Schwenk, Robert W; Baumeier, Christian; Finan, Brian; Kluth, Oliver; Brauer, Christine; Joost, Hans-Georg; DiMarchi, Richard D; Tschöp, Matthias H; Schürmann, Annette
Oestrogens have previously been shown to exert beta cell protective, glucose-lowering effects in mouse models. Therefore, the recent development of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-oestrogen conjugate, which targets oestrogen into cells expressing GLP-1 receptors, offers an opportunity for a cell-specific and enhanced beta cell protection by oestrogen. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of GLP-1 and GLP-1-oestrogen during beta cell failure under glucolipotoxic conditions. Male New Zealand obese (NZO) mice were treated with daily s.c. injections of GLP-1 and GLP-1-oestrogen, respectively. Subsequently, the effects on energy homeostasis and beta cell integrity were measured. In order to clarify the targeting of GLP-1-oestrogen, transcription analyses of oestrogen-responsive genes in distinct tissues as well as microarray analyses in pancreatic islets were performed. In contrast to GLP-1, GLP-1-oestrogen significantly decreased food intake resulting in a substantial weight reduction, preserved normoglycaemia, increased glucose tolerance and enhanced beta cell protection. Analysis of hypothalamic mRNA profiles revealed elevated expression of Pomc and Leprb. In livers from GLP-1-oestrogen-treated mice, expression of lipogenic genes was attenuated and hepatic triacylglycerol levels were decreased. In pancreatic islets, GLP-1-oestrogen altered the mRNA expression to a pattern that was similar to that of diabetes-resistant NZO females. However, conventional oestrogen-responsive genes were not different, indicating rather indirect protection of pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1-oestrogen efficiently protects NZO mice against carbohydrate-induced beta cell failure by attenuation of hyperphagia. In this regard, targeted delivery of oestrogen to the hypothalamus by far exceeds the anorexigenic capacity of GLP-1 alone.
Jürgens, Hella S; Schürmann, Annette; Kluge, Reinhart; Ortmann, Sylvia; Klaus, Susanne; Joost, Hans-Georg; Tschöp, Matthias H
Among polygenic mouse models of obesity, the New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse exhibits the most severe phenotype, with fat depots exceeding 40% of total body weight at the age of 6 mo. Here we dissected the components of energy balance including feeding behavior, locomotor activity, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis compared with the related lean New Zealand black (NZB) and obese B6.V-Lep(ob)/J (ob/ob) strains (11% and 65% fat at 23 wk, respectively). NZO mice exhibited a significant hyperphagia that, when food intake was expressed per metabolic body mass, was less pronounced than that of the ob/ob strain. Compared with NZB, NZO mice exhibited increased meal frequency, meal duration, and meal size. Body temperature as determined by telemetry with implanted sensors was reduced in NZO mice, but again to a lesser extent than in the ob/ob strain. In striking contrast to ob/ob mice, NZO mice were able to maintain a constant body temperature during a 20-h cold exposure, thus exhibiting a functioning cold-induced thermogenesis. No significant differences in spontaneous home cage activity were observed among NZO, NZB, and ob/ob strains. When mice had access to voluntary running wheels, however, running activity was significantly lower in NZO than NZB mice and even lower in ob/ob mice. These data indicate that obesity in NZO mice, just as in humans, is due to a combination of hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and insufficient physical activity. Because NZO mice differ strikingly from the ob/ob strain in their resistance to cold stress, we suggest that the molecular defects causing hyperphagia in NZO mice are located distal from leptin and its receptor.
The New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse is a polygenic model for obesity and diabetes with obese females and obese, diabetes-prone males, used to study traits of the metabolic syndrome like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and dyslipidaemia. By using LC-MS/MS, we here examine the suitability of this model to mirror tissue-specific changes in acylcarnitine (AC) and amino acid (AA) species preceding T2DM which may reflect patterns investigated in human metabolism. We observed high concentrations of fatty acid-derived ACs in 11 female mice, high abundance of branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA-) derived ACs in 6 male mice, and slight increases in BCAA-derived ACs in the remaining 6 males. Principal component analysis (PCA) including all ACs and AAs confirmed our hypothesis especially in plasma samples by clustering females, males with high BCAA-derived ACs, and males with slight increases in BCAA-derived ACs. Concentrations of insulin, blood glucose, NEFAs, and triacylglycerols (TAGs) further supported the hypothesis of high BCAA-derived ACs being able to mirror the onset of diabetic traits in male individuals. In conclusion, alterations in AC and AA profiles overlap with observations from human studies indicating the suitability of NZO mice to study metabolic changes preceding human T2DM. PMID:29854816
Stedman, Kurstyn V.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.
Background: The international literature suggests that obesity is likely to be more pronounced in the population of people with intellectual disability (ID). However, there are no published New Zealand data for this population. Method: We accessed a database containing anonymous data for a New Zealand ID population. Ninety-eight people of 141 had…
Aryanto, D.; Hastuti, E.; Husniya, N.; Sudiro, T.; Nuryadin, B. W.
Nanocrystalline Ni-doped ZnO (NZO) thin films were synthesized on glass substrate using sol-gel spin coating methods. The effect of annealing on the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline thin film was studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-VIS spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL). The results showed that the annealing temperature strongly influenced the physical properties of nanocrystalline NZO thin films. The photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline NZO thin films were evaluated using an aqueous solution of Rhodamine-B. The photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline NZO thin films increased with the increase of annealing temperature. The results indicated that the structure, morphology, and band gap energy of nanocrystalline NZO thin films played an important role in photocatalytic activity.
Blair, A R; Strube, M L; Proietto, J; Andrikopoulos, S
Diets to decrease body weight have limited success in achieving and importantly maintaining this weight loss long-term. It has recently been suggested that energy intake can be regulated by the amount of protein ingested, termed the protein leverage hypothesis. In this study, we determined whether a high protein diet would be effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss in a genetically obese model, the New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse. NZO and C57BL/6J (C57) control mice were fed a high protein or chow diet for 5 weeks from weaning (3 weeks of age). Body weight and food intake were determined. Mice on the same diet were bred to produce offspring that were fed either a chow or high protein diet. Body weight, food intake, and glucose tolerance were determined. Feeding NZO and C57 mice a high protein diet for 5 weeks resulted in reduced food intake and consequently energy intake and body weight gain compared with mice on a chow diet. NZO mice fed a high protein diet showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance compared with their chow-fed counterparts, while no difference was seen in C57 mice fed chow or protein diet. The offspring of NZO mice that were fed a high protein diet during gestation and weaning were also lighter and displayed improved glucose tolerance compared with chow fed animals. We conclude that a high protein diet is a reasonable strategy to reduce body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance in the NZO mouse, a polygenic model of obesity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kluth, O; Mirhashemi, F; Scherneck, S; Kaiser, D; Kluge, R; Neschen, S; Joost, H-G; Schürmann, A
Carbohydrate-free diet prevents hyperglycaemia and beta cell destruction in the New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse model. Here we have used a sequential dietary regimen to dissociate the effects of obesity and hyperglycaemia on beta cell function and integrity, and to study glucose-induced alterations of key transcription factors over 16 days. Mice were rendered obese by feeding a carbohydrate-free diet for 18 weeks. Thereafter, a carbohydrate-containing diet was given. Plasma glucose, plasma insulin and total pancreatic insulin were determined, and forkhead box O1 protein (FOXO1) phosphorylation and the transcription factors pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), NK6 homeobox 1 protein (NKX6.1) and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A (avian) (MAFA) were monitored by immunohistochemistry for 16 days. Dietary carbohydrates produced a rapid and continuous increase in plasma glucose in NZO mice between day 2 and 16 after the dietary challenge. Hyperglycaemia caused a dramatic dephosphorylation of FOXO1 at day 2, followed by a progressive depletion of insulin stores. The loss of beta cells was triggered by apoptosis (detectable at day 8), associated with reduction of crucial transcription factors (PDX1, NKX6.1 and MAFA). Incubation of isolated islets from carbohydrate-restricted NZO mice or MIN6 cells with palmitate and glucose for 48 h resulted in a dephosphorylation of FOXO1 and thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 (AKT) without changing the protein levels of both proteins. The dietary regimen dissociates the effects of obesity (lipotoxicity) from those of hyperglycaemia (glucotoxicity) in NZO mice. Obese NZO mice are unable to compensate for the carbohydrate challenge by increasing insulin secretion or synthesising adequate amounts of insulin. In response to the hyperglycaemia, FOXO1 is dephosphorylated, leading to reduced levels of beta cell-specific transcription factors and to apoptosis of the cells.
Laeger, Thomas; Castaño-Martinez, Teresa; Werno, Martin W; Japtok, Lukasz; Baumeier, Christian; Jonas, Wenke; Kleuser, Burkhard; Schürmann, Annette
Low-protein diets are well known to improve glucose tolerance and increase energy expenditure. Increases in circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have been implicated as a potential underlying mechanism. We aimed to test whether low-protein diets in the context of a high-carbohydrate or high-fat regimen would also protect against type 2 diabetes in New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice used as a model of polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mice were placed on high-fat diets that provided protein at control (16 kJ%; CON) or low (4 kJ%; low-protein/high-carbohydrate [LP/HC] or low-protein/high-fat [LP/HF]) levels. Protein restriction prevented the onset of hyperglycaemia and beta cell loss despite increased food intake and fat mass. The effect was seen only under conditions of a lower carbohydrate/fat ratio (LP/HF). When the carbohydrate/fat ratio was high (LP/HC), mice developed type 2 diabetes despite the robustly elevated hepatic FGF21 secretion and increased energy expenditure. Prevention of type 2 diabetes through protein restriction, without lowering food intake and body fat mass, is compromised by high dietary carbohydrates. Increased FGF21 levels and elevated energy expenditure do not protect against hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes per se.
Laeger, Thomas; Baumeier, Christian; Wilhelmi, Ilka; Würfel, Josefine; Kamitz, Anne; Schürmann, Annette
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered to be a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, as FGF21 levels are elevated in obese and diabetic conditions we aimed to test if exogenous FGF21 is sufficient to prevent diabetes and beta cell loss in New Zealand obese (NZO) mice, a model for polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes. Male NZO mice were treated with a specific dietary regimen that leads to the onset of diabetes within 1 week. Mice were treated subcutaneously with PBS or FGF21 to assess changes in glucose homeostasis, energy expenditure, food intake and other metabolic endpoints. FGF21 treatment prevented islet destruction and the onset of hyperglycaemia, and improved glucose clearance. FGF21 increased energy expenditure by inducing browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue. However, as a result of a compensatory increased food intake, body fat did not decrease in response to FGF21 treatment, but exhibited elevated Glut4 expression. FGF21 prevents the onset of diet-induced diabetes, without changing body fat mass. Beneficial effects are mediated via white adipose tissue browning and elevated thermogenesis. Furthermore, these data indicate that obesity does not induce FGF21 resistance in NZO mice.
McLean, Rachael M; Hoek, Janet A; Buckley, Sue; Croxson, Bronwyn; Cumming, Jacqueline; Ehau, Terry H; Tanuvasa, Ausaga Fa'asalele; Johnston, Margaret; Mann, Jim I; Schofield, Grant
New Zealand rates of obesity and overweight have increased since the 1980s, particularly among indigenous Māori people, Pacific people and those living in areas of high deprivation. New Zealand's response to the obesity epidemic has been The Healthy Eating-Healthy Action: Oranga Kai - Oranga Pumau (HEHA) Strategy ('the Strategy'), launched in 2003. Because the HEHA Strategy explicitly recognises the importance of evaluation and the need to create an evidence base to support future initiatives, the Ministry of Health has commissioned a Consortium of researchers to evaluate the Strategy as a whole. This paper discusses the Consortium's approach to evaluating the HEHA Strategy. It includes an outline of the conceptual framework underpinning the evaluation, and describes the critical components of the evaluation which are: judging to what extent stakeholders were engaged in the process of the strategy implementation and to what extent their feedback was incorporated in to future iterations of the Strategy (continuous improvement), to what extent the programmes, policies, and initiatives implemented span the target populations and priority areas, whether there have been any population changes in nutrition and/or physical activity outcomes or behaviours relating to those outcomes, and to what extent HEHA Strategy and spending can be considered value for money. This paper outlines our approach to evaluating a complex national health promotion strategy. Not only does the Evaluation have the potential to identify interventions that could be adopted internationally, but also the development of the Evaluation design can inform other complex evaluations.
Leiter, Edward H.; Strobel, Marjorie; Schultz, David; Schile, Andrew; Reifsnyder, Peter C.
This review compares two novel polygenic mouse models of type 2 diabetes (T2D), TALLYHO/JngJ and NONcNZO10/LtJ, and contrasts both with the well-known C57BLKS/J-Leprdb (db/db) monogenic diabesity model. We posit that the new polygenic models are more representative of the “garden variety” obesity underlying human T2D in terms of their polygenetic rather than monogenic etiology. Moreover, the clinical phenotypes in these new models are less extreme, for example, more moderated development of obesity coupled with less extreme endocrine disturbances. The more progressive development of obesity produces a maturity-onset development of hyperglycemia in contrast to the juvenile-onset diabetes observed in the morbidly obese db/db model. Unlike the leptin receptor-deficient db/db models with central leptin resistance, the new models develop a progressive peripheral leptin resistance and are able to maintain reproductive function. Although the T2D pathophysiology in both TALLYHO/JngJ and NONcNZO10/LtJ is remarkably similar, their genetic etiologies are clearly different, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity underlying T2D in humans. PMID:23671854
Leiter, Edward H; Strobel, Marjorie; O'Neill, Adam; Schultz, David; Schile, Andrew; Reifsnyder, Peter C
This review compares two novel polygenic mouse models of type 2 diabetes (T2D), TALLYHO/JngJ and NONcNZO10/LtJ, and contrasts both with the well-known C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db) (db/db) monogenic diabesity model. We posit that the new polygenic models are more representative of the "garden variety" obesity underlying human T2D in terms of their polygenetic rather than monogenic etiology. Moreover, the clinical phenotypes in these new models are less extreme, for example, more moderated development of obesity coupled with less extreme endocrine disturbances. The more progressive development of obesity produces a maturity-onset development of hyperglycemia in contrast to the juvenile-onset diabetes observed in the morbidly obese db/db model. Unlike the leptin receptor-deficient db/db models with central leptin resistance, the new models develop a progressive peripheral leptin resistance and are able to maintain reproductive function. Although the T2D pathophysiology in both TALLYHO/JngJ and NONcNZO10/LtJ is remarkably similar, their genetic etiologies are clearly different, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity underlying T2D in humans.
Lal, Anita; Moodie, Marj; Ashton, Toni; Siahpush, Mohammad; Swinburn, Boyd
To estimate the costs of health care and lost productivity attributable to overweight and obesity in New Zealand (NZ) in 2006. A prevalence-based approach to costing was used in which costs were calculated for all cases of disease in the year 2006. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated based on the relative risks obtained from large cohort studies and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. For each disease, the PAF was multiplied by the total health care cost. The costs of lost productivity associated with premature mortality were estimated using both the Human Capital approach (HCA) and Friction Cost approach (FCA). Health care costs attributable to overweight and obesity were estimated to be NZ$686m or 4.5% of New Zealand's total health care expenditure in 2006. The costs of lost productivity using the FCA were estimated to be NZ$98m and NZ$225m using the HCA. The combined costs of health care and lost productivity using the FCA were $784m and $911m using the HCA. The cost burden of overweight and obesity in NZ is considerable. Policies and interventions are urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of obesity thereby decreasing these substantial costs. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Waters, D L; Hale, L; Grant, A M; Herbison, P; Goulding, A
Bone, muscle, and fat may affect gait and balance in older adults. Osteoporosis was prevalent in low muscle mass participants and related to gait and balance deficits. Low muscle combined with high fat mass had more functional deficits and poorer bone health, which has implications for falls risk and fractures. Decreasing bone density and muscle mass and increasing fat mass may act synergistically to affect gait and balance in older adults. One hundred eighty-three older adults (age 72.7 +/- 6 years, range 56-93; body mass index 28.2 +/- 4.9, range 16.6-46.0) were recruited from a New Zealand falls prevention intervention trial. Total and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), percent fat, and bone mineralization were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and used to characterize normal lean (NL, n = 51), sarcopenic (SS, n = 18), sarcopenic obese (SO, n = 29), and obese (OO, n = 85) phenotypes. Functional performance was assessed using timed up and go, chair stand, single leg stand, and step test. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, medications, and physical activity. Femoral neck osteoporosis was present in 22% SS, 17% SO, 12% NL, and 7% OO. Femoral neck osteoporosis with low ASM predicted poor chair stand performance (beta -3.3, standard error 1.6, p = 0.04). SO scored lowest on the chair stand (p = 0.03) and step test (p = 0.03). Higher ASM predicted faster timed up and go performance (p = 0.001). Osteoporosis was prevalent in low ASM groups (SS and SO) and related to gait and balance deficits, particularly in the SO. This has implications for falls risk, fractures, and interventions.
Mirhashemi, Farshad; Kluth, Oliver; Scherneck, Stephan; Vogel, Heike; Kluge, Reinhart; Schurmann, Annette; Joost, Hans-Georg; Neschen, Susanne
We have previously reported that a high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet prevents diabetes and beta-cell destruction in the New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse strain. Here we investigated the effect of diets with and without carbohydrates on obesity and development of beta-cell failure in a second mouse model of type 2 diabetes, the db/db mouse. When kept on a carbohydrate-containing standard (SD; with (w/w) 5.1, 58.3, and 17.6% fat, carbohydrates and protein, respectively) or high-fat diet (HFD; 14.6, 46.7 and 17.1%), db/db mice developed severe diabetes (blood glucose >20 mmol/l, weight loss, polydipsia and polyurea) associated with a selective loss of pancreatic beta-cells, reduced GLUT2 expression in the remaining beta-cells, and reduced plasma insulin levels. In contrast, db/db mice kept on a high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet (CFD; with 30.2 and 26.4% (w/w) fat or protein) did not develop diabetes and exhibited near-normal, hyperplastic islets in spite of a morbid obesity (fat content >60%) associated with hyperinsulinaemia. These data indicate that in genetically different mouse models of obesity-associated diabetes, obesity and dietary fat are not sufficient, and dietary carbohydrates are required, for beta-cell destruction.
The stimulus behind most of the early investigations into Pacific or Polynesian peoples' body image, particularly those that looked to compare with Western or Westernised groups, is the assumption that Pacific peoples valued and therefore desired very large bodies, and in relation to obesity-risk, this is a problematic cultural feature to have. This may be driven by popular anecdotes which are captured in the title of one such study "Do Polynesians still believe that big is beautiful?" To the author's knowledge, no research in Pacific peoples' body image has been conducted in the New Zealand (NZ) context by Pacific researchers. This study makes a contribution to the literature gap and more importantly through an emic viewpoint. A critique of the current literature is provided below which calls into question the initial catalyst behind earlier investigations which have led to the perpetuation of particular types of body image research for Pacific groups. Using mixed-methods, the specific objective of this study was to describe the behaviours, beliefs and values of Pacific adolescents and their parents, that are related to body image. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 2495 Pacific students who participated in the New Zealand arm of the Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) project. Sixty-eight people (33 adolescents and 35 parents) from 30 Pacific households were interviewed in the qualitative phase of the study. This study found Pacific adolescents and their parents did not desire obesity-sized bodies but desired a range of average-sized bodies that met their Pacific-defined view of health. It is not clear whether body image research makes any meaningful contribution to obesity prevention for Pacific people, given the cultural-bounded nature of the concept "body image" which sits communication and understanding between obesity interventionists and all healthcare workers generally and Pacific communities. For obesity interventions to be
Krishnan, Mohanraj; Thompson, John M D; Mitchell, Edwin A; Murphy, Rinki; McCowan, Lesley M E; Shelling, Andrew N; On Behalf Of The Children Of Scope Study Group, G
Childhood obesity is a public health problem, which is associated with a long-term increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. Several gene variants have previously been identified that have provided novel insights into biological factors that contribute to the development of obesity. As obesity tracks through childhood into adulthood, identification of the genetic factors for obesity in early life is important. The objective of this study was to identify putative associations between genetic variants and obesity traits in children at 6 years of age. We recruited 1208 children of mothers from the New Zealand centre of the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Eighty common genetic variants associated with obesity traits were evaluated by the Sequenom assay. Body mass index standardised scores (BMI z-scores) and percentage body fat (PBF; measured by bio-impedance assay (BIA)) were used as anthropometric measures of obesity. A positive correlation was found between BMI z-scores and PBF (p < 0.001, r = 0.756). Two subsets of gene variants were associated with BMI z-scores (HOXB5-rs9299, SH2B1-rs7498665, NPC1-rs1805081 and MSRA-rs545854) and PBF (TMEM18-rs6548238, NPY-rs17149106, ETV-rs7647305, NPY-rs16139, TIMELESS-rs4630333, FTO-rs9939609, UCP2-rs659366, MAP2K5-rs2241423 and FAIM2-rs7138803) in the genotype models. However, there was an absence of overlapping association between any of the gene variants with BMI z-scores and PBF. A further five variants were associated with BMI z-scores (TMEM18-rs6548238, FTO-rs9939609 and MC4R-rs17782313) and PBF (SH2B1-rs7498665 and FTO-rs1421085) once separated by genetic models (additive, recessive and dominant) of inheritance. This study has identified significant associations between numerous gene variants selected on the basis of prior association with obesity and obesity traits in New Zealand European children.
Teevale, Tasileta; Thomas, David R; Scragg, Robert; Faeamani, Gavin; Nosa, Vili
To explore sociocultural factors that may promote or prevent obesity in Pacific communities in New Zealand. Specific objectives were to describe the behaviours, beliefs and values of Pacific adolescents and their parents, related to food consumption and physical activity and to examine the patterns among obese and non-obese Pacific adolescents and their parents. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 2495 Pacific students who participated in the New Zealand arm of the Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) project, with quantitative comparisons between 782 obese and 814 healthy weight students. Sixty-eight people (33 adolescents and 35 parents) from 30 Pacific households were interviewed in the qualitative phase of the study. Healthy eating and higher levels of physical activity were related to parental presence at home, parental occupational type (non-shift) and better health education and experience. Obese adolescents held the same attitudes, beliefs and values about food and physical activity as their healthy-weight counterparts, but these factors were not protective for obesity-risk. This study indicates that social status and environmental factors related to poverty affect the health-promoting behaviours of Pacific communities in New Zealand. To address obesity in Pacific youth, specific macro-environmental changes are recommended including food pricing control policies to mitigate healthy food costs, revising sustained employment hour policies, making changes to school food and physical activity environments.
Sundborn, Gerhard; Metcalf, Patricia A; Gentles, Dudley; Scragg, Robert; Dyall, Lorna; Black, Peter; Jackson, Rod
This paper describes and compares proportions of overweight, obese, and average BMI and their relationship with physical activity for Pacific ethnic groups (Samoan, Tongan, Niue, Cook Islands) and European New Zealanders by gender who participated in the 2002-03 Diabetes Heart and Health Study (DHAHS). The DHAHS was a cross-sectional population based study of people age 35-74 years carried out in Auckland between 2002-03. A total of 1011 Pacific people comprising of 484 Samoan, 252 Tongan, 109 Niuean, 116 Cook Islanders and 47 'Other Pacific' (mainly Fijian) and 1745 European participants took part in the survey. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire to assess their participation in physical activity, perceived weight, and their perception of their current weight. Following this participant's height and weight was measured for calculation of BMI. Ethnic-specific cut offs were used for classification of overweight (Pacific > or = 26.0-<32.0, European > or = 25.0-<30.0) and obesity (Pacific > or = 26.0, European > or = 32.0). Approximately 95% of Pacific men and 100% Pacific women were 'overweight or obese'. Proportions of obesity were for men: all Pacific 53%, Samoan 58%, Cook Island 23%, Tongan 60%, and Niuean 49%; and for women: all Pacific 74%, Samoan 75%, Cook Island 69%, Tongan 78%, and Niuean 76%. Pacific people were as accurate at estimating their body weight as Europeans, and included similar proportions who under-estimated their weight. The Cook Islands group were most likely to accurately report their weight and were significantly less likely to underestimate their weight. A significantly higher proportion of Pacific people reported that they were heavier than a year ago (22.7%) compared to Europeans (17.2%), but significantly fewer Pacific people (55.6%) reported thinking that they were overweight compared to Europeans (64.9%). After adjustment for possible confounding variables, older Pacific adults were over 11 times more likely to be
Baumeier, Christian; Kaiser, Daniel; Heeren, Jörg; Scheja, Ludger; John, Clara; Weise, Christoph; Eravci, Murat; Lagerpusch, Merit; Schulze, Gunnar; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schwenk, Robert Wolfgang; Schürmann, Annette
Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are known to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in several species including humans. The aim of this study was to unravel potential mechanisms by which these interventions improve insulin sensitivity and protect from type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese mice were either 10% calorie restricted (CR) or fasted every other day (IF), and compared to ad libitum (AL) fed control mice. AL mice showed a diabetes prevalence of 43%, whereas mice under CR and IF were completely protected against hyperglycemia. Proteomic analysis of hepatic lipid droplets revealed significantly higher levels of PSMD9 (co-activator Bridge-1), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitor factor), TCEB2 (transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2), ACY1 (aminoacylase 1) and FABP5 (fatty acid binding protein 5), and a marked reduction of GSTA3 (glutathione S-transferase alpha 3) in samples of CR and IF mice. In addition, accumulation of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was significantly reduced in livers of IF mice (P=0.045) while CR mice showed a similar tendency (P=0.062). In particular, 9 DAG species were significantly reduced in response to IF, of which DAG-40:4 and DAG-40:7 also showed significant effects after CR. This was associated with a decreased PKCε activation and might explain the improved insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, our data indicate that protection against diabetes upon caloric restriction and intermittent fasting associates with a modulation of lipid droplet protein composition and reduction of intracellular DAG species. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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Vogel, Heike; Jähnert, Markus; Stadion, Mandy; Matzke, Daniela; Scherneck, Stephan; Schürmann, Annette
Obesity, the excessive accumulation of body fat, is a highly heritable and genetically heterogeneous disorder. The complex, polygenic basis for the disease consisting of a network of different gene variants is still not completely known. In the current study we generated a BAC library of the obese-prone NZO strain to clarify the genomic alteration within the gene cluster Ifi200 on chr.1 including Ifi202b, an obesity gene that is in contrast to NZO not expressed in the lean B6 mouse. With the PacBio sequencing data of NZO BAC clones we identified a deletion spanning approximately 261.8 kb in the B6 reference genome. The deletion affects different members of the Ifi200 gene family which also includes the original first exon and 5'-regulatory parts of the Ifi202b gene and suggests to be the relevant cause of its expression deficiency in B6. In addition, the generation and characterization of congenic mice carrying the critical fragment on the B6 background demonstrate its crucial role for obesity and insulin resistance. Our data reveal the reconstruction of a complex genomic region on mouse chr.1 resulting from deletions and duplications of Ifi200 genes and suggest to be relevant for the development of obesity. The results further demonstrate the complexity of the disease and highlight the importance for studying rare genetic variants as they can be causal for large effects.
Rajput, Nitin; Tuohy, Pat; Mishra, Suryaprakash; Smith, Ash; Taylor, Barry
We describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in four-year-old children in New Zealand, variations with ethnicity and socio-economic status, and changes over the study duration using body mass index (BMI) measurements collected as part of the B4School Check programme. Demographic and BMI data were extracted for all children measured between 2009 and 2012. Overweight and obesity rates were estimated using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 2012 standards and the 85th (overweight) and 95th (obese) percentiles for BMI-for-age of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 and UK 1990 reference standards. A total of 168,744 BMI measurements were included in the analysis with a coverage rate of 66.5%. Mean BMI was 16.30 kg/m(2) in girls and 16.44 kg/m(2) in boys. Mean BMI z-score (WHO 2006 standards) was 0.601 in girls and 0.785 in boys. Using WHO 2006 standards, 16.9% of girls and 19.6% of boys were overweight and 13.8% of girls and 18.7% of boys were obese. Using IOTF standards, 18.3% of girls and 16.2% of boys were overweight and 5.7% of girls and 4.7% of boys were found obese. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in Pacific and Maori children and those living in more socio-economically deprived areas than other children. No definite time-trends were observed over the study duration. The study reaffirms the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in pre-school children in New Zealand, and demonstrates the variations in prevalence when using different reference standards. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...
Assessment of health-related quality of life and psychological well-being of children and adolescents with obesity enrolled in a New Zealand community-based intervention programme: an observational study.
Anderson, Yvonne C; Wynter, Lisa E; Treves, Katharine F; Grant, Cameron C; Stewart, Joanna M; Cave, Tami L; Wouldes, Trecia A; Derraik, José G B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L
To describe health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychological well-being of children and adolescents at enrolment in a multidisciplinary community-based obesity programme and to determine association with ethnicity. This programme targeted indigenous people and those from most deprived households. Further, this cohort was compared with other populations/normative data. This study examines baseline demographic data of an unblinded randomised controlled clinical trial. Participants (recruited from January 2012-August 2014) resided in Taranaki, New Zealand, and for this study we only included those with a body mass index (BMI) ≥98th percentile (obese). HRQOL and psychological well-being were assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL V.4.0 TM ) (parent and child reports), and Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)/Youth Self Report (YSR). Assessments were undertaken for 233 participants (45% Māori, 45% New Zealand European, 10% other ethnicities, 52% female, 30% from the most deprived household quintile), mean age 10.6 years. The mean BMI SD score (SDS) was 3.12 (range 2.01-5.34). Total PedsQL generic scaled score (parent) was lower (mean=63.4, SD 14.0) than an age-matched group of Australian children without obesity from the Health of Young Victorians study (mean=83.1, SD 12.5). In multivariable models, child and parental generic scaled scores decreased in older children (β=-0.70 and p=0.031, β=-0.64 and p=0.047, respectively). Behavioural difficulties (CBCL/YSR total score) were reported in 43.5% of participants, with the rate of emotional/behavioural difficulties six times higher than reported norms (p<0.001). In this cohort, children and adolescents with obesity had a low HRQOL, and a concerning level of psychological difficulties, irrespective of ethnicity. Obesity itself rather than ethnicity or deprivation appeared to contribute to lower HRQOL scores. This study highlights the importance of psychologist involvement in
... DC, Wewalka M, et al. Adjustable gastric band surgery or medical management in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized ... 25900871 . Kushner RF, Ryan DH. Assessment and lifestyle management of patients with ... surgery versus conventional medical treatment in obese patients with ...
This image taken from the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument of New Zealand was collected on January 9, 2015 when the phytoplankton were blooming — particularly to the east of the islands and along the Chatham Rise. Derived from the Greek words phyto (plant) and plankton (made to wander or drift), phytoplankton are microscopic organisms that live in watery environments, both salty and fresh. Credit: NASA/Goddard/NPP NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Krishnan, Mohanraj; Shelling, Andrew N; Wall, Clare R; Mitchell, Edwin A; Murphy, Rinki; McCowan, Lesley M E; Thompson, John M D
Modern technology may have desensitised the 'biological clock' to environmental cues, disrupting the appropriate co-ordination of metabolic processes. Susceptibility to misalignment of circadian rhythms may be partly genetically influenced and effects on sleep quality and duration could predispose to poorer health outcomes. Shorter sleep duration is associated with obesity traits, which are brought on by an increased opportunity to eat and/or a shift of hormonal profile promoting hunger. We hypothesised that increased sleep duration will offset susceptible genetic effects, resulting in reduced obesity risk. We recruited 643 (male: 338; female: 305) European children born to participants in the New Zealand centre of the International Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints sleep study. Ten genes directly involved in the circadian rhythm machinery and a further 20 genes hypothesised to be driven by cyclic oscillations were evaluated by Sequenom assay. Multivariable regression was performed to test the interaction between gene variants and average sleep length (derived from actigraphy), in relation to obesity traits (body mass index (BMI) z-scores and percentage body fat (PBF)). No association was found between average sleep length and BMI z-scores (p = 0.056) or PBF (p = 0.609). Uncorrected genotype associations were detected between STAT-rs8069645 (p = 0.0052) and ADIPOQ-rs266729 (p = 0.019) with differences in average sleep duration. Evidence for uncorrected gene-by-sleep interactions of the CLOCK-rs4864548 (p = 0.0039), PEMT-936108 (p = 0.016) and GHRELIN-rs696217 (p = 0.046) were found in relation to BMI z-scores but not for PBF. Our results indicate that children may have different genetic susceptibility to the effects of sleep duration on obesity. Further confirmatory studies are required in other population cohorts of different age groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hearnshaw, John B.
Although New Zealand is a young country, astronomy played a significant role in its early exploration and discovery during the three voyages of Cook from 1769. In the later 19th century several expeditions came to New Zealand to observe the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 and New Zealand's rich history of prominent amateur astronomers dates from this time. The Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand (founded in 1920) has catered for the amateur community. Professional astronomy however had a slow start in New Zealand. The Carter Observatory was founded in 1941. But it was not until astronomy was taken up by New Zealand's universities, notably by the University of Canterbury from 1963, that a firm basis for research in astronomy and astrophysics was established. Mt John University Observatory with its four optical telescopes (largest 1.8 m) is operated by the University of Canterbury and is the main base for observational astronomy in the country. However four other New Zealand universities also have an interest in astronomical research at the present time. There is also considerable involvement in large international projects such as MOA, SALT, AMOR, IceCube and possibly SKA.
This anaglyph from the MISR instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft shows the rugged Southern Alps extending some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand South Island. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.
Walton, Mat; Waiti, Jordan; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George
Background: Schools are often identified as a site for intervention to improve the diets of students, and help prevent excess weight gain and obesity. Rates of overweight and obesity amongst school children have risen in much of the world, including New Zealand, with unequal distribution by ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Objective: To…
New Zealand contains over 3,000 glaciers, most of which are in the Southern Alps on the South Island. Since 1890, the glaciers have been retreating, with short periods of small advances, as shown in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft. The image cover an area of 39 by 46 km, and are located at 43.7 degrees south, 170 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21509
Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd
Reducing childhood obesity is now a high priority for Government and New Zealand society, and foremost in these efforts should be getting serious about protecting children from being targeted by sophisticated marketing for the very foods and beverages that are making them fat. The marketing of unhealthy food products to children is powerful, pervasive and predatory. Previous studies in New Zealand found that food marketing targeted at children through various media is predominantly for unhealthy food products. Statutory comprehensive regulations providing full protections for children against unhealthy food marketing are recommended, but strengthening voluntary codes into a more quasi-regulatory system would allow food companies to clearly demonstrate their commitments to becoming part of the solution for New Zealand's unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity.
The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National
Kluth, Oliver; Matzke, Daniela; Kamitz, Anne; Jähnert, Markus; Vogel, Heike; Scherneck, Stephan; Schulze, Matthias; Staiger, Harald; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schürmann, Annette
Beta-cell apoptosis and failure to induce beta-cell regeneration are hallmarks of type 2-like diabetes in mouse models. Here we show that islets from obese, diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice, in contrast to diabetes-resistant C57BL/6J (B6)-ob/ob mice, do not proliferate in response to an in-vivo glucose challenge but lose their beta-cells. Genome-wide RNAseq based transcriptomics indicated an induction of 22 cell cycle-associated genes in B6-ob/ob islets that did not respond in NZO islets. Of all genes differentially expressed in islets of the two strains, seven mapped to the diabesity QTL Nob3, and were hypomorphic in either NZO (Lefty1, Apoa2, Pcp4l1, Mndal, Slamf7, Pydc3) or B6 (Ifi202b). Adenoviral overexpression of Lefty1, Apoa2, and Pcp4l1 in primary islet cells increased proliferation, whereas overexpression of Ifi202b suppressed it. We conclude that the identified genes in synergy with obesity and insulin resistance participate in adaptive islet hyperplasia and prevention from severe diabetes in B6-ob/ob mice.
Kamitz, Anne; Jähnert, Markus; Vogel, Heike; Scherneck, Stephan; Schulze, Matthias; Staiger, Harald; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schürmann, Annette
Beta-cell apoptosis and failure to induce beta-cell regeneration are hallmarks of type 2-like diabetes in mouse models. Here we show that islets from obese, diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice, in contrast to diabetes-resistant C57BL/6J (B6)-ob/ob mice, do not proliferate in response to an in-vivo glucose challenge but lose their beta-cells. Genome-wide RNAseq based transcriptomics indicated an induction of 22 cell cycle-associated genes in B6-ob/ob islets that did not respond in NZO islets. Of all genes differentially expressed in islets of the two strains, seven mapped to the diabesity QTL Nob3, and were hypomorphic in either NZO (Lefty1, Apoa2, Pcp4l1, Mndal, Slamf7, Pydc3) or B6 (Ifi202b). Adenoviral overexpression of Lefty1, Apoa2, and Pcp4l1 in primary islet cells increased proliferation, whereas overexpression of Ifi202b suppressed it. We conclude that the identified genes in synergy with obesity and insulin resistance participate in adaptive islet hyperplasia and prevention from severe diabetes in B6-ob/ob mice. PMID:26348837
Hazou, Rand T.
In September 2015, and in response to the Syrian refugee crisis, there were widespread calls in New Zealand urging the Government to raise its annual Refugee Quota. Maori Party co-leader Marama Fox argued that New Zealand could afford to take on more refugees as part of its global citizenship and suggested that New Zealand's policy might be shaped…
Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa
The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.
Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia
The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927
Last February, in search of expanded thinking, the author led a group of 20 early childhood professionals on a study tour to Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). The group included two Canadians and two Aussies, with everyone else from the United States. While they knew they had much to learn from the overall system of early childhood education in NZ, the…
Gillett, Grant; Douglass, Alison
The ethical review of research in New Zealand after the Cartwright Report of 1988 produced a major change in safeguards for and empowerment of participants in health care research. Several reforms since then have streamlined some processes but also seriously weakened some of the existing safeguards. The latest reforms, against the advice of various ethics bodies and the New Zealand Law Society, further reduced and attenuated the role of ethics committees so that New Zealand has moved from being a world leader in ethical review processes to there being serious doubt whether it is in conformity to international Conventions and codes. The latest round of reforms, seemingly driven by narrow economic aspirations, anecdote and innuendo, have occurred without any clear evidence of dysfunction in the system nor any plans for the resourcing required to improve quality of ethical review or to audit the process. It is of serious concern both to ethicists and medical lawyers in New Zealand that such hasty and poorly researched changes should have been made which threaten the hard-won gains of the Cartwright reforms.
Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, is located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor at the south end of North Island. The city was founded in 1840 by British emigrants and now has a regional population of more than 400,000 residents.
Ministry of Education, Wellington (New Zealand).
Intended to stimulate public discussion on the aims and policies of New Zealand education, this background paper has three major sections. The first section discusses the role of education in relation to equal opportunity, democracy, cultural difference, national development, and personal development. In part two, graphs, tables, and text give a…
All around the world, people live in places where the threat of natural disaster is high. On the North Island of New Zealand, the Mount Ruapehu volcano is just such a threat. A towering, active stratovolcano (the classic cone-shaped volcano), snow-capped Ruapehu Volcano is pictured in this enhanced-color image. The image is made from topography data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000, and imagery collected by the Landsat satellite on October 23, 2002. Ruapehu is one of New Zealand’s most active volcanoes, with ten eruptions since 1861. The eruptions aren’t the only threat from the volcano, however. Among the most serious threats is a volcanic mudflow called a lahar. In between eruptions, a lake forms in the volcano’s caldera from melting snow. If a previous eruption has deposited a dam of ash, rocks and mud in the lake’s natural overflow point, then the lake becomes dangerously full, held back only by the temporary dam. In this scene, the lake is nestled among the ridges at the top of the volcano. Eventually, the dam gives way and a massive flow of mud and debris churns down the mountain toward farmland and towns below. Scientists estimate that Ruapehu has experienced 60 lahars in the last 150 years. A devastating lahar in 1953 killed more than 150 people, who died when a passenger train plunged into a ravine when a railroad bridge was taken out by the lahar. The flank of the volcano below the lake is deeply carved by the path of previous lahars; the gouge can be seen just left of image center. Currently scientists in the region are predicting that the lake will overflow in a lahar sometime in the next year. There is great controversy about how to deal with the threat. News reports from the region indicate that the government is planning to invest in a high-tech warning system that will alert those who might be affected well in advance of any catastrophic release. Others feel
Jenkin, Gabrielle; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George
In the context of the global obesity epidemic, national nutrition policies have come under scrutiny. The present paper examines whose interests - industry or public health - are served by these policies and why. Using an exemplary case study of submissions to an inquiry into obesity, the research compared the positions of industry and public health groups with that taken by government. We assessed whether the interests were given equal consideration (a pluralist model of influence) or whether the interests of one group were favoured over the other (a neo-pluralist model). 2006 New Zealand Inquiry into Obesity. Food and advertising industry and public health submitters. The Government's position was largely aligned with industry interests in three of four policy domains: the national obesity strategy; food industry policy; and advertising and marketing policies. The exception to this was nutrition policy in schools, where the Government's position was aligned with public health interests. These findings support the neo-pluralist model of interest group influence. The dominance of the food industry in national nutrition policy needs to be addressed. It is in the interests of the public, industry and the state that government regulates the food and advertising industries and limits the involvement of industry in policy making. Failure to do so will be costly for individuals, in terms of poor health and earlier death, costly to governments in terms of the associated health costs, and costly to both the government and industry due to losses in human productivity.
The negative association between intelligence and obesity has been well established, but the direction of causality is unclear. The present review surveys the recent studies on the topic with both cross-sectional and longitudinal data in an attempt to establish causality. Most studies in the area employ cross-sectional data and conclude (without empirical justification) that obesity causes intellectual impairment. The few studies that employ prospectively longitudinal data, however, uniformly conclude that lower intelligence leads to BMI gains and obesity. A close examination of three such studies, from three different nations (Sweden, New Zealand, and the UK), leaves little doubt that the causality runs from low intelligence to obesity. The conclusion in previous studies that obesity impairs cognitive function stems from improper interpretation of a negative association between intelligence and obesity from cross-sectional studies. Results from the analyses of high-quality, population-based, prospectively longitudinal data firmly establish that low intelligence increases the chances of obesity.
Strange, Geoff; Lau, Edmund M; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Corrigan, Carolyn; Kotlyar, Eugene; Kermeen, Fiona; Williams, Trevor; Celermajer, David S; Dwyer, Nathan; Whitford, Helen; Wrobel, Jeremy P; Feenstra, John; Lavender, Melanie; Whyte, Kenneth; Collins, Nicholas; Steele, Peter; Proudman, Susanna; Thakkar, Vivek; Keating, Dominic; Keogh, Anne
Epidemiology and treatment strategies continue to evolve in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We sought to define the characteristics and survival of patients with idiopathic, heritable and drug-induced PAH in the current management era. Consecutive cases of idiopathic, heritable and drug-induced PAH were prospectively enrolled into an Australian and New Zealand Registry. Between January 2012 and December 2016, a total of 220 incident cases were enrolled (mean age 57.2±18.7years, female 69.5%) and followed for a median duration of 26 months (IQR17-39). Co-morbidities were common such as obesity (34.1%), systemic hypertension (30.5%), coronary artery disease (16.4%) and diabetes mellitus (19.5%). Initial combination therapy was used in 54 patients (dual, n=50; triple, n=4). Estimated survival rates at 1-year, 2-years and 3-years were 95.6% (CI 92.8-98.5%), 87.3% (CI 82.5-92.4%) and 77.0% (CI 70.3-84.3%), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that male sex and lower 6-minute distance at diagnosis independently predicted worse survival, whereas obesity was associated with improved survival. Co-morbidities other than obesity did not impact survival. Initial dual oral combination therapy was associated with a trend towards better survival compared with initial oral monotherapy (adjusted HR=0.27, CI 0.06-1.18, p=0.082) CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology and survival of patients with idiopathic PAH in Australia and New Zealand are similar to contemporary registries reported in Europe and North America. Male sex and poorer exercise capacity are predictive of mortality whereas obesity appears to exert a protective effect. Despite current therapies, PAH remains a life-threatening disease associated with significant early mortality. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.
Maida, Adriano; Chan, Jessica S K; Sjøberg, Kim A; Zota, Annika; Schmoll, Dieter; Kiens, Bente; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J
Dietary protein dilution (PD) has been associated with metabolic advantages such as improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. This phenotype involves liver-induced release of FGF21 in response to amino acid insufficiency; however, it has remained unclear whether dietary dilution of specific amino acids (AAs) is also required. Circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are sensitive to protein intake, elevated in the serum of obese humans and mice and thought to promote insulin resistance. We tested whether replenishment of dietary BCAAs to an AA-diluted (AAD) diet is sufficient to reverse the glucoregulatory benefits of dietary PD. We conducted AA profiling of serum from healthy humans and lean and high fat-fed or New Zealand obese (NZO) mice following dietary PD. We fed wildtype and NZO mice one of three amino acid defined diets: control, total AAD, or the same diet with complete levels of BCAAs (AAD + BCAA). We quantified serum AAs and characterized mice in terms of metabolic efficiency, body composition, glucose homeostasis, serum FGF21, and tissue markers of the integrated stress response (ISR) and mTORC1 signaling. Serum BCAAs, while elevated in serum from hyperphagic NZO, were consistently reduced by dietary PD in humans and murine models. Repletion of dietary BCAAs modestly attenuated insulin sensitivity and metabolic efficiency in wildtype mice but did not restore hyperglycemia in NZO mice. While hepatic markers of the ISR such as P-eIF2α and FGF21 were unabated by dietary BCAA repletion, hepatic and peripheral mTORC1 signaling were fully or partially restored, independent of changes in circulating glucose or insulin. Repletion of BCAAs in dietary PD is sufficient to oppose changes in somatic mTORC1 signaling but does not reverse the hepatic ISR nor induce insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes during dietary PD.
This quarterly bulletin highlights the geothermal developments in New Zealand with the following articles: A brief history of the Wairakei geothermal power project; Geothermal resources in New Zealand -- An overview; Domestic and commercial heating and bathing -- Rotorua area; Kawerau geothermal development: A case study; Timber drying at Kawerau; Geothermal greenhouses at Kawerau; Drying of fibrous crops using geothermal steam and hot water at the Taupo Lucerne Company; Prawn Park -- Taupo, New Zealand; Geothermal orchids; Miranda hot springs; and Geothermal pipeline.
Brebner, Campbell; Jones, Raymond; Marshall, Wendy; Parry, Graham
Electronic medical consultation is available worldwide through access to the World Wide Web (WWW). This article outlines a research study on the adoption of electronic medical consultation as a means of health delivery. It focuses on the delivery of healthcare specifically for New Zealanders, by New Zealanders. It is acknowledged that the WWW is a global marketplace and that it is therefore difficult to identify New Zealanders' use of such a global market; nevertheless, we attempt to provide a New Zealand perspective on electronic medical consultation. PMID:11720955
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…
Assumptions and interventions about the so-called "obesity epidemic" pervade health and physical education classrooms and national policy agendas in New Zealand, as they do elsewhere in the Western world. In contrast, critical scholars in these subjects advocate an active deconstruction of the tenets and presumptions underpinning public…
Manthei, R. J.
This paper presents the views of the New Zealand Counselling and Guidance Association regarding the need for changes in the system of selecting individuals for training as school counselors in New Zealand. A number of options are offered for improving the mechanics of selection, recommending selection criteria, and suggesting procedures for…
New Zealanders are making a significant effort to develop their forest industry to benefit from rapid growth exhibited by Sequoia sempervirens on both the North Island and South Island. US and New Zealand forest products companies have established redwood plantations in the past decade, and have found that microclimate, site preparation, soil chemistry, fertilization...
New Zealand is an isolated archipelago in the South-West Pacific with a unique fauna and flora, a feature partly attributable to it being the last sizable land mass to be colonized by man. In this chapter we test the hypothesis that different periods in the history of New Zealand – from pre-history ...
Describes the types and characteristics of New Zealand early childhood education services. Specific areas addressed include: (1) Te Whaariki, the New Zealand early childhood curriculum; (2) great outdoors as a feature of early education; (3) education and care centers; (4) kindergartens and playcenters; and (5) Te Kohanga Reo, Maori language and…
Abbott, Malcolm; Doucouliagos, Hristos
In New Zealand the most important institutions that are responsible for the delivery of vocational education and training programs are the government owned and operated tertiary education institutions known as polytechnics. The New Zealand polytechnics deliver programs at the certificate, diploma and degree level. During the course of the 1990s,…
Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.
In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…
Sachdev, P S
A major factor in the aetiology of illness is the behaviour of individuals with regard to certain risks and hazards of the environment. The Maori of New Zealand have been shown to be at greater risk of illness and death than their non-Maori counterparts. It is estimated that a significant proportion of this excess morbidity and mortality can be attributed to at least four behavioural factors: smoking, obesity, alcohol use and accidents. This paper examines the inter-cultural differences in these factors, both from a contemporary and an historical perspective. Some of the reasons for the continuation of these adverse patterns of behaviour are explored, in particular the role of psycho-cultural stress. Some possible mechanisms of effecting behavioural change in modern Maori society are discussed.
Tupai-Firestone, Ridvan; Tuisano, Hana; Manukia, Moana; Kaholokula, Keawe'aimoku; Foliaki, Sunia; Kingi, Te Kani; Kruger, Rozanne; Breier, Bernhard; O'Connell, Angelique; Kruger, Rozanne; Borman, Barry; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis
In New Zealand, the burden of obesity is greatest among Pacific people, especially in children and adolescents. We investigated the factors of the obesogenic environment that were indigenous to Pasifika youths' social-cultural context, their food purchasing behaviours, and associated anthropometric measures. An exploratory study of 30 Pasifika youth aged 16-24 years in Wellington and Auckland, New Zealand. A large proportion of the participants were obese (mean body mass index: 31.0kg/m2; waistto-hip ratio: 0.84; waist-to-height ratio: 0.6), suggesting that the future health and wellbeing trajectory of the studied Pasifika youth is poor. Purchasing behaviours of food and snacks over a 7-day period provided meaningful insights that could be a useful future research tool to examine the role of their physical environment on food access and availability. From this exploratory study, we highlight the following: (i) the future health trajectory of Pasifika youth is poor. Developing the youths' healthy lifestyle knowledge may lend itself to developing culturally relevant intervention programmes; (ii) identifying the enablers and barriers within the Pasifika ontext of an obesogenic environment can provide very useful information; (iii) use of spatial analysis using purchased food receipts adds to the current knowledge base of obesity-related research, although this was an exploratory investigation. We need to address these highlights if we are to reverse the trend of obesity for this population.
Smith, Moira B; Signal, Louise
Background Economic changes and policy reforms, consistent with economic globalization, in New Zealand in the mid-1980s, combined with the recent global demand for dairy products, particularly from countries undergoing a 'nutrition transition', have created an environment where a proportion of the New Zealand population is now experiencing financial difficulty purchasing milk. This situation has the potential to adversely affect health. Discussion Similar to other developed nations, widening income disparities and health inequalities have resulted from economic globalization in New Zealand; with regard to nutrition, a proportion of the population now faces food poverty. Further, rates of overweight/obesity and chronic diseases have increased in recent decades, primarily affecting indigenous people and lower socio-economic groups. Economic globalization in New Zealand has changed the domestic milk supply with regard to the consumer and may shed light on the link between globalization, nutrition and health outcomes. This paper describes the economic changes in New Zealand, specifically in the dairy market and discusses how these changes have the potential to create inequalities and adverse health outcomes. The implications for the success of current policy addressing chronic health outcomes is discussed, alternative policy options such as subsidies, price controls or alteration of taxation of recommended foods relative to 'unhealthy' foods are presented and the need for further research is considered. Summary Changes in economic ideology in New Zealand have altered the focus of policy development, from social to commercial. To achieve equity in health and improve access to social determinants of health, such as healthy nutrition, policy-makers must give consideration to health outcomes when developing and implementing economic policy, both national and global. PMID:19152688
Chowdhury, A.N.; Dobson, Teara Wharemate
This paper provides a critical appraisal of the importance of cultural perspective in the psychiatric diagnosis and management plan. The working philosophy of mental health services in New Zealand is primarily monocultural and based on Western medical conceptualisation of diagnosis and treatment protocol. In view of the emphasis on bicultural health perspectives in recent years and in tune with the objectives of the Treaty of Waitangi's ethnocultural partnership, the provision of a culturally safe and sensitive mental health coverage of Maori and Pacific Islander clients has become an important health issue in the country. The present discussion of the ethnocultural influence on clinical psychiatry highlights some of the relevant issues from the transcultural perspective. PMID:21206600
Hill, Geraldine R; Ashton, Janelle; Harrison-Woolrych, Mira
To describe patterns of sibutramine usage in New Zealand during the first 3 years of marketing using data acquired during post-marketing safety surveillance. Demographic and prescription data were examined from a nationwide cohort of 17 298 patients prescribed sibutramine between 1 February 2001 and 31 March 2004. Outcome measures were age and sex distribution of the cohort; period prevalence of sibutramine usage for each ethnic group; duration of treatment and reasons for cessation of therapy. Limited BMI data were also examined. About 0.5% of the NZ population were prescribed sibutramine in the period studied. Overwhelmingly, the highest users of sibutramine were NZ European women aged 30-59 years. Maori and Pacific Peoples were under-represented in the cohort, despite the higher prevalence of obesity among these populations. Sibutramine usage was predominantly short-term: 59% of the cohort used sibutramine for 90 days or less, half of whom used it for only 1 month. There has been extensive use of sibutramine in New Zealand. Sibutramine has been relatively under-utilised by Maori and Pacific ethnic groups, compared to New Zealand Europeans, despite their higher prevalence of obesity. A number of factors may have contributed to the predominantly short-term use of this medicine, including the cost of the medicine to the consumer, weight loss not meeting expectations and adverse effects of the medicine.
This article draws on Mills' sociological imagination (from the 1959 publication "The Sociological Imagination") to consider the connections between personal trouble and social issues when it comes to the causes and consequences of obesity. These connections may be important for assuaging the "obesity bias" that pervades our…
Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M
Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.
Joshy, Grace; Simmons, David
The aim of this review is to describe the evolution of the burden of diabetes, its risk factors and complications in New Zealand, and the current national strategies underway to tackle a condition likely to impact on the national ability to afford other health services. The MEDLINE database from 1990 was searched for New Zealand-specific diabetes studies. The Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA) Reports from 1990-2004 and Ministry of Health (MoH) publications and reports were also reviewed. Key contact people working in the field of diabetes care in every district health board (DHB) were contacted, and information on current initiatives for diabetes control and prevention were collected. The prevalence of diabetes (known and undiagnosed), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)/impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and gestational diabetes are tabulated by ethnic group. The latest New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) result of known diabetes: European 2.9%, Maori 8%, Pacific 10.1%, Asian 8.4%. Diabetes risk factors have been examined and the reported rates have been compiled. Maori and Pacific people have a particularly high prevalence of diabetes risk factors (e.g. obesity, physical inactivity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome) compared with Europeans. The profile of diabetic patients in New Zealand has been summarised using publications on their clinical characteristics. The latest available data on ethnic specific clinical characteristics are a decade old. With the suboptimal participation in the Get Checked program: 63% Europeans/Others, 27% Maori, 92% Pacific (possibly overestimated) people in 2004, the results may not be representative. The burden of diabetes complications and diabetes related mortality has been reviewed. A high proportion of Maori and Pacific dialysis patients and new renal disease patients from the ANZDATA registry have diabetes comorbidity. The inadequacy of official statistics in New Zealand and the scarcity of indepth
Li, Xiaoji; Hu, Youping
The beginning of TCM acupuncture in New Zealand dates back to the middle of 19th century. After self-improvement for more than 100 years, TCM acupuncture has gained a considerable development. From the perspective of history and current situation, the development of acupuncture in New Zealand was elaborated in this article; in addition, the sustainable development of acupuncture was discussed from the perspective of education and training. In New Zealand, the TCM acupuncture and dry needling have played a dominant role in acupuncture treatments, which are practiced by TCM practitioners and physical therapists. The TCM acupuncture is widely applied in department of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, and pediatrics, etc., while the dry needling is li-mited for traumatology and pain disorder. Therefore, including TCM acupuncture into the public medical and educational system in New Zealand should be an essential policy of Ministry of Health to provide welfare for the people.
Farmer, R S
"This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt
This anaglyph, from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, is of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.
Jones, Alison; Jenkins, Kuni Kaa
Maori leaders visiting Australia invited a Pakeha (in this case, English) teacher to come to New Zealand to teach the children to read and write. On 12th August 1816, 200 years ago this year, the first school in New Zealand opened. Twenty-four Maori children came on that day, and each had his or her name written down. The teacher Thomas Kendall…
Rosser, B.; Dellow, S.; Haubrook, S.; Glassey, P.
Since 1780, landslides have caused an average of about 3 deaths a year in New Zealand and have cost the economy an average of at least NZ$250M/a (0.1% GDP). To understand the risk posed by landslide hazards to society, a thorough knowledge of where, when and why different types of landslides occur is vital. The main objective for establishing the database was to provide a centralised national-scale, publically available database to collate landslide information that could be used for landslide hazard and risk assessment. Design of a national landslide database for New Zealand required consideration of both existing landslide data stored in a variety of digital formats, and future data, yet to be collected. Pre-existing databases were developed and populated with data reflecting the needs of the landslide or hazard project, and the database structures of the time. Bringing these data into a single unified database required a new structure capable of storing and delivering data at a variety of scales and accuracy and with different attributes. A "unified data model" was developed to enable the database to hold old and new landslide data irrespective of scale and method of capture. The database contains information on landslide locations and where available: 1) the timing of landslides and the events that may have triggered them; 2) the type of landslide movement; 3) the volume and area; 4) the source and debris tail; and 5) the impacts caused by the landslide. Information from a variety of sources including aerial photographs (and other remotely sensed data), field reconnaissance and media accounts has been collated and is presented for each landslide along with metadata describing the data sources and quality. There are currently nearly 19,000 landslide records in the database that include point locations, polygons of landslide source and deposit areas, and linear features. Several large datasets are awaiting upload which will bring the total number of landslides to
Kolt, Gregory S; Schofield, Grant M; Rush, Elaine C; Oliver, Melody; Chadha, Narender K
Body fatness, physical activity, and nutritional behaviours were assessed in 112 (50 male, 62 female) Asian Indians living in New Zealand. Participants were aged 44-91 years (mean 67.5 +/- 7.6) and had lived in New Zealand on average 51 months. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to determine body mass index (BMI) and central adiposity. Bioelectrical impedance was used to derive fat free mass, fat mass, and percentage body fat. Pedometers were worn to record daily steps taken over each of seven consecutive days. A lifestyle and health questionnaire was administered to collect information on nutrition behaviours. Average BMI for the sample was 27.2 +/- 4.7 kg/m2 with females (28.0 +/- 5.4 kg/m2) significantly higher than males (25.6 +/- 5.4 kg/m2). Using Asian Indian specific cut-offs 69% of the sample was obese (BMI>=25 kg/m2) and a further 13.7% overweight (23>=BMI<25 kg/m2). Average percentage body fat for the sample was 41.1 +/- 9.1 with females significantly higher than males. The majority (74%) reported some form of chronic condition, with 35% diagnosed with diabetes. Physical activity levels for the sample were low (5,977 +/- 3,560 steps/day) and significantly different between males (6,982 +/- 4,426) and females (5,159 +/- 2,401). Higher pedometer steps were associated with lower waist circumference. After adjustment for age, physical activity was lower, but nutritional habits better for those who had spent a longer time in New Zealand. In summary, Asian Indian immigrants to New Zealand have low physical activity levels and high levels of overweight/obesity and lifestyle disease.
Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip
Concern over the levels of obesity observed in Western countries has grown as researchers forecast a rapid growth in the medical care that a progressively more obese population will require. As health workers deal with increased incidences of diabetes and other obesity-related disorders, policymakers have examined the factors contributing to this problem. In particular, advertising that promotes high fat and high sugar products to children has come under increasing scrutiny. Advertisers have rejected claims that advertising contributes to obesity by arguing that it cannot coerce people into purchasing a product, and does not affect primary demand. This reasoning overlooks the role advertising plays in reinforcing and normalising behavior, however, and it assumes that only direct causal links merit regulatory attention. Ehrenberg's "weak" theory suggests advertising will support unhealthy eating behaviors, while the wide range of sales promotions employed will prompt trial and reward continued consumption. This article presents an alternative analysis of how marketing contributes to obesity and uses behavior modification theory to analyse the "fast-food" industry's promotions. We also review the New Zealand government's response to obesity and suggest policy interventions that would foster healthier eating behaviors.
The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.
Patterns of trauma and trauma systems in New Zealand are similar to those in Australia. Both countries have geographical considerations, terrain and distance, that can cause delay to definitive care. There are only 7 hospitals in New Zealand that currently manage major trauma patients, and consequently, trauma patients are often hospitalized some distance from their homes. The prehospital services are provided by one major provider throughout the country, with a high level of volunteers providing these services in the rural areas. New Zealand has a national no-fault accident insurance system, the Accident Compensation Corporation, which funds all trauma-related healthcare from the roadside to rehabilitation. This insurance system provides 24-hour no-fault personal injury insurance coverage. The Accident Compensation Corporation provides bulk funding to hospitals for resources to manage the care of trauma patients. Case managers are assigned for major trauma patients. This national system also has a rehabilitation focus. The actual funds are managed by the hospitals, and this allows hospital staff to provide optimum care for trauma patients. New Zealand works closely with Australia in the development of a national trauma registry, research, and education in trauma care for patients in Australasia (the islands of the southern Pacific Ocean, including Australia, New Zealand, and New Guinea).
... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cancer and obesity Overweight and obesity are associated with cancer Language: ... a cancer associated with overweight and obesity. Problem Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. What’s happening? ...
... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Obesity Explore this page: Obesity How does being overweight ... What you can do to reduce your risk? Obesity More than one-third of Americans are obese ...
LaGrow, S.; And Others
The Royal New Zealand Foundation for the Blind is primarily responsible for services to visually impaired people in New Zealand. The article describes its history, structure, services, and plans for the future. (Author/JDD)
Russell, James C; Innes, John G; Brown, Philip H; Byrom, Andrea E
Eradications of invasive species from over 1000 small islands around the world have created conservation arks, but to truly address the threat of invasive species to islands, eradications must be scaled by orders of magnitude. New Zealand has eradicated invasive predators from 10% of its offshore island area and now proposes a vision to eliminate them from the entire country. We review current knowledge of invasive predator ecology and control technologies in New Zealand and the biological research, technological advances, social capacity and enabling policy required. We discuss the economic costs and benefits and conclude with a 50-year strategy for a predator-free New Zealand that is shown to be ecologically obtainable, socially desirable, and economically viable. The proposal includes invasive predator eradication from the two largest offshore islands, mammal-free mainland peninsulas, very large ecosanctuaries, plus thousands of small projects that will together merge eradication and control concepts on landscape scales.
Fisher, Mark Wilkinson; Morrison, John; Jones, Paul Anthony
The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in New Zealand. A 53-item questionnaire was sent to all services providing ECT as of December 2015. Electroconvulsive therapy was provided by 16 services covering 15 district health boards funded by the New Zealand government. No private facilities provided ECT. All services providing ECT responded to an online survey questionnaire. Rates of ECT utilization were low relative to similar countries. Survey results indicated ECT was practiced to an overall good standard. Several resource and logistical issues potentially contributing to low ECT utilization were identified. Electroconvulsive therapy in New Zealand is provided using modern equipment and practices. However, overall rates of utilization remain low, perhaps as a result of controversy surrounding ECT and some resourcing issues.
Russell, James C.; Innes, John G.; Brown, Philip H.; Byrom, Andrea E.
Eradications of invasive species from over 1000 small islands around the world have created conservation arks, but to truly address the threat of invasive species to islands, eradications must be scaled by orders of magnitude. New Zealand has eradicated invasive predators from 10% of its offshore island area and now proposes a vision to eliminate them from the entire country. We review current knowledge of invasive predator ecology and control technologies in New Zealand and the biological research, technological advances, social capacity and enabling policy required. We discuss the economic costs and benefits and conclude with a 50-year strategy for a predator-free New Zealand that is shown to be ecologically obtainable, socially desirable, and economically viable. The proposal includes invasive predator eradication from the two largest offshore islands, mammal-free mainland peninsulas, very large ecosanctuaries, plus thousands of small projects that will together merge eradication and control concepts on landscape scales. PMID:26955079
Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T
The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine
vant, William N.; McGlinchy, Brian J.
This paper describes the primary energy resources of New Zealand and their relative importance. It describes the principal legislation that provides environmental protection and public participation with which State and private agencies are bound to comply. The paper then discusses air pollution in further detail and cites three examples where there is cause for concern. By international standards, air pollution is not a serious problem in New Zealand and so the economic consequences have received little attention Two simple examples are cited. A map showing the main centers and the location of facilities referred to in the text is included
Gordon, Dennis P.; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A.; Ahyong, Shane T.
The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30° of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine diversity
Career development services have existed in New Zealand since the early part of the 20th century. In many aspects, the profession has developed in New Zealand parallel to the development of career guidance and counselling in other Western countries but New Zealand also represents a unique context. In acknowledgement of the distinctive…
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United...
The launch of New Zealand Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007) brings into question the future of the reforms introduced in the 1999 curriculum, Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand National Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 1999). The aim of this paper is to critique recent physical education curriculum policy in New Zealand and…
Pamela J. Jakes; E.R. Langer
When we think of natural disasters in New Zealand, we tend to think of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. However, a series of events is placing New Zealand communities at greater risk of wildfire. In a case study of a rural New Zealand community that experienced wildfire, process elements such as networks and relationships among locals, development and application of...
Zhou, June; Martin, Roy J; Tulley, Richard T; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Lissy, Elizabeth; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Keenan, Michael J
Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable fiber that decreases dietary energy density and results in fermentation in the lower gut. The current studies examined the effect of RS on body fat loss in mice. In a 12 week study (study 1), the effect of two different types of RS on body fat was compared with two control diets (0% RS) in C57Bl/6J mice: regular control diet or the control diet that had equal energy density as the RS diet (EC). All testing diets had 7% (wt/wt) dietary fat. In a 16 week study (study 2), the effect of RS on body fat was compared with EC in C57BL/6J mice and two obese mouse models (NONcNZO10/LtJ or Non/ShiLtJ). All mice were fed control (0% RS) or 30% RS diet for 6 weeks with 7% dietary fat. On the 7th week, the dietary fat was increased to 11% for half of the mice, and remained the same for the rest. Body weight, body fat, energy intake, energy expenditure, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the study. At the end of the studies, the pH of cecal contents was measured as an indicator of RS fermentation. Results: Compared with EC, dietary RS decreased body fat and improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice, but not in obese mice. For other metabolic characteristics measured, the alterations by RS diet were similar for all three types of mice. The difference in dietary fat did not interfere with these results. The pH of cecal contents in RS fed mice was decreased for C57BL/6J mice but not for obese mice, implying the impaired RS fermentation in obese mice. Conclusion: 1) decreased body fat by RS is not simply due to dietary energy dilution in C57Bl/6J mice, and 2) along with their inability to ferment RS; RS fed obese mice did not lose body fat. Thus, colonic fermentation of RS might play an important role in the effect of RS on fat loss. PMID:19739641
... Obesity, And What You Can Do Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic Stress Management How Does Stress Affect You? ... Keeping the Weight Off • Obesity - Introduction - Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic - Treating Obesity as a Disease - Childhood Obesity ...
Educators in New Zealand (NZ) stand poised to shift from a humanistic to a pedagogical viewpoint in their induction practices. Survey results discussed in this research brief are part of the first study to combine qualitative and quantitative methods in low-socio-economic primary schools. As part of her research for the New Teachers Center in…
Smyth, Duncan; Deverall, Eamonn; Balm, Michelle; Nesdale, Annette; Rosemergy, Ian
We describe the first case of food-borne botulism seen in New Zealand for 30 years. Botulism is an important diagnosis to consider in a patient with rapidly progressive descending paralysis and normal sensorium. Early recognition, timely institution of intensive care support and administration of botulism antitoxin are the most important aspects of management.
PEB Exchange, 2004
New Zealand's special funding system allows state schools a greater level of independence in managing their property compared to most other countries. Schools receive a fixed budget as an entitlement from the three "pots" of the educational property funding structure. The government's unique use of accrual accounting together with a new…
Fitzpatrick, Katie; Burrows, Lisette
Health education in Aotearoa New Zealand is an enigma. Premised on ostensibly open and holistic philosophical premises, the school curriculum not only permits, but in some ways prescribes, pedagogies and teacher dispositions that engage with the diversity of young people at its centre. A capacity, to not only understand contemporary health…
New Zealand educators have some ideas worth stealing, including morning tea-time, the lie-flat manifold duplicate book for recording classroom observation comments, school uniforms, collegial planning and grading of college assignments, good meeting etiquette, a whole-child orientation, portable primary architecture, group employment interviews…
Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.
Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…
Massey, Claire; Hurley, Evelyn
A strategy for improving learning and competitiveness in the New Zealand dairy industry examined barriers to farmers' learning and adopted action research with a group of women farmers. This form of participant involvement appeared to facilitate individual learning and technology transfer. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)
Power, William; Gale, Nora
New Zealand is exposed to tsunami threats from several sources that vary significantly in their potential impact and travel time. One route for reducing the risk from these tsunami sources is to provide advance warning based on forecasting and monitoring of events in progress. In this paper the National Tsunami Warning System framework, including the responsibilities of key organisations and the procedures that they follow in the event of a tsunami threatening New Zealand, are summarised. A method for forecasting threat-levels based on tsunami models is presented, similar in many respects to that developed for Australia by Allen and Greenslade (Nat Hazards 46:35-52, 2008), and a simple system for easy access to the threat-level forecasts using a clickable pdf file is presented. Once a tsunami enters or initiates within New Zealand waters, its progress and evolution can be monitored in real-time using a newly established network of online tsunami gauge sensors placed at strategic locations around the New Zealand coasts and offshore islands. Information from these gauges can be used to validate and revise forecasts, and assist in making the all-clear decision.
McPherson, Sarah; Borthwick, Arlene
Last February, members of ISTE's Special Interest Group for Teacher Educators (SIGTE) traveled to New Zealand as part of a SIG-sponsored study tour. While there, the 13-member group visited seven schools and attended the Learning@School 2010 conference. In this third and final installment about their trip, they share observations about New…
Presents a thorough overview of earthquakes in New Zealand, discussing plate tectonics, seismic measurement, and historical occurrences. Includes 10 figures illustrating such aspects as earthquake distribution, intensity, and fissures in the continental crust. Tabular data includes a list of most destructive earthquakes and descriptive effects…
Analyzes the educational implications of the "no-comparison message" that is present in almost all of the publicity material produced by New Zealand-based agencies working in the area of aid and development. Calls for a radical reorientation of the messages being promoted and actions undertaken. Contains 20 references. (AMA)
McMillan, John; Malpas, Phillipa; Walker, Simon; Jonas, Monique
This article describes the well-developed and long-standing medical ethics teaching programs in both of New Zealand's medical schools at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland. The programs reflect the awareness that has been increasing as to the important role that ethics education plays in contributing to the "professionalism" and "professional development" in medical curricula.
The history of the recent development of worker education in Australia and New Zealand shows that, in just the past 15 years or so, very significant improvements have occurred in delivery of trade union education. To a very large degree these developments took place because of the existence of a close relationship between the union movement and…
Rubie-Davies, Christine M.; Townsend, Michael A. R.
Background: There is a need for greater international understanding of student safety in schools. This New Zealand study investigated the causes and school location of fractures sustained by students attending elementary school, with special emphasis on the types of fractures sustained following falls from playground equipment of various heights.…
Annan, Jean; Dean, Shelley; Henry, Geoff; McGhie, Desiree; Phillipson, Roger
New Zealand is a bicultural nation, founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by the native Maori and the British Crown. It is also home to people from many countries, cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, culturally-relevant response to crisis events has become a significant aspect of the Ministry of Education's interdisciplinary Traumatic…
In New Zealand universities, gender is still not a substantial part of the curriculum in most geography departments. Although at the University of Waikato, the situation is different. Its specific history of radical scholarship has enabled feminist academics in a variety of disciplines including geography to have had a stronger voice than in other…
Yelas, Janet; Engles, Paul
This case study discusses a collaborative three year project involving two school clusters located in the North Island and South Island of New Zealand. The project was named "Project ACTIVate" and its main thrust was to study how the use of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) combined with teaching, learning and research across schools. The…
Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.
NEW ZEALAND HAS A POPULATION OF 2.6 MILLION AND AN ECONOMY BASED UPON AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS. THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. EDUCATION IS FREE, COMPULSORY, AND SECULAR FOR ALL TO AGE 15, AND FREE TO AGE 19. IN THE FIRST 2 YEARS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION, BEGINNING AT AGE 13, STUDY IS IN GENERAL SUBJECTS…
In the last 20 years the health promoting schools movement has gained momentum internationally. Without strong national leadership and direction its development in New Zealand has been ad hoc and sporadic. However, as the evidence supporting the role of health promoting schools in contributing to students' health and academic outcomes becomes more…
Boyd, Sally; Wylie, Cathy
This study examined the workloads of academic, general, support, library, and technical staff of New Zealand universities. It focused on current levels of workload, changes in workload levels and content, connections between workload and stress, and staff attitudes towards the effects of workload changes and educational reforms on the quality of…
Kriechbaum, Caroline; Pomroy, William; Gedye, Kristene
European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were introduced into New Zealand from Britain during the period from 1869 to the early 1900s. The only mite found on New Zealand hedgehogs in early studies was Caparinia tripilis, with Sarcoptes scabiei first being reported in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Sarcoptes infestation on hedgehogs in New Zealand, the number of mites found and the degree of mange observed. Dead hedgehogs were collected from veterinary clinics, rescue centres, members of the public and from road-kill. Twenty-one (55.3%) of the animals examined had visible skin lesions. Both Caparinia and Sarcoptes mites were identified on microscopic examination with Sarcoptes the most common, being found on over 70% of animals examined (n = 38). The numbers of mites recovered after brushing the head and body ranged from 1 to 5659 (median = 341 mites) with only six animals (22.2%) having fewer than 10 Sarcoptes mites found. Caparinia mites were seen on fewer animals and generally in very low numbers. These findings indicate a change in the mite populations on hedgehogs in New Zealand and that infected animals develop the debilitating hyperkeratotic form of sarcoptic mange without an accompanying hypersensitivity response limiting numbers of mites. Analysis of the cox 1 gene of Sarcoptes from two hedgehogs showed close alignment to sequences derived from a pig with one and from a dog with the second. More work needs to be undertaken to identify the source(s) of the Sarcoptes found on hedgehogs in New Zealand and whether other mammalian hosts may be infected from contact with hedgehogs.
Mazahery, Hajar; Camargo, Carlos A; Cairncross, Carolyn; Houghton, Lisa A; Grant, Cameron C; Coad, Jane; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R
New Zealand dietary guidelines recommend children from two years of age consume low- or reduced-fat milk. We aimed to investigate the predictors of type of milk consumption in preschool children. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study which enrolled preschool children (2-<5 years, n=1,329) from throughout New Zealand. Cows' milk was consumed regularly by 88% of children. Of these, 26% consumed plain low- or reduced-fat milk, while 74% consumed full-fat milk. The adjusted odds of consuming plain low- or reduced-fat milk were increased in older children: three-year old (OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.29-2.50); four-year old (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.38-2.72) versus two-year old children, and were decreased in Māori (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.88) and Pacific children (OR=0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.86) compared with New Zealand European children. Approximately 18% of children were overweight/obese. The odds (adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics) of consuming plain low- or reduced-fat milk were increased in overweight children (OR=1.74, 95% CI 1.20-2.54) than normal weight children. The type of milk consumed by preschool children varies with child demographics and anthropometry. Further research is warranted to investigate caregivers/parents' knowledge about dietary guidelines and to determine the causal relationship between obesity and milk type consumption. The findings of the current study may have important implications for developing and shaping interventions and in helping shape public health policy and practice to promote cows' milk consumption in preschool children.
Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José
It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
King, Lauren K.; March, Lyn; Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila
The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA. PMID:24056594
Baumann, S. C.; Anderson, B.; Mackintosh, A.; Lorrey, A.; Chinn, T.; Collier, C.; Rack, W.; Purdie, H.
The last complete glacier inventory of New Zealand dates from the year 1978 (North Island 1988) and was manually constructed from oblique aerial photographs and geodetic maps (Chinn 2001). The inventory has been partly updated by Gjermundsen et al. (2011) for the year 2002 (40% of total area) and by Sirguey & More (2010) for the year 2009 (32% of total area), both using ASTER satellite imagery. We used Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS satellite data from February/March 2016 to map the total glaciated area. Clean and debris-covered ice were mapped semi-automatically. The band ratio approach was used for clean ice (ratio: red/SWIR). We mapped debris-covered ice using a supervised classification (maximum likelihood). Manual post processing was necessary due to misclassifications (e.g. lakes, clouds) or mapping in shadowed areas. It was also necessary to manually combine the clean and debris-covered parts into single glaciers. Additional input data for the post processing were Sentinel 2 images from the same time period, orthophotos from Land Information New Zealand (resolution: 0.75 m, date: Nov 2014), and the 1978/88 outlines from the GLIMS database (http://www.glims.org/). As the Sentinel 2 data were more heavily cloud covered compared to the Landsat 8 images, they were only used for post processing and not for the classification itself. Initial results show that New Zealand glaciers covered an area of about 1050 km² in 2016, a reduction of 16% since 1978. Approximately 17% of glacier area was covered in surface debris. The glaciers in the central Southern Alps around Mt Cook reduced in area by 24%. Glaciers in the North Island of New Zealand reduced by 71% since 1988, and only 2 km² of ice cover remained in 2016. Chinn, TJH (2001). "Distribution of the glacial water resources of New Zealand." Journal of Hydrology (NZ) 40(2): 139-187 Gjermundsen, EF, Mathieu, R, Kääb, A, Chinn, TJH, Fitzharris, B & Hagen, JO (2011). "Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and
Zhu, Fan; Xie, Qian
New Zealand sweetpotatoes (kumara) (Ipomoea batatas) represent unique genetic resources for sweetpotato diversity, though they are much under-studied. In this study, 7 New Zealand sweetpotato varieties with commercial significance were collected for the characterization of the molecular and granular structure of the starches. In particular, the internal molecular structure of the amylopectins was detailed by chromatographic and enzymatic techniques. Maize and potato starches with normal amylose contents, which are among the most important commercial starch sources, were employed for comparison. The results revealed a degree of diversity in amylose composition, unit and internal chain composition, granule size distribution, and degree of crystallinity among the 7 sweetpotato starches. All the sweetpotato starches showed C A -type polymorph. The sweetpotato amylopectins have intermediate amounts of both short and long internal unit chains among amylopectins of different botanical sources. The differences in the structure of sweetpotato starches suggest differences in physicochemical properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Ian D; Scott, Nina; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Kollias, James; Walters, David; Taylor, Corey; Webster, Fleur; Zorbas, Helen; Roder, David M
The Quality Audit (BQA) of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand includes a broad range of data and is the largest New Zealand (NZ) breast cancer (BC) database outside the NZ Cancer Registry. We used BQA data to compare BC survival by ethnicity, deprivation, remoteness, clinical characteristic and case load. BQA and death data were linked using the National Health Index. Disease-specific survival for invasive cases was benchmarked against Australian BQA data and NZ population-based survivals. Validity was explored by comparison with expected survival by risk factor. Compared with 93% for Australian audit cases, 5-year survival was 90% for NZ audit cases overall, 87% for Maori, 84% for Pacific and 91% for other. BC survival in NZ appears lower than in Australia, with inequities by ethnicity. Differences may be due to access, timeliness and quality of health services, patient risk profiles, BQA coverage and death-record methodology. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
... CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability and Obesity Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... and Disability at http://www.ncpad.org/ The Obesity Epidemic Obesity affects different people in different ways ...
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Also known as Pickwickian Syndrome What ... your neck is larger than normal. Complications of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome When left untreated, OHS can cause ...
Hughes, P L; Dubielzig, R R; Kazacos, K R
Thirty-nine percent of 1,448 working sheep dogs were affected with varying degrees of multifocal retinal disease on ophthalmoscopic examination. Lesions consisted of localized areas of hyperreflexia in the tapetal fundus, often associated with hyperpigmentation. Severely affected animals had widespread hyperreflexia with retinal vascular attenuation. Only 6% of 125 New Zealand dogs raised in urban environment were similarly affected. Both eyes of 70 dogs from New Zealand were examined histologically. Forty-seven of 70 dogs had ocular inflammatory disease. Ten other dogs had noninflammatory eye disease, and 13 dogs had normal eyes. Histologically, eyes with inflammatory disease were divided into three categories: Dogs 3 years of age or less with active inflammatory disease of the retina, uvea, and vitreous. Four dogs in this group had migrating nematode larvae identified morphologically as genus Toxocara. Diffuse retinitis and retinal atrophy in conjunction with localized retinal necrosis and choroidal fibrosis. Dogs in this category were severely, clinically affected. Chronic, low-grade retinitis with variable retinal atrophy. Most dogs in this category were over 3 years of age, and many were visually functional. The existence of a definable spectrum of morphological changes associated with inflammation, suggests that Toxocara sp. ocular larva migrans may be the cause of a highly prevalent, potentially blinding syndrome of working sheep dogs in New Zealand.
van Roon, M; Knight, S
The paper examines progress towards integrated catchment management and sustainable agriculture at Whaingaroa (Raglan), New Zealand. Application of the Canadian "Atlantic Coastal Action Program" model (ACAP) has been only partially successful within New Zealand's bicultural setting. Even before the introduction of the ACAP process there existed strong motivation and leadership by various sectors of the community. A merging of resource management planning and implementation processes of the larger community and that of the Maori community has not occurred. Research carried out by Crown Research Institutes has clearly shown the actions required to make pastoral farming more sustainable. There are difficulties in the transference to, and uptake of, these techniques by farmers. An examination of the socio-economic context is required. There has been a requirement on local government bodies to tighten their focus as part of recent reform. This has occurred concurrently with a widening of vision towards integrated and sustainable forms of management. This (as well as a clear belief in empowerment of local communities) has lead to Council reliance on voluntary labour. There is a need to account for the dynamic interaction between social and political history and the geological and biophysical history of the area. As part of a re-examination of sustainable development, New Zealand needs to reconcile the earning of the bulk of its foreign income from primary production, with the accelerating ecological deficit that it creates. A sustainability strategy is required linking consumer demand, property rights and responsibilities.
Camburn, Anna E; Ingram, R Joan H; Holland, David; Read, Kerry; Taylor, Susan
To describe the current malaria situation in Auckland, New Zealand. We collected data on all cases of malaria diagnosed in Auckland from 1st October 2008 to 30th September 2009. Enhanced surveillance was arranged with all hospital and community haematology laboratories in the region. Laboratories notified us when a diagnosis of malaria was made. After obtaining informed consent the patient was asked about their travel, prophylaxis taken and symptoms. Laboratory results were collected. There were 36 cases of malaria in 34 patients. Consent could not be obtained from two patients so data is from 34 cases in 32 patients. (One patient had P.falciparum then later P.vivax, the other had P.vivax and relapsed.) There were 24 males and 8 females with a median age of 21 years (range 6 months to 75 years). Eleven of the 32 were New Zealand residents. 8 of these 11 had travelled to visit friends or relatives (VFR) while 3 were missionaries. In this group 6 had P.falciparum, 4 P.vivax and one had both. Twenty-one of the 32 were new arrivals to New Zealand: 11 refugees and 10 migrants. Malaria in Auckland is seen in new arrivals and VFR travellers, not in tourist travellers.
... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share ...
Employers can effectively reduce obesity, lower their health care costs, reduce absenteeism, and increase employee productivity through workplace obesity prevention programs. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Apel, E. V.; Nyst, M.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Molas, G.
To quantify risk in New Zealand we examine the impact of updating the seismic hazard model. The previous RMS New Zealand hazard model is based on the 2002 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2002). The 2015 RMS model, based on Stirling et al., (2012) will update several key source parameters. These updates include: implementation a new set of crustal faults including multi-segment ruptures, updating the subduction zone geometry and reccurrence rate and implementing new background rates and a robust methodology for modeling background earthquake sources. The number of crustal faults has increased by over 200 from the 2002 model, to the 2012 model which now includes over 500 individual fault sources. This includes the additions of many offshore faults in northern, east-central, and southwest regions. We also use the recent data to update the source geometry of the Hikurangi subduction zone (Wallace, 2009; Williams et al., 2013). We compare hazard changes in our updated model with those from the previous version. Changes between the two maps are discussed as well as the drivers for these changes. We examine the impact the hazard model changes have on New Zealand earthquake risk. Considered risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance. New Zealand is interesting in that the city with the majority of the risk exposure in the country (Auckland) lies in the region of lowest hazard, where we don't have a lot of information about the location of faults and distributed seismicity is modeled by averaged Mw-frequency relationships on area sources. Thus small changes to the background rates
Wood, R.; Davy, B. W.; Herzer, R. H.; Barnes, P.; Barker, D. H.; Stagpoole, V.; Uruski, C.
Data collected by surveys for New Zealand's extended continental shelf project have contributed to research into the tectonic history and resource potential of New Zealand. More than 20 scientific papers and a similar number of conference presentations and posters have used the data collected by these surveys. Data collected by these surveys have added significantly to national and international databases. Although the surveys were generally oriented to establish prolongation rather than to cross structural trends, the data have revealed the crustal, basement and sedimentary structure of many parts of the New Zealand region. In the area east of New Zealand, the data provide insight into the Cretaceous evolution of the New Zealand sector of Gondwana. Data collected southwest of New Zealand provided details about the relatively sudden transition from sea floor spreading between New Zealand and Australia in the Tasman Sea to orthogonal spreading in the Emerald Basin and the development of the modern Australian-Pacific plate boundary, including Late Tertiary motion on the Alpine Fault in the South Island, New Zealand. The data have been used to understand the formation of the New Caledonia Basin, the Norfolk Ridge and their associated structures, and they underpin the international collaboration between New Zealand, New Caledonia and Australia to promote resource exploration in the Tasman Sea. Data north of New Zealand have been used to understand the complex tectonic history of back arc spreading and island arc migration in the South Fiji Basin region. Seismic data collected along the axis of the New Caledonia Basin led to extensive hydrocarbon exploration surveys in the deepwater Taranaki region inside New Zealand's EEZ, and to an application for a hydrocarbon exploration licence in New Zealand's extended continental shelf.
Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.
Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028
Finkelstein, Eric A; Khavjou, Olga A; Thompson, Hope; Trogdon, Justin G; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Dietz, William
Previous efforts to forecast future trends in obesity applied linear forecasts assuming that the rise in obesity would continue unabated. However, evidence suggests that obesity prevalence may be leveling off. This study presents estimates of adult obesity and severe obesity prevalence through 2030 based on nonlinear regression models. The forecasted results are then used to simulate the savings that could be achieved through modestly successful obesity prevention efforts. The study was conducted in 2009-2010 and used data from the 1990 through 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The analysis sample included nonpregnant adults aged ≥ 18 years. The individual-level BRFSS variables were supplemented with state-level variables from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the American Chamber of Commerce Research Association, and the Census of Retail Trade. Future obesity and severe obesity prevalence were estimated through regression modeling by projecting trends in explanatory variables expected to influence obesity prevalence. Linear time trend forecasts suggest that by 2030, 51% of the population will be obese. The model estimates a much lower obesity prevalence of 42% and severe obesity prevalence of 11%. If obesity were to remain at 2010 levels, the combined savings in medical expenditures over the next 2 decades would be $549.5 billion. The study estimates a 33% increase in obesity prevalence and a 130% increase in severe obesity prevalence over the next 2 decades. If these forecasts prove accurate, this will further hinder efforts for healthcare cost containment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam
A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Accurate time signals in New Zealand were important for navigation in the Pacific. Time balls at Wellington and Lyttelton were noted in the 1880 Admiralty list of time signals, with later addition of Otago. The time ball service at Wellington started in March 1864 using the first official observatory in New Zealand, but there was no Wellington time ball service during a long period of waterfront redevelopment during the 1880s. The time ball service restarted in November 1888 at a different harbour location. The original mechanical apparatus was used with a new ball, but the system was destroyed by fire in March 1909 and was never replaced. Instead, a time light service was inaugurated in 1912. The service at Lyttelton, near Christchurch, began in December 1876 after construction of the signal station there. It used telegraph signals from Wellington to regulate the time ball. By the end of 1909, it was the only official time ball in New Zealand, providing a service that lasted until 1934. The Lyttelton time ball tower was an iconic landmark in New Zealand that had been carefully restored. Tragically, the tower collapsed in the 2011 earthquakes and aftershocks that devastated Christchurch. A daily time ball service at Port Chalmers, near Dunedin, started in June 1867, initially using local observatory facilities. The service appears to have been discontinued in October 1877, but was re-established in April 1882 as a weekly service, with control by telegraph from Wellington. The service had been withdrawn altogether by the end of 1909. Auckland never established a reliable time ball service, despite provision of a weekly service for mariners by a public-spirited citizen between August 1864 and June 1866. A time ball was finally installed on the Harbour Board building in 1901, but the signal was unreliable and it ceased in 1902. Complaints from ships' masters led to various proposals to re-establish a service. These concluded with erection of a time ball on the new
Aerial spelling is the term given for the way many people with deafness in New Zealand (NZ) manually represent letters of the alphabet. This article examines the nature and role of aerial spelling in New Zealand Sign Language, particularly that form used by older members of the NZ deaf community. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Spicer, Barry; Dunn, Wendell; Whitcher, Geoff
This paper describes how New Zealand's leading research university, the University of Auckland, dealt with the issue of transforming knowledge into wealth using a "whole of institution" approach. The context of New Zealand's growth and innovation initiatives is outlined and the University of Auckland's engagement with and institutional…
New Zealand's wilderness resource has become iconic on both a national and international scale, and provides an important source of cultural identity for many Kiwis (a colloquial term for a New Zealander). Now, in the early 21st Century, however, social changes such as urbanization, globalization, increasing consumerism, and growing international tourism may be...
Describes the national initiative of the New Zealand Internet Safety Group to prevent cyberviolence through education. The effort includes distribution of an Internet Safety Kit to each school in the country, research on Internet use in New Zealand, and a national symposium on the social impact of the Internet. (SLD)
There are undoubtedly many parallels between Australia and New Zealand in the history of geographic information system (GIS) in schools. These parallels occur in the social, institutional, professional development, and curricula areas, and each of these topics is considered in this article. In New Zealand at least, there is still a lot that needs…
The 1970 International Educational Achievement (IEA) survey placed New Zealand's nine and fourteen year olds first in reading achievement in comparison with all other participating countries. Literacy educators the world over have studied New Zealand's methods and classroom environments, and its approaches to reading/writing instruction have been…
Martens, Kerstin; Starke, Peter
This paper discusses New Zealand's role in the global market for tertiary education. The internationalisation and liberalisation of education markets is progressing rapidly in today's globalising world, as reflected by the incorporation of education as a service into the GATS framework. Through the example of New Zealand as a case study for the…
Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary
This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealandâs planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...
The percentage of the population involved in the Christian church in New Zealand has been declining since the middle of the 1960s. Most seriously affected has been the mainline Protestant denominations such as Presbyterian, Anglican and Methodist. This article analyses and presents data collected by the National Church Life Survey New Zealand 2001…
Chan, Angel; Ritchie, Jenny
This article interrogates notions of teacher "partnership with parents" within early childhood care and education settings in the context of Aotearoa (New Zealand). "Te Whariki," the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, clearly positions children's learning and development as being fostered when their families' cultures and…
The article analyses initial teacher education (ITE) policy and practice in Aotearoa New Zealand over forty years. Central to the local ITE context was the incorporation of the "monotechnic" colleges of teacher education into the university sector in the 1990s and 2000s, following New Zealand's structural adjustments to the state…
Ronnie, Mary A.
This paper examines information services and resource sharing within New Zealand with a view to future participation in a Pacific resource sharing network. Activities of the National Library, the New Zealand Library Resources Committee, and the Information Services Committee are reviewed over a 40-year period, illustrating library cooperative…
Wellington, 5 March 1985. 5. John Henderson, Keith Jackson , Richard Kennawav, eds. Beyond New Zealand; The Foreign Policy of a Small State. (Auckland...the city of San Francisco this first day of September, 1951. For Australia: PERCY C. SPENDER For New Zealand: C.A. BERENDSEN For the United States of
The shift in policy from market driven behaviour towards a more cooperative tertiary sector is having an effect on New Zealand academic libraries and their relationships. Despite this, there has been no investigation of collaboration specifically targeting New Zealand tertiary libraries. This research project examine the state of collaboration…
Furbish, Dale S.; Reid, Lynette
New Zealand Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand Aotearoa, a relatively small nation of 4 million people. The juxtaposition of Maori and European cultures presents an opportunity to contrast the highly spiritual nature of Maori culture with European traditions of linearity and rationality. This contrast can be especially appreciated in…
This book contains a detailed report of the recovery principles set out in the Mental Health Commission's Blueprint for Mental Health Services in New Zealand. The competencies, endorsed by the New Zealand government, describe what mental health workers need to know about using the recovery approach in their work with people with mental illness.…
Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, SueAnn
"The New Zealand Curriculum Framework", 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in…
Butcher, Andrew; McGrath, Terry
This paper considers the pastoral care needs of international students in New Zealand. Using the relatively new Code of Practice for the Pastoral Care of International Students as its departure point, this paper critically evaluates the assertion that there is a crisis in New Zealand's export education industry. It does this through considering…
Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian
Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…
Locke, Terry; Whitehead, David; Dix, Stephanie; Cawkwell, Gail
This article draws on early data from a two-year project (2009-11) being undertaken in the New Zealand context by the authors entitled: "Teachers as Writers: Transforming Professional Identity and Classroom Practice". Based on the National Writing Project in the USA (and in New Zealand in the 1980s) its hypothesis is that when teachers…
New Zealand is one of the world's most geographically isolated and least crowded countries. New Zealand organizations are increasingly becoming aware of the importance of training and development as the country becomes more technologically sophisticated, multiethnic and older. The country needs higher productivity, business investment and skills…
As exemplified by New Zealand, the nature of educational policy research is shaped by political and social factors that impinge upon the research environment. Following a description of the educational system and research funding methods, this paper analyzes three areas that affect policy research in New Zealand and addresses relevant social…
Cox, Stephanie C; Tamatea, Jade Au; Conaglen, John V; Elston, Marianne S
Treatment options for Graves' disease (GD), namely anti-thyroid drugs (ATD), surgery or radioiodine (RAI), have not changed over the past two decades. There is no 'gold-standard' treatment for GD. To assess whether the management of GD in New Zealand has changed since the previous 1991 New Zealand survey and compare current management with that of contemporary international studies. We conducted an online survey of New Zealand physicians currently practising internal medicine, diabetes and/or endocrinology, using the cases and questions from the original European and 1991 New Zealand studies. The first-line use of RAI was 5.5%, compared to 41% in the 1991 New Zealand survey. This corresponded to an increase in ATD use, while the rates of surgery as a first-line treatment have remained static over time. New Zealand physicians use technetium scanning for diagnosis, whereas ultrasound and radioiodine uptake were the most commonly selected investigations by European and North American physicians, respectively. The pattern of ATD use in pregnancy was similar to international practice. Treatment of GD in New Zealand has shifted away from the use of RAI as first line treatment. There are significant differences in the investigation and treatment of Grave's disease between New Zealand, Europe and North America.
Rush, Elaine C.; Yan, Mary R.
The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influences, food production and supply, and dietary patterns. Public health messages and government food and activity guidelines have little impact; the retail food environment has many low-priced, nutrient-poor, but energy-dense products and there is a gap between what an individual knows and what they do. Public health and education services need legislation to mandate supportive environments and promote food literacy. Two New Zealand case studies of proof-of-principle of positive change are described: Project Energize and Under 5 Energize as exemplars of school environment change, and the development of the Nothing Else™ healthier snack bar as an example of working with the food industry. Changes in food literacy alongside food supply will contribute in the long term to positive effects on the future prevalence of obesity and the onset of non-communicable disease. More cross-disciplinary translational research to inform how to improve the food supply and food literacy will improve the health and wellbeing of the economy and the population. PMID:28531097
Rush, Elaine C; Yan, Mary R
The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influences, food production and supply, and dietary patterns. Public health messages and government food and activity guidelines have little impact; the retail food environment has many low-priced, nutrient-poor, but energy-dense products and there is a gap between what an individual knows and what they do. Public health and education services need legislation to mandate supportive environments and promote food literacy. Two New Zealand case studies of proof-of-principle of positive change are described: Project Energize and Under 5 Energize as exemplars of school environment change, and the development of the Nothing Else™ healthier snack bar as an example of working with the food industry. Changes in food literacy alongside food supply will contribute in the long term to positive effects on the future prevalence of obesity and the onset of non-communicable disease. More cross-disciplinary translational research to inform how to improve the food supply and food literacy will improve the health and wellbeing of the economy and the population.
Clarke, J A; Langley, J D
In March 1992 a private members Bill was introduced into parliament which sought to place tighter restrictions on the sale of fireworks. The primary purpose of this research was to document the nature and extent of firework related injury in New Zealand for the purpose of preparing a submission on this Bill. Firework related injuries were examined in relation to the legislative history of fireworks control in New Zealand to ascertain if existing regulations had been effective in reducing firework injuries and whether there was justification for greater control. Between 1979 and 1992 (inclusive) 237 persons were admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries related to fireworks. The overall incidence rate for this period was 0.52 per 100,000 persons per year. Eighty five percent of all events involved males. Children (< 15 years) comprised 68% of the victims with the 10-14 year age group having the highest rate of injury, at 2.5 per 100,000 persons per year. The authors concluded that, on the basis of morbidity, it may be premature to impose a complete ban on the public sale of fireworks (as is proposed in the Bill). The current legislation could well be supported though, by extending the ban on the types of fireworks publicly available to include skyrockets.
Bloomfield, Ian; Van Dalen, Roelof; Lolohea, Simione; Wu, Linus
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a proven alternative therapy to either radical surgery or endoscopic mucosal resection for rectal neoplasms. It has proven benefits with lower morbidity and mortality compared with total mesorectal excision, and a lower local recurrence rate when compared to endoscopic mucosal techniques. A retrospective data collection of TEMS procedures performed through Waikato District Health Board, New Zealand, from 2010 to 2015 was conducted. Supportive follow-up data were sourced from patient records and from local centres around New Zealand. A total of 137 procedures were performed over the study period, with five being repeat procedures. Procedures were mostly performed for benign lesions (66.4%) with an overall complication rate of 15.3%, only five of which were Clavien-Dindo grade III (3.6%). Our local recurrence rate after resection of benign lesions was 5.1%. Our data set demonstrates the TEMS procedure to be safe compared to radical resection (total mesorectal excision) for sessile rectal lesions. Close endoscopic follow-up is recommended, especially for close or incomplete margins. Good therapeutic results can be obtained for appropriately selected early malignant lesions. TEMS provides better oncological results than endoscopic mucosal resection or transanal excision. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Al-Ani, Haya H; Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie
Nutrition and health claims are displayed to influence consumers' food choices. This study assessed the extent and nature of nutrition and health claims on the front-of-pack of 'healthy' and 'less-healthy' packaged foods in New Zealand. Foods from eight categories, for which consumption may affect the risk of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases, were selected from the 2014 Nutritrack database. The internationally standardised International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy was used to classify claims on packages. The Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (NPSC) was used to classify products as 'healthy' or 'less healthy'. In total, 7526 products were included, with 47 % (n 3557) classified as 'healthy'. More than one-third of products displayed at least one nutrition claim and 15 % featured at least one health claim on the front-of-pack. Claims were found on one-third of 'less-healthy' products; 26 % of those products displayed nutrition claims and 7 % featured health claims. About 45 % of 'healthy' products displayed nutrition claims and 23 % featured health claims. Out of 7058 individual claims, the majority (69 %) were found on 'healthy' products. Cereals displayed the greatest proportion of nutrition and health claims (1503 claims on 564 products), of which one-third were displayed on 'less-healthy' cereals. Such claims could be misleading consumers' perceptions of nutritional quality of foods. It needs to be explored how current regulations on nutrition and health claims in New Zealand could be further strengthened (e.g. using the NPSC for nutrition claims, including general health claims as per the INFORMAS taxonomy) to ensure consumers are protected and not misled.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Overweight and Obesity KidsHealth / For Parents / Overweight and Obesity What's in ... who lead by example. What Health Problems Can Obesity Cause? Obesity puts kids at risk for medical ...
It is timely to examine changes in male and female suicide rates across the age range in New Zealand, comparing them to some of the changes recorded in Australia. Data regarding suicide and population figures in New Zealand and Australia were obtained. The suicide rates of different age-groups in the two countries were calculated and compared. Data concerning 'open verdicts' were also obtained. The age patterns of suicide rates in New Zealand and Australia have changed markedly and similarly. Suicide rates of New Zealand males in their twenties increased threefold between the 1960s and 1990s, with a fall since then. Nevertheless, the 2009-13 youth suicide rates in New Zealand were double the corresponding rates in Australia. Since 1979-88 a decrease in suicide rates of men and women aged 60-79 has been even greater than in Australia. The Māori suicide rate is high in young men but almost zero in old age. The persistently high suicide rate of New Zealand youths (Māori much more than non-Māori) remains of concern. The rate is equally high among indigenous young Australians. There has been a welcome decrease in late-life suicide rates in New Zealand and Australia.
Elley, C Raina; Kenealy, Tim; Robinson, Elizabeth; Bramley, Dale; Selak, Vanessa; Drury, Paul L; Kerse, Ngaire; Pearson, Janet; Lay-Yee, Roy; Arroll, Bruce
To examine cardiovascular preventive and renal protective treatment for different ethnic groups with diabetes in primary care. The study population included patients with type 2 diabetes attending an annual review in New Zealand primary care during 2004. Primary care data were linked to hospital admission data to identify previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). For those without previous CVD, 5-year cardiovascular risk was calculated. Proportions on, and predictors of appropriate treatment according to guidelines were investigated. Data were available on 29,179 patients. Maori and Pacific participants had high rates of obesity, poor glycaemic control and albuminuria. Two thirds of all participants with previous CVD (68% of Maori and 70% of Pacific) and 44% with high CVD risk received appropriate CVD treatment; 73% of Maori, 62% of Pacific and 65% of European patients with albuminuria received ACE-inhibitors. Those with high CVD risk were more likely, and those that were young were less likely, to receive anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment after controlling for other factors. Maori and Pacific people were receiving similar high rates of appropriate CVD and renal preventive drug therapy to Europeans, but their prevalence of smoking, obesity, raised HbA1c and albuminuria were substantially higher. Non-drug components of preventive care also need to be addressed to reduce major ethnic disparities in diabetes-related morbidity and mortality in New Zealand.
As a source and destination country, nurse flows in and out of New Zealand (NZ) are examined to determine impacts and regional contexts. A descriptive statistics method was used to analyze secondary data on nurses added to the register, NZ nurse qualifications verified by overseas authorities, nursing workforce data, and census data. It found that international movement of nurses was minimal during the 1990s, but from 2001 a sharp jump in the verification of NZ-registered nurses (RNs) by overseas authorities coincided with an equivalent increase in international RNs (IRNs) added to the NZ nursing register-a pattern that has been sustained to the present. Movement of NZ RNs to Australia is expedited by the Trans-Tasman Agreement, whereas entry of IRNs to NZ is facilitated by nursing being an identified Priority Occupation. Future research needs to consider health system and nurse workforce contexts and take a regional perspective on migration patterns.
Barter, R W
Reference is made to legislation concerned with the introduction of the New Zealand Accident Compensation Scheme in 1974. The author's experience of the Scheme is based on an exchange visit in 1975. The basic principles are community responsibility and universal entitlement to compensation. Earnings-related benefits are paid to the injured person, and flat-rate payments to non-earners. The Scheme is administered by a three-man Commission with wide responsibilities for accident prevention, rehabilitation services, administration of funds, records, public relations, and an independent Appeals Authority. There have been far reaching consequences on medical practice. The Commission construe the phrase 'Personal Injury by Accident' as damage to the human system which is not designed by the person injured: the implications of such a definition are briefly discussed. The administrative costs of any similar Scheme in the United Kingdom would be enormous and it is doubtful whether the benefits would justify the cost.
Collins, M. A.; Oliver, P. J.; Cochrane, G. R.; Cole, J.; Coombs, D. S.; Barnes, E. J.; Ching, N. P.; Bennets, R. L.; Stephens, P. H.; Laing, A. K.
It is proposed that shuttle imaging radar (SIR) data be used to study unusual geological features of New Zealand. Particular attention is planned for geological faults. SIR-B imagery is to be compared with LANDSAT multispectral imagery. Three other investigations which are to use SIR data are discussed. An ocean eddy is to be studied from a correlation of SIR-B and advanced very high resolution radiometer imagery. Timber volume is to be assessed by determining the age and size of pine forests from SIR-B data. Soil moisture is to be investigated by comparing SIR-B data with simultaneous gravimetric data. Land cover in a region already subjected to intensive investigation using LANDSAT and aircraft scanner data is to be discriminated by SIR-B data.
... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...
Fabricatore, Anthony N; Wadden, Thomas A
Obesity is a complex condition associated with a host of medical disorders. A common assumption is that obesity must also be related to psychological and emotional complications. Research on the psychosocial aspects of obesity has grown more sophisticated over the years, from purely theoretical papers to cross-sectional comparisons of people with and without obesity to prospective investigations of the temporal sequence of obesity and mood disturbance. These studies have shown that obesity, by itself, does not appear to be systematically associated with psychopathological outcomes. Certain obese individuals, however, are at greater risk of psychiatric disorder, especially depression. The present paper reviews the research findings and presents their clinical implications. Chiefly, treatment providers should not assume that a depressed or otherwise disturbed obese person needs only to lose weight in order to return to psychological health. Significant mood disturbances should be treated equally aggressively, regardless of a patient's weight status.
Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi.; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun
Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152
Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... always easy to know when a child has obesity or is overweight. Ask your health care provider ...
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...
... Download Maps Prevalence of Self-Reported Obesity Among Non-Hispanic White Adults by State and Territory, BRFSS, ... 29.2) Prevalence of Self-Reported Obesity Among Non-Hispanic Black Adults by State and Territory, BRFSS, ...
Kahan, Scott; Zvenyach, Tracy
Despite much effort, obesity prevalence and disease severity continues to worsen. The purpose of this review is to describe the leading government supported food and nutrition interventions and policies to prevent and address obesity in the USA. The review also summarizes obesity interventions and policies that the government plays a role in, but further development is warranted. The government's role in obesity has largely focused on interventions and policies such as national surveillance, obesity education and awareness, grant-based food subsidy programs, zoning for food access, school-based nutrition programs, dietary guidelines, nutrition labeling, and food marketing and pricing policies. The government has played a lesser role in obesity interventions and policies that provide access to evidence-based obesity care to people affected by the disease. Given the magnitude of the obesity epidemic, the government should explore multiple evidence-based interventions and policies across prevention and clinical care.
... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...
Thornley, S; Sundborn, G
FIZZ (which stands for fighting sugar in soft-drinks) is a new advocacy group started to reduce population consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks in New Zealand. The vision of FIZZ is for New Zealand to be sugary drink free by 2025. This means that sugar sweetened beverages will comprise < or = 5% of the total beverage market, and sugar free drinks will be the norm. In this paper, we outline the story of FIZZ: to reiterate why we believe the group is needed, reflect on what the group has achieved to date, consider what it aims to accomplish, and outline what methods it will seek to achieve these aims. Put simply, we believe that the epidemiological evidence that sugar intake, particularly in liquid form, causes poor physical and mental health is overwhelming. Swapping sugar sweetened drinks for sugar free alternatives, water or milk, is, in our view, an urgently needed and important step which is likely to reduce the epidemic of unhealthy weight (obesity) and its sequelae. The nutrition environment in New Zealand is now out of step with scientific evidence, with virtually unrestricted access to, and sales and marketing of, sugary drinks to both children and adults. FIZZ is seeking the implementation of local and nationwide policy, similar to those implemented for tobacco, to limit advertising, restrict marketing, raise purchase prices and ultimately curb the sales of sugary drinks in New Zealand. FIZZ is also working in communities to raise people's awareness of the harms sugary drinks pose to health. We at FIZZ also acknowledge that the beverage industry may play an important role in accomplishing this vision, and have established that there is common ground upon which FIZZ and industry can engage to reduce the sugary drink intake.
Buckley, Belinda; White, Steve; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian
Introduction : The aim of this paper is to investigate the cardiac sonography workforce characteristics and registration requirements in New Zealand (NZ), with a comparison to similar workforces internationally. Methods : The Survey of Clinical Echocardiography in New Zealand 2 (SCANZ2) audit was performed in December 2010. All of NZ's public-funded District Health Board (DHB) centers providing echocardiography services responded to questions relating to staff, equipment, procedure types and patient statistics. The Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB), Clinical Physiologists Registration Board (CPRB) and Australian Sonographers Association Registry (ASAR) websites were reviewed in March 2012 for registered sonographers with a cardiac scope of practice. The cardiac sonography workforces in Australia, the UK, the USA and Canada were investigated for comparison. Results : There are 84 cardiac sonographers (60.3 full-time equivalent) working in DHBs: 71% from a cardiac technical background; 40% have post-graduate qualifications; a further 17% are undertaking post-graduate qualifications; and 59 cardiac sonographers have registration with professional bodies in NZ and/or Australia. Cardiac sonographers in NZ do not undergo compulsory registration, but other sonographers in NZ have compulsory registration with the MRTB. Sonographers are predominantly not licensed internationally. Discussion : Disparity exists between registration of cardiac and non-cardiac sonographers in NZ. Many cardiac sonographers have voluntary registration but few are registered with the MRTB. Reasons for this include professional alignment, educational qualifications and representation. International trends show increased pressure from governments and professional bodies to regulate sonographers. Conclusion : This study provides a snapshot of the cardiac sonography workforce in NZ for the first time.
Marshall, Mark R.; Walker, Rachael C.; Polkinghorne, Kevan R.; Lynn, Kelvin L.
Background New Zealand (NZ) has a high prevalence of both peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home haemodialysis (HD) relative to other countries, and probably less selection bias. We aimed to determine if home dialysis associates with better survival than facility HD by simultaneous comparisons of the three modalities. Methods We analysed survival by time-varying dialysis modality in New Zealanders over a 15-year period to 31-Dec-2011, adjusting for patient co-morbidity by Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression. Results We modelled 6,419 patients with 3,254 deaths over 20,042 patient-years of follow-up. Patients treated with PD and facility HD are similar; those on home HD are younger and healthier. Compared to facility HD, home dialysis (as a unified category) associates with an overall 13% lower mortality risk. Home HD associates with a 52% lower mortality risk. PD associates with a 20% lower mortality risk in the early period (<3 years) that is offset by a 33% greater mortality risk in the late period (>3 years), with no overall net effect. There was effect modification and less observable benefit associated with PD in those with diabetes mellitus, co-morbidity, and in NZ Maori and Pacific People. There was no effect modification by age or by era. Conclusion Our study supports the culture of home dialysis in NZ, and suggests that the extent and duration of survival benefit associated with early PD may be greater than appreciated. We are planning further analyses to exclude residual confounding from unmeasured co-morbidity and other sociodemographic factors using database linkage to NZ government datasets. Finally, our results suggest further research into the practice of PD in NZ Maori and Pacific People, as well as definitive study to determine the best timing for switching from PD in the late phase. PMID:24806458
Anderson, Lynley; Snelling, Jeanne; Tomlins-Jahnke, Huia
Commercial surrogacy is prohibited in New Zealand by the Human Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2004 (HART Act). However, altruistic clinic-assisted surrogacy is permitted. Couples wishing to attempt altruistic surrogacy must apply for approval to a statutorily appointed ethics committee. One of seven principles that underpin the HART Act stipulates that the needs, values and beliefs of Maori (NZ's indigenous population) should be considered and treated with respect. This paper reviews the outcomes of surrogacy applications since the HART Act was established and the uptake of surrogacy by Maori. The authors examined the demographic data provided to the ethics committee by way of surrogacy applications and the outcome data provided by fertility clinics. This paper reviews the outcomes for surrogacy applications: the number accepted/declined, the number of live births, those applications discontinued and uptake by Maori. Of 104 applications for surrogacy between 2005 and 2010, 4 (3.8%) were declined. By July 2011, of 100 approved, there have been 26 (26%) live births; 52 (52%) were discontinued, and 22 (22%) remain ongoing. Maori are much less likely to utilise surrogacy. Of the 104 original applications, 9 (8.6%) Maori women were willing to act as a surrogate, and 2 (1.9%) were intended mothers. 7 (6.7%) Maori were partners of a surrogate, with 2 (1.9%) intending mothers having Maori partners. The process of surrogacy applications is comprehensive and robust, resulting in few being declined. Further research is required to discover why applications are discontinued and why, despite explicit attempts to meet the needs of Maori, few utilise surrogacy. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian
Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand.
de Lange, P. J.; Heenan, P. B.; Houliston, G. J.; Rolfe, J. R.; Mitchell, A. D.
Abstract A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA). One species, Lepidium castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with Lepidium oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, Lepidium amissum sp. nov. and Lepidium obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from Lepidium banksii, Lepidium flexicaule and Lepidium oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (Lepidium aegrum sp. nov., Lepidium crassum sp. nov. and Lepidium juvencum sp. nov.). One of these, Lepidium juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (Lepidium flexicaule, Lepidium oblitum sp. nov., Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., Lepidium panniforme sp. nov., and Lepidium rekohuense sp. nov.), one of which, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, Lepidium seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to Lepidium oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for Lepidium banksii, Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum. PMID:23794938
White, Steve; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian
Abstract Introduction: The aim of this paper is to investigate the cardiac sonography workforce characteristics and registration requirements in New Zealand (NZ), with a comparison to similar workforces internationally. Methods: The Survey of Clinical Echocardiography in New Zealand 2 (SCANZ2) audit was performed in December 2010. All of NZ's public‐funded District Health Board (DHB) centers providing echocardiography services responded to questions relating to staff, equipment, procedure types and patient statistics. The Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB), Clinical Physiologists Registration Board (CPRB) and Australian Sonographers Association Registry (ASAR) websites were reviewed in March 2012 for registered sonographers with a cardiac scope of practice. The cardiac sonography workforces in Australia, the UK, the USA and Canada were investigated for comparison. Results: There are 84 cardiac sonographers (60.3 full‐time equivalent) working in DHBs: 71% from a cardiac technical background; 40% have post‐graduate qualifications; a further 17% are undertaking post‐graduate qualifications; and 59 cardiac sonographers have registration with professional bodies in NZ and/or Australia. Cardiac sonographers in NZ do not undergo compulsory registration, but other sonographers in NZ have compulsory registration with the MRTB. Sonographers are predominantly not licensed internationally. Discussion: Disparity exists between registration of cardiac and non‐cardiac sonographers in NZ. Many cardiac sonographers have voluntary registration but few are registered with the MRTB. Reasons for this include professional alignment, educational qualifications and representation. International trends show increased pressure from governments and professional bodies to regulate sonographers. Conclusion: This study provides a snapshot of the cardiac sonography workforce in NZ for the first time. PMID:28191178
Renwick, James A.; Katzfey, Jack J.; Nguyen, Kim C.; McGregor, John L.
Simulation of New Zealand climate is examined through the use of a regional climate model nested within the output of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation nine-level general circulation model (GCM). R21 resolution GCM output is used to drive a regional model run at 125 km grid spacing over the Australasian region. The 125 km run is used in turn to drive a simulation at 50 km resolution over New Zealand. Simulations with a full seasonal cycle are performed for 10 model years. The focus is on the quality of the simulation of present-day climate, but results of a doubled-CO2 run are discussed briefly. Spatial patterns of mean simulated precipitation and surface temperatures improve markedly as horizontal resolution is increased, through the better resolution of the country's orography. However, increased horizontal resolution leads to a positive bias in precipitation. At 50 km resolution, simulated frequency distributions of daily maximum/minimum temperatures are statistically similar to those of observations at many stations, while frequency distributions of daily precipitation appear to be statistically different to those of observations at most stations. Modeled daily precipitation variability at 125 km resolution is considerably less than observed, but is comparable to, or exceeds, observed variability at 50 km resolution. The sensitivity of the simulated climate to changes in the specification of the land surface is discussed briefly. Spatial patterns of the frequency of extreme temperatures and precipitation are generally well modeled. Under a doubling of CO2, the frequency of precipitation extremes changes only slightly at most locations, while air frosts become virtually unknown except at high-elevation sites.
Lusk, J L
This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.
US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...
Reilly, John J.
This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…
With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…
Rand, Colleen S.; Stunkard, Albert J.
This report describes a collaborative study undertaken by 72 psychoanalysts in an effort to (1) collect systematic data about obese patients in psychoanalysis and (2) assess the effect of psychoanalysis in the treatment of obesity. A total of 84 obese and 63 normal weight patients was studied. Each analyst completed a detailed questionnaire on his…
Shore, Stephanie A.
Obesity currently affects about one third of the U.S. population, while another one third is overweight. The importance of obesity for certain conditions such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes is well appreciated. The effects of obesity on the respiratory system have received less attention and are the subject of this chapter. Obesity alters the static mechanic properties of the respiratory system leading to a reduction in the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). There is substantial variability in the effects of obesity on FRC and ERV, at least some of which is related to the location, rather than the total mass of adipose tissue. Obesity also results in airflow obstruction, which is only partially attributable to breathing at low lung volume, and can also promote airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma. Hypoxemia is common is obesity, and correlates well with FRC, as well as with measures of abdominal obesity. However, obese subjects are usually eucapnic, indicating that hypoventilation is not a common cause of their hypoxemia. Instead, hypoxemia results from ventilation perfusion mismatch caused by closure of dependent airways at FRC. Many obese subjects complain of dyspnea either at rest or during exertion, and the dyspnea score also correlates with reductions in FRC and ERV. Weight reduction should be encouraged in any symptomatic obese individual, since virtually all of the respiratory complications of obesity improve with even moderate weight loss. PMID:23737172
Bhattacharya, Jay; Sood, Neeraj
Adult obesity is a growing problem. From 1962 to 2006, obesity prevalence nearly tripled to 35.1 percent of adults. The rising prevalence of obesity is not limited to a particular socioeconomic group and is not unique to the United States. Should this widespread obesity epidemic be a cause for alarm? From a personal health perspective, the answer is an emphatic "yes." But when it comes to justifications of public policy for reducing obesity, the analysis becomes more complex. A common starting point is the assertion that those who are obese impose higher health costs on the rest of the population—a statement which is then taken to justify public policy interventions. But the question of who pays for obesity is an empirical one, and it involves analysis of how obese people fare in labor markets and health insurance markets. We will argue that the existing literature on these topics suggests that obese people on average do bear the costs and benefits of their eating and exercise habits. We begin by estimating the lifetime costs of obesity. We then discuss the extent to which private health insurance pools together obese and thin, whether health insurance causes obesity, and whether being fat might actually cause positive externalities for those who are not obese. If public policy to reduce obesity is not justified on the grounds of external costs imposed on others, then the remaining potential justification would need to be on the basis of helping people to address problems of ignorance or self-control that lead to obesity. In the conclusion, we offer a few thoughts about some complexities of such a justification.
The Alpine fault runs parallel to, and just inland of, much of the west coast of New Zealand South Island. This view was created from the near-global digital elevation model produced by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM.
Surveys graduate and undergraduate mechanical engineering students at the University of Auckland. Shows that the dominant work activities of New Zealand mechanical engineers include design and consultancy and that graduate engineers rapidly migrate into management. (Author/CCM)
Ward, D F
An overview of Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera) in New Zealand is presented with information on families, genera, and when available, species. Notes on their distribution, biology, and a taxonomic key are provided. The New Zealand cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with only 11 described species, and five genus-only taxa. The fauna is dominated by introduced species; two species have been deliberately introduced as biological control agents, and at least 12 taxa are definitely or probably adventives. Many of these species are widespread and collected from modified and non-native habitats. New generic records of Figitidae for New Zealand include: Xyalaspis (Anacharitinae), Ganaspis, (Eucoilinae), and Thoreauella (Emargininae), all of which are considered adventives. There are no native species of gall forming wasps (Cynipidae) in New Zealand, and only two native species of Figitidae are present: Anacharis zealandica Ashmead, 1900 and Kleidotoma subantarcticana Yoshimoto, 1964.
Michael A. Castellano; Ross E. Beever; James M. Trappe
Four species of the sequestrate fungal genus Elaphomyces are reported from New Zealand: Elaphomyces bollardii sp. nov. associated with Leptospermum spp. and Kunzea ericoides, E. luteicrustus sp. nov. associated with Nothofagus menziesii, E. putridus sp. nov. associated with...
Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni
Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Mincey, Krista D
Obesity continues to be a public health concern across the globe. Obesity has a demonstrated association with health behaviors and health outcomes, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Over the past 2 decades, obesity has increased worldwide and remains highest in the United States. It is critical to understand the definition of obesity, using body mass index appropriately, recent estimates, and risk factors as a framework within which clinicians should work to help reduce the burden of obesity. This framework, including the Healthy People 2020 place-based approach to social determinants of health, is described in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
language and grammar used is therefore designed to meet United States requirements, rather than those expected in New Zealand. The change of spelling...accessed 15 March 2012). 3New Zealand Government, Ministry of Defence, Defence White Paper 2010, November 2010, http://nzdf.mil.nz/downloads/ pdf ...public-docs/2010/ defence_white_paper_2010. pdf (accessed 15 March 2012), 16. 2 world, and the wider Search and Rescue Zone exponentially increases
5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-16 298-102 1~4CJC SRATGYESSAY WRCITING COMIPETITION ENTRY ESTABLISHING A RATIONAL NEW...AJBAvailability Codjes ALABAMA ABSTRACT TITLE: E lishng a Rational New Zealand/United States Defense Relationship AUTHOR.- Richard J. Newlands, Wing...Current Stetu of the New Zealand/United States Relationship 12 OutstandItg Issues .1 Toward a Rational New Zealan/Unted States Defense Relationship .16
officers within the New Zealand Army and United States Army were gathered using a survey , to gain their perspective and identify any key areas for...senior officers within the New Zealand Army and United States Army were gathered using a survey , to gain their perspective and identify any key areas...time to take part in my survey , and contribute their wisdom and experience. The support and guidance that I received from other international
Farry, Annabel; Crowther, Susan
Midwives in New Zealand work within a unique cultural context. This calls for an understanding and appreciation of biculturalism and the equal status of Mãori and Europeans as the nation's founding peoples. This paper is the second of two papers that explore the notions of cultural safety and competence. Exploration and discussion take place in the New Zealand context, yet have transferable implications for midwives everywhere. This second paper focuses on midwifery education and practice.
Corbeil, Serge; McColl, Kenneth A; Williams, Lynette M; Slater, Joanne; Crane, Mark St J
The susceptibility of New Zealand paua (Haliotis iris) to infection by abalone herpesvirus (Haliotid herpesvirus 1; HaHV) and to the disease abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) was determined. Infection challenges performed by intra-muscular injection and by immersion in infectious water containing HaHV demonstrated that New Zealand paua were highly resistant to infection by Haliotid herpesvirus 1 and were fully resistant to the disease AVG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Health Department folklore since the 1950s has attributed the rise of health education in New Zealand almost entirely to the efforts of one man, 'Radio Doctor' Harold Turbott. The historical evidence reveals, however, a more extensive commitment by the Health Department, dating back to its foundation in 1900. This paper examines the evolution of health education in New Zealand and concludes that Turbott's role in its development has been overstated, largely at his own instigation.
Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa
Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Sutherland, E Rand
A growing body of literature suggests that obesity has a significant impact on asthma risk, phenotype, and prognosis. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that asthma is more likely to occur in obese patients, and health status is impaired in obese individuals with asthma, with obese asthmatics experiencing more symptoms, worse quality of life, increased healthcare use, and increased asthma severity. However, obesity has well-described effects on lung function and mechanics that can lead to symptoms of dyspnea without causing the pathophysiologic changes of asthma. Adding to the challenges of evaluating this association, some studies have failed to demonstrate a robust relationship between obesity and traditional biomarkers of airway inflammation in adult asthmatics, leading to the conclusion that obesity does not necessarily worsen airway inflammation in asthma. In this regard, emerging data suggest that nonatopic mechanisms may be relevant in obese asthmatics, and that these mechanisms may have a direct impact on the response of obese asthmatics to asthma therapies, most notably inhaled glucocorticoids. This article will review selected aspects of the contributions of obesity-related airway and systemic inflammation to asthma, with a focus on the impact of obesity as a modifier of risk, prognosis, and therapeutic response in asthma. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Recent studies indicate that fractures in obese postmenopausal women and older men contribute significantly to the overall fracture burden. The effect of obesity is to some extent site-dependent, the risk being increased for some fractures and decreased for others, possibly related to different patterns of falling and the presence or absence of soft tissue padding. Risk factors for fracture in obese individuals appear to be similar to those in the nonobese population, although falls may be particularly important in the obese. There is some evidence that the morbidity associated with fractures in obese individuals is greater than in the nonobese; however, a recent study indicates that the mortality associated with fracture is lower in obese and overweight people than in those of normal weight. The evidence base for strategies to prevent fractures in obese individuals is weak and is an important area for future research.
Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I
The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity.
Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael
Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Obesity is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders, which are more frequent and present earlier than T2DM and CVD. Diseases such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease, cholelithiasis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are directly related to body weight and abdominal adiposity. Our objective is to assess the role of each gastrointestinal organ in obesity and the gastrointestinal morbidity resulting in those organs from effects of obesity. PMID:24602085
Barberopoulou, A.; Downes, G. L.; Cochran, U. A.; Clark, K.; Scheele, F.
A database of historical (pre-instrumental) and modern (instrumentally recorded)tsunamis that have impacted or been observed in New Zealand has been compiled andpublished online. New Zealand's tectonic setting, astride an obliquely convergenttectonic boundary on the Pacific Rim, means that it is vulnerable to local, regional andcircum-Pacific tsunamis. Despite New Zealand's comparatively short written historicalrecord of c. 200 years there is a wealth of information about the impact of past tsunamis.The New Zealand Tsunami Database currently has 800+ entries that describe >50 highvaliditytsunamis. Sources of historical information include witness reports recorded indiaries, notes, newspapers, books, and photographs. Information on recent events comesfrom tide gauges and other instrumental recordings such as DART® buoys, and media ofgreater variety, for example, video and online surveys. The New Zealand TsunamiDatabase is an ongoing project with information added as further historical records cometo light. Modern tsunamis are also added to the database once the relevant data for anevent has been collated and edited. This paper briefly overviews the procedures and toolsused in the recording and analysis of New Zealand's historical tsunamis, with emphasison database content.
Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.
James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.
Kane, Maurice; Tucker, Hazel
One of the foundations of New Zealand's representation of itself to the world has been as a premier place of adventure. New Zealanders who have gained world recognition in outdoor leisure pursuits are used to promote this adventurous depiction of New Zealand. They are the focus of and contribute to the discourse which guides the New Zealand…
Patel, Asmita; Toossi, Vahideh
While New Zealand has experienced an increase in the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) based acupuncture, very little is known about the practitioners who provide this type of treatment modality. Therefore, this study was designed to identify differences associated with being a TCM practitioner in New Zealand compared to China. Ten Auckland-based TCM practitioners were individually interviewed. The interview schedule comprised of questions that were designed to identify any potential differences in practising TCM in New Zealand compared to China. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. The main differences in practising between the two countries were related to the role and authority that a TCM practitioner had. This in turn resulted in differences between the conditions that were treated in these two countries. Differences in patient demography were also identified between the two countries. TCM is used as a form of alternative healthcare treatment in New Zealand for non-Chinese individuals. Acupuncture is the most utilised form of TCM treatment in New Zealand, and is predominantly used for pain management purposes. TCM treatment has been utilised by individuals from a number of different ethnic groups, reflecting the ethnic diversity of the New Zealand population.
New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy drew international attention and threw the nation into a foreign policy crisis with the United States over the trilateral mutual security pact ANZUS. After more than a year of diminished intelligence and military cooperation, New Zealand was expelled from the alliance. This study involved a content analysis of coverage of these events and other nuclear issues in selected newspapers of New Zealand and the United States. Research points to the roles of the media as a critical one in the overall relations among countries. Through their frequent use of official government sources, the media tend tomore » uphold the government line or status quo with regard to foreign affairs. This study sought to identify the nuclear issues covered in the New Zealand and US media, the characteristics of that coverage, the sources of that coverage and how coverage varied during changing US-New Zealand relations. The official frame prevailed in coverage of nuclear issues. In the New Zealand and US newspapers under study, most sources of nuclear issue news were government officials. This research also found that most coverage of nuclear issues in the New Zealand media was related to some aspect of US interests, and that coverage of New Zealand's policy in the US media was covered most often when related to the United States. Nuclear issue coverage was most often not crisis-oriented in New Zealand and US newspapers, but coverage of all nuclear issues increased dramatically during the period of the ANZUS policy crisis. This study found a number of changes in nuclear issue coverage in the New Zealand media after the policy crisis was resolved. Among those changes were a tendency to focus less on economic and trade effects of the anti-nuclear policy, a tendency to focus more on ties with other South Pacific nations, use more sources from those countries, and a tendency to focus less on the moral and ethical position of the country.« less
Rosenthal, Raul J; Morton, John; Brethauer, Stacy; Mattar, Samer; De Maria, Eric; Benz, Jennifer K; Titus, Jennifer; Sterrett, David
The prevalence of obesity in America continues to grow significantly. Awareness and understanding of the disease of obesity and treatment options for it appear to be lacking among the general US population. This study aimed to identify misperceptions in diagnosis and treatment of obesity, struggles Americans face in obtaining treatment, consequences of obesity, and perceived barriers to weight loss. University hospital, United States. A survey of 1509 adults was completed in September 2016 using AmeriSpeak, a probability-based panel designed to be representative of the US household population. The survey included oversamples of blacks and Hispanics. The study analyzed quantitative data from structured interviews and presents descriptive statistics related to public attitudes toward obesity. Of Americans, 81% consider obesity to be the most serious health problem facing the nation, tying cancer as the top issue and landing ahead of diabetes (72%), heart disease (72%), mental illness (65%), and HIV infection and AIDS (46%). Nearly all Americans (94%) agree that obesity itself, even when no other diseases are present, increases the risk for early death. Most Americans overestimate the effectiveness of some obesity treatments, such as diet and exercise alone. Many overweight and obese Americans do not consult a doctor at all about their issues of excess weight. There is increased awareness about the serious consequences of obesity, but there is still a lack of understanding about the reasons and best treatment modalities for the disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skipworth, Jeremy; Brinded, Phil; Chaplow, David; Frampton, Chris
This paper examines clinical and forensic outcomes for defendants found not guilty by reason of insanity in New Zealand, and explores the implications for policy development and clinical rehabilitation in this population. All insanity acquittees disposed of by the courts as special patients after 1976 and released before 2004 are described. Their duration of inpatient care, rates of reconviction and rehospitalization following release are examined. The high resolution rate for violent crime reported to police suggests that reconviction rates are a reasonable proxy for violent reoffending. Factors predicting duration of inpatient care and reoffending are analysed. Severity of Index Offence was the only variable predicting duration of inpatient care of the 135 special patients. Offenders of more serious offences were securely detained for longer periods--averaging 6 years in the case of those charged with murder. Most patients were readmitted over the decade following discharge. Only 6% had violently reoffended 2 years after release into the community. Prior offending, age at release, ethnicity and gender predicted reoffending, but not diagnosis or duration of inpatient admission. Following discharge into the community, insanity acquittees are reconvicted of violent crimes at a very low rate, although readmission to hospital is common. It may be that insanity acquittees are initially detained in hospital longer than is clinically indicated, and that safe forensic community treatment can occur at an earlier stage of recovery without compromising public safety.
Historical sketches show the indigenous Maori cooking with natural hot waters and steam prior to the arrival of Europeans on North Island, New Zealand. Since the 1950s, geothermal heat and steam have been exploited for both heating and electrical power generation, and some excess electrical power is exported to South Island. The geothermal development can be identified by the unique patterns of infrastructure that look like tan beads on a string in the midst of otherwise green vegetation. This one near the town of Rotorua lies within a northeast-trending line of active volcanoes (Ruapehu, Tongariro, and White Island) that are the surface result of the Pacific tectonic plate descending beneath the Australian-Indian plate. Image STS110-726-10 was taken by space shuttle crewmembers in April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.
Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn
Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.
McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I
Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television. PMID:17270053
Ross, C M; Donnison, A M
The study was undertaken to determine the inactivation rate of Campylobacter jejuni in New Zealand soils. Farm dairy effluent (FDE) inoculated at c. 10(5) ml(-1) with C. jejuni was applied to intact soil cores at a rate of 2 l m(-2). Four soils were used: Hamilton (granular); Taupo (pumice); Horotiu and Waihou (allophanic). After FDE application cores were incubated at 10 degrees C for up to 32 days. For all four soils all the FDE remained within the cores and at least 99% of C. jejuni were retained in the top 5 cm. Campylobacter jejuni had declined to the limit of detection (two C. jejuni 100 g(-1)) by 25 days in Hamilton and Taupo soils and by 32 days in Waihou soil. In contrast, in Horotiu soil the decline was only three orders of magnitude after 32 days. Simulated heavy rainfall was applied 4 and 11 days after FDE application and only about 1% of the applied C. jejuni were recovered in leachates. This study demonstrated that at least 99% of applied C. jejuni were retained in the top 5 cm of four soils where they survived for at least 25 days at 10 degrees C. Soil retention of C. jejuni is efficient at FDE application rates that prevent drainage losses. The low infectious dose of C. jejuni and its ability to survive up to 25 days have implications for stock management on dairy farms.
Glover, Marewa; Fraser, Trish
Using electronic cigarettes (vaping) is controversial, but is increasingly widespread. This paper reports the results of an electronic survey of vapers in New Zealand, a country where the sale and supply of e-liquids containing nicotine is illegal, although vapers can legally access e-liquids from overseas. An on-line survey was conducted, using vaper and smoking cessation networks for recruitment, with follow up surveys conducted 1 and 2 months after the initial survey. 218 participants were recruited. Almost all had been smokers, but three quarters no longer smoked, with the remainder having significantly reduced their tobacco use. Three participants were non-smokers before starting to vape, but none had gone on to become smokers. The overriding motivation to begin and continue vaping was to stop or to reduce smoking. The results were consistent with a progression from initially both vaping and smoking using less effective electronic cigarette types, then moving to more powerful devices, experimentation with flavors and nicotine strengths—all resulting in reducing or stopping tobacco use. Lack of access to nicotine and lack of support for their chosen cessation method were the main problems reported. Vaping had resulted in effective smoking cessation for the majority of participants. PMID:29382129
Hume, P A; Chalmers, D J; Wilson, B D
OBJECTIVE: To examine trampoline related injuries resulting in emergency department attendance. METHODS: Cases were identified by searching free text descriptions of the circumstances of injury contained in the records of the emergency department of a large city hospital. RESULTS: 114 cases were identified for a 12 month period, giving an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 89 to 129) compared with 9.3 hospital admissions per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 8.3 to 10.4) for a corresponding period reported in earlier research from New Zealand. This suggested that for every one hospital admission there are approximately 12 emergency department attendances. Of the cases, 95% were aged less than 20 years. As for the earlier research, falls from the trampoline to the surrounding surface were the commonest cause of injury. In the present study, sprains and strains were the commonest type of injury (40%), and the body site most frequently involved was the lower limb (46%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the conclusion from earlier research that although existing trampoline standards address many of the issues relating to trampoline safety, the need remains for measures to reduce the impact of falls from the trampoline to the ground surface and to prohibit the use of trampolines as unsupervised "play equipment". PMID:9015596
Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres
Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107
Mok, C A; Héon, E; Zhen, M
Obesity associates with increased health risks such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. The steady rise in the obese population worldwide poses an increasing burden on health systems. Genetic factors contribute to the development of obesity, and the elucidation of their physiological functions helps to understand the cause, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment for this disorder. Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles whose dysfunctions lead to human disorders now defined as ciliopathies. Human ciliopathies present pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes that often include retinal degeneration, cystic renal anomalies and obesity. Increasing evidence implicates an intriguing involvement of cilia in lipid/energy homeostasis. Here we discuss recent studies in support of the key roles of ciliary genes in the development and pathology of obesity in various animal models. Genes affecting ciliary development and function may pose promising candidate underlying genetic factors that contribute to the development of common obesity.
Genné-Bacon, Elizabeth A.
Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there is, in fact, limited evidence to support the thrifty gene hypothesis and that alternative hypotheses have been suggested. This review presents evidence for and against the thrifty gene hypothesis and introduces readers to additional hypotheses for the evolutionary origins of the obesity epidemic. Because these alternate hypotheses imply significantly different strategies for research and clinical management of obesity, their consideration is critical to halting the spread of this epidemic. PMID:24910556
Collins, Katherine; Oehmen, Raoul; Mehta, Shailender
Rates of pre-gestational obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are increasing in Australia. While both are established risk factors for neonatal hypoglycaemia, the additive effect of both risks on neonatal hypoglycaemia is not well understood. To determine the influence of obesity on neonatal hypoglycaemia among infants born to GDM mothers. The authors hypothesise the presence of a greater frequency and severity of neonatal hypoglycaemia in infants born to obese GDM women. A cohort of 471 singleton GDM pregnancies was retrospectively studied. Women were divided into obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) and not-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m 2 ) groups according to self-reported pre-pregnancy weight. Perinatal outcomes and details of hypoglycaemic episodes were obtained by reviewing medical records. Twenty-five percent (104/410) of the GDM mothers were obese, while 36% (146/410) exceeded pregnancy weight gain recommendations. GDM and obesity resulted in a greater frequency of neonatal hypoglycaemia as compared to women with GDM alone (obese 44%, not obese 34%, P = 0.046). Obesity increased the likelihood of having multiple hypoglycaemic episodes (P = 0.022). Excess weight gain increased the likelihood of the neonate requiring intravenous dextrose (P = 0.0012). No differences were found in the likelihood of nursery admissions or lowest plasma glucose levels. Pre-pregnancy obesity and weight gain during pregnancy above the recommended limits increased the likelihood of neonatal hypoglycaemia among infants of GDM mothers. Further studies with larger cohorts are warranted to confirm our findings. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
O’Brien, Phillipe D.; Hinder, Lucy M.; Callaghan, Brian C.; Feldman, Eva L.
Obesity, primarily a consequence of poor dietary choices and an increased sedentary lifestyle, has become a global pandemic that brings with it enormous medical, social, and economic challenges. Not only does obesity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, but it is also recognized as a key driver of other metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. These components include insulin resistance, hyperglycemia with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and are underlying contributors to systemic metabolic dysfunction. More recently, obesity and diet-induced metabolic dysfunction have been identified as risk factors for the development of a wide variety of neurological disorders in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. An abundance of literature has shown that obesity is associated with mild cognitive impairment and altered hippocampal structure and function, and there is a robust correlation between obesity and Alzheimer’s type dementia. Similarly, many reports show that both the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system are impacted by obesity. The autonomic nervous system, under control of the hypothalamus, displays altered catabolic and anabolic processes in obese individuals attributed to sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalances. A close association also exists between obesity and polyneuropathy, a complication most commonly found in prediabetic and diabetic patients, and is likely secondary to a combination of obesity-induced dyslipidemia with hyperglycemia. This review will outline the pathophysiological development of obesity and dyslipidemia, discuss the adverse impact of these conditions on the nervous system, and provide evidence for lipotoxicity and metabolic inflammation as the drivers underlying the neurological consequences of obesity. In addition, this review will examine the benefits of lifestyle and surgical interventions in obesity-induced neurological disorders. PMID
Puzziferri, Nancy; Blankenship, Jeanne; Wolfe, Bruce M
The surgical treatment of obesity has existed for over 50 yr. Surgical options have evolved from high-risk procedures infrequently performed, to safe, effective procedures increasingly performed. The operations used today provide significant durable weight loss, resolution or marked improvement of obesity-related comorbidities, and enhanced quality of life for the majority of patients. The effect of bariatric surgery on the neurohormonal regulation of energy homeostasis is not fully understood. Despite its effectiveness, less than 1% of obese patients are treated surgically. The perception that obesity surgery is unsafe remains a deterrent to care.
Deng, Tuo; Lyon, Christopher J; Bergin, Stephen; Caligiuri, Michael A; Hsueh, Willa A
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including cancer, and is increasingly recognized as a growing cause of preventable cancer risk. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central characteristic of obesity, leading to many of its complications, and obesity-induced inflammation confers additional cancer risk beyond obesity itself. Multiple mechanisms facilitate this strong association between cancer and obesity. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ, secreting several hormones, including leptin and adiponectin, and chemokines that can regulate tumor behavior, inflammation, and the tumor microenvironment. Excessive adipose expansion during obesity causes adipose dysfunction and inflammation to increase systemic levels of proinflammatory factors. Cells from adipose tissue, such as cancer-associated adipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells, enter the cancer microenvironment to enhance protumoral effects. Dysregulated metabolism that stems from obesity, including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, can further impact tumor growth and development. This review describes how adipose tissue becomes inflamed in obesity, summarizes ways these mechanisms impact cancer development, and discusses their role in four adipose-associated cancers that demonstrate elevated incidence or mortality in obesity.
Hammond, Ross A
To review a selection of research published in the last 12 months on the role of social influence in the obesity epidemic. Recent papers add evidence to previous work linking social network structures and obesity. Social norms, both eating norms and body image norms, are identified as one major source of social influence through networks. Social capital and social stress are additional types of social influence. There is increasing evidence that social influence and social network structures are significant factors in obesity. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms of action and dynamics of social influence, and its link with other factors involved in the obesity epidemic, is an important goal for further research.
Matsuda, Daisuke; Tomoda, Hiroshi
Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in adipocytes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final reaction of triacylgycerol synthesis. Two isozymes of DGAT, DGAT1 and DGAT2, have been reported. Increased DGAT2 activity has a role in steatosis, while DGAT1 plays a role in very (V)LDL synthesis; increased plasma VLDL concentrations may promote obesity and thus DGAT1 is considered a potential therapeutic target of inhibition for obesity control. Several DGAT inhibitors of natural and synthetic origin have been reported, and their future prospect as anti-obesity drugs is discussed in this review.
Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio
Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.
Van Grouw, Jacqueline M; Volpe, Stella L
To provide an overview of the current advances in childhood obesity physiology, intervention, and prevention. Structural and functional brain impairments are present in obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aerobic training for 20 or 40 min per day produced similar affects on metabolic risk factors. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve the metabolic risk factors in obese children; however, obese children require greater doses to treat vitamin D deficiency. A 10-week community-based exergaming weight management program significantly decreased the BMI in obese children. There is surmounting research on MetS and its associated risk factors in obese children. Gaining a comprehensive overview of the factors associated with obesity in children is crucial in developing the most effective intervention strategies. Community-based and family-centered interventions have generated positive results in reducing children's BMI and improving MetS risk factors. In addition to obesity intervention efforts, ongoing prevention initiatives are imperative to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity.
Corbee, R J
Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Weismann, D; Wiedmann, S; Bala, M; Frantz, S; Fassnacht, M
Obesity is an important risk factor for the development of heart failure. In normotensive obese patients, a reduced peripheral resistance is typically observed and is accompanied by an increased fluid volume and an increase in cardiac work, resulting in hypertrophy and diastolic heart failure, which can be visualized with echocardiography. However, in the presence of arterial hypertension cardiac geometry is not different to hypertensive heart disease without obesity. Furthermore, the typical changes found with obesity, such as reduced peripheral resistance and increased blood volume, are no longer present. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is very common in obesity and warrants screening but levels of the heart failure marker N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) might be misleading as the values are lower in obesity than in normal weight controls. Body weight reduction is advisable but difficult to achieve and much more difficult to maintain. Furthermore, diet and exercise has not been proven to enhance life expectancy in obesity. However, with bariatric surgery, long-term weight reduction can be achieved and mortality can be reduced. With effective weight loss and improved clinical outcome after bariatric surgery, treatment of obesity has shifted much more into focus. Regardless of technical challenges in the work-up of obese patients, clinical symptoms suggestive of cardiac disorders warrant prompt investigation with standard techniques following recommendations as established for normal weight patients.
On 2 May, 2007, the New Zealand Parliament passed a law repealing Section 59 of the Crimes Act. In so doing, New Zealand became the first English-speaking nation in the world to make corporal punishment of a child illegal. The passage of this legislation was surrounded by intense and persistent public debate, and supporters of corporal punishment continue to advocate against the law change to the present day. In Sweden, where the first stage of similar repeal took place in 1957, it may be difficult for many to understand the strength of the public opposition to this change in New Zealand. This article will present a viewpoint on the evolution of the debate in New Zealand, review the wider context of child maltreatment and family violence in New Zealand and summarize a range of attempts to prevent or intervene effectively in the cycle of dysfunction. Child maltreatment and family violence are public health issues of great importance, and a stain on all societies. While corporal punishment may be a significant contributing factor, there is no single 'solution'. Change must occur on multiple levels (political, economic, cultural, familial and professional) before the tide will turn.
Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R
In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Brian S; Collins, Kym; Barlow, Jay; Calderan, Susannah; Leaper, Russell; McDonald, Mark; Ensor, Paul; Olson, Paula A; Olavarria, Carlos; Double, Michael C
Previous underwater recordings made in New Zealand have identified a complex sequence of low frequency sounds that have been attributed to blue whales based on similarity to blue whale songs in other areas. Recordings of sounds with these characteristics were made opportunistically during the Southern Ocean Research Partnership's recent Antarctic Blue Whale Voyage. Detections of these sounds occurred all around the South Island of New Zealand during the voyage transits from Nelson, New Zealand to the Antarctic and return. By following acoustic bearings from directional sonobuoys, blue whales were visually detected and confirmed as the source of these sounds. These recordings, together with the historical recordings made northeast of New Zealand, indicate song types that persist over several decades and are indicative of the year-round presence of a population of blue whales that inhabits the waters around New Zealand. Measurements of the four-part vocalizations reveal that blue whale song in this region has changed slowly, but consistently over the past 50 years. The most intense units of these calls were detected as far south as 53°S, which represents a considerable range extension compared to the limited prior data on the spatial distribution of this population.
Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Rheumatic fever continues unabated among the indigenous Māori and Pacific Island New Zealanders. Ethnic disparities have increased in the past decade. The major success story for disease control has been secondary penicillin prophylaxis with 28-day intramuscular benzathine penicillin with high penicillin delivery rates and low recurrence rates. A landmark study for primary prevention of acute rheumatic fever for group A streptococcal pharyngitis was published in 2009. New Zealand has helped establish the role of echocardiography in acute rheumatic fever, with subclinical carditis incorporated into guidelines as a major criterion of rheumatic fever in high prevalence regions. The rates of mitral valve repair for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are currently greater than 90% in the children's cardiac unit but remain low in adult cardiac units in New Zealand. This is particularly relevant to women of child bearing age where New Zealand data has shown that pregnancy outcomes for mothers with prosthetic valves on warfarin are poor. There are new initiatives to prevent severe RHD using portable echocardiography by screening school aged children. The prevalence of definite RHD was 2.4% in a large cohort of socially disadvantaged children in South Auckland studied in 2007-2008. Cost benefit models of screening need to be developed. Ongoing research involves international consensus standardisation of RHD patterns, and the need to define the natural history of subclinical RHD. Copyright 2010 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cressey, Peter; Gaw, Sally; Love, John
Existing fluoride concentration and consumption data were used to estimate fluoride intakes from the diet and toothpaste use, for New Zealand subpopulations, to identify any population groups at risk of high-fluoride intake. For each sub-population, two separate dietary intake estimates were made--one based on a non-fluoridated water supply (fluoride concentration of 0.1 mg/L), and the other based on a water supply fluoridated to a concentration of 1.0 mg/L. Fluoride concentration data were taken from historical surveys, while food consumption data were taken from national 24-hour dietary recall surveys or from simulated diets. Mean and 95th percentile estimations of dietary fluoride intake were well below the upper level of intake (UL), whether intakes were calculated on the basis of a non-fluoridated or fluoridated water supply. The use of fluoride-containing toothpastes provides additional fluoride intake. For many of the population groups considered, mean fluoride intakes were below the adequate intake (AI) level for caries protection, even after inclusion of the fluoride contribution from toothpaste. Intake of fluoride was driven by consumption of dietary staples (bread, potatoes),beverages (particularly tea, soft drinks, and beer), and the fluoride status of drinking water. Estimates of fluoride intake from the diet and toothpaste did not identify any groups at risk of exceeding the UL, with the exception of infants (6-12 months) living in areas with fluoridated water supplies and using high-fluoride toothpaste. In contrast, much of the adult population may be receiving insufficient fluoride for optimum caries protection from these sources, as represented by the AI.
Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Meier, Madeline H.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Cross-sectional studies have found that obesity is associated with low intellectual ability and neuroimaging abnormalities in adolescence and adulthood. Some have interpreted these associations to suggest that obesity causes intellectual decline in the first half of the life course. We analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study to test whether becoming obese was associated with intellectual decline from childhood to midlife. We used data from the ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative birth cohort study of 1,037 children in New Zealand who were followed prospectively from birth (1972–1973) through their fourth decade of life with a 95% retention rate. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured in childhood and adulthood. Anthropometric measurements were taken at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person assessments. As expected, cohort members who became obese had lower adulthood IQ scores. However, obese cohort members exhibited no excess decline in IQ. Instead, these cohort members had lower IQ scores since childhood. This pattern remained consistent when we accounted for children's birth weights and growth during the first years of life, as well as for childhood-onset obesity. Lower IQ scores among children who later developed obesity were present as early as 3 years of age. We observed no evidence that obesity contributed to a decline in IQ, even among obese individuals who displayed evidence of the metabolic syndrome and/or elevated systemic inflammation. PMID:24029684
Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Meier, Madeline H; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Cross-sectional studies have found that obesity is associated with low intellectual ability and neuroimaging abnormalities in adolescence and adulthood. Some have interpreted these associations to suggest that obesity causes intellectual decline in the first half of the life course. We analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study to test whether becoming obese was associated with intellectual decline from childhood to midlife. We used data from the ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative birth cohort study of 1,037 children in New Zealand who were followed prospectively from birth (1972-1973) through their fourth decade of life with a 95% retention rate. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured in childhood and adulthood. Anthropometric measurements were taken at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person assessments. As expected, cohort members who became obese had lower adulthood IQ scores. However, obese cohort members exhibited no excess decline in IQ. Instead, these cohort members had lower IQ scores since childhood. This pattern remained consistent when we accounted for children's birth weights and growth during the first years of life, as well as for childhood-onset obesity. Lower IQ scores among children who later developed obesity were present as early as 3 years of age. We observed no evidence that obesity contributed to a decline in IQ, even among obese individuals who displayed evidence of the metabolic syndrome and/or elevated systemic inflammation.
Manco, Melania; Dallapiccola, Bruno
Onset of obesity has been anticipated at earlier ages, and prevalence has dramatically increased worldwide over the past decades. Epidemic obesity is mainly attributable to modern lifestyle, but family studies prove the significant role of genes in the individual's predisposition to obesity. Advances in genotyping technologies have raised great hope and expectations that genetic testing will pave the way to personalized medicine and that complex traits such as obesity will be prevented even before birth. In the presence of the pressing offer of direct-to-consumer genetic testing services from private companies to estimate the individual's risk for complex phenotypes including obesity, the present review offers pediatricians an update of the state of the art on genomics obesity in childhood. Discrepancies with respect to genomics of adult obesity are discussed. After an appraisal of findings from genome-wide association studies in pediatric populations, the rare variant-common disease hypothesis, the theoretical soil for next-generation sequencing techniques, is discussed as opposite to the common disease-common variant hypothesis. Next-generation sequencing techniques are expected to fill the gap of "missing heritability" of obesity, identifying rare variants associated with the trait and clarifying the role of epigenetics in its heritability. Pediatric obesity emerges as a complex phenotype, modulated by unique gene-environment interactions that occur in periods of life and are "permissive" for the programming of adult obesity. With the advent of next-generation sequencing techniques and advances in the field of exposomics, sensitive and specific tools to predict the obesity risk as early as possible are the challenge for the next decade.
Ortega, Francisco B; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N
The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past few decades. In 2013, the prevalence of obesity exceeded the 50% of the adult population in some countries from Oceania, North Africa, and Middle East. Lower but still alarmingly high prevalence was observed in North America (≈30%) and in Western Europe (≈20%). These figures are of serious concern because of the strong link between obesity and disease. In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the relationship of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD), discussing how both the degree and the duration of obesity affect CVD. Although in the general population, obesity and, especially, severe obesity are consistently and strongly related with higher risk of CVD incidence and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach should not be used with obesity. There are relevant factors largely affecting the CVD prognosis of obese individuals. In this context, we thoroughly discuss important concepts such as the fat-but-fit paradigm, the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype and the obesity paradox in patients with CVD. About the MHO phenotype and its CVD prognosis, available data have provided mixed findings, what could be partially because of the adjustment or not for key confounders such as cardiorespiratory fitness, and to the lack of consensus on the MHO definition. In the present review, we propose a scientifically based harmonized definition of MHO, which will hopefully contribute to more comparable data in the future and a better understanding on the MHO subgroup and its CVD prognosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
van Dijk, S J; Molloy, P L; Varinli, H; Morrison, J L; Muhlhausler, B S
Recent technological advances in epigenome profiling have led to an increasing number of studies investigating the role of the epigenome in obesity. There is also evidence that environmental exposures during early life can induce persistent alterations in the epigenome, which may lead to an increased risk of obesity later in life. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the association between obesity and either global, site-specific or genome-wide methylation of DNA. Studies on the impact of pre- and postnatal interventions on methylation and obesity are also reviewed. We discuss outstanding questions, and introduce EpiSCOPE, a multidisciplinary research program aimed at increasing the understanding of epigenetic changes in emergence of obesity. An electronic search for relevant articles, published between September 2008 and September 2013 was performed. From the 319 articles identified, 46 studies were included and reviewed. The studies provided no consistent evidence for a relationship between global methylation and obesity. The studies did identify multiple obesity-associated differentially methylated sites, mainly in blood cells. Extensive, but small, alterations in methylation at specific sites were observed in weight loss intervention studies, and several associations between methylation marks at birth and later life obesity were found. Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Eventually this may help in predicting an individual's obesity risk at a young age and opens possibilities for introducing targeted prevention strategies. It has also become clear that several epigenetic marks are modifiable, by changing the exposure in utero, but also by lifestyle changes in adult life, which implies that there is the potential for interventions to be introduced in postnatal life to modify
Brown, Charis; Lao, Chunhuan; Lawrenson, Ross; Tin Tin, Sandar; Schaaf, Michelle; Kidd, Jacquie; Allan-Moetaua, Anne; Herman, Josephine; Raamsroop, Reena; Campbell, Ian; Elwood, Mark
Breast cancer in New Zealand-based Pasifika women is a significant issue. Although Pasifika women have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared to New Zealand European women, they have higher breast cancer mortality and lower five-year survival. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and tumour biology of Pasifika women and to compare New Zealand European women to identify what factors impact on early (Stage 1 and 2) vs advanced stage (Stage 3 and 4) at diagnosis. Data on all Pasifika and New Zealand European women diagnosed with breast cancer (C50) during the period 1 June 2000 to 31 May 2013 was extracted from the Auckland and Waikato Breast Cancer Registries. Descriptive tables and Chi-square test were used to examine differences in characteristics and tumour biology between Pasifika and New Zealand European women. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that contributed to an increased risk of advanced stage at diagnosis. A significantly higher proportion of Pasifika women had advanced disease at diagnosis compared to New Zealand European women (33.3% and 18.3%, respectively). Cancer biology in Pasifika women was more likely to be: 1) HER2+, 2) ER/PR negative and 3) have a tumour size of ≥50mm. Pasifika women live in higher deprivation areas of 9-10 compared to New Zealand European women (55% vs 14%, respectively) and were less likely to have their cancer identified through screening. Logistic regression showed that if Pasifika women were on the screen-detected pathway they had similar odds (not sig.) of having advanced disease at diagnosis to New Zealand European women. Mode of detection, deprivation, age and some biological factors contributed to the difference in odds ratio between Pasifika and New Zealand European women. For those of screening age, adherence to the screening programme and improvements in access to earlier diagnosis for Pasifika women under the current screening age have the potential to make a substantial
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Normal weight obesity: A hidden health risk? Can you be considered obese if you have a normal body weight? Answers from ... considered obese — a condition known as normal weight obesity. Normal weight obesity means you may have the ...
Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, Sueann
The New Zealand Curriculum Framework, 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in the school curriculum. This paper investigates the requirements for teaching attitudes, values and ethics in the curriculum statements for Science, Biology and Technology. The question is raised whether the teaching of skills for resolving moral and ethical dilemmas are required by the official education standards in New Zealand, and internationally. The paper reports on a survey done on pre-service teacher trainees of their understanding of these requirements. Implications for courses that might need to be provided in future pre-service teacher education programmes are briefly discussed.
Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin
Context: Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Results: The concept of the “Metabolic Syndrome“ helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Conclusions: Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity. PMID:25093156
Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin
Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. The concept of the "Metabolic Syndrome" helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity.
Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.
To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimed…
The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…
All definitions of the metabolic syndrome include some form of obesity as one of the possible features. Body mass index (BMI) has a known genetic component, currently estimated to account for about 70% of the population variance in weight status for non-syndromal obesity. Much research effort has be...
Obesity is a chronic disease, and it requires chronic therapy. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of mortality in the modern world. All of them are strongly linked to obesity. While treating obesity, those conditions are also managed. Obese patients should always be treated through lifestyle interventions, though the results of such interventions are modest. Pharmacotherapy is a second step in the treatment of obesity, approved only when weight loss targets were not reached through lifestyle intervention. During the history of antiobesity drugs, many of them were withdrawn because of their side effects. Various guidelines recommend prescribing drug therapy for obesity through consideration of the potential benefits and limitations. Orlistat deactivates intestinal lipase and inhibits intestinal fat lipolysis. It is actually the only drug on the European market approved for the treatment of obesity. Orlistat therapy reduces weight to a modest extent, but it reduces the incidence of diabetes beyond the result achieved with lifestyle changes. Recently, some effective antiobesity drugs like sibutramine and rimonabant have been removed from the market due to their side effects. The new combination of topimarate and fentermine is approved in the US but not in Europe. The cost effectiveness of long-term pharmacotherapy of obesity is still an unresolved question.
Cardiovascular complications of obesity are traditionally considered an important complication of obesity. Obesity itself is probably not direct cause of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease. This may occur indirectly in metabolic complications of obesity, especially diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, thrombogenicity potential of obesity contributes to embolism and atherosclerosis development. In cardiology is well-known a phenomenon of obesity paradox when obese patients have better prognosis than thin. This is the case of heart failure and some other cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a new concept has emerged of myokines - hormones from muscle tissue that have extensive protective effects on organism and probably on heart. Whether heart is a source of myokines is uncertain. However, undoubted importance has epicardial and pericardial fatty tissue. The epicardial fatty tissue has mainly protective effects on myocardium. This fatty tissue may produce factors of inflammation affecting the myocardium. Relationship between amount of epicardial fatty tissue and coronary heart disease is rather pathogenic. Currently, it is certain that obesity brings more metabolic and cancer complications than cardiovascular and accurate contribution to pathogenic or protective character of fatty tissue in cardiology requires further research. Nevertheless, the conclusion is that adipose tissue of organism and around the heart may be in some circumstances beneficial.
Drummond, Elaine M; Gibney, Eileen R
Research suggests that 65% of variation in obesity is genetic. However, much of the known genetic associations have little known function and their effect size small, thus the gene-environment interaction, including epigenetic influences on gene expression, is suggested to be an important factor in the susceptibilty to obesity. This review will explore the potential of epigenetic markers to influence expression of genes associated with obesity. Epigenetic changes in utero are known to have direct implications on the phenotype of the offspring. More recently work has focused on how such epigenetic changes continue to regulate risk of obesity from infancy through to adulthood. Work has shown that, for example, hypomethylation of the MC4 gene causes an increase in expression, and has a direct impact on appetite and intake, and thus influences risk of obesity. Similar influences are also seen in other aspects of obesity including inflammation and adiposity. Maternal diet during foetal development has many epigenetic implications, which affect the offspring's risk factors for obesity during childhood and adulthood, and even in subsequent generations. Genes associated with risk of obesity, are susceptible to epigenetic mutations, which have subsequent effects on disease mechanisms, such as appetite and impaired glucose and insulin tolerance.
Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane
Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bridgeman, Benjamin; Morgan-Richards, Mary; Wheeler, David; Trewick, Steven A
Wolbachia is one of the most widespread intracellular bacteria on earth, estimated to infect between 40 and 66% of arthropod species in most ecosystems that have been surveyed. Their significance rests not only in their vast distribution, but also in their ability to modify the reproductive biology of their hosts, which can ultimately affect genetic diversity and speciation of infected populations. Wolbachia has yet to be formally identified in the fauna of New Zealand which has high levels of endemic biodiversity and this represents a gap in our understanding of the global biology of Wolbachia. Using High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of host DNA in conjunction with traditional molecular techniques we identified six endemic Orthoptera species that were positive for Wolbachia infection. In addition, short-sequence amplification with Wolbachia specific primers applied to New Zealand and introduced invertebrates detected a further 153 individuals positive for Wolbachia. From these short-range DNA amplification products sequence data was obtained for the ftsZ gene region from 86 individuals representing 10 host species. Phylogenetic analysis using the sequences obtained in this study reveals that there are two distinct Wolbachia bacteria lineages in New Zealand hosts belonging to recognised Wolbachia supergroups (A and B). These represent the first described instances of Wolbachia in the New Zealand native fauna, including detection in putative parasitoids of infected Orthoptera suggesting a possible transmission path. Our detection of Wolbachia infections of New Zealand species provides the opportunity to study local transmission of Wolbachia and explore their role in the evolution of New Zealand invertebrates.
Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes
The molecular genetic analysis of obesity has led to the identification of a limited number of confirmed major genes. While such major genes have a clear influence on the development of the phenotype, the underlying mutations are however (extremely) infrequent and thus of minor clinical importance only. The genetic predisposition to obesity must thus be polygenic; a number of such variants should be found in most obese subjects; however, these variants predisposing to obesity are also found in normal weight and even lean individuals. Therefore, a polygene can only be identified and validated by statistical analyses: the appropriate gene variant (allele) occurs more frequently in obese than in non-obese subjects. Each single polygene makes only a small contribution to the development of obesity. The 103Ile allele of the Val103Ile single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) was the first confirmed polygenetic variant with an influence on the body mass index (BMI); the more common Val103 allele is more frequent in obese individuals. As determined in a recent, large-scaled meta-analysis the effect size of this allele on mean BMI was approximately -0.5 kg/m(2). The first genome-wide association study (GWA) for obesity, based on approximately 100,000 SNPs analyzed in families of the Framingham study, revealed that a SNP in the proximity of the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) was associated with obesity. The positive result was replicated in independent samples; however, some other study groups detected no association. Currently, a meta-analysis is ongoing; its result will contribute to the evaluation of the importance of the INSIG2 polymorphism in body weight regulation. SNP alleles in intron 1 of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) confer the most relevant polygenic effect on obesity. In the first GWA for extreme early onset obesity we substantiated that variation in FTO strongly contributes to early onset obesity
Dizdar, Omer; Alyamaç, Evrim
Obesity is one of the most common disorders in clinical practice. The prevalance of obesity has increased by more than 60% since 1990. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting many factors into the blood, known as adipokines, including leptin, adipsin, acylation-stimulating protein, adiponectin, etc. This article examines the hypothesis that obesity may be evaluated as an endocrine tumor, regarding its genetic basis, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes, neovascularisation within the adipose tissue associated with growth, and beneficisal metabolic effects of surgical removal of excess adipose tissue by liposuction. Assuming obesity as an endocrine tumor may bring out new treatment modalities. Liposuction as "cytoreductive surgery", antiangiogenic teraphy or anti-neoplastic drugs may be important components of obesity treatment in future.
Lourenço, Ruy V.
Diaphragm activity during carbon dioxide breathing and total chest compliance during diaphragm relaxation were measured in eight obese subjects: four with normal blood gases and four with hypercapnia and hypoxemia. Whereas there were no significant differences in the values of total chest compliance between the two groups, there were marked differences in diaphragm activity. The increase in integrated electrical activity in the diaphragm, per millimeter increment in carbon dioxide tension in the arterial blood, averaged 66 units (range: 48-90) in the obese-normal subjects and 17 units (range: 12-22) in the obese-hypoventilation subjects. These results suggest that an incapacity to increase the activity in the respiratory muscles, to levels necessary to overcome the load caused by obesity, plays a major role in the genesis of respiratory failure in obese subjects. PMID:5822573
Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D
Modern western culture emphasizes thinness, denigrates excess weight, and stigmatizes obese individuals, making it likely that obese people internalize these messages and feel badly about the physical presence that brands them. There is clear evidence that obesity is linked with poor body image, but not all obese persons suffer from this problem or are equally vulnerable. Risk factors identified thus far are degree of overweight, being female, and binge eating, with some evidence of risk increasing with early age of onset of obesity, race, and several additional factors. Treatments do exist for improving body image in overweight individuals. Key questions are how to identify those in need of body image intervention, how such programs can be integrated with weight loss treatments, and ultimately, how body image distress can be prevented.
An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities of obesity. One of these subgroups comprises patients treated for childhood cancers and namely survivors of craniopharyngioma. The high incidence of obesity in this group makes these patients an important disease model to better understand the metabolic disturbances and the mechanisms of weight gain among cancer survivors. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies or to primary tumor location affect long-term outcomes. Nevertheless, the aetiology of obesity in craniopharyngioma is not yet fully understood. The present review has the aim of summarizing the published data and examining the most accepted mechanisms and main predisposing factors related to weight gain in this particular population. PMID:21846381
The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders.
Djalalinia, Shirin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Peykari, Niloofar; Kelishadi, Roya
The aim of this communication is to provide some evidence linking the overweight/obesity and their impacts on different dimensions of health. We reviewed the related studies published from 1990 up till now through PubMed Central/Medline, which provide evidence linking obesity with health related issues. It is a risk factor for metabolic disorders and leads to serious health consequences for individuals and burden for the health care system as a whole. Literature search showed that it is related to at least 18 co-morbidities which are attributable to overweight and obesity. Moreover obese individuals more often suffer from significant joint pains, disorders and it also has social as well as psychological impairments. It is high time that countries facing the problems of obesity initiate some intervention measures to monitor and control this growing epidemic. PMID:25878654
Heráček, J; Sobotka, V; Urban, M
The authors present a review on the effects of obesity on male fertility. Current scientific findings suggest an elevated risk of infertility among couples in which the male partner is obese. In obese men can be found reduced serum levels of androgens and SHBG and increased estrogen levels without compensatory increase in FSH. Among other impacts of male obesity that may contribute to increased risk of infertility are altered retention and metabolism of environmental toxins, lifestyle, sexual dysfunction, genetic factors, excessive secretion of hormones derived from adipose tissue, oxidative stress, sperm specific proteomic changes or elevated levels of cytokines. The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for greater clinical awareness of its impact on male fertility.
New Zealand was discovered by Captain Cook in 1769. Over the next ninety years, increasing numbers of medical practitioners visited and began to settle in what became a British colony. The first medical visitors were usually naval surgeons or served on board whaling ships. The major influx of doctors occurred at the behest of the New Zealand Company between 1840 and 1848, although Christian missionaries, army doctors, and individual medical entrepreneurs also emigrated and provided services. This paper describes the pattern of medical settlement in the colony's earliest years and relates this to the health of the population and the development of medical and hospital services.
Farry, Annabel; Crowther, Susan
Midwives in New Zealand work within a unique cultural context. This calls for an understanding and appreciation of biculturalism and the equal status of Mãori and Europeans as the nation's founding peoples. This paper is the first of two papers that explore the notions of cultural safety and competence. Exploration and discussion take place in the New Zealand context, yet have transferable implications for midwives everywhere. This first paper provides a background to practice in a bicultural country where cultural safety strategies were introduced over 20 years ago to help reduce health disparities. The implications of these strategies are examined. The second paper will focus on midwifery education and practice.
Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John
Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lake, R J; Adlam, S B; Perera, S; Campbell, D M; Baker, M G
The disease pyramid of under-ascertainment for surveillance of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in New Zealand has been estimated using 2005-2007 data on notifiable diseases, a community telephone survey, and a survey of diagnostic laboratories. For each notified case of AGI there were an estimated 222 cases in the community, about 49 of which visited a general practitioner. Faecal samples were requested from about 15 of these cases, and 13 samples were provided. Of the faecal samples, pathogens were detected in about three cases. These ratios are similar to those reported in other developed countries, and provide baseline measurements of the AGI burden in the New Zealand community.
Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen
Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Shephard, Kerry; Mansvelt, Juliana; Stein, Sarah; Suddaby, Gordon; Harris, Irene; O'Hara, Duncan
This collaborative research project devised a framework to support professional development for e-learning within New Zealand's diverse and integrated tertiary education sector. The research was supported by New Zealand's Ministry of Education. The research included reviews of developments in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand and a…
This paper focuses on history in the New Zealand curriculum in light of its seemingly confused curriculum identity despite revision processes of the New Zealand Curriculum (NZC; New Zealand Ministry of Education, 2007). Some thinking about curriculum as a socially constructed political process that teachers can actively engage with sets the scene…
Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi
This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…
Anderson, Vivienne; McGrath, Terry; Butcher, Andrew
In 2008 the Asia New Zealand Foundation commissioned a three-year project examining Asia-born New Zealand-educated business graduates' study to work transitions. Data were collected through annual online surveys and in-depth interviews. Graduates were asked to discuss their post-study experiences, reflections on studying in New Zealand, and…
Eames, Chris; Cowie, Bronwen; Bolstad, Rachel
This paper reports on a national evaluation project that investigated characteristics of environmental education (EE) practice in New Zealand schools in 2002-2003. The research included a review of New Zealand and international environmental education literature, a survey of nearly 200 New Zealand schools and case studies of environmental…
Campbell, Jacqui; Li, Mingsheng
More than 85% of the international students in New Zealand are Asian in origin. The level of satisfaction of Asian international students with their learning experiences in New Zealand has been of enormous concern for the New Zealand export education industry. The results of this current research, based on a qualitative research study conducted at…
Fisher, Anthony; Carlyon, Tracey
While there can be benefits from having overseas teaching experience, the transition back to New Zealand is not always easy for teachers who have previously gained their initial teaching qualification and certification in New Zealand. Upon returning to New Zealand from teaching in an international context, teachers can find it difficult having…
Reese, Elaine; Keegan, Peter; McNaughton, Stuart; Kingi, Te Kani; Carr, Polly Atatoa; Schmidt, Johanna; Mohal, Jatender; Grant, Cameron; Morton, Susan
This study assessed the status of te reo Maori, the indigenous language of New Zealand, in the context of New Zealand English. From a broadly representative sample of 6327 two-year-olds ("Growing Up in New Zealand"), 6090 mothers (96%) reported their children understood English, and 763 mothers (12%) reported their children understood…
Hopfengardner, Jerrold D.; O'Dell, Frank L.
Describes a visit by two educators to a primary school in Auckland, New Zealand. Discusses the development of children, educational goals, traditions, curricula, administration, and facilities of this New Zealand school. Finds the major difference is the New Zealand school's child-centered approach. (MS)
The monolingualism of New Zealand has often been remarked on, but statutory and demographic changes in recent years suggest a shift away from the dominance of the English language. New Zealand now has two official languages, the indigenous Maori language and New Zealand Sign Language, and census data report a decreasing proportion of monolingual…
New Zealand Qualifications Authority, Wellington.
Skill New Zealand is a strategy to raise the skill levels of all New Zealanders, an industry-led approach to skills development that will increase the quantity, quality, and diversity of training in that country. The booklet contains four sections. The first section explains what Skill New Zealand is and why employers should become involved it.…
Tse, Samson; Dyall, Lorna; Clarke, Dave; Abbott, Max; Townsend, Sonia; Kingi, Pefi
In multicultural countries such as New Zealand, it is particularly important that gambling research take into account possible cultural differences. Many New Zealanders come from cultures that do not have a history of gambling, including the Maori (New Zealand indigenous people), Pacific Islanders, and recent migrants. Little research has examined…
Scott, David J.
New Zealand has one of the lowest reported higher education qualification completion rates in the OECD, significantly below Australia. Why do so many New Zealand students not complete their qualification? This paper looks behind some of the numbers in an attempt to understand better and assess New Zealand's performance compared with Australia and…
Burrows, Lisette; Wright, Jan; McCormack, Jaleh
Objective: To investigate New Zealand children's understandings of "health". Design: Secondary analysis of student responses to a task called "Being Healthy" in New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project. Setting: Year 4 (8-9 year-old) and Year 8 (12-13 year-old) students who took part in New Zealand's National…
White, John; Signal, Louise
Food labels to support healthier choices are an important potential intervention for improving population health by reducing obesity and diet-related disease. This study examines the use of research evidence about traffic light nutrition labelling in submissions to the Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy conducted in Australia and New Zealand. Content analysis of final submissions to the Review and a literature review of documents reporting research evidence about traffic light labelling. Sixty-two submitters to the Review were categorised as 'supporters' of traffic light labelling and 29 as 'opponents'. Supporters focused on studies showing traffic light labels were better than other systems at helping consumers identify healthier food options. Opponents cited evidence that traffic light labels were no better than other systems in this respect and noted a lack of evidence that they led to changes in food consumption. A literature review demonstrated that, as a group, submitters had drawn attention to most of the relevant research evidence on traffic light labelling. Both supporters and opponents were, however, selective in their use of evidence. The weight of evidence suggested that traffic light labelling has strengths in helping consumers to identify healthier food options. Further research would be valuable in informing the development of an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system. The findings have significant implications for the development of front-of-pack nutrition labelling currently being considered in Australia and New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Min, Sandar; Scragg, Robert; Nosa, Vili; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris
Despite the established risks associated with smoking, 21% of New Zealand adults smoke. Prevalence among Māori (indigenous) and Pacific Island New Zealanders is disproportionately high. Prevention of smoking initiation is a key component of tobacco control. Keeping Kids Smokefree--a quasi-experimental trial--aimed to do this by changing parental smoking behaviour and attitudes. However, little is known about parents' attitudes to smoking in comparison with other concerns. Parents of 4,144 children attending five urban schools in a high smoking prevalence population in Auckland, New Zealand, were asked to rank seven concerns on a paper-based questionnaire, including smoking, alcohol and bullying, from most to least serious. Methamphetamine and other illicit 'hard' drugs were ranked as most serious followed by marijuana smoking, alcohol drinking, bullying, cigarette smoking, sex and obesity. Never smokers ranked cigarette smoking as more serious than current or ex-smokers. Parents' under-estimation of the serious nature of tobacco smoking relative to other drugs could partly explain low participation rates in parent-focused smoking initiation prevention programs.
Utter, Jennifer; Scragg, Robert; Schaaf, David
To explore how time spent watching television (TV) is associated with the dietary behaviours of New Zealand children and young adolescents. Secondary data analysis of a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. In homes or schools of New Zealand school students. In total, 3275 children aged 5 to 14 years. The odds of being overweight or obese increased with duration of TV viewing for children and adolescents when controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status and physical activity. Children and adolescents who watched the most TV were significantly more likely to be higher consumers of foods most commonly advertised on TV: soft drinks and fruit drinks, some sweets and snacks, and some fast foods. Both children and adolescents watching two or more hours of TV a day were more than twice as likely to drink soft drinks five times a week or more (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively), eat hamburgers at least once a week (both P = 0.02), and eat French fries at least once a week (both P < 0.01). These findings suggest that longer duration of TV watching (thus, more frequent exposure to advertising) influences the frequency of consumption of soft drinks, some sweets and snacks, and some fast foods among children and young adolescents. Efforts to curtail the amount of time children spend watching TV may result in better dietary habits and weight control for children and adolescents. Future studies examining the impact of advertising on children's diets through interventions and international comparisons of legislation would provide more definitive evidence of the role of advertising in child and adolescent obesity.
Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng
This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Wolf, L M; Houdent, C
In most cases, obesity does not stem from a specific psychologic disturbance. Some obese people overeat, as do their family or their socio-professional peers, and this cannot be considered a pathologic behaviour. Many obese patients increase their energy intake when frustrated, anxious, or tired, like many normal individuals who enjoy a better weight regulation. But when obesity increases suddenly and/or severely in these circumstances, and in gross obesity, abnormal feeding behaviour is usually responsible: prandial or, more often extraprandial overeating (nibbling, gorging, binge eating, night eating, excess alcohol, carbohydrate craving). Serotoninergic mechanisms of the latter have focused wide interest. Conflicting situations and/or anxiety are usually a factor in child obesity. Deppreciated self-image and feelings of culpability, partly secondary to obesity itself and dietary failures often contribute to feeding disturbances, sometimes surreptitious, carrying a risk of vicious circle. But weight reduction itself, while improving self image, carries a risk of unmasking depressive tendencies, especially when too quick. Hence the importance of careful and comprehensive management.
De Pergola, Giovanni; Nardecchia, Adele; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Triggiani, Vincenzo; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Minischetti, Manuela Castiglione; Silvestris, Franco
Epidemiological studies have recently shown that obesity, and abdominal obesity in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Higher cardiac oxidative stress is the early stage of heart dysfunction due to obesity, and it is the result of insulin resistance, altered fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis. Extense myocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis are early microscopic changes in patients with HF, whereas circumferential strain during the left ventricular (LV) systole, LV increase in both chamber size and wall thickness (LV hypertrophy), and LV dilatation are the early macroscopic and functional alterations in obese developing heart failure. LV hypertrophy leads to diastolic dysfunction and subendocardial ischemia in obesity, and pericardial fat has been shown to be significantly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Evolving abnormalities of diastolic dysfunction may include progressive hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction, and various degrees of eccentric and/or concentric LV hypertrophy may be present with time. Once HF is established, overweight and obese have a better prognosis than do their lean counterparts with the same level of cardiovascular disease, and this phenomenon is called "obesity paradox". It is mainly due to lower muscle protein degradation, brain natriuretic peptide circulating levels and cardio-respiratory fitness than normal weight patients with HF.
Lopomo, A; Burgio, E; Migliore, L
Obesity is a metabolic disease, which is becoming an epidemic health problem: it has been recently defined in terms of Global Pandemic. Over the years, the approaches through family, twins and adoption studies led to the identification of some causal genes in monogenic forms of obesity but the origins of the pandemic of obesity cannot be considered essentially due to genetic factors, because human genome is not likely to change in just a few years. Epigenetic studies have offered in recent years valuable tools for the understanding of the worldwide spread of the pandemic of obesity. The involvement of epigenetic modifications-DNA methylation, histone tails, and miRNAs modifications-in the development of obesity is more and more evident. In the epigenetic literature, there are evidences that the entire embryo-fetal and perinatal period of development plays a key role in the programming of all human organs and tissues. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the epigenetic programming require a new and general pathogenic paradigm, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease theory, to explain the current epidemiological transition, that is, the worldwide increase of chronic, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Obesity and its related complications are more and more associated with environmental pollutants (obesogens), gut microbiota modifications and unbalanced food intake, which can induce, through epigenetic mechanisms, weight gain, and altered metabolic consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng
This review summarizes our understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs: Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline of healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time, however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if we want to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, we need to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior towards healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could only close a part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the US and this may continue until the role of environment factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role to shape the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237
Bult, Mariëlle J F; van Dalen, Thijs; Muller, Alex F
More than half of the European population are overweight (body mass index (BMI) > 25 and < 30 kg/m2) and up to 30% are obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). Being overweight and obesity are becoming endemic, particularly because of increasing nourishment and a decrease in physical exercise. Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cholelithiasis, certain forms of cancer, steatosis hepatis, gastroesophageal reflux, obstructive sleep apnea, degenerative joint disease, gout, lower back pain, and polycystic ovary syndrome are all associated with overweight and obesity. The endemic extent of overweight and obesity with its associated comorbidities has led to the development of therapies aimed at weight loss. The long-term effects of diet, exercise, and medical therapy on weight are relatively poor. With respect to durable weight reduction, bariatric surgery is the most effective long-term treatment for obesity with the greatest chances for amelioration and even resolution of obesity-associated complications. Recent evidence shows that bariatric surgery for severe obesity is associated with decreased overall mortality. However, serious complications can occur and therefore a careful selection of patients is of utmost importance. Bariatric surgery should at least be considered for all patients with a BMI of more than 40 kg/m2 and for those with a BMI of more than 35 kg/m2 with concomitant obesity-related conditions after failure of conventional treatment. The importance of weight loss and results of conventional treatment will be discussed first. Currently used operative treatments for obesity and their effectiveness and complications are described. Proposed criteria for bariatric surgery are given. Also, some attention is devoted to more basic insights that bariatric surgery has provided. Finally we deal with unsolved questions and future directions for research.
al-Mannai, A; Dickerson, J W; Morgan, J B; Khalfan, H
In this study the prevalence of obesity and the demographic factors associated with it were analysed on 290 adult Bahraini individuals, of whom 137 were males and 153 were females. The overweight and obesity prevalence rates, using the Body Mass Index (BMI) as a criterion, were 26% and 16% in males and 29% and 31% in females, respectively. The prevalence of underweight (BMI < 20) was 16.8% and 11.8% in the males and females respectively. The mean body fat percentage of females, calculated from the skinfold measurements, was 35%; the fat percentage of males was 18.6%. Bahraini women had greater fat deposition in the subscapular region than the amount reported for American women. Females and males living in urban areas had a greater tendency to be obese than those residing in rural areas. Marriage, ownership of a car as well as a large family ( > 7 members) were positively associated with obesity; unmarried women were more likely to be underweight than married women. The educational level was not associated with obesity in either the males or females. The age of adult females was not found to be associated with obesity, whereas in males the incidence of obesity was more frequent among those who were 50 years of age and above than under 50 years of age. Family monthly income was not associated with the incidence of obesity. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the women reported in this study and the difference in the distribution of body fat suggest that genetics may be a determinant factor of this disorder in Bahrainis but certainly social factors are also important.
Casanello, Paola; Krause, Bernardo J; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo
Current evidence supports the notion that exposure to various environmental conditions in early life may induce permanent changes in the epigenome that persist throughout the life-course. This article focuses on early changes associated with obesity in adult life. A review is presented on the factors that induce changes in whole genome (DNA) methylation in early life that are associated with adult onset obesity and related disorders. In contrast, reversal of epigenetic changes associated with weight loss in obese subjects has not been demonstrated. This contrasts with well-established associations found between obesity related DNA methylation patterns at birth and adult onset obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic markers may serve to screen indivuals at risk for obesity and assess the effects of interventions in early life that may delay or prevent obesity in early life. This might contribute to lower the obesity-related burden of death and disability at the population level. The available evidence indicates that epigenetic marks are in fact modifiable, based on modifications in the intrauterine environment and changes in food intake, physical activity and dietary patterns patterns during pregnancy and early years of adult life. This offers the opportunity to intervene before conception, during pregnancy, infancy, childhood, and also in later life. There must be documentation on the best preventive actions in terms of diet and physical activity that will modify or revert the adverse epigenetic markers, thus preventing obesity and diabetes in suceptible individuals and populations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Signal, Louise N; Watts, Carolyn; Murphy, Celia; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona
There is increasing discussion globally of the value of health-related food taxes and subsidies to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases. In order for such policies to be successful it is important to understand the positions of key stakeholders. This research investigated New Zealand (NZ) stakeholders' views on the feasibility and acceptability of selected health-related food taxes and subsidies over the next 5 to 10 years. Twenty semi-structured interviews were undertaken by telephone from November 2014 to May 2015. The purposive sample of key stakeholders included politicians, bureaucrats, public health experts, food industry leaders and consumer representatives. Prior to interviews participants were sent summary information on the estimated impacts of a range of health-related food taxes and subsidies on dietary intake and mortality. According to key stakeholders there appears to be little appetite for taxes on foods high in saturated fat or salt in NZ. Stakeholders largely agreed that a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and a subsidy on fruit and vegetables were both feasible and likely acceptable. There was strong support for starting with a SSBs tax, possibly framed around protecting children and dental health. Addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases is a multidimensional challenge. A tax on SSBs and a subsidy on fruit and vegetables, possibly in tandem, could be part of the solution in NZ. There is growing interest in, and evidence for, health-related taxes and subsidies internationally. Given the critical role of stakeholder support for such policies similar research on stakeholders' views may assist the implementation of health-related food taxes and subsidies in other jurisdictions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
New Zealand Computer Society, Auckland.
This collection of conference presentations includes 23 papers on a variety of topics pertaining to the use of computer in New Zealand. Among the topics discussed are computer science techniques in a commercial data processing situation, data processing personnel and their careers, the communication aspects of an airline system, implementation of…
Mead, Simon; Spencer, Kirsten; Kidman, Lynn
Drawing on data from semi-structured interviews with New Zealand coaches (N = 6), this study examined how video self-reflection (VSR) was perceived as a tool for learning within "on-going" coach development. This study also looked to determine the potential barriers experienced by coaches before engaging in VSR. Each participant was a…
Meeting the educational needs of a linguistically diverse population is a challenge for many countries. This is a particular challenge for New Zealand (NZ) which, until the 1980s, had a White Immigration Policy. The last 30 years have seen NZ become a full member of the Asia Pacific Region and move from being a mostly homogenous society to one of…
Nagel, Nancy G.
The New Zealand Ministry of Education's early childhood curriculum policy is built on a framework called "Te Whariki." This framework provides a sociocultural context for children's early learning and emphasizes a learning partnership between teachers, parents, families, and community. Besides interpersonal relationships, Te Whariki…
Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Youngs, Howard
Purpose: The New Zealand Ministry of Education has constructed a wide-ranging "Professional Development Plan" providing a four-stage national pathway for progression to principalship; the first stage has been the conduction of the National Aspiring Principals Pilot (NAPP) programme in five regional locations. The purpose of this paper is…
This paper examines publishing trends of New Zealand accounting education scholars over the 20-year period 1991-2010. Longitudinal analyses of the annual number of publications, research theme studied, researcher productivity, and institutional productivity, along with cross-sectional analyses of authors' Hirsch "h"-index scores, the…
Mac Manus, D. H.; Rodger, C. J.; Dalzell, M.; Petersen, T.; Clilverd, M. A.
Interplanetary shocks arriving at the Earth drive magnetosphere and ionosphere current systems. Ground based magnetometers detect the time derivation of the horizontal magnetic field (dBH/dt) which can indicate the strength of these ionospheric currents. The strong dBH/dt spikes have been observed to cause large Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC) in New Zealand. Such could, potentially lead to large scale damage to technological infrastructure such as power network transformers; one transformer was written off in New Zealand after a sudden commencement on 6 November 2001. The strength of the incoming interplanetary shocks are monitored by satellite measurements undertaken at the L1 point. Such measurements could give power network operators a 20-60 minute warning before potentially damaging GIC occurs. In this presentation we examine solar wind measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Wind, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). We contrast those solar wind observations with GIC measured in New Zealand's South Island from 2001 to 2016. We are searching for a consistent relationship between the incoming interplanetary shock and the GIC magnitude. Such a relationship would allow Transpower New Zealand Limited a small time window to implement mitigation plans in order to restrict any GIC-caused damage.
This paper reports that the story of peace education in New Zealand has been one of extremes. While there has been some interest in the subject for decades, it was only in the 1980s that there was any serious activity and widespread debate. In 1984, the conservative National government, which had ruled the country for 9 years, was replaced by a…
New Zealand shares with other Southeast Asian nations two sets of problems which stem from the presence of several distinct communities in one geographical/political area: the first relates to treatment of linguistic minorities, indigenous and immigrant; the second is that of social or regional dialects which, while not totally distinct from an…
The professional identity of counsellors and guidance practitioners in Aotearoa New Zealand is currently under review as a result of the passing of legislation regulating health professionals and the proposed introduction of national registration of counsellors. In this paper I explore this debate, and examine the professional identities claimed…
de Bres, Julia
This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…
Leslie, L. M.; Leplastrier, M.; Buckley, B. W.; Qi, L.
The purpose of this paper is to present a recently developed climatology of explosively developing south eastern Tasman Sea extra-tropical cyclones, or meteorological “bombs”, using a latitude dependent definition for meteorological bombs based on that of Simmonds and Keay (2000a, b), and Lim and Simmonds (2002). These highly transient systems, which have a damaging impact upon New Zealand, are frequently accompanied by destructive winds, flood rains, and coastal storm surges. Two cases are selected from the climatology and briefly described here. The first case study is the major flood and storm force wind event of June 20 to 21, 2002 that affected the Coromandel Peninsula region of the North Island of New Zealand. The second case was a “supercyclone” bomb that developed well to the southwest of New Zealand region during May 29 to 31, 2004, but which could easily have formed in the New Zealand region with catastrophic consequences. It was well-captured by the new high resolution Quikscat scatterometer instrument.
Oakes, Lester; von Dadelszen, Jane
The education sector of New Zealand was restructured in 1989. Career Services was created by integrating the Vocational Guidance Service and careers information functions from the Department of Labor. The goal of the Career Services is to assist in the achievement of government education, training, and employment goals through high quality…
Sinkinson, Margaret; Burrows, Lisette
Health education in New Zealand schools has a chequered history, peppered with controversy since its inclusion as a school subject in the early nineteenth century. In this paper we examine the trials and challenges faced by health education teachers over time, pointing to the particular components of this subject that are regarded as controversial…
As accountability stakes continue to be raised in all education sectors, leadership as a factor that can have an impact on improved student outcomes is being studied with heightened interest. This study was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in New Zealand's large urban polytechnics with the aim of investigating the nature and expectations of academic…
Burrows, Lisette; McCormack, Jaleh
This article draws on ethnographic work undertaken with 21 students and several members of staff at an elite girls' school in New Zealand to investigate the relation between school culture, pedagogical practices and discourses of physical education and school sport. It explores what and who contours the participation of these young women in sport,…
Since the 1980s in New Zealand, the kindergarten service, once called the "flagship" within early childhood education, has changed in reaction to the need for "diversity" and "responsiveness" to its communities and restructured government requirements. This paper draws on life-history interviews with a small group of…
Burns, Anne, Ed.; Burton, Jill, Ed.
Over the last 30 years, inquiry-based teaching has become a highly valued component of professional development and practitioner research in Australia and New Zealand. This volume of the Language Teacher Research Series focuses on teaching and learning experiences in those two countries, which encompass a large geographical area with diverse…
Considers how New Zealand has seen a need for providing readily understandable business and government documents. Reports a psycholinguistic study testing the level of consumer comprehension of bank contracts, and the effect of using plain English to rewrite them. Finds that the most effective means of enhancing comprehension was that which…
Kleinsasser, Robert C.
This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…
Cusack, Brian O.
The New Zealand education structures were reorganized on a national scale in the late 1980s. In 18 months, a 100-year-old education system was radically restructured to create new administrative structures, new career paths, and new professional expectations for personnel. This paper summarizes these structural changes, reviews research reports…
Irwin, David; Straker, Jo
The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…
Eames, Chris; Barker, Miles
This paper seeks to provide a perspective on environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand. To contextualise this perspective, it illustrates how environmental, socio-cultural and political imperatives have shaped the development of environmental education in this land. These imperatives illuminate the natural history of the country, the…
Cardno, Carol; Fitzgerald, Tanya
Purpose: During the 2000-2004 period, one New Zealand tertiary institution provided a management development programme for experienced secondary school principals. Aims to determine the extent to which the learning had been sustained beyond the formal programme. Design/methodology/approach: A postal questionnaire was administered to 80…
Raynel, S; Reynolds, H
Are specialized ophthalmic units with inpatient facilities going to disappear in the New Zealand public health system? We have entered the era of cost containment, business methodologies, bench marking, day case surgery, and technologic advances. The dilemma for nursing is maintenance of a skill base with dwindling clinical practice areas.
Thom, Katey; McKenna, Brian; Edwards, Gareth; O'Brien, Anthony; Nakarada-Kordic, Ivana
Rates of suicide in New Zealand are high compared with those of other countries. International evidence suggests that the reporting of suicide may influence rates of suicidal behavior. No research exists, however, on the reporting of suicide by New Zealand media. This study provides the first baseline picture of the reporting of suicide by New Zealand media. The overall objective was to use the findings to inform future development of media guidelines by the Ministry of Health. Newspaper, Internet, television and radio news items on suicide were collected over 12 months. Descriptive statistical data on the nature and extent of the reporting of suicide were generated through content analysis of applicable items. A random sample of 10% was then subjected to a quality analysis to determine whether items aligned with the Ministry of Health's guideline for the reporting of suicide. A total of 3,483 items were extracted, most of which reported on an individual's attempted or completed suicide, while suicide methods were not often mentioned. Few items focused on people overcoming their difficulties or provided information to assist people struggling with suicidal ideation. The reporting of suicide by New Zealand media was extensive and generally of good quality. Better collaboration between the media and mental health professionals is needed, however, to increase information supplied within items on support services. More succinct guidelines and increased journalist awareness of their existence would also contribute to the quality of reporting on suicide.
Cultural diversity is growing in New Zealand and deserves to be celebrated for the richness and opportunities for understanding it brings to our lives. Culturally-responsive approaches to education accept diversity and enable students to draw on their unique cultural capital as a learning resource. The aim of this study was to contribute to the…
Bryce, Wendy J.; And Others
In a New Zealand community, 200 households made commitment to recycle and 201 did not; 198 were asked to pay for recycling bins, 203 were not. A control group received only recycling information. Verbal commitment significantly increased participation. Difficulties in administering the financial incentive made it impossible to determine effect on…
Rata, Elizabeth; Taylor, Anita
The theoretical inquiry undertaken in this paper examines the discourse of knowledge equivalence used to justify conflating academic and non-academic subjects in New Zealand secondary school science. The purpose is to open up a critical discussion of the discourse and its influence on curriculum and pedagogy. Using a conceptual methodology, we…
de Lange, Peter J.
Abstract A revision of the New Zealand Kunzea ericoides complex is presented. This paper is the final of a series that has explored the systematics of the New Zealand Kunzea complex using cytological and molecular variation, as well as experimental hybridisations between postulated segregates. As a result of those studies ten species, all endemic to New Zealand, are recognised; seven of these are new. One species, Kunzea triregensis sp. nov., is endemic to the Three Kings Islands and another species Kunzea sinclairii, endemic to Aotea (Great Barrier Island). The North Island of New Zealand has seven species, Kunzea amathicola sp. nov., Kunzea salterae sp. nov., Kunzea serotina sp. nov., Kunzea robusta sp. nov., Kunzea tenuicaulis sp. nov., Kunzea toelkenii sp. nov., and Kunzea linearis comb. nov. Of these, Kunzea linearis, Kunzea salterae, Kunzea tenuicaulis and Kunzea toelkenii are endemic to the North Island, and Kunzea amathicola, Kunzea robusta and Kunzea serotina extend to the South Island which also supports one endemic, Kunzea ericoides. Typifications are published for Leptospermum ericoides A.Rich., Leptospermum ericoides var. linearis Kirk, Leptospermum ericoides var. microflorum G.Simps., Leptospermum ericoides var. pubescens Kirk, and Leptospermum sinclairii Kirk, names here all referred to Kunzea. The ecology, conservation, extent of natural hybridisation and some aspects of the ethnobotany (vernacular names) of these Kunzea are also discussed. PMID:25197228
Berrien, Marcia T.
This bulletin presents a study of the development of education in New Zealand. Chapter I, Historical Development of Education, covers the growth of education since 1877. Chapter II, Educational Administration and Finance provides details on the Act of 1877; the organization, functions and responsibilities of the Department of Education; and the…
Compares Auckland (New Zealand) with San Francisco (California) in terms of topographical structure, geographic location, and urban development. Both cities contain striking similarities. Maintains that Auckland can become a world-class city renowned for its beauty if developers and government work in tandem. (MJP)
Sandretto, Susan; Tilson, Jane
Literacy policy and pedagogy in Aotearoa New Zealand have a strong discursive heritage of traditional literacies, which emphasise code breaking and meaning making with linguistic codes and conventions over other possible modes of communication. In a rapidly evolving landscape where changes in communication technologies give birth to new literacies…
Wilson, Nick; Signal, Louise; Nicholls, Sarah; Thomson, George
We aimed to determine the frequency and content of television food advertisements during children's viewing times on various New Zealand television channels. A content analysis was conducted of two free-to-air channels covering a total of 155 h of television time during children's viewing times (n = 858 food advertisements in 2005). Comparisons were made with data from 1997 and data from Australia. Compared to Australian channels, both New Zealand channels (TV3 and TV2) had significantly higher proportions of food advertisements that were classified as being "high in fat and/or sugar" (54% versus 80% and 69%, respectively). Using a more detailed classification system, 70.3% of food advertisements on the New Zealand channels were for foods "counter to improved nutrition" (95% CI: 67.1%, 73.3%) compared to those "favoring improved nutrition" at 5.1% (95% CI: 3.8%, 6.9%). The number of food advertisements per hour was higher in 2005 than in 1997 for the channel (TV2) for which there was time trend data (12.8 versus 8.0 per hour for the afternoon time slot). These findings provide further evidence that the majority of food advertising on New Zealand television is counter to nutritional guidelines. They suggest the need for further regulatory or other controls.
The New Zealand early childhood curriculum, "Te Whariki" (Ministry of Education [MoE],1996), is frequently hailed as a community inspired curriculum, praised nationally and internationally for its collaborative development, emancipatory spirit and bicultural approach. In its best form community can be collaborative, consultative,…
This article explores the New Zealand legal history of adoption and the effect it has had on Maori. The status of children within Maori and European societies before and during the early contact periods differed, and it is from here that the author begins this article. These two societies had their own terms in relation to the care of children by…
This article argues that the education system in Aotearoa/New Zealand relegates children with disabilities, along with Maori and children of minority groups, to the margins of education. It stresses the need for teachers to focus on ways in which inclusion practices are reinforcing the marginal position of many students. (Contains references.)…
Gordon R. Cessford
This paper describes the features of recreational noise impacts and presents examples from popular New Zealand backcountry trails. Some noise effects were noticed at very high levels, and a varied range of tolerance for these was noted. Aircraft noise provided the most extreme impact example, while noise impacts from motorboats and social behaviour in huts were also...
Shuker, Mary Jane; Cherrington, Sue
The early childhood education (ECE) sector in New Zealand has long been recognised for the diversity of service types and range of organisations involved in delivering ECE. However, less attention has been paid to diversity within individual ECE services. This article draws on a national survey carried out as part of a larger project, "The…
Purpose: This paper aims to report on the findings of a study into staff perceptions of service climate in New Zealand English language centres (ELCs) offering ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) courses. Design/methodology/approach: A 71-item questionnaire based on a Likert scale was used to survey non-management teaching and…
Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.
This is the second of a two-volume collection of research-based readings dealing with the New Zealand adolescent. This volume considers the areas of drugs and delinquency, as well as the world of work and Maori-pakeha differences. The following topics are included: marihuana use; vocational aspiration; alcohol and tobacco use; Maori-pakeha…
Describes visit of American tribal college and university presidents, faculty, and staff to Maori tribal colleges and schools in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Suggests that findings from the study of Maori educational systems will affect tribal education in the U.S. (NB)
Hall, Richard J; Wang, Jing; Peacey, Matthew; Moore, Nicole E; McInnes, Kate; Tompkins, Daniel M
Because of recent interest in bats as reservoirs of emerging diseases, we investigated the presence of viruses in Mystacina tuberculata bats in New Zealand. A novel alphacoronavirus sequence was detected in guano from roosts of M. tuberculata bats in pristine indigenous forest on a remote offshore island (Codfish Island).
This article explores the legacy of three decades of neoliberal reforms on New Zealand's university system. By tracing the different government policies during this period, it seeks to contribute to wider debates about the trajectory of contemporary universities in an age of globalisation. Since Lyotard's influential report on "The Postmodern…
Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.
This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the different ways in which the polytechnics in Auckland in New Zealand have changed their growth strategies since they were given a degree of autonomy in 1990. Since then the three institutions have followed similar, but not entirely identical strategies, which has meant that the three institutions have…
Charles, Mike; Burt, Dorothy; Williams, Mia Kim
Thirteen members of ISTE's Special Interest Group for Teacher Educators (SIGTE) traveled to Auckland, Rotorua, and Christchurch to visit seven schools and present and attend the Learning@School 2010 conference as part of a travel tour last February. This second installment about their trip features ways they saw technology used in New Zealand to…
Illustrates how the culture of teacher education developed after World War II in New Zealand, highlighting the former Palmerston North College of Education and contending that the culture was shaped by: the ongoing requirement to train (at minimal cost) competent elementary teachers in accordance with government laws of supply and demand and…
Trubuhovich, R V
In taking 1960 as the foundation year for the practice of intensive care medicine in New Zealand, this paper briefly looks into the previous two centuries for some interventions in life-threatening conditions. With the help of descriptions in early 19th century journals and books by perceptive observers, the author focuses on some beliefs and practices of the Maori people during pre-European and later times, as well as aspects of medical treatment in New Zealand for early settlers and their descendents. Dr Laurie Gluckman's book Tangiwai has proved a valuable resource for New Zealand's medical history prior to 1860, while the recent publication of his findings from the examination of coroners' records for Auckland, 1841 to 1864, has been helpful. Drowning is highlighted as a common cause of accidental death, and consideration is given to alcohol as a factor. Following the 1893 foundation of the New Zealand Medical Journal, a limited number of its papers which are historically relevant to today's intensive care are explored: topics include tetanus, laryngeal diphtheria, direct cardiac massage, traumatic shock, thiopentone management for fitting and the ventilatory failure due to poliomyelitis.
New Zealand Dept. of Education, Wellington.
This publication outlines the Government of New Zealand's new plans and policies for the administration of early childhood care and education. Specific features are discussed in detail in sections concerning: (1) early childhood care and education at the local level, specifically management structures and responsibilities, the use of Crown land,…
Aguirre-Bielschowsky, I.; Lawson, R.; Stephenson, J.; Todd, S.
The development of energy literacy (knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviour) and agency of New Zealand children (age 9-10) were investigated through thematic and exploratory statistical analyses of interviews (October 2011-April 2012) with 26 children, their parents and teachers, focus groups and photo elicitation. The children knew that…
New Zealand teacher education has been profoundly affected by major social and economic changes since 1974. From a separate sector controlled by the Department of Education, it has moved through deregulation to largely university provision with research imperatives for staff. Programme scope has broadened to embrace early childhood and the…
Billot, Jennie; Codling, Andrew
In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to new criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur,…
Sladden, Nicola; Graydon, Sarah
Over the last 30 years in New Zealand, civil liability for personal injury including "medical malpractice" has been most notable for its absence. The system of accident compensation and the corresponding bar on personal injury claims has been an interesting contrast to the development of tort law claims for personal injury in other jurisdictions. The Health and Disability Commissioner was appointed in 1994 to protect and promote the rights of health and disability consumers as set out in the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights. An important right in the Code, in terms of an equivalent to the common law duty to take reasonable care, is that patients have the right to services of an appropriate standard. Several case studies from the Commissioner's Office are used to illustrate New Zealand's unique medico-legal system and demonstrate how the traditional common law obligation of reasonable care and skill is applied. From an international perspective, the most interesting aspect of liability for medical malpractice in New Zealand is its relative absence - in a tortious sense anyway. This paper will give some general background on the New Zealand legal landscape and discuss recent case studies of interest.
Although recognized as being out-of-date, two characteristics of New Zealand's outlook on the world (a monocultural attitude and isolationism), have played a significant part in forming community opinions and attitudes on national and international development questions. Attitudes toward Third World countries are narrowed by lack of information,…
Johnston, Peter R; Johansen, Renee B; Williams, Alexandra F R; Paula Wikie, J; Park, Duckchul
The development of protocols for the conservation of fungi requires knowledge of the factors controlling their distribution, diversity, and community composition. Here we compare patterns of variation in fungal communities across New Zealand's Nothofagus forests, reportedly the most myco-diverse in New Zealand and hence potentially key to effective conservation of fungi in New Zealand. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi, as assessed by culturing on agar plates, is assessed for three Nothofagus sp. growing in mixed stands from four sites. Host species was found to have a greater influence on fungal community assemblage than site. The leaf endophyte communities associated with Nothofagus solandri and Nothofagus fusca (both Nothofagus subgenus Fuscopora), were more similar to each other than either were to the community associated with Nothofagus menziesii (Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia). The broad taxonomic groups isolated, identified on the basis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, were similar to those found in similar studies from other parts of the world, and from an earlier study on the endophyte diversity in four podocarp species from New Zealand, but there were few matches at species level. Average levels of endophyte species diversity associated with single Nothofagus species and single podocarp species were similar, despite historical literature and collection data recording more than twice as many fungal species on average from the Nothofagus species. The significance of these findings to fungal conservation is discussed. Copyright Â© 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…
Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene
Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…
Wearmouth, Janice; McKinney, Rawiri; Glynn, Ted
In this article, Janice Wearmouth, formerly professor of education at the University of Wellington, New Zealand and now at Liverpool Hope University, Rawiri McKinney, an advocate for Rangatahi who has recently completed his Master of Education degree, and Ted Glynn, foundation professor of teacher education at the University of Waikato, discuss…
In 1984, New Zealand tested 12- and 13- year-old and 15- and 16-year old students as part of the International Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) tests. Although weaknesses appeared at both age levels in the organization of material, particularly in argumentative and expository writing, students could write functional letters competently…
Starkey, Louise; Yates, Anne; Meyer, Luanna H.; Hall, Cedric; Taylor, Mike; Stevens, Susan; Toia, Rawiri
Teacher professional development variously supports ongoing skill development, new knowledge, and systems change. In New Zealand, the implementation of major assessment reforms in senior secondary schools provided opportunity to investigate teacher professional development as a function of the particular stage of an educational reform.…
Following the results of the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) in 1996, there has been an upsurge of interest in adult literacy in New Zealand. This interest is reflected in a national adult literacy strategy with foundation learning as one of the government's six priorities for the postschool sector. One result of this policy change has…
K.K. Nakasone; H.H. Burdsall
Sixteen species of Dendrothele sensu lato are confirmed from New Zealand. Nine new taxa are described: Dendrothele arachispora, D. aucklandica, D. australis, D. cymbiformis, D. leptostachys, D. magnenavicularis, D. navicularis, D. novae-zelandiae and D. subellipsoidea. Ten species were previously reported, but...
Newbold, Greg; Eskridge, Chris
Explores prison history/development in New Zealand, focusing on recent implementation of progressive prison operation/management program, He Ara Hou. Notes extremely positive results of program, such as higher administrative efficiency; greatly decreased levels of internal disorder; competent, stable workforce; and human product whose senses of…
Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda
This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.
Carey, Lindsay B
This paper summarizes survey and interview results from a cross-sectional study of New Zealand health care chaplaincy personnel concerning their involvement in multiple bioethical issues encountered by patients, families and clinical staff within the health care context. Some implications of this study concerning health care chaplaincy, ecclesiastical institutions, health care institutions and government responsibilities are discussed and recommendations presented.
Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George
Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response. PMID:17020623
Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George
Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.
Basdevant, Arnaud; Ciangura, Cécile
Obesity has been considered as a disease by the World Health Organisation since 1997. It was previously considered a simple risk factor and a manifestation of consumer society. This recognition was based on several developments, including epidemiological data showing the worldwide spread of the disease; the increasing health expenditure due to the obesity-related increase in type 2 diabetes; and progress in pathophysiological concepts. Obesity is a chronic and progressive disease. Management approaches range from prevention to surgery, and must be adapted to the individual situation.
Greydanus, Donald E; Agana, Marisha; Kamboj, Manmohan K; Shebrain, Saad; Soares, Neelkamal; Eke, Ransome; Patel, Dilip R
This discussion reflects on concepts of obesity in children and adolescents in the early 21st century. It includes reflections on its history, definition, epidemiology, diagnostic perspectives, psychosocial considerations, musculoskeletal complications, endocrine complications and principles of management. In addition to emphasis on diet and exercise, research and clinical applications in the second decade of the 21 st century emphasize the increasing use of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery for adolescent and adult populations with critical problems of overweight and obesity. We conclude with a discussion of future directions in pediatric obesity management. Copyright © 2018 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Geronikolou, Styliani A; Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Cokkinos, Dennis; Chrousos, George
Obesity is a chronic disease of increasing prevalence reaching epidemic proportions. Genetic defects as well as epigenetic effects contribute to the obesity phenotype. Investigating gene (e.g. MC4R defects)-environment (behavior, infectious agents, stress) interactions is a relative new field of great research interest. In this study, we have made an effort to create an interactome (henceforth referred to as "obesidome"), where extrinsic stressors response, intrinsic predisposition, immunity response to inflammation and autonomous nervous system implications are integrated. These pathways are presented in one interactome network for the first time. In our study, obesity-related genes/gene products were found to form a complex interactions network.
Woods, M; Bickley Asher, J
Through an examination of the present situation relating to legalizing euthanasia and/or physician-assisted death in New Zealand, this paper is intended to encourage nurses worldwide to ponder about their own position on the ever present topic of assisted dying and euthanasia. In New Zealand, euthanasia remains illegal, but in 2012, the 'End of Life Choice Bill' was put in the ballot for potential selection for consideration by Parliament, later to be withdrawn. However, it is increasingly likely that New Zealand will follow international trends to offer people a choice about how their lives should end, and that such a Bill will be resubmitted in the near future. Undoubtedly, the passage of such legislation would have an impact on the day-to-day practices of nurses who work with dying people. This article has been prepared following a comprehensive review of appropriate literature both in New Zealand and overseas. This article aims to highlight the importance of nursing input into any national debates concerning proposed euthanasia or assisted dying laws. The discussion therefore covers New Zealand's experience of such proposed legislation, that is, the draft Bill itself and the implications for nurses, the history of the assisted dying debate in New Zealand, public and professional opinion, and national and international nursing responses to euthanasia. New Zealand nurses will eventually have an opportunity to make their views on proposed euthanasia legislation known, and what such legislation might mean for their practice. Nurses everywhere should seriously consider their own knowledge and viewpoint on this vitally important topic, and be prepared to respond as both individuals and as part of their professional bodies when the time inevitably arrives. The result will be a better informed set of policies, regulations and legislation leading to a more meaningful and dignified experience for dying people and their families. Nurses need to be fully informed about
Heidarian, Ahmadali; Mason, David
Health information technology (HIT) has the potential to fundamentally change the practice of optometry and the relationship between optometrists and patients and to improve clinical outcomes. This paper aims to provide data on how health information technology is currently being used in New Zealand optometric practices. Also this paper aims to explore the potential benefits and barriers to the future adoption of health information technology in New Zealand. One hundred and six New Zealand optometrists were surveyed about their current use of health information technology and about potential benefits and barriers. In addition, 12 semi-structured interviews were carried out with leaders of health information technology in New Zealand optometry. The areas of interest were the current and intended use of HIT, the potential benefits of and barriers to using HIT in optometric offices and the level of investment in health information technology. Nearly all optometrists (98.7 per cent) in New Zealand use computers in their practices and 93.4 per cent of them use a computer in their consulting room. The most commonly used clinical assessment technology in optometric practices in New Zealand was automated perimeter (97.1 per cent), followed by a digital fundus/retinal camera (82.6 per cent) and automated lensometer (62.9 per cent). The pachymeter is the technology that most respondents intended to purchase in the next one to five years (42.6 per cent), followed by a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (36.8 per cent) and corneal topographer (32.9 per cent). The main benefits of using health information technology in optometric practices were improving patient perceptions of ‘state of the art’ practice and providing patients with information and digital images to explain the results of assessment. Barriers to the adoption of HIT included the need for frequent technology upgrades, cost, lack of time for implementation, and training. New Zealand optometrists are using HIT
Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Robinson, Elizabeth; Fleming, Terry; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Grant, Sue
To examine the relationship between family meals and nutrition behaviors of adolescents. Secondary analysis of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey. Secondary schools in New Zealand. Randomly selected adolescents (aged 13-17 years, n = 9,107) completed a multimedia and anonymous survey about their health. Body mass index and eating behaviors. Multiple logistic regression equations were used to determine the associations between family meals and body size and dietary behaviors, controlling for demographic variables. Nearly 60% of young people shared a meal with their families 5 or more times in the previous week. Frequent family meals were associated with greater consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < .001), and breakfast (P < .001). Adolescents who frequently shared family meals were also more likely to report that what they ate in the past week was healthy than adolescents who did not (P < .001). There was no relationship between frequency of family meals and body mass index (P = .60). Data from the current study suggest that family meals cannot be used as a single strategy for obesity prevention, but they may provide an important opportunity for young people to consume healthy food. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; du Plessis, Stefan S
The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related to obesity. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include abnormal reproductive hormone levels, an increased release of adipose-derived hormones and adipokines associated with obesity, and other physical problems including sleep apnea and increased scrotal temperatures. Recently, genetic factors and markers for an obesity-related infertility have been discovered and may explain the difference between fertile obese and infertile obese men. Treatments are available for not only infertility related to obesity, but also as a treatment for the other comorbidities arising from obesity. Natural weight loss, as well as bariatric surgery are options for obese patients and have shown promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles. Therapeutic interventions including aromatase inhibitors, exogenous testosterone replacement therapy and maintenance and regulation of adipose-derived hormones, particularly leptin, may also be able to restore fertility in obese males. Because of the relative unawareness and lack of research in this area, controlled studies should be undertaken and more focus should be given to obesity as an etiolgy of male infertility.
Aamir, A H
Weight gain in pregnancy is physiological but if a woman is overweight prior to pregnancy, this will put both women and foetus at risk of adverse complications. Obesity can affect women at all the stages of pregnancy. Obese women can be a cause of reduced fertility as compared to a normal weight woman, and a typical example is of the Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The incidence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus ,hypertension and preeclamsia is 2-3 folds higher in obesity particularly with a BMI of> 30kg/m2. The chances of thromboembolism, miscarriage, Caesarian - section and stillbirth are increased as well. Perinatal mortality, increased chances of genetic disorders of the foetus and macrosomia are all increased with obesity. To avoid all these complications health education regarding healthy life style and diet with regular moderate intensity exercise is the cornerstone of the management.
... gov . Resources Additional Reading from the NIDDK Weight Management: information from NIDDK about overweight and obesity, healthy eating, ... at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...
Health is regulated by homeostasis, a property of all living things. Homeostasis maintains equilibrium at set-points using feedback loops for optimum functioning of the organism. Imbalances in homeostasis causing overweight and obesity are evident in more than 1 billion people. In a new theory, homeostatic obesity imbalance is attributed to a hypothesized ‘Circle of Discontent’, a system of feedback loops linking weight gain, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and over-consumption. The Circle of Discontent theory is consistent with an extensive evidence base. A four-armed strategy to halt the obesity epidemic consists of (1) putting a stop to victim-blaming, stigma and discrimination; (2) devalorizing the thin-ideal; (3) reducing consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and drinks; and (4) improving access to plant-based diets. If fully implemented, interventions designed to restore homeostasis have the potential to halt the obesity epidemic. PMID:28070357
Obesity is a significant health problem world-wide, particularly in developed nations. Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic, and has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states. This paper seeks to examine the consistently reported relationship between obesity and low vitamin D concentrations, with reference to the possible underlying mechanisms. The possibility that vitamin D may assist in preventing or treating obesity is also examined, and recommendations for future research are made. There is a clear need for adequately-powered, prospective interventions which include baseline measurement of 25D concentrations and involve adequate doses of supplemental vitamin D. Until such studies have been reported, the role of vitamin D supplementation in obesity prevention remains uncertain.
Baruwa, Pranab; Sarmah, Kripesh Ranjan
Asthma is a chronic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. The prevalence of asthma is around 300 million and is expected to increase another 100 million by 2025. Obesity, on the other hand, also affects a large number of individuals. Overweight in adults is defined when body mass index (BMI) is between 25 to 30 kg/m2 and obesity when the BMI >30 kg/m2. It has been a matter of interest for researchers to find a relation between these two conditions. This knowledge will provide a new insight into the management of both conditions. At present, obese asthma patients may be considered a special category and it is important to assess the impact of management of obesity on asthma symptoms. PMID:23661915
Harding, Jessica F.; Sibley, Chris G.; Robertson, Andrew
New Zealand (NZ) Europeans show a unique implicit bicultural effect, with research using the Implicit Association Test consistently showing that they associate Maori (the Indigenous peoples) and their own (dominant/advantaged majority) group as equally representative of the nation. We replicated and extended this NZ = bicultural effect in a small…
Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Mackenzie, Tara; Vandevijvere, Stefanie
Promotion of unhealthy foods and drinks is a significant, modifiable risk factor for child obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. We compared three accepted nutrient profiling systems: the Health Star Rating (HSR), the Ministry of Health Food and Beverage Classification System (FBCS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profiling Model, to identify the best system to protect New Zealand children from exposure to the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages. 13,066 packaged foods from the 2014 New Zealand Nutritrack database were classified as 'restricted' or 'not restricted' as per the WHO model; 'everyday/sometimes' or 'occasional' as per the FBCS model; and '<3.5 stars' or '≥3.5 stars' as per the HSR model. The proportion and types of packaged foods that met the criteria for all three systems or none of the systems, and the types of food products classified as 'restricted' under the WHO model but classified as 'everyday/sometimes' (FBCS model) or as having >3.5 stars, were determined. Under any of the three nutrient profiling systems, approximately one-third (29-39%) of New Zealand packaged foods would be permitted to be marketed to children. The WHO Model would permit marketing of 29% of products; the HSR system would permit 36%; and the FBCS system would permit 39%. The WHO Model restricts marketing of unhealthy foods more effectively than the other two systems. The HSR and FBCS systems would permit marketing of a number of food products of concern, particularly high-sugar breakfast cereals, fruit juices and ready meals. The WHO Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profiling Model should underpin the Advertising Standards Authority revised Children's Code for Advertising Food. The effectiveness of the new Code in reducing New Zealand children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods and drinks should be subject to evaluation by an independent body.
Flegal, K M
The term "epidemic" of obesity implies that obesity is a characteristic of populations, not only of individuals. The purpose of this paper is to review evidence on obesity in populations and to identify future research issues. To examine recent increases in the population prevalence of overweight or obesity, a literature search was undertaken. Trends in overweight or obesity among adults showed considerable variability internationally. Some countries, including Canada, Finland (men), New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Western Samoa showed large increases in prevalence (>5 percentage points), whereas several other countries showed smaller or no increases. Overweight is also increasing among children and adolescents, at least in some countries. It is not clear what the expected prevalence of overweight or obesity might be in the current environment, and these findings may be most usefully viewed as shifts in the distribution of a population characteristic. The reasons for these shifts are not clear. The health implications of these shifts are also not clear, in part because trends in cardiovascular risk factors do not always parallel trends in obesity. Of the classic epidemiologic triad of host, agent, and environment, the environment has often received the least attention. The economic, social, and cultural factors that influence the distribution of body mass index in a population are not well understood. Future research needs include continued monitoring of trends in obesity and in related health conditions and observational studies to examine the causes of these trends. Public health research should aim at defining realistic goals and strategies to improve health in an environment conducive to high levels of overweight and obesity.
O'Rahilly, Stephen; Farooqi, I Sadaf
Considerable attention is currently being paid to the secular changes in food intake and physical activity that underlie the increase in the prevalence of obesity that is apparent in many societies. While this is laudable it would be unwise to view these environmental factors in isolation from the biological factors that normally control body weight and composition and the compelling evidence that inter-individual differences in susceptibility to obesity have strong genetic determinants. This is particularly important, as it is only in the past decade that we have begun to obtain substantive information regarding the molecular constituents of pathways controlling mammalian energy balance and therefore, for the first time, are in a position to achieve a better mechanistic understanding of this disease. Population-based association and linkage studies have highlighted a number of loci at which genetic variation is associated with obesity and related phenotypes and the identification and characterization of monogenic obesity syndromes has been particularly fruitful. While there is widespread acceptance that hereditary factors might predispose to human obesity, it is frequently assumed that such factors would influence metabolic rate or the selective partitioning of excess calories into fat. However, it is notable that, thus far, all monogenic defects causing human obesity actually disrupt hypothalamic pathways and have a profound effect on satiety and food intake. To conclude, the evidence we have to date suggests that the major impact of genes on human obesity is just as likely (or perhaps more likely) to directly impact on hunger, satiety and food intake rather than metabolic rate or nutrient partitioning. At the risk of oversimplification, it seems that from an aetiological/genetic standpoint, human obesity appears less a metabolic than a neuro-behavioural disease.
Yasri, Sora; Wiwanitkit, Viroj
Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity
Materials (Subjects) and Methods
Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity
Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity
Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity Association of FTO rs9939609 with Obesity. ©2018The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman
The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Rodríguez, Gerardo
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity continues to be unacceptably high and of public health concern in Europe. During childhood and adolescence, environmental factors are the main drivers of obesity development. Obesity is caused by a chronic energy imbalance involving both dietary intake and physical activity patterns. Several risk factors are influencing obesity development, even starting in the prenatal period. From birth, along life, mainly diet and physical activity/inactivity are the most important drivers on top of genetic susceptibility. The first years of life can therefore be crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and on later overweight and obesity. Schools are an attractive and popular setting for implementing interventions for children. Interventions including a community component are considered to be the most effective. Obesity control will require policy interventions to improve the environments that promote poor dietary intake and physical inactivity rather than individually focused interventions. More solid institutional and health policies are needed together with more effective interventions to obtain evident changes for the prevention of excess adiposity among children. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
de Mello, Aline Haas; Costa, Ana Beatriz; Engel, Jéssica Della Giustina; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza
Obesity leads to various changes in the body. Among them, the existing inflammatory process may lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, can trigger mitochondrial changes, which is called mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, excess nutrients supply (as it commonly is the case with obesity) can overwhelm the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing a mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to a higher ROS formation. This increase in ROS production by the respiratory chain may also cause oxidative stress, which may exacerbate the inflammatory process in obesity. All these intracellular changes can lead to cellular apoptosis. These processes have been described in obesity as occurring mainly in peripheral tissues. However, some studies have already shown that obesity is also associated with changes in the central nervous system (CNS), with alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in cerebral structures such as hypothalamus and hippocampus. In this sense, this review presents a general view about mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity, including related alterations, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, and focusing on the whole organism, covering alterations in peripheral tissues, BBB, and CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Menifield, Charles E; Doty, Nicole; Fletcher, Audwin
Recent data indicate that Americans are gaining weight at an alarming rate. In fact, data from the CDC indicate that the U.S. obesity average was 12% in 1990 and had grown to 23% by 2005. In recent years, this problem appears to be more prominent in some southern states than in other states. The purpose of this study was to determine what factors were associated with increased levels of obesity. Do demographic, educational, healthcare, or economic factors correlate with this trend? Using state level data in a fixed effects regression model we examined obesity rates for the period 1990-2003. We also used cross tabulation tables to compare obesity rates to several independent variables. Our analysis revealed that obesity was related to several health, demographic, and economic factors. As a result, we argue that policy makers as well as health officials should take a comprehensive look at obesity as well as other social ills, health care conditions, and related issues prior to creating a plan to improve health in this country.
Corbee, R J
Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Lee, Yung Seng
Common obesity is widely regarded as a complex, multifactorial trait influenced by the 'obesogenic' environment, sedentary behavior, and genetic susceptibility contributed by common and rare genetic variants. This review describes the recent advances in understanding the role of genetics in obesity. New susceptibility loci and genetic variants are being uncovered, but the collective effect is relatively small and could not explain most of the BMI heritability. Yet-to-be identified common and rare variants, epistasis, and heritable epigenetic changes may account for part of the 'missing heritability'. Evidence is emerging about the role of epigenetics in determining obesity susceptibility, mediating developmental plasticity, which confers obesity risk from early life experiences. Genetic prediction scores derived from selected genetic variants, and also differential DNA methylation levels and methylation scores, have been shown to correlate with measures of obesity and response to weight loss intervention. Genetic variants, which confer susceptibility to obesity-related morbidities like nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, were also discovered recently. We can expect discovery of more rare genetic variants with the advent of whole exome and genome sequencing, and also greater understanding of epigenetic mechanisms by which environment influences genetic expression and which mediate the gene-environment interaction.
Larsen, P D; Kerr, A J; Hood, M; Harding, S A; Hooks, D; Heaven, D; Lever, N A; Sinclair, S; Boddington, D; Tang, E W; Swampillai, J; Stiles, M K
The New Zealand Cardiac Implanted Device Registry (Device) has recently been developed under the auspices of the New Zealand Branch of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. This study describes the initial Device registry cohort of patients receiving a new pacemaker, their indications for pacing and their perioperative complications. The Device Registry was used to audit patients receiving a first pacemaker between 1 st January 2014 and 1 st June 2015. We examined 1611 patients undergoing first pacemaker implantation. Patients were predominantly male (59%), and had a median age of 70 years. The most common symptom for pacemaker implantation was syncope (39%), followed by dizziness (30%) and dyspnoea (12%). The most common aetiology for a pacemaker was a conduction tissue disorder (35%), followed by sinus node dysfunction (22%). Atrioventricular (AV) block was the most common ECG abnormality, present in 44%. Dual chamber pacemakers were most common (62%), followed by single chamber ventricular pacemakers (34%), and cardiac resynchronisation therapy - pacemakers (CRT-P) (2%). Complications within 24hours of the implant procedure were reported in 64 patients (3.9%), none of which were fatal. The most common complication was the need for reoperation to manipulate a lead, occurring in 23 patients (1.4%). This is the first description of data entered into the Device registry. Patients receiving a pacemaker were younger than in European registries, and there was a low use of CRT-P devices compared to international rates. Complications rates were low and compare favourably to available international data. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Vries, T I; Alsters, S I M; Kleinendorst, L; van Haaften, G; van der Zwaag, B; Van Haelst, M M
- Obesity is an important risk factor for morbidity and premature death, as well as a contributing factor to psychosocial problems. The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically over the last few decades.- Obesity is considered to be a multifactorial condition in which both environmental factors and genetic factors play a part.- In approximately 5% of patients with morbid obesity, a monogenic cause can be identified. Mutations in the MC4R gene are the most frequently occurring monogenic cause of obesity.- The department of Genetics at the VU University Medical Center Amsterdam offers morbidly obese patients a diagnostic analysis of 50 obesity-associated genes. - An underlying obesity-associated genetic defect can influence patient response to certain treatments. Therefore, if the gene defect is known, it can be taken into account when considering treatment options.- The understanding of the genetics of obesity will significantly contribute to research into the development of personalized treatment options.
Ahmed, Salah R; Ellah, Mostafa A A; Mohamed, Osman A; Eid, Hesham M
Maternal obesity has long been correlated with an increased risk of chronic hypertension and diabetes prior to pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia, Cesarean deliveries, postpartum endometritis and a prolonged hospital stay To determine the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on pregnancy outcomes Methods: One hundred and twenty two women were recruited in the study. The patients were allocated into two groups, group 1 obese patients (68) BMI 30 or more and group 2 non obese patients (54) BMI between 19.8-24.9. About two - third of the study group were having mild obesity, moderate obesity comprised about 28% and about 4% only was morbidly obese. Hypertensive disorders were nine folds more among obese women (R.R 4.74). Obese pregnant women were significantly more prone to have gestational diabetes (R.R 6.35). Even anemia was significantly more amongst Obese women when compared to non obese ones (29/68, R.R 3.84). Ante partum hemorrhage had significantly more in obese women (R.R 3.14). There was no increased risk for PROM (R.R 0.71). Moreover The macrosomic babies were extremely commoner among obese (R.R 9.1). Pre-pregnancy obesity is a risk factor for gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, labor induction, cesarean section for fetal distress, and wound infection. They should be considered as high risk and counseled accordingly.
Laugesen, M.; Swinburn, B.
OBJECTIVE—To review the impact of New Zealand's tobacco control programme from 1985 to 1998 on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, and to estimate the scope for further reduction. DESIGN—Country case study; interventions, with outcomes ranked internationally across time. SETTING—New Zealand 1985-98; for 1985-95, 23 OECD countries. INTERVENTIONS—Between 1985 and 1998, New Zealand eliminated tobacco advertising, halved the affordability of cigarettes, and reduced smoke exposure in work time by 39%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Reduction in adult smoking prevalence and in tobacco products consumption per adult. RESULTS—Changes in prevalence 1985-98: in adults (aged 15+ years), −17% (from 30% to 25%) but short of the 20% target for 2000; in youth (aged 15-24 years), −20% (from 35% to 28%); and in Maori adults (aged 15+ years), −17% (from 56% in 1981 to 46% in 1996). Changes in consumption 1985-98: tobacco products per adult aged 15+ years, −45% (2493 to 1377 cigarette equivalents); cigarettes smoked per smoker, −34% (22.7 to 15.0 per day). Between 1985 and 1995 New Zealand reduced tobacco products consumption per adult more rapidly than any other OECD country, and reduced youth prevalence more rapidly than most. The acceleration of the decline in cigarette attributable mortality rates in men and in women age 35-69 years averted an additional 1400 deaths between 1985 and 1996. Between 1981 and 1996 smoking prevalence among blue collar workers decreased only marginally, and in 14-15 year olds, rose by one third between 1992 and 1997. CONCLUSION—In 13 years, New Zealand's tobacco control programme has been successful in almost halving tobacco products consumption, particularly by lowering consumption per smoker. With strong political support for quit campaigns, increased taxation, and the elimination of displays of tobacco products on sale, the consumption could theoretically be halved again in as little as 3-6 years
Frederikson, Lesley G; Chamberlain, Kerry; Sangster, Andrew J
Optometry is a regulated health profession in NZ, with limited student places. With 650 registered optometrists in 2005, the optometrist to population ratio was 1 : 6,291 with no apparent national shortage. If optometrists registered in NZ do not actually live there, a workforce shortage is possible. This paper presents findings from the New Zealand Association of Optometrists 2006 workforce survey of members, which aimed to profile the NZ optometric workforce and to explore factors relating to workforce capacity, job stress and future planning. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on employment status, hours worked and gender distribution of optometrists in New Zealand. It was circulated to 530 active members of the NZ Association of Optometrists representing 86 per cent of the available optometrists. Direct comparisons with the Australian optometric workforce numbers were also undertaken. Of the 243 respondents, 129 (53 per cent) were male. The median age of all respondents was 39 years (46 for males and 34 for females) and 75 per cent of the respondents were aged younger than 50 years. Fifty per cent had practised 15 years or less. Ten per cent of respondents had 'time-out' during their career and this was significantly more likely for females. Nearly half the respondents were self-employed (46 per cent) and eight per cent worked as locums. Part-time employees were more likely to be female and males were more likely to be in full-time self-employment. Half the group was under 40 (51 per cent), which accounted for 86 per cent of the full-time salaried arrangements. Those aged 30 to 39 included 52 per cent of the total part-time salaried workers. The average working week was 34 hours for women and 39 hours for men; the median was 40 hours for both groups. In the typical working week, 80 per cent of an optometrist's time was spent consulting with patients and five per cent was patient-related paperwork. The distribution of work arrangements was
Kral, J G
Although obesity is an easy diagnosis to make, its etiologies, pathophysiology, and symptomatology are extraordinarily complex. Progress in surgical technique and anesthesiological management has substantially improved the safety of performing operations on the severely obese in the last 20 years. These improvements have occurred more or less empirically, without a full understanding of etiology or pathophysiology, although this has advanced concomitantly with improvements in practice. This review has attempted to provide a framework to facilitate progress in the neglected areas of patient selection and choice of operation, in an effort to improve long-term outcome. Despite the disparate etiologies of obesity and its diverse comorbidities and complications, there are unifying interdependent pathogenetic mechanisms of great relevance to the practice of antiobesity surgery. The rate of eating, whether driven by HPA dysfunction, ambient stress, or related hereditary susceptibility factors including the increased energy demands of an expanded body fat mass, participates in a cycle that results in disordered satiety (see Fig. 3). This leads to substrate overload, causing extensive metabolic abnormalities such as atherogenesis, insulin resistance, thrombogenesis, and carcinogenesis. This interpretation of the pathophysiology of obesity ironically accords with the original meaning of the word obesity: "to overeat." The ultimate solution to the problem of obesity--preventing it--will not be forthcoming until the food industry is forced to lower production and change its marketing strategies, as the liquor and tobacco industries in the United States were compelled to do. This cannot occur until the large and fast-growing populations of industrialized nations become educated in the personal implications of the energy principle. Regardless of whether school curricula are modified to prioritize health education, the larger problems of cultural and economic change remain for
James, P T; Leach, R; Kalamara, E; Shayeghi, M
The recent World Health Organization (WHO) agreement on the standardized classification of overweight and obese, based on body mass index (BMI), allows a comparable analysis of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In Asia, however, there is a demand for a more limited range for normal BMIs (i.e., 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m(2) rather than 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) because of the high prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension. In children, the International Obesity Task-Force age-, sex-, and BMI-specific cutoff points are increasingly being used. We are currently evaluating BMI data globally as part of a new millennium analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO is analyzing data in terms of 20 or more principal risk factors contributing to the primary causes of disability and lost lives in the 191 countries within the WHO. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are different in each region, with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and North America having higher prevalence rates. In most countries, women show a greater BMI distribution with higher obesity rates than do men. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty, even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting. Waist measurements in nationally representative studies are scarce but will now be needed to estimate the full impact of the worldwide obesity epidemic.
Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D
The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding on selected issues related to the food environment and obesity and to identify key knowledge gaps. The first article (not necessarily of importance) targeted energy density (ED) and focuses on the role of ED in the regulation of energy intake and body weight. It offers recommendations for prioritizing research. The second article addresses economic factors and examines food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes. It concludes that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. The third article concerns sweetened beverages and points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. In the fourth article, the contributions of palatability and variety to eating behavior and weight are reviewed. Article five explores the influence of portion size on energy intake and weight management. It finds that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. The sixth article focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulations for body weight management and finds that such manipulations have consistently yielded null results. Finally, article seven identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. This series of reviews addresses important questions regarding the contribution of the food environment to obesity. Independent of physiological/genetic determinants, factors such as ED, cost, food form, palatability, variety, portion size, eating frequency, and access to healthy food are each evaluated for their role in
Moore, James; Gale, Jesse; Dew, Kevin; Simmers, Don
To assess the effects of student debt on the intentions of first-year house officers in relation to location of practice and vocation, and to evaluate the relative importance of incentives to remain practising in New Zealand (NZ). A questionnaire sent to all 296 New Zealand-graduate first-year house officers practicing in New Zealand. The response rate was 53%. Eighty percent of respondents intended to practice in New Zealand for the bulk of their careers; however, 65% of respondents intended to leave New Zealand within 3 years of graduating. The most important factors influencing the decision to leave NZ were overseas travel, financial opportunities, and job/training opportunities. Fifty-five percent of respondents had considered leaving the country, specifically because of the student loan debt. The most important factors influencing vocational intentions were interest, lifestyle, and intellectual challenge. Forty-three percent of respondents stated that their student debt had influenced their intended specialty, and only 9% of respondents indicated their intention to pursue a career in general practice. The highest rated incentives for staying in New Zealand were increased salaries, employer contributions towards student loans, and training opportunities within New Zealand. Student debt influences both emigration and specialty choice intentions of junior doctors in New Zealand. This effect is an unintended but important consequence of our current tertiary education system in New Zealand. These results paint a worrying picture for the junior doctor and general practitioner workforce in New Zealand's future.
... become obese. No single factor or behavior causes obesity . Obesity is caused by many things, including a person's ... image. Examples of eating disorders are: Anorexia Bulimia Obesity and eating disorders often occur at the same ...
Tremellen, Kelton; Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian
Obesity is associated with a reduction in fertility treatment success and increased risks to mother and child. Therefore guidelines of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) suggest that a body mass index exceeding 35 kg/m 2 should be an absolute contraindication to assisted fertility treatment such as in vitro fertilisation IVF. In this paper we challenge the ethical and scientific basis for such a ban. Livebirth rates for severely obese women are reduced by up to 30%, but this result is still far better than that observed for many older women who are allowed access to IVF. This prohibition is particularly unjust when IVF is the only treatment capable of producing a pregnancy, such as bilateral tubal blockage or severe male factor infertility. Furthermore, the absolute magnitude of risks to mother or child is relatively small, and while a woman has a right to be educated about these risks, she alone should be allowed to make a decision on proceeding with treatment. We do not prohibit adults from engaging in dangerous sports, nor do we force parents to vaccinate their children, despite the risks. Similarly, we should not prohibit obese women from becoming parents because of increased risk to themselves or their child. Finally, prohibiting obese women's access to IVF to prevent potential harms such as 'fetal programing' is questionable, especially when compared to that child never being born at all. As such, we believe the RANZCOG ban on severely obese women's access to assisted reproductive treatment is unwarranted and should be revised. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
The 76 preassembled modules making up the New Zealand Synthetic Fuels Corporation natural gas-to-gasoline (GTG) plant will be an operating plant by 1986. The plant will produce 14,400 barrels per day, about a third of the country's gasoline needs. The project is a good example of cooperation between a government and a multinational corporation in which Mobil is a 25% partner with the New Zealand government. With a commitment for about 16% of the gas reserves in the Maui field, the facility will first convert the gas to methanol using a standard commercial process, then convert the methanol to gasolinemore » by a unique Mobil process that uses a zeolite catalyst. 1 figure.« less
Ross, A B; Savage, G P; Martin, R J; Vanhanen, L
Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) or New Zealand yam, in common with other members of this genus, contains oxalate, an antinutritive factor. Twelve South American and two New Zealand cultivars of oca were analyzed for total and soluble oxalate contents of the tubers. The range of total oxalate levels was 92-221 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Levels of soluble and total oxalate extracted from the tubers were not significantly different, suggesting that no calcium oxalate is formed in the tubers. The oxalate concentrations obtained in this study for oca suggest that previously reported values are too low and that oca is a moderately high oxalate-containing food. This is the first report of a tuber crop containing moderate to high levels of soluble oxalates in the tubers and no insoluble oxalates.
Chaproniere, G. C. H.
The lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and the systematics of larger foraminiferids at several Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene localities in Australia are described. In particular, sediments of this interval in the North West Cape area of the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia, yielded diverse faunas of larger and planktic foraminiferids. Areas in New Zealand were also sampled and studied. Forty species and subspecies, representing 25 genera or subgenera of larger foraminiferids, were recorded. Wherever possible, biometric methods have been used to discriminate between taxa. Such studies suggest that the rates of evolution of some groups of larger foraminiferids in New Zealand were different from those in the Australian region. Among the taxa that are illustrated and described in detail are two subspecies of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) proposed as new: Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) howchini praehowchini and Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) orakeiensis waikukuensis. Topotypes of L. (N.) orakeiensis hornibrooki and L. (N.) howchini howchini are discussed and figured.
Carmichael, G A
"This paper links data obtained from a one-in-five systematic sample of New Zealand divorce files covering the period 1940-78 with published marriage and birth statistics to examine socio-demographic differentials in divorce rates among couples married between 1939 and 1973. Differentials investigated are those by age at marriage, relative age of bride and groom, marital status prior to marriage, relative marital status of bride and groom, pregnancy status of the wife at marriage, timing of the first birth, religion, country of birth and socioeconomic status. Several findings of overseas studies, such as the special proneness to divorce of very youthful marriages and remarriages following previous divorces, are verified for New Zealand. After controlling for age at marriage, pregnancy does not seem to have directly increased the risk of divorce." excerpt
Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489
Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance. The gut microecology could thus fill the gap between energy intake and expenditure by processing nutrients and regulating their access to and storage in the body, producing chemicals of hormonal nature and controlling the secretion of proinflammatory mediators locally and systemically. Conversely, being highly sensitive to environmental impacts, particularly to early feeding, the compositional development of the gut microbiota may prove the target of choice in efforts to reduce the risk of obesity. It has been demonstrated that a lower number of bifidobacteria precedes the development of obesity, and a dearth of butyrate-producing bacteria and an overall richness of bacteria increase the risk of metabolic disease; moreover, recognition that practices known to disrupt the early gut microbiota, e.g., cesarean section delivery and antibiotic exposure, contribute to obesity, encourages to pursue this line of research. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other ‘omics’ studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals’ susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of ‘personalized nutrition’ has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders. PMID:24716734
Kaushik, Prashant; Anderson, James T
Epigenetics, defined as inheritable and reversible phenomena that affect gene expression without altering the underlying base pair sequence has been shown to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity. Obesity is associated with extensive gene expression changes in tissues throughout the body. Epigenetics is emerging as perhaps the most important mechanism through which the lifestyle-choices we make can directly influence the genome. Considerable epidemiological, experimental and clinical data have been amassed showing that the risk of developing disease in later life is dependent on early life conditions, mainly operating within the normative range of developmental exposures. In addition to the 'maternal' interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which 'paternal' influences on offspring development can be achieved. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Fortunately, epigenetic phenomena are dynamic and rather quickly reversible with intensive lifestyle changes. This is a very promising and sustainable resolution to the obesity pandemic.
Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.
Background In high income countries there has been little improvement in stillbirth rates over the past two decades. Previous studies have indicated an ethnic disparity in the rate of stillbirths. This study aimed to determine whether maternal ethnicity is independently associated with late stillbirth in New Zealand. Methods Cases were women with a singleton, late stillbirth (≥28 weeks' gestation) without congenital abnormality, born between July 2006 and June 2009 in Auckland, New Zealand. Two controls with ongoing pregnancies were randomly selected at the same gestation at which the stillbirth occurred. Women were interviewed in the first few weeks following stillbirth, or at the equivalent gestation for controls. Detailed demographic data were recorded. The study was powered to detect an odds ratio of 2, with a power of 80% at the 5% level of significance, given a prevalence of the risk factor of 20%. A multivariable regression model was developed which adjusted for known risk factors for stillbirth, as well as significant risk factors identified in the current study, and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 155/215 (72%) cases and 310/429 (72%) controls consented. Pacific ethnicity, overweight and obesity, grandmultiparity, not being married, not being in paid work, social deprivation, exposure to tobacco smoke and use of recreational drugs were associated with an increased risk of late stillbirth in univariable analysis. Maternal overweight and obesity, nulliparity, grandmultiparity, not being married and not being in paid work were independently associated with late stillbirth in multivariable analysis, whereas Pacific ethnicity was no longer significant (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.99; 0.51-1.91). Conclusions Pacific ethnicity was not found to be an independent risk factor for late stillbirth in this New Zealand study. The disparity in stillbirth rates between Pacific and European women can be attributed to confounding
viii THE NEW ZEALAND DEFENSE POLICY FRAMEWORK – A STRATEGIC APPRAISAL What we demand is that the world be made fit and safe to live in. Woodrow Wilson...pressure on some governments and often results in armed conflict. The former Yugoslavia and Soviet Union stand out as prominent examples of the... demand access to the products, services and lifestyles that are evident in other nations. This is problematic for governments who set values and
Rouse, H. L.; Norton, N.
Fresh water is essential to New Zealand's economic, environmental, cultural and social well-being. In line with global trends, New Zealand's freshwater resources are under pressure from increased abstraction and changes in land-use which contribute contaminants to our freshwater systems. Recent central government policy reform introduces greater national direction and guidance, to bring about a step-change in freshwater management. An existing national policy for freshwater management introduced in 2011 requires regional authorities to produce freshwater management plans containing clear freshwater objectives (measurable statements about the desired environmental state for water bodies) and associated limits to resource use (such as environmental flows and quantity allocation limits, and loads of contaminants to be discharged). These plans must integrate water quantity and quality management, consider climate change, and incorporate tangata whenua (New Zealand māori) roles and interests. In recent (2014) national policy amendments, the regional authorities are also required to implement national 'bottom-line' standards for certain attributes of the system to be managed; undertake accounting for all water takes and all sources of contaminants; and to develop and implement their plans in a collaborative way with communities. This rapid change in national policy has necessitated a new way of working for authorities tasked with implementation; many obstacles lie in their path. The scientific methods required to help set water quantity limits are well established, but water quality methods are less so. Collaborative processes have well documented benefits but also raise many challenges, particularly for the communication of complex and often uncertain scientific information. This paper provides background on the national policy changes and offers some early lessons learned by the regional authorities implementing collaborative freshwater management in New Zealand.
Soengkono, Supri; Bromley, Chris; Reeves, Robert; Bennie, Stewart; Graham, Duncan
Shallow warm water resources associated with low enthalpy geothermal systems are often difficult to explore using geophysical techniques, mainly because the warm water creates an insufficient physical change from the host rocks to be easily detectable. In addition, often the system also has a limited or narrow size. However, appropriate use of geophysical techniques can still help the exploration and further investigation of low enthalpy geothermal resources. We present case studies on the use of geophysical techniques for shallow warm water explorations over a variety of settings in New Zealand (mostly in the North Island) with variable degrees of success. A simple and direct method for the exploration of warm water systems is shallow temperature measurements. In some New Zealand examples, measurements of near surface temperatures helped to trace the extent of deeper thermal water. The gravity method was utilised as a structural technique for the exploration of some warm water systems in New Zealand. Our case studies show the technique can be useful in identifying basement depths and tracing fault systems associated with the occurrence of hot springs. Direct current (DC) ground resistivity measurements using a variety of electrode arrays have been the most common method for the exploration of low enthalpy geothermal resources in New Zealand. The technique can be used to detect the extent of shallow warm waters that are more electrically conductive than the surrounding cold groundwater. Ground resistivity investigations using the electromagnetic (EM) techniques of audio magnetotellurics (AMT or shallow MT), controlled source audio magnetotellurics (CSAMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) methods have also been used. Highly conductive clays of thermal or sedimentary origin often limit the penetration depth of the resistivity techniques and can create some interpretation difficulties. Interpretation of resistivity anomalies needs to be treated in a site specific
Verstappen, Antonia; Poole, Phillippa
There is little recent data on the debt levels accrued by New Zealand medical graduates. We aimed to quantify the level of student loan debt accrued by medical graduates upon completion of their medical degree, and to investigate the association of New Zealand Government Student Loan (GSL) debt with gender and age. At graduation each year from 2006-2015, students from one New Zealand medical programme were invited to complete a career intention survey that included information on levels of GSL debt and the number of income sources used. The overall response rate was 83.8%. On average, 92% of domestic students reported having some student loan debt, with 28% a debt of $90,000 or more. The proportion of students reporting a student loan debt of $90,000 or more increased over the period of the study (P<0.0001). While older students were more likely to have a larger student loan debt than younger students, there was no difference in debt levels by gender. Students with larger student loans were more likely to rely on a larger number of financial sources to fund their studies. New Zealand medical students are carrying higher levels of student loan debt year on year. The effect of this on the future medical workforce is not certain; however, this could be negative if graduates choose to enter careers that are more highly paid over areas of high need. The full impact of large loans on individuals and the health system will take years to determine.
Many close observers of the manoeuvring which went on from the time the Lange government took power in July 1984 until George Shultz declared a...d s - - bu t we par t . George P. Shultz Manila, July 1986 ~ ITH THE WORDS, "we part," the Secretary of State for the United States of...the Western alliance. George Shultz’ simple words marked an historic turn- ing point in United States/New Zealand relations and, perhaps even more
Renwick, J. A.; Zammit, C.
Monitoring plays a pivotal role in determining sustainable strategy for efficient overall management of the water resource. Though periodic monitoring provides some information, only long-term monitoring can provide data sufficient in quantity and quality to determine trends and develop predictive models. These can support informed decisions about sustainable and efficient use of water resources in New Zealand. However the development of such strategies is underpinned by our understanding and our ability to measure all inputs in headwaters catchments, where most of the precipitation is falling. Historically due to the harsh environment New Zealand has had little to no formal high elevation monitoring stations for all climate and snow related parameters outside of ski field climate and snow stations. This leads to sparse and incomplete archived datasets. Due to the importance of these catchments to the New Zealand economy (eg irrigation, hydro-electricity generation, tourism) NIWA has developed a climate-snow and ice monitoring network (SIN) since 2006. This network extends existing monitoring by electricity generator and ski stations and it is used by a number of stakeholders. In 2014 the network comprises 13 stations located at elevation above 700masl. As part of the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE), NIWA is carrying out an intercomparison of precipitation data over the period 2013-2015 at Mueller Hut. The site was commissioned on 11 July 2013, set up on the 17th September 2013 and comprises two Geonor weighing bucket raingauges, one shielded and the other un-shielded, in association with a conventional tipping bucket raingauge and conventional climate and snow measurements (temperature, wind, solar radiation, relative humidity, snow depth and snow pillow). The presentation aims to outline the state of the current monitoring network in New Zealand, as well as the challenge and opportunities for measurement of precipitation in alpine
Hathaway, S C
Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most
The decriminalization of sex work in New Zealand will protect the rights of sex workers and improve their working conditions and general well-being. It will also improve HIV prevention programs. In this article, which is based on a presentation at a "learning from practice" session at the conference, Catherine Healy describes the situation prior to decriminalization, and discusses the features of the new law and accompanying guidelines.
Thomas, Diana M; Weedermann, Marion; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Martin, Corby K; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V; Bredlau, Carl; Heymsfield, Steven B; Ravussin, Eric; Bouchard, Claude
Obesity prevalence in the United States appears to be leveling, but the reasons behind the plateau remain unknown. Mechanistic insights can be provided from a mathematical model. The objective of this study is to model known multiple population parameters associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) classes and to establish conditions under which obesity prevalence will plateau. A differential equation system was developed that predicts population-wide obesity prevalence trends. The model considers both social and nonsocial influences on weight gain, incorporates other known parameters affecting obesity trends, and allows for country specific population growth. The dynamic model predicts that: obesity prevalence is a function of birthrate and the probability of being born in an obesogenic environment; obesity prevalence will plateau independent of current prevention strategies; and the US prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity will plateau by about 2030 at 28%, 32%, and 9% respectively. The US prevalence of obesity is stabilizing and will plateau, independent of current preventative strategies. This trend has important implications in accurately evaluating the impact of various anti-obesity strategies aimed at reducing obesity prevalence. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Kiata, Liz; Kerse, Ngaire; Dixon, Robyn
To describe the nature and size of long-term residential care homes in New Zealand; funding of facilities; and the ethnic and gender composition of residents and residential care workers nationwide. A postal, fax, and email survey of all long-term residential care homes in New Zealand. Completed surveys were received from an eligible 845 facilities (response rate: 55%). The majority of these (54%) facilities housed less than 30 residents. Of the 438 (94%) facilities completing the questions about residents' ethnicity, 432 (99%) housed residents from New Zealand European (Pakeha) descent, 156 (33%) housed at least 1 Maori resident, 71 (15%) at least 1 Pacific (Islands) resident, and 61 (13%) housed at least 1 Asian resident. Facilities employed a range of ethnically diverse staff, with 66% reporting Maori staff. Less than half of all facilities employed Pacific staff (43%) and Asian staff (33%). Registered nursing staff were mainly between 46 and 60 years (47%), and healthcare assistant staff were mostly between 25 and 45 years old (52%). Wide regional variation in the ethnic make up of staff was reported. About half of all staff were reported to have moved within the previous 2 years. The age and turnover of the residential care workforce suggests the industry continues to be under threat from staffing shortages. While few ethnic minority residents live in long-term care facilities, staff come from diverse backgrounds, especially in certain regions.
Richardson, Fran; Carryer, Jenny
Cultural safety education is a concept unique to nursing in New Zealand. It involves teaching nursing students to recognize and understand the dynamics of cultural, personal, and professional power and how these shape nursing and health care relationships. This article describes the findings of a research study on the experience of teaching cultural safety. As a teacher of cultural safety, the first author was interested in exploring the experience of teaching the topic with other cultural safety teachers. A qualitative approach situated in a critical theory paradigm was used for the study. The study was informed by the ideas of Foucault and feminist theory. Fourteen women between ages 20 and 60 were interviewed about their experience of teaching cultural safety. Five women were Maori (the indigenous people of New Zealand), and 9 were Pakeha (the Maori name for New Zealanders of European descent). Following data analysis, three major themes were identified: that the Treaty of Waitangi provides for an examination of power in cultural safety education; that the broad concept of difference influences the experience of teaching cultural safety; and that the experience of teaching cultural safety has personal, professional, and political dimensions. These dimensions are experienced differently by Maori and Pakeha teachers.
Marsh, Louise; Robertson, Lindsay A; Cameron, Claire
This study examines the level of support for a completely smokefree campus policy and other smokefree policy initiatives amongst staff and students at a New Zealand University. Attitudes to smoking on campus, smokefree campus policies, implementation and enforcement of smokefree policies were assessed using an online survey of 332 staff and 268 students; giving a response rate of 51% from staff and 41% from students. Most participants had never smoked, or were past smokers; few reported being current smokers. Participants agreed that exposure to second-hand smoke is harmful, disliked being exposed to second-hand smoke on campus, and felt the university should promote a healthy work and study environment. Results indicated strong support for smokefree policies, and participants made several recommendations regarding smokefree policies. Most disagreed that compliance with a smokefree policy should be voluntary, but felt that campus security should warn people who breach the policy. These results provide a sound basis for university administrators to implement smokefree policies. While around half of the tertiary education institutions in New Zealand already have a completely smokefree campus policy, greater adoption of this policy by tertiary education institutions would foster realisation of the government's goal that New Zealand become a smokefree nation by 2025. A potential barrier preventing tertiary education institutions working towards a smokefree campus is a perceived risk of opposition from staff and students. Our study found strong support for smokefree campus policies; these findings should encourage other universities, polytechnics and other tertiary education providers to adopt full campus smokefree policies.
Ragupathy, Rajan; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Mirza, Wasif; Daiya, Mitali; Chandra, Himesh; Yousif, Ali; Girn, Maninder
Private insurance plays a minor role in paying for pharmaceuticals in New Zealand, despite controversy about access through the public health system. The present study examines New Zealand consumers' perceptions of private insurance for pharmaceuticals. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 433 consumers at thirty pharmacies. The questionnaire included 18 questions on demographics, insurance status, perceptions of private insurance for pharmaceuticals and confidence in the public health system. Forty six percent of respondents had private health insurance. Respondents were more likely to have private health insurance as household income increased, and confidence in the public health system decreased. (Over two thirds of respondents were either confident or very confident in the public health system). Nineteen percent had private health insurance for pharmaceuticals, and the likelihood was not affected by household income or confidence in the public health system. Sixty one percent believed private insurance for pharmaceuticals would increase availability and affordability of pharmaceuticals. However, just over half were willing to pay for private insurance for pharmaceuticals. Of these, over two thirds were only willing to pay $20 per year or less. New Zealand pharmacy consumers' willingness to pay for private insurance for pharmaceuticals is very low.
To examine attitudes held by doctors in New Zealand towards the complaints and disciplinary process. A questionnaire was sent to New Zealand doctors randomly selected to include vocationally registered general practitioners, vocationally registered hospital-based specialists, and general registrants. 598 respondents (33.6% having ever and 66.4% having never received a medical complaint) indicated that New Zealand doctors strongly support society's right to complain, having lay input, a sense of completion, and appropriate advice provided to the complaints process. Doctors also support society's notions of rights and responsibilities, and believe that the medical profession is capable of self-regulation. Fifty percent of doctors do not believe that complaints are a useful tool to improve medical practice. Doctor's attitudes diverge about how they believe society interacts with the profession through the complaints process. They are divided in their opinion as to whether complaints are warranted, whether complainants are normal people, and whether complaints are judged by appropriate standards. Doctor's attitudes towards the complaints and disciplinary system fall on a continuum between being consistent and divergent. Their attitudes are consistent with notions of professionalism, but suggest that using the complaints system to improve the delivery of medical care may be problematic.
Rogers, K. M.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Soto, D. X.; Bartle, J. A.
Forensic isotopic assays of feathers from historical Maori cloaks are a potential tool to link historical artefacts back to their native locales (Iwi) in New Zealand. In order to test this approach, we sampled feathers from extant museum archived birds of known origin for their feather hydrogen isotopes (δyHf) to assign their regional origin and location over time. We obtained feathers from two non-migratory bird species widely distributed around New Zealand, tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and quail (Callipepla californica). Feathers were sampled from archived birds collected between 1880-2002 held in 3 New Zealand museum collections. We determined regression coefficients of δ2H on location, latitude, δ2Hprecipitation, and age. The data showed that ground dwelling quail had higher regression coefficients with respect to latitude (r2=0.46) than the nectar feeding tui (r2=0.39). On the whole, both resident birds showed promise as regional geographical indicators of their habitat (r2=0.58). Year of collection had no meaningful effect on isotopic composition. We conclude that isotopic assays may therefore be used to aid in regional assignments relevant to the interpretation of historical artefacts.
Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G
To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.
Goldberg, Julia; Knapp, Michael; Emberson, Rowan M.; Townsend, J. Ian; Trewick, Steven A.
New Zealand biodiversity has often been viewed as Gondwanan in origin and age, but it is increasingly apparent from molecular studies that diversification, and in many cases origination of lineages, postdate the break-up of Gondwanaland. Relatively few studies of New Zealand animal species radiations have as yet been reported, and here we consider the species-rich genus of carabid beetles, Mecodema. Constrained stratigraphic information (emergence of the Chatham Islands) and a substitution rate for Coleoptera were separately used to calibrate Bayesian relaxed molecular clock date estimates for diversification of Mecodema. The inferred timings indicate radiation of these beetles no earlier than the mid-Miocene with most divergences being younger, dating to the Plio-Pleistocene. A shallow age for the radiation along with a complex spatial distribution of these taxa involving many instances of sympatry implicates recent ecological speciation rather than a simplistic allopatric model. This emphasises the youthful and dynamic nature of New Zealand evolution that will be further elucidated with detailed ecological and population genetic analyses. PMID:24465949
Reith, David; Fountain, John; Tilyard, Murray; McDowell, Rebecca
To compare the rates of death per volume of drug dispensed for antidepressants in New Zealand. Deaths from antidepressant poisonings were identified from the reports of coronial inquiries for New Zealand in 2001. Prescriptions for antidepressant medications were identified from the PharmHouse database from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2001. The rates of deaths (95% CI) per prescription, tablet/capsule or defined daily dose were calculated for individual antidepressants and classes of antidepressant. There were 200 poisoning deaths recorded in the database for New Zealand in 2001. Antidepressants were involved in 41 deaths, and death was attributed to an antidepressant in 23 cases. There were 5.52 (95% CI 3.85-7.68) deaths per 100 000 prescriptions for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and 2.51 (1.57-3.79) deaths per 100 000 prescriptions for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). There was marked variability in rates of death per volume of drug dispensed between individual antidepressants. SSRIs have lower rates of death per volume of drug dispensed than TCAs and there is also variation in these rates within these classes of drugs. Toxicity in overdose should be considered when prescribing antidepressants.
Mark, M. A.; Davies-Colley, R.
We conducted a series of research projects to investigate the importance of wood in native forested streams of New Zealand. We examined abundance and geomorphic role of wood in 18 pristine native forest streams (channel width: 3-6 m) throughout New Zealand. Forest type and geographic location had no discernable influence on wood abundance, possibly reflecting the confounding influences of local features (e.g., tree fall regime) and methodology (`snap-shot' survey of a dynamic system). Number (18-66 per 100 m) and dead wood volume (85-470 m3 ha-1) of stream logs were at the high end of the international range. Living trees contributed up to 25% of total wood, and tree ferns were strongly represented (up to 11% of volume). The largest 10% of pieces contributed 75% of the total volume. The importance of the large wood pieces (>10 m3) was explored further with surveys within that watershed containing the site with the greatest wood volume. The largest pieces were rare but seemed relatively uniformly distributed. To explore the biological consequences of stream wood, we studied use of wood-related micro-habitat by the crayfish (Paranephrops planifrons White). Our findings suggest that wood is an important component of New Zealand's forested stream ecosystems.
McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica
Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.
Veale, Jaimie F
Most previous studies of the prevalence of transsexualism have used data from individuals seeking sex reassignment surgery. New Zealand is unique in that transsexual people can apply to have an 'X' for the sex on their passport if they have a name on their birth certificate that is congruent with the sex opposite to their birth assigned sex, and provide a statutory declaration stating they have lived as a member of that sex. From information provided by the New Zealand Passports Office, it was ascertained that the prevalence of transsexualism among New Zealand passport holders was at least 1:6364. The prevalence of male-to-female transsexualism was estimated at 1:3639, and the corresponding figure for female-to-male transsexualism was 1:22,714. These estimates were higher than most previous estimates of transsexualism prevalence. There was also a larger than expected ratio of male-to-female transsexual people to female-to-male transsexual people (6:1), which could in part be due to female-to-male transsexual people being relatively overrepresented among those transsexual people for whom we did not have data on the direction of sex change, or this may be indicative of the demography of transsexualism in Australasia.
Barnett, Ross; Moon, Graham; Kearns, Robin
This study tests a generalisation of the 'Wilkinson' thesis that the greater a nation's income inequality, the poorer the average national health status. We consider the effect of socio-economic inequality upon ethnic variations in smoking in New Zealand. Analysis of Maori and Pakeha (New Zealanders of European descent) smoking rates from the 1996 Census is conducted for 73 Territorial Local Authority areas in New Zealand, disaggregated by gender and rural-urban location. Partial correlation is used to control for absolute levels of deprivation and examine the independent effect of ethnic social inequality upon smoking rates. The level of social inequality between Maori and Pakeha has an independent effect on Maori smoking rates. Pakeha smoking rates by contrast are more sensitive to variations in absolute rather than relative deprivation. The effect of inequality is greatest for Maori women, especially among urban residents. By contrast, among Maori men the effects are greatest in rural areas. The results provide some qualified support for the Wilkinson thesis and suggest that policies which address fundamental issues of social inequality will play a small, but significant, role in helping to reduce high smoking rates amongst Maori. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.
Huang, Jeannie S; Barlow, Sarah E; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P; Xanthakos, Stavra A
Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology.
Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.
Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941
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The formation of skeletal muscle from the epithelial somites involves a series of events triggered by temporally and spatially discrete signals resulting in the generation of muscle fibers which vary in their contractile and metabolic nature. The fiber type composition of muscles varies between individuals and it has now been found that there are differences in fiber type proportions between lean and obese animals and humans. Amongst the possible causes of obesity, it has been suggested that inappropriate prenatal environments may ‘program’ the fetus and may lead to increased risks for disease in adult life. The characteristics of muscle are both heritable and plastic, giving the tissue some ability to adapt to signals and stimuli both pre and postnatally. Given that muscle is a site of fatty acid oxidation and carbohydrate metabolism and that its development can be changed by prenatal events, it is interesting to examine the possible relationship between muscle development and the risk of obesity. PMID:19279728
Davies, Gregory A L; Maxwell, Cynthia; McLeod, Lynne
To review the evidence and provide recommendations for the counselling and management of obese parturients. Outcomes evaluated include the impact of maternal obesity on the provision of antenatal and intrapartum care, maternal morbidity and mortality, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Literature was retrieved through searches of Statistics Canada, Medline, and The Cochrane Library on the impact of obesity in pregnancy on antepartum and intrapartum care, maternal morbidity and mortality, obstetrical anaesthesia, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to April 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Maternal Fetal Medicine and Clinical Practice Obstetric Committees of the SOGC under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should increase recognition of the issues clinicians need to be aware of when managing obese women in pregnancy, improve communication and consultation amongst the obstetrical care team, and encourage federal and provincial agencies to educate Canadians about the values of entering pregnancy with as healthy a weight as possible. 1. Periodic health examinations and other appointments for gynaecologic care prior to pregnancy offer ideal opportunities to raise the issue of weight loss before conception. Women should be
The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.
Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermin; Martínez, J Alfredo
The etiology of obesity is multifactorial, involving complex interactions among the genetic makeup, neuroendocrine status, fetal programming, and different unhealthy environmental factors, such as sedentarism or inadequate dietary habits. Among the different mechanisms causing obesity, epigenetics, defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the DNA sequence, has emerged as a very important determinant. Experimental evidence concerning dietary factors influencing obesity development through epigenetic mechanisms has been described. Thus, identification of those individuals who present with changes in DNA methylation profiles, certain histone modifications, or other epigenetically related processes could help to predict their susceptibility to gain or lose weight. Indeed, research concerning epigenetic mechanisms affecting weight homeostasis may play a role in the prevention of excessive fat deposition, the prediction of the most appropriate weight reduction plan, and the implementation of newer therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parry, David; Hunter, Inga; Honey, Michelle; Holt, Alec; Day, Karen; Kirk, Ray; Cullen, Rowena
New Zealand has a rapidly expanding health information technology (IT) development industry and wide-ranging use of informatics, especially in the primary health sector. The New Zealand government through the National Health IT Board (NHITB) has promised to provide shared care health records of core information for all New Zealanders by 2014. One of the major barriers to improvement in IT use in healthcare is the dearth of trained and interested clinicians, management and technical workforce. Health Informatics New Zealand (HINZ) and the academic community in New Zealand are attempting to remedy this by raising awareness of health informatics at the "grass roots" level of the existing workforce via free "primer" workshops and by developing a sustainable cross-institutional model of educational opportunities. Support from the NHITB has been forthcoming, and the workshops started in early 2013, reaching out to clinical and other staff in post around New Zealand.
Holecki, Michał; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Wiecek, Andrzej; Nieszporek, Teresa; Zak-Gołab, Agnieszka
Both bone and adipose tissue change their size, shape and distribution during the whole human being's life. Many factors, including genetic factors, hormones and activity of nervous system are responsible for these changes. It is generally accepted that obesity has a protective effect on bone tissue. On the other hand some authors present an opposite results--the lack of beneficial effect of obesity on development of osteoporosis fractures. The aim of this article was to present and discuss the relations between adipose tissue and bone metabolism.
Ard, Jamy D; Miller, Gary; Kahan, Scott
Obesity is a common disorder with complex causes. The epidemic has spurred significant advances in the understanding of nutritional approaches to treating obesity. Although the primary challenge is to introduce a dietary intake that creates an energy deficit, clinicians should also consider targeted risk factor modification with manipulation of the nutrient profile of the weight-reducing diet. These strategies produce significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. Future research is needed to better understand how to personalize nutrient prescriptions further to promote optimal risk modification and maintenance of long-term energy balance in the weight-reduced state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lamm, Steven; Chidakel, Aaron; Bansal, Rohan
The relationship between obesity and hypogonadism is complicated. The relationship is bidirectional and there are numerous causative and correlative factors on both sides of the equation. Obesity is increasing in prevalence in epidemic proportions. Likewise, we are beginning to see the rapid increase in the incidence of male hypogonadism. It is only recently that we are learning the ways in which these 2 conditions exacerbate each other, and we are only beginning to understand how by treating one of these conditions, we can help to treat the other as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Warburton, B; Livingstone, P
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in
Gargiulo, D A; Chemal, C; Joda, L; Lee, Y J; Pilkington, M; Haywood, A; Garg, S
The aims of this study were to explore the extent of extemporaneous compounding in veterinary centres throughout New Zealand and to determine whether pharmacists could collaborate with veterinarians to improve this service in New Zealand. Questionnaires were sent to 200 randomly selected veterinarians in New Zealand. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with selected participants from four animal facilities (zoos, research facilities and animal shelters) and two compounding pharmacies. Of the 200 veterinarian questionnaire recipients, 99 responded. Ten replies were withdrawn from the study giving a response rate of 44.5%. Of these 89, 33 (37%) compounded in their practice. Of the 33 compounding professionals, 3 (9%) compounded daily for animals under their care; 11 (34%) weekly, 18 (54%) monthly and 1 (3%) compounded yearly. Compounding was done by 29/33 (88%) veterinarians, 16/33 (48%) veterinary nurses or 6/33 (18%) others. It was carried out due to the unavailability of commercial products, or the need for dose adjustment to ease administration or improve compliance. The animals most commonly requiring veterinary compounding were dogs (21/33; 64%), cats (19/33; 58%) or cattle (15/33; 46%). Products which were commonly compounded included cyclosporin eye drops, methimazole gels and potassium bromide solutions. Issues commonly faced when compounding included unavailability of dosage forms (18/33; 55%) or appropriate ingredients (14/33; 42%), stability (12/33; 36%), time constraints (10/33; 30%) or unavailability of equipment (9/33; 27%). Reasons given for not compounding included medicines being commercially available (38/56; 68%), pharmacy compounding for those particular practices (24/56; 43%), lack of training (21/56; 38%), ingredients (16/56; 29%) or equipment (15/56; 11%). All participants who worked with a pharmacist (11/33; 33%) described this relationship as beneficial and indicated they would continue to do so in the future. Veterinary
Bratsis, Michael E.
U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…
Obesity is one of the leading public health problems in the United States. It is associated with drug abuse and increased mortality. In seeking to differentiate between overweight and obese individuals, it may be said that obesity exists in those individuals who are 40% or more above normal weight as determined on commonly used height and weight…
Miller, Michael D.
Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…
Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)
Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G; Biddle, Andrea K; Blumenthal, James A; Evans, James P; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic.
Nielson, R. Jordan; Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.
The authors tested the efficacy of elevated partial pressures of CO2 to kill invasive New Zealand mudsnails. The New Zealand mudsnails were exposed to 100 kPa at three water temperatures, and the survival was modeled versus dose as cumulative °C-h. We estimated an LD50 of 59.4°C-h for adult and juvenile New Zealand mudsnails. The results suggest that CO2 may be an effective and inexpensive lethal tool to treat substrates, tanks, or materials infested with New Zealand mudsnails.
Thomas, Diana M.; Weedermann, Marion; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Martin, Corby K.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Bredlau, Carl; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Ravussin, Eric; Bouchard, Claude
Objective Obesity prevalence in the United States (US) appears to be leveling, but the reasons behind the plateau remain unknown. Mechanistic insights can be provided from a mathematical model. The objective of this study is to model known multiple population parameters associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) classes and to establish conditions under which obesity prevalence will plateau. Design and Methods A differential equation system was developed that predicts population-wide obesity prevalence trends. The model considers both social and non-social influences on weight gain, incorporates other known parameters affecting obesity trends, and allows for country specific population growth. Results The dynamic model predicts that: obesity prevalence is a function of birth rate and the probability of being born in an obesogenic environment; obesity prevalence will plateau independent of current prevention strategies; and the US prevalence of obesity, overweight, and extreme obesity will plateau by about 2030 at 28%, 32%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusions The US prevalence of obesity is stabilizing and will plateau, independent of current preventative strategies. This trend has important implications in accurately evaluating the impact of various anti-obesity strategies aimed at reducing obesity prevalence. PMID:23804487
Meldrum, David R
Women bear the predominant burden of our obesogenic environment, with a higher incidence of obesity than men, more impact on their fertility and success with treatment, and significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this series, the causes, consequences, and solutions regarding the obesity pandemic, the mechanisms of the effect of obesity on the female and male, the epigenetic consequences of male obesity, the marked effects on perinatal outcomes, and the effects of weight loss before conception and during pregnancy are explored. Lifestyle modifications, in particular a healthy diet and exercise during the 3-6 months before conception and during treatment, should result in better outcomes than requiring weight loss before fertility treatments. Such fundamental changes toward a healthier lifestyle will achieve steady and sustainable weight loss and long-term benefits for general health. The role of bariatric surgery before pregnancy requires careful consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Witt, Cordelie E; Arbabi, Saman; Nathens, Avery B; Vavilala, Monica S; Rivara, Frederick P
The implications of childhood obesity on pediatric trauma outcomes are not clearly established. Anthropomorphic data were recently added to the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) Research Datasets, enabling a large, multicenter evaluation of the effect of obesity on pediatric trauma patients. Children ages 2 to 19years who required hospitalization for traumatic injury were identified in the 2013-2014 NTDB Research Datasets. Age and gender-specific body mass indices (BMI) were calculated. Outcomes included injury patterns, operative procedures, complications, and hospital utilization parameters. Data from 149,817 pediatric patients were analyzed; higher BMI percentiles were associated with significantly more extremity injuries, and fewer injuries to the head, abdomen, thorax and spine (p values <0.001). On multivariable analysis, higher BMI percentiles were associated with significantly increased likelihood of death, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus and pneumonia; although there was no difference in risk of overall complications. Obese children also had significantly longer lengths of stay and more frequent ventilator requirement. Among children admitted after trauma, increased BMI percentile is associated with increased risk of death and potentially preventable complications. These findings suggest that obese children may require different management than nonobese counterparts to prevent complications. Level III; prognosis study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Izaola, Olatz; de Luis, Daniel; Sajoux, Ignacio; Domingo, Joan Carles; Vidal, Montse
Obesity is a chronic disease with multiple origins. It is a widespread global phenomenon carrying potentially serious complications which requires a multidisciplinary approach due to the significant clinical repercussions and elevated health costs associated with the disease. The most recent evidence indicates that it shares a common characteristic with other prevalent, difficult-to-treat pathologies: chronic, low-grade inflammation which perpetuates the disease and is associated with multiple complications. The current interest in lipoinflammation or chronic inflammation associated with obesity derives from an understanding of the alterations and remodelling that occurs in the adipose tissue, with the participation of multiple factors and elements throughout the process. Recent research highlights the importance of some of these molecules, called pro-resolving mediators, as possible therapeutic targets in the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the evidence published on the mechanisms that regulate the adipose tissue remodelling process and lipoinflammation both in obesity and in the mediators that are directly involved in the appearance and resolution of the inflammatory process. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...
Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…
Maternal nutrition at the time of conception and during pregnancy is considered a factor for individual differences in having obesity. The mechanisms underlying this association are likely partially epigenetic in nature, but pinning down the exact nature, location, and timing of these changes remain...
Lewis, Anne C.
Headlines recently were full of studies about the obesity problem of America's children and young people, as if kids became overweight without anyone noticing. An accumulation of both school and family habits, however, have been contributing to the fact that at least 13% of children ages 7 to 11 are overweight, double those of the 1970s (and…
The behavioral management of obesity is an approach designed to provide individuals with a set of skills that promote a healthier weight. A number of strategies are used to assist individuals in making gradual changes that can realistically be incorporated into their lives. Evidence is promising f...
Gossellin, J; Wren, J A; Sunderland, S J
Canine patients are generally regarded as being clinically obese when their body weight is at least 15% above ideal. The incidence of obesity in dogs is thought to be in the range of 20-40% of the general population and, since obesity is known to predispose or exacerbate a range of serious medical conditions, its importance cannot be overstated. Management of obesity through dietary restriction and increased exercise is often difficult to achieve and dependent upon owner compliance. Until recently there has been no authorized therapeutic medication available for weight reduction in dogs, and drugs used in people have proved unsuitable. However, with the development of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors for canine use, such as dirlotapide, the veterinarian has a novel method with which to augment traditional weight control programmes. This approach has the additional advantage that weight loss is achieved without dietary restriction or change in exercise regimen, providing encouragement for the owner to comply with subsequent dietary and exercise recommendations, thereby increasing the likelihood for long-term success.
Rimmer, James H.; Yamaki, Kiyoshi
While much of the industrialized world struggles for clues to the growing rise in obesity in their respective countries, researchers and service providers involved in understanding the health characteristics and health behaviors of persons with intellectual disability (ID) struggle with their own issues regarding the increased prevalence of…
Elmehdawi, Rafik R.; Albarsha, Abdulwahab M.
Obesity is a global epidemic resulting in major morbidity and premature death. About 64% of Libyan adults are either overweight or obese, obesity progressively increasing with age, and two times more common among Libyan women than men. Cases of obesity and overweight are increasing in Libya as well as all over the world, with genetic and environmental factors playing a contributory role. With its known significant morbidity and mortality, obesity should draw the attention of the healthcare community, researchers, and policy makers in Libya. PMID:22899968
Hutchinson, Jeff; Emerick, Jill; Saxena, Harshita
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports a steady increase in obesity over the last 30 years. The greatest increase was seen in 15 to 19 year olds, whose obesity prevalence almost doubled from 10.5% to 19.4%. The solution to pediatric obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach addressing cultural norms, technologic advances, and family engagement. Future treatment strategies to combat the obesity epidemic will have to extend beyond the health care provider's office. Behavior modification remains the key component to pediatric obesity prevention and treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Flores-García, Araceli; Saldaña-Guerrero, Stephanie; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha
Whether low serum magnesium is an epiphenomenon related with obesity or, whether obesity per se is cause of hypomagnesemia, remains to be clarified. To examine the relationship between body weight status and hypomagnesemia in apparently healthy subjects. A total of 681 healthy individuals aged 30 to 65years were enrolled in A cross-sectional study. Extreme exercise, chronic diarrhea, alcohol intake, use of diuretics, smoking, oral magnesium supplementation, diabetes, malnutrition, hypertension, liver disease, thyroid disorders, and renal damage were exclusion criteria. Based in the Body Mass Index (BMI), body weight status was defined as follows: normal weight (BMI <25kg/m 2 ); overweight (BMI ≥25<30 BMIkg/m 2 ); and obesity (BMI ≥30kg/m 2 ). Hypomagnesemia was defined by serum magnesium concentration ≤0.74mmol/L. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to compute the odds ratio (OR) between body weight status (independent variables) and hypomagnesemia (dependent variable). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that dietary magnesium intake (OR 2.11; 95%CI 1.4-5.7) but no obesity (OR 1.53; 95%CI 0.9-2.5), overweight (OR 1.40; 95%CI 0.8-2.4), and normal weight (OR 0.78; 95%CI 0.6-2.09) were associated with hypomagnesemia. A subsequent logistic regression analysis adjusted by body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides levels showed that hyperglycemia (2.19; 95%CI 1.1-7.0) and dietary magnesium intake (2.21; 95%CI 1.1-8.9) remained associated with hypomagnesemia. Our results show that body weight status is not associated with hypomagnesemia and that, irrespective of obesity, hyperglycemia is cause of hypomagnesemia in non-diabetic individuals. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Nonie; Davila, Yolanda; Babendure, Jennie Bever
Purpose Obesity has reached epidemic rates among U.S. women of reproductive age, many of whom want to use contraception. However, some forms of contraception can have adverse effects on an obese woman's health. This article explores risks of contraception available in the United States and provides clinical recommendations for use by obese women. Data sources Information was compiled by reviewing the scientific literature on contraception and female obesity using CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed search engines. Conclusions The evidence is largely supportive of combined oral contraceptive (COC) use in carefully screened obese women without known risks factors for cardiovascular disease. The efficacy of COCs may be slightly reduced in obese women because of increased body mass. Other types of hormonal contraceptives have varying safety and efficacy reports when used by obese women. Intrauterine devices do not have reduced efficacy nor increased risks for obese women but insertion may be more difficult. Obesity has no effect on efficacy of barrier methods of contraception. Implications Clinicians should conduct a careful history and physical exam with selected supporting laboratory tests when considering prescription of hormonal contraceptives for obese women. Obese women require health counseling to carefully follow directions for contraceptive use to avoid unintended pregnancy. PMID:24170564
Hainer, V; Zamrazilová, H; Kunešová, M; Bendlová, B; Aldhoon-Hainerová, I
Associations between different infectious agents and obesity have been reported in humans for over thirty years. In many cases, as in nosocomial infections, this relationship reflects the greater susceptibility of obese individuals to infection due to impaired immunity. In such cases, the infection is not related to obesity as a causal factor but represents a complication of obesity. In contrast, several infections have been suggested as potential causal factors in human obesity. However, evidence of a causal linkage to human obesity has only been provided for adenovirus 36 (Adv36). This virus activates lipogenic and proinflammatory pathways in adipose tissue, improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and hepatic steatosis. The E4orf1 gene of Adv36 exerts insulin senzitizing effects, but is devoid of its pro-inflammatory modalities. The development of a vaccine to prevent Adv36-induced obesity or the use of E4orf1 as a ligand for novel antidiabetic drugs could open new horizons in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes. More experimental and clinical studies are needed to elucidate the mutual relations between infection and obesity, identify additional infectious agents causing human obesity, as well as define the conditions that predispose obese individuals to specific infections.
Vaughns, Janelle D; Conklin, Laurie S; Long, Ying; Zheng, Panli; Faruque, Fahim; Green, Dionna J; van den Anker, John N; Burckart, Gilbert J
There is a lack of dosing guidelines for use in obese children. Moreover, the impact of obesity on drug safety and clinical outcomes is poorly defined. The paucity of information needed for the safe and effective use of drugs in obese patients remains a problem, even after drug approval. To assess the current incorporation of obesity as a covariate in pediatric drug development, the pediatric medical and clinical pharmacology reviews under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 and the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) of 2012 were reviewed for obesity studies. FDA labels were also reviewed for statements addressing obesity in pediatric patients. Forty-five drugs studied in pediatric patients under the FDA Amendments Act were found to have statements and key words in the medical and clinical pharmacology reviews and labels related to obesity. Forty-four products were identified similarly with pediatric studies under FDASIA. Of the 89 product labels identified, none provided dosing information related to obesity. The effect of body mass index on drug pharmacokinetics was mentioned in only 4 labels. We conclude that there is little information presently available to provide guidance related to dosing in obese pediatric patients. Moving forward, regulators, clinicians, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider situations in drug development in which the inclusion of obese patients in pediatric trials is necessary to facilitate the safe and effective use of new drug products in the obese pediatric population. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Accurate measurements of total energy expenditure of lean and obese individuals with a respiration chamber have clearly shown that obese individuals expand more energy than lean sedentary subjects. Studies on the body composition of obese individuals reveal that not only the fat mass is enlarged, but the fat-free mass is also increased as compared with that of lean subjects. Since basal metabolic rate is proportional to the fat-free mass, obese subjects have a greater basal metabolic rate than lean controls. The energy cost of weight bearing activities such as walking and standing is related to body weight, and is therefore increased in obese individuals. The thermogenic response to food ingestion, the diet-induced thermogenesis, has been found to be reduced in some groups of obese people, but not in all obese individuals. The thermic effect of glucose or to meal ingestion is blunted in obese subjects with insulin resistance. Any alteration in thermogenic responses to a caloric excess can be important to store or to oxidize part of the excessive energy intake. After weight reduction in obese subjects due to a hypocaloric diet, the total 24-hour energy expenditure decreases by 20 to 25 kcal/day for each kilogram of weight loss. Failure to adapt the every day energy intake accordingly will result in body weight gain and relapse of obesity.
Horsburgh-McLeod, G; Latner, J D; O'Brien, K S
Prejudice towards obese people is widespread and has negative consequences for individuals with obesity. The present study covertly examined whether participants spontaneously generate different written transcript content (i.e., more negative stereotypes) when presented with a picture of an obese person or a normal-weight person. Two pictures of young women were computer generated to appear identical in all features except for body shape, which was either obese or normal-weight. Forty-nine women blind to the nature of the study were randomized to receive either the obese or normal-weight picture and asked to write a free-response description of a typical "day in the life" of the woman depicted. Independent coding of the transcripts revealed more frequent negative stereotypes and more negative valence generated by participants asked to describe a typical day of the obese target. These differences are consistent with the prevalent negative stereotypes of obese individuals.
Cote, Anita T; Harris, Kevin C; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Sandor, George G S; Devlin, Angela M
Obesity-related cardiovascular disease in children is becoming more prevalent in conjunction with the rise in childhood obesity. Children with obesity are predisposed to an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Importantly, research in children with obesity over the last decade has demonstrated that children may exhibit early signs of cardiovascular dysfunction as a result of their excess adiposity, often independent of other obesity-related comorbidities such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. The clinical evidence is accumulating to suggest that the cardiovascular damage, once observed only in adults, is also occurring in obese children. The objective of this review is to provide a synopsis of the current research on cardiovascular abnormalities in children with obesity and highlight the importance and need for early detection and prevention programs to mitigate this potentially serious health problem. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Westerhoff, Rogier; Tschritter, Constanze; Rawlinson, Zara; White, Paul
Groundwater plays an essential role in water provision for domestic, industrial and agricultural use. Groundwater is also vital for ecology and environment, since it provides baseflow to many streams, rivers and wetlands. As groundwater is a 'hidden' resource that is typically poorly understood by the public, simple and informative maps can assist to enhance awareness for understanding groundwater and associated environmental issues. The first national aquifer map for New Zealand (2001) identified 200 aquifers at a scale of approximately 1:5 Million. Subsequently, regional councils and unitary authorities have updated their aquifer boundaries using a variety of methods. However, with increasing demand of groundwater in New Zealand and drought impacts expected to be more significant in the future, more consistent and more advanced aquifer characterisation and mapping techniques are needed to improve our understanding of the available resources. Significant resources have gone into detailed geological mapping in recent years, and the New Zealand 1:250,000 Geological Map (QMAP) was developed and released as a seamless GIS database in 2014. To date, there has been no national assessment of this significant data set for aquifer characterisation purposes. This study details the use of the QMAP lithological and chrono-stratigraphic information to develop a nationwide assessment of hydrogeological units and their properties. The aim of this study is to map hydrogeological units in New Zealand, with a long-term goal to use this as a basis for a nationally-consistent map of aquifer systems and aquifer properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity estimates). Internationally accepted aquifer mapping studies were reviewed and a method was devised that classifies hydrogeological units based on the geological attributes of the QMAP ArcGIS polygons. The QMAP attributes used in this study were: main rock type; geological age; and secondary rock type. The method was mainly based on
Prescott, S L; Allen, K; Armstrong, K; Collins, C; Dickinson, H; Gardiner, K; Jacka, F; Jasoni, C; Moore, T; Moritz, K M; Muhlhausler, B; Siero, W; Sim, K; Nanan, R; Saffery, R; Singh, G; Vickers, M H; Craig, J M
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014-2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity - even before birth - we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on 'Translation, policy and communication' which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
Tseng, Marilyn; Taylor, Steve; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Savila, Faasisila; Paterson, Janis; Rush, Elaine
In New Zealand (NZ), children of Pacific heritage are generally born heavier and gain weight more quickly than non-Pacific children. Immigrants' health is commonly expected to converge with the host population through acculturation. The aim of this analysis was to examine whether mothers' acculturation is associated with less-rapid weight gain in NZ Pacific children, and whether this differs by mothers' nativity. In a birth cohort of 1249 children followed 2000-2011, birth weight and weight and standing height, measured at years 2, 4, 6, 9, and 11, were quantified as sex- and age-specific weight (weight-for-age; WFA) and BMI z-scores. Maternal acculturation (range, 11-54) was assessed at baseline and years 4, 6, and 11. In adjusted models using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures, maternal acculturation was not significantly associated with children's WFA or BMI z-scores overall. In stratified analyses, change in maternal acculturation score was inversely associated with WFA z-score change among children of NZ-born, but not immigrant, mothers (beta=-0.021; 95% confidence interval, -0.036 to -0.007; p=0.006; interaction, p=0.005). Our study provides the first evidence in a longitudinal sample that changes in maternal acculturation can influence children's growth, suggesting the importance of lifestyle or behavioral factors related to a mother's cultural orientation. Given the high risk of obesity and its related conditions in the NZ Pacific population, critical next steps are to identify mediating factors, as well as to understand the processes influencing growth among children of immigrant mothers.
Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E
Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14–15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Findings to date Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Future plans Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce
Fransen, M; Wilsmore, B; Winstanley, J; Woodward, M; Grunstein, R; Ameratunga, S; Norton, R
To investigate associations between work patterns and the occurrence of work injury. A cross sectional analysis of the New Zealand Blood Donors Health Study conducted among the 15 687 (70%) participants who reported being in paid employment. After measurement of height and weight, a self-administered questionnaire collected information concerning occupation and work pattern, lifestyle behaviour, sleep, and the occurrence of an injury at work requiring treatment from a doctor during the past 12 months. Among paid employees providing information on work pattern, 3119 (21.2%) reported doing shift work (rotating with nights, rotating without nights, or permanent nights) and 1282 (8.7%) sustained a work injury. In unadjusted analysis, work injury was most strongly associated with employment in heavy manual occupations (3.6, 2.8 to 4.6) (relative risk, 95% CI), being male (1.9, 1.7 to 2.2), being obese (1.7, 1.5 to 2.0), working rotating shifts with nights (2.1, 1.7 to 2.5), and working more than three nights a week (1.9, 1.6 to 2.3). Snoring, apnoea or choking during sleep, sleep complaints, and excessive daytime sleepiness were also significantly associated with work injury. When mutually adjusting for all significant risk factors, rotating shift work, with or without nights, remained significantly associated with work injury (1.9, 1.5 to 2.4) and (1.8, 1.2 to 2.6), respectively. Working permanent night shifts was no longer significantly associated with work injury in the adjusted model. Work injury is highly associated with rotating shift work, even when accounting for increased exposure to high risk occupations, lifestyle factors, and excessive daytime sleepiness.
Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N.; Asarian, Lori
Abstract BACKGROUND Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. SEARCH METHODS Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. OUTCOMES We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates
Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori
Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a
Halkjaer, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
Differences in the prevalence of obesity between adjacent regions are quite common, but usually unexplained. This study examined whether birth place, selective migration, intelligence or education--which are both inversely and possibly causally related to obesity--are determinants of such differences. This population-based case-control study (case-cohort design) took place in the greater Copenhagen area (region 1) and surrounding provincial areas of Zealand (region 2), Denmark. A total of 2948 men with a median age of 19 years from two draft board regions during 1966-1977 were examined. The odds ratio (OR) for being obese (defined as body mass index > or = 31 kg/m2) was investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses. The OR for being obese in region 2 compared with region 1 was 1.74 (1.50-2.03). Adjustment for birth place, intelligence test score and educational level reduced the OR to 1.42 (1.10-1.82). The OR for being obese for those born in region 2 compared with region 1 was 1.71 (1.46-2.01). Adjustments for intelligence test score, educational level and examination region reduced this OR to 1.13 (0.87-1.46). Irrespective of birth place, men examined in region 2 had a higher OR for being obese than those examined in region 1; this effect was most pronounced for those born in region 2 and examined in either region 1 or 2, with an OR of 1.06 (0.71-1.57) and 1.87 (1.58-2.22) respectively. In conclusion, the regional differences in the prevalence of obesity could not be explained by birth place or later selective migration, but educational level and intelligence test score did explain some of the difference.
Lawrenson, Ross A; Nixon, Garry; Steed, Robin H
The sustainability of New Zealand's rural hospitals has been in question for some years. Increasingly, clinical services have been centralised and specialist staff have moved to bigger centres. As well as clinical services, the governance of these hospitals has shifted, often due to a shortage of vocationally registered medical practitioners available to lead the clinical services. In 2009 the Medical Council of New Zealand (MCNZ) approved a new vocational scope of practice in Rural Hospital Medicine (RHM). The present study was designed to establish the current composition of the rural hospital medical workforce at the introduction of this new scope of practice. This study was a 2009 cross-sectional survey of rural hospitals approved for RHM training by the MCNZ. Hospital managers were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire. All medical practitioners providing medical care in these hospitals in 2009 were identified, and each was mailed an additional questionnaire. In all, 28 rural hospitals and 107 medical practitioners who provided clinical services were identified; 28 responses (100%) were received to the hospital managers' survey and 69 responses (64%) to the doctors' survey. The managers' survey revealed a shortage of medical practitioners and significant use of locum staff. The workforce had a median age of 47 years, was predominantly male (75%) and principally trained overseas (68%), and 54% was vocationally registered. A proportion of the hospitals (35%) did not have a recognised clinical leader or an active process for credentialing new medical staff. The findings were not unexpected but do quantify the shortage of medical practitioners and the governance issues facing small rural hospitals in New Zealand. The scope of RHM has the potential to attract new doctors into practice, providing greater stability and clinical leadership for these important facilities. The study provides a baseline for a future evaluation of the effectiveness of the introduction of
Bay, Jacquie L; Spiroski, Ana-Mishel; Fogg-Rogers, Laura; McCann, Clare M; Faull, Richard L M; Barber, Peter A
Stroke is the third most common cause of death and a major cause of chronic disability in New Zealand. Linked to risk factors that develop across the life-course, stroke is considered to be largely preventable. This study assessed the awareness of stroke risk, symptoms, detection, and prevention behaviors in an urban New Zealand population. Demographics, stroke risk factors awareness, symptoms, responsiveness, and prevention behaviors were evaluated using a structured oral questionnaire. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of stroke literacy. Although personal experience of stroke increased awareness of symptoms and their likeliness to indicate the need for urgent medical attention, only 42.7% of the respondents (n = 850) identified stroke as involving both blood and the brain. Educational attainment at or above a trade certificate, apprenticeship, or diploma increased the awareness of stroke symptoms compared with those with no formal educational attainment. Pacific Island respondents were less likely than New Zealand Europeans to identify a number of stroke risk factors. Māori, Pacific Island, and Asian respondents were less likely to identify symptoms of stroke and indicate the need for urgent medical attention. The variability in stroke awareness and knowledge may suggest the need to enhance stroke-related health literacy that facilitates understanding of risk and of factors that reduce morbidity and mortality after stroke in people of Māori and Pacific Island descent and in those with lower educational attainment or socioeconomic status. It is therefore important that stroke awareness campaigns include tailored components for target audiences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riden, H; Jacobs, S; Marshall, B
New Zealand encourages internationally educated nurses to seek registration in New Zealand to reduce local nursing shortages. Internationally educated nurses must meet requirements of the Health Practitioners Competency Assurance Act 2003, and demonstrate competency to practise through a clinical competency assessment programme. The purpose was to establish whether preceptors believe they are adequately prepared to assess nurses for whom English is a second language, and to determine the support and recognition received in the role. Preceptor training, workload, understanding of ethical and legal accountability, and perceived organizational values, support and attitudes were evaluated via an anonymous internet survey. Some preceptors do not meet Nursing Council of New Zealand standards and some work environments require nurses to preceptor international nurses. Many nurses believe the role is not valued despite the high workload requirements. Training increased preceptor confidence and preparedness for clinical assessment but additional education is required to understand ethical and legal accountability within the role. Many preceptors indicated they felt pressured into recording assessments they were uncomfortable with. Enhancing preceptorship acceptance could be achieved through institutional recognition of the role's value via workload consideration, institutional recognition or financial means. Increased preceptorship training, particularly around ethical and legal issues, would encourage preceptor confidence. Organizations must find ways of meeting these challenges while recognizing they are responsible for the work environment of both preceptors and internationally registered nurses for whom English is a second language. A register of preceptors could provide a platform for audit and quality assurance principles, ensuring adequate education and preparation of preceptors. Effective preceptorship requires training, recognition and support. Successful
Holdaway, Robert J; Wiser, Susan K; Williams, Peter A
Globally, ecosystems are under increasing anthropogenic pressure; thus, many are at risk of elimination. This situation has led the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to propose a quantitative approach to ecosystem-risk assessment. However, there is a need for their proposed criteria to be evaluated through practical examples spanning a diverse range of ecosystems and scales. We applied the IUCN's ecosystem red-list criteria, which are based on changes in extent of ecosystems and reductions in ecosystem processes, to New Zealand's 72 naturally uncommon ecosystems. We aimed to test the applicability of the proposed criteria to ecosystems that are naturally uncommon (i.e., those that would naturally occur over a small area in the absence of human activity) and to provide information on the probability of ecosystem elimination so that conservation priorities might be set. We also tested the hypothesis that naturally uncommon ecosystems classified as threatened on the basis of IUCN Red List criteria contain more threatened plant species than those classified as nonthreatened. We identified 18 critically endangered, 17 endangered, and 10 vulnerable ecosystems. We estimated that naturally uncommon ecosystems contained 145 (85%) of mainland New Zealand's taxonomically distinct nationally critical, nationally endangered, and nationally vulnerable plant species, 66 (46%) of which were endemic to naturally uncommon ecosystems. We estimated there was a greater number of threatened plant species (per unit area) in critically endangered ecosystems than in ecosystems classified as nonthreatened. With their high levels of endemism and rapid and relatively well-documented history of anthropogenic change, New Zealand's naturally uncommon ecosystems provide an excellent case-study for the ongoing development of international criteria for threatened ecosystems. We suggest that interactions and synergies among decline in area, decline in function, and the scale of
Johansen, Cheryl; Jakob-Hoff, Richard; Pulford, David; Castro, Isabel; Mackereth, Graham
Introduction Given the significant burden that emerging infectious diseases place on global economies and public health, the monitoring and mitigation of, and early response to, potential infectious diseases are of the highest priority. The objective of this study was to survey for known and other potential arboviral zoonoses in multiple bird species at four locations in New Zealand. Methods Common bird species were targeted for blood sampling during two southern hemisphere summers. Sera from each period (n = 185 and n = 693) were screened in an epitope blocking enzyme immunoassay for flavivirus antibody detection. In the first season, testing for antibodies to specific alphaviruses was conducted on samples with sufficient sera (n = 22). In the second season, blood clots (n = 544) were screened for viral presence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for alphaviral and flaviviral RNA, and virus isolation (n = 146) was conducted. Results Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 13 species, and one Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) from one site was positive for antibodies to Ross River virus. PCR tests and virus isolation were all negative. Discussion: Evidence for flavivirus exposure in seabirds at Kaikoura Peninsula and Cape Kidnappers suggests that viruses isolated from seabirds and associated ticks in New Zealand in the late 1970s are still present. Evidence for flavivirus exposure in passerines at Kaikoura Peninsula, Cape Kidnappers and Mokoia Island is novel. The Ross River virus finding is also new and supports the hypothesis that migratory seabirds are an import pathway for such agents into New Zealand. PMID:24478919
Marie, Dannette; Forsyth, Darryl K; Miles, Lynden K
Public social policies in New Zealand assume that there are fundamental differences between Maori views of health phenomena and non-Maori perceptions. The biomedical model and a Maori model known as Te Whare Tapa Wha are commonly employed to characterise these differences. Using the categorical ethnicity demarcation 'Maori/non-Maori' we investigate this claim with respect to mental health literacy about depression. Participants were randomly selected from the General and Maori Electoral Rolls and recruited by post (N=205). A vignette methodology was employed and involved the development of a fictional character as a target stimulus who exhibited the minimum DSM-IV-R criteria for a major depressive disorder. Participants responded to items regarding problem recognition, well-being, causal attributions, treatment preferences, and likely prognosis. The majority of Maori and non-Maori participants correctly identified the problem the vignette character was experiencing and nominated congruent attributions for the causes of the problem. In relation to treatment strategies and likely prognosis, independent of self-assigned ethnicity, participants rated professional treatments above alternative options. Overall the categorical ethnicity distinction 'Maori and non-Maori' produced no systematic variation with regards to individual evaluative responses about a major depressive disorder. Contrary to the embedded assumption within New Zealand's public health strategies that there are essential differences between the way Maori and non-Maori view health problems, and that the categorical ethnicity demarcation reliably reflects these differences, we found no evidence for the veracity of this claim using a major depressive disorder as a target for judgements. Alternative explanations are canvassed as to why this assumption about fundamental differences based on categorical ethnicity has gained ascendancy and prominence within the sphere of New Zealand health.
Lovell, Sarah A; Egan, Richard; Robertson, Lindsay; Hicks, Karen
Almost a decade on from the New Zealand Primary Health Care Strategy and amidst concerns about funding of health promotion, we undertook a nationwide survey of health promotion providers. To identify trends in recruitment and turnover in New Zealand's health promotion workforce. Surveys were sent to 160 organisations identified as having a health focus and employing one or more health promoter. Respondents, primarily health promotion managers, were asked to report budget, retention and hiring data for 1 July 2009 through 1 July 2010. Responses were received from 53% of organisations. Among respondents, government funding for health promotion declined by 6.3% in the year ended July 2010 and health promoter positions decreased by 7.5% (equalling 36.6 full-time equivalent positions). Among staff who left their roles, 79% also left the field of health promotion. Forty-two organisations (52%) reported employing health promoters on time-limited contracts of three years or less; this employment arrangement was particularly common in public health units (80%) and primary health organisations (57%). Among new hires, 46% (n=55) were identified as Maori. Low retention of health promoters may reflect the common use of limited-term employment contracts, which allow employers to alter staffing levels as funding changes. More than half the surveyed primary health organisations reported using fixed-term employment contracts. This may compromise health promotion understanding, culture and institutional memory in these organisations. New Zealand's commitment to addressing ethnic inequalities in health outcomes was evident in the high proportion of Maori who made up new hires.
McBride, David I; Burns, Carol J; Herbison, G Peter; Humphry, Noel F; Bodner, Kenneth; Collins, James J
Previous studies at the Dow AgroSciences (Formerly Ivon Watkins-Dow) plant in New Plymouth, New Zealand, had raised concerns about the cancer risk in a subset of workers at the site with potential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. As the plant had been involved in the synthesis and formulation of a wide range of agrochemicals and their feedstocks, we examined the mortality risk for all workers at the site. To quantify the mortality hazards arising from employment at the Dow AgroSciences agrochemical production site in New Plymouth, New Zealand. Workers employed between 1 January 1969 and 1 October 2003 were followed up to the end of 2004. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using national mortality rates by employment duration, sex, period of hire and latency. A total of 1754 employees were followed during the study period and 247 deaths were observed. The all causes and all cancers SMRs were 0.97 (95% CI 0.85-1.10) and 1.01 (95% CI 0.80-1.27), respectively. Mortality due to all causes was higher for short-term workers (SMR 1.23, 95% CI 0.91-1.62) than long-term workers (SMR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80-1.06) and women had lower death rates than men. Analyses by latency and period of hire did not show any patterns consistent with an adverse impact of occupational exposures. The mortality experience of workers at the site was similar to the rest of New Zealand.
Geng, Guangqi; Wang, Qian; Shi, Jiandang; Yan, Junfa; Niu, Ningkui; Wang, Zili
This was an experimental study. To investigate and evaluate the experimental method of establishing a New Zealand rabbit model of spinal tuberculosis. Establishing animal models of tuberculosis is critical to the experimental and clinical study of tuberculosis, especially spinal tuberculosis. However, the rapid spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and subsequent high mortality thwarted their effort. Since then, no animal models have been established of spinal tuberculosis. Forty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into experimental (n=20), control (n=20), and blank groups (n=2). Experimental animals were sensitized by complete Freund's adjuvant. A hole drilled under the upper endplate of the L4 vertebral body was filled with a gelfoam sponge infused with 0.1 mL H37Rv standard M. tuberculosis suspension (in controls, culture medium, and saline). Blank animals received no treatment. Survival 8 weeks after surgery was 89.5%, 94.7%, and 100% in experimental, control, and blank groups, respectively. The model was successfully established in all surviving experimental rabbits. In experimental animals, vertebral body destruction at 4 weeks was 50% by x-ray; 83.3% by computed tomography reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging; at 8 weeks, 58.8% by x-ray and 100% by computed tomograph reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging. At 8 weeks, experimental animals developed vertebral destruction, granulation, and necrosis and 17.6% had psoas abscess. Histopathology revealed numerous lymphocytes and epithelioid cells, trabecular bone fracture, and coagulative necrosis in the vertebrae of experimental animals; bacterium culture was 52.9% positive. Control and blank animals showed no such changes. A New Zealand rabbit of spinal tuberculosis model can be successfully established by drilling a hole in the upper endplate of the vertebral body, filling with gelfoam sponge infused with H37Rv standard M. tuberculosis suspension after sensitization by complete Freund
Dave, Bhargav; Dave, Asmi; Kotecha, Nilesh; Oates, Myrtle
Introduction The triathlon involves a combination of three separate disciplines-swimming, cycling and running. To date, very few studies have been conducted on the anthropometric characteristics of the New Zealand junior elite triathletes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between physical traits of calf girth or sum of eight skinfolds (anthropometry) and running or cycling performances in the triathlon event. Methods Eleven junior elite triathletes (6 females, 5 males; (Av. age: 17) who were selected for the New Zealand national squad, were examined in this cross-sectional study. All athletes were measured for the complete anthropometric profile, as per the International Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) guidelines. It was then correlated with the cycling and running performances using interclass correlation (ICC) with 90% confidence interval (CI) limits. Results A non-significant positive correlation observed between eight skinfolds tests on running performance (ICC: 0.10; 90% CI: −0.68–0.77; p>0.05) and biking performance (ICC: 0.15; 90% CI: −0.65–0.79; p>0.05), suggested athletes with greater body fat may render a better athletic performance. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and running performance (ICC:−0.66; 90% CI: −0.94 – −0.12; p<0.05) and a non-significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and cycling performance (ICC:−0.94; 90% CI: −0.97– 0.68; p>0.05). Conclusion Anthropometric data can help in predicting an ideal body profile. This research indicates the similarities and differences of the New Zealand junior profile and the world junior profile. PMID:27504176
Battin, M; Sadler, L; Masson, V; Farquhar, C
To establish the incidence of moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy (NE) in term infants from New Zealand and to document demographic characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Cases were reported monthly via the New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Unit (NZPSU). Data were collected from paediatricians for neonatal items and lead maternity carers for pregnancy and birth details. Term neonatal deaths in the Perinatal and Maternal Mortality Review Committee dataset that were because of hypoxia and/or neonatal deaths from hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy were added to the cases identified via the NZPSU, if they had not previously been ascertained. For the period January 2010 to December 2012, there were 227 cases, equivalent to a rate of 1.30/1000 term births (95% CI 1.14-1.48). Rates of NE were high in babies of Pacific and Indian mothers but only reached statistical significance for the comparison between Pacific and NZ European. There was also a significant increase in NE rates with increasing deprivation. Resuscitation at birth was initiated for 209 (92.1%) infants with NE. Mechanical ventilation was required, following neonatal unit admission, in 171 (75.3%) infants. Anticonvulsants were used in 157 (69.2%) infants with phenobarbitone (65.6%), phenytoin (14.5%) and benzodiazapines (21.1%), the most common. Cooling was induced in 168 infants (74%) with 145 (86.3%) reported as commenced within a 6-h window. The rate of NE in New Zealand is consistent with reported international rates. Establishing antecedent factors for NE is an important part of improving care, which may inform strategic efforts to decrease rates of NE. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Lorrey, Andrew M.; Boswijk, Gretel; Hogg, Alan; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Christian S. M.; Fowler, Anthony M.; Ogden, John; Woolley, John-Mark
New Zealand swamp kauri (Agathis australis) are relic trees that have been buried and preserved in anoxic bog environments of northern New Zealand for centuries through to hundreds of millennia. Kauri are massive in proportion to other native New Zealand trees and they can attain ages greater than 1000 years. The export market for swamp (subfossil) kauri has recently been driven by demand for a high-value workable timber, but there are concerns about the sustainability of the remaining resource, a situation exacerbated in recent years by the rapid extraction of wood. Economic exploitation of swamp kauri presents several unique opportunities for Quaternary science, however the scientific value of this wood is not well understood by the wider research community and public. Here, we summarise the history of scientific research on swamp kauri, and explore the considerable potential of this unique resource. Swamp kauri tree-ring chronologies are temporally unique, and secondary analyses (such as radiocarbon and isotopic analyses) have value for improving our understanding of Earth's recent geologic history and pre-instrumental climate history. Swamp kauri deposits that span the last interglacial-glacial cycle show potential to yield "ultra-long" multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies, and composite records spanning large parts of MIS3 (and most of the Holocene) may be possible. High-precision radiocarbon dating of swamp kauri chronologies can improve the resolution of the global radiocarbon calibration curve, while testing age modelling and chronologic alignment of other independent long-term high-resolution proxy records. Swamp kauri also has the potential to facilitate absolute dating and verification of cosmogenic events found in long Northern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. Future efforts to conserve these identified values requires scientists to work closely with swamp kauri industry operators, resource consent authorities, and export regulators to mitigate
Burns, Carol J.; Herbison, G. Peter; Humphry, Noel F.; Bodner, Kenneth; Collins, James J.
Background Previous studies at the Dow AgroSciences (Formerly Ivon Watkins-Dow) plant in New Plymouth, New Zealand, had raised concerns about the cancer risk in a subset of workers at the site with potential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. As the plant had been involved in the synthesis and formulation of a wide range of agrochemicals and their feedstocks, we examined the mortality risk for all workers at the site. Aims To quantify the mortality hazards arising from employment at the Dow AgroSciences agrochemical production site in New Plymouth, New Zealand. Methods Workers employed between 1 January 1969 and 1 October 2003 were followed up to the end of 2004. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using national mortality rates by employment duration, sex, period of hire and latency. Results A total of 1754 employees were followed during the study period and 247 deaths were observed. The all causes and all cancers SMRs were 0.97 (95% CI 0.85–1.10) and 1.01 (95% CI 0.80–1.27), respectively. Mortality due to all causes was higher for short-term workers (SMR 1.23, 95% CI 0.91–1.62) than long-term workers (SMR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80–1.06) and women had lower death rates than men. Analyses by latency and period of hire did not show any patterns consistent with an adverse impact of occupational exposures. Conclusions The mortality experience of workers at the site was similar to the rest of New Zealand. PMID:19297337
Walker, N; Norton, R; Vander Hoorn, S; Rodgers, A; MacMahon, S; Clark, T; Gray, H
To determine the 35-day and one-year mortality rates following a hospital admission for hip fracture, among individuals aged 60 years or older in New Zealand. New Zealand Health Information Service mortality data for the years 1988 to 1992 were examined to determine the case fatality rate among individuals aged 60 years or older admitted to hospital for fractures of the neck of femur (ICD-9 N-code 820). Case fatality rates assessed at 35 days and one year after admission to hospital were examined by age, gender, year of admission, place of residence, area health board region and cause of death. Between 1988 and 1992, the case fatality rate was 8% within 35 days of admission to hospital and 24% within one year of admission. Case fatality rates were found to be twice as high in men compared to women and four to five times higher in individuals aged 85 years and older, compared to people aged between 60 and 64 years. The only regional difference in hip fracture mortality was found in the Canterbury area health board region, which had a 30% higher rate of hip fracture mortality compared to all regions combined. The two main cited underlying causes of death after hip fracture were accidental falls (ICD E880-E888) and ischaemic heart disease (ICD 410-414). Over three-quarters of individuals aged 60 years or older who are hospitalised with a hip fracture in New Zealand survive for at least one year after admission. However, significant variations in mortality exist with age and gender. These data highlight the importance of preventive strategies for hip fracture in older people and the need to identify ways of improving post-admission care.
Baker, Robert A.; Willcox, Timothy W.
Abstract: The current practice of perfusion in Australia and New Zealand continues to adopt new techniques and procedures into clinical practice. Our aims were to report current practice in 2003 and to compare and contrast current practice with historic practice. A total of 62 centers (40 perfusion groups) performing procedures using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were identified and were e-mailed a detailed electronic survey. The survey was comprised of an excel worksheet that contained 233 single answer questions (either dropdown lists, yes/no, true/false, or numeric) and 12 questions that allowed the respondent to provide a commentary. Respondents were instructed to answer all questions based on what represented the predominant practice of perfusion in their institutions during 2003. We report an 89% response rate representing a caseload of 20,688 adult cases. These data allowed us to profile the following. A standard adult CPB setup in 2003 consisted of a membrane oxygenator (100% of cases), a roller pump (70%) as the main arterial pump, although a centrifugal pump would be considered for selected procedures (30%), a circuit incorporating a hard-shell venous reservoir (86%), and a mixture of biocompatible and nonbiocompatible circuit components (66%). The circuit would include a pre-bypass filter (88%), an arterial line filter (94%), and would allow monitoring of the following: hard-shell venous reservoir low level (100%) with servo-regulation of the arterial pump (85%), microbubble alarm (94%) with servo-regulation of the arterial pump (79.5%), arterial line pressures (100%) with servo-regulation of the arterial pump (79%), inline venous O2 saturation (100%), and inline hematocrit (58%). Perfusion practice in Australia and New Zealand has adopted changes over the last decade; however, some areas of practice show wide variation. This survey provides a baseline of contemporary practice for Australian and New Zealand perfusionists. PMID:17089508
Kaplan, Michael R; Schaefer, Joerg M; Denton, George H; Barrell, David J A; Chinn, Trevor J H; Putnam, Aaron E; Andersen, Bjørn G; Finkel, Robert C; Schwartz, Roseanne; Doughty, Alice M
Millennial-scale cold reversals in the high latitudes of both hemispheres interrupted the last transition from full glacial to interglacial climate conditions. The presence of the Younger Dryas stadial (approximately 12.9 to approximately 11.7 kyr ago) is established throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, but the global timing, nature and extent of the event are not well established. Evidence in mid to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, has remained perplexing. The debate has in part focused on the behaviour of mountain glaciers in New Zealand, where previous research has found equivocal evidence for the precise timing of increased or reduced ice extent. The interhemispheric behaviour of the climate system during the Younger Dryas thus remains an open question, fundamentally limiting our ability to formulate realistic models of global climate dynamics for this time period. Here we show that New Zealand's glaciers retreated after approximately 13 kyr bp, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, and in general over the subsequent approximately 1.5-kyr period. Our evidence is based on detailed landform mapping, a high-precision (10)Be chronology and reconstruction of former ice extents and snow lines from well-preserved cirque moraines. Our late-glacial glacier chronology matches climatic trends in Antarctica, Southern Ocean behaviour and variations in atmospheric CO(2). The evidence points to a distinct warming of the southern mid-latitude atmosphere during the Younger Dryas and a close coupling between New Zealand's cryosphere and southern high-latitude climate. These findings support the hypothesis that extensive winter sea ice and curtailed meridional ocean overturning in the North Atlantic led to a strong interhemispheric thermal gradient during late-glacial times, in turn leading to increased upwelling and CO(2) release from the Southern Ocean, thereby triggering Southern Hemisphere warming during the northern Younger Dryas.