics and Space Research. This was designed as a portable system for use on various radio telescopes. A number of Trans-Tasman tests has been conducted in 2005-2006 between the CRSR system installed on a 6 metre dish located in Auckland and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in Narrabri, Australia. This work has been successful, with fringes located from the recorded data and high resolution image of the quasar PKS1921-231 obtained. Experiments were recently conducted with Japan; new tests are planned with Korea and Fiji. Plans have been made to build a new 16.5 m antenna in New Zealand's North Island and to upgrade an 11 m dish in the South Island. A possible future of New Zealand's participation in the SKA is being discussed.

  16. From leaky pipeline to irrigation system: minority education through the lens of community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    James, Rosalina; Starks, Helene; Segrest, Valerie Ann; Burke, Wylie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education has long made efforts to increase underrepresented minority participation in biomedical research and health fields. However, relatively few minority trainees complete advanced degrees or proceed to independent research careers, a loss referred to as the "leaky pipeline." Minority trainees may take alternate pathways to climbing the academic ladder, exiting to pursue multiple disciplinary or community-serving roles. The authors propose a model for understanding minority departures from the education pipeline as a basis for supporting careers that align with community goals for health. Concepts of the traditional pipeline training model are compared with a model that aligns with community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles and practices. The article describes an irrigation model that incorporates informal learning from academic and community knowledge bases to prepare trainees for CBPR and interdisciplinary research. Students serve as agents that foster individual, institutional, and social change needed to address health problems while attending to root causes of disparities. Viewing minority students as agents for community engagement allows institutions to reassess the role training can play in diversifying participation in higher education and research. An irrigation model supports development of an infrastructure that optimizes success at all post-secondary levels, and enhances CBPR capacity wherever trainees live, work, and learn. Linking formal education to informal learning in context of CBPR experiences can also reduce community mistrust of research while nurturing productive research partnerships with communities to address health disparities.

  17. SPECTRAL INTENSITIES OF ANTIPROTONS AND THE NESTED LEAKY-BOX MODEL FOR COSMIC RAYS IN THE GALAXY

    SciT

    Cowsik, R.; Madziwa-Nussinov, T., E-mail: cowsik@physics.wustl.edu

    2016-08-20

    In this paper we note that the spectral intensities of antiprotons observed in Galactic cosmic rays in the energy range ∼1–300 GeV by BESS, PAMELA, and AMS instruments display nearly the same spectral shape as that generated by primary cosmic rays through their interaction with matter in the interstellar medium, without any significant modifications. More importantly, a constant residence time of ∼2.3 ± 0.7 million years in the Galactic volume, independent of the energy of cosmic rays, matches the observed intensities. A small additional component of secondary antiprotons in the energy range below 10 GeV, generated in cocoon-like regions surroundingmore » the cosmic-ray sources, seems to be present. We discuss this result in the context of observations of other secondary components such as positrons and boron, and the bounds on anisotropy of cosmic rays. In the nested leaky-box model the spectral intensities of antiprotons and positrons can be interpreted as secondary products of cosmic-ray interactions.« less

  18. 3.5 GHz longitudinal leaky surface acoustic wave resonator using a multilayered waveguide structure for high acoustic energy confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Yutaka; Omura, Masashi; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, the use of a structure comprising a thin LiNbO3 plate and a multilayered acoustic mirror composed of SiO2 and Pt for high-performance longitudinal leaky surface acoustic wave (LLSAW) device is proposed. The mirror is expected to offer a much higher reflectivity than that composed of SiO2 and AlN, which the authors proposed previously. The field distribution of these structures is calculated by using a finite element method. It is shown that the acoustic wave energy of the proposed structure is well confined in the vicinity of the top surface, and that leakage to the substrate is reduced. A one-port resonator is fabricated on the structure and its performance characteristics are evaluated. Owing to a high phase velocity of 6,035 m/s, which is about 1.5 times higher than that of conventional SAWs, a large impedance ratio of 71 dB was achieved at 3.5 GHz in addition to a large fractional bandwidth of 9.5%.

  19. Double-layered microstrip metamaterial beam scanning leaky wave antenna with consistent gain and low cross-polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yong-li; Tan, Yi-li; Zhang, Hong-bo; Wu, Guo-cheng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a novel double-layered microstrip metamaterial beam scanning leaky wave antenna (LWA) is proposed and investigated to achieve consistent gain and low cross-polarization. Thanks to the continuous phase constant changing from negative to positive values over the passband of the double-layered microstrip metamaterial, the proposed LWA, which consists of 20 identical microstrip metamaterial unit cells, can obtain a continuous beam scanning property from backward to forward directions. The proposed LWA is fabricated and measured. The measured results show that the fabricated antenna obtains a continuous beam scanning angle of 140° over the operating frequency band of 3.80-5.25 GHz (32%), the measured 3 dB gain bandwidth is 30.17% with maximum gain of 11.7 dB. Besides, the measured cross-polarization of the fabricated antenna keeps at a level of at least 30 dB below the co-polarization across the entire radiation region. Moreover, the measured and simulated results are in good agreement with each other, indicating the significance and effectiveness of this method.

  20. From Leaky Pipeline to Irrigation System: Minority Education through the Lens of Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    James, Rosalina; Starks, Helene; Segrest, Valerie; Burke, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher education has long made efforts to increase underrepresented minority participation in biomedical research and health fields. However, relatively few minority trainees complete advanced degrees or proceed to independent research careers, a loss referred to as the “leaky pipeline.” Minority trainees may take alternate pathways to climbing the academic ladder, exiting to pursue multiple disciplinary or community-serving roles. Objective The authors propose a model for understanding minority departures from the education pipeline as a basis for nurturing careers that support community goals for health. Methods Concepts of the traditional pipeline training model are compared with a model that aligns with CBPR principles and practices. The article describes an irrigation model that incorporates informal learning from academic and community knowledge bases to prepare trainees for CBPR and interdisciplinary research. Students serve as agents that foster individual, institutional and social change needed to address health problems while attending to root causes of disparities. Conclusions Viewing minority students as agents for community engagement allows institutions to reassess the role training can play in diversifying participation in higher education and research. An irrigation model supports development of an infrastructure that optimizes success at all post-secondary levels, and enhances CBPR capacity wherever trainees live, work, and learn. Linking formal education to informal learning in context of community-based participatory research experiences can also reduce community mistrust of research while nurturing productive research partnerships with communities to address health disparities. PMID:23221293

  1. A Lagging Model for Describing Drawdown Induced by a Constant-Rate Pumping in a Leaky Confined Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ye-Chen; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a generalized Darcy's law with considering phase lags in both the water flux and drawdown gradient to develop a lagging flow model for describing drawdown induced by constant-rate pumping (CRP) in a leaky confined aquifer. The present model has a mathematical formulation similar to the dual-porosity model. The Laplace-domain solution of the model with the effect of wellbore storage is derived by the Laplace transform method. The time-domain solution for the case of neglecting the wellbore storage and well radius is developed by the use of Laplace transform and Weber transform. The results of sensitivity analysis based on the solution indicate that the drawdown is very sensitive to the change in each of the transmissivity and storativity. Also, a study for the lagging effect on the drawdown indicates that its influence is significant associated with the lag times. The present solution is also employed to analyze a data set taken from a CRP test conducted in a fractured aquifer in South Dakota, USA. The results show the prediction of this new solution with considering the phase lags has very good fit to the field data, especially at early pumping time. In addition, the phase lags seem to have a scale effect as indicated in the results. In other words, the lagging behavior is positively correlated with the observed distance in the Madison aquifer.

  2. Guided-Mode-Leaky-Mode-Guided-Mode Fiber Interferometer and Its High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Li, Chunyue; Zhao, Chengwu; Li, Weizheng

    2016-06-01

    A cascaded symmetrical dual-taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure based on guided-mode and leaky-mode interference is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the interference spectrum characteristics of interferometer has been analyzed by the Finite Difference-Beam Propagation Method (FD-BPM). When the diameter of taper waist is 20 μm-30 μm, dual-taper length is 1 mm and taper distance is 4 cm-6 cm, the spectral contrast is higher, which is suitable for sensing. Secondly, experimental research on refractive index sensitivity is carried out. A refractive index sensitivity of 62.78 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) can achieved in the RI range of 1.3333-1.3792 (0%~25% NaCl solution), when the sensor structure parameters meet the following conditions: diameter of taper waist is 24 μm, dual-taper length is 837 μm and taper distance is 5.5 cm. The spectrum contrast is 0.8 and measurement resolution is 1.6 × 10(-5) RIU. The simulation analysis is highly consistent with experimental results. Research shows that the sensor has promising application in low RI fields where high-precision measurement is required due to its high sensitivity and stability.

  3. An efficient hexagonal switched beam antenna structure based on Fabry-Perot cavity leaky-wave antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aymen El Cafsi, Mohamed; Nedil, Mourad; Osman, Lotfi; Gharsallah, Ali

    2015-11-01

    A novel design of switched beam antenna (SBA) system based on Fabry-Perot cavity leaky-wave antenna (FPC LWA) is designed and fabricated for base station operating in the unlicensed ISM central frequency band at 5.8 GHz of the wireless local area network (WLAN) standard. The proposed SBA is designed with hexagonal shape of FPC LWA Arrays in order to get 360° of coverage. The single element of FPC LWA array is composed of a patch antenna and covered by a Partially Reflective Surface (PRS), which is composed of a Metal Strip Grating and printed on a high permittivity Superstrate. First, the Transmission Line Model of FPC LWA is introduced to analyse and calculate the far-field components in E- and H planes by using the Transverse Equivalent Network. This approach is then compared with other full wave's commercial software such as Ansoft HFSS and CST Microwave Studio. Second, a parametric study is performed to evaluate the effect of the angle formed by the two successive FPC LWA on the radiation efficiency of the activate sector. To examine the performance of the proposed SBA, experimental prototype was fabricated and measured. As a result, multiple orthogonal beams (six beams) of 10 dBi of gain with low Side Lobes Level and 360° of coverage are produced. This SBA structure is suitable for WLAN communication systems.

  4. Guided-Mode-Leaky-Mode-Guided-Mode Fiber Interferometer and Its High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Li, Chunyue; Zhao, Chengwu; Li, Weizheng

    2016-01-01

    A cascaded symmetrical dual-taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure based on guided-mode and leaky-mode interference is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the interference spectrum characteristics of interferometer has been analyzed by the Finite Difference-Beam Propagation Method (FD-BPM). When the diameter of taper waist is 20 μm–30 μm, dual-taper length is 1 mm and taper distance is 4 cm–6 cm, the spectral contrast is higher, which is suitable for sensing. Secondly, experimental research on refractive index sensitivity is carried out. A refractive index sensitivity of 62.78 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) can achieved in the RI range of 1.3333–1.3792 (0%~25% NaCl solution), when the sensor structure parameters meet the following conditions: diameter of taper waist is 24 μm, dual-taper length is 837 μm and taper distance is 5.5 cm. The spectrum contrast is 0.8 and measurement resolution is 1.6 × 10−5 RIU. The simulation analysis is highly consistent with experimental results. Research shows that the sensor has promising application in low RI fields where high-precision measurement is required due to its high sensitivity and stability. PMID:27258281

  5. Generation of a non-leaky heat shock-inducible Cre line for conditional Cre/lox strategies in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hans, Stefan; Freudenreich, Dorian; Geffarth, Michaela; Kaslin, Jan; Machate, Anja; Brand, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Cre-mediated site-specific recombination has emerged as an indispensable tool for the precise manipulation of the mammalian genome. Recently, we showed that Cre is also highly efficient in zebrafish and temporal control of recombination can be achieved by using the ligand-inducible CreER(T2). Previous attempts have been made to control recombination by using the temperature inducible hsp70l promoter to conditionally drive the expression of Cre or EGFP-Cre, respectively. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hsp70l promoter possesses a basal leakiness resulting in Cre-mediated recombination even at permissive temperatures. In order to prevent non-conditional recombination, we combined the hsp70l promoter with a mCherry-tagged ligand-inducible CreER(T2). At permissive temperatures and in the absence of the ligand tamoxifen (TAM), no non-conditional recombination is observed indicating tight regulation of CreER(T2). Instead, comprehensive site-specific recombination is mediated following heat induction and administration of TAM. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Sarcoptes scabiei on hedgehogs in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaum, Caroline; Pomroy, William; Gedye, Kristene

    2018-03-01

    European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were introduced into New Zealand from Britain during the period from 1869 to the early 1900s. The only mite found on New Zealand hedgehogs in early studies was Caparinia tripilis, with Sarcoptes scabiei first being reported in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Sarcoptes infestation on hedgehogs in New Zealand, the number of mites found and the degree of mange observed. Dead hedgehogs were collected from veterinary clinics, rescue centres, members of the public and from road-kill. Twenty-one (55.3%) of the animals examined had visible skin lesions. Both Caparinia and Sarcoptes mites were identified on microscopic examination with Sarcoptes the most common, being found on over 70% of animals examined (n = 38). The numbers of mites recovered after brushing the head and body ranged from 1 to 5659 (median = 341 mites) with only six animals (22.2%) having fewer than 10 Sarcoptes mites found. Caparinia mites were seen on fewer animals and generally in very low numbers. These findings indicate a change in the mite populations on hedgehogs in New Zealand and that infected animals develop the debilitating hyperkeratotic form of sarcoptic mange without an accompanying hypersensitivity response limiting numbers of mites. Analysis of the cox 1 gene of Sarcoptes from two hedgehogs showed close alignment to sequences derived from a pig with one and from a dog with the second. More work needs to be undertaken to identify the source(s) of the Sarcoptes found on hedgehogs in New Zealand and whether other mammalian hosts may be infected from contact with hedgehogs.

  7. Using Twitter to Explore (un)Healthy Housing: Learning from the #Characterbuildings Campaign in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    While increasingly used for research, Twitter remains largely untapped as a source of data about housing. We explore the growth of social media and use of Twitter in health and social research, and question why housing researchers have avoided using Twitter to explore housing issues to date. We use the #characterbuildings campaign, initiated by an online media platform in New Zealand in 2014 to illustrate that Twitter can provide insights into housing as a public health and social problem. We find that Twitter users share details of problems with past and present homes on this public platform, and that this readily available data can contribute to the case for improving building quality as a means of promoting public health. Moreover, the way people responded to the request to share details about their housing experiences provides insight into how New Zealanders conceive of housing problems. PMID:29160814

  8. Using Twitter to Explore (un)Healthy Housing: Learning from the #Characterbuildings Campaign in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Elinor; O'Sullivan, Kimberley

    2017-11-21

    While increasingly used for research, Twitter remains largely untapped as a source of data about housing. We explore the growth of social media and use of Twitter in health and social research, and question why housing researchers have avoided using Twitter to explore housing issues to date. We use the #characterbuildings campaign, initiated by an online media platform in New Zealand in 2014 to illustrate that Twitter can provide insights into housing as a public health and social problem. We find that Twitter users share details of problems with past and present homes on this public platform, and that this readily available data can contribute to the case for improving building quality as a means of promoting public health. Moreover, the way people responded to the request to share details about their housing experiences provides insight into how New Zealanders conceive of housing problems.

  9. Updating the New Zealand Glacier Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, S. C.; Anderson, B.; Mackintosh, A.; Lorrey, A.; Chinn, T.; Collier, C.; Rack, W.; Purdie, H.

    2017-12-01

    The last complete glacier inventory of New Zealand dates from the year 1978 (North Island 1988) and was manually constructed from oblique aerial photographs and geodetic maps (Chinn 2001). The inventory has been partly updated by Gjermundsen et al. (2011) for the year 2002 (40% of total area) and by Sirguey & More (2010) for the year 2009 (32% of total area), both using ASTER satellite imagery. We used Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS satellite data from February/March 2016 to map the total glaciated area. Clean and debris-covered ice were mapped semi-automatically. The band ratio approach was used for clean ice (ratio: red/SWIR). We mapped debris-covered ice using a supervised classification (maximum likelihood). Manual post processing was necessary due to misclassifications (e.g. lakes, clouds) or mapping in shadowed areas. It was also necessary to manually combine the clean and debris-covered parts into single glaciers. Additional input data for the post processing were Sentinel 2 images from the same time period, orthophotos from Land Information New Zealand (resolution: 0.75 m, date: Nov 2014), and the 1978/88 outlines from the GLIMS database (http://www.glims.org/). As the Sentinel 2 data were more heavily cloud covered compared to the Landsat 8 images, they were only used for post processing and not for the classification itself. Initial results show that New Zealand glaciers covered an area of about 1050 km² in 2016, a reduction of 16% since 1978. Approximately 17% of glacier area was covered in surface debris. The glaciers in the central Southern Alps around Mt Cook reduced in area by 24%. Glaciers in the North Island of New Zealand reduced by 71% since 1988, and only 2 km² of ice cover remained in 2016. Chinn, TJH (2001). "Distribution of the glacial water resources of New Zealand." Journal of Hydrology (NZ) 40(2): 139-187 Gjermundsen, EF, Mathieu, R, Kääb, A, Chinn, TJH, Fitzharris, B & Hagen, JO (2011). "Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and

  10. Structure of New Zealand sweetpotato starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Xie, Qian

    2018-05-15

    New Zealand sweetpotatoes (kumara) (Ipomoea batatas) represent unique genetic resources for sweetpotato diversity, though they are much under-studied. In this study, 7 New Zealand sweetpotato varieties with commercial significance were collected for the characterization of the molecular and granular structure of the starches. In particular, the internal molecular structure of the amylopectins was detailed by chromatographic and enzymatic techniques. Maize and potato starches with normal amylose contents, which are among the most important commercial starch sources, were employed for comparison. The results revealed a degree of diversity in amylose composition, unit and internal chain composition, granule size distribution, and degree of crystallinity among the 7 sweetpotato starches. All the sweetpotato starches showed C A -type polymorph. The sweetpotato amylopectins have intermediate amounts of both short and long internal unit chains among amylopectins of different botanical sources. The differences in the structure of sweetpotato starches suggest differences in physicochemical properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast cancer survival in New Zealand women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ian D; Scott, Nina; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Kollias, James; Walters, David; Taylor, Corey; Webster, Fleur; Zorbas, Helen; Roder, David M

    2015-01-01

    The Quality Audit (BQA) of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand includes a broad range of data and is the largest New Zealand (NZ) breast cancer (BC) database outside the NZ Cancer Registry. We used BQA data to compare BC survival by ethnicity, deprivation, remoteness, clinical characteristic and case load. BQA and death data were linked using the National Health Index. Disease-specific survival for invasive cases was benchmarked against Australian BQA data and NZ population-based survivals. Validity was explored by comparison with expected survival by risk factor. Compared with 93% for Australian audit cases, 5-year survival was 90% for NZ audit cases overall, 87% for Maori, 84% for Pacific and 91% for other. BC survival in NZ appears lower than in Australia, with inequities by ethnicity. Differences may be due to access, timeliness and quality of health services, patient risk profiles, BQA coverage and death-record methodology. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Prevention of gut leakiness by a probiotic treatment leads to attenuated HPA response to an acute psychological stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ait-Belgnaoui, Afifa; Durand, Henri; Cartier, Christel; Chaumaz, Gilles; Eutamene, Hélène; Ferrier, Laurent; Houdeau, Eric; Fioramonti, Jean; Bueno, Lionel; Theodorou, Vassilia

    2012-11-01

    Intestinal barrier impairment is incriminated in the pathophysiology of intestinal gut disorders associated with psychiatric comorbidity. Increased intestinal permeability associated with upload of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) translocation induces depressive symptoms. Gut microbiota and probiotics alter behavior and brain neurochemistry. Since Lactobacillus farciminis suppresses stress-induced hyperpermeability, we examined whether (i) L. farciminis affects the HPA axis stress response, (ii) stress induces changes in LPS translocation and central cytokine expression which may be reversed by L. farciminis, (iii) the prevention of "leaky" gut and LPS upload are involved in these effects. At the end of the following treatments female rats were submitted to a partial restraint stress (PRS) or sham-PRS: (i) oral administration of L. farciminis during 2 weeks, (ii) intraperitoneal administration of ML-7 (a specific myosin light chain kinase inhibitor), (iii) antibiotic administration in drinking water during 12 days. After PRS or sham-PRS session, we evaluated LPS levels in portal blood, plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression, and colonic paracellular permeability (CPP). PRS increased plasma ACTH and corticosterone; hypothalamic CRF and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression; CPP and portal blood concentration of LPS. L. farciminis and ML-7 suppressed stress-induced hyperpermeability, endotoxemia and prevented HPA axis stress response and neuroinflammation. Antibiotic reduction of luminal LPS concentration prevented HPA axis stress response and increased hypothalamic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The attenuation of the HPA axis response to stress by L. farciminis depends upon the prevention of intestinal barrier impairment and decrease of circulating LPS levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Time-Varying Evidence to Test Models of Decision Dynamics: Bounded Diffusion vs. the Leaky Competing Accumulator Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Gao, Juan; McClelland, James L.; Usher, Marius

    2012-01-01

    When people make decisions, do they give equal weight to evidence arriving at different times? A recent study (Kiani et al., 2008) using brief motion pulses (superimposed on a random moving dot display) reported a primacy effect: pulses presented early in a motion observation period had a stronger impact than pulses presented later. This observation was interpreted as supporting the bounded diffusion (BD) model and ruling out models in which evidence accumulation is subject to leakage or decay of early-arriving information. We use motion pulses and other manipulations of the timing of the perceptual evidence in new experiments and simulations that support the leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model as an alternative to the BD model. While the LCA does include leakage, we show that it can exhibit primacy as a result of competition between alternatives (implemented via mutual inhibition), when the inhibition is strong relative to the leak. Our experiments replicate the primacy effect when participants must be prepared to respond quickly at the end of a motion observation period. With less time pressure, however, the primacy effect is much weaker. For 2 (out of 10) participants, a primacy bias observed in trials where the motion observation period is short becomes weaker or reverses (becoming a recency effect) as the observation period lengthens. Our simulation studies show that primacy is equally consistent with the LCA or with BD. The transition from primacy-to-recency can also be captured by the LCA but not by BD. Individual differences and relations between the LCA and other models are discussed. PMID:22701399

  14. Fractional-order leaky integrate-and-fire model with long-term memory and power law dynamics.

    PubMed

    Teka, Wondimu W; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Mondal, Argha

    2017-09-01

    Pyramidal neurons produce different spiking patterns to process information, communicate with each other and transform information. These spiking patterns have complex and multiple time scale dynamics that have been described with the fractional-order leaky integrate-and-Fire (FLIF) model. Models with fractional (non-integer) order differentiation that generalize power law dynamics can be used to describe complex temporal voltage dynamics. The main characteristic of FLIF model is that it depends on all past values of the voltage that causes long-term memory. The model produces spikes with high interspike interval variability and displays several spiking properties such as upward spike-frequency adaptation and long spike latency in response to a constant stimulus. We show that the subthreshold voltage and the firing rate of the fractional-order model make transitions from exponential to power law dynamics when the fractional order α decreases from 1 to smaller values. The firing rate displays different types of spike timing adaptation caused by changes on initial values. We also show that the voltage-memory trace and fractional coefficient are the causes of these different types of spiking properties. The voltage-memory trace that represents the long-term memory has a feedback regulatory mechanism and affects spiking activity. The results suggest that fractional-order models might be appropriate for understanding multiple time scale neuronal dynamics. Overall, a neuron with fractional dynamics displays history dependent activities that might be very useful and powerful for effective information processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multifocal retinitis in New Zealand sheep dogs.

    PubMed

    Hughes, P L; Dubielzig, R R; Kazacos, K R

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-nine percent of 1,448 working sheep dogs were affected with varying degrees of multifocal retinal disease on ophthalmoscopic examination. Lesions consisted of localized areas of hyperreflexia in the tapetal fundus, often associated with hyperpigmentation. Severely affected animals had widespread hyperreflexia with retinal vascular attenuation. Only 6% of 125 New Zealand dogs raised in urban environment were similarly affected. Both eyes of 70 dogs from New Zealand were examined histologically. Forty-seven of 70 dogs had ocular inflammatory disease. Ten other dogs had noninflammatory eye disease, and 13 dogs had normal eyes. Histologically, eyes with inflammatory disease were divided into three categories: Dogs 3 years of age or less with active inflammatory disease of the retina, uvea, and vitreous. Four dogs in this group had migrating nematode larvae identified morphologically as genus Toxocara. Diffuse retinitis and retinal atrophy in conjunction with localized retinal necrosis and choroidal fibrosis. Dogs in this category were severely, clinically affected. Chronic, low-grade retinitis with variable retinal atrophy. Most dogs in this category were over 3 years of age, and many were visually functional. The existence of a definable spectrum of morphological changes associated with inflammation, suggests that Toxocara sp. ocular larva migrans may be the cause of a highly prevalent, potentially blinding syndrome of working sheep dogs in New Zealand.

  16. Towards integrated catchment management, Whaingaroa, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    van Roon, M; Knight, S

    2001-01-01

    The paper examines progress towards integrated catchment management and sustainable agriculture at Whaingaroa (Raglan), New Zealand. Application of the Canadian "Atlantic Coastal Action Program" model (ACAP) has been only partially successful within New Zealand's bicultural setting. Even before the introduction of the ACAP process there existed strong motivation and leadership by various sectors of the community. A merging of resource management planning and implementation processes of the larger community and that of the Maori community has not occurred. Research carried out by Crown Research Institutes has clearly shown the actions required to make pastoral farming more sustainable. There are difficulties in the transference to, and uptake of, these techniques by farmers. An examination of the socio-economic context is required. There has been a requirement on local government bodies to tighten their focus as part of recent reform. This has occurred concurrently with a widening of vision towards integrated and sustainable forms of management. This (as well as a clear belief in empowerment of local communities) has lead to Council reliance on voluntary labour. There is a need to account for the dynamic interaction between social and political history and the geological and biophysical history of the area. As part of a re-examination of sustainable development, New Zealand needs to reconcile the earning of the bulk of its foreign income from primary production, with the accelerating ecological deficit that it creates. A sustainability strategy is required linking consumer demand, property rights and responsibilities.

  17. Imported malaria in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Camburn, Anna E; Ingram, R Joan H; Holland, David; Read, Kerry; Taylor, Susan

    2012-11-09

    To describe the current malaria situation in Auckland, New Zealand. We collected data on all cases of malaria diagnosed in Auckland from 1st October 2008 to 30th September 2009. Enhanced surveillance was arranged with all hospital and community haematology laboratories in the region. Laboratories notified us when a diagnosis of malaria was made. After obtaining informed consent the patient was asked about their travel, prophylaxis taken and symptoms. Laboratory results were collected. There were 36 cases of malaria in 34 patients. Consent could not be obtained from two patients so data is from 34 cases in 32 patients. (One patient had P.falciparum then later P.vivax, the other had P.vivax and relapsed.) There were 24 males and 8 females with a median age of 21 years (range 6 months to 75 years). Eleven of the 32 were New Zealand residents. 8 of these 11 had travelled to visit friends or relatives (VFR) while 3 were missionaries. In this group 6 had P.falciparum, 4 P.vivax and one had both. Twenty-one of the 32 were new arrivals to New Zealand: 11 refugees and 10 migrants. Malaria in Auckland is seen in new arrivals and VFR travellers, not in tourist travellers.

  18. Building America

    SciT

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  19. Healthy Buildings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  20. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, E. V.; Nyst, M.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Molas, G.

    2014-12-01

    To quantify risk in New Zealand we examine the impact of updating the seismic hazard model. The previous RMS New Zealand hazard model is based on the 2002 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2002). The 2015 RMS model, based on Stirling et al., (2012) will update several key source parameters. These updates include: implementation a new set of crustal faults including multi-segment ruptures, updating the subduction zone geometry and reccurrence rate and implementing new background rates and a robust methodology for modeling background earthquake sources. The number of crustal faults has increased by over 200 from the 2002 model, to the 2012 model which now includes over 500 individual fault sources. This includes the additions of many offshore faults in northern, east-central, and southwest regions. We also use the recent data to update the source geometry of the Hikurangi subduction zone (Wallace, 2009; Williams et al., 2013). We compare hazard changes in our updated model with those from the previous version. Changes between the two maps are discussed as well as the drivers for these changes. We examine the impact the hazard model changes have on New Zealand earthquake risk. Considered risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance. New Zealand is interesting in that the city with the majority of the risk exposure in the country (Auckland) lies in the region of lowest hazard, where we don't have a lot of information about the location of faults and distributed seismicity is modeled by averaged Mw-frequency relationships on area sources. Thus small changes to the background rates

  1. The Enduring Legacy of New Zealand's UNCLOS Investment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, R.; Davy, B. W.; Herzer, R. H.; Barnes, P.; Barker, D. H.; Stagpoole, V.; Uruski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Data collected by surveys for New Zealand's extended continental shelf project have contributed to research into the tectonic history and resource potential of New Zealand. More than 20 scientific papers and a similar number of conference presentations and posters have used the data collected by these surveys. Data collected by these surveys have added significantly to national and international databases. Although the surveys were generally oriented to establish prolongation rather than to cross structural trends, the data have revealed the crustal, basement and sedimentary structure of many parts of the New Zealand region. In the area east of New Zealand, the data provide insight into the Cretaceous evolution of the New Zealand sector of Gondwana. Data collected southwest of New Zealand provided details about the relatively sudden transition from sea floor spreading between New Zealand and Australia in the Tasman Sea to orthogonal spreading in the Emerald Basin and the development of the modern Australian-Pacific plate boundary, including Late Tertiary motion on the Alpine Fault in the South Island, New Zealand. The data have been used to understand the formation of the New Caledonia Basin, the Norfolk Ridge and their associated structures, and they underpin the international collaboration between New Zealand, New Caledonia and Australia to promote resource exploration in the Tasman Sea. Data north of New Zealand have been used to understand the complex tectonic history of back arc spreading and island arc migration in the South Fiji Basin region. Seismic data collected along the axis of the New Caledonia Basin led to extensive hydrocarbon exploration surveys in the deepwater Taranaki region inside New Zealand's EEZ, and to an application for a hydrocarbon exploration licence in New Zealand's extended continental shelf.

  2. Drought Events and Their Impacts on Food Production in New Zealand: Historical Analysis and Outlook Model Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Yin, C.; Urich, P.; Hill, R.

    2012-12-01

    Given the importance of the primary production sector, climatic conditions have always been a significant driver of food production in New Zealand. The country has experienced a number of severe droughts throughout its history, where a number of extended periods of low rainfall have severely impacted primary production. The characteristics of historical drought and their impacts on the primary production sector are analysed, including the economic losses in the 1998-1999 and 2007-2009 events. We include the analysis of a set of national standardised drought monitoring indices: Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Soil moisture Index (SMI), and Standardised Pasture Growth Index (SPGI). Since the drought events in New Zealand are clearly linked with ENSO, the SST anomalies in the key regions can be good predictors of drought events. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) information processing technics have been applied to build local drought outlook models, the predictors are the SST anomaly of eight key regions that impact New Zealand climate produced by the Climate Forecasting System v2(CFSv2) of NCEP, and the local NIWA derived observed precipitation and soil moisture data. SST is a variable that CFSv2 can forecast with high skill and after bias correction, can be applied as a climate predictor for New Zealand. Inclusion of local data and the persistent nature of drought leads to good predictors therefore one to three month ensemble drought outlooks can be produced for New Zealand. The potential changes of drought intensity and frequency over the medium to long term future are investigated using downscaled data from 12 GCMs and multiple scenarios. The results indicate that New Zealand may experience more severe drought in many areas, therefore adaptation should be planned and implemented.

  3. Design challenges of EO polymer based leaky waveguide deflector for 40 Gs/s all-optical analog-to-digital converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjloum, Massinissa; El Gibari, Mohammed; Li, Hongwu; Daryoush, Afshin S.

    2016-08-01

    Design challenges and performance optimization of an all-optical analog-to-digital converter (AOADC) is presented here. The paper addresses both microwave and optical design of a leaky waveguide optical deflector using electro-optic (E-O) polymer. The optical deflector converts magnitude variation of the applied RF voltage into variation of deflection angle out of a leaky waveguide optical beam using the linear E-O effect (Pockels effect) as part of the E-O polymer based optical waveguide. This variation of deflection angle as result of the applied RF signal is then quantized using optical windows followed by an array of high-speed photodetectors. We optimized the leakage coefficient of the leaky waveguide and its physical length to achieve the best trade-off between bandwidth and the deflected optical beam resolution, by improving the phase velocity matching between lightwave and microwave on one hand and using pre-emphasis technique to compensate for the RF signal attenuation on the other hand. In addition, for ease of access from both optical and RF perspective, a via-hole less broad bandwidth transition is designed between coplanar pads and coupled microstrip (CPW-CMS) driving electrodes. With the best reported E-O coefficient of 350 pm/V, the designed E-O deflector should allow an AOADC operating over 44 giga-samples-per-seconds with an estimated effective resolution of 6.5 bits on RF signals with Nyquist bandwidth of 22 GHz. The overall DC power consumption of all components used in this AOADC is of order of 4 W and is dominated by power consumption in the power amplifier to generate a 20 V RF voltage in 50 Ohm system. A higher sampling rate can be achieved at similar bits of resolution by interleaving a number of this elementary AOADC at the expense of a higher power consumption.

  4. Health economics and health policy: experiences from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.

  5. Predicting losing and gaining river reaches in lowland New Zealand based on a statistical methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Zammit, Christian; Dudley, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of losing and gaining in rivers normally takes place in lowland where often there are various, sometimes conflicting uses for water resources, e.g., agriculture, industry, recreation, and maintenance of ecosystem function. To better support water allocation decisions, it is crucial to understand the location and seasonal dynamics of these losses and gains. We present a statistical methodology to predict losing and gaining river reaches in New Zealand based on 1) information surveys with surface water and groundwater experts from regional government, 2) A collection of river/watershed characteristics, including climate, soil and hydrogeologic information, and 3) the random forests technique. The surveys on losing and gaining reaches were conducted face-to-face at 16 New Zealand regional government authorities, and climate, soil, river geometry, and hydrogeologic data from various sources were collected and compiled to represent river/watershed characteristics. The random forests technique was used to build up the statistical relationship between river reach status (gain and loss) and river/watershed characteristics, and then to predict for river reaches at Strahler order one without prior losing and gaining information. Results show that the model has a classification error of around 10% for "gain" and "loss". The results will assist further research, and water allocation decisions in lowland New Zealand.

  6. Healthcare professionals’ perceptions of clinical governance implementation: a qualitative New Zealand study of 3205 open-ended survey comments

    PubMed Central

    Gauld, Robin; Horsburgh, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate healthcare professional perceptions of local implementation of a national clinical governance policy in New Zealand. Design Respondent comments written at the end of a national healthcare professional survey designed to assess implementation of core components of the clinical governance policy. Setting The written comments were provided by respondents to a survey distributed to over 41 000 registered healthcare professionals employed in 19 of New Zealand's government-funded District Health Boards. Comments were analysed and categorised within emerging themes. Results 3205 written comments were received. Five key themes illustrating barriers to clinical governance implementation were found, representing problems with: developing management–clinical relations; clinicians stepping up into clinical governance and leadership activities; interprofessional relations; training needs for governance and leadership; and having insufficient time to get involved. Conclusions Despite a national policy on clinical governance which New Zealand's government launched in 2009, this study found that considerable effort is required to build clinical governance at the local level. This finding parallels with other studies in the field. Two areas demand attention: building systems for organisational governance and leadership; and building professional governance arrangements. PMID:25564142

  7. Slavery in New Zealand: What is the role of the health sector?

    PubMed

    King, Paula; Blaiklock, Alison; Stringer, Christina; Amaranathan, Jay; McLean, Margot

    2017-10-06

    Contemporary forms of slavery and associated adverse health effects are a serious, complex and often neglected issue within the New Zealand health sector. Slavery in New Zealand has most recently been associated with the fishing and horticulture industries. However, victims may be found in a number of other industry sectors, including the health and aged-care sectors, or outside of the labour market such as in forced, early (underage) and servile forms of marriage. Victims of slavery are at increased risk of acute and chronic health problems, injuries from dangerous working and living conditions, and physical and sexual abuse. These issues are compounded by restricted access to high-quality healthcare. Slavery is a violation of many human rights, including the right to health. New Zealand has obligations under international law to ensure that all victims of slavery have access to adequate physical and psychological care. The health sector has opportunities to identify, intervene and protect victims. This requires doctors and other health practitioners to demonstrate their leadership, knowledge and commitment towards addressing slavery and its health consequences in ways that are effective and do not cause further harm. Key recommendations for a safe approach towards identifying and managing people in situations of slavery include building rapport, and culturally competent practice with an empathetic non-judgmental approach. We also recommend that health organisations and regulatory and professional bodies develop culturally competent guidelines to respond safely to those identified in situations of slavery. These responses should be based on the respect, promotion and protection of human rights, and occur within a robust person-centric coordinated government response to addressing slavery in New Zealand.

  8. Preventing Gut Leakiness and Endotoxemia Contributes to the Protective Effect of Zinc on Alcohol-Induced Steatohepatitis in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhang, Jiayang; Sun, Xinguo; Yin, Xinmin; Zhang, Xiang; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc deficiency has been well documented in alcoholic liver disease. Objective: This study was undertaken to determine whether dietary zinc supplementation provides beneficial effects in treating alcohol-induced gut leakiness and endotoxemia. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and pair-fed (PF) Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 wk: 1) control (PF); 2) alcohol-fed (AF; 5.00–5.42% wt:vol ethanol); and 3) AF with zinc supplementation (AF/Zn) at 220 ppm zinc sulfate heptahydrate. The PF and AF/Zn groups were pair-fed with the AF group. Hepatic inflammation and endotoxin signaling were determined by immunofluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Alterations in intestinal tight junctions and aldehyde dehydrogenases were assessed by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Results: The AF rats had greater macrophage activation and cytokine production (P < 0.05) in the liver compared with the PF rats, whereas the AF/Zn rats showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). Plasma endotoxin concentrations of the AF rats were 136% greater than those of the PF rats, whereas the AF/Zn rats did not differ from the PF rats. Ileal permeability was 255% greater in the AF rats and 19% greater in the AF/Zn rats than in the PF rats. The AF group had reduced intestinal claudin-1, occludin, and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression, and the AF/Zn group had upregulated claudin-1 and ZO-1 expression (P < 0.05) compared with the PF group. The intestinal epithelial expression and activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases were elevated (P < 0.05) in the AF/Zn rats compared with those of the AF rats. Furthermore, the ileal expression and function of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, which was impaired in the AF group, was significantly elevated in the AF/Zn group compared with the PF group. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that attenuating hepatic endotoxin signaling by preserving the intestinal barrier contributes to the protective effect of zinc on

  9. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deterministic Models of Inhalational Anthrax in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Computational models describing bacterial kinetics were developed for inhalational anthrax in New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits following inhalation of Ames strain B. anthracis. The data used to parameterize the models included bacterial numbers in the airways, lung tissue, draining lymph nodes, and blood. Initial bacterial numbers were deposited spore dose. The first model was a single exponential ordinary differential equation (ODE) with 3 rate parameters that described mucociliated (physical) clearance, immune clearance (bacterial killing), and bacterial growth. At 36 hours postexposure, the ODE model predicted 1.7×107 bacteria in the rabbit, which agreed well with data from actual experiments (4.0×107 bacteria at 36 hours). Next, building on the single ODE model, a physiological-based biokinetic (PBBK) compartmentalized model was developed in which 1 physiological compartment was the lumen of the airways and the other was the rabbit body (lung tissue, lymph nodes, blood). The 2 compartments were connected with a parameter describing transport of bacteria from the airways into the body. The PBBK model predicted 4.9×107 bacteria in the body at 36 hours, and by 45 hours the model showed all clearance mechanisms were saturated, suggesting the rabbit would quickly succumb to the infection. As with the ODE model, the PBBK model results agreed well with laboratory observations. These data are discussed along with the need for and potential application of the models in risk assessment, drug development, and as a general aid to the experimentalist studying inhalational anthrax. PMID:24527843

  11. Energy use in the New Zealand food system

    SciT

    Patterson, M.G.; Earle, M.D.

    1985-03-01

    The study covered the total energy requirements of the production, processing, wholesale distribution, retailing, shopping and household sectors of the food system in New Zealand. This included the direct energy requirements, and the indirect energy requirements in supplying materials, buildings and equipment. Data were collected from a wide range of literature sources, and converted into forms required for this research project. Also, data were collected in supplementary sample surveys at the wholesale distribution, retailing and shopping sectors. The details of these supplementary surveys are outlined in detailed survey reports fully referenced in the text. From these base data, the totalmore » energy requirements per unit product (MJ/kg) were estimated for a wide range of food chain steps. Some clear alternatives in terms of energy efficiency emerged from a comparison of these estimates. For example, it was found that it was most energy efficient to use dehydrated vegetables, followed by fresh vegetables, freeze dried vegetables, canned vegetables and then finally frozen vegetables.« less

  12. Laboratory Building

    SciT

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  13. Altered gut microbiome in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness causes neuroinflammation and intestinal injury via leaky gut and TLR4 activation.

    PubMed

    Alhasson, Firas; Das, Suvarthi; Seth, Ratanesh; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Chandrashekaran, Varun; Ryan, Caitlin N; Chan, Luisa S; Testerman, Traci; Burch, James; Hofseth, Lorne J; Horner, Ronnie; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Lasley, Stephen M; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Many of the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) that include neurological abnormalities, neuroinflammation, chronic fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances have been traced to Gulf War chemical exposure. Though the association and subsequent evidences are strong, the mechanisms that connect exposure to intestinal and neurological abnormalities remain unclear. Using an established rodent model of Gulf War Illness, we show that chemical exposure caused significant dysbiosis in the gut that included increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes and Tenericutes, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes. Several gram negative bacterial genera were enriched in the GWI-model that included Allobaculum sp. Altered microbiome caused significant decrease in tight junction protein Occludin with a concomitant increase in Claudin-2, a signature of a leaky gut. Resultant leaching of gut caused portal endotoxemia that led to upregulation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation in the small intestine and the brain. TLR4 knock out mice and mice that had gut decontamination showed significant decrease in tyrosine nitration and inflammatory mediators IL1β and MCP-1 in both the small intestine and frontal cortex. These events signified that gut dysbiosis with simultaneous leaky gut and systemic endotoxemia-induced TLR4 activation contributes to GW chemical-induced neuroinflammation and gastrointestinal disturbances.

  14. A local leaky-box model for the local stellar surface density-gas surface density-gas phase metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Yan, Renbin; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the relation between the stellar surface density, the gas surface density and the gas-phase metallicity of typical disc galaxies in the local Universe with the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, using the star formation rate surface density as an indicator for the gas surface density. We show that these three local parameters form a tight relationship, confirming previous works (e.g. by the PINGS and CALIFA surveys), but with a larger sample. We present a new local leaky-box model, assuming star-formation history and chemical evolution is localized except for outflowing materials. We derive closed-form solutions for the evolution of stellar surface density, gas surface density and gas-phase metallicity, and show that these parameters form a tight relation independent of initial gas density and time. We show that, with canonical values of model parameters, this predicted relation match the observed one well. In addition, we briefly describe a pathway to improving the current semi-analytic models of galaxy formation by incorporating the local leaky-box model in the cosmological context, which can potentially explain simultaneously multiple properties of Milky Way-type disc galaxies, such as the size growth and the global stellar mass-gas metallicity relation.

  15. The ABCs of New Zealand Sign Language: Aerial Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Aerial spelling is the term given for the way many people with deafness in New Zealand (NZ) manually represent letters of the alphabet. This article examines the nature and role of aerial spelling in New Zealand Sign Language, particularly that form used by older members of the NZ deaf community. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  16. Transforming Knowledge into Wealth in a New Zealand Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Barry; Dunn, Wendell; Whitcher, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how New Zealand's leading research university, the University of Auckland, dealt with the issue of transforming knowledge into wealth using a "whole of institution" approach. The context of New Zealand's growth and innovation initiatives is outlined and the University of Auckland's engagement with and institutional…

  17. The socio-cultural value of New Zealand wilderness

    Kerry Wray

    2011-01-01

    New Zealand's wilderness resource has become iconic on both a national and international scale, and provides an important source of cultural identity for many Kiwis (a colloquial term for a New Zealander). Now, in the early 21st Century, however, social changes such as urbanization, globalization, increasing consumerism, and growing international tourism may be...

  18. The New Zealand Model for Prevention of Cyberviolence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Liz

    2003-01-01

    Describes the national initiative of the New Zealand Internet Safety Group to prevent cyberviolence through education. The effort includes distribution of an Internet Safety Kit to each school in the country, research on Internet use in New Zealand, and a national symposium on the social impact of the Internet. (SLD)

  19. GIS in New Zealand Schools: Issues and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Lex

    2006-01-01

    There are undoubtedly many parallels between Australia and New Zealand in the history of geographic information system (GIS) in schools. These parallels occur in the social, institutional, professional development, and curricula areas, and each of these topics is considered in this article. In New Zealand at least, there is still a lot that needs…

  20. The Literacy Debates: What Are the Issues in New Zealand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbrick, Libby

    The 1970 International Educational Achievement (IEA) survey placed New Zealand's nine and fourteen year olds first in reading achievement in comparison with all other participating countries. Literacy educators the world over have studied New Zealand's methods and classroom environments, and its approaches to reading/writing instruction have been…

  1. Small Country, Big Business? New Zealand as Education Exporter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Kerstin; Starke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses New Zealand's role in the global market for tertiary education. The internationalisation and liberalisation of education markets is progressing rapidly in today's globalising world, as reflected by the incorporation of education as a service into the GATS framework. Through the example of New Zealand as a case study for the…

  2. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  3. Towards 2015: The Future of Mainline Protestantism in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of the population involved in the Christian church in New Zealand has been declining since the middle of the 1960s. Most seriously affected has been the mainline Protestant denominations such as Presbyterian, Anglican and Methodist. This article analyses and presents data collected by the National Church Life Survey New Zealand 2001…

  4. Parents, Participation, Partnership: Problematising New Zealand Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Angel; Ritchie, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This article interrogates notions of teacher "partnership with parents" within early childhood care and education settings in the context of Aotearoa (New Zealand). "Te Whariki," the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, clearly positions children's learning and development as being fostered when their families' cultures and…

  5. A Biographical Experience of Teacher Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, John

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses initial teacher education (ITE) policy and practice in Aotearoa New Zealand over forty years. Central to the local ITE context was the incorporation of the "monotechnic" colleges of teacher education into the university sector in the 1990s and 2000s, following New Zealand's structural adjustments to the state…

  6. Information Services in New Zealand and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnie, Mary A.

    This paper examines information services and resource sharing within New Zealand with a view to future participation in a Pacific resource sharing network. Activities of the National Library, the New Zealand Library Resources Committee, and the Information Services Committee are reviewed over a 40-year period, illustrating library cooperative…

  7. Anti-Nuclear Attitudes in New Zealand and Australia,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Wellington, 5 March 1985. 5. John Henderson, Keith Jackson , Richard Kennawav, eds. Beyond New Zealand; The Foreign Policy of a Small State. (Auckland...the city of San Francisco this first day of September, 1951. For Australia: PERCY C. SPENDER For New Zealand: C.A. BERENDSEN For the United States of

  8. An Exploratory Study of Collaboration in New Zealand Tertiary Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Colleen

    2005-01-01

    The shift in policy from market driven behaviour towards a more cooperative tertiary sector is having an effect on New Zealand academic libraries and their relationships. Despite this, there has been no investigation of collaboration specifically targeting New Zealand tertiary libraries. This research project examine the state of collaboration…

  9. Spirituality in Career from a New Zealand Maori Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.; Reid, Lynette

    New Zealand Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand Aotearoa, a relatively small nation of 4 million people. The juxtaposition of Maori and European cultures presents an opportunity to contrast the highly spiritual nature of Maori culture with European traditions of linearity and rationality. This contrast can be especially appreciated in…

  10. Recovery Competencies for New Zealand Mental Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hagan, Mary

    This book contains a detailed report of the recovery principles set out in the Mental Health Commission's Blueprint for Mental Health Services in New Zealand. The competencies, endorsed by the New Zealand government, describe what mental health workers need to know about using the recovery approach in their work with people with mental illness.…

  11. Relativism, Values and Morals in the New Zealand Curriculum Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, SueAnn

    2004-01-01

    "The New Zealand Curriculum Framework", 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in…

  12. International Students in New Zealand: Needs and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew; McGrath, Terry

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the pastoral care needs of international students in New Zealand. Using the relatively new Code of Practice for the Pastoral Care of International Students as its departure point, this paper critically evaluates the assertion that there is a crisis in New Zealand's export education industry. It does this through considering…

  13. Community Psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…

  14. New Zealand Teachers Respond to the "National Writing Project" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Terry; Whitehead, David; Dix, Stephanie; Cawkwell, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on early data from a two-year project (2009-11) being undertaken in the New Zealand context by the authors entitled: "Teachers as Writers: Transforming Professional Identity and Classroom Practice". Based on the National Writing Project in the USA (and in New Zealand in the 1980s) its hypothesis is that when teachers…

  15. International Briefing 17: Training and Development in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pio, Edwina

    2007-01-01

    New Zealand is one of the world's most geographically isolated and least crowded countries. New Zealand organizations are increasingly becoming aware of the importance of training and development as the country becomes more technologically sophisticated, multiethnic and older. The country needs higher productivity, business investment and skills…

  16. Educational Policy Research in New Zealand: Issues and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemaker, H.

    As exemplified by New Zealand, the nature of educational policy research is shaped by political and social factors that impinge upon the research environment. Following a description of the educational system and research funding methods, this paper analyzes three areas that affect policy research in New Zealand and addresses relevant social…

  17. The management of Graves' disease in New Zealand 2014.

    PubMed

    Cox, Stephanie C; Tamatea, Jade Au; Conaglen, John V; Elston, Marianne S

    2016-06-10

    Treatment options for Graves' disease (GD), namely anti-thyroid drugs (ATD), surgery or radioiodine (RAI), have not changed over the past two decades. There is no 'gold-standard' treatment for GD. To assess whether the management of GD in New Zealand has changed since the previous 1991 New Zealand survey and compare current management with that of contemporary international studies. We conducted an online survey of New Zealand physicians currently practising internal medicine, diabetes and/or endocrinology, using the cases and questions from the original European and 1991 New Zealand studies. The first-line use of RAI was 5.5%, compared to 41% in the 1991 New Zealand survey. This corresponded to an increase in ATD use, while the rates of surgery as a first-line treatment have remained static over time. New Zealand physicians use technetium scanning for diagnosis, whereas ultrasound and radioiodine uptake were the most commonly selected investigations by European and North American physicians, respectively. The pattern of ATD use in pregnancy was similar to international practice. Treatment of GD in New Zealand has shifted away from the use of RAI as first line treatment. There are significant differences in the investigation and treatment of Grave's disease between New Zealand, Europe and North America.

  18. Firework related injury in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J A; Langley, J D

    1994-10-26

    In March 1992 a private members Bill was introduced into parliament which sought to place tighter restrictions on the sale of fireworks. The primary purpose of this research was to document the nature and extent of firework related injury in New Zealand for the purpose of preparing a submission on this Bill. Firework related injuries were examined in relation to the legislative history of fireworks control in New Zealand to ascertain if existing regulations had been effective in reducing firework injuries and whether there was justification for greater control. Between 1979 and 1992 (inclusive) 237 persons were admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries related to fireworks. The overall incidence rate for this period was 0.52 per 100,000 persons per year. Eighty five percent of all events involved males. Children (< 15 years) comprised 68% of the victims with the 10-14 year age group having the highest rate of injury, at 2.5 per 100,000 persons per year. The authors concluded that, on the basis of morbidity, it may be premature to impose a complete ban on the public sale of fireworks (as is proposed in the Bill). The current legislation could well be supported though, by extending the ban on the types of fireworks publicly available to include skyrockets.

  19. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: a New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Ian; Van Dalen, Roelof; Lolohea, Simione; Wu, Linus

    2018-06-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a proven alternative therapy to either radical surgery or endoscopic mucosal resection for rectal neoplasms. It has proven benefits with lower morbidity and mortality compared with total mesorectal excision, and a lower local recurrence rate when compared to endoscopic mucosal techniques. A retrospective data collection of TEMS procedures performed through Waikato District Health Board, New Zealand, from 2010 to 2015 was conducted. Supportive follow-up data were sourced from patient records and from local centres around New Zealand. A total of 137 procedures were performed over the study period, with five being repeat procedures. Procedures were mostly performed for benign lesions (66.4%) with an overall complication rate of 15.3%, only five of which were Clavien-Dindo grade III (3.6%). Our local recurrence rate after resection of benign lesions was 5.1%. Our data set demonstrates the TEMS procedure to be safe compared to radical resection (total mesorectal excision) for sessile rectal lesions. Close endoscopic follow-up is recommended, especially for close or incomplete margins. Good therapeutic results can be obtained for appropriately selected early malignant lesions. TEMS provides better oncological results than endoscopic mucosal resection or transanal excision. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Building Commissioning

    Berkeley Lab logo Home > Building Commissioning A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions The need for commissioning The map is not the territory. Building . Deficiencies such as design flaws, construction defects, and malfunctioning equipment have a host of

  1. Time evolution of the condensed state of interacting bosons with reduced number fluctuation in a leaky box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Akira; Inoue, Jun-Ichi

    1999-10-01

    We study the nonequilibrium time evolution of the Bose-Einstein condensate of interacting bosons confined in a leaky box, when its number fluctuation is initially (t=0) suppressed. We take account of quantum fluctuations of all modes, including k=0, of the bosons. As the wave function of the ground state that has a definite number N of interacting bosons, we use a variational form \\|N,y>, which is obtained by operating a unitary operator eiG(y) on the number state of free bosons. Using eiG(y), we identify a ``natural coordinate'' b𔊊 of the interacting bosons, by which many physical properties can be simply described. The \\|N,y> can be represented simply as a number state of b𔊊 we thus call it the ``number state of interacting bosons'' (NSIB). To simulate real systems, for which if one fixes N at t=0 N will fluctuate at later times because of a finite probability of exchanging bosons between the box and the environment, we evaluate the time evolution of the reduced density operator ρ⁁(t) of the bosons in the box as a function of the leakage flux J. We concentrate on the most interesting and nontrivial time stage, i.e., the early time stage for which Jt<0. Using b𔊊, we successfully define the cosine and sine operators for interacting many bosons, by which we can analyze the phase fluctuation in a fully quantum-mechanical manner. We define a new state \\|ξ,N,y> called the ``number-phase-squeezed state of interacting bosons'' (NPIB), which is characterized by a complex parameter ξ. It is shown that ρ⁁(t) for t>0 can be rewritten as the phase-randomized mixture (PRM) of NPIBs. Among many possible representations of ρ⁁(t), this representation is

  2. Building Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, James

    This chapter summarizes and explains key concepts of building acoustics. These issues include the behavior of sound waves in rooms, the most commonly used rating systems for sound and sound control in buildings, the most common noise sources found in buildings, practical noise control methods for these sources, and the specific topic of office acoustics. Common noise issues for multi-dwelling units can be derived from most of the sections of this chapter. Books can be and have been written on each of these topics, so the purpose of this chapter is to summarize this information and provide appropriate resources for further exploration of each topic.

  3. Changes in the age pattern of New Zealand suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, John

    2017-01-13

    It is timely to examine changes in male and female suicide rates across the age range in New Zealand, comparing them to some of the changes recorded in Australia. Data regarding suicide and population figures in New Zealand and Australia were obtained. The suicide rates of different age-groups in the two countries were calculated and compared. Data concerning 'open verdicts' were also obtained. The age patterns of suicide rates in New Zealand and Australia have changed markedly and similarly. Suicide rates of New Zealand males in their twenties increased threefold between the 1960s and 1990s, with a fall since then. Nevertheless, the 2009-13 youth suicide rates in New Zealand were double the corresponding rates in Australia. Since 1979-88 a decrease in suicide rates of men and women aged 60-79 has been even greater than in Australia. The Māori suicide rate is high in young men but almost zero in old age. The persistently high suicide rate of New Zealand youths (Māori much more than non-Māori) remains of concern. The rate is equally high among indigenous young Australians. There has been a welcome decrease in late-life suicide rates in New Zealand and Australia.

  4. Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Christopher B; Farhadi, Ashkan; Jakate, Shriram M; Tang, Yueming; Shaikh, Maliha; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2009-03-01

    Because only 30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease (ALD), a factor other than heavy alcohol consumption must be involved in the development of alcohol-induced liver injury. Animal and human studies suggest that bacterial products, such as endotoxins, are the second key co-factors, and oxidant-mediated gut leakiness is one of the sources of endotoxemia. Probiotics have been used to prevent and treat diseases associated with gut-derived bacterial products and disorders associated with gut leakiness. Indeed, "probiotic"Lactobacillus rhamnosus has been successfully used to treat alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. However, the mechanism of action involved in the potential beneficial effects of L. rhamnosus in alcohol liver injury is not known. We hypothesized that probiotics could preserve normal barrier function in an animal model of ALD by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative stress and thus prevent the development of hyperpermeability and subsequent alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with alcohol twice daily (8 gm/kg) for 10 weeks. In addition, alcoholic rats were also treated with once daily gavage of either 2.5 x 10(7) live L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin (LGG) or vehicle (V). Intestinal permeability (baseline and at 10 weeks) was determined using a sugar bolus and GC analysis of urinary sugars. Intestinal and liver tissues were analyzed for markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, livers were assessed histologically for severity of ASH and total fat (steatosis). Alcohol+LGG (ALC+LGG)-fed rats had significantly (P< or =.05) less severe ASH than ALC+V-fed rats. L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin also reduced alcohol-induced gut leakiness and significantly blunted alcohol-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in both intestine and the liver. L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin probiotic gavage significantly ameliorated ASH in rats. This improvement was associated with reduced markers of intestinal and liver

  5. Building Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Services Technology and Audiology Medical and Surgical Solutions Putting it all Together Building Language American Sign Language (ASL) Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE) Cued Speech Finger Spelling Listening/Auditory Training ...

  6. Library Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter C.

    1976-01-01

    Examines a century of library architecture in relation to the changing perceptions of library functions, the development of building techniques and materials, fluctuating esthetic fashions and sometimes wildly erratic economic climates. (Author)

  7. International nurse migration: impacts on New Zealand.

    PubMed

    North, Nicola

    2007-08-01

    As a source and destination country, nurse flows in and out of New Zealand (NZ) are examined to determine impacts and regional contexts. A descriptive statistics method was used to analyze secondary data on nurses added to the register, NZ nurse qualifications verified by overseas authorities, nursing workforce data, and census data. It found that international movement of nurses was minimal during the 1990s, but from 2001 a sharp jump in the verification of NZ-registered nurses (RNs) by overseas authorities coincided with an equivalent increase in international RNs (IRNs) added to the NZ nursing register-a pattern that has been sustained to the present. Movement of NZ RNs to Australia is expedited by the Trans-Tasman Agreement, whereas entry of IRNs to NZ is facilitated by nursing being an identified Priority Occupation. Future research needs to consider health system and nurse workforce contexts and take a regional perspective on migration patterns.

  8. The New Zealand accident compensation scheme.

    PubMed

    Barter, R W

    1977-05-01

    Reference is made to legislation concerned with the introduction of the New Zealand Accident Compensation Scheme in 1974. The author's experience of the Scheme is based on an exchange visit in 1975. The basic principles are community responsibility and universal entitlement to compensation. Earnings-related benefits are paid to the injured person, and flat-rate payments to non-earners. The Scheme is administered by a three-man Commission with wide responsibilities for accident prevention, rehabilitation services, administration of funds, records, public relations, and an independent Appeals Authority. There have been far reaching consequences on medical practice. The Commission construe the phrase 'Personal Injury by Accident' as damage to the human system which is not designed by the person injured: the implications of such a definition are briefly discussed. The administrative costs of any similar Scheme in the United Kingdom would be enormous and it is doubtful whether the benefits would justify the cost.

  9. New Zealand SIR-B science investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A.; Oliver, P. J.; Cochrane, G. R.; Cole, J.; Coombs, D. S.; Barnes, E. J.; Ching, N. P.; Bennets, R. L.; Stephens, P. H.; Laing, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that shuttle imaging radar (SIR) data be used to study unusual geological features of New Zealand. Particular attention is planned for geological faults. SIR-B imagery is to be compared with LANDSAT multispectral imagery. Three other investigations which are to use SIR data are discussed. An ocean eddy is to be studied from a correlation of SIR-B and advanced very high resolution radiometer imagery. Timber volume is to be assessed by determining the age and size of pine forests from SIR-B data. Soil moisture is to be investigated by comparing SIR-B data with simultaneous gravimetric data. Land cover in a region already subjected to intensive investigation using LANDSAT and aircraft scanner data is to be discriminated by SIR-B data.

  10. The cardiac sonography workforce in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Belinda; White, Steve; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian

    2013-05-01

    Introduction : The aim of this paper is to investigate the cardiac sonography workforce characteristics and registration requirements in New Zealand (NZ), with a comparison to similar workforces internationally. Methods : The Survey of Clinical Echocardiography in New Zealand 2 (SCANZ2) audit was performed in December 2010. All of NZ's public-funded District Health Board (DHB) centers providing echocardiography services responded to questions relating to staff, equipment, procedure types and patient statistics. The Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB), Clinical Physiologists Registration Board (CPRB) and Australian Sonographers Association Registry (ASAR) websites were reviewed in March 2012 for registered sonographers with a cardiac scope of practice. The cardiac sonography workforces in Australia, the UK, the USA and Canada were investigated for comparison. Results : There are 84 cardiac sonographers (60.3 full-time equivalent) working in DHBs: 71% from a cardiac technical background; 40% have post-graduate qualifications; a further 17% are undertaking post-graduate qualifications; and 59 cardiac sonographers have registration with professional bodies in NZ and/or Australia. Cardiac sonographers in NZ do not undergo compulsory registration, but other sonographers in NZ have compulsory registration with the MRTB. Sonographers are predominantly not licensed internationally. Discussion : Disparity exists between registration of cardiac and non-cardiac sonographers in NZ. Many cardiac sonographers have voluntary registration but few are registered with the MRTB. Reasons for this include professional alignment, educational qualifications and representation. International trends show increased pressure from governments and professional bodies to regulate sonographers. Conclusion : This study provides a snapshot of the cardiac sonography workforce in NZ for the first time.

  11. Survival on Home Dialysis in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Mark R.; Walker, Rachael C.; Polkinghorne, Kevan R.; Lynn, Kelvin L.

    2014-01-01

    Background New Zealand (NZ) has a high prevalence of both peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home haemodialysis (HD) relative to other countries, and probably less selection bias. We aimed to determine if home dialysis associates with better survival than facility HD by simultaneous comparisons of the three modalities. Methods We analysed survival by time-varying dialysis modality in New Zealanders over a 15-year period to 31-Dec-2011, adjusting for patient co-morbidity by Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression. Results We modelled 6,419 patients with 3,254 deaths over 20,042 patient-years of follow-up. Patients treated with PD and facility HD are similar; those on home HD are younger and healthier. Compared to facility HD, home dialysis (as a unified category) associates with an overall 13% lower mortality risk. Home HD associates with a 52% lower mortality risk. PD associates with a 20% lower mortality risk in the early period (<3 years) that is offset by a 33% greater mortality risk in the late period (>3 years), with no overall net effect. There was effect modification and less observable benefit associated with PD in those with diabetes mellitus, co-morbidity, and in NZ Maori and Pacific People. There was no effect modification by age or by era. Conclusion Our study supports the culture of home dialysis in NZ, and suggests that the extent and duration of survival benefit associated with early PD may be greater than appreciated. We are planning further analyses to exclude residual confounding from unmeasured co-morbidity and other sociodemographic factors using database linkage to NZ government datasets. Finally, our results suggest further research into the practice of PD in NZ Maori and Pacific People, as well as definitive study to determine the best timing for switching from PD in the late phase. PMID:24806458

  12. The practice of surrogacy in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynley; Snelling, Jeanne; Tomlins-Jahnke, Huia

    2012-06-01

    Commercial surrogacy is prohibited in New Zealand by the Human Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2004 (HART Act). However, altruistic clinic-assisted surrogacy is permitted. Couples wishing to attempt altruistic surrogacy must apply for approval to a statutorily appointed ethics committee. One of seven principles that underpin the HART Act stipulates that the needs, values and beliefs of Maori (NZ's indigenous population) should be considered and treated with respect. This paper reviews the outcomes of surrogacy applications since the HART Act was established and the uptake of surrogacy by Maori. The authors examined the demographic data provided to the ethics committee by way of surrogacy applications and the outcome data provided by fertility clinics. This paper reviews the outcomes for surrogacy applications: the number accepted/declined, the number of live births, those applications discontinued and uptake by Maori. Of 104 applications for surrogacy between 2005 and 2010, 4 (3.8%) were declined. By July 2011, of 100 approved, there have been 26 (26%) live births; 52 (52%) were discontinued, and 22 (22%) remain ongoing. Maori are much less likely to utilise surrogacy. Of the 104 original applications, 9 (8.6%) Maori women were willing to act as a surrogate, and 2 (1.9%) were intended mothers. 7 (6.7%) Maori were partners of a surrogate, with 2 (1.9%) intending mothers having Maori partners. The process of surrogacy applications is comprehensive and robust, resulting in few being declined. Further research is required to discover why applications are discontinued and why, despite explicit attempts to meet the needs of Maori, few utilise surrogacy. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. New Zealand traffic and local air quality.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand.

  14. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae) from New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, P. J.; Heenan, P. B.; Houliston, G. J.; Rolfe, J. R.; Mitchell, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA). One species, Lepidium castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with Lepidium oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, Lepidium amissum sp. nov. and Lepidium obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from Lepidium banksii, Lepidium flexicaule and Lepidium oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (Lepidium aegrum sp. nov., Lepidium crassum sp. nov. and Lepidium juvencum sp. nov.). One of these, Lepidium juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (Lepidium flexicaule, Lepidium oblitum sp. nov., Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., Lepidium panniforme sp. nov., and Lepidium rekohuense sp. nov.), one of which, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, Lepidium seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to Lepidium oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for Lepidium banksii, Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum. PMID:23794938

  15. The cardiac sonography workforce in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    White, Steve; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The aim of this paper is to investigate the cardiac sonography workforce characteristics and registration requirements in New Zealand (NZ), with a comparison to similar workforces internationally. Methods: The Survey of Clinical Echocardiography in New Zealand 2 (SCANZ2) audit was performed in December 2010. All of NZ's public‐funded District Health Board (DHB) centers providing echocardiography services responded to questions relating to staff, equipment, procedure types and patient statistics. The Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB), Clinical Physiologists Registration Board (CPRB) and Australian Sonographers Association Registry (ASAR) websites were reviewed in March 2012 for registered sonographers with a cardiac scope of practice. The cardiac sonography workforces in Australia, the UK, the USA and Canada were investigated for comparison. Results: There are 84 cardiac sonographers (60.3 full‐time equivalent) working in DHBs: 71% from a cardiac technical background; 40% have post‐graduate qualifications; a further 17% are undertaking post‐graduate qualifications; and 59 cardiac sonographers have registration with professional bodies in NZ and/or Australia. Cardiac sonographers in NZ do not undergo compulsory registration, but other sonographers in NZ have compulsory registration with the MRTB. Sonographers are predominantly not licensed internationally. Discussion: Disparity exists between registration of cardiac and non‐cardiac sonographers in NZ. Many cardiac sonographers have voluntary registration but few are registered with the MRTB. Reasons for this include professional alignment, educational qualifications and representation. International trends show increased pressure from governments and professional bodies to regulate sonographers. Conclusion: This study provides a snapshot of the cardiac sonography workforce in NZ for the first time. PMID:28191178

  16. Regional model simulations of New Zealand climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renwick, James A.; Katzfey, Jack J.; Nguyen, Kim C.; McGregor, John L.

    1998-03-01

    Simulation of New Zealand climate is examined through the use of a regional climate model nested within the output of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation nine-level general circulation model (GCM). R21 resolution GCM output is used to drive a regional model run at 125 km grid spacing over the Australasian region. The 125 km run is used in turn to drive a simulation at 50 km resolution over New Zealand. Simulations with a full seasonal cycle are performed for 10 model years. The focus is on the quality of the simulation of present-day climate, but results of a doubled-CO2 run are discussed briefly. Spatial patterns of mean simulated precipitation and surface temperatures improve markedly as horizontal resolution is increased, through the better resolution of the country's orography. However, increased horizontal resolution leads to a positive bias in precipitation. At 50 km resolution, simulated frequency distributions of daily maximum/minimum temperatures are statistically similar to those of observations at many stations, while frequency distributions of daily precipitation appear to be statistically different to those of observations at most stations. Modeled daily precipitation variability at 125 km resolution is considerably less than observed, but is comparable to, or exceeds, observed variability at 50 km resolution. The sensitivity of the simulated climate to changes in the specification of the land surface is discussed briefly. Spatial patterns of the frequency of extreme temperatures and precipitation are generally well modeled. Under a doubling of CO2, the frequency of precipitation extremes changes only slightly at most locations, while air frosts become virtually unknown except at high-elevation sites.

  17. Attenuation characteristics of the leaky \\text{T}(0,1) mode guided wave propagating in piping coated with anticorrosion grease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Hideo; Tateishi, Kohei; Ishikawa, Masashi; Furukawa, Takashi; Goka, Motoki

    2018-07-01

    Guided wave inspection is expected especially for buried piping because it can be applied easily to such piping requiring only its partial digging from the ground. However, in buried piping, the attenuation coefficient is extremely large compared with that in above-ground piping because the leaky \\text{T}(0,1) mode guided wave (LTGW) propagates in buried piping and its energy leaks into the adjacent surrounding material as a bulk shear wave. Petrolatum anticorrosion grease (PAG) is the most widely used as the coating material on the pipe surface before burying piping in sand or soil, which is a viscous material with a temperature-dependent shear wave velocity. In this paper, attenuation characteristics of the LTGW are shown theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical calculations explain very well the experimental results measured. The temperature dependence of the attenuation coefficient is discussed with the theoretical outcomes.

  18. Alpine Fault, New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    2005-01-06

    The Alpine fault runs parallel to, and just inland of, much of the west coast of New Zealand South Island. This view was created from the near-global digital elevation model produced by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM.

  19. The Educational Needs of Graduate Mechanical Engineers in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deans, J.

    1999-01-01

    Surveys graduate and undergraduate mechanical engineering students at the University of Auckland. Shows that the dominant work activities of New Zealand mechanical engineers include design and consultancy and that graduate engineers rapidly migrate into management. (Author/CCM)

  20. Overview and key to the New Zealand Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Ward, D F

    2014-10-30

    An overview of Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera) in New Zealand is presented with information on families, genera, and when available, species. Notes on their distribution, biology, and a taxonomic key are provided. The New Zealand cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with only 11 described species, and five genus-only taxa. The fauna is dominated by introduced species; two species have been deliberately introduced as biological control agents, and at least 12 taxa are definitely or probably adventives. Many of these species are widespread and collected from modified and non-native habitats. New generic records of Figitidae for New Zealand include: Xyalaspis (Anacharitinae), Ganaspis, (Eucoilinae), and Thoreauella (Emargininae), all of which are considered adventives. There are no native species of gall forming wasps (Cynipidae) in New Zealand, and only two native species of Figitidae are present: Anacharis zealandica Ashmead, 1900 and Kleidotoma subantarcticana Yoshimoto, 1964. 

  1. Sequestrate fungi of New Zealand: Elaphomyces (Ascomycota, Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae)

    Michael A. Castellano; Ross E. Beever; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    Four species of the sequestrate fungal genus Elaphomyces are reported from New Zealand: Elaphomyces bollardii sp. nov. associated with Leptospermum spp. and Kunzea ericoides, E. luteicrustus sp. nov. associated with Nothofagus menziesii, E. putridus sp. nov. associated with...

  2. New Zealand Defense into 2035 -- Future 35 Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    language and grammar used is therefore designed to meet United States requirements, rather than those expected in New Zealand. The change of spelling...accessed 15 March 2012). 3New Zealand Government, Ministry of Defence, Defence White Paper 2010, November 2010, http://nzdf.mil.nz/downloads/ pdf ...public-docs/2010/ defence_white_paper_2010. pdf (accessed 15 March 2012), 16. 2 world, and the wider Search and Rescue Zone exponentially increases

  3. Establishing a Rational New Zealand/United States Defense Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-16 298-102 1~4CJC SRATGYESSAY WRCITING COMIPETITION ENTRY ESTABLISHING A RATIONAL NEW...AJBAvailability Codjes ALABAMA ABSTRACT TITLE: E lishng a Rational New Zealand/United States Defense Relationship AUTHOR.- Richard J. Newlands, Wing...Current Stetu of the New Zealand/United States Relationship 12 OutstandItg Issues .1 Toward a Rational New Zealan/Unted States Defense Relationship .16

  4. Junior Officer Leadership Development in the New Zealand Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    officers within the New Zealand Army and United States Army were gathered using a survey , to gain their perspective and identify any key areas for...senior officers within the New Zealand Army and United States Army were gathered using a survey , to gain their perspective and identify any key areas...time to take part in my survey , and contribute their wisdom and experience. The support and guidance that I received from other international

  5. Cultural safety in New Zealand midwifery practice. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Farry, Annabel; Crowther, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Midwives in New Zealand work within a unique cultural context. This calls for an understanding and appreciation of biculturalism and the equal status of Mãori and Europeans as the nation's founding peoples. This paper is the second of two papers that explore the notions of cultural safety and competence. Exploration and discussion take place in the New Zealand context, yet have transferable implications for midwives everywhere. This second paper focuses on midwifery education and practice.

  6. Innate resistance of New Zealand paua to abalone viral ganglioneuritis.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; McColl, Kenneth A; Williams, Lynette M; Slater, Joanne; Crane, Mark St J

    2017-06-01

    The susceptibility of New Zealand paua (Haliotis iris) to infection by abalone herpesvirus (Haliotid herpesvirus 1; HaHV) and to the disease abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) was determined. Infection challenges performed by intra-muscular injection and by immersion in infectious water containing HaHV demonstrated that New Zealand paua were highly resistant to infection by Haliotid herpesvirus 1 and were fully resistant to the disease AVG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The long locum: health propaganda in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Dow, Derek

    2003-03-14

    Health Department folklore since the 1950s has attributed the rise of health education in New Zealand almost entirely to the efforts of one man, 'Radio Doctor' Harold Turbott. The historical evidence reveals, however, a more extensive commitment by the Health Department, dating back to its foundation in 1900. This paper examines the evolution of health education in New Zealand and concludes that Turbott's role in its development has been overstated, largely at his own instigation.

  8. Briefing on New Zealand Canterbury Earthquake

    products laboratories publications nisee b.i.p. members education FAQs links events Calendar of PEER and Inc. Performance of Unreinforced Masonry and Selected Modern Buildings and Port Facilities (pdf file

  9. The New Zealand Tsunami Database: historical and modern records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Downes, G. L.; Cochran, U. A.; Clark, K.; Scheele, F.

    2016-12-01

    A database of historical (pre-instrumental) and modern (instrumentally recorded)tsunamis that have impacted or been observed in New Zealand has been compiled andpublished online. New Zealand's tectonic setting, astride an obliquely convergenttectonic boundary on the Pacific Rim, means that it is vulnerable to local, regional andcircum-Pacific tsunamis. Despite New Zealand's comparatively short written historicalrecord of c. 200 years there is a wealth of information about the impact of past tsunamis.The New Zealand Tsunami Database currently has 800+ entries that describe >50 highvaliditytsunamis. Sources of historical information include witness reports recorded indiaries, notes, newspapers, books, and photographs. Information on recent events comesfrom tide gauges and other instrumental recordings such as DART® buoys, and media ofgreater variety, for example, video and online surveys. The New Zealand TsunamiDatabase is an ongoing project with information added as further historical records cometo light. Modern tsunamis are also added to the database once the relevant data for anevent has been collated and edited. This paper briefly overviews the procedures and toolsused in the recording and analysis of New Zealand's historical tsunamis, with emphasison database content.

  10. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  11. Natural Hazard Resilience - A Large-scale Transdisciplinary "National Science Challenge" for New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The National Science Challenges are initiatives to address the most important public science issues that face New Zealand with long-term funding and the combined strength of a coordinated science-sector behind them. Eleven major topics are tackled, across our human, natural and built environments. In the "Resilience Challenge" we address New Zealand's natural hazards. Alongside severe metrological threats, New Zealand also faces one of the highest levels of earthquake and volcanic hazard in the world. Resilience is a hotly discussed concept, here, we take the view: Resilience encapsulates the features of a system to anticipate threats, acknowledge there will be impacts (no matter how prepared we are), quickly pick up the pieces, as well as learn and adapt from the experience to better absorb and rebound from future shocks. Our research must encompass innovation in building and lifelines engineering, planning and regulation, emergency management practice, alongside understanding how our natural hazard systems work, how we monitor them and how our communities/governance/industries can be influenced and encouraged (e.g., via economic incentives) to develop and implement resilience practice. This is a complex interwoven mix of areas and is best addressed through case-study areas where researchers and the users of the research can jointly identify problems and co-develop science solutions. I will highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses of this coordinated approach to an all-hazard, all-country problem, using the example of the Resilience Challenge approach after its first two and a half years of operation. Key issues include balancing investment into high-profile (and often high consequence), but rare hazards against the frequent "monthly" hazards that collectively occupy regional and local governance. Also, it is clear that despite increasingly sophisticated hazard and hazard mitigation knowledge being generated in engineering and social areas, a range of policy

  12. Stakeholder views on factors influencing the wellbeing and health sector engagement of young Asian New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Peiris-John, Roshini; Wong, Agnes; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION In New Zealand, while the term 'Asians' in popular discourse means East and South-east Asian peoples, Statistics New Zealand's definition includes people of many nationalities from East, South and South-east Asia, all with quite different cultural norms, taboos and degrees of conservatism. In a context where 'Asian' youth data are typically presented in aggregate form, there are notable gaps in knowledge regarding the contextual determinants of health in this highly heterogeneous group. This qualitative study explored key stakeholder views on issues that would be most useful to explore on the health and wellbeing of Asian youth and processes that would foster engagement of Asian youth in health research. METHODS Interviews were conducted with six key stakeholders whose professional activities were largely focused on the wellbeing of Asian people. The general inductive approach was used to identify and analyse themes in the qualitative text data. FINDINGS Six broad themes were identified from the key stakeholder interviews framed as priority areas that need further exploration: cultural identity, integration and acculturation; barriers to help-seeking; aspects to consider when engaging Asian youth in research (youth voice, empowerment and participatory approach to research); parental influence and involvement in health research; confidentiality and anonymity; and capacity building and informing policy. CONCLUSION With stakeholders strongly advocating the engagement of Asian youth in the health research agenda this study highlights the importance of engaging youth alongside service providers to collaborate on research and co-design responsive primary health care services in a multicultural setting. KEYWORDS Asian youth; New Zealand; health research; minority health; Community and social participation.

  13. Reflections on Communicating Science during the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence of 2010-2011, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wein, A. M.; Berryman, K. R.; Jolly, G. E.; Brackley, H. L.; Gledhill, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence began with the 4th September 2010 Darfield earthquake (Mw 7.1). Perhaps because there were no deaths, the mood of the city and the government was that high standards of earthquake engineering in New Zealand protected us, and there was a confident attitude to response and recovery. The demand for science and engineering information was of interest but not seen as crucial to policy, business or the public. The 22nd February 2011 Christchurch earthquake (Mw 6.2) changed all that; there was a significant death toll and many injuries. There was widespread collapse of older unreinforced and two relatively modern multi-storey buildings, and major disruption to infrastructure. The contrast in the interest and relevance of the science could not have been greater compared to 5 months previously. Magnitude 5+ aftershocks over a 20 month period resulted in confusion, stress, an inability to define a recovery trajectory, major concerns about whether insurers and reinsurers would continue to provide cover, very high levels of media interest from New Zealand and around the world, and high levels of political risk. As the aftershocks continued there was widespread speculation as to what the future held. During the sequence, the science and engineering sector sought to coordinate and offer timely and integrated advice. However, other than GeoNet, the national geophysical monitoring network, there were few resources devoted to communication, with the result that it was almost always reactive. With hindsight we have identified the need to resource information gathering and synthesis, execute strategic assessments of stakeholder needs, undertake proactive communication, and develop specific information packages for the diversity of users. Overall this means substantially increased resources. Planning is now underway for the science sector to adopt the New Zealand standardised CIMS (Coordinated Incident Management System) structure for

  14. Decision making for multiple utilization of water resources in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Pyar Ali

    1989-09-01

    The Clutha is the largest river in New Zealand. The last two decades have witnessed major conflicts centered on the utilization of the water resources of the upper Clutha river. These conflicts have by no means been finally resolved. The focus of this article is on institutional arrangements for water resource management on the Clutha, with particular reference to the decision-making processes that have culminated in the building of the high dam. It critically evaluates recent experiences and comments on future prospects for resolving resource use conflicts rationally through planning for multiple utilization in a climate of market led policies of the present government. The study demonstrates the inevitable conflicts that can arise within a public bureaucracy that combines dual responsibilities for policy making and operational functions. Hitherto, central government has been able to manipulate the water resource allocation process to its advantage because of a lack of clear separation between its two roles as a policy maker and developer. The conflicts that have manifested themselves during the last two decades over the Clutha should be seen as part of a wider public debate during the last two decades concerning resource utilization in New Zealand. The Clutha controversy was preceded by comparable concerns over the rising of the level of Lake Manapouri during the 1960s and has been followed by the debate over the “think big” resource development projects during the 1980s. The election of the fourth Labour government in 1983 has heralded a political and economic policy shift in New Zealand towards minimizing the role of public intervention in resource allocation and major structural reforms in the relative roles of central and regional government in resource management. The significance of these changes pose important implications for the future management of the Clutha.

  15. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  16. Sustaining Adventure in New Zealand Outdoor Education: Perspectives from Renowned New Zealand Outdoor Adventurers on the Contested Cultural Understanding of Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Maurice; Tucker, Hazel

    2007-01-01

    One of the foundations of New Zealand's representation of itself to the world has been as a premier place of adventure. New Zealanders who have gained world recognition in outdoor leisure pursuits are used to promote this adventurous depiction of New Zealand. They are the focus of and contribute to the discourse which guides the New Zealand…

  17. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  18. Building Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1994-01-01

    Describes how an initial $1,500 grant helped build a desperately needed health clinic on the Pine Ridge Reservation. Provides the history of the clinic, from its beginning as a small grant to its ultimate development into a $400,000 solar-heated health clinic with a staff of 9 people, including a full-time physician. (MAB)

  19. Laboratory Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jonathan

    The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and the location and distribution of piping and air conditioning, are considered particularly important. This building type study…

  20. Building Sinusoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Mara G.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the development and implementation of a measurement-based group activity designed to support students in understanding the connection between angle magnitude and the shape of the sine function. She explains that the benefit of this activity is that it allows students to build their trigonometric knowledge…

  1. Building Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Edward

    The purpose of this eight-unit course is to explore the values and issues of modern urban neighborhoods. It focuses on how community leaders can apply the broad principle of justice to problems of security, reciprocity, and fellowship that face most neighborhoods today. The course is intended for use by community leaders in building community…

  2. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  3. Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in New Zealand: differences associated with being a practitioner in New Zealand compared to China.

    PubMed

    Patel, Asmita; Toossi, Vahideh

    2016-10-28

    While New Zealand has experienced an increase in the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) based acupuncture, very little is known about the practitioners who provide this type of treatment modality. Therefore, this study was designed to identify differences associated with being a TCM practitioner in New Zealand compared to China. Ten Auckland-based TCM practitioners were individually interviewed. The interview schedule comprised of questions that were designed to identify any potential differences in practising TCM in New Zealand compared to China. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. The main differences in practising between the two countries were related to the role and authority that a TCM practitioner had. This in turn resulted in differences between the conditions that were treated in these two countries. Differences in patient demography were also identified between the two countries. TCM is used as a form of alternative healthcare treatment in New Zealand for non-Chinese individuals. Acupuncture is the most utilised form of TCM treatment in New Zealand, and is predominantly used for pain management purposes. TCM treatment has been utilised by individuals from a number of different ethnic groups, reflecting the ethnic diversity of the New Zealand population.

  4. Strategic perspective: Nuclear issues in the New Zealand media

    SciT

    Fridriksson, L.N.

    New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy drew international attention and threw the nation into a foreign policy crisis with the United States over the trilateral mutual security pact ANZUS. After more than a year of diminished intelligence and military cooperation, New Zealand was expelled from the alliance. This study involved a content analysis of coverage of these events and other nuclear issues in selected newspapers of New Zealand and the United States. Research points to the roles of the media as a critical one in the overall relations among countries. Through their frequent use of official government sources, the media tend tomore » uphold the government line or status quo with regard to foreign affairs. This study sought to identify the nuclear issues covered in the New Zealand and US media, the characteristics of that coverage, the sources of that coverage and how coverage varied during changing US-New Zealand relations. The official frame prevailed in coverage of nuclear issues. In the New Zealand and US newspapers under study, most sources of nuclear issue news were government officials. This research also found that most coverage of nuclear issues in the New Zealand media was related to some aspect of US interests, and that coverage of New Zealand's policy in the US media was covered most often when related to the United States. Nuclear issue coverage was most often not crisis-oriented in New Zealand and US newspapers, but coverage of all nuclear issues increased dramatically during the period of the ANZUS policy crisis. This study found a number of changes in nuclear issue coverage in the New Zealand media after the policy crisis was resolved. Among those changes were a tendency to focus less on economic and trade effects of the anti-nuclear policy, a tendency to focus more on ties with other South Pacific nations, use more sources from those countries, and a tendency to focus less on the moral and ethical position of the country.« less

  5. Insanity acquittee outcomes in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Skipworth, Jeremy; Brinded, Phil; Chaplow, David; Frampton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines clinical and forensic outcomes for defendants found not guilty by reason of insanity in New Zealand, and explores the implications for policy development and clinical rehabilitation in this population. All insanity acquittees disposed of by the courts as special patients after 1976 and released before 2004 are described. Their duration of inpatient care, rates of reconviction and rehospitalization following release are examined. The high resolution rate for violent crime reported to police suggests that reconviction rates are a reasonable proxy for violent reoffending. Factors predicting duration of inpatient care and reoffending are analysed. Severity of Index Offence was the only variable predicting duration of inpatient care of the 135 special patients. Offenders of more serious offences were securely detained for longer periods--averaging 6 years in the case of those charged with murder. Most patients were readmitted over the decade following discharge. Only 6% had violently reoffended 2 years after release into the community. Prior offending, age at release, ethnicity and gender predicted reoffending, but not diagnosis or duration of inpatient admission. Following discharge into the community, insanity acquittees are reconvicted of violent crimes at a very low rate, although readmission to hospital is common. It may be that insanity acquittees are initially detained in hospital longer than is clinically indicated, and that safe forensic community treatment can occur at an earlier stage of recovery without compromising public safety.

  6. Geothermal Field Near Rotorua, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Historical sketches show the indigenous Maori cooking with natural hot waters and steam prior to the arrival of Europeans on North Island, New Zealand. Since the 1950s, geothermal heat and steam have been exploited for both heating and electrical power generation, and some excess electrical power is exported to South Island. The geothermal development can be identified by the unique patterns of infrastructure that look like tan beads on a string in the midst of otherwise green vegetation. This one near the town of Rotorua lies within a northeast-trending line of active volcanoes (Ruapehu, Tongariro, and White Island) that are the surface result of the Pacific tectonic plate descending beneath the Australian-Indian plate. Image STS110-726-10 was taken by space shuttle crewmembers in April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  7. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    PubMed

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  8. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I

    2007-01-01

    Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television. PMID:17270053

  9. Campylobacter jejuni inactivation in New Zealand soils.

    PubMed

    Ross, C M; Donnison, A M

    2006-11-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the inactivation rate of Campylobacter jejuni in New Zealand soils. Farm dairy effluent (FDE) inoculated at c. 10(5) ml(-1) with C. jejuni was applied to intact soil cores at a rate of 2 l m(-2). Four soils were used: Hamilton (granular); Taupo (pumice); Horotiu and Waihou (allophanic). After FDE application cores were incubated at 10 degrees C for up to 32 days. For all four soils all the FDE remained within the cores and at least 99% of C. jejuni were retained in the top 5 cm. Campylobacter jejuni had declined to the limit of detection (two C. jejuni 100 g(-1)) by 25 days in Hamilton and Taupo soils and by 32 days in Waihou soil. In contrast, in Horotiu soil the decline was only three orders of magnitude after 32 days. Simulated heavy rainfall was applied 4 and 11 days after FDE application and only about 1% of the applied C. jejuni were recovered in leachates. This study demonstrated that at least 99% of applied C. jejuni were retained in the top 5 cm of four soils where they survived for at least 25 days at 10 degrees C. Soil retention of C. jejuni is efficient at FDE application rates that prevent drainage losses. The low infectious dose of C. jejuni and its ability to survive up to 25 days have implications for stock management on dairy farms.

  10. An Online Survey of New Zealand Vapers

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Marewa; Fraser, Trish

    2018-01-01

    Using electronic cigarettes (vaping) is controversial, but is increasingly widespread. This paper reports the results of an electronic survey of vapers in New Zealand, a country where the sale and supply of e-liquids containing nicotine is illegal, although vapers can legally access e-liquids from overseas. An on-line survey was conducted, using vaper and smoking cessation networks for recruitment, with follow up surveys conducted 1 and 2 months after the initial survey. 218 participants were recruited. Almost all had been smokers, but three quarters no longer smoked, with the remainder having significantly reduced their tobacco use. Three participants were non-smokers before starting to vape, but none had gone on to become smokers. The overriding motivation to begin and continue vaping was to stop or to reduce smoking. The results were consistent with a progression from initially both vaping and smoking using less effective electronic cigarette types, then moving to more powerful devices, experimentation with flavors and nicotine strengths—all resulting in reducing or stopping tobacco use. Lack of access to nicotine and lack of support for their chosen cessation method were the main problems reported. Vaping had resulted in effective smoking cessation for the majority of participants. PMID:29382129

  11. Trampoline injury in New Zealand: emergency care.

    PubMed Central

    Hume, P A; Chalmers, D J; Wilson, B D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine trampoline related injuries resulting in emergency department attendance. METHODS: Cases were identified by searching free text descriptions of the circumstances of injury contained in the records of the emergency department of a large city hospital. RESULTS: 114 cases were identified for a 12 month period, giving an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 89 to 129) compared with 9.3 hospital admissions per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 8.3 to 10.4) for a corresponding period reported in earlier research from New Zealand. This suggested that for every one hospital admission there are approximately 12 emergency department attendances. Of the cases, 95% were aged less than 20 years. As for the earlier research, falls from the trampoline to the surrounding surface were the commonest cause of injury. In the present study, sprains and strains were the commonest type of injury (40%), and the body site most frequently involved was the lower limb (46%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the conclusion from earlier research that although existing trampoline standards address many of the issues relating to trampoline safety, the need remains for measures to reduce the impact of falls from the trampoline to the ground surface and to prohibit the use of trampolines as unsupervised "play equipment". PMID:9015596

  12. Adolescent and young adult medicine in Australia and New Zealand: towards specialist accreditation.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Susan M; Farrant, Bridget; Hall, Anganette; Kennedy, Andrew; Payne, Donald; Steinbeck, Kate; Vogel, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    In Australia and New Zealand, a critical mass of academic and clinical leadership in Adolescent Medicine has helped advance models of clinical services, drive investments in teaching and training, and strengthen research capacity over the past 30 years. There is growing recognition of the importance of influencing the training of adult physicians as well as paediatricians. The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) is responsible for overseeing all aspects of specialist physician training across the two countries. Following advocacy from adolescent physicians, the RACP is advancing a three-tier strategy to build greater specialist capacity and sustain leadership in adolescent and young adult medicine (AYAM). The first tier of the strategy supports universal training in adolescent and young adult health and medicine for all basic trainees in paediatric and adult medicine through an online training resource. The second and third tiers support advanced training in AYAM for specialist practice, based on an advanced training curriculum that has been approved by the RACP. The second tier is dual training; advanced trainees can undertake 2 years training in AYAM and 2 years training in another area of specialist practice. The third tier consists of 3 years of advanced training in AYAM. The RACP is currently seeking formal recognition from the Australian Government to have AYAM accredited, a process that will be subsequently undertaken in New Zealand. The RACP is expectant that the accreditation of specialist AYAM physicians will promote sustained academic and clinical leadership in AYAM to the benefit of future generations of young Australasians.

  13. Cultural Competency Education in Academic Dental Institutions in Australia and New Zealand: A Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Sheree L; Hayes, Melanie J; Taylor, Jane A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cultural competency education in Australian and New Zealand dental, dental hygiene, and oral health therapy programs. The study sought to explore the extent to which cultural competence is included in these programs' curricula, building on similar studies conducted in the United States and thus contributing to the international body of knowledge on this topic. A 12-item instrument was designed with questions in four areas (demographics, content of cultural competency education, organization of overall program curriculum, and educational methods used to teach cultural competence) and was sent to all Australian and New Zealand dental, dental hygiene, and oral health therapy educational programs. Of the total 24 programs, 15 responded for a response rate of 62.5%. The results showed that lectures were the most frequent teaching method used in cultural competency education; however, the variation in responses indicated inconsistencies across study participants, as discussions and self-directed learning also featured prominently in the responses. The majority of respondents reported that cultural competence was not taught as a specific course but rather integrated into their programs' existing curricula. The variations in methods may indicate the need for a standardized framework for cultural competency education in these countries. In addition, the notion of cultural competency education in academic dental institutions demands additional evaluation, and further research is required to develop a solid evidence base on which to develop cultural competency education, specifically regarding content, most effective pedagogies, and assessment of student preparedness.

  14. Building Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The building in the top photo is the new home of the National Permanent Savings Bank in Washington, D.C., designed by Hartman-Cox Architects. Its construction was based on a money-saving method of preparing building specifications which derived from NASA technology developed to obtain quality construction while holding down cost of launch facilities, test centers and other structures. Written technical specifications spell out materials and components to be used on construction projects and identify the quality tests each item must pass. Specifications can have major impact on construction costs. Poorly formulated specifications can lead to unacceptable construction which must be replaced, unnecessarily high materials costs, safety hazards, disputes and often additional costs due to delays and litigation. NASA's Langley Research Center developed a novel approach to providing accurate, uniform, cost-effective specifications which can be readily updated to incorporate new building technologies. Called SPECSINTACT, it is a computerized - system accessible to all NASA centers involved in construction programs. The system contains a comprehensive catalog of master specifications applicable to many types of construction. It enables designers of any structure to call out relevant sections from computer storage and modify them to fit the needs of the project at hand. Architects and engineers can save time by concentrating their efforts on needed modifications rather than developing all specifications from scratch. Successful use of SPECSINTACT has led to a number of spinoff systems. One of the first was MASTERSPEC, developed from NASA's experience by Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., an organization established by the American Institute of Architects. MASTERSPEC, used in construction of the bank building pictured, follows the same basic format as SPECSINTACT and can be used in either automated or manual modes. The striking appearance of the bank

  15. Building No. 5, Main Building; Building NO. 9, Guard House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 5, Main Building; Building NO. 9, Guard House (left). Viewed from across corner Lakeside Avenue and Main Street - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  16. 2. PRINTING AND ADVERTISING BUILDING, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, MERCHANDISE BUILDING, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PRINTING AND ADVERTISING BUILDING, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, MERCHANDISE BUILDING, AND GARDEN, VIEW TO SOUTHWEST - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Bounded by Lexington & Grenshaw Streets, Kedzie Avenue & Independence Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. Educational Building and Facilities in the Asian Region. Bulletin No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Educational facilities analyzed in this bulletin are in the countries of the Republic of Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The first section reviews the historical reasons for different stages of school building development in the…

  18. Intelligent buildings.

    PubMed

    Williams, W E

    1987-01-01

    The maturing of technologies in computer capabilities, particularly direct digital signals, has provided an exciting variety of new communication and facility control opportunities. These include telecommunications, energy management systems, security systems, office automation systems, local area networks, and video conferencing. New applications are developing continuously. The so-called "intelligent" or "smart" building concept evolves from the development of this advanced technology in building environments. Automation has had a dramatic effect on facility planning. For decades, communications were limited to the telephone, the typewritten message, and copy machines. The office itself and its functions had been essentially unchanged for decades. Office automation systems began to surface during the energy crisis and, although their newer technology was timely, they were, for the most part, designed separately from other new building systems. For example, most mainframe computer systems were originally stand-alone, as were word processing installations. In the last five years, the advances in distributive systems, networking, and personal computer capabilities have provided opportunities to make such dramatic improvements in productivity that the Selectric typewriter has gone from being the most advanced piece of office equipment to nearly total obsolescence.

  19. Social impact of the 2004 Manawatu floods and the 'hollowing out' of rural New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Willie; Davies-Colley, Christian; Mackay, Alec; Bankoff, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The Manawatu floods of 2004 have had significant, long-lasting social consequences. This paper draws on findings from a series of detailed surveys of 39 farm households directly affected by the floods and 17 individuals directly involved in managing the flood recovery programme. The nature of the impact on rural families highlights how the 'hollowing out' of rural New Zealand has changed the capacity of rural communities to respond to natural hazards and increased their sense of isolation. In addition, the floods exposed the vulnerability of rural communities. This is shown to have implications for policies designed to build resilience and improve responses to adverse events, including the need to support local, community initiatives on self-reliance and mutual support. Approaches to manage better long-term flood risks should be designed within a context of ongoing rural decline that has compromised the health of both individuals and communities. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  20. Crisis engagement in mental health: a New Zealand Māori contribution.

    PubMed

    Drury, Nick; Munro, Te Ata

    2008-10-01

    The active engagement of clients in mental health services offers far greater chances of successful outcomes. When clients do not actively engage in treatment, their risk of becoming part of the population of 'high users' is greater. The 'high users' consume a disproportionate share of health resources, which may prevent other potential clients from accessing services. Engagement can be particularly challenging in crisis situations, which is how many clients attracting psychotic diagnoses first enter the service. New Zealand Māori bring a transcendent quality to the idea of 'respect for Other', which would make it sacrilegious to overpower Other in most situations. This paper reviews a growing body of literature indicating how we might integrate an enhanced respect or reverence of Other into clinical practice. This includes the idea of engaging more frequently with the social network when building rapport with an individual is particularly challenging. There is some evidence that services adopting this kind of approach are more economical.

  1. Systematics of Simplicia Kirk (Poaceae, Agrostidinae) – an endemic, threatened New Zealand grass genus

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Peter J.; Smissen, Rob D.; Rolfe, Jeremy R.; Ogle, Colin C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the New Zealand endemic grass Simplicia, Simplicia felix is described. The new species is segregated from and compared with Simplicia buchananii and Simplicia laxa. Simplicia felix occurs mostly in lightly shaded areas of seasonally dry alluvial forest. A distribution map and an assessment of the conservation status of the new species are presented. Genetic variation in the genus was examined, building on previously published work but including additional sampling. Analysis of nrDNA ITS and ETS and plastid trnL intron and trnL–F intergenic spacer sequences show Simplicia felix to be more closely related to Simplicia laxa than to Simplicia buchananii. NeighborNet analyses of AFLP profiles for the three species of Simplicia show each to consist of distinct clusters of genotypes well separated from each other. PMID:28127249

  2. Immediate behavioural responses to earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S; Wu, Hao Che; Huang, Shih-Kai; Johnston, David M; Becker, Julia S; Shiroshita, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study examines people's immediate responses to earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan. Data collected from 257 respondents in Christchurch and 332 respondents in Hitachi revealed notable similarities between the two cities in people's emotional reactions, risk perceptions, and immediate protective actions during the events. Respondents' physical, household, and social contexts were quite similar, but Hitachi residents reported somewhat higher levels of emotional reaction and risk perception than did Christchurch residents. Contrary to the recommendations of emergency officials, the most frequent response of residents in both cities was to freeze. Christchurch residents were more likely than Hitachi residents to drop to the ground and take cover, whereas Hitachi residents were more likely than Christchurch residents to evacuate immediately the building in which they were situated. There were relatively small correlations between immediate behavioural responses and demographic characteristics, earthquake experience, and physical, social, or household context. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  3. Corporal punishment and child maltreatment in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    On 2 May, 2007, the New Zealand Parliament passed a law repealing Section 59 of the Crimes Act. In so doing, New Zealand became the first English-speaking nation in the world to make corporal punishment of a child illegal. The passage of this legislation was surrounded by intense and persistent public debate, and supporters of corporal punishment continue to advocate against the law change to the present day. In Sweden, where the first stage of similar repeal took place in 1957, it may be difficult for many to understand the strength of the public opposition to this change in New Zealand. This article will present a viewpoint on the evolution of the debate in New Zealand, review the wider context of child maltreatment and family violence in New Zealand and summarize a range of attempts to prevent or intervene effectively in the cycle of dysfunction. Child maltreatment and family violence are public health issues of great importance, and a stain on all societies. While corporal punishment may be a significant contributing factor, there is no single 'solution'. Change must occur on multiple levels (political, economic, cultural, familial and professional) before the tide will turn.

  4. Japanese women's experiences of pharmacological pain relief in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Blue whale vocalizations recorded around New Zealand: 1964-2013.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian S; Collins, Kym; Barlow, Jay; Calderan, Susannah; Leaper, Russell; McDonald, Mark; Ensor, Paul; Olson, Paula A; Olavarria, Carlos; Double, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    Previous underwater recordings made in New Zealand have identified a complex sequence of low frequency sounds that have been attributed to blue whales based on similarity to blue whale songs in other areas. Recordings of sounds with these characteristics were made opportunistically during the Southern Ocean Research Partnership's recent Antarctic Blue Whale Voyage. Detections of these sounds occurred all around the South Island of New Zealand during the voyage transits from Nelson, New Zealand to the Antarctic and return. By following acoustic bearings from directional sonobuoys, blue whales were visually detected and confirmed as the source of these sounds. These recordings, together with the historical recordings made northeast of New Zealand, indicate song types that persist over several decades and are indicative of the year-round presence of a population of blue whales that inhabits the waters around New Zealand. Measurements of the four-part vocalizations reveal that blue whale song in this region has changed slowly, but consistently over the past 50 years. The most intense units of these calls were detected as far south as 53°S, which represents a considerable range extension compared to the limited prior data on the spatial distribution of this population.

  6. Rheumatic heart disease in indigenous populations--New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Rheumatic fever continues unabated among the indigenous Māori and Pacific Island New Zealanders. Ethnic disparities have increased in the past decade. The major success story for disease control has been secondary penicillin prophylaxis with 28-day intramuscular benzathine penicillin with high penicillin delivery rates and low recurrence rates. A landmark study for primary prevention of acute rheumatic fever for group A streptococcal pharyngitis was published in 2009. New Zealand has helped establish the role of echocardiography in acute rheumatic fever, with subclinical carditis incorporated into guidelines as a major criterion of rheumatic fever in high prevalence regions. The rates of mitral valve repair for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are currently greater than 90% in the children's cardiac unit but remain low in adult cardiac units in New Zealand. This is particularly relevant to women of child bearing age where New Zealand data has shown that pregnancy outcomes for mothers with prosthetic valves on warfarin are poor. There are new initiatives to prevent severe RHD using portable echocardiography by screening school aged children. The prevalence of definite RHD was 2.4% in a large cohort of socially disadvantaged children in South Auckland studied in 2007-2008. Cost benefit models of screening need to be developed. Ongoing research involves international consensus standardisation of RHD patterns, and the need to define the natural history of subclinical RHD. Copyright 2010 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The “window of susceptibility” for inflammation in the immature central nervous system is characterized by a leaky blood brain barrier and the local expression of inflammatory chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Schoderboeck, Lucia; Adzemovic, Milena; Nicolussi, Eva-Maria; Crupinschi, Claudia; Hochmeister, Sonja; Fischer, Marie-Therese; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Early in postnatal development, the immature central nervous system (CNS) is more susceptible to inflammation than its adult counterpart. We show here that this “window of susceptibility” is characterized by the presence of leaky vessels in the CNS, and by a global chemokine expression profile which is clearly distinct from the one observed in the adult CNS and has three important characteristics. First, it contains chemokines with known roles in the differentiation and maturation of glia and neurons. Secondly, these chemokines have been described before in inflammatory lesions of the CNS, where they are important for the recruitment of monocytes and T cells. And last, the chemokine profile is shaped by pathological changes like oligodendrocyte stress and attempts of myelin repair. Changes in the chemokine expression profile along with a leaky blood brain barrier pave the ground for an accelerated development of CNS inflammation. PMID:19520164

  8. Estimated dietary fluoride intake for New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Peter; Gaw, Sally; Love, John

    2010-01-01

    Existing fluoride concentration and consumption data were used to estimate fluoride intakes from the diet and toothpaste use, for New Zealand subpopulations, to identify any population groups at risk of high-fluoride intake. For each sub-population, two separate dietary intake estimates were made--one based on a non-fluoridated water supply (fluoride concentration of 0.1 mg/L), and the other based on a water supply fluoridated to a concentration of 1.0 mg/L. Fluoride concentration data were taken from historical surveys, while food consumption data were taken from national 24-hour dietary recall surveys or from simulated diets. Mean and 95th percentile estimations of dietary fluoride intake were well below the upper level of intake (UL), whether intakes were calculated on the basis of a non-fluoridated or fluoridated water supply. The use of fluoride-containing toothpastes provides additional fluoride intake. For many of the population groups considered, mean fluoride intakes were below the adequate intake (AI) level for caries protection, even after inclusion of the fluoride contribution from toothpaste. Intake of fluoride was driven by consumption of dietary staples (bread, potatoes),beverages (particularly tea, soft drinks, and beer), and the fluoride status of drinking water. Estimates of fluoride intake from the diet and toothpaste did not identify any groups at risk of exceeding the UL, with the exception of infants (6-12 months) living in areas with fluoridated water supplies and using high-fluoride toothpaste. In contrast, much of the adult population may be receiving insufficient fluoride for optimum caries protection from these sources, as represented by the AI.

  9. Characteristics of and differences between Pasifika women and New Zealand European women diagnosed with breast cancer in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charis; Lao, Chunhuan; Lawrenson, Ross; Tin Tin, Sandar; Schaaf, Michelle; Kidd, Jacquie; Allan-Moetaua, Anne; Herman, Josephine; Raamsroop, Reena; Campbell, Ian; Elwood, Mark

    2017-12-15

    Breast cancer in New Zealand-based Pasifika women is a significant issue. Although Pasifika women have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared to New Zealand European women, they have higher breast cancer mortality and lower five-year survival. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and tumour biology of Pasifika women and to compare New Zealand European women to identify what factors impact on early (Stage 1 and 2) vs advanced stage (Stage 3 and 4) at diagnosis. Data on all Pasifika and New Zealand European women diagnosed with breast cancer (C50) during the period 1 June 2000 to 31 May 2013 was extracted from the Auckland and Waikato Breast Cancer Registries. Descriptive tables and Chi-square test were used to examine differences in characteristics and tumour biology between Pasifika and New Zealand European women. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that contributed to an increased risk of advanced stage at diagnosis. A significantly higher proportion of Pasifika women had advanced disease at diagnosis compared to New Zealand European women (33.3% and 18.3%, respectively). Cancer biology in Pasifika women was more likely to be: 1) HER2+, 2) ER/PR negative and 3) have a tumour size of ≥50mm. Pasifika women live in higher deprivation areas of 9-10 compared to New Zealand European women (55% vs 14%, respectively) and were less likely to have their cancer identified through screening. Logistic regression showed that if Pasifika women were on the screen-detected pathway they had similar odds (not sig.) of having advanced disease at diagnosis to New Zealand European women. Mode of detection, deprivation, age and some biological factors contributed to the difference in odds ratio between Pasifika and New Zealand European women. For those of screening age, adherence to the screening programme and improvements in access to earlier diagnosis for Pasifika women under the current screening age have the potential to make a substantial

  10. Becoming willing to role model. Reciprocity between new graduate nurses and experienced practice nurses in general practice in New Zealand: a constructivist grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Hoarea, Karen J; Millsc, Jane; Francis, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Graduate nurses in general practice became a feature of New Zealand's health care system in 2008 following an expansion of the New Entrant to Practice Programme. General practice in New Zealand comprises general practitioner business owners who employ nursing and administration staff. Practice nurses are an ageing workforce in New Zealand, it is imperative therefore to attract younger nurses into general practice. This paper reports a section of the findings from a constructivist grounded theory study which examines the use of information by practice nurses in New Zealand. Initially data were collected using the ethnographic technique of observation and field notations in one general practice. Theoretical sensitivity to the value of role models was heightened by this first phase of data collection. A total of eleven practice nurses were interviewed from six general practices. One practice nurse agreed to a second interview; five of the interviewees were new graduate nurses and the other six were experienced practice nurses. The grounded theory constructed from this research was reciprocal role modelling which comprises the following three categories, becoming willing, realising potential and becoming a better practitioner. Graduate nurses and experienced practice nurses enter into a relationship of reciprocal role modelling. Becoming willing, the first core category of this grounded theory features three sub-categories: building respectful relationships, proving yourself and discerning decision making which are reported in this paper. Findings from this study may address the reported phenomenon of 'transition shock' of newly graduated nurses in the work place.

  11. Relativism, Values and Morals in the New Zealand Curriculum Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, Sueann

    The New Zealand Curriculum Framework, 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in the school curriculum. This paper investigates the requirements for teaching attitudes, values and ethics in the curriculum statements for Science, Biology and Technology. The question is raised whether the teaching of skills for resolving moral and ethical dilemmas are required by the official education standards in New Zealand, and internationally. The paper reports on a survey done on pre-service teacher trainees of their understanding of these requirements. Implications for courses that might need to be provided in future pre-service teacher education programmes are briefly discussed.

  12. First detection of Wolbachia in the New Zealand biota.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, Benjamin; Morgan-Richards, Mary; Wheeler, David; Trewick, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    Wolbachia is one of the most widespread intracellular bacteria on earth, estimated to infect between 40 and 66% of arthropod species in most ecosystems that have been surveyed. Their significance rests not only in their vast distribution, but also in their ability to modify the reproductive biology of their hosts, which can ultimately affect genetic diversity and speciation of infected populations. Wolbachia has yet to be formally identified in the fauna of New Zealand which has high levels of endemic biodiversity and this represents a gap in our understanding of the global biology of Wolbachia. Using High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of host DNA in conjunction with traditional molecular techniques we identified six endemic Orthoptera species that were positive for Wolbachia infection. In addition, short-sequence amplification with Wolbachia specific primers applied to New Zealand and introduced invertebrates detected a further 153 individuals positive for Wolbachia. From these short-range DNA amplification products sequence data was obtained for the ftsZ gene region from 86 individuals representing 10 host species. Phylogenetic analysis using the sequences obtained in this study reveals that there are two distinct Wolbachia bacteria lineages in New Zealand hosts belonging to recognised Wolbachia supergroups (A and B). These represent the first described instances of Wolbachia in the New Zealand native fauna, including detection in putative parasitoids of infected Orthoptera suggesting a possible transmission path. Our detection of Wolbachia infections of New Zealand species provides the opportunity to study local transmission of Wolbachia and explore their role in the evolution of New Zealand invertebrates.

  13. Particulate matter from indoor environments of classroom induced higher cytotoxicity and leakiness in human microvascular endothelial cells in comparison with those collected from corridor.

    PubMed

    Chua, M L; Setyawati, M I; Li, H; Fang, C H Y; Gurusamy, S; Teoh, F T L; Leong, D T; George, S

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the physicochemical properties (size, shape, elemental composition, and endotoxin) of size resolved particulate matter (PM) collected from the indoor and corridor environments of classrooms. A comparative hazard profiling of these PM was conducted using human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). Oxidative stress-dependent cytotoxicity responses were assessed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and high content screening (HCS), and disruption of monolayer cell integrity was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and transwell assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed differences in the morphology and elemental composition of PM of different sizes and origins. While the total mass of PM collected from indoor environment was lower in comparison with those collected from the corridor, the endotoxin content was substantially higher in indoor PM (e.g., ninefold higher endotoxin level in indoor PM 8.1-20 ). The ability to induce oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity and leakiness in cell monolayer were higher for indoor PM compared to those collected from the corridor. In conclusion, this comparative analysis suggested that indoor PM is relatively more hazardous to the endothelial system possibly because of higher endotoxin content. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. On the aquitard-aquifer interface flow and the drawdown sensitivity with a partially penetrating pumping well in an anisotropic leaky confined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qinggao; Zhan, Hongbin

    2015-02-01

    A mathematical model for describing groundwater flow to a partially penetrating pumping well of a finite diameter in an anisotropic leaky confined aquifer is developed. The model accounts for the jointed effects of aquitard storage, aquifer anisotropy, and wellbore storage by treating the aquitard leakage as a boundary condition at the aquitard-aquifer interface rather than a volumetric source/sink term in the governing equation, which has never developed before. A new semi-analytical solution for the model is obtained by the Laplace transform in conjunction with separation of variables. Specific attention was paid on the flow across the aquitard-aquifer interface, which is of concern if aquitard and aquifer have different pore water chemistry. Moreover, Laplace-domain and steady-state solutions are obtained to calculate the rate and volume of (total) leakage through the aquitard-aquifer interface due to pump in a partially penetrating well, which is also useful for engineers to manager water resources. The sensitivity analyses for the drawdown illustrate that the drawdown is most sensitive to the well partial penetration. It is apparently sensitive to the aquifer anisotropic ratio over the entire time of pumping. It is moderately sensitive to the aquitard/aquifer specific storage ratio at the intermediate times only. It is moderately sensitive to the aquitard/aquifer vertical hydraulic conductivity ratio and the aquitard/aquifer thickness ratio with the identical influence at late times.

  15. Understanding the Leaky Pipeline: Perceived Barriers to Pursuing a Career in Medicine or Dentistry Among Underrepresented-in-Medicine Undergraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Brandi Kaye; Landry, Alden; Trevino, Robert; Grande, David; Shea, Judy A

    2016-07-01

    Representation of persons from diverse backgrounds remains a persistent challenge for medicine and dentistry workforces. Past research has focused on quantifying factors such as markers of educational achievement to explain the difficulty of increasing diversity within the professions. There has been less effort toward understanding the perspectives of undergraduate students on the threshold of applying to medical/dental school about distinct barriers to pursuing a medical or dental career and continuing through the training pipeline. In 2012 and 2013, the authors conducted a qualitative study of undergraduate students participating in the Tour for Diversity in Medicine, a program where minority physicians and dentists visit colleges with large fractions of minority students to encourage careers in the health professions. Focus groups were convened during the visits to examine perceived barriers to pursuing careers in medicine and dentistry and challenges identified through thematic content analysis. Eighty-two students participated in discussions at 11 colleges visited between September 2012 and February 2013. Students described challenges including inadequate institutional resources (e.g., sparse clinical opportunities), strained personal resources (e.g., conflict arising from familial pressure), inadequate guidance and mentoring to assist with key career decisions, and societal barriers. For participants, these challenges caused them to question the viability of persisting in the pipeline to a medical or dental career. Solving the issue of diversity in medicine and dentistry is multifaceted, but elucidated challenges from the undergraduate student perspective offer targeted areas where intervention may help remedy barriers and decrease pipeline leakiness.

  16. Self-organization in leaky threshold systems: The influence of near-mean field dynamics and its implications for earthquakes, neurobiology, and forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Rundle, J. B.; Tiampo, K. F.; Klein, W.; Sá Martins, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    Threshold systems are known to be some of the most important nonlinear self-organizing systems in nature, including networks of earthquake faults, neural networks, superconductors and semiconductors, and the World Wide Web, as well as political, social, and ecological systems. All of these systems have dynamics that are strongly correlated in space and time, and all typically display a multiplicity of spatial and temporal scales. Here we discuss the physics of self-organization in earthquake threshold systems at two distinct scales: (i) The “microscopic” laboratory scale, in which consideration of results from simulations leads to dynamical equations that can be used to derive the results obtained from sliding friction experiments, and (ii) the “macroscopic” earthquake fault-system scale, in which the physics of strongly correlated earthquake fault systems can be understood by using time-dependent state vectors defined in a Hilbert space of eigenstates, similar in many respects to the mathematics of quantum mechanics. In all of these systems, long-range interactions induce the existence of locally ergodic dynamics. The existence of dissipative effects leads to the appearance of a “leaky threshold” dynamics, equivalent to a new scaling field that controls the size of nucleation events relative to the size of background fluctuations. At the macroscopic earthquake fault-system scale, these ideas show considerable promise as a means of forecasting future earthquake activity. PMID:11875204

  17. 5.5 W near-diffraction-limited power from resonant leaky-wave coupled phase-locked arrays of quantum cascade lasers

    SciT

    Kirch, J. D.; Chang, C.-C.; Boyle, C.

    2015-02-09

    Five, 8.36 μm-emitting quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) have been monolithically phase-locked in the in-phase array mode via resonant leaky-wave coupling. The structure is fabricated by etch and regrowth which provides large index steps (Δn = 0.10) between antiguided-array elements and interelement regions. Such high index contrast photonic-crystal (PC) lasers have more than an order of magnitude higher index contrast than PC-distributed feedback lasers previously used for coherent beam combining in QCLs. Absorption loss to metal layers inserted in the interelement regions provides a wide (∼1.0 μm) range in interelement width over which the resonant in-phase mode is strongly favored to lase. Room-temperature, in-phase-mode operation withmore » ∼2.2 kA/cm{sup 2} threshold-current density is obtained from 105 μm-wide aperture devices. The far-field beam pattern has lobewidths 1.65× diffraction limit (D.L.) and 82% of the light in the main lobe, up to 1.8× threshold. Peak pulsed near-D.L. power of 5.5 W is obtained, with 4.5 W emitted in the main lobe. Means of how to increase the device internal efficiency are discussed.« less

  18. A practical assessment of aquifer discharge for regional groundwater demand by characterizing leaky confined aquifer overlain on a Mesozoic granitic gneiss basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, David Ching-Fang

    2018-04-01

    Due to increasing population worldwide, there is an urgent need to manage these important but diminishing groundwater resources efficiently to ensure their continued availability. The major innovative design of this study is to provide a practical assessment process for groundwater discharge under a regional demand by characterizing the nature of leaky confined aquifers overlain on a Mesozoic granitic gneiss basement which involves the important groundwater system in the Kinmen region (Taiwan, ROC) and the assessment of adoptable groundwater discharge in aquifer is needed. The storage coefficient presents an order of one in a thousand and hydraulic conductivity is approximately at the order of 1-8 m/d and 0.4-0.9 m/d for aquifer and aquitard respectively. Groundwater discharge and admissible number of pumping well is suggested considering scheduled maximum groundwater volume and head decline change for eastern and western studied area respectively. The safety subjected to the conservative issue is then addressed by the use of scheduled maximum groundwater volume. It reveals that the safety can be ensured using the indicator as scheduled maximum groundwater volume with predefined scenarios. The result can be utilized practically for developing management strategy of groundwater resources due to the applicability and novel of method.

  19. Effect of humic acids on intestinal viscosity, leaky gut and ammonia excretion in a 24 hr feed restriction model to induce intestinal permeability in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Maguey-Gonzalez, Jesús A; Michel, Matias A; Baxter, Mikayla F A; Tellez, Guillermo; Moore, Philip A; Solis-Cruz, Bruno; Hernández-Patlan, Daniel; Merino-Guzman, Rubén; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Latorre, Juan D; Hargis, Billy M; Gomez-Rosales, Sergio; Tellez-Isaias, Guillermo

    2018-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of humic acids (HA) on intestinal viscosity, leaky gut and ammonia excretion in a 24 hr feed restriction (FR) model to induce intestinal permeability in chickens. One-day-old male Cobb-Vantress broilers were randomly allocated to one of two groups (n = 25 chickens), with or without 0.2% of isolated HA from worm-compost, and placed in brooder batteries. Chicks had ad libitum access to water and feed for 14 days. Intestinal permeability was induced by 24 hr FR starting at 14 days. At 15 days of age, chickens in both groups were given an appropriate dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) by oral gavage. Intestine and liver samples were also collected to evaluate viscosity and bacterial translocation (BT), respectively. An increase (p < .05) in intestinal viscosity was observed in the experimental group consuming 0.2% of HA and was confirmed in a published in vitro digestion model that simulates the chemical and physical conditions of the crop, proventriculus and intestine of chickens. Furthermore, the treated group also showed a significant reduction in FITC-d, liver BT and ammonia in the manure. These results suggest that HA have a positive impact in intestinal integrity in chickens. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Medical practice in New Zealand 1769-1860.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, Ross

    2004-06-01

    New Zealand was discovered by Captain Cook in 1769. Over the next ninety years, increasing numbers of medical practitioners visited and began to settle in what became a British colony. The first medical visitors were usually naval surgeons or served on board whaling ships. The major influx of doctors occurred at the behest of the New Zealand Company between 1840 and 1848, although Christian missionaries, army doctors, and individual medical entrepreneurs also emigrated and provided services. This paper describes the pattern of medical settlement in the colony's earliest years and relates this to the health of the population and the development of medical and hospital services.

  1. Cultural safety in New Zealand midwifery practice. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Farry, Annabel; Crowther, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Midwives in New Zealand work within a unique cultural context. This calls for an understanding and appreciation of biculturalism and the equal status of Mãori and Europeans as the nation's founding peoples. This paper is the first of two papers that explore the notions of cultural safety and competence. Exploration and discussion take place in the New Zealand context, yet have transferable implications for midwives everywhere. This first paper provides a background to practice in a bicultural country where cultural safety strategies were introduced over 20 years ago to help reduce health disparities. The implications of these strategies are examined. The second paper will focus on midwifery education and practice.

  2. Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John

    2014-09-01

    Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The disease pyramid for acute gastrointestinal illness in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lake, R J; Adlam, S B; Perera, S; Campbell, D M; Baker, M G

    2010-10-01

    The disease pyramid of under-ascertainment for surveillance of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in New Zealand has been estimated using 2005-2007 data on notifiable diseases, a community telephone survey, and a survey of diagnostic laboratories. For each notified case of AGI there were an estimated 222 cases in the community, about 49 of which visited a general practitioner. Faecal samples were requested from about 15 of these cases, and 13 samples were provided. Of the faecal samples, pathogens were detected in about three cases. These ratios are similar to those reported in other developed countries, and provide baseline measurements of the AGI burden in the New Zealand community.

  4. Professional Development for E-Learning: Researching a Strategy for New Zealand's Tertiary Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Mansvelt, Juliana; Stein, Sarah; Suddaby, Gordon; Harris, Irene; O'Hara, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    This collaborative research project devised a framework to support professional development for e-learning within New Zealand's diverse and integrated tertiary education sector. The research was supported by New Zealand's Ministry of Education. The research included reviews of developments in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand and a…

  5. History in the New Zealand Curriculum: Discourse Shaping and Key Competencies Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Philippa

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on history in the New Zealand curriculum in light of its seemingly confused curriculum identity despite revision processes of the New Zealand Curriculum (NZC; New Zealand Ministry of Education, 2007). Some thinking about curriculum as a socially constructed political process that teachers can actively engage with sets the scene…

  6. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  7. Asia-Born New Zealand-Educated Business Graduates' Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Vivienne; McGrath, Terry; Butcher, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In 2008 the Asia New Zealand Foundation commissioned a three-year project examining Asia-born New Zealand-educated business graduates' study to work transitions. Data were collected through annual online surveys and in-depth interviews. Graduates were asked to discuss their post-study experiences, reflections on studying in New Zealand, and…

  8. An Evaluation of Characteristics of Environmental Education Practice in New Zealand Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eames, Chris; Cowie, Bronwen; Bolstad, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a national evaluation project that investigated characteristics of environmental education (EE) practice in New Zealand schools in 2002-2003. The research included a review of New Zealand and international environmental education literature, a survey of nearly 200 New Zealand schools and case studies of environmental…

  9. Asian Students' Voices: An Empirical Study of Asian Students' Learning Experiences at a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jacqui; Li, Mingsheng

    2008-01-01

    More than 85% of the international students in New Zealand are Asian in origin. The level of satisfaction of Asian international students with their learning experiences in New Zealand has been of enormous concern for the New Zealand export education industry. The results of this current research, based on a qualitative research study conducted at…

  10. The Transition from Teaching in an International Context Back to New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anthony; Carlyon, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    While there can be benefits from having overseas teaching experience, the transition back to New Zealand is not always easy for teachers who have previously gained their initial teaching qualification and certification in New Zealand. Upon returning to New Zealand from teaching in an international context, teachers can find it difficult having…

  11. Te Reo Maori: Indigenous Language Acquisition in the Context of New Zealand English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Keegan, Peter; McNaughton, Stuart; Kingi, Te Kani; Carr, Polly Atatoa; Schmidt, Johanna; Mohal, Jatender; Grant, Cameron; Morton, Susan

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the status of te reo Maori, the indigenous language of New Zealand, in the context of New Zealand English. From a broadly representative sample of 6327 two-year-olds ("Growing Up in New Zealand"), 6090 mothers (96%) reported their children understood English, and 763 mothers (12%) reported their children understood…

  12. A Visit to a New Zealand School: Informal but On-Task, Strict but Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfengardner, Jerrold D.; O'Dell, Frank L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a visit by two educators to a primary school in Auckland, New Zealand. Discusses the development of children, educational goals, traditions, curricula, administration, and facilities of this New Zealand school. Finds the major difference is the New Zealand school's child-centered approach. (MS)

  13. Emerging Voices or Linguistic Silence?: Examining a New Zealand Linguistic Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2010-01-01

    The monolingualism of New Zealand has often been remarked on, but statutory and demographic changes in recent years suggest a shift away from the dominance of the English language. New Zealand now has two official languages, the indigenous Maori language and New Zealand Sign Language, and census data report a decreasing proportion of monolingual…

  14. Taking the Step to Skill New Zealand. A Guide for Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Qualifications Authority, Wellington.

    Skill New Zealand is a strategy to raise the skill levels of all New Zealanders, an industry-led approach to skills development that will increase the quantity, quality, and diversity of training in that country. The booklet contains four sections. The first section explains what Skill New Zealand is and why employers should become involved it.…

  15. Why People Gamble: A Qualitative Study of Four New Zealand Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Samson; Dyall, Lorna; Clarke, Dave; Abbott, Max; Townsend, Sonia; Kingi, Pefi

    2012-01-01

    In multicultural countries such as New Zealand, it is particularly important that gambling research take into account possible cultural differences. Many New Zealanders come from cultures that do not have a history of gambling, including the Maori (New Zealand indigenous people), Pacific Islanders, and recent migrants. Little research has examined…

  16. A Closer Look at Completion in Higher Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David J.

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand has one of the lowest reported higher education qualification completion rates in the OECD, significantly below Australia. Why do so many New Zealand students not complete their qualification? This paper looks behind some of the numbers in an attempt to understand better and assess New Zealand's performance compared with Australia and…

  17. Dosing up on Food and Physical Activity: New Zealand Children's Ideas about "Health"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Lisette; Wright, Jan; McCormack, Jaleh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate New Zealand children's understandings of "health". Design: Secondary analysis of student responses to a task called "Being Healthy" in New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project. Setting: Year 4 (8-9 year-old) and Year 8 (12-13 year-old) students who took part in New Zealand's National…

  18. The time light signals of New Zealand: yet another way of communicating time in the pre-wireless era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinns, Roger

    2017-08-01

    The signalling of exact time using an array of lights appears to have been unique to New Zealand. It was a simple and effective solution for calibration of marine chronometers when transmission of time signals by wireless was in its infancy. Three lights, coloured green, red and white, were arranged in a vertical array. They were switched on in a defined sequence during the evening and then extinguished together to signal exact time. Time lights were first operated at the Dominion Observatory in Wellington during February 1912 and on the Ferry Building in Auckland during October 1915. The Wellington lights were immediately adjacent to the observatory buildings, but those in Auckland were operated using telegraph signals from Wellington. The timings varied over the years, but the same physical arrangement was retained at each location. The time light service was withdrawn during 1937, when wireless signals had become almost universally available for civil and navigation purposes.

  19. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

  20. Review on Rapid Seismic Vulnerability Assessment for Bulk of Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, R. P.; Majhi, D. R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of rapid visual screening (RVS) procedures available in different countries with a comparison among all the methods. Seismic evaluation guidelines from, USA, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, India, Europe, Italy, UNDP, with other methods are reviewed from the perspective of their applicability to developing countries. The review shows clearly that some of the RVS procedures are unsuited for potential use in developing countries. It is expected that this comparative assessment of various evaluation schemes will help to identify the most essential components of such a procedure for use in India and other developing countries, which is not only robust, reliable but also easy to use with available resources. It appears that Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 154 and New Zealand Draft Code approaches can be suitably combined to develop a transparent, reasonably rigorous and generalized procedure for seismic evaluation of buildings in developing countries.

  1. Sixth New Zealand Computer Conference (Auckland 78). Volume I, Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Computer Society, Auckland.

    This collection of conference presentations includes 23 papers on a variety of topics pertaining to the use of computer in New Zealand. Among the topics discussed are computer science techniques in a commercial data processing situation, data processing personnel and their careers, the communication aspects of an airline system, implementation of…

  2. Video Self-Reflection and Coach Development in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Simon; Spencer, Kirsten; Kidman, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from semi-structured interviews with New Zealand coaches (N = 6), this study examined how video self-reflection (VSR) was perceived as a tool for learning within "on-going" coach development. This study also looked to determine the potential barriers experienced by coaches before engaging in VSR. Each participant was a…

  3. Inclusive Academic Language Teaching in New Zealand: History and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Meeting the educational needs of a linguistically diverse population is a challenge for many countries. This is a particular challenge for New Zealand (NZ) which, until the 1980s, had a White Immigration Policy. The last 30 years have seen NZ become a full member of the Asia Pacific Region and move from being a mostly homogenous society to one of…

  4. Honoring Family and Culture: Learning from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    The New Zealand Ministry of Education's early childhood curriculum policy is built on a framework called "Te Whariki." This framework provides a sociocultural context for children's early learning and emphasizes a learning partnership between teachers, parents, families, and community. Besides interpersonal relationships, Te Whariki…

  5. Aspiring Principal Development Programme Evaluation in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Youngs, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The New Zealand Ministry of Education has constructed a wide-ranging "Professional Development Plan" providing a four-stage national pathway for progression to principalship; the first stage has been the conduction of the National Aspiring Principals Pilot (NAPP) programme in five regional locations. The purpose of this paper is…

  6. The State of Accounting Education Scholarship in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines publishing trends of New Zealand accounting education scholars over the 20-year period 1991-2010. Longitudinal analyses of the annual number of publications, research theme studied, researcher productivity, and institutional productivity, along with cross-sectional analyses of authors' Hirsch "h"-index scores, the…

  7. Solar Wind drivers affecting GIC magnitude in New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Manus, D. H.; Rodger, C. J.; Dalzell, M.; Petersen, T.; Clilverd, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Interplanetary shocks arriving at the Earth drive magnetosphere and ionosphere current systems. Ground based magnetometers detect the time derivation of the horizontal magnetic field (dBH/dt) which can indicate the strength of these ionospheric currents. The strong dBH/dt spikes have been observed to cause large Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC) in New Zealand. Such could, potentially lead to large scale damage to technological infrastructure such as power network transformers; one transformer was written off in New Zealand after a sudden commencement on 6 November 2001. The strength of the incoming interplanetary shocks are monitored by satellite measurements undertaken at the L1 point. Such measurements could give power network operators a 20-60 minute warning before potentially damaging GIC occurs. In this presentation we examine solar wind measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Wind, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). We contrast those solar wind observations with GIC measured in New Zealand's South Island from 2001 to 2016. We are searching for a consistent relationship between the incoming interplanetary shock and the GIC magnitude. Such a relationship would allow Transpower New Zealand Limited a small time window to implement mitigation plans in order to restrict any GIC-caused damage.

  8. Peace Education in New Zealand. Peace Education Miniprints No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinge, James

    This paper reports that the story of peace education in New Zealand has been one of extremes. While there has been some interest in the subject for decades, it was only in the 1980s that there was any serious activity and widespread debate. In 1984, the conservative National government, which had ruled the country for 9 years, was replaced by a…

  9. The Polynesian and Educational Inequality in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoonley, Paul

    New Zealand shares with other Southeast Asian nations two sets of problems which stem from the presence of several distinct communities in one geographical/political area: the first relates to treatment of linguistic minorities, indigenous and immigrant; the second is that of social or regional dialects which, while not totally distinct from an…

  10. Shifting Landscapes of Counselling Identities in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The professional identity of counsellors and guidance practitioners in Aotearoa New Zealand is currently under review as a result of the passing of legislation regulating health professionals and the proposed introduction of national registration of counsellors. In this paper I explore this debate, and examine the professional identities claimed…

  11. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  12. Climatology of meteorological ``bombs'' in the New Zealand region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, L. M.; Leplastrier, M.; Buckley, B. W.; Qi, L.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a recently developed climatology of explosively developing south eastern Tasman Sea extra-tropical cyclones, or meteorological “bombs”, using a latitude dependent definition for meteorological bombs based on that of Simmonds and Keay (2000a, b), and Lim and Simmonds (2002). These highly transient systems, which have a damaging impact upon New Zealand, are frequently accompanied by destructive winds, flood rains, and coastal storm surges. Two cases are selected from the climatology and briefly described here. The first case study is the major flood and storm force wind event of June 20 to 21, 2002 that affected the Coromandel Peninsula region of the North Island of New Zealand. The second case was a “supercyclone” bomb that developed well to the southwest of New Zealand region during May 29 to 31, 2004, but which could easily have formed in the New Zealand region with catastrophic consequences. It was well-captured by the new high resolution Quikscat scatterometer instrument.

  13. The New Zealand Policy Framework for Career Information and Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lester; von Dadelszen, Jane

    The education sector of New Zealand was restructured in 1989. Career Services was created by integrating the Vocational Guidance Service and careers information functions from the Department of Labor. The goal of the Career Services is to assist in the achievement of government education, training, and employment goals through high quality…

  14. Reframing Health Education in New Zealand/Aotearoa Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkinson, Margaret; Burrows, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    Health education in New Zealand schools has a chequered history, peppered with controversy since its inclusion as a school subject in the early nineteenth century. In this paper we examine the trials and challenges faced by health education teachers over time, pointing to the particular components of this subject that are regarded as controversial…

  15. Images of Academic Leadership in Large New Zealand Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardno, Carol

    2013-01-01

    As accountability stakes continue to be raised in all education sectors, leadership as a factor that can have an impact on improved student outcomes is being studied with heightened interest. This study was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in New Zealand's large urban polytechnics with the aim of investigating the nature and expectations of academic…

  16. School Culture Meets Sport: A Case Study in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Lisette; McCormack, Jaleh

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic work undertaken with 21 students and several members of staff at an elite girls' school in New Zealand to investigate the relation between school culture, pedagogical practices and discourses of physical education and school sport. It explores what and who contours the participation of these young women in sport,…

  17. New Zealand Free Kindergartens: Free or Freely Forgotten?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s in New Zealand, the kindergarten service, once called the "flagship" within early childhood education, has changed in reaction to the need for "diversity" and "responsiveness" to its communities and restructured government requirements. This paper draws on life-history interviews with a small group of…

  18. Language Teacher Research in Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne, Ed.; Burton, Jill, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, inquiry-based teaching has become a highly valued component of professional development and practitioner research in Australia and New Zealand. This volume of the Language Teacher Research Series focuses on teaching and learning experiences in those two countries, which encompass a large geographical area with diverse…

  19. How New Zealand Consumers Respond to Plain English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nittaya

    1999-01-01

    Considers how New Zealand has seen a need for providing readily understandable business and government documents. Reports a psycholinguistic study testing the level of consumer comprehension of bank contracts, and the effect of using plain English to rewrite them. Finds that the most effective means of enhancing comprehension was that which…

  20. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  1. Structural Change, Professional Change: The New Zealand School Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Brian O.

    The New Zealand education structures were reorganized on a national scale in the late 1980s. In 18 months, a 100-year-old education system was radically restructured to create new administrative structures, new career paths, and new professional expectations for personnel. This paper summarizes these structural changes, reviews research reports…

  2. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  3. Understanding Student Learning in Environmental Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eames, Chris; Barker, Miles

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a perspective on environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand. To contextualise this perspective, it illustrates how environmental, socio-cultural and political imperatives have shaped the development of environmental education in this land. These imperatives illuminate the natural history of the country, the…

  4. Leadership Learning: A Development Initiative for Experienced New Zealand Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardno, Carol; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: During the 2000-2004 period, one New Zealand tertiary institution provided a management development programme for experienced secondary school principals. Aims to determine the extent to which the learning had been sustained beyond the formal programme. Design/methodology/approach: A postal questionnaire was administered to 80…

  5. New Zealand health reforms: effect on ophthalmic practice.

    PubMed

    Raynel, S; Reynolds, H

    1999-01-01

    Are specialized ophthalmic units with inpatient facilities going to disappear in the New Zealand public health system? We have entered the era of cost containment, business methodologies, bench marking, day case surgery, and technologic advances. The dilemma for nursing is maintenance of a skill base with dwindling clinical practice areas.

  6. Reporting of suicide by the New Zealand media.

    PubMed

    Thom, Katey; McKenna, Brian; Edwards, Gareth; O'Brien, Anthony; Nakarada-Kordic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Rates of suicide in New Zealand are high compared with those of other countries. International evidence suggests that the reporting of suicide may influence rates of suicidal behavior. No research exists, however, on the reporting of suicide by New Zealand media. This study provides the first baseline picture of the reporting of suicide by New Zealand media. The overall objective was to use the findings to inform future development of media guidelines by the Ministry of Health. Newspaper, Internet, television and radio news items on suicide were collected over 12 months. Descriptive statistical data on the nature and extent of the reporting of suicide were generated through content analysis of applicable items. A random sample of 10% was then subjected to a quality analysis to determine whether items aligned with the Ministry of Health's guideline for the reporting of suicide. A total of 3,483 items were extracted, most of which reported on an individual's attempted or completed suicide, while suicide methods were not often mentioned. Few items focused on people overcoming their difficulties or provided information to assist people struggling with suicidal ideation. The reporting of suicide by New Zealand media was extensive and generally of good quality. Better collaboration between the media and mental health professionals is needed, however, to increase information supplied within items on support services. More succinct guidelines and increased journalist awareness of their existence would also contribute to the quality of reporting on suicide.

  7. Somali Students' Perceptions of a New Zealand Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Cultural diversity is growing in New Zealand and deserves to be celebrated for the richness and opportunities for understanding it brings to our lives. Culturally-responsive approaches to education accept diversity and enable students to draw on their unique cultural capital as a learning resource. The aim of this study was to contribute to the…

  8. Commitment Approach to Motivating Community Recycling: New Zealand Curbside Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Wendy J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    In a New Zealand community, 200 households made commitment to recycle and 201 did not; 198 were asked to pay for recycling bins, 203 were not. A control group received only recycling information. Verbal commitment significantly increased participation. Difficulties in administering the financial incentive made it impossible to determine effect on…

  9. Knowledge Equivalence Discourse in New Zealand Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rata, Elizabeth; Taylor, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical inquiry undertaken in this paper examines the discourse of knowledge equivalence used to justify conflating academic and non-academic subjects in New Zealand secondary school science. The purpose is to open up a critical discussion of the discourse and its influence on curriculum and pedagogy. Using a conceptual methodology, we…

  10. A revision of the New Zealand Kunzea ericoides (Myrtaceae) complex

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand Kunzea ericoides complex is presented. This paper is the final of a series that has explored the systematics of the New Zealand Kunzea complex using cytological and molecular variation, as well as experimental hybridisations between postulated segregates. As a result of those studies ten species, all endemic to New Zealand, are recognised; seven of these are new. One species, Kunzea triregensis sp. nov., is endemic to the Three Kings Islands and another species Kunzea sinclairii, endemic to Aotea (Great Barrier Island). The North Island of New Zealand has seven species, Kunzea amathicola sp. nov., Kunzea salterae sp. nov., Kunzea serotina sp. nov., Kunzea robusta sp. nov., Kunzea tenuicaulis sp. nov., Kunzea toelkenii sp. nov., and Kunzea linearis comb. nov. Of these, Kunzea linearis, Kunzea salterae, Kunzea tenuicaulis and Kunzea toelkenii are endemic to the North Island, and Kunzea amathicola, Kunzea robusta and Kunzea serotina extend to the South Island which also supports one endemic, Kunzea ericoides. Typifications are published for Leptospermum ericoides A.Rich., Leptospermum ericoides var. linearis Kirk, Leptospermum ericoides var. microflorum G.Simps., Leptospermum ericoides var. pubescens Kirk, and Leptospermum sinclairii Kirk, names here all referred to Kunzea. The ecology, conservation, extent of natural hybridisation and some aspects of the ethnobotany (vernacular names) of these Kunzea are also discussed. PMID:25197228

  11. Education in New Zealand. Bulletin, 1964, No. 34. OE-14105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrien, Marcia T.

    1964-01-01

    This bulletin presents a study of the development of education in New Zealand. Chapter I, Historical Development of Education, covers the growth of education since 1877. Chapter II, Educational Administration and Finance provides details on the Act of 1877; the organization, functions and responsibilities of the Department of Education; and the…

  12. Auckland--New Zealand's Los Angeles or San Francisco?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogunovich, Dushko

    1995-01-01

    Compares Auckland (New Zealand) with San Francisco (California) in terms of topographical structure, geographic location, and urban development. Both cities contain striking similarities. Maintains that Auckland can become a world-class city renowned for its beauty if developers and government work in tandem. (MJP)

  13. Discursive Constructions of Literacies: Shifting Sands in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandretto, Susan; Tilson, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Literacy policy and pedagogy in Aotearoa New Zealand have a strong discursive heritage of traditional literacies, which emphasise code breaking and meaning making with linguistic codes and conventions over other possible modes of communication. In a rapidly evolving landscape where changes in communication technologies give birth to new literacies…

  14. Marketing fat and sugar to children on New Zealand television.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nick; Signal, Louise; Nicholls, Sarah; Thomson, George

    2006-02-01

    We aimed to determine the frequency and content of television food advertisements during children's viewing times on various New Zealand television channels. A content analysis was conducted of two free-to-air channels covering a total of 155 h of television time during children's viewing times (n = 858 food advertisements in 2005). Comparisons were made with data from 1997 and data from Australia. Compared to Australian channels, both New Zealand channels (TV3 and TV2) had significantly higher proportions of food advertisements that were classified as being "high in fat and/or sugar" (54% versus 80% and 69%, respectively). Using a more detailed classification system, 70.3% of food advertisements on the New Zealand channels were for foods "counter to improved nutrition" (95% CI: 67.1%, 73.3%) compared to those "favoring improved nutrition" at 5.1% (95% CI: 3.8%, 6.9%). The number of food advertisements per hour was higher in 2005 than in 1997 for the channel (TV2) for which there was time trend data (12.8 versus 8.0 per hour for the afternoon time slot). These findings provide further evidence that the majority of food advertising on New Zealand television is counter to nutritional guidelines. They suggest the need for further regulatory or other controls.

  15. New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum: The Politics of Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand early childhood curriculum, "Te Whariki" (Ministry of Education [MoE],1996), is frequently hailed as a community inspired curriculum, praised nationally and internationally for its collaborative development, emancipatory spirit and bicultural approach. In its best form community can be collaborative, consultative,…

  16. History of Transracial Adoption: A New Zealand Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the New Zealand legal history of adoption and the effect it has had on Maori. The status of children within Maori and European societies before and during the early contact periods differed, and it is from here that the author begins this article. These two societies had their own terms in relation to the care of children by…

  17. Inclusion in Aotearoa/New Zealand: From Rhetoric to Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    This article argues that the education system in Aotearoa/New Zealand relegates children with disabilities, along with Maori and children of minority groups, to the margins of education. It stresses the need for teachers to focus on ways in which inclusion practices are reinforcing the marginal position of many students. (Contains references.)…

  18. Noise impact issues on the Great Walks of New Zealand

    Gordon R. Cessford

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the features of recreational noise impacts and presents examples from popular New Zealand backcountry trails. Some noise effects were noticed at very high levels, and a varied range of tolerance for these was noted. Aircraft noise provided the most extreme impact example, while noise impacts from motorboats and social behaviour in huts were also...

  19. Diversity in New Zealand Early Childhood Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuker, Mary Jane; Cherrington, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The early childhood education (ECE) sector in New Zealand has long been recognised for the diversity of service types and range of organisations involved in delivering ECE. However, less attention has been paid to diversity within individual ECE services. This article draws on a national survey carried out as part of a larger project, "The…

  20. Service Climate in New Zealand English Language Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on the findings of a study into staff perceptions of service climate in New Zealand English language centres (ELCs) offering ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) courses. Design/methodology/approach: A 71-item questionnaire based on a Likert scale was used to survey non-management teaching and…

  1. Adolescence in New Zealand. Volume Two: Wider Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.

    This is the second of a two-volume collection of research-based readings dealing with the New Zealand adolescent. This volume considers the areas of drugs and delinquency, as well as the world of work and Maori-pakeha differences. The following topics are included: marihuana use; vocational aspiration; alcohol and tobacco use; Maori-pakeha…

  2. Bringing Thunder: Tribal College Presidents Explore Indigenous New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease-Pretty, Janine

    2002-01-01

    Describes visit of American tribal college and university presidents, faculty, and staff to Maori tribal colleges and schools in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Suggests that findings from the study of Maori educational systems will affect tribal education in the U.S. (NB)

  3. New alphacoronavirus in Mystacina tuberculata bats, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J; Wang, Jing; Peacey, Matthew; Moore, Nicole E; McInnes, Kate; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2014-04-01

    Because of recent interest in bats as reservoirs of emerging diseases, we investigated the presence of viruses in Mystacina tuberculata bats in New Zealand. A novel alphacoronavirus sequence was detected in guano from roosts of M. tuberculata bats in pristine indigenous forest on a remote offshore island (Codfish Island).

  4. The Reform of New Zealand's University System: "After Neoliberalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Cris

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the legacy of three decades of neoliberal reforms on New Zealand's university system. By tracing the different government policies during this period, it seeks to contribute to wider debates about the trajectory of contemporary universities in an age of globalisation. Since Lyotard's influential report on "The Postmodern…

  5. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  6. Strategic Directions in New Zealand's Tertiary Education Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the different ways in which the polytechnics in Auckland in New Zealand have changed their growth strategies since they were given a degree of autonomy in 1990. Since then the three institutions have followed similar, but not entirely identical strategies, which has meant that the three institutions have…

  7. Lessons from New Zealand: Developing Student Voices with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Mike; Burt, Dorothy; Williams, Mia Kim

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen members of ISTE's Special Interest Group for Teacher Educators (SIGTE) traveled to Auckland, Rotorua, and Christchurch to visit seven schools and present and attend the Learning@School 2010 conference as part of a travel tour last February. This second installment about their trip features ways they saw technology used in New Zealand to…

  8. Forward to the Past in New Zealand Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Roger

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates how the culture of teacher education developed after World War II in New Zealand, highlighting the former Palmerston North College of Education and contending that the culture was shaped by: the ongoing requirement to train (at minimal cost) competent elementary teachers in accordance with government laws of supply and demand and…

  9. Some prehistory of New Zealand intensive care medicine.

    PubMed

    Trubuhovich, R V

    2009-07-01

    In taking 1960 as the foundation year for the practice of intensive care medicine in New Zealand, this paper briefly looks into the previous two centuries for some interventions in life-threatening conditions. With the help of descriptions in early 19th century journals and books by perceptive observers, the author focuses on some beliefs and practices of the Maori people during pre-European and later times, as well as aspects of medical treatment in New Zealand for early settlers and their descendents. Dr Laurie Gluckman's book Tangiwai has proved a valuable resource for New Zealand's medical history prior to 1860, while the recent publication of his findings from the examination of coroners' records for Auckland, 1841 to 1864, has been helpful. Drowning is highlighted as a common cause of accidental death, and consideration is given to alcohol as a factor. Following the 1893 foundation of the New Zealand Medical Journal, a limited number of its papers which are historically relevant to today's intensive care are explored: topics include tetanus, laryngeal diphtheria, direct cardiac massage, traumatic shock, thiopentone management for fitting and the ventilatory failure due to poliomyelitis.

  10. Before Five: Early Childhood Care and Education in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Dept. of Education, Wellington.

    This publication outlines the Government of New Zealand's new plans and policies for the administration of early childhood care and education. Specific features are discussed in detail in sections concerning: (1) early childhood care and education at the local level, specifically management structures and responsibilities, the use of Crown land,…

  11. Energy Literacy and Agency of New Zealand Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Bielschowsky, I.; Lawson, R.; Stephenson, J.; Todd, S.

    2017-01-01

    The development of energy literacy (knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviour) and agency of New Zealand children (age 9-10) were investigated through thematic and exploratory statistical analyses of interviews (October 2011-April 2012) with 26 children, their parents and teachers, focus groups and photo elicitation. The children knew that…

  12. Teacher Education in New Zealand 1974-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, Noeline

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand teacher education has been profoundly affected by major social and economic changes since 1974. From a separate sector controlled by the Department of Education, it has moved through deregulation to largely university provision with research imperatives for staff. Programme scope has broadened to embrace early childhood and the…

  13. Lost in Translation: Aligning Strategies for Research in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billot, Jennie; Codling, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to new criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur,…

  14. Liability for medical malpractice--recent New Zealand developments.

    PubMed

    Sladden, Nicola; Graydon, Sarah

    2009-03-01

    Over the last 30 years in New Zealand, civil liability for personal injury including "medical malpractice" has been most notable for its absence. The system of accident compensation and the corresponding bar on personal injury claims has been an interesting contrast to the development of tort law claims for personal injury in other jurisdictions. The Health and Disability Commissioner was appointed in 1994 to protect and promote the rights of health and disability consumers as set out in the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights. An important right in the Code, in terms of an equivalent to the common law duty to take reasonable care, is that patients have the right to services of an appropriate standard. Several case studies from the Commissioner's Office are used to illustrate New Zealand's unique medico-legal system and demonstrate how the traditional common law obligation of reasonable care and skill is applied. From an international perspective, the most interesting aspect of liability for medical malpractice in New Zealand is its relative absence - in a tortious sense anyway. This paper will give some general background on the New Zealand legal landscape and discuss recent case studies of interest.

  15. Development in New Zealand. Development Education Paper No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bob

    Although recognized as being out-of-date, two characteristics of New Zealand's outlook on the world (a monocultural attitude and isolationism), have played a significant part in forming community opinions and attitudes on national and international development questions. Attitudes toward Third World countries are narrowed by lack of information,…

  16. Patterns of fungal diversity in New Zealand Nothofagus forests.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter R; Johansen, Renee B; Williams, Alexandra F R; Paula Wikie, J; Park, Duckchul

    2012-03-01

    The development of protocols for the conservation of fungi requires knowledge of the factors controlling their distribution, diversity, and community composition. Here we compare patterns of variation in fungal communities across New Zealand's Nothofagus forests, reportedly the most myco-diverse in New Zealand and hence potentially key to effective conservation of fungi in New Zealand. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi, as assessed by culturing on agar plates, is assessed for three Nothofagus sp. growing in mixed stands from four sites. Host species was found to have a greater influence on fungal community assemblage than site. The leaf endophyte communities associated with Nothofagus solandri and Nothofagus fusca (both Nothofagus subgenus Fuscopora), were more similar to each other than either were to the community associated with Nothofagus menziesii (Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia). The broad taxonomic groups isolated, identified on the basis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, were similar to those found in similar studies from other parts of the world, and from an earlier study on the endophyte diversity in four podocarp species from New Zealand, but there were few matches at species level. Average levels of endophyte species diversity associated with single Nothofagus species and single podocarp species were similar, despite historical literature and collection data recording more than twice as many fungal species on average from the Nothofagus species. The significance of these findings to fungal conservation is discussed. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  18. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  19. Restorative Justice: Two Examples from New Zealand Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice; McKinney, Rawiri; Glynn, Ted

    2007-01-01

    In this article, Janice Wearmouth, formerly professor of education at the University of Wellington, New Zealand and now at Liverpool Hope University, Rawiri McKinney, an advocate for Rangatahi who has recently completed his Master of Education degree, and Ted Glynn, foundation professor of teacher education at the University of Waikato, discuss…

  20. A Glimpse into the Thinking of Young New Zealanders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Hilary

    In 1984, New Zealand tested 12- and 13- year-old and 15- and 16-year old students as part of the International Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) tests. Although weaknesses appeared at both age levels in the organization of material, particularly in argumentative and expository writing, students could write functional letters competently…

  1. Professional Development Design: Embedding Educational Reform in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Louise; Yates, Anne; Meyer, Luanna H.; Hall, Cedric; Taylor, Mike; Stevens, Susan; Toia, Rawiri

    2009-01-01

    Teacher professional development variously supports ongoing skill development, new knowledge, and systems change. In New Zealand, the implementation of major assessment reforms in senior secondary schools provided opportunity to investigate teacher professional development as a function of the particular stage of an educational reform.…

  2. Refining Family Literacy Practice: A New Zealand Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseman, John

    2006-01-01

    Following the results of the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) in 1996, there has been an upsurge of interest in adult literacy in New Zealand. This interest is reflected in a national adult literacy strategy with foundation learning as one of the government's six priorities for the postschool sector. One result of this policy change has…

  3. The genus Dendrothele (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) in New Zealand

    K.K. Nakasone; H.H. Burdsall

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen species of Dendrothele sensu lato are confirmed from New Zealand. Nine new taxa are described: Dendrothele arachispora, D. aucklandica, D. australis, D. cymbiformis, D. leptostachys, D. magnenavicularis, D. navicularis, D. novae-zelandiae and D. subellipsoidea. Ten species were previously reported, but...

  4. Penal Innovation in New Zealand: He Ara Hou.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Greg; Eskridge, Chris

    1994-01-01

    Explores prison history/development in New Zealand, focusing on recent implementation of progressive prison operation/management program, He Ara Hou. Notes extremely positive results of program, such as higher administrative efficiency; greatly decreased levels of internal disorder; competent, stable workforce; and human product whose senses of…

  5. Bioethical issues and health care chaplaincy in aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes survey and interview results from a cross-sectional study of New Zealand health care chaplaincy personnel concerning their involvement in multiple bioethical issues encountered by patients, families and clinical staff within the health care context. Some implications of this study concerning health care chaplaincy, ecclesiastical institutions, health care institutions and government responsibilities are discussed and recommendations presented.

  6. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response. PMID:17020623

  7. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-10-04

    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  8. Nurses and the euthanasia debate: reflections from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Woods, M; Bickley Asher, J

    2015-03-01

    Through an examination of the present situation relating to legalizing euthanasia and/or physician-assisted death in New Zealand, this paper is intended to encourage nurses worldwide to ponder about their own position on the ever present topic of assisted dying and euthanasia. In New Zealand, euthanasia remains illegal, but in 2012, the 'End of Life Choice Bill' was put in the ballot for potential selection for consideration by Parliament, later to be withdrawn. However, it is increasingly likely that New Zealand will follow international trends to offer people a choice about how their lives should end, and that such a Bill will be resubmitted in the near future. Undoubtedly, the passage of such legislation would have an impact on the day-to-day practices of nurses who work with dying people. This article has been prepared following a comprehensive review of appropriate literature both in New Zealand and overseas. This article aims to highlight the importance of nursing input into any national debates concerning proposed euthanasia or assisted dying laws. The discussion therefore covers New Zealand's experience of such proposed legislation, that is, the draft Bill itself and the implications for nurses, the history of the assisted dying debate in New Zealand, public and professional opinion, and national and international nursing responses to euthanasia. New Zealand nurses will eventually have an opportunity to make their views on proposed euthanasia legislation known, and what such legislation might mean for their practice. Nurses everywhere should seriously consider their own knowledge and viewpoint on this vitally important topic, and be prepared to respond as both individuals and as part of their professional bodies when the time inevitably arrives. The result will be a better informed set of policies, regulations and legislation leading to a more meaningful and dignified experience for dying people and their families. Nurses need to be fully informed about

  9. Health information technology adoption in New Zealand optometric practices.

    PubMed

    Heidarian, Ahmadali; Mason, David

    2013-11-01

    Health information technology (HIT) has the potential to fundamentally change the practice of optometry and the relationship between optometrists and patients and to improve clinical outcomes. This paper aims to provide data on how health information technology is currently being used in New Zealand optometric practices. Also this paper aims to explore the potential benefits and barriers to the future adoption of health information technology in New Zealand. One hundred and six New Zealand optometrists were surveyed about their current use of health information technology and about potential benefits and barriers. In addition, 12 semi-structured interviews were carried out with leaders of health information technology in New Zealand optometry. The areas of interest were the current and intended use of HIT, the potential benefits of and barriers to using HIT in optometric offices and the level of investment in health information technology. Nearly all optometrists (98.7 per cent) in New Zealand use computers in their practices and 93.4 per cent of them use a computer in their consulting room. The most commonly used clinical assessment technology in optometric practices in New Zealand was automated perimeter (97.1 per cent), followed by a digital fundus/retinal camera (82.6 per cent) and automated lensometer (62.9 per cent). The pachymeter is the technology that most respondents intended to purchase in the next one to five years (42.6 per cent), followed by a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (36.8 per cent) and corneal topographer (32.9 per cent). The main benefits of using health information technology in optometric practices were improving patient perceptions of ‘state of the art’ practice and providing patients with information and digital images to explain the results of assessment. Barriers to the adoption of HIT included the need for frequent technology upgrades, cost, lack of time for implementation, and training. New Zealand optometrists are using HIT

  10. Developing Cohesion and Building Positive Relationships through Storytelling in a Culturally Diverse New Zealand Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskerville, Delia

    2011-01-01

    Educational research highlights the importance of positive teacher student relationships and recommends teachers adopt teaching strategies that are more culturally inclusive, and allow for reciprocal teaching and learning where student prior knowledge is legitimized. Participants in this study experienced such an approach. Through a storytelling…

  11. Building America

    SciT

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performancemore » homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.« less

  12. New Zealand = Maori, New Zealand = Bicultural: Ethnic Group Differences in a National Sample of Maori and Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jessica F.; Sibley, Chris G.; Robertson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    New Zealand (NZ) Europeans show a unique implicit bicultural effect, with research using the Implicit Association Test consistently showing that they associate Maori (the Indigenous peoples) and their own (dominant/advantaged majority) group as equally representative of the nation. We replicated and extended this NZ = bicultural effect in a small…

  13. Cultural dilemmas of choice: Deconstructing consumer choice in health communication between maternity-care providers and ethnic Chinese mothers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shujie Phoebe; Munshi, Debashish; Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Simpson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This article critically analyses the discourse of consumer choice embedded in health communication interactions between maternity-care providers and migrant ethnic Chinese mothers in New Zealand. Findings indicate that Chinese mothers, as the customers of the New Zealand maternity and health care services, are encouraged to "fit in" with the Western discourse of choice. However, the mothers' cultural predispositions for childbirth and communication have a significant impact on the ways in which they respond to and resist this discourse. Drawing on theoretical insights from postcolonialism and Third World feminism, this article contributes to the study of intercultural health communication by examining cultural dilemmas in the discourse of choice that is often taken for granted in Western health contexts. In doing so, it builds a platform for an inclusive maternity care and health environment in multicultural societies.

  14. Building energy analysis tool

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  15. Monitoring an epidemic of Theileria-associated bovine anaemia (Ikeda) in cattle herds in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McFadden, A M J; Vink, D; Pulford, D J; Lawrence, K; Gias, E; Heath, A C G; McFadden, C B; Bingham, P

    2016-03-01

    valuable insight into seasonal nature of the disease and its continuing impact. Information from multiple surveillance sources can help build up an understanding of the epidemiology, even when data from each individual surveillance stream are limited. The TABA (Ikeda) epidemic in New Zealand represents a useful case study of long term monitoring where disease is caused by an emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Building Awards | NREL

    Mountain campus is designed to meet the Gold or Platinum standards of the U.S. Green Building Council's Research Facility. South Site Entrance Building South Site Entrance Building 2013 U.S. Green Buildings Building Awards Building Awards NREL's high-performance buildings are sustainability models for the

  17. Up-dip partitioning of displacement components on the oblique-slip Clarence Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, Andrew; Van Dissen, Russell

    2002-09-01

    Active strike-slip faults in New Zealand occur within an obliquely-convergent plate boundary zone. Although the traces of these faults commonly delineate the base of mountain ranges, they do not always accommodate significant shortening at the free surface. Along the active trace of Clarence Fault in northeastern South Island, New Zealand, displaced landforms and slickenside striations indicate predominantly horizontal displacements at the ground surface, and a right-lateral slip rate of ca. 3.5-5 mm/year during the Holocene. The Inland Kaikoura mountain range occupies the hanging wall of the fault and rises steeply from the active trace to altitudes of ca. 3 km. The geomorphology of the range indicates active uplift and mountain building, which is interpreted to result, in part, from a vertical component of fault slip at depth. These data are consistent with the fault accommodating oblique-slip at depth aligned parallel to the plate-motion vector and compatible with regional geodetic data and earthquake focal-mechanisms. Oblique-slip on the Clarence Fault at depth is partitioned at the free surface into: (1) right-lateral displacement on the fault, and (2) hanging wall uplift produced by distributed displacement on small-scale faults parallel to the main fault. Decoupling of slip components reflects an up-dip transfer of fault throw to an off-fault zone of distributed uplift. Such zones are common in the hanging walls of thrusts and reverse faults, and support the idea that the dip of the oblique-slip Clarence Fault steepens towards the free surface.

  18. Indigenous Perspectives and Knowledge Informing Freshwater Management, Planning and Decision Making in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmsworth, G.

    2017-12-01

    Indigenous Māori have distinct cultural values and perspectives that establish their identity, responsibilities, and rights to manage and use freshwater in New Zealand. Recognition of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi and its principles has culminated in an array of modern legislation, obligations, national policy statements, statutory requirements, holistic frameworks, and approaches that strengthens Māori participation and authority in resource management and environmental decision-making. We briefly explain indigenous Māori frameworks, knowledge, values, and perspectives used to grow indigenous research and capability, enrich western scientific research, and inform freshwater planning, policy, and management. We will discuss some important methods, indicators, and tools that Māori have developed, or are developing, to support environmental assessment and the monitoring and reporting of freshwater ecosystems, particularly to help sustain and enhance customary values and practice. These tools include, for example, the Cultural Health Index, the Wai Ora Wai Māori assessment tool, the mauri compass, the mauri model, Māori wetlands assessment, kaitiaki tools, taonga assessment, which are being used to build Māori capability and capacity in freshwater sciences and management and to provide innovative approaches based on integrative knowledge systems. Many of these indigenous-led initiatives are now being used next to science and technical approaches at local, regional, and national scale in New Zealand to guide policy and help understand complex and dynamic human-environmental interactions. Māori epistemologies provide a holistic worldview well aligned with current international thinking and approaches that stress the importance of systems thinking and understanding interconnections between sub-component parts; exploring the world and universe within holistic, integrative frameworks; taking into account different perspectives, values, and worldviews, measuring

  19. The state of quality improvement and patient safety teaching in health professional education in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robb, Gillian; Stolarek, Iwona; Wells, Susan; Bohm, Gillian

    2017-10-27

    To investigate how quality and patient safety domains are being taught in the pre-registration curricula of health profession education programmes in New Zealand. All tertiary institutions providing training for medicine, nursing, midwifery, dentistry, pharmacy, physiotherapy, dietetics and 11 other allied health professions in New Zealand were contacted and a person with relevant curriculum knowledge was invited to participate. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide to explore nine quality and safety domains; improvement science, patient safety, quality and safety culture, evidence-based practice, patient-centred care, teamwork and communication, leadership for change, systems thinking and use of information technology (IT). Transcribed data were extracted and categorised by discipline and domain. Two researchers independently identified and categorised themes within each domain, using a general inductive approach. Forty-nine institutions were contacted and 43 (88%) people were interviewed. The inclusion and extent of quality and safety teaching was variable. Evidence-based practice, patient-centred care and teamwork and communication were the strongest domains and well embedded in programmes, while leadership, systems thinking and the role of IT were less explicitly included. Except for two institutions, improvement science was absent from pre-registration curricula. Patient safety teaching was focused mainly around incident reporting, and to a lesser extent learning from adverse events. Although a 'no blame' culture was articulated as important, the theme of individual accountability was still apparent. While participants agreed that all domains were important, the main barriers to incorporating improvement science and patient safety concepts into existing programmes included an 'already stretched curriculum' and having faculty with limited expertise in these areas. Although the building blocks for improving the quality and safety of

  20. Ongoing adverse mental health impact of the earthquake sequence in Christchurch, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Spittlehouse, Janet K; Joyce, Peter R; Vierck, Esther; Schluter, Philip J; Pearson, John F

    2014-08-01

    In September 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake, followed by a prolonged sequence of significant aftershocks including a fatal aftershock in February 2011. Christchurch City has experienced widespread damage, ongoing disruption and building demolitions resulting in many difficulties for the residents of the Christchurch area. We explore what impact the earthquakes have had on the mental and physical health of a random sample of 50-year-olds who live in the Christchurch area. The 295 participants were selected from the electoral rolls for participation in the CHALICE study, a longitudinal study of ageing. Self-reported health status was assessed using the standardised Short Form 36 version 2 health survey (SF-36v2), a 36-item questionnaire, and results from the eight subscales compared to a national health survey. Mood disorders were assessed and the results were compared to other local and national studies. Since the onset of the earthquakes and throughout the study period, participating middle-aged Christchurch residents have mean SF-36v2 scores significantly lower than population norms in the mental health, vitality, social functioning and role-emotional subscales (Cohen's d ranged from -0.270 to -0.357, all p < 0.001), while there was no evidence of reduced physical health. Rates of current major depressive disorder were 7.5% in the earthquake survivors compared to 5.1% and 3.7% in other historical, local and national surveys. Similarly, bipolar disorder prevalence was 2.8% in the earthquake survivors compared to 2.2% and 1.4% in other studies. Eighteen months after the first earthquake the significant adverse impact on mental health clearly continues. The ongoing provision of additional mental health services and consideration of these adverse mental health effects in relation to other social policies remains necessary and fundamental. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  1. Pacemaker Use in New Zealand - Data From the New Zealand Implanted Cardiac Device Registry (ANZACS-QI 15).

    PubMed

    Larsen, P D; Kerr, A J; Hood, M; Harding, S A; Hooks, D; Heaven, D; Lever, N A; Sinclair, S; Boddington, D; Tang, E W; Swampillai, J; Stiles, M K

    2017-03-01

    The New Zealand Cardiac Implanted Device Registry (Device) has recently been developed under the auspices of the New Zealand Branch of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. This study describes the initial Device registry cohort of patients receiving a new pacemaker, their indications for pacing and their perioperative complications. The Device Registry was used to audit patients receiving a first pacemaker between 1 st January 2014 and 1 st June 2015. We examined 1611 patients undergoing first pacemaker implantation. Patients were predominantly male (59%), and had a median age of 70 years. The most common symptom for pacemaker implantation was syncope (39%), followed by dizziness (30%) and dyspnoea (12%). The most common aetiology for a pacemaker was a conduction tissue disorder (35%), followed by sinus node dysfunction (22%). Atrioventricular (AV) block was the most common ECG abnormality, present in 44%. Dual chamber pacemakers were most common (62%), followed by single chamber ventricular pacemakers (34%), and cardiac resynchronisation therapy - pacemakers (CRT-P) (2%). Complications within 24hours of the implant procedure were reported in 64 patients (3.9%), none of which were fatal. The most common complication was the need for reoperation to manipulate a lead, occurring in 23 patients (1.4%). This is the first description of data entered into the Device registry. Patients receiving a pacemaker were younger than in European registries, and there was a low use of CRT-P devices compared to international rates. Complications rates were low and compare favourably to available international data. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New Zealand's tobacco control programme 1985-1998

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, M.; Swinburn, B.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To review the impact of New Zealand's tobacco control programme from 1985 to 1998 on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, and to estimate the scope for further reduction.
DESIGN—Country case study; interventions, with outcomes ranked internationally across time.
SETTING—New Zealand 1985-98; for 1985-95, 23 OECD countries.
INTERVENTIONS—Between 1985 and 1998, New Zealand eliminated tobacco advertising, halved the affordability of cigarettes, and reduced smoke exposure in work time by 39%.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Reduction in adult smoking prevalence and in tobacco products consumption per adult.
RESULTS—Changes in prevalence 1985-98: in adults (aged 15+ years), −17% (from 30% to 25%) but short of the 20% target for 2000; in youth (aged 15-24 years), −20% (from 35% to 28%); and in Maori adults (aged 15+ years), −17% (from 56% in 1981 to 46% in 1996). Changes in consumption 1985-98: tobacco products per adult aged 15+ years, −45% (2493 to 1377 cigarette equivalents); cigarettes smoked per smoker, −34% (22.7 to 15.0 per day). Between 1985 and 1995 New Zealand reduced tobacco products consumption per adult more rapidly than any other OECD country, and reduced youth prevalence more rapidly than most. The acceleration of the decline in cigarette attributable mortality rates in men and in women age 35-69 years averted an additional 1400 deaths between 1985 and 1996. Between 1981 and 1996 smoking prevalence among blue collar workers decreased only marginally, and in 14-15 year olds, rose by one third between 1992 and 1997.
CONCLUSION—In 13 years, New Zealand's tobacco control programme has been successful in almost halving tobacco products consumption, particularly by lowering consumption per smoker. With strong political support for quit campaigns, increased taxation, and the elimination of displays of tobacco products on sale, the consumption could theoretically be halved again in as little as 3-6 years

  3. New Zealand optometrists 2006: demographics, working arrangements and hours worked.

    PubMed

    Frederikson, Lesley G; Chamberlain, Kerry; Sangster, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Optometry is a regulated health profession in NZ, with limited student places. With 650 registered optometrists in 2005, the optometrist to population ratio was 1 : 6,291 with no apparent national shortage. If optometrists registered in NZ do not actually live there, a workforce shortage is possible. This paper presents findings from the New Zealand Association of Optometrists 2006 workforce survey of members, which aimed to profile the NZ optometric workforce and to explore factors relating to workforce capacity, job stress and future planning. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on employment status, hours worked and gender distribution of optometrists in New Zealand. It was circulated to 530 active members of the NZ Association of Optometrists representing 86 per cent of the available optometrists. Direct comparisons with the Australian optometric workforce numbers were also undertaken. Of the 243 respondents, 129 (53 per cent) were male. The median age of all respondents was 39 years (46 for males and 34 for females) and 75 per cent of the respondents were aged younger than 50 years. Fifty per cent had practised 15 years or less. Ten per cent of respondents had 'time-out' during their career and this was significantly more likely for females. Nearly half the respondents were self-employed (46 per cent) and eight per cent worked as locums. Part-time employees were more likely to be female and males were more likely to be in full-time self-employment. Half the group was under 40 (51 per cent), which accounted for 86 per cent of the full-time salaried arrangements. Those aged 30 to 39 included 52 per cent of the total part-time salaried workers. The average working week was 34 hours for women and 39 hours for men; the median was 40 hours for both groups. In the typical working week, 80 per cent of an optometrist's time was spent consulting with patients and five per cent was patient-related paperwork. The distribution of work arrangements was

  4. Student debt amongst junior doctors in New Zealand; part 2: effects on intentions and workforce.

    PubMed

    Moore, James; Gale, Jesse; Dew, Kevin; Simmers, Don

    2006-02-17

    To assess the effects of student debt on the intentions of first-year house officers in relation to location of practice and vocation, and to evaluate the relative importance of incentives to remain practising in New Zealand (NZ). A questionnaire sent to all 296 New Zealand-graduate first-year house officers practicing in New Zealand. The response rate was 53%. Eighty percent of respondents intended to practice in New Zealand for the bulk of their careers; however, 65% of respondents intended to leave New Zealand within 3 years of graduating. The most important factors influencing the decision to leave NZ were overseas travel, financial opportunities, and job/training opportunities. Fifty-five percent of respondents had considered leaving the country, specifically because of the student loan debt. The most important factors influencing vocational intentions were interest, lifestyle, and intellectual challenge. Forty-three percent of respondents stated that their student debt had influenced their intended specialty, and only 9% of respondents indicated their intention to pursue a career in general practice. The highest rated incentives for staying in New Zealand were increased salaries, employer contributions towards student loans, and training opportunities within New Zealand. Student debt influences both emigration and specialty choice intentions of junior doctors in New Zealand. This effect is an unintended but important consequence of our current tertiary education system in New Zealand. These results paint a worrying picture for the junior doctor and general practitioner workforce in New Zealand's future.

  5. Building Energy Asset Score for Building Owners

    SciT

    Building Technologies Office

    2015-01-01

    The Building Energy Asset Score is a national standardized tool for evaluating the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. The Asset Score generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies opportunities for users to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. It is web-based and free to use. This fact sheet discusses the value of the score for building owners.

  6. Irish and New Zealand Midwives' expertise at preserving the perineum intact (the MEPPI study): Perspectives on preparations for birth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie; Guilliland, Karen; Dixon, Lesley; Reilly, Mary; Keegan, Caroline; McCann, Colette; Begley, Cecily

    2017-12-01

    perineal trauma during birth can result in short or long term morbidity for women. Internationally, rates of episiotomy and severe perineal tears vary considerably. In New Zealand, in 2011, and in a trial of midwife-led care in Ireland, episiotomy rates were found to be considerably lower than those in many other countries. A qualitative exploratory study was undertaken to ascertain how midwives achieve these low rates, in these countries and settings. a qualitative exploratory study was conducted. Midwives expert in preserving the perineum intact (PPI) from two maternity units in the Republic of Ireland and from varied birth settings in New Zealand, were eligible to participate. Twenty-one consenting midwives took part, seven from Ireland and 14 from New Zealand. university ethical approval was granted. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using Ethnograph software and were organised into prominent themes. four themes were identified; 'Sources of knowledge for PPI', 'Associated factors', 'Decision-making on episiotomy', and 'Preparations for PPI'. Participants drew heavily on multiple sources of knowledge in building their own expertise for PPI. Physical characteristics of the perineum featured prominently as factors leading to PPI. Episiotomy was, in the main, only performed when there were signs of fetal distress. Antenatal perineal massage was supported. this study provides valuable insight into the views and skills of midwives, with expertise in PPI at birth, adding to the body of evidence on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pacific Island publications in the reproductive health literature 2000-2011: with New Zealand as a reference.

    PubMed

    Ekeroma, Alec J; Pollock, Terina; Kenealy, Tim; Shulruf, Boaz; Shurulf, Boaz; Sopoaga, Faafetai; Montorzi, Gabriela; McCowan, Lesley M E; Hill, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    There is a keen interest to develop research systems and increase research output in the 14 Pacific Island Forum Countries (PIFC) to support development of policies and practice based on locally relevant research evidence. To assess the quantity and characteristics of reproductive health research output by each country (14 PIFC) from 2000 to 2011 using New Zealand's reproductive research outputs as the reference. A systematic search of the literature using a broad definition of reproductive health. There were 174 papers published in the PIFC from 2000 to 2011 compared with 628 papers published in New Zealand (NZ). Most (57%) of the PIFC papers were from Papua New Guinea (PNG), although Samoa had the most papers by population (10/100,000). Five of the countries did not have a single publication. The majority of papers from both the PIFC and NZ were observational studies (72 vs 36%). Authors from Australia were responsible for 34% of PIFC publications followed by 25% from PNG. Sixty-three per cent of papers by PIFC sole and first authors were published in local journals, whereas 86% of non-PIFC authors published in international journals. There is a need for reproductive research in PIFC. PNG had the most publications on the back of a well-funded dedicated research institute and a significant collaboration with Australian researchers. The large number of papers in PIFC countries without PIFC authors raises the question about the need to require non-PIFC researchers to enter into genuine research partnerships in order to build research capacity in the PIFC. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. New Zealand GTG plant more than halfway home

    SciT

    Pine, M.

    The 76 preassembled modules making up the New Zealand Synthetic Fuels Corporation natural gas-to-gasoline (GTG) plant will be an operating plant by 1986. The plant will produce 14,400 barrels per day, about a third of the country's gasoline needs. The project is a good example of cooperation between a government and a multinational corporation in which Mobil is a 25% partner with the New Zealand government. With a commitment for about 16% of the gas reserves in the Maui field, the facility will first convert the gas to methanol using a standard commercial process, then convert the methanol to gasolinemore » by a unique Mobil process that uses a zeolite catalyst. 1 figure.« less

  9. Oxalates in oca (New Zealand yam) (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.).

    PubMed

    Ross, A B; Savage, G P; Martin, R J; Vanhanen, L

    1999-12-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) or New Zealand yam, in common with other members of this genus, contains oxalate, an antinutritive factor. Twelve South American and two New Zealand cultivars of oca were analyzed for total and soluble oxalate contents of the tubers. The range of total oxalate levels was 92-221 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Levels of soluble and total oxalate extracted from the tubers were not significantly different, suggesting that no calcium oxalate is formed in the tubers. The oxalate concentrations obtained in this study for oca suggest that previously reported values are too low and that oca is a moderately high oxalate-containing food. This is the first report of a tuber crop containing moderate to high levels of soluble oxalates in the tubers and no insoluble oxalates.

  10. Oligocene and Miocene larger foraminiferida from Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaproniere, G. C. H.

    The lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and the systematics of larger foraminiferids at several Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene localities in Australia are described. In particular, sediments of this interval in the North West Cape area of the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia, yielded diverse faunas of larger and planktic foraminiferids. Areas in New Zealand were also sampled and studied. Forty species and subspecies, representing 25 genera or subgenera of larger foraminiferids, were recorded. Wherever possible, biometric methods have been used to discriminate between taxa. Such studies suggest that the rates of evolution of some groups of larger foraminiferids in New Zealand were different from those in the Australian region. Among the taxa that are illustrated and described in detail are two subspecies of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) proposed as new: Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) howchini praehowchini and Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) orakeiensis waikukuensis. Topotypes of L. (N.) orakeiensis hornibrooki and L. (N.) howchini howchini are discussed and figured.

  11. Socio-demographic correlates of divorce in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, G A

    1988-05-01

    "This paper links data obtained from a one-in-five systematic sample of New Zealand divorce files covering the period 1940-78 with published marriage and birth statistics to examine socio-demographic differentials in divorce rates among couples married between 1939 and 1973. Differentials investigated are those by age at marriage, relative age of bride and groom, marital status prior to marriage, relative marital status of bride and groom, pregnancy status of the wife at marriage, timing of the first birth, religion, country of birth and socioeconomic status. Several findings of overseas studies, such as the special proneness to divorce of very youthful marriages and remarriages following previous divorces, are verified for New Zealand. After controlling for age at marriage, pregnancy does not seem to have directly increased the risk of divorce." excerpt

  12. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  13. Building 1100--NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Building 1100 is the NASA administrative building. Services located in this building include two banks, a post office, barber shop, cafeteria, snack bar, travel agency, dry cleaners, the NASA Exchange retail store and medical facilities for employees.

  14. New Zealand Defense Policy Framework, A Strategic Reappraisal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-19

    viii THE NEW ZEALAND DEFENSE POLICY FRAMEWORK – A STRATEGIC APPRAISAL What we demand is that the world be made fit and safe to live in. Woodrow Wilson...pressure on some governments and often results in armed conflict. The former Yugoslavia and Soviet Union stand out as prominent examples of the... demand access to the products, services and lifestyles that are evident in other nations. This is problematic for governments who set values and

  15. New Zealand Freshwater Management: Changing Policy for a Changing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, H. L.; Norton, N.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh water is essential to New Zealand's economic, environmental, cultural and social well-being. In line with global trends, New Zealand's freshwater resources are under pressure from increased abstraction and changes in land-use which contribute contaminants to our freshwater systems. Recent central government policy reform introduces greater national direction and guidance, to bring about a step-change in freshwater management. An existing national policy for freshwater management introduced in 2011 requires regional authorities to produce freshwater management plans containing clear freshwater objectives (measurable statements about the desired environmental state for water bodies) and associated limits to resource use (such as environmental flows and quantity allocation limits, and loads of contaminants to be discharged). These plans must integrate water quantity and quality management, consider climate change, and incorporate tangata whenua (New Zealand māori) roles and interests. In recent (2014) national policy amendments, the regional authorities are also required to implement national 'bottom-line' standards for certain attributes of the system to be managed; undertake accounting for all water takes and all sources of contaminants; and to develop and implement their plans in a collaborative way with communities. This rapid change in national policy has necessitated a new way of working for authorities tasked with implementation; many obstacles lie in their path. The scientific methods required to help set water quantity limits are well established, but water quality methods are less so. Collaborative processes have well documented benefits but also raise many challenges, particularly for the communication of complex and often uncertain scientific information. This paper provides background on the national policy changes and offers some early lessons learned by the regional authorities implementing collaborative freshwater management in New Zealand.

  16. Geophysical techniques for low enthalpy geothermal exploration in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soengkono, Supri; Bromley, Chris; Reeves, Robert; Bennie, Stewart; Graham, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    Shallow warm water resources associated with low enthalpy geothermal systems are often difficult to explore using geophysical techniques, mainly because the warm water creates an insufficient physical change from the host rocks to be easily detectable. In addition, often the system also has a limited or narrow size. However, appropriate use of geophysical techniques can still help the exploration and further investigation of low enthalpy geothermal resources. We present case studies on the use of geophysical techniques for shallow warm water explorations over a variety of settings in New Zealand (mostly in the North Island) with variable degrees of success. A simple and direct method for the exploration of warm water systems is shallow temperature measurements. In some New Zealand examples, measurements of near surface temperatures helped to trace the extent of deeper thermal water. The gravity method was utilised as a structural technique for the exploration of some warm water systems in New Zealand. Our case studies show the technique can be useful in identifying basement depths and tracing fault systems associated with the occurrence of hot springs. Direct current (DC) ground resistivity measurements using a variety of electrode arrays have been the most common method for the exploration of low enthalpy geothermal resources in New Zealand. The technique can be used to detect the extent of shallow warm waters that are more electrically conductive than the surrounding cold groundwater. Ground resistivity investigations using the electromagnetic (EM) techniques of audio magnetotellurics (AMT or shallow MT), controlled source audio magnetotellurics (CSAMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) methods have also been used. Highly conductive clays of thermal or sedimentary origin often limit the penetration depth of the resistivity techniques and can create some interpretation difficulties. Interpretation of resistivity anomalies needs to be treated in a site specific

  17. Rising levels of New Zealand medical student debt.

    PubMed

    Verstappen, Antonia; Poole, Phillippa

    2017-06-16

    There is little recent data on the debt levels accrued by New Zealand medical graduates. We aimed to quantify the level of student loan debt accrued by medical graduates upon completion of their medical degree, and to investigate the association of New Zealand Government Student Loan (GSL) debt with gender and age. At graduation each year from 2006-2015, students from one New Zealand medical programme were invited to complete a career intention survey that included information on levels of GSL debt and the number of income sources used. The overall response rate was 83.8%. On average, 92% of domestic students reported having some student loan debt, with 28% a debt of $90,000 or more. The proportion of students reporting a student loan debt of $90,000 or more increased over the period of the study (P<0.0001). While older students were more likely to have a larger student loan debt than younger students, there was no difference in debt levels by gender. Students with larger student loans were more likely to rely on a larger number of financial sources to fund their studies. New Zealand medical students are carrying higher levels of student loan debt year on year. The effect of this on the future medical workforce is not certain; however, this could be negative if graduates choose to enter careers that are more highly paid over areas of high need. The full impact of large loans on individuals and the health system will take years to determine.

  18. Friend or Ally? A Question for New Zealand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Many close observers of the manoeuvring which went on from the time the Lange government took power in July 1984 until George Shultz declared a...d s - - bu t we par t . George P. Shultz Manila, July 1986 ~ ITH THE WORDS, "we part," the Secretary of State for the United States of...the Western alliance. George Shultz’ simple words marked an historic turn- ing point in United States/New Zealand relations and, perhaps even more

  19. Measuring Snow Precipitation in New Zealand- Challenges and Opportunities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renwick, J. A.; Zammit, C.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring plays a pivotal role in determining sustainable strategy for efficient overall management of the water resource. Though periodic monitoring provides some information, only long-term monitoring can provide data sufficient in quantity and quality to determine trends and develop predictive models. These can support informed decisions about sustainable and efficient use of water resources in New Zealand. However the development of such strategies is underpinned by our understanding and our ability to measure all inputs in headwaters catchments, where most of the precipitation is falling. Historically due to the harsh environment New Zealand has had little to no formal high elevation monitoring stations for all climate and snow related parameters outside of ski field climate and snow stations. This leads to sparse and incomplete archived datasets. Due to the importance of these catchments to the New Zealand economy (eg irrigation, hydro-electricity generation, tourism) NIWA has developed a climate-snow and ice monitoring network (SIN) since 2006. This network extends existing monitoring by electricity generator and ski stations and it is used by a number of stakeholders. In 2014 the network comprises 13 stations located at elevation above 700masl. As part of the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE), NIWA is carrying out an intercomparison of precipitation data over the period 2013-2015 at Mueller Hut. The site was commissioned on 11 July 2013, set up on the 17th September 2013 and comprises two Geonor weighing bucket raingauges, one shielded and the other un-shielded, in association with a conventional tipping bucket raingauge and conventional climate and snow measurements (temperature, wind, solar radiation, relative humidity, snow depth and snow pillow). The presentation aims to outline the state of the current monitoring network in New Zealand, as well as the challenge and opportunities for measurement of precipitation in alpine

  20. Intensive (pasture) beef cattle operations: the perspective of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, S C

    1997-08-01

    Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most

  1. HIV and the decriminalization of sex work in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Healy, Catherine

    2006-12-01

    The decriminalization of sex work in New Zealand will protect the rights of sex workers and improve their working conditions and general well-being. It will also improve HIV prevention programs. In this article, which is based on a presentation at a "learning from practice" session at the conference, Catherine Healy describes the situation prior to decriminalization, and discusses the features of the new law and accompanying guidelines.

  2. 9. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, Tin Metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, Tin Metal area of building, looking S. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building 105, South Broadway, on Hudson River, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. Virtual Australia and New Zealand (VANZ): Creating a piece of Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, M.

    2014-02-01

    VANZ is an Initiative of a wide group of research, government, industry, technology and legal stakeholders in Australia and New Zealand. Its purpose is to broker development of the 'Authorised Virtual World' that brings together 3D Spatial and Building Information Modelling within a proposed new Legal Framework. The aim is to create an 'authoritative' and 'enduring' 3D model of both the 'physical attributes', and 'legal entitlements' relating to every property. This 'authorised virtual world' would be used in all 'property-related' activities - to deliver better, quicker and cheaper outcomes. It would also be used as the context for serious games and to model dynamic processes within the built environment, as well as for emergency response and disaster recovery. Productivity savings across Australia have been estimated at 5 billion pa for the design and construct phases alone. The problem for owners, bankers, insurers, architects, engineers and construction companies, and others, is that they require access to 'authoritative' and detailed 3D data for their own purposes, that must also be securely shared with others up and down the 'property' chain, and over time. All parties also need to know what are the rights, responsibilities and restrictions applying to the data, as well as to the land and buildings that it models. VANZ proposes the creation of a network of Data Banks, to hold the 'authoritative data set', 'in perpetuity', along with the associated software and virtual hardware used to model it. Under the proposal, rights of access to the 'authoritative data' will mirror each person's rights in the property that the data models. As more and more buildings are modelled (inside and out), privacy, security and liability become issues of paramount importance. This paper offers a way for the global community to address these issues. It is targeted at all who have an interest in the practical implementation of Digital Earth for the built environment - including new

  4. Residential care workers and residents: the New Zealand story.

    PubMed

    Kiata, Liz; Kerse, Ngaire; Dixon, Robyn

    2005-05-06

    To describe the nature and size of long-term residential care homes in New Zealand; funding of facilities; and the ethnic and gender composition of residents and residential care workers nationwide. A postal, fax, and email survey of all long-term residential care homes in New Zealand. Completed surveys were received from an eligible 845 facilities (response rate: 55%). The majority of these (54%) facilities housed less than 30 residents. Of the 438 (94%) facilities completing the questions about residents' ethnicity, 432 (99%) housed residents from New Zealand European (Pakeha) descent, 156 (33%) housed at least 1 Maori resident, 71 (15%) at least 1 Pacific (Islands) resident, and 61 (13%) housed at least 1 Asian resident. Facilities employed a range of ethnically diverse staff, with 66% reporting Maori staff. Less than half of all facilities employed Pacific staff (43%) and Asian staff (33%). Registered nursing staff were mainly between 46 and 60 years (47%), and healthcare assistant staff were mostly between 25 and 45 years old (52%). Wide regional variation in the ethnic make up of staff was reported. About half of all staff were reported to have moved within the previous 2 years. The age and turnover of the residential care workforce suggests the industry continues to be under threat from staffing shortages. While few ethnic minority residents live in long-term care facilities, staff come from diverse backgrounds, especially in certain regions.

  5. Teaching cultural safety in a New Zealand nursing education program.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Fran; Carryer, Jenny

    2005-05-01

    Cultural safety education is a concept unique to nursing in New Zealand. It involves teaching nursing students to recognize and understand the dynamics of cultural, personal, and professional power and how these shape nursing and health care relationships. This article describes the findings of a research study on the experience of teaching cultural safety. As a teacher of cultural safety, the first author was interested in exploring the experience of teaching the topic with other cultural safety teachers. A qualitative approach situated in a critical theory paradigm was used for the study. The study was informed by the ideas of Foucault and feminist theory. Fourteen women between ages 20 and 60 were interviewed about their experience of teaching cultural safety. Five women were Maori (the indigenous people of New Zealand), and 9 were Pakeha (the Maori name for New Zealanders of European descent). Following data analysis, three major themes were identified: that the Treaty of Waitangi provides for an examination of power in cultural safety education; that the broad concept of difference influences the experience of teaching cultural safety; and that the experience of teaching cultural safety has personal, professional, and political dimensions. These dimensions are experienced differently by Maori and Pakeha teachers.

  6. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  7. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927

  8. Attitudes towards smokefree campus policies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Louise; Robertson, Lindsay A; Cameron, Claire

    2014-05-02

    This study examines the level of support for a completely smokefree campus policy and other smokefree policy initiatives amongst staff and students at a New Zealand University. Attitudes to smoking on campus, smokefree campus policies, implementation and enforcement of smokefree policies were assessed using an online survey of 332 staff and 268 students; giving a response rate of 51% from staff and 41% from students. Most participants had never smoked, or were past smokers; few reported being current smokers. Participants agreed that exposure to second-hand smoke is harmful, disliked being exposed to second-hand smoke on campus, and felt the university should promote a healthy work and study environment. Results indicated strong support for smokefree policies, and participants made several recommendations regarding smokefree policies. Most disagreed that compliance with a smokefree policy should be voluntary, but felt that campus security should warn people who breach the policy. These results provide a sound basis for university administrators to implement smokefree policies. While around half of the tertiary education institutions in New Zealand already have a completely smokefree campus policy, greater adoption of this policy by tertiary education institutions would foster realisation of the government's goal that New Zealand become a smokefree nation by 2025. A potential barrier preventing tertiary education institutions working towards a smokefree campus is a perceived risk of opposition from staff and students. Our study found strong support for smokefree campus policies; these findings should encourage other universities, polytechnics and other tertiary education providers to adopt full campus smokefree policies.

  9. New Zealand consumers' perceptions of private insurance for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, Rajan; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Mirza, Wasif; Daiya, Mitali; Chandra, Himesh; Yousif, Ali; Girn, Maninder

    2014-01-01

    Private insurance plays a minor role in paying for pharmaceuticals in New Zealand, despite controversy about access through the public health system. The present study examines New Zealand consumers' perceptions of private insurance for pharmaceuticals. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 433 consumers at thirty pharmacies. The questionnaire included 18 questions on demographics, insurance status, perceptions of private insurance for pharmaceuticals and confidence in the public health system. Forty six percent of respondents had private health insurance. Respondents were more likely to have private health insurance as household income increased, and confidence in the public health system decreased. (Over two thirds of respondents were either confident or very confident in the public health system). Nineteen percent had private health insurance for pharmaceuticals, and the likelihood was not affected by household income or confidence in the public health system. Sixty one percent believed private insurance for pharmaceuticals would increase availability and affordability of pharmaceuticals. However, just over half were willing to pay for private insurance for pharmaceuticals. Of these, over two thirds were only willing to pay $20 per year or less. New Zealand pharmacy consumers' willingness to pay for private insurance for pharmaceuticals is very low.

  10. New Zealand doctors' attitudes towards the complaints and disciplinary process.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Wayne

    2004-07-23

    To examine attitudes held by doctors in New Zealand towards the complaints and disciplinary process. A questionnaire was sent to New Zealand doctors randomly selected to include vocationally registered general practitioners, vocationally registered hospital-based specialists, and general registrants. 598 respondents (33.6% having ever and 66.4% having never received a medical complaint) indicated that New Zealand doctors strongly support society's right to complain, having lay input, a sense of completion, and appropriate advice provided to the complaints process. Doctors also support society's notions of rights and responsibilities, and believe that the medical profession is capable of self-regulation. Fifty percent of doctors do not believe that complaints are a useful tool to improve medical practice. Doctor's attitudes diverge about how they believe society interacts with the profession through the complaints process. They are divided in their opinion as to whether complaints are warranted, whether complainants are normal people, and whether complaints are judged by appropriate standards. Doctor's attitudes towards the complaints and disciplinary system fall on a continuum between being consistent and divergent. Their attitudes are consistent with notions of professionalism, but suggest that using the complaints system to improve the delivery of medical care may be problematic.

  11. A feather precipitation hydrogen isoscape for New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. M.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Soto, D. X.; Bartle, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Forensic isotopic assays of feathers from historical Maori cloaks are a potential tool to link historical artefacts back to their native locales (Iwi) in New Zealand. In order to test this approach, we sampled feathers from extant museum archived birds of known origin for their feather hydrogen isotopes (δyHf) to assign their regional origin and location over time. We obtained feathers from two non-migratory bird species widely distributed around New Zealand, tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and quail (Callipepla californica). Feathers were sampled from archived birds collected between 1880-2002 held in 3 New Zealand museum collections. We determined regression coefficients of δ2H on location, latitude, δ2Hprecipitation, and age. The data showed that ground dwelling quail had higher regression coefficients with respect to latitude (r2=0.46) than the nectar feeding tui (r2=0.39). On the whole, both resident birds showed promise as regional geographical indicators of their habitat (r2=0.58). Year of collection had no meaningful effect on isotopic composition. We conclude that isotopic assays may therefore be used to aid in regional assignments relevant to the interpretation of historical artefacts.

  12. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-13

    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  13. Species Radiation of Carabid Beetles (Broscini: Mecodema) in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Julia; Knapp, Michael; Emberson, Rowan M.; Townsend, J. Ian; Trewick, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand biodiversity has often been viewed as Gondwanan in origin and age, but it is increasingly apparent from molecular studies that diversification, and in many cases origination of lineages, postdate the break-up of Gondwanaland. Relatively few studies of New Zealand animal species radiations have as yet been reported, and here we consider the species-rich genus of carabid beetles, Mecodema. Constrained stratigraphic information (emergence of the Chatham Islands) and a substitution rate for Coleoptera were separately used to calibrate Bayesian relaxed molecular clock date estimates for diversification of Mecodema. The inferred timings indicate radiation of these beetles no earlier than the mid-Miocene with most divergences being younger, dating to the Plio-Pleistocene. A shallow age for the radiation along with a complex spatial distribution of these taxa involving many instances of sympatry implicates recent ecological speciation rather than a simplistic allopatric model. This emphasises the youthful and dynamic nature of New Zealand evolution that will be further elucidated with detailed ecological and population genetic analyses. PMID:24465949

  14. Antidepressant poisoning deaths in New Zealand for 2001.

    PubMed

    Reith, David; Fountain, John; Tilyard, Murray; McDowell, Rebecca

    2003-10-24

    To compare the rates of death per volume of drug dispensed for antidepressants in New Zealand. Deaths from antidepressant poisonings were identified from the reports of coronial inquiries for New Zealand in 2001. Prescriptions for antidepressant medications were identified from the PharmHouse database from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2001. The rates of deaths (95% CI) per prescription, tablet/capsule or defined daily dose were calculated for individual antidepressants and classes of antidepressant. There were 200 poisoning deaths recorded in the database for New Zealand in 2001. Antidepressants were involved in 41 deaths, and death was attributed to an antidepressant in 23 cases. There were 5.52 (95% CI 3.85-7.68) deaths per 100 000 prescriptions for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and 2.51 (1.57-3.79) deaths per 100 000 prescriptions for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). There was marked variability in rates of death per volume of drug dispensed between individual antidepressants. SSRIs have lower rates of death per volume of drug dispensed than TCAs and there is also variation in these rates within these classes of drugs. Toxicity in overdose should be considered when prescribing antidepressants.

  15. Wood in New Zealand's Native Forest Streams. Recent Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, M. A.; Davies-Colley, R.

    2005-05-01

    We conducted a series of research projects to investigate the importance of wood in native forested streams of New Zealand. We examined abundance and geomorphic role of wood in 18 pristine native forest streams (channel width: 3-6 m) throughout New Zealand. Forest type and geographic location had no discernable influence on wood abundance, possibly reflecting the confounding influences of local features (e.g., tree fall regime) and methodology (`snap-shot' survey of a dynamic system). Number (18-66 per 100 m) and dead wood volume (85-470 m3 ha-1) of stream logs were at the high end of the international range. Living trees contributed up to 25% of total wood, and tree ferns were strongly represented (up to 11% of volume). The largest 10% of pieces contributed 75% of the total volume. The importance of the large wood pieces (>10 m3) was explored further with surveys within that watershed containing the site with the greatest wood volume. The largest pieces were rare but seemed relatively uniformly distributed. To explore the biological consequences of stream wood, we studied use of wood-related micro-habitat by the crayfish (Paranephrops planifrons White). Our findings suggest that wood is an important component of New Zealand's forested stream ecosystems.

  16. Veterinary Pharmaceutics: An Opportunity for Interprofessional Education in New Zealand?

    PubMed

    McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica

    2017-07-26

    Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.

  17. Prevalence of transsexualism among New Zealand passport holders.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F

    2008-10-01

    Most previous studies of the prevalence of transsexualism have used data from individuals seeking sex reassignment surgery. New Zealand is unique in that transsexual people can apply to have an 'X' for the sex on their passport if they have a name on their birth certificate that is congruent with the sex opposite to their birth assigned sex, and provide a statutory declaration stating they have lived as a member of that sex. From information provided by the New Zealand Passports Office, it was ascertained that the prevalence of transsexualism among New Zealand passport holders was at least 1:6364. The prevalence of male-to-female transsexualism was estimated at 1:3639, and the corresponding figure for female-to-male transsexualism was 1:22,714. These estimates were higher than most previous estimates of transsexualism prevalence. There was also a larger than expected ratio of male-to-female transsexual people to female-to-male transsexual people (6:1), which could in part be due to female-to-male transsexual people being relatively overrepresented among those transsexual people for whom we did not have data on the direction of sex change, or this may be indicative of the demography of transsexualism in Australasia.

  18. Social inequality and ethnic differences in smoking in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Ross; Moon, Graham; Kearns, Robin

    2004-07-01

    This study tests a generalisation of the 'Wilkinson' thesis that the greater a nation's income inequality, the poorer the average national health status. We consider the effect of socio-economic inequality upon ethnic variations in smoking in New Zealand. Analysis of Maori and Pakeha (New Zealanders of European descent) smoking rates from the 1996 Census is conducted for 73 Territorial Local Authority areas in New Zealand, disaggregated by gender and rural-urban location. Partial correlation is used to control for absolute levels of deprivation and examine the independent effect of ethnic social inequality upon smoking rates. The level of social inequality between Maori and Pakeha has an independent effect on Maori smoking rates. Pakeha smoking rates by contrast are more sensitive to variations in absolute rather than relative deprivation. The effect of inequality is greatest for Maori women, especially among urban residents. By contrast, among Maori men the effects are greatest in rural areas. The results provide some qualified support for the Wilkinson thesis and suggest that policies which address fundamental issues of social inequality will play a small, but significant, role in helping to reduce high smoking rates amongst Maori. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A study of building structural features associated with high indoor air concentrations of organochlorine termiticides.

    PubMed

    Pisaniello, D L; Gun, R T; Tkaczuk, M N; Hann, C; Crea, J

    1993-09-01

    As part of a two-year study of post-treatment residential exposure to the termiticide, aldrin, the building structural features of ten houses with crawl-space-type floors were assessed by an independent inspector. Building attributes recorded on a checklist included the age of the dwelling, room characteristics, floor details and the nature of subfloor ventilation. At the end of each inspection, the inspector, who was blinded to data on airborne aldrin concentrations, provided a rating of expected indoor air contamination. Several of the building attributes, including the age of the house, the area of exterior subfloor vents, as well as the inspector's rating, were significantly correlated with airborne aldrin values. No single building variable, however, was highly correlated with every measure of aldrin concentration over a 12-month period. The observed data are consistent with poor subfloor ventilation and a 'leaky' floor being important contributors to indoor air pollution. It is recommended that pest control companies advise householders about any obvious floor and ventilation deficiencies before soil treatment work is undertaken. Pesticide exposure (by analogy with geological radon exposure) may be reduced by sealing gaps in floors and/or by improving subfloor ventilation.

  20. Interaction of pyridostigmine bromide and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide alone and in combination with P-glycoprotein expressed in Escherichia coli leaky mutant.

    PubMed

    El-Masry, Eman M; Abou-Donia, Mohamed B

    2006-05-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the most extensively studied ATP-binding transporter, functions as a biological barrier by extruding toxic substances and xenobiotics out of the cell. This study was carried out to determine the effect of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and pyridostigmine bromide (PB), alone and in combination, on P-gp expression using Escherichia coli leaky mutant transformed with Mdr1 gene (pT5-7/mdr1), which codes for P-gp or lactose permease (pT5-7/lacY) as negative control. Also, daunomycin (a known P-gp sustrate) was used as a positive control and reserpine (a known P-gp inhibitor) served as a negative control. An in vitro cell-resistant assay was used to monitor the potential of test compounds to interact with P-gp. Following exposure of the cells to pyridostigmine bromide or daunomycin, P-gp conferred significant resistance against both compounds, while reserpine and DEET significantly inhibited the glycoprotein. Cells were grown in the presence of noncytotoxic concentrations of daunomycin, pyridostigmine bromide, reserpine, or DEET, and membrane fractions were examined by Western immunoblotting for expression of P-gp. Daunomycin induced P-gp expression quantitatively more than pyridostigmine bromide, while reserpine and DEET significantly inhibited P-gp expression in cells harboring mdr1. Photoaffinity labeling experiment performed with the P-gp ligand [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin demonstrated that compounds that induced or inhibited P-gp transport activity also bound to P-gp. DEET was also found to be a potent inhibitor of P-gp-mediated ATPase activity, whereas pyridostigmine bromide increased P-gp ATPase activity. Cells expressing P-gp or lac permease were exposed to pyridostigmine bromide and DEET, alone and in combination. Noncytotoxic concentrations of DEET significantly inhibited P-gp-mediated resistance against pyridostigmine bromide, resulting in a reduction of the number of effective drug interactions with biological targets. An explanation of