Hughes, Kerri-Ann; Carryer, Jennifer Barbara
This article reports research reviewing the configuration of nursing leadership in New Zealand public hospitals. It represents an analysis of Phase 1 of a larger study. Leadership in nursing is critical if the profession is to meet the challenges of health services in the 21st century. The research focuses on how leadership in public hospitals is structured at a strategic level. The preliminary summary of findings of this phase of the research show that reporting lines between directors of nursing (DON) and the chief executive officer (CEO) are not always direct, and organizational charts and nursing structures are not readily aligned. Clear financial or budget holding reporting lines by nursing leadership are not easily identified, or are professional and operational accountability lines clearly defined. From 15 total responses received, the organizations are structured differently both organizationally and in the nursing structures.
Brown, Paul; Panattoni, Laura; Cameron, Linda; Knox, Stephanie; Ashton, Toni; Tenbensel, Tim; Windsor, John
This study uses a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to measure patients' preferences for public and private hospital care in New Zealand. A labeled DCE was administered to 583 members of the general public, with the choice between a public and private hospital for a non-urgent surgery. The results suggest that cost of surgery, waiting times for surgery, option to select a surgeon, convenience, and conditions of the hospital ward are important considerations for patients. The most important determinant of hospital choice was whether it was a public or private hospital, with respondents far more likely to choose a public hospital than a private hospital. The results have implications for government policy toward using private hospitals to clear waiting lists in public hospitals, with these results suggesting the public might not be indifferent to policies that treat private hospitals as substitutes for public hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hider, Phil; Parker, Karl; von Randow, Martin; Milne, Barry; Lay-Yee, Roy; Davis, Peter
Increasing interest has focused on the safety of hospital care. The AusPSIs are a set of indicators developed from Australian administrative data to reliably identify inpatient adverse events in hospitals. The main aim of this study was to explore the application of the AHRQ/AusPSIs to New Zealand administrative hospital data related to medical and surgical care. Variation over time and across hospitals were also considered for a subset of the more common indicators. AHRQ/AusPSIs were adapted for use with New Zealand National Minimum Dataset administrative data for the period 2001-9. Crude positive event rates for each of the 16 indicators were assessed across New Zealand public hospitals. Variation over time for six more common indicators is presented using statistical control charts. Variation between hospitals was explored using rates adjusted for differences in patient variables including age, sex, ethnicity, rurality of residence, NZDep score and comorbidities. The AHRQ/AusPSIs were applied to New Zealand administrative hospital data and some 99,366 admissions were associated with a positive indicator event. However rates for some indicators were low (<1% of denominator admissions). Over the study period considerable variation in the rate of positive events was evident for the six most common indicators. Likewise there was substantial variation between hospitals in relation to risk adjusted positive event rates Patient safety indicators can be applied to New Zealand administrative hospital data. While infrequent rates hinder the use of some of the indicators, several could now be readily employed as warning flags to help monitor rates of adverse events at particular hospitals. In conjunction with other established or emerging tools, such as audit and trigger tools, the PSIs are now available to promote ongoing quality improvement activities in New Zealand hospitals.
Langley, J; Stephenson, S; Thorpe, C; Davie, G
Objective To determine the level of accuracy in coding for injury principal diagnosis and the first external cause code for public hospital discharges in New Zealand and determine how these levels vary by hospital size. Method A simple random sample of 1800 discharges was selected from the period 1996–98 inclusive. Records were obtained from hospitals and an accredited coder coded the discharge independently of the codes already recorded in the national database. Results Five percent of the principal diagnoses, 18% of the first four digits of the E‐codes, and 8% of the location codes (5th digit of the E‐code), were incorrect. There were no substantive differences in the level of incorrect coding between large and small hospitals. Conclusions Users of New Zealand public hospital discharge data can have a high degree of confidence in the injury diagnoses coded under ICD‐9‐CM‐A. A similar degree of confidence is warranted for E‐coding at the group level (for example, fall), but not, in general, at higher levels of specificity (for example, type of fall). For those countries continuing to use ICD‐9 the study provides insight into potential problems of coding and thus guidance on where the focus of coder training should be placed. For those countries that have historical data coded according to ICD‐9 it suggests that some specific injury and external cause incidence estimates may need to be treated with more caution. PMID:16461421
Surgenor, Lois J; Spearing, Ruth L; Horn, Jacqueline; Beautrais, Annette L; Mulder, Roger T; Chen, Peggy
To assess the prevalence and severity of burnout in hospital-based medical consultants, and investigate associated demographic and professional characteristics. Utilising standardised measures of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory) and job satisfaction (Job Satisfaction Scale) this cross-sectional study recruited 267 consultants working in a large tertiary hospital in Christchurch, New Zealand. Seventy-one percent of all eligible participants were recruited. The prevalence of burnout in each of the three dimensions was as follows: High Emotional Exhaustion=29.7%; High Depersonalisation=24.4%; Low Personal Accomplishment=31.2%. One in five consultants was assessed as having high overall burnout. Considered against the psychometric norms for medical workers, significantly more consultants than expected reported low Emotional Exhaustion (p<0.001) and low Depersonalisation (p<0.01). Working longer hours (p<0.01), lower job satisfaction (p<0.001), and shorter time in the current job (p<0.05) independently increased the risk of high Emotional Exhaustion. Working longer hours (p<0.05) and lower job satisfaction (p<.01) independently increased the risk of high Depersonalisation. Longer time in the same job increased the risk of low Personal Accomplishment (p<0.05). Longer hours worked (p<0.05), shorter vocational experience as a consultant (p<0.05), and lower job satisfaction (p<0.001) independently increased the risk of high overall burnout. An unexpected proportion of consultants experience robust emotional well-being and healthy work engagement. However, for those experiencing high burnout, by severity or dimension, working long hours and low job satisfaction appear to be particularly contributory factors. Whilst remedial interventions should target the minority who experience significant burnout, studies using robust research designs are required to assess the meaningful clinical utility of these. The challenge remains to determine the optimal organisational practices
Ministry of Education, Wellington (New Zealand).
Intended to stimulate public discussion on the aims and policies of New Zealand education, this background paper has three major sections. The first section discusses the role of education in relation to equal opportunity, democracy, cultural difference, national development, and personal development. In part two, graphs, tables, and text give a…
Frampton, Christopher M A; Barclay, Murray; McKee, Martin
Objectives To explore the prevalence of, and associated factors contributing to burnout among senior doctors and dentists working in the New Zealand's public health system. Design Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Setting New Zealand's 20 district health boards (DHBs). Participants A total of 1487 of 3740 senior doctors and dentists who are members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists working in DHBs were recruited (response rate 40%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Gender, age, self-rated health status, vocation and hours of work per week were obtained from an electronic questionnaire. Burnout was measured using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Qualitative data taken from an open-ended comments section was coded using grounded theory and used for contextual data. Results The overall prevalence of high personal burnout was 50%. Women aged <40 years had 71% prevalence of high personal burnout. Prevalence of high work-related burnout and patient-related burnout was 42% and 16%, respectively. Those working in emergency medicine and psychiatry had significantly higher mean work-related burnout than other specialties (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, having fair or poor health status (OR 10.8, 95% CI 6.8 to 17.1), working more than 14 consecutive hours (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.82) and being a woman (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.68 to 2.73) were independently associated with high personal and work-related burnout. Personal burnout rates decreased with age (age 30–39 OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.59, age 40–49 OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.70 to 3.55, age 50–59 OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.46, compared with age>60). Qualitative data emphasised intense and unrelenting workloads, under-staffing, onerous on-call duties and frustrations with management as factors contributing to burnout. Conclusions High burnout appears prevalent in New Zealand's senior doctors and dentists. Many attribute their feelings of burnout to work conditions. These findings may assist with
Ditzel, Elizabeth; Štrach, Pavel; Pirozek, Petr
Background This paper contributes to research in health systems literature by examining the role of health boards in hospital governance. Health care ranks among the largest public sectors in OECD countries. Efficient governance of hospitals requires the responsible and effective use of funds, professional management and competent governing structures. In this study hospital governance practice in two health care systems – Czech Republic and New Zealand – is compared and contrasted. These countries were chosen as both, even though they are geographically distant, have a universal right to 'free' health care provided by the state and each has experienced periods of political change and ensuing economic restructuring. Ongoing change has provided the impetus for policy reform in their public hospital governance systems. Methods Two comparative case studies are presented. They define key similarities and differences between the two countries' health care systems. Each public hospital governance system is critically analysed and discussed in light of D W Taylor's nine principles of 'good governance'. Results While some similarities were found to exist, the key difference between the two countries is that while many forms of 'ad hoc' hospital governance exist in Czech hospitals, public hospitals in New Zealand are governed in a 'collegiate' way by elected District Health Boards. These findings are discussed in relation to each of the suggested nine principles utilized by Taylor. Conclusion This comparative case analysis demonstrates that although the New Zealand and Czech Republic health systems appear to show a large degree of convergence, their approaches to public hospital governance differ on several counts. Some of the principles of 'good governance' existed in the Czech hospitals and many were practiced in New Zealand. It would appear that the governance styles have evolved from particular historical circumstances to meet each country's specific requirements
Lawrenson, Ross A; Nixon, Garry; Steed, Robin H
The sustainability of New Zealand's rural hospitals has been in question for some years. Increasingly, clinical services have been centralised and specialist staff have moved to bigger centres. As well as clinical services, the governance of these hospitals has shifted, often due to a shortage of vocationally registered medical practitioners available to lead the clinical services. In 2009 the Medical Council of New Zealand (MCNZ) approved a new vocational scope of practice in Rural Hospital Medicine (RHM). The present study was designed to establish the current composition of the rural hospital medical workforce at the introduction of this new scope of practice. This study was a 2009 cross-sectional survey of rural hospitals approved for RHM training by the MCNZ. Hospital managers were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire. All medical practitioners providing medical care in these hospitals in 2009 were identified, and each was mailed an additional questionnaire. In all, 28 rural hospitals and 107 medical practitioners who provided clinical services were identified; 28 responses (100%) were received to the hospital managers' survey and 69 responses (64%) to the doctors' survey. The managers' survey revealed a shortage of medical practitioners and significant use of locum staff. The workforce had a median age of 47 years, was predominantly male (75%) and principally trained overseas (68%), and 54% was vocationally registered. A proportion of the hospitals (35%) did not have a recognised clinical leader or an active process for credentialing new medical staff. The findings were not unexpected but do quantify the shortage of medical practitioners and the governance issues facing small rural hospitals in New Zealand. The scope of RHM has the potential to attract new doctors into practice, providing greater stability and clinical leadership for these important facilities. The study provides a baseline for a future evaluation of the effectiveness of the introduction of
Martin, I R; Wickens, K; Patchett, K; Kent, R; Fitzharris, P; Siebers, R; Lewis, S; Crane, J; Holbrook, N; Town, G I; Smith, S
Cat allergen (Fel d 1) is a known risk factor for asthma. Studies have demonstrated Fel d 1 in both public buildings and domestic dwellings where cats have never been. The aims of this study were to measure reservoir Fel d 1 levels in public buildings in New Zealand, to examine determinants of these levels and to compare them with previously measured domestic levels. Dust was obtained in two centres (Wellington and Christchurch) from hotels, hospitals, rest homes, churches, primary schools, childcare centres, cinemas, bank head offices and aeroplanes; and from North Island ski lodges. Measurements of temperature and relative humidity were taken. Information was collected on building characteristics. Fel d 1 levels (microg/g of fine dust) for floors (n=203), beds (n=64) and seats (n=24) were expressed as geometric means (95% confidence intervals). Detectable Fel d 1 levels were found in 95% of floor samples, 91% of bed samples and 100% of seat samples. Fel d 1 levels [geometric mean (95% confidence intervals)] were significantly higher on cinema and domestic aircraft seats [36.8 (20.8-65.3) microg/g and 33.3 (28.0-39.7) microg/g respectively] than on floors [3.6 (2.5-5.1) microg/g and 2.4 (1.8-3.0) microg/g respectively]. Floor Fel d 1 levels in the public buildings sampled were lower than those of domestic dwellings without cats [0.9 (0.6-1.4) microg/g vs 1.7 (1.2-2.4)] microg/g in Wellington and [2.0 (1.6-2.6) microg/g vs 4.0 (2.7-6.0] microg/g in Christchurch. After controlling for potential confounders, floor Fel d 1 levels were higher with carpeted floors (p<0.001) and lower in banks and hospitals (p<0.001). Fel d 1 levels in public buildings are low in New Zealand public places except for cinema and domestic aircraft seats where all but one sample had Fel d 1 levels potentially high enough to precipitate asthma symptoms in sensitised individuals.
Read, Kerry; Bhally, Hansan; Sapsford, Sabrina; Sapsford, Thomas
To determine the prevalence and spectrum of infections on admission, or acquired during hospitalisation (HAI) at Waitakere Hospital, Auckland. A questionnaire was completed on two separate days for all adult in-patients admitted to medical and rehabilitation wards for greater than 24 hours. Information obtained included patient characteristics, the presence and type of infection on admission or acquired during hospitalisation, as well as information on indwelling devices. Infection was the admitting diagnosis in 81 (41%) of 195 patients reviewed, with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) diagnosed in 50%, urine infections in 22% and cellulitis 18%. Only 40% LRTIs were supported by radiology or microbiological criteria. Twenty-five HAIs occurred in 21 patients (cumulative and point prevalence of 10.7% and 5.0% respectively). Urinary tract infection (UTI) was the most common HAI in 13 patients (62%), including 4 catheter-related infections. Patients with HAI were older and appeared to have had longer hospital stays, and higher urinary catheter usage. This study highlights the ongoing high burden of infections contributing to hospitalisation of adult patients in a developed country. The prevalence of HAI, patient characteristics and risk factors are comparable to previous studies in similar settings.
Perkins, R; Barnett, P; Powell, M
New Zealand public hospitals and related services were grouped into 23 Crown Health Enterprises and registered as companies in 1993. Integral to this change was the introduction of corporate governance. New directors, largely from the business sector, were appointed to govern these organisations as efficient and effective businesses. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of New Zealand publicly-owned health provider organisations. Although directors thought they performed well in business systems development, they acknowledged their shortcomings in meeting government expectations in respect to financial performance and social responsibility. Changes in public health sector provider performance indicators have resulted in a mixed report card for the sector six years after corporate governance was instituted.
Howden-Chapman, P; Ashton, T
The 1993 Health and Disability Services Act heralded a range of structural reforms in the New Zealand health care system. Despite these reforms considerable resources being spent on convincing consumers of their merits, have failed to gain widespread public approval. This paper examines two key issues that have arisen during the reform process. These are the difficulties associated with trying to set priorities in ways which are effective and politically acceptable, and the relationship between the public and private sectors. Unacknowledged conflicts of interest have helped to undermine the priority setting process. The discussion suggests that it may be increasingly difficult for any government in future to determine the allocation of resources without taking private sector interests and rising public concern into account. It remains to be seen which of these factors is more powerful.
Tordoff, June M; Norris, Pauline T; Reith, David M
In 2002, as part of a National Hospital Pharmaceutical Strategy, the New Zealand (NZ) government agency PHARMAC commenced a 3-year period of negotiating prices for 90% of hospital pharmaceuticals on behalf of all NZ public hospitals. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of this first year of "pooled procurement." Using price changes and volume data for each of their top 150 pharmaceutical items, chief pharmacists at 11 public hospitals calculated projected cost savings for the financial year July 2003 to June 2004. Researchers calculated total projected savings for all 11 hospitals, and for three types of hospitals. Estimates of projected savings were made for all 29 major public hospitals by using savings per bed and savings per bed-day. A sensitivity analysis was undertaken. Items showing savings were categorized by using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. For the 11 hospitals, the top 150 items comprised 612 different items. Projected savings for 2003 to 2004 were NZ dollar 2,652,814, NZ dollar 658,984, and NZ dollar 127,952 for tertiary, secondary, and rural/special hospitals, respectively. Percentage savings as a median (range) of the total top 150 expenditure were: tertiary 5.28% (3.09-16.05%), secondary 7.41% (4.67-12.85%), and rural/special 9.55% (6.27-10.09%). For all 29 hospitals, estimated projected savings were NZ dollar 5,234,919 (NZ dollar 3,304,606-NZ dollar 8,044,482) by savings per bed, and NZ dollar 5,255,781 (NZ dollar 2,936,850-NZ dollar 8,693,239) by savings per bed-day. The main contributors to savings were: agents for infections, the nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and blood/blood-forming organs. The first year of pooled procurement under the National Hospital Pharmaceutical Strategy (2002-2003) has resulted in moderate savings. For all 29 major public hospitals, savings of around NZ dollar 5.2 million (dollar 2.9 million-dollar 8.7 million) or 3.7% were projected for 2003 to 2004. Longer
In a recent contribution to this journal, John O'Neill (2011) argues that recent privatisation practices in New Zealand public schooling are evidence of a small, but growing, influence of neo-liberalism on New Zealand's public education. The focus in his paper is on the active enablement of non-government provision of public education through, for…
Barnett, P; Perkins, R; Powell, M
In New Zealand the governance of public sector hospital and health services has changed significantly over the past decade. For most of the century hospitals had been funded by central government grants but run by locally elected boards. In 1989 a reforming Labour government restructured health services along managerialist lines, including changing governance structures so that some area health board members were government appointments, with the balance elected by the community. More market oriented reform under a new National government abolished this arrangement and introduced (1993) a corporate approach to the management of hospitals and related services. The hospitals were established as limited liability companies under the Companies Act. This was an explicitly corporate model and, although there was some modification of arrangements following the election of a more politically moderate centre-right coalition government in 1996, the corporate model was largely retained. Although significant changes occurred again after the election of a Labour government in 1999, the corporate governance experience in New Zealand health services is one from which lessons can, nevertheless, be learnt. This paper examines aspects of the performance and process of corporate governance arrangements for public sector health services in New Zealand, 1993-1998.
Tsirintani, Maria; Binioris, Spyros
Following a previous (2011) survey, this study assesses the web pages of Greek public hospitals according to specific criteria, which are included in the same web page evaluation model. Our purpose is to demonstrate the evolution of hospitals' web pages and document e-health applications trends. Using descriptive methods we found that public hospitals have made significant steps towards establishing and improving their web presence but there is still a lot of work that needs to be carried out in order to take advantage of the benefits of new technologies in the e-health ecosystem.
Boscarino, J A
Increasingly, hospital administrators have been concerned about the public's perception of the facility. Nationwide, they have engaged marketing firms to study how consumers rate their local facilities in comparison to others. This type of information has been important to develop effective marketing and advertising programs (Steiber and Boscarino 1985). In this study, hospital ratings were analyzed for 65 short-term (nongovernment), medical and surgical hospitals across the United States. These hospitals represented different regions of the country (east, west, north, south, and central), as well as urban, suburban, and rural areas. Over 14,000 consumers were surveyed in these local market surveys. The public's ratings of these local hospitals were analyzed in terms of hospital size (number of beds), inpatient census, the "urbanicity" level of the local area, the level of care provided (primary, secondary, or tertiary), geographic region, and the 1984 Health Care Financing Administration death rate reported for Medicare patients. A multivariate analysis of the data indicates that hospital ratings are significantly related to the level of care provided and to the hospital's census level. Both of these are positively related to the public's attitude toward that facility (the higher the rating, the more specialized the care provided and the higher the census at that facility). Other variables are also positively related to ratings for example, bed size), but this is because of the relationship of these variables to either census or care level.
Andersen, Jens Peter; Skrubbeltrang, Conni; Gregersen, Hans
In 2003 Aalborg Hospital became part of Aarhus University Hospital and in that context focus on research activities was increased. This article investigates whether the increased focus has led to changes in the quantity and/or quality of research publications in the following period. All scientific articles published by Aalborg Hospital in the period 2002-2008, as well as information about author affiliations comprise the data material for the analysis. Different levels of journal groups are created based on Journal Performance Indicators combined with peer-reviewing as a measure of publication quality, awarding publications in highly esteemed journals a higher score than those published in less recognized journals. Together with the number of publications, a measure of research quality and quantity is thereby achieved. This method is compared to the more traditional journal impact factor method. Data show an increase in total publications per year while the mean number of points per publication decreases during the period. Results also show a relation between the score level of publications and the number of collaborations for the publication, i.e. large collaborations are more frequently published in top journals. The study shows that the increased focus on research has led to increased publication activity without loss of quality, as the decrease in points per publication is associated with the increased mean number of collaborators. The results indicate that the method would benefit from a revision to facilitate clearer conclusions.
Keene, Lyndon; Bagshaw, Philip; Nicholls, M Gary; Rosenberg, Bill; Frampton, Christopher M; Powell, Ian
Successive New Zealand governments have claimed that the cost of funding the country's public healthcare services is excessive and unsustainable. We contest that these claims are based on a misrepresentation of healthcare spending. Using data from the New Zealand Treasury and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), we show how government spending as a whole is low compared with most other OECD countries and is falling as a proportion of GDP. New Zealand has a modest level of health spending overall, but government health spending is also falling as a proportion of GDP. Together, the data indicate the New Zealand Government can afford to spend more on healthcare. We identify compelling reasons why it should do so, including forecast growing health need, signs of increasing unmet need, and the fact that if health needs are not met the costs still have to be borne by the economy. The evidence further suggests it is economically and socially beneficial to meet health needs through a public health system. An honest appraisal and public debate is needed to determine more appropriate levels of healthcare spending.
Bibby, Susan; Milne, Richard; Beasley, Richard
To investigate hospital admissions for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis during July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2013; and to describe their distribution and annual cost in New Zealand. Admissions with a principal diagnosis of bronchiectasis (ICD10 J47), excluding cystic fibrosis, and length of stay <90 days were analysed by age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, DHB, re-admissions and seasonality. There were 5,494 admissions with a mean annual rate of 25.7 (age adjusted rate 20.4) per 100,000. Admission rates peaked in childhood and in the elderly, and increased steeply with socioeconomic deprivation. Age-adjusted rates were 38% higher for women, 4.9-fold higher for Māori and 9.1-fold higher for Pacific peoples. Counties Manukau had the highest unadjusted rate for any DHB (49.4 per 100,000). The overall 30 day readmission rate was 12.4%. Admissions peaked in winter and spring. The estimated cost in financial year 2012/13 was NZD 5.34M. Hospital admissions for bronchiectasis are concentrated in socioeconomically disadvantaged young and elderly Māori and Pacific peoples; are more common in winter and spring, and incur a high annual cost. Evidence-based interventions to reduce the disproportionate burden of bronchiectasis in Māori and Pacific children and the elderly is a public health priority.
Barton, Lorna; Futtermenger, Judith; Gaddi, Yash; Kang, Angela; Rivers, Jon; Spriggs, David; Jenkins, Paul F; Thompson, Campbell H; Thomas, Josephine S
This study aimed to quantify and compare the prevalence of simple prescribing errors made by clinicians in the first 24 hours of a general medical patient's hospital admission. Four public or private acute care hospitals across Australia and New Zealand each audited 200 patients' drug charts. Patient demographics, pharmacist review and pre-defined prescribing errors were recorded. At least one simple error was present on the medication charts of 672/715 patients, with a linear relationship between the number of medications prescribed and the number of errors (r = 0.571, p < 0.001). The four sites differed significantly in the prevalence of different types of simple prescribing errors. Pharmacists were more likely to review patients aged > or = 75 years (39.9% vs 26.0%; p < 0.001) and those with more than 10 drug prescriptions (39.4% vs 25.7%; p < 0.001). Patients reviewed by a pharmacist were less likely to have inadequate documentation of allergies (13.5% vs 29.4%, p < 0.001). Simple prescribing errors are common, although their nature differs from site to site. Clinical pharmacists target patients with the most complex health situations, and their involvement leads to improved documentation.
Denis, J; Langley, A; Lozeau, D
This paper suggests that the difficulties associated with the application of formal strategic planning in public professional service organizations may have been underestimated in much of the literature. A survey of written strategic plans produced by Canadian hospitals showed that these plans were often heavily oriented towards expansion, ambiguous and rather loosely integrated, leading to questions concerning their realism and utility as a basis for strategic decisions. This phenomenon seems symptomatic of the complex (and often highly political) decision making environment faced by hospital administrators (and by managers of other professional service organizations such as universities and social service agencies). It is concluded that the benefits of formal planning may be different and less tangible for these organizations than for private business.
Hao, Aimin; Yi, Tao; Li, Xia; Wei, Lei; Huang, Pei; Xu, Xinzhou; Yi, Lihua
Purpose: The quality of medical services provided by competing public hospitals is the primary consideration of the public in determining the selection of a specific hospital for treatment. The main objective of strategic planning is to improve the quality of public hospital medical services. This paper provides an introduction to the history, significance, principles and practices of public hospital medical service strategy, as well as advancing the opinion that public hospital service strategy must not merely aim to produce but actually result in the highest possible level of quality, convenience, efficiency and patient satisfaction.
Davis, P; Lay-Yee, R; Briant, R; Scott, A
Objectives: To describe the pattern of preventable in-hospital medical injury under the "no fault" system and to assess the level of serious preventable patient harm. Design: Cross sectional survey using a two stage retrospective assessment of medical records conducted by structured implicit review. Setting: General hospitals with over 100 beds providing acute care in New Zealand. Participants: A sample of 6579 patients admitted in 1998 to 13 hospitals selected by stratified systematic list sample. Main outcome measures: Occurrence, preventability, and impact of adverse events. Results: Over 5% of admissions were associated with a preventable in-hospital event, of which nearly half had an element of systems failure. The elderly, ethnic minority groups, and particular clinical areas were at higher risk. The chances of a patient experiencing a serious preventable adverse event subsequent to hospital admission were just under 1%, a figure close to published results from comparable studies under tort. On average, these events required an additional 4 weeks in hospital. System related issues of protocol use and development, communication, and organisation, as well as requirements for consultation and education, were pre-eminent. Conclusions: The risk of serious preventable in-hospital medical injury for patients in New Zealand, a well established "no fault" jurisdiction, is within the range reported in comparable investigations under tort. PMID:12897357
Renner, C; Palmer, E
Service firms manage variability using both demand-side tactics (levelling customer demand), and supply-side tactics (increasing available capacity). One popular way of increasing available capacity is the outsourcing of non-core services. This article uses a case study to examine the impact of an outsourced non-core service on a hospital's overall service system. Findings show that the outsourced service provides access to more sophisticated technology, increases in-house capacity and saves capital expenditure. However, the outsourcing also increases the scheduling problems that the hospital faces. These problems are largely due to communication delays from the involvement of more than one organisation. These delays decrease the response time available to match changes in demand for the outsourced service. Given the obvious benefits of such outsourcing, the article concludes that management should pay close attention to the communication pathways between organisations, in order to minimise the end effects identified in this study.
Bray, Janet; Smith, Karen; Walker, Tony; Grantham, Hugh; Hein, Cindy; Thorrowgood, Melanie; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Tony; Dicker, Bridget; Swain, Andy; Bailey, Mark; Bosley, Emma; Pemberton, Katherine; Cameron, Peter; Nichol, Graham; Finn, Judith
Introduction Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a global health problem with low survival. Regional variation in survival has heightened interest in combining cardiac arrest registries to understand and improve OHCA outcomes. While individual OHCA registries exist in Australian and New Zealand ambulance services, until recently these registries have not been combined. The aim of this protocol paper is to describe the rationale and methods of the Australian Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (Aus-ROC) OHCA epidemiological registry (Epistry). Methods and analysis The Aus-ROC Epistry is designed as a population-based cohort study. Data collection started in 2014. Six ambulance services in Australia (Ambulance Victoria, SA Ambulance Service, St John Ambulance Western Australia and Queensland Ambulance Service) and New Zealand (St John New Zealand and Wellington Free Ambulance) currently contribute data. All OHCA attended by ambulance, regardless of aetiology or patient age, are included in the Epistry. The catchment population is approximately 19.3 million persons, representing 63% of the Australian population and 100% of the New Zealand population. Data are collected using Utstein-style definitions. Information incorporated into the Epistry includes demographics, arrest features, ambulance response times, treatment and patient outcomes. The primary outcome is ‘survival to hospital discharge’, with ‘return of spontaneous circulation’ as a key secondary outcome. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was independently sought by each of the contributing registries. Overarching ethics for the Epistry was provided by Monash University HREC (Approval No. CF12/3938—2012001888). A population-based OHCA registry capturing the majority of Australia and New Zealand will allow risk-adjusted outcomes to be determined, to enable benchmarking across ambulance providers, facilitate the identification of system-wide strategies associated with survival from OHCA, and
Clement, J P; Grazier, K L
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration within the public hospitals' market area affects the financial performance and viability of these institutions, relative to private hospitals. Hospital- and market-specific measures are examined in a fully interacted model of over 2,300 hospitals in 321 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in 1995. Although hospitals located in markets with higher HMO penetration have lower financial performance as reflected in revenues, expenses and operating margin, public hospitals are not more disadvantaged than other hospitals by managed care.
Neo, Emily; Calvert, Philip J
The decision by public libraries in New Zealand to implement Facebook has been uneven. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations theory, a survey of nine public libraries investigated the process of its adoption or non-adoption. The motivating factors for the adoption of Facebook were identified. The surveyed libraries all met the four prior…
Chang, Esther M L; Bidewell, John W; Huntington, Annette D; Daly, John; Johnson, Amanda; Wilson, Helen; Lambert, Vicki A; Lambert, Clinton E
Previous research has identified international and cultural differences in nurses' workplace stress and coping responses. We hypothesised an association between problem-focused coping and improved health, emotion-focused coping with reduced health, and more frequent workplace stress with reduced health. Test the above hypotheses with Australian and New Zealand nurses, and compare Australian and New Zealand nurses' experience of workplace stress, coping and health status. Three hundred and twenty-eight New South Wales (NSW) and 190 New Zealand (NZ) volunteer acute care hospital nurses (response rate 41%) from randomly sampled nurses. Postal survey consisting of a demographic questionnaire, the Nursing Stress Scale, the WAYS of Coping Questionnaire and the SF-36 Health Survey Version 2. Consistent with hypotheses, more frequent workplace stress predicted lower physical and mental health. Problem-focused coping was associated with better mental health. Emotion-focused coping was associated with reduced mental health. Contrary to hypotheses, coping styles did not predict physical health. NSW and NZ scored effectively the same on sources of workplace stress, stress coping methods, and physical and mental health when controlling for relevant variables. Results suggest mental health benefits for nurses who use problem-solving to cope with stress by addressing the external source of the stress, rather than emotion-focused coping in which nurses try to control or manage their internal response to stress. Cultural similarities and similar hospital environments could account for equivalent findings for NSW and NZ.
Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health and a major focus of regulatory activity in developed and developing countries. Air quality indicators suggest New Zealand has clean air relative to many other countries. However, media releases such as 'Christchurch wood fires pump out deadly smog' and 'Vehicle pollution major killer' have sparked public health concern regarding exposure to ambient air pollution, especially in anticipation of increasing emissions and population growth. Recent evidence is presented on the effects of air quality on health, which has been aided by the application of urban airshed models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Future directions for research into the effects of air quality on health in New Zealand are discussed, including a national ambient air quality management project: HAPINZ--Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand.
Wright, Donald J
A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim Saleh; Alamri, Yassar
Publication in peer-reviewed journals is widely regarded as the preferred vehicle for research dissemination. In New Zealand, the fate and publication rates of theses produced by medical students is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of publications derived from research conducted by Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSc(Hons)) students at the three campuses of the University of Otago Medical School, New Zealand. A total of 153 BMedSc(Hons) theses accepted at the Otago Medical School during the period of January 1995 to December 2014 were analysed. Using standardised search criteria, PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched in October 2015 to examine the number and characteristics of publications. Overall, 50 (32.7%) out of 153 included theses resulted in 81 scientific publications. Ten (12.3%) publications featured in Australasian journals. The majority of publications were original articles (84%), with pathology and molecular biology (19%) being the most common research area. Although they did not reach statistical significance, publications in higher impact factor journals trended towards having a senior first author as opposed to a student first author (p=0.06). Although higher than reported figures from previous studies, publication rates of BMedSc(Hons) theses remain lower than expected. To improve our understanding of medical student publishing in New Zealand, formal examination of the factors hindering medical students from publishing their theses is imperative.
Hopkins, C J
Reporting of antibiotic consumption in hospitals is a crucial component of antibiotic stewardship, but data from Australasian secondary hospitals are scarce. The hypothesis of this audit is that antibiotic consumption in secondary hospitals would be lower than in tertiary centres. The study aims to present the first published audit of antibiotic consumption from a secondary hospital in New Zealand compared with two tertiary centres. Hospital population-level data were retrospectively accessed to identify all systemic antibiotics dispensed to adult inpatients at Taranaki District Health Board during 2011. Consumption was calculated in defined daily doses per 100 inpatient-days and per 100 admissions, stratified by drug class. Comparison was against published data from two tertiary centres. Total consumption was lower, but that of high-risk antibiotic classes was higher than both tertiary centres. The relative consumption of lincosamides was 4.0 and 2.6 times higher than the two tertiary centres, with an associated 14% incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea within 3 months. Our secondary hospital appears to consume the wrong types of antibiotic rather than too much. Data from all Australasian hospitals, stratified by clinical service area and hospital level, are required for clinically relevant benchmarking. © 2014 The Author; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
This report evaluates a game coding workshop offered to young people and adults in seven public libraries round New Zealand. Participants were taken step by step through the process of creating their own simple 2D videogame, learning the basics of coding, computational thinking, and digital game design. The workshops were free and drew 426 people…
This article presents the author's response to Strathdee's "Reply to O'Neill: The privatisation of public schooling in New Zealand." Strathdee has alerted the editors to a basic arithmetic error in the author's paper (O'Neill 2011, 24). He also makes substantive criticisms. Strathdee's criticisms focus on the two cases that are used to…
Background This paper discusses the role of public inquiries as an instrument of public policy-making in New Zealand, using mental health as a case study. The main part of the paper analyses the processes and outcomes of five general inquiries into the state of New Zealand's mental health services that were held between 1858 and 1996. Results The membership, form, style and processes used by public inquiries have all changed over time in line with constitutional and social trends. So has the extent of public participation. The records of five inquiries provide periodic snapshots of a system bedevilled by long-standing problems such as unacceptable standards, under-resourcing, and poor co-ordination. Demands for an investigation no less than the reports and recommendations of public inquiries have been the catalyst of some important policy changes, if not immediately, then by creating a climate of opinion that supported later change. Inquiries played a significant role in establishing lunatic asylums, in shaping the structure of mental health legislation, establishing and maintaining a national mental health bureaucracy within the machinery of government, and in paving the way for deinstitutionalisation. Ministers and their departmental advisers have mediated this contribution. Conclusion Public inquiries have helped shape New Zealand's mental health policy, both directly and indirectly, at different stages of evolution. In both its advisory and investigative forms, the public inquiry remains an important tool of public administration. The inquiry/cause and policy/effect relationship is not necessarily immediate but may facilitate changes in public opinion with corresponding policy outcomes long after any direct causal link could be determined. When considered from that long-term perspective, the five inquiries can be linked to several significant and long-term contributions to mental health policy in New Zealand. PMID:16216131
This paper discusses the role of public inquiries as an instrument of public policy-making in New Zealand, using mental health as a case study. The main part of the paper analyses the processes and outcomes of five general inquiries into the state of New Zealand's mental health services that were held between 1858 and 1996. The membership, form, style and processes used by public inquiries have all changed over time in line with constitutional and social trends. So has the extent of public participation. The records of five inquiries provide periodic snapshots of a system bedevilled by long-standing problems such as unacceptable standards, under-resourcing, and poor co-ordination. Demands for an investigation no less than the reports and recommendations of public inquiries have been the catalyst of some important policy changes, if not immediately, then by creating a climate of opinion that supported later change. Inquiries played a significant role in establishing lunatic asylums, in shaping the structure of mental health legislation, establishing and maintaining a national mental health bureaucracy within the machinery of government, and in paving the way for deinstitutionalisation. Ministers and their departmental advisers have mediated this contribution. Public inquiries have helped shape New Zealand's mental health policy, both directly and indirectly, at different stages of evolution. In both its advisory and investigative forms, the public inquiry remains an important tool of public administration. The inquiry/cause and policy/effect relationship is not necessarily immediate but may facilitate changes in public opinion with corresponding policy outcomes long after any direct causal link could be determined. When considered from that long-term perspective, the five inquiries can be linked to several significant and long-term contributions to mental health policy in New Zealand.
Rundall, T G; Lambert, W K
Since the public sector traditionally has provided the public goods viewed as unprofitable by the private sector, the growing trend to manage public hospitals under outside private contract raises some fundamental issues of concern. It is hypothesized here that the system maintenance and output goals of privately managed public hospitals become increasingly similar to those of investor-owned hospitals. The thesis is empirically tested using documented effects of private contract management on the operative goals of short-term, general hospitals owned by local governmental bodies. Traditionally managed public hospitals matched with the study hospitals on important characteristics serve as the control group. Costs do appear to be reduced under private contract management, but the service structure becomes somewhat altered. It is the task of public health policymakers to reconcile the cost-control and efficiency mechanisms brought about by private management with the community's right of access to comprehensive medical care. Carefully structured regionalization plans--a possible means of providing both--will require the stimulation of more government involvement during an era of cutbacks. PMID:6490379
Moschuris, Socrates J; Kondylis, Michael N
The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent of outsourcing, the decision-making process, the impact of outsourcing, and the future trend of outsourcing in public hospitals in Greece. A survey instrument was designed and mailed to a random sample of 100 public hospitals in Greece and 43 usable questionnaires were received, representing a response rate of 43 percent. The survey instrument focused on the extent to which public hospitals outsource services, the decision-making process for choosing an external service provider, the impact of outsourcing, and the future trend of outsourcing in public healthcare organisations. Public hospitals in Greece outsource a variety of activities. Cost savings and customer satisfaction are the main factors affecting the outsourcing decision. The cooperation with a contract service provider has led to significant improvement in service quality levels. Most users are satisfied with the performance of these companies and believe that there will be an increase in the usage of these services in the future. It provides a decision-making framework regarding outsourcing in public healthcare organisations. This research fills the gap in the area of outsourcing in public hospitals in Greece.
Dovey, Susan; Tilyard, Murray; Cunningham, Wayne; Williamson, Martyn
To measure public and private funding of general practice services for New Zealand children. Computerized records from 111 general practices provided private payments for 118,905 general practice services to children aged 6-17 years. Government subsidies and public insurance payments provided public funding amounts for seven services. Overall and for each service we estimated the ratio of public:private payments (RPPP). 64.0% of annual expenditure was public, 36.0% private, (RPPP=1:0.56). General medical consultations were 67.2% of services (RPPP=1:0.57); 15.3% were injury-related (RPPP=1:0.36); 5.2% were prescribing services (all private); 4.9% were immunizations (RPPP=1:0.12); 2.9% were nursing (RPPP=1:1.33); 4.4% were administration (all private); and 0.1% were for maternity care (RPPP=1:0.007). Before capitation funding, public and private funding levels for general medical consultations were similar (RPPP=1:0.93) but after capitation public payments more than doubled (RPPP=1:0.40). There is a complex of pattern of public and private payments for general practice services for children and adolescents in New Zealand. Both funding sources are critical. Capitation funding changed the balance substantially but did not remove ongoing reliance on private funding to support general practice care for children. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zajac, Jeffrey D
Public hospitals designed for the past are not changing rapidly enough to meet the needs of the future. Changing work practices, increased pressure on bed occupancy, and greater numbers of patients with complex diseases and comorbidities will determine the functions of future hospitals. To maximise the use of resources, hospital "down times" on weekends and public holidays will be a distant memory. Elective surgery will increase in the traditionally "quiet times", such as summer, and decrease in the busy winter period. The patient will be the focus of an efficient information flow, streamlining patient care in hospital and enhancing communication between hospitals and community-based health providers. General and specialty units will need to work more efficiently together, as general physicians take on the role of patient case managers for an increasing proportion of patients. Funding needs to be adequate, and system management should involve clinicians. Safety will be enshrined in hospital systems and procedures, as well as in the minds of hospital staff. If these changes are not implemented successfully, public hospitals will not survive in the future.
Tin Tin, Sandar; Elwood, J Mark; Lawrenson, Ross; Campbell, Ian; Harvey, Vernon; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa
Patients who received private health care appear to have better survival from breast cancer compared to those who received public care. This study investigated if this applied to New Zealand women and identified factors that could explain such disparities. This study involved all women who were diagnosed with primary breast cancer in two health regions in New Zealand, covering about 40% of the national population, between June 2000 and May 2013. Patients who received public care for primary treatment, mostly surgical treatment, were compared with those who received private care in terms of demographics, mode of presentation, disease factors, comorbidity index and treatment factors. Cox regression modelling was performed with stepwise adjustments, and hazards of breast cancer specific mortality associated with the type of health care received was assessed. Of the 14,468 patients, 8,916 (61.6%) received public care. Compared to patients treated in private care facilities, they were older, more likely to be Māori, Pacifika or Asian and to reside in deprived neighbourhoods and rural areas, and less likely to be diagnosed with early staged cancer and to receive timely cancer treatments. They had a higher risk of mortality from breast cancer (hazard ratio: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.75, 2.17), of which 80% (95% CI: 63%, 100%) was explained by baseline differences, particularly related to ethnicity, stage at diagnosis and type of loco-regional therapy. After controlling for these demographic, disease and treatment factors, the risk of mortality was still 14% higher in the public sector patients. Ethnicity, stage at diagnosis and type of loco-regional therapy were the three key contributors to survival disparities between patients treated in public and private health care facilities in New Zealand. The findings underscore the need for more efforts to improve the quality, timeliness and equitability of public cancer care services.
Kairuz, Therése; Chhim, Srey; Hasan, Fhazeel; Kumar, Karishma; Lal, Aarti; Patel, Roshni; Singh, Ranjani; Dogra, Mridula; Garg, Sanjay
To determine the extent and nature of extemporaneous compounding of liquid preparations in a sample of New Zealand hospitals. Retrospective data were collected from eight hospitals known to provide compounding services during the period 1 June 2004 to 31 December 2004; including dosage form, volume, and quantity prepared. Data were collected on site from compounding logbooks and batch sheets. Demographic patient data was limited to age and was only collected from pharmacy departments where this information was readily available. Off-label use was analysed where appropriate data were available. 2015 products were compounded over the 7-month period; an average of 251.9 per month. More oral dosage forms were compounded (n=152) compared to topical dosage forms (n=100); 74 drugs required extemporaneous preparation for oral use. There were 16 drugs used in an off-label manner on 144 occasions for paediatric patients. Most off-label drugs were reformulated as suspensions; omeprazole suspension was compounded at all of the hospitals. Off-label use of four drugs (sotalol, labetalol, diazoxide, and clonidine) was analysed for different paediatric age groups. Suspensions are the most frequently compounded dosage form and omeprazole is the drug that is most frequently reformulated. Off-label medicines form a small but integral role in the supply of medicinal products.
Morton, John; Williams, Yvonne; Philpott, Mike
To audit medical activity at Christchurch Hospital New Zealand between 2230 and 0800 hours; specifically, to measure the volumes of tasks requiring completion overnight and to identify the competencies required for this as well as the level of teamwork that existed. After a pilot study tested possible methods, Resident Medical Officers (RMOs) responsible for the care of adult patients at night were linked by a shift coordinator to recorders (mostly nursing students) trained to register the tasks performed, together with task urgency (as judged by the RMO) and duration. This information, checked each morning for completeness, was entered immediately into a database and analysed later. Telephonists logged all outbound calls through the hospital switchboard to on-call medical staff; theatre and admission records were recorded as usual. Anaesthetic and Radiology Registrar activity was self-recorded. Christchurch Hospital is a 650 bed tertiary centre, which covers most specialties. In the absence of leadership, the RMOs were not working as a team. Consequently some were overextended while others were inactive. House officer tasks were largely generic--not specialty specific; there was no formal handover from the afternoon or day shifts and the level of hospital medical staffing did not reflect the activity levels over the time period studied. A review of the beep policy is urgently needed. A third of the admissions were to General Medicine, and basic medical activities (including admitting, reviewing, and prescribing drugs and fluids) for patients admitted under all specialties represented the majority of the night workload. Medical registrars had reduced some of the traditional multiple clerking by admitting patients themselves. The workload and its distribution over time was remarkably similar to that found at the 17 pilot sites in the United Kingdom, where Out of Hours Multidisciplinary Teams (OoHMT) were introduced. We recommend that Christchurch Hospital use these
Background Improving palliative care management in acute hospital settings has been identified as a priority internationally. The aim of this study was to establish the proportion of inpatients within one acute hospital in New Zealand who meet prognostic criteria for palliative care need and explore key aspects of their management. Methods A prospective survey of adult hospital inpatients (n = 501) was undertaken. Case notes were examined for evidence that the patient might be in their last year of life according to Gold Standards Framework (GSF) prognostic indicator criteria. For patients who met GSF criteria, clinical and socio-demographic information were recorded. Results Ninety-nine inpatients met GSF criteria, representing 19.8% of the total census population. The patients’ average age was 70 years; 47% had a primary diagnosis of cancer. Two thirds had died within 6 months of their admission. Seventy-eight of the 99 cases demonstrated evidence that a palliative approach to care had been adopted; however documentation of discussion about goals of care was very limited and only one patient had evidence of an advance care plan. Conclusion One fifth of hospital inpatients met criteria for palliative care need, the majority of whom were aged >70 years. Whilst over three quarters were concluded to be receiving care in line with a palliative care approach, very little documented evidence of discussion with patients and families regarding end of life issues was evident. Future research needs to explore how best to support ‘generalist’ palliative care providers in initiating, and appropriately recording, such discussions. PMID:23537092
Broad, Joanna; Zhang, Xian; Jarlbaek, Lene; Clark, David
Objectives (1) To establish the likelihood of dying within 12 months for a cohort of hospital inpatients in New Zealand (NZ) on a fixed census date; (2) to identify associations between likelihood of death and key sociodemographic, diagnostic and service-related factors and (3) to compare results with, and extend findings of, a Scottish study undertaken for the same time period and census date. National databases of hospitalisations and death registrations were used, linked by unique health identifier. Participants 6074 patients stayed overnight in NZ hospitals on the census date (10 April 2013), 40.8% of whom were aged ≥65 years; 54.4% were women; 69.1% of patients were NZ European; 15.3% were Maori; 7.6% were Pacific; 6.1% were Asian and 1.9% were ‘other’. Setting All NZ hospitals. Results 14.5% patients (n=878) had died within 12 months: 1.6% by 7 days; 4.5% by 30 days; 8.0% by 3 months and 10.9% by 6 months. In logistic regression models, the strongest predictors of death within 12 months were: age ≥80 years (OR=5.52(95% CI 4.31 to 7.07)); a history of cancer (OR=4.20(3.53 to 4.98)); being Māori (OR=1.62(1.25 to 2.10)) and being admitted to a medical specialty, compared with a surgical specialty (OR=3.16(2.66 to 3.76)). Conclusion While hospitals are an important site of end of life care in NZ, their role is less significant than in Scotland, where 30% of an inpatient cohort recruited using similar methods and undertaken on the same census date had died within 12 months. One reason for this finding may be the extended role of residential long-term care facilities in end of life care provision in NZ. PMID:29217720
Scott, W G; Scott, H M; Henderson, S; Inder, A; Sanders, J; Spearing, R; McArthur, C; Judson, J; Baker, B; Hicks, P; Cotterell, P
The first aim was to identify and determine the economic costs of the regimens currently used in 3 New Zealand hospitals in the treatment of bacterial infections in haematology patients with febrile neutropenia and in intensive care patients with severe infections. The second was to develop a spreadsheet-based decision analytic model for use by hospital decision-makers as an aid in evaluating the comparative cost of drug regimens. The research utilised time and motion and microcosting techniques. The analytical perspective adopted for the study was that of a hospital administrator or clinical manager. Patients were eligible for inclusion in the study if either they were treated with the imipenem/cilastatin monotherapy, or could have been treated with this regimen. The final analysis considered 360 patient-treatment days and 8 antibacterials. Drug acquisition cost ranged from 4.52 New Zealand dollars ($NZ; 1997 values) per patient-treatment day for gentamicin to $NZ104.81 for imipenem. The cost per patient-treatment day (when other cost components such as fluid additives, giving sets and needles were added) ranged from $NZ8.75 for gentamicin to $NZ129.12 for tazobactam. Drug acquisition cost, as a percentage of total drug preparation and administration cost, ranged from 52% for gentamicin to 93% for piperacillin. Giving sets and intravenous (i.v.) fluids were found to be important cost items when they were required specifically for the treatment regimen. There was a mean monitoring rate of 0.40 at a cost of $NZ6.41 per patient-treatment day for gentamicin. It was estimated that nephrotoxicity could add between $NZ23 and $NZ43 per day to the cost of aminoglycoside treatment. Although the small sample sizes of the study mean that results should be regarded as indicative rather than conclusive, there were sufficient information to construct a working model and show how the total cost of an antibacterial regimen could be evaluated in practical terms. The important cost
Although New Zealanders have historically prided ourselves on being a country where everyone has a 'fair go', the systemic and longstanding existence of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori suggests something isn't working. This paper informed by critical race theory, asks the reader to consider the counter narrative viewpoints of Māori health leaders; that suggest institutional racism has permeated public health policy making in New Zealand and is a contributor to health inequities alongside colonisation and uneven access to the determinants of health. Using a mixed methods approach and critical anti-racism scholarship this paper identifies five specific sites of institutional racism. These sites are: majoritarian decision making, the misuse of evidence, deficiencies in both cultural competencies and consultation processes and the impact of Crown filters. These findings suggest the failure of quality assurance systems, existing anti-racism initiatives and health sector leadership to detect and eliminate racism. The author calls for institutional racism to be urgently addressed within New Zealand and this paper serves as a reminder to policy makers operating within other colonial contexts to be vigilant for such racism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Willis, Eileen; Carryer, Jenny; Harvey, Clare; Pearson, Maria; Henderson, Julie
To outline the way the culture of austerity arising from the Global Financial Crisis has been used by Australian and New Zealand governments to maintain and extend healthcare budget cuts, through new public management strategies leading to missed nursing care. Ten years on the cost of the Global Financial Crisis continues to be borne by tax payers and those employed by the welfare state, yet analysis shows clearly that it was caused by a failure to adequately regulate markets, particularly the banks and multinational corporations. In health care, one of the impacts is increased workload for nurses leading to missed care. Registered Nurses and midwives (n = 7,302) completed the MISSCARE surveys between 2012 - 2015, in four Australian states and New Zealand providing quantitative and qualitative responses. The qualitative comments were analysed using a template analysis approach based on key features of New Public Management. Sixty-two qualitative responses identified measures in place directly linked to austerity and new public management strategies that impacted on the quality of patient care and nursing work, as well as contributing to missed care. Opportunities for resistance may lie outside public and private health organizations in civil society, in the nurse union movements and other health and nursing professional associations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Came, H; Doole, C; McKenna, B; McCreanor, T
Public institutions within New Zealand have long been accused of mono-culturalism and institutional racism. This study sought to identify inconsistencies and bias by comparing government funded contracting processes for Māori public health providers (n = 60) with those of generic providers (n = 90). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected (November 2014-May 2015), through a nationwide telephone survey of public health providers, achieving a 75% response rate. Descriptive statistical analyses were applied to quantitative responses and an inductive approach was taken to analyse data from open-ended responses in the survey domains of relationships with portfolio contract managers, contracting and funding. The quantitative data showed four sites of statistically significant variation: length of contracts, intensity of monitoring, compliance costs and frequency of auditing. Non-significant data involved access to discretionary funding and cost of living adjustments, the frequency of monitoring, access to Crown (government) funders and representation on advisory groups. The qualitative material showed disparate provider experiences, dependent on individual portfolio managers, with nuanced differences between generic and Māori providers' experiences. This study showed that monitoring government performance through a nationwide survey was an innovative way to identify sites of institutional racism. In a policy context where health equity is a key directive to the health sector, this study suggests there is scope for New Zealand health funders to improve their contracting practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kira, Anette; Glover, Marewa; Bullen, Chris; Viehbeck, Sarah
Tobacco control (TC) research capacity and productivity are critical for developing evidence-informed interventions that will reduce the harmful effects of smoking. The aim of this paper was to investigate New Zealand's (NZ) TC research capacity along with the quantity and quality of publications, following two government initiatives aimed, in part, at improving the quantity and quality of NZ TC research. Scopus was searched for articles with at least one NZ author and where the topic was of primary relevance to TC. Publications were organized into two time periods, following the government initiatives, 1993-2003 and 2004-2009. We analyzed the number of publications, publication journals, type of publications, impact (using the impact factor), and authorship. There has been an increase in number and impact of publications and number of authors. The number of publications has increased from an average of 14 (1994-2003) to 38 per year (2004-2009). The number of journals published increased from 64 to 86. The impact during 2004-2009 was almost threefold than in 1993-2003. The number of authors increased from 212 to 345, and the number of authors who had at least one first-authored publication increased from 80 to 124. These results show an encouraging trend in NZ TC research, with an increase in research productivity, quality, and in research capacity. It is possible that government-initiated and -funded infrastructural support contributed to increasing needed TC research, which supports the worth of such initiatives.
Dyson, Lyn; Hedgecock, Bronwyn; Tomkins, Sharon; Cooke, Gordon
Ongoing education for the nursing workforce is necessary to ensure currency of knowledge in order to enable evidence based client care. The cost of education is high to the organisation and the individual, and must therefore be cost-effective, relevant and appropriate. According to research, education for nurses is not always systematically planned and developed and often relies on the interest area and assessment of the nurse educators. To survey the learning needs of clinically based registered nurses within an acute care setting. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect the data. Two groups completed the questionnaire: all eligible registered nurses in two acute care hospitals located in urban New Zealand and their senior nurses such as clinical nurse managers, specialists and educators. The study found agreement on learning needs and also noted differing opinions between the Registered Nurses (RNs), and their senior RNs, RNs initially registered overseas and between levels of practice, on selection and ranking of learning needs. This survey identified a number of high learning needs for RNs working within acute care settings. Differences in perception of learning needs for RNs, between the nurses themselves and the Senior RNs exist, as well as among sub groups of RNs. As a result, educators and managers are encouraged to collaborate to realise the opportunity which exists for the provision of education across specialty areas and to work with the different groups and the individual to ensure unique learning needs are met.
O'Connor, Daniel; Melding, Pamela
To map the size and distribution of publicly funded aged psychiatry (psychogeriatric) services in Australia and New Zealand in 2003. Services were tracked exhaustively through personal, professional and academic contacts, electronic searches and word-of-mouth. Directors or managers of services were asked to complete a brief questionnaire concerning their locality, services, staff profile and patient contacts. Services varied widely with respect to their numbers, size and community outreach. Victoria was the only Australian state to provide specialist, multidisciplinary aged psychiatry teams with community, acute inpatient and residential arms in all its major cities. New South Wales, the state with the largest aged population, performed relatively poorly on most indicators. New Zealand performed relatively well despite its small size and widely dispersed population. Publicly funded aged mental health services are effective and reach frail, multiply disabled old people who cannot access private psychiatrists and are often overlooked by services for younger adults. At the time of our survey, such services were distributed in Australia in a highly inequitable fashion.
McKee, Martin; Edwards, Nigel; Atun, Rifat
While some forms of public-private partnerships are a feature of hospital construction and operation in all countries with mixed economies, there is increasing interest in a model in which a public authority contracts with a private company to design, build and operate an entire hospital. Drawing on the experience of countries such as Australia, Spain, and the United Kingdom, this paper reviews the experience with variants of this model. Although experience is still very limited and rigorous evaluations lacking, four issues have emerged: cost, quality, flexibility and complexity. New facilities have, in general, been more expensive than they would have been if procured using traditional methods. Compared with the traditional system, new facilities are more likely to be built on time and within budget, but this seems often to be at the expense of compromises on quality. The need to minimize the risk to the parties means that it is very difficult to "future-proof" facilities in a rapidly changing world. Finally, such projects are extremely, and in some cases prohibitively, complex. While it is premature to say whether the problems experienced relate to the underlying model or to their implementation, it does seem that a public-private partnership further complicates the already difficult task of building and operating a hospital. PMID:17143463
McKee, Martin; Edwards, Nigel; Atun, Rifat
While some forms of public-private partnerships are a feature of hospital construction and operation in all countries with mixed economies, there is increasing interest in a model in which a public authority contracts with a private company to design, build and operate an entire hospital. Drawing on the experience of countries such as Australia, Spain, and the United Kingdom, this paper reviews the experience with variants of this model. Although experience is still very limited and rigorous evaluations lacking, four issues have emerged: cost, quality, flexibility and complexity. New facilities have, in general, been more expensive than they would have been if procured using traditional methods. Compared with the traditional system, new facilities are more likely to be built on time and within budget, but this seems often to be at the expense of compromises on quality. The need to minimize the risk to the parties means that it is very difficult to "future-proof" facilities in a rapidly changing world. Finally, such projects are extremely, and in some cases prohibitively, complex. While it is premature to say whether the problems experienced relate to the underlying model or to their implementation, it does seem that a public-private partnership further complicates the already difficult task of building and operating a hospital.
Hoysted, Claire; Babl, Franz E; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Landolt, Markus A; Jobson, Laura; Curtis, Sarah; Kharbanda, Anupam B; Lyttle, Mark D; Parri, Niccolò; Stanley, Rachel; Alisic, Eva
To examine Australian and New Zealand emergency department (ED) staff's training, knowledge and confidence regarding trauma-informed care for children after trauma, and barriers to implementation. ED staff's perspectives on trauma-informed care were assessed using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Participants included 468 ED staff (375 nursing and 111 medical staff) from hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, χ 2 tests and multiple regressions. Over 90% of respondents had not received training in trauma-informed care and almost all respondents (94%) wanted training in this area. While knowledge was associated with a respondent's previous training and profession, confidence was associated with the respondent's previous training, experience level and workplace. Dominant barriers to the implementation of trauma-informed care were lack of time and lack of training. There is a need and desire for training and education of Australian and New Zealand ED staff in trauma-informed care. This study demonstrates that experience alone is not sufficient for the development of knowledge of paediatric traumatic stress reactions and trauma-informed care practices. Existing education materials could be adapted for use in the ED and to accommodate the training preferences of Australian and New Zealand ED staff. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Sheerin, Ian; Bartholomew, Nadia; Brunton, Cheryl
To estimate the economic costs to the community of an outbreak of campylobacteriosis in August 2012 resulting from contamination of a public water supply in Darfield, New Zealand. Probable incidence of waterborne disease was estimated. Reported cases were scrutinised to identify symptoms, duration, hospital admissions and those in the paid workforce. Extra public health and local authority costs were calculated. Estimated time off work was multiplied by the average wage to obtain a conservative estimate of lost production. Sensitivity analysis was used to estimate unreported cases and their associated costs. There were 138 cases of confirmed or probable campylobacter, of whom 46 sought a medical consultation. Taking into account the usual pyramid of non-notified cases, estimates of the population infected range between approximately 828 and 1987. The dominant societal cost is lost production from time off paid work. Forty-six per cent were in the paid workforce, indicating a total estimated economic cost of at least $714,527 but it could have been as high as $1.26 million, depending on estimates of unreported cases. The likely cause of the Darfield outbreak was faecal contamination of the water supply, which with a multi-barrier approach would have been entirely preventable. The results provide economic evidence to support upgrading of water supplies to provide safe water and prevent waterborne disease.
Russell, David G; Glucina, Tanja T; Sherson, Matthew W; Bredin, Melinda
The purpose of this study was to assess public perception of chiropractic public place marketing events. A chiropractic public place marketing program was held at 3 events (a community sports event, an exposition, and a university campus market day) over a 5-month period in Auckland, New Zealand, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were interviewed by chiropractic students. Interview questions were standardized and sought to find out participants' perception of chiropractic and whether it was influenced in a positive or negative manner after their exposure to the marketing program. Three hundred forty-five interviews were completed during 3 events. The minority of participants (15.9%) had a negative view of chiropractic, 29.2% were neutral, and 54.9% had a positive view of chiropractic. Of the responses of those surveyed, 54% did not change their opinion of chiropractic, 44.3% were more positive, and 1.7% were more negative. This study found that direct or indirect exposure to chiropractic public place marketing events may possibly influence the public perception of chiropractic. Because of the limited sample, these findings cannot be extrapolated to other regions or populations. Further studies are needed to test these findings in other world regions and in more controlled environments.
Hsiang, J C; Bai, W W; Raos, Z; Stableforth, W; Upton, A; Selvaratnam, S; Gane, E J; Gerred, S J
Liver cirrhosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality; however, little is known about its impact in New Zealand. We aim to determine the disease burden, epidemiology and outcomes of cirrhotic patients. This is a retrospective study of cirrhosis patients under secondary public hospital care in a geographically defined region, between the years 2000 and 2011. Cirrhosis complications and mortality was recorded. Poisson log-linear regression analysis was performed for incidence rate ratio (IRR) and Cox regression analysis was used to analyse time-related events. Seven hundred and forty-six cirrhotic patients were analysed; most were European/Other (39.9%), Pacific islanders (21.6%), Southeast Asian/Chinese (17.8%) and Maori (12.3%). 68.4% were male. The common primary aetiologies for cirrhosis were chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cirrhosis (37.3%), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) cirrhosis (24.1%), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) cirrhosis (22.3%) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) cirrhosis (16.4%). The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality rates were highest in NAFLD and CHB cirrhosis groups (3.0 and 3.1 per 100 patient-year respectively), compared with ALD and CHC groups (2.2 and 1.4 per 100 patient-year, all P < 0.05 respectively). Patients with ALD and NAFLD cirrhosis had the highest all-cause and non-HCC mortality rate compared with viral hepatitis cirrhosis groups. The IRR for HCC incidence, liver-related mortality and HCC mortality were 1.087, 1.098 and 1.114, respectively (all P < 0.001), suggesting increasing incidence and disease burden over the study period. The number of cirrhotic patients in secondary care is increasing steadily. Cirrhosis complications and mortality rates are also rising, particularly the incidence and mortality of HCC. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca
Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…
Brousseau, Ruth; Chang, Sophia
As the nation embarks upon health reform, many questions remain unanswered. Important among them is the fate of public hospitals, which have historically cared for the uninsured. Under health reform, public hospitals will face marketplace competition to serve newly insured people. Can public hospitals change, so that they can survive and thrive in a competitive environment? This article describes lessons learned from a decade of funding by the California HealthCare Foundation to improve clinical care in California's public hospitals. It also identifies factors that will influence California's public hospitals in the coming months and years.
Contarino, F; Grosso, G; Mistretta, A
The growing debate in recent years over how to finance public works through private capital has progressively highlighted the role of project finance (PF) and publicprivate partnerships (PPP) in general. More and more European countries are turning to PF to finance their public infrastructure development. The UK, which pioneered the adoption of project finance in this field, has been followed by Italy, Spain, France, Portugal and Germany and more recently by Greece, Czech Republic and Poland. Beginning in the late 1990's, Italy has steadily amplified its use of PF and PPPs in key sectors such as healthcare as an alternative way of funding the modernisation of its health facilities and hospitals. The trend reveal an average annual growth of 10.9% since 2002 with peaks of varying intensity over the five year period. Project finance and PPPs represent an effective response to the country's infrastructure gap and support the competitiveness of local systems and the quality of public services. None of this will transpire, however without energetic new planning efforts and adequate policy at the centre.
Flint, E L; Minot, E O; Perry, P E; Stafford, K J
To investigate public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand in order to quantify the extent to which people perceive barking dogs to be a problem, to compare tolerance of barking with that of other common suburban noises, to assess the level of public understanding about the function of barking, to determine risk factors for intolerance of barking and to assess knowledge of possible strategies for the investigation and management of problem barking. A 12-page questionnaire was sent to 2,000 people throughout New Zealand randomly selected from the electoral roll. Risk factors for being bothered by barking were examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,750 questionnaires were successfully delivered; of these, 727 (42%) were returned. Among respondents, 356/727 (49.0%) indicated that frequent barking during the day would bother them while 545/727 (75.0%) would be bothered by barking at night. Barking and howling were ranked above other suburban noises as a cause of annoyance. Risk factors for being bothered by daytime barking were not being home during the day, not owning a dog, and considering a dog bite to be a serious health risk. Risk factors for being bothered by night-time barking were not being home during the day, marital status, considering dog bites to pose a serious health risk, and having been frightened by a dog. Overall, 510/699 (73%) respondents understood that barking was a form of communication. Action likely to be taken by 666 respondents hearing frequent barking included notifying and offering to help the owner (119; 17.8%), complaining to the owner (127; 19.1%) or the authorities (121; 18.2%), or doing nothing (299; 48%). Possible responses by 211 dog owners if they had a barking dog included seeking help from dog trainers (59; 28%) or behaviourists (54; 26%), buying an anti-barking device (33; 15%) or getting rid of the dog (20; 10%). Barking was considered to be potentially disturbing by respondents to this survey
Barretto, Craig; Miers, Sarah; Lambie, Ian
Public perceptions of crime and punishment have taken on increasing importance as countries grapple with how to address youth violence. The current study aimed to compare the views of those who have had personal experience of victimisation from youth offenders and those who have not, on what could be improved in managing youth offending in New Zealand. A qualitative methodology was used with data from open-ended survey responses from a nationally representative sample. Public sentiments favoured addressing systemic issues and providing rehabilitation as main emphases followed by more punitive measures, prevention, and restorative justice. Victims were over-represented on sentiments of prevention whereas non-victims were over-represented in support for more punitive measures and restorative justice. There was also considerable support for a multi-facetted approach that utilised a number of the approaches above, suggesting that the solution is as complex as the offender's circumstances. These findings are very much in line with the current goals of the youth justice system with its emphasis on diversion and rehabilitation.
Fraser, Trish; Glover, Marewa; Truman, Penelope
The New Zealand (NZ) government is to lift the ban on the sale of nicotine for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Using a naturalistic approach, we sought to understand how the current law was experienced by e-cigarette users (vapers). Twenty-nine vapers were interviewed by telephone, between May and September 2016, using a semi-structured interview schedule. Open-ended questions covered: initiating vaping, the experience of stopping smoking, technical problems encountered, reasons for vaping, acceptability of vaping, addiction to vaping and advice given to smokers about vaping. The audio recordings were transcribed and then independently coded using a general inductive thematic analysis. This paper presents the main theme which was that vapers employed a range of reactionary strategies to the ban on the sale of nicotine e-liquid in NZ. These included lobbying government, spreading the word, establishing vaper support groups, helping people stop smoking by switching to vaping and advocating for e-cigarettes to be incorporated into smoking cessation practice. Vapers' experience and observations form a popular or lay epidemiology--one that identified that e-cigarettes were helping people stop smoking and could thus deliver public health benefits. Public health researchers and workers, and government fears about vaping, and proposals to strengthen restrictions contributed to the growth of the vaper community who reacted by forming self-help groups and providing alternative cessation support to smokers. For a significant switch from smoking to vaping to occur, the health sector needs to have a change of attitude towards vaping that is positive, and the public needs evidence-based information on vaping. A first step could be for the health sector to collaborate with the vaping community to reorient current tobacco control and cessation practice to encourage smokers to switch to less harmful smoke-free alternatives to smoking.
Prentice, Celia A; Smith, Claire; McLean, Rachael M
(i) To determine the Na content of commonly consumed fast foods in New Zealand and (ii) to estimate Na intake from savoury fast foods for the New Zealand adult population. Commonly consumed fast foods were identified from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Na values from all savoury fast foods from chain restaurants (n 471) were obtained from nutrition information on company websites, while the twelve most popular fast-food types from independent outlets (n 52) were determined using laboratory analysis. Results were compared with the UK Food Standards Agency 2012 sodium targets. Nutrient analysis was completed to estimate Na intake from savoury fast foods for the New Zealand population using the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. New Zealand. Adults aged 15 years and above. From chain restaurants, sauces/salad dressings and fried chicken had the highest Na content (per 100 g) and from independent outlets, sausage rolls, battered hotdogs and mince and cheese pies were highest in Na (per 100 g). The majority of fast foods exceeded the UK Food Standards Agency 2012 sodium targets. The mean daily Na intake from savoury fast foods was 283 mg/d for the total adult population and 1229 mg/d for fast-food consumers. Taking into account the Na content and frequency of consumption, potato dishes, filled rolls, hamburgers and battered fish contributed substantially to Na intake for fast-food consumers in New Zealand. These foods should be targeted for Na reduction reformulation.
Barr, Judith K; Giannotti, Tierney E; Sofaer, Shoshanna; Duquette, Cathy E; Waters, William J; Petrillo, Marcia K
Objective To explore the impact of statewide public reporting of hospital patient satisfaction on hospital quality improvement (QI), using Rhode Island (RI) as a case example. Data Source Primary data collected through semi-structured interviews between September 2002 and January 2003. Study Design The design is a retrospective study of hospital executives at all 11 general and two specialty hospitals in RI. Respondents were asked about hospital QI activities at several points throughout the public reporting process, as well as about hospital structure and processes to accomplish QI. Qualitative analysis of the interview data proceeded through an iterative process to identify themes and categories in the data. Principal Findings Data from the standardized statewide patient satisfaction survey process were used by hospitals to identify and target new QI initiatives, evaluate performance, and monitor progress. While all hospitals fully participated in the public reporting process, they varied in the stage of development of their QI activities and adoption of the statewide standardized survey for ongoing monitoring of their QI programs. Most hospitals placed responsibility for QI within each department, with results reported to top management, who were perceived as giving strong support for QI. The external environment facilitated QI efforts. Conclusion Public reporting of comparative data on patient views can enhance and reinforce QI efforts in hospitals. The participation of key stakeholders facilitated successful implementation of statewide public reporting. This experience in RI offers lessons for other states or regions as they move to public reporting of hospital quality data. PMID:16704506
Camillo, Nadia Raquel Suzini; Oliveira, João Lucas Campos de; Bellucci Junior, José Aparecido; Cervilheri, Andressa Hirata; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço; Matsuda, Laura Misue
to analyze the perceptions of the multidisciplinary team on Accreditation in a public hospital. descriptive, exploratory, qualitative research, performed in May 2014, using recorded individual interviews. In total, 28 employees of a public hospital, Accredited with Excellence, answered the guiding question: "Tell me about the Accreditation system used in this hospital". The interviews were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. of the speeches, three categories emerged: Advantages offered by the Accreditation; Accredited public hospital resembling a private hospital; Pride/satisfaction for acting in an accredited public hospital. participants perceived Accreditation as a favorable system for a quality management in the public service because it promotes the development of professional skills and improves cost management, organizational structure, management of assistance and perception of job pride/satisfaction.
Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Hearld, Larry; Menachemi, Nir; Epané, Josué Patien; O'Connor, Stephen
As safety net providers, public hospitals operate in more challenging environments than private hospitals. Such environments put public hospitals at greater risk of financial distress, which may result in privatization and deterioration of the safety net. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether financial distress is associated with privatization among public hospitals. We used panel data merged from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, Medicare Cost Reports, Area Resource File, and Local Area Unemployment Statistics. Our study population consisted of all U.S. nonfederal acute care public hospitals in 1997 tracked through 2009, resulting in 6,426 hospital-year observations. The dependent variable "privatization" was defined as conversion from public status to either private not-for-profit or private for-profit status. The main independent variable, "financial distress," was based on the Altman Z-score methodology. Control variables included market and organizational factors. Two random-effects logistic regression models with state and year fixed-effects were constructed. The independent and control variables were lagged by 1 year and 2 years for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Public hospitals in financial distress had greater odds of being privatized than public hospitals not in financial distress: (OR = 4.53, p < .001) for Model 1 and (OR = 3.05, p = .001) for Model 2. Privatization eases access to resources and may provide financial relief to government entities from the burden of continuously funding a hospital operating at a loss, which in turn may help keep the hospital open and preserve access to care for the community. Privatizing a financially distressed public hospital may be a better strategic alternative than closure. The Altman Z-score could be used as a managerial tool to monitor hospitals' financial condition and take corrective actions.
Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F
Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.
Longest, Beaufort B
Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.
Rice, Mitchell F.
Describes the health care functions provided for the Black community by urban public hospitals; considers the impact of Federal retrenchment on these institutions; and examines the negative impact on Blacks, other minorities, and the poor that the sale of urban public hospitals to private, for-profit chains will have. (GC)
Tengilimoglu, D; Kisa, A; Dziegielewski, S F
This article reports the results of a patient-satisfaction survey administered by interview to 2045 adults discharged from several major public and private hospitals in Turkey. The direct measurement of patient-satisfaction is a new phenomenon for this country. An instrument was designed similar to those available in the United States and administered during exit interviews. Two primary areas of analyses were determined in comparing services provided by these public and private hospitals: demographic factors with regard to accessibility and consumer perceptions of the quality of service provided. Relationships and percentages within and among the five public and two private hospitals are reported. Several statistically significant differences were found between the hospitals, with the private hospitals achieving the greatest satisfaction on most of the quality of services issues examined. Future recommendations outline the need to take into account the public's perception of these hospitals and enhancing customer satisfaction as a means of increasing service utilization.
Edwards, Nigel; Saltman, Richard B
Public hospitals are well known to be difficult to reform. This paper provides a comprehensive six-part analytic framework that can help policymakers and managers better shape their organizational and institutional behavior. The paper first describes three separate structural characteristics which, together, inhibit effective problem description and policy design for public hospitals. These three structural constraints are i) the dysfunctional characteristics found in most organizations, ii) the particular dysfunctions of professional health sector organizations, and iii) the additional dysfunctional dimensions of politically managed organizations. While the problems in each of these three dimensions of public hospital organization are well-known, and the first two dimensions clearly affect private as well as publicly run hospitals, insufficient attention has been paid to the combined impact of all three factors in making public hospitals particularly difficult to manage and steer. Further, these three structural dimensions interact in an institutional environment defined by three restrictive context limitations, again two of which also affect private hospitals but all three of which compound the management dilemmas in public hospitals. The first contextual limitation is the inherent complexity of delivering high quality, safe, and affordable modern inpatient care in a hospital setting. The second contextual limitation is a set of specific market failures in public hospitals, which limit the scope of the standard financial incentives and reform measures. The third and last contextual limitation is the unique problem of generalized and localized anxiety , which accompanies the delivery of medical services, and which suffuses decision-making on the part of patients, medical staff, hospital management, and political actors alike. This combination of six institutional characteristics - three structural dimensions and three contextual dimensions - can help explain why
Background Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death and hospitalisation among New Zealand children, with indigenous Māori and ethnic minority Pacific children significantly over represented in these statistics. International research has shown that many children hospitalised for injury, as well as their families experience high levels of stress, and ethnic disparities in the quality of trauma care are not uncommon. The research on which this paper is based sought to identify key issues and concerns for New Zealand's multi-ethnic community following hospitalisation for childhood injury in order to inform efforts to improve the quality of trauma services. This paper reports on service providers' perspectives complementing previously published research on the experiences of families of injured children. Methods A qualitative research design involving eleven in-depth individual interviews and three focus groups was used to elicit the views of 21 purposefully selected service provider key informants from a range of professional backgrounds involved in the care and support of injured children and their families in Auckland, New Zealand. Interviews were transcribed and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Key issues identified by service providers included limited ability to meet the needs of children with mild injuries, particularly their emotional needs; lack of psychological support for families; some issues related to Māori and Pacific family support services; lack of accessible and comprehensive information for children and families; poor staff continuity and coordination; and poor coordination of hospital and community services, including inadequacies in follow-up plans. There was considerable agreement between these issues and those identified by the participant families. Conclusions The identified issues and barriers indicate the need for interventions for service improvement at systemic, provider and patient levels. Of particular
Ameratunga, Shanthi; Abel, Sally; Tin Tin, Sandar; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Milne, Sharon; Crengle, Sue
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death and hospitalisation among New Zealand children, with indigenous Māori and ethnic minority Pacific children significantly over represented in these statistics. International research has shown that many children hospitalised for injury, as well as their families experience high levels of stress, and ethnic disparities in the quality of trauma care are not uncommon. The research on which this paper is based sought to identify key issues and concerns for New Zealand's multi-ethnic community following hospitalisation for childhood injury in order to inform efforts to improve the quality of trauma services. This paper reports on service providers' perspectives complementing previously published research on the experiences of families of injured children. A qualitative research design involving eleven in-depth individual interviews and three focus groups was used to elicit the views of 21 purposefully selected service provider key informants from a range of professional backgrounds involved in the care and support of injured children and their families in Auckland, New Zealand. Interviews were transcribed and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Key issues identified by service providers included limited ability to meet the needs of children with mild injuries, particularly their emotional needs; lack of psychological support for families; some issues related to Māori and Pacific family support services; lack of accessible and comprehensive information for children and families; poor staff continuity and coordination; and poor coordination of hospital and community services, including inadequacies in follow-up plans. There was considerable agreement between these issues and those identified by the participant families. The identified issues and barriers indicate the need for interventions for service improvement at systemic, provider and patient levels. Of particular relevance are strategies that enable
Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals. PMID:21067580
Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.
Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively
Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Halm, Ethan A; Makam, Anil N
Hospitals that have robust financial performance may have improved publicly reported outcomes. To assess the relationship between hospital financial performance and publicly reported outcomes of care, and to assess whether improved outcome metrics affect subsequent hospital financial performance. Observational cohort study. Hospital financial data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development in California in 2008 and 2012 were linked to data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare website. Hospital financial performance was measured by net revenue by operations, operating margin, and total margin. Outcomes were 30-day risk-standardized mortality and readmission rates for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and pneumonia (PNA). Among 279 hospitals, there was no consistent relationship between measures of financial performance in 2008 and publicly reported outcomes from 2008 to 2011 for AMI and PNA. However, improved hospital financial performance (by any of the 3 measures) was associated with a modest increase in CHF mortality rates (ie, 0.26% increase in CHF mortality rate for every 10% increase in operating margin [95% confidence interval: 0.07%-0.45%]). Conversely, there were no significant associations between outcomes from 2008 to 2011 and subsequent financial performance in 2012 (P > 0.05 for all). Robust financial performance is not associated with improved publicly reported outcomes for AMI, CHF, and PNA. Financial incentives in addition to public reporting, such as readmissions penalties, may help motivate hospitals with robust financial performance to further improve publicly reported outcomes. Reassuringly, improved mortality and readmission rates do not necessarily lead to loss of revenue. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:481-488. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Allen, Pauline; Cao, Qi; Wang, Hufeng
Following decades of change in health care structures and modes of funding, China has recently been making pilot reforms to the governance of its public hospitals, primarily by increasing the autonomy of public hospitals and redefining the roles of the health authorities. In this paper, we analyse the historical evolution and current situation of public hospital governance in China, focussing the range of governance models being tried out in pilot cities across China. We then draw on the experiences of public hospital governance reform in a wide range of other countries to consider the nature of the Chinese pilots. We find that the key difference in China is that the public hospitals in the pilot schemes do not receive sufficient funding from government and are able to distribute profits to staff. This creates incentives to charge patients for excessive treatment. This situation has undermined public service orientation in Chinese public hospitals. We conclude that the pilot reforms of governance will not be sufficient to remedy all the problems facing these hospitals, although they are a step in the right direction. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Scott, Ian A
* Increasing demand on public hospital beds has led to what many see as a hospital bed crisis requiring substantial increases in bed numbers. By 2050, if current bed use trends persist and as the numbers of frail older patients rise exponentially, a 62% increase in hospital beds will be required to meet expected demand, at a cost almost equal to the entire current Australian healthcare budget. * This article provides an overview of the effectiveness of different strategies for reducing hospital demand that may be viewed as primarily (although not exclusively) targeting the hospital sector - increasing capacity and throughput and reducing readmissions - or the non-hospital sector - facilitating early discharge or reducing presentations and admissions to hospital. Evidence of effectiveness was retrieved from a literature search of randomised trials and observational studies using broad search terms. * The principal findings were as follows: (1) within the hospital sector, throughput could be substantially improved by outsourcing public hospital clinical services to the private sector, undertaking whole-of-hospital reform of care processes and patient flow that address both access and exit block, separating acute from elective beds and services, increasing rates of day-only or short stay admissions, and curtailing ineffective or marginally effective clinical interventions; (2) in regards to the non-hospital sector, potentially the biggest gains in reducing hospital demand will come from improved access to residential care, rehabilitation services, and domiciliary support as patients awaiting such services currently account for 70% of acute hospital bed-days. More widespread use of acute care and advance care planning within residential care facilities and population-based chronic disease management programs can also assist. * This overview concludes that, in reducing hospital bed demand, clinical process redesign within hospitals and capacity enhancement of non-hospital
Kurian, Priya; Wright, Jeanette
The acceptance of public participation in science and technology governance in liberal democratic contexts is evident in the institutionalization of a variety of mechanisms for participation in recent decades. Yet questions remain about the extent to which institutions have actually transformed their policy practice to embrace democratic governance of techno-scientific decision making. A critical discourse analysis of the response to public participation by the Environmental Risk ManagementAuthority (ERMA), the key decision-making body on genetic modification in Aotearoa/New Zealand, in a specific case demonstrates that ERMA systematically marginalized concerns raised by the public about risk management, ethics, and ecological, economic, and cultural issues in order to give primacy to a positivist, technological worldview. Such delegitimization of public perspectives pre-empts the possibility of the democratic governance of science.
Miller, R D
The extensive literature concerning public mental hospitals has largely been written from the perspective of administrators and systems analysts; most of the reports emphasize the frustrations and problems of working in public mental hospitals and the continued exodus of psychiatrists from these facilities. The author addresses the pros and cons of such a career choice from the viewpoint of one who has been an "Indian" rather than a "chief" for a decade. He suggests that the current financial situation in both private practice and academia makes work in public mental hospitals increasingly attractive.
Wills, Rod; McLean, Margaret A.
Mechanisms of selection and control are utilized in both farming and special education. In a nation where sheep outnumber the population at a ratio of 10 to 1, the processes of drafting and selection have been refined over 150 years of New Zealand focusing on its agricultural primary production. Practices of sheep farming offer an interesting…
Robertson, Lindsay A.; Marsh, L.
The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process.…
Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui; Costa, José
The inability of traditional state organisations to respond to new economic, technological and social challenges and the associated emerging problems has made it necessary to adopt new methods of health management. As a result, new directions have emerged in the reform of Public Administration together with the introduction of innovative models. The aim is to achieve a type of management that focuses on results as well as on effort and efficiency. We intend to analyse to what extent the adoption of business management models by hospital healthcare units can improve their performance, mainly in terms of standards of efficiency. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to investigate the efficiency of a set of public Portuguese hospitals. The aim was to evaluate the impact of business management in Portuguese public hospitals with regards to efficiency, specifically taking into account the fact that lack of resources and increased health care needs are a present and future reality. From a total of 83 public hospitals, a sample of 59 hospitals was chosen, of which 21 are state-owned hospital enterprises (SA) and 38 are traditional public administration sector hospitals (SPA). This study evaluates hospital performance by calculating two efficiency measures associated with two categories of inputs. The first efficiency measures the costs associated with hospital production lines and the number of beds (representing fixed capacity) as inputs. The annual costs generated by the hospitals in the consumption of capital and work (direct and indirect costs) are used. A second measure of efficiency is calculated separately. This measure includes in the inputs the number of beds as well as the human resources available (number of doctors, number of nurses and other personnel) in each hospital. With regard to output, the variables that best reflect the hospital services rendered were considered: number of inpatient days, patients discharged, outpatient visits, emergencies
Zhou, Ping; Bundorf, Kate; Le Chang, Ji; Huang, Jin Xin; Xue, Di
To measure perceptions of organizational culture among employees of public hospitals in China and to determine whether perceptions are associated with hospital performance. Hospital, employee, and patient surveys from 87 Chinese public hospitals conducted during 2009. Developed and administered a tool to assess organizational culture in Chinese public hospitals. Used factor analysis to create measures of organizational culture. Analyzed the relationships between employee type and perceptions of culture and between perceptions of culture and hospital performance using multivariate models. Employees perceived the culture of Chinese public hospitals as stronger in internal rules and regulations, and weaker in empowerment. Hospitals in which employees perceived that the culture emphasized cost control were more profitable and had higher rates of outpatient visits and bed days per physician per day but also had lower levels of patient satisfaction. Hospitals with cultures perceived as customer-focused had longer length of stay but lower patient satisfaction. Managers in Chinese public hospitals should consider whether the culture of their organization will enable them to respond effectively to their changing environment. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Zhou, Ping; Bundorf, Kate; Chang, Ji; Huang, Jin Xin; Xue, Di
Objective To measure perceptions of organizational culture among employees of public hospitals in China and to determine whether perceptions are associated with hospital performance. Data Sources Hospital, employee, and patient surveys from 87 Chinese public hospitals conducted during 2009. Study Design Developed and administered a tool to assess organizational culture in Chinese public hospitals. Used factor analysis to create measures of organizational culture. Analyzed the relationships between employee type and perceptions of culture and between perceptions of culture and hospital performance using multivariate models. Principal Findings Employees perceived the culture of Chinese public hospitals as stronger in internal rules and regulations, and weaker in empowerment. Hospitals in which employees perceived that the culture emphasized cost control were more profitable and had higher rates of outpatient visits and bed days per physician per day but also had lower levels of patient satisfaction. Hospitals with cultures perceived as customer-focused had longer length of stay but lower patient satisfaction. Conclusions Managers in Chinese public hospitals should consider whether the culture of their organization will enable them to respond effectively to their changing environment. PMID:22092228
Ekeroma, Alec J; Pollock, Terina; Kenealy, Tim; Shulruf, Boaz; Shurulf, Boaz; Sopoaga, Faafetai; Montorzi, Gabriela; McCowan, Lesley M E; Hill, Andrew
There is a keen interest to develop research systems and increase research output in the 14 Pacific Island Forum Countries (PIFC) to support development of policies and practice based on locally relevant research evidence. To assess the quantity and characteristics of reproductive health research output by each country (14 PIFC) from 2000 to 2011 using New Zealand's reproductive research outputs as the reference. A systematic search of the literature using a broad definition of reproductive health. There were 174 papers published in the PIFC from 2000 to 2011 compared with 628 papers published in New Zealand (NZ). Most (57%) of the PIFC papers were from Papua New Guinea (PNG), although Samoa had the most papers by population (10/100,000). Five of the countries did not have a single publication. The majority of papers from both the PIFC and NZ were observational studies (72 vs 36%). Authors from Australia were responsible for 34% of PIFC publications followed by 25% from PNG. Sixty-three per cent of papers by PIFC sole and first authors were published in local journals, whereas 86% of non-PIFC authors published in international journals. There is a need for reproductive research in PIFC. PNG had the most publications on the back of a well-funded dedicated research institute and a significant collaboration with Australian researchers. The large number of papers in PIFC countries without PIFC authors raises the question about the need to require non-PIFC researchers to enter into genuine research partnerships in order to build research capacity in the PIFC. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Elliott, R L
Serious clinical and risk management problems arise when indigent patients with acute medical conditions are transferred from general medical hospitals or emergency departments to public psychiatric hospitals that are ill equipped to provide medical care. To combat such practices, referred to as dumping, Congress included measures in the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA) prohibiting such transfers. Because physicians and administrators in public psychiatric hospitals are generally not aware of the potential usefulness of COBRA in reducing dumping, this paper describes its important provisions. The key to preventing dumping is to educate referral sources to limitations on the medical care available at the receiving hospital and to discourage negligent patient transfers by enforcing COBRA. Public hospital staff and legal counsel who become familiar with COBRA's provisions can develop an antidumping strategy.
Walker, Jessica K; Bruce, Stephanie J; Dale, Arnja R
Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.
Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun
This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.
Schultz, Michael; Davidson, Andrew; Donald, Sarah; Targonska, Bogna; Turnbull, Angus; Weggery, Susan; Livingstone, Vicki; Dockerty, John D
AIM: To retrospectively collect inpatient and outpatient data and to assess the use of endoscopic procedures during the years 1991, 1997 and 2003 to analyse for trends. METHODS: This retrospective survey was conducted in a University-associated Gastroenterology Unit offering secondary and tertiary health care services for a population of approximately 182 000 people in Southern New Zealand. Data collected included patient contacts (in- and outpatients), gastroscopic and colonoscopic investigations. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in the absolute numbers of patient contacts over the years (1991: 2308 vs 1997: 2022 vs 2003: 2783, P < 0.0001) with inflammatory bowel disease, other diseases of the colon, anus and rectum and iron studies related disorders decreasing significantly but liver disease and constipation increasing linearly over time. The use of endoscopy services remained relatively stable but colonoscopic investigations for a positive family history of colorectal cancer increased significantly while more gastroscopies were performed for unexplained anaemia. CONCLUSION: The whole spectrum of gastroenterology contacts was studied. A substantial proportion of colonoscopies and outpatient consultations were undertaken to screen for colorectal cancer. This proportion is likely to grow further. Our findings have implications for the recruitment and training of the next generation of gastroenterologists. PMID:19195060
Objectives Public hospitals in Nepal account for a major share of the total health budget. Therefore, questions are often asked about the performance of these hospitals. Existing measures of performance are limited to historical ratio analyses without any benchmarks. The objective of this study is to explore the trends in inputs, outputs and productivity changes in Nepalese public hospitals from 2011–2012 to 2013–2014. Setting and participants The study was conducted among 32 Nepalese public hospitals (23 district level and 9 higher level) for the three fiscal years from 2011–2012 to 2013–2014. Outcome measures First, basic ratio analyses were conducted for the input and output measures over the study years. Then, Malmquist productivity change scores were obtained using data envelopment analysis. Aggregated as well as separate analyses were conducted for district level and higher level hospitals. Results Real expenditures of the sampled hospitals declined over the 3-year period from an average of US$ 371 000 in year 1 to US$ 368 730 in year 2 and US$ 328680 in year 3. The average aggregated hospital outputs increased marginally from 8276 in 2011–2012 to 8613 in 2013–2014. The total factor productivity of the study hospitals declined by 6.9% annually from 2011–2012 to 2013–2014. Of the total 32 hospitals, productivity increased in only 12 (37.5%) hospitals and declined in the remaining 20 hospitals. The total factor productivity loss was influenced by a decline in technology change, despite an increase in efficiency. Conclusions In general, productivity of the study hospitals declined over the study period. Availability and accessibility of accurate, detailed and consistent measures of hospital inputs and outputs is a major challenge for this type of analysis. PMID:28729314
Silwal, Pushkar Raj; Ashton, Toni
Public hospitals in Nepal account for a major share of the total health budget. Therefore, questions are often asked about the performance of these hospitals. Existing measures of performance are limited to historical ratio analyses without any benchmarks. The objective of this study is to explore the trends in inputs, outputs and productivity changes in Nepalese public hospitals from 2011-2012 to 2013-2014. The study was conducted among 32 Nepalese public hospitals (23 district level and 9 higher level) for the three fiscal years from 2011-2012 to 2013-2014. First, basic ratio analyses were conducted for the input and output measures over the study years. Then, Malmquist productivity change scores were obtained using data envelopment analysis. Aggregated as well as separate analyses were conducted for district level and higher level hospitals. Real expenditures of the sampled hospitals declined over the 3-year period from an average of US$ 371 000 in year 1 to US$ 368 730 in year 2 and US$ 328680 in year 3. The average aggregated hospital outputs increased marginally from 8276 in 2011-2012 to 8613 in 2013-2014. The total factor productivity of the study hospitals declined by 6.9% annually from 2011-2012 to 2013-2014. Of the total 32 hospitals, productivity increased in only 12 (37.5%) hospitals and declined in the remaining 20 hospitals. The total factor productivity loss was influenced by a decline in technology change, despite an increase in efficiency. In general, productivity of the study hospitals declined over the study period. Availability and accessibility of accurate, detailed and consistent measures of hospital inputs and outputs is a major challenge for this type of analysis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Handayani, P W; Hidayanto, A N; Ayuningtyas, Dumilah; Budi, Indra
The Hospital Information System (HIS) could help hospitals as a public entity to provide optimal health services. One of the main challenges of HIS implementation is an institutional change. Using institutional theory as the analytical lens, this study aims to explain the institutionalization of HIS as an instance of e-health initiatives in Indonesia. Furthermore, this paper aims for hospital management and researchers to improve the understanding of the social forces that influence hospital personnel's HIS acceptance within an organizational context. We use case studies from four public, government-owned hospitals and four privately owned (public and specialty) hospitals to explain the HIS institutionalization process by exploring the three concepts of institutional theory: institutional isomorphism, institutional logic, and institutional entrepreneurship. This study reveals that differences exist between public, government-owned and private hospitals with regard to the institutionalization process: public, government-owned hospitals' management is more motivated to implement HIS to comply with the regulations, while private hospitals' management views HIS as an urgent requirement that must be achieved. The study findings also reveal that various institutional isomorphism mechanisms and forms of institutional logic emerge during the process. Finally, three factors-self-efficacy, social influence, and management support-have a significant influence on the individual acceptance of HIS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moeeni, Vesal; Walls, Tony; Day, Andrew S
Children requiring hospitalization are at risk of malnutrition. This study aimed to define the nutritional status of paediatric inpatients in comparison with healthy children and to compare and contrast the feasibility and validity of three nutritional risk screening (NRS) tools in the hospitalized children. A total of 162 children admitted to Christchurch Hospital were assessed along with a similar group of healthy children. Their nutritional state was assessed and classified using standard criteria. The NRS tools were applied, and patients were classified into low-, medium- and high-risk groups. The feasibility and validity of the tools were assessed. Under-nutrition was more frequent in the inpatient group (9.9% vs. 3.7%; p = 0.04), whereas both groups had similar rates of overweight/obesity. NRS tools were able to identify between 81% and 100% of the malnourished patients in the medium- to high-risk groups. Undernourished patients had longer hospital stay than well-nourished patients. Hospitalized children have higher rates of under-nutrition than healthy children in NZ. The three NRS tools were able to identify children at nutritional risk with differing utility. In this setting, STRONGkids was the most reliable tool. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kalhor, Rohollah; Tajnesaei, Mahsa; Kakemam, Edris; Keykaleh, Mesam Safi; Kalhor, Leila
Hospital managers should have enough managerial competencies to coordinate the complex environment. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between public and private hospitals in Iran. This study aims to evaluate competency level of hospital managers and to compare their competencies in public and private hospitals. This study was descriptive-analytic, carried out in 2015. A survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 127 public and private hospitals managers in Tehran Province, Iran. Respondents were asked to rate their competencies in a five-key subscale that included people-related skills, health delivery, self-management, task-related skills, and strategic planning and management. Ratings were based on a five-point Likert scale ranging from very low to excellent competency level. Self-assessment of competencies level showed that managers in all state hospitals evaluate their competency at a low level. Managers felt most competent in health-delivery skills (3.71), people-related skills (3.61), and strategic planning and management (3.57), relatively less competent in self-management (3.54) and task-related skills (3.49). While being the mean total competency levels were significantly higher among male managers, those who participated in the healthcare/hospital management training courses, and those whose primary formal qualification was management in healthcare/hospital management (P<0.05). Similarly, managers who had more experience in their current position were more likely to report higher competencies level (P<0.05). Managers in private hospitals perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public hospitals colleagues in most of the management facets (P<0.001). There is a perceived lack of management capacity by managers of both public and private hospitals and the gap between public and private hospitals is small. There is widespread need for management training to be
Barnett, Adrian G; Williams, Gail M; Schwartz, Joel; Best, Trudi L; Neller, Anne H; Petroeschevsky, Anna L; Simpson, Rod W
The goal of this study was to estimate the associations between outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions for the elderly. Associations were assessed using the case-crossover method for seven cities: Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand; and Brisbane, Canberra, Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney Australia. Results were combined across cities using a random-effects meta-analysis and stratified for two adult age groups: 15-64 years and >/= 65 years of age (elderly). Pollutants considered were nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, daily measures of particulate matter (PM) and ozone. Where multiple pollutant associations were found, a matched case-control analysis was used to identify the most consistent association. In the elderly, all pollutants except O3 were significantly associated with five categories of cardiovascular disease admissions. No associations were found for arrhythmia and stroke. For a 0.9-ppm increase in CO, there were significant increases in elderly hospital admissions for total cardiovascular disease (2.2%) , all cardiac disease (2.8%), cardiac failure (6.0%), ischemic heart disease (2.3%), and myocardial infarction (2.9%). There was some heterogeneity between cities, possibly due to differences in humidity and the percentage of elderly people. In matched analyses, CO had the most consistent association. The results suggest that air pollution arising from common emission sources for CO, NO2, and PM (e.g., motor vehicle exhausts) has significant associations with adult cardiovascular hospital admissions, especially in the elderly, at air pollution concentrations below normal health guidelines. Relevance to clinical and professional practice: Elderly populations in Australia need to be protected from air pollution arising from outdoor sources to reduce cardiovascular disease.
In the debate over the tax status of voluntary hospitals, most hospital executives and trustees do not seem to comprehend--or want to comprehend--the underlying issues. First, the terror of being associated with a tax hike has led many politicians to seek other "revenue enhancements" that are more ingenious than they are honest. On the other hand, many of these governments have legitimate financial problems and are seeking new sources of revenue. A second, related issue is uncertainty over what should be done about the uninsured and Medicaid populations. In the absence of an acceptable solution, we will continue to provide direct public support to public hospitals and indirect public support to private providers--including charitable tax exemptions. The third underlying issue is hospitals' curiously narrow view of their private-sector status. Most of the functions hospitals provide are not only publicly funded; they are, in fact, public functions. Finally, hospitals believe they are inherently moral organizations because they provide an inherently moral service. But hospitals grew to their present role in society almost by accident; their services are neither unique nor ethically superior. It is in how hospitals provide care that their morality can be measured, not in the fact that they provide some kind of care to somebody. An honest appraisal of these issues will help each hospital answer the basic question: As an ethical and moral matter, should this organization be paying taxes? But is this fight really about taxes? I believe society and government are using taxation as a metaphor for trust in hospitals.
Semper, Kelly; Millar, Elinor; Sarfati, Diana
Objectives To describe the prevalence of multimorbidity (presence of two or more long-term health conditions) in the New Zealand (NZ) population, and compare risk of health outcomes by multimorbidity status. Design Cross-sectional analysis for prevalence of multimorbidity, with 1-year prospective follow-up for health outcomes. Setting NZ general population using national-level routine health data on hospital discharges and pharmaceutical dispensing. Participants All NZ adults (aged 18+, n=3 489 747) with an active National Health Index number at the index date (1 January 2014). Outcome measures Prevalence of multimorbidity was calculated using two data sources: prior routine hospital discharge data (61 ICD-10 coded diagnoses from the M3 multimorbidity index); and recent pharmaceutical dispensing records (30 conditions from the P3 multimorbidity index). Methods Prevalence of multimorbidity was calculated separately for the two data sources, stratified by age group, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation, and age and sex standardised to the total population. One-year risk of poor health outcomes (mortality, ambulatory sensitive hospitalisation (ASH) and overnight hospital admission) was compared by multimorbidity status using logistic regression adjusted for confounders. Results Prevalence of multimorbidity was 7.9% using past hospital discharge data, and 27.9% using past pharmaceutical dispensing data. Prevalence increased with age, with a clear socioeconomic gradient and differences in prevalence by ethnicity. Age and sex standardised risk of 1-year mortality was 2.7% for those with multimorbidity (defined on hospital discharge data), and 0.5% for those without multimorbidity (age and sex-adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 4.7 to 5.0). Risk of ASH was also increased for those with multimorbidity (eg, pharmaceutical discharge definition: age and sex-standardised risk 6.2%, compared with 1.8% for those without multimorbidity; age and sex-adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 3.5 to
More and more hospital marketing and public relations executives are recognizing that publications, such as newsletters and magazines, are a very important part of their arsenal of marketing tools. They're also finding that custom publishers are valuable allies when it comes to target market opportunities.
García, I García; Castillo, R F; Santa-Bárbara, E S
Researchers study climate to gain an understanding of the psychological environment of organizations, especially in healthcare institutions. Climate is considered to be the set of recurring patterns of individual and group behaviour in an organization. There is evidence confirming a relationship between ethical climate within organizations and job satisfaction. The aim of this study is to describe organizational climate for nursing personnel in public and private hospitals and to confirm the relationships among the climate variables of such hospitals. A correlational study was carried out to measure the organizational climate of one public hospital and two private hospitals in Granada. The Work Environment Scale was used for data collection. The Work Environment Scale includes 10 scales, ranging from 0 to 9, which were used to evaluate social, demographic and organizational climate variables. In this study, 386 subjects were surveyed in three hospitals. A total of 87% of the participants were female and 16% were male. Most participants were nurses (65.6%), followed by nursing aides (20%), and technicians (14.4%). The results obtained reflected different patterns of organizational climate formation, based on hospital type (i.e. public or private) within the Spanish context. Most of the dimensions were below the midpoint of the scale. In conclusion, in public hospitals, there is a greater specialization and the organizational climate is more salient than in the private hospitals. In addition, in the public hospitals, the characteristics of the human resources and their management can have a significant impact on the perception of the climate, which gives greater importance to the organizational climate as decisive of the ethical climate. © The Author(s) 2013.
Echevarria Moreno, M; Ortega Garcia, J L; Herrera Silva, J; Galvez Mateo, R; Torres Morera, L M; de la Torre Liebanas, R
To determine the prevalence of pain in medical and surgical patients admitted to reference hospitals in Andalusia, as well as their features and the most population groups most affected. A cross-sectional, multicenter epidemiological study was conducted simultaneously on the population admitted to 5 hospitals. Using a structured questionnaire the demographics, hospital area, presence of pain at the time of the interview, and pre- and post-variables related to the intensity of pain and its treatment at 24h were investigated. All patients over 18 years old were included, except those patients with difficulty in understanding the questionnaire, and psychiatric and obstetric patients. Pain intensity was assessed by simple verbal scale. Of the 1,236 patients included, 54.2% were male, with 51.1% of patients aged 65 years, and 69.17% were admitted to medical areas. Pain was observed in 52.9% of patients admitted to the surgical area compared to 29.4% in the medical area. Of the 19.4% who reported having had pain in the last 24h prior to the questionnaire, 57.7% of them were surgical patients and 32% were medical, P<.005), and of the 42.2% who had pain at the time of study, 52.7% were female. The incidence of pain on movement was higher than that observed at rest. The mean resting pain was 1.8 and 1.4 for the surgical and medical patients, respectively (P<.01). The mean pain on movement was 2.2 and 1.6 for the surgical and medical patients, respectively (P<.01). More than one quarter (25.8%) of surgical patients and 16.5% of medical patients had difficulty sleeping (P<.005). Some 12.8% of all patients had no analgesic regimen, and 66.2% and 85.6% of surgical and medical patients, respectively, did not request analgesics (P<.005). The main drugs were prescribed paracetamol analgesic and metamizole, and in 54.4% of patients. We believe that the presence of pain in patients admitted to our study population is high and it is essential to encourage an improvement in the pain
Eggleston, Karen; Lu, Mingshan; Li, Congdong; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Jing; Quan, Hude
The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation). Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital performance and protect vulnerable patients, regardless of
Background The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. Methods We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Results Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation). Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. Conclusions In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital performance and protect
Wall, Barbra Mann
This article analyzes the tensions and uneasy negotiations, based on a case study, that occurred among Catholic sisters, administrators, bishops, physicians, and the Vatican for more than seven years at a hospital in Austin, Texas. Here, the largest health care system in the city, which was Catholic, joined with the local public, tax-supported hospital that provided the majority of reproductive health care services in the region. A clash resulted over whether the hospital could continue providing sterilization and contraceptive services to its primarily poor patients. This article examines the fierce debates that occurred, especially over emergency contraception and attempts to develop creative solutions after a hierarchical crackdown from the Vatican. The end result was a compromise that included the creation of a “hospital within a hospital.” PMID:20067093
Barr, Judith K.; Boni, Cathy E.; Kochurka, Kimberly A.; Nolan, Patricia; Petrillo, Marcia; Sofaer, Shoshanna; Waters, William
This article describes a collaborative process for legislatively mandated public reporting of health care performance in Rhode Island that began with hospital patient satisfaction. The goals of the report were both quality improvement and public accountability. Key features addressed include: the legislative context for public reporting; widespread participation of stakeholders; the structure for decisionmaking; and the use of formative testing with cognitive interviews to get responses of consumers and others about the report's readability and comprehensibility. This experience and the lessons learned can guide other States considering public reporting on health care performance. PMID:12500470
Hwang, Jee-In; Chang, Hyejung
Personnel in public hospitals had relatively low job satisfaction despite of tenure employment. High turnover rates degrade hospital image and incur additional costs related to recruitment and training. The purposes of this study were to describe the occupational differences and to identify factors affecting turnover intention among public hospital personnel. A questionnaire survey was conducted as part of Administrative Services Quality Evaluation Program by Seoul metropolitan municipality from 1 November to 1 December in 2003. The subjects were 1251 entire hospital personnel in four hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to measure job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing turnover intention. There were significant differences in job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention according to the occupations. The turnover intention rates were highest among physicians, followed by paramedicals and nursing staffs and then administrators. The significant factors affecting turnover intention were involvement and loyalty among physicians, hospital type, satisfaction with systems and loyalty among nursing staffs, satisfaction with relationship and loyalty among administrators, and loyalty among paramedicals. There were different moderators that influence turnover intentions of hospital personnel. Loyalty had the most important effect upon turnover intention in all occupations. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Gholamzadeh Nikjoo, Raana; Jabbari Beyrami, Hossein; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohammad
The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP) models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals. In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study, systematic review and expert panel has been done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second step we prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicators by Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 and Expert Choice11 software's. In quality - effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections (100%), hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%), pure rate of hospital mortality (63%), patient satisfaction percentage (53%), in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatient waiting time (100%) and average outpatient waiting time (74%), and in financial - efficiency area, indicators including average length of stay (100%), bed occupation ratio (99%), specific income to total cost ratio (97%) have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the pri¬oritization of the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own, operate) and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance in¬dicator areas. This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.
Wells, Stewart; Bullen, Chris
This article describes the near failure of an information technology (IT) system designed to support a government-funded, primary care-based hepatitis B screening program in New Zealand. Qualitative methods were used to collect data and construct an explanatory model. Multiple incorrect assumptions were made about participants, primary care workflows and IT capacity, software vendor user knowledge, and the health IT infrastructure. Political factors delayed system development and it was implemented untested, almost failing. An intensive rescue strategy included system modifications, relaxation of data validity rules, close engagement with software vendors, and provision of intensive on-site user support. This case study demonstrates that consideration of the social, political, technological, and health care contexts is important for successful implementation of public health informatics projects.
Stewart, Rebecca; Das, Manidipa; Ardagh, Michael; Deely, Joanne M; Dodd, Stuart; Bartholomew, Nadia; Pearson, Scott; Spearing, Ruth; Williams, Tracey; Than, Martin
To determine the impact of alcohol-related presentations on the Christchurch Hospital Emergency Department (ED). Over 42 8-hour shifts (2 weeks) between 15 November 2013 and 9 December 2013, patients attending the ED with recent alcohol consumption were classified as screen-positive (consumed alcohol in the 4 hours prior to presentation) or not. A subset of screen-positive patients was classified as impact-positive (alcohol consumption clearly contributed to the reason for presenting). Data were analysed in relation to days/shifts for gender, age, disruptive behaviour, medical reasons for presenting, and completeness of ED records. Of the 3619 patients screened in the study, 268 (7.4%) and 182 (5%) were screen-positive and impact-positive, respectively. Most patients attended the ED on the weekends (58%: 105/182), particularly on Saturday night (31%; 56/182). More males (118) than females (64) were impact-positive. Of the impact-positive males, most were 16-25 years old (37%; 44/118) or 41-61 years old (32%; 38/118), attended the ED on weekend night shifts (24%; 28/118), and sought treatment for non- interpersonal trauma (38%; 45/118) or interpersonal trauma due to violence (17%; 20/118). Of the female impact-positive patients, most were 16-25 years old (41%; 26/64) or 41-60 years old (33%; 21/64), and presented for deliberate self-harm (36%; 23/64) or non-interpersonal trauma (27%; 17/64). Of the 182 impact-positive patients, 86% (156) were recorded in the ED computer system. Alcohol-related presentations had a significant impact on the ED, particularly on weekends. Teenagers, young adults and middle-aged adults contributed to the alcohol-related patient impact on weekends. Male patients were a significant burden on Saturday evening and night shifts.
This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.
Simou, Effie; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Roumeliotou, Anastasia
The current study describes the development of a preliminary set of quality indicators for public Greek National Health System (GNHS) hospitals, which were used in the "Health Monitoring Indicators System: Health Map" (Ygeionomikos Chartis) project, with the purpose that these quality indicators would assess the quality of all the aspects relevant to public hospital healthcare workforce and services provided. A literature review was conducted in the MEDLINE database to identify articles referring to international and national hospital quality assessment projects, together with an online search for relevant projects. Studies were included if they were published in English, from 1980 to 2010. A consensus panel took place afterwards with 40 experts in the field and tele-voting procedure. Twenty relevant projects and their 1698 indicators were selected through the literature search, and after the consensus panel process, a list of 67 indicators were selected to be implemented for the assessment of the public hospitals categorized under six distinct dimensions: Quality, Responsiveness, Efficiency, Utilization, Timeliness, and Resources and Capacity. Data gathered and analyzed in this manner provided a novel evaluation and monitoring system for Greece, which can assist decision-makers, healthcare professionals, and patients in Greece to retrieve relevant information, with the long-term goal to improve quality in care in the GNHS hospital sector. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Whitley, Evangeline L.
The governance options matrix is provided to offer a way for state and university policymakers to examine the functioning environments of specific university-owned public teaching hospitals. With it, they can consider the benefits and problems involved with different options for governance. The issues related to the environmental factors affecting…
dos Reis, Valesca Nunes; Paixão, Isabella Bertolin; Perrone, Ana Carolina Amaral de São José; Monteiro, Maria Inês; dos Santos, Kelli Borges
ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the process of recording transfusion monitoring at a public teaching hospital. Methods A descriptive and retrospective study with a quantitative approach, analyzing the instruments to record transfusion monitoring at a public hospital in a city in the State of Minas Gerais (MG). Data were collected on the correct completion of the instrument, time elapsed from transfusions, records of vital signs, type of blood component more frequently transfused, and hospital unit where transfusion was performed. Results A total of 1,012 records were analyzed, and 53.4% of them had errors in filling in the instruments, 6% of transfusions started after the recommended time, and 9.3% of patients had no vital signs registered. Conclusion Failures were identified in the process of recording transfusion monitoring, and they could result in more adverse events related to the administration of blood components. Planning and implementing strategies to enhance recording and to improve care delivered are challenging. PMID:27074233
Seibt, Silvia; Gilchrist, Catherine A; Reed, Peter W; Best, Emma J; Harnden, Anthony; Camargo, Carlos A; Grant, Cameron C
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of hospital admissions in young children. Hospitalisation with an infectious disease is a recurrent event for some children. Our objective was to describe risk factors for infectious disease readmission following hospital admission with an infectious disease in the first two years of life. We performed a national cohort study of New Zealand children, born 2005-2009, with an infectious disease admission before age 24 months. Children readmitted with an infectious disease within 12 months of the first infectious disease admission were identified. Every infectious disease admission was categorised as a respiratory, enteric, skin and soft tissue, urinary or other infection. Independent associations of demographic and child health factors with infectious disease readmission were determined using multiple variable logistic regression. From 2005 to 2011, there were 69,902 infectious disease admissions for 46,657 children less than two years old. Of these 46,657 children, 10,205 (22%) had at least one infectious disease readmission within 12 months of their first admission. The first infectious disease admission was respiratory (54%), enteric (15%), skin or soft tissue (7%), urinary (4%) or other (20%). Risk of infectious disease readmission was increased if the first infectious disease admission was respiratory (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.78-1.95) but not if it was in any other infectious disease category. Risk factors for respiratory infectious disease readmission were male gender, Pacific or Māori ethnicity, greater household deprivation, presence of a complex chronic condition, or a first respiratory infectious disease admission during autumn or of ≥3 days duration. Fewer factors (younger age, male gender, presence of a complex chronic condition) were associated with enteric infection readmission. The presence of a complex chronic condition was the only factor associated with urinary tract infection readmission and none of
Parissis, John; Athanasakis, Kostas; Farmakis, Dimitrios; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Mareti, Christina; Bistola, Vasiliki; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Kyriopoulos, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Lekakis, John
Heart failure (HF) is the first reason for hospital admission in the elderly and represents a major financial burden, the greatest part of which results from hospitalization costs. We sought to analyze current HF hospitalization-related expenditure and identify predictors of cost in a public tertiary hospital in Europe. We performed a retrospective chart review of 197 consecutive patients, aged 56±16years, 80% male, with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 30±10%, hospitalized for HF in a major university hospital in Athens, Greece. The survey involved the number of hospitalization days, laboratory investigations and medical therapies. Patients who were hospitalized in CCU/ICU or underwent interventional procedures or device implantations were excluded from analysis. Costs were estimated based on the Greek healthcare system perspective in 2013. Patients were hospitalized for a median of 7 days with a total direct cost of €3198±3260/patient. The largest part of the expenses (79%) was attributed to hospitalization (ward), while laboratory investigations and medical treatment accounted for 17% and 4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, pre-admission New York Heart Association NYHA class (p=0.001), serum creatinine (p=0.003) and NT-proBNP (p=0.004) were significant independent predictors of hospitalization cost. Direct cost of HF hospitalization is high particularly in patients with more severe symptoms, profound neurohormonal activation and renal dysfunction. Strategies to lower hospitalization rates are warranted in the current setting of financial constraints faced by many European countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper examines key influences on the volume of capital employed by public hospitals. Empirical models are constructed and analysed separately for total capital employed and for plant and equipment only, using data from 68 Victorian hospitals. Such data provide an empirical base to guide government decisions on funding capital expenditure in hospitals. The analysis finds that the proportion of hospital expenditure devoted to outpatients and teaching, and the proportion of funding derived from government all influence the level of capital utilised per inpatient. The model provided a reasonable fit for plant and equipment, but much improved data coverage and consistent valuation of land and buildings are required to adequately explain influences on total capital.
Zhou, Ping; Bundorf, M Kate; Gu, Jianjun; He, Xiaoyan; Xue, Di
Patient safety climate has been recognized as a core determinant for improving safety in hospitals. Describing workforce perceptions of patient safety climate is an important part of safety climate management. This study aimed to describe staff's perceptions of patient safety climate in public hospitals in Shanghai, China and to determine how perceptions of patient safety climate differ between different types of workers in the U.S. and China. Survey of employees of 6 secondary, general public hospitals in Shanghai conducted during 2013 using a modified version of the U.S. Patient Safety Climate in Health Care Organizations (PSCHO) tool. The percentage of "problematic responses" (PPRs) was used to measure safety climate, and the PPRs were compared among employees with different job types, using χ (2) tests and multivariate regression models. Perceptions of patient safety climate were relatively positive among hospital employees and similar to those of employees in U.S. hospitals along most dimensions. For workers in Chinese hospitals, the scales of "fear of blame" and "fear of shame" had the highest PPRs, whereas in the United States the scale of "fear of shame" had among the lowest PPRs. As in the United States, hospital managers in China perceived a more positive patient safety climate overall than other types of personnel. "Fear of shame" and "fear of blame" may be important barriers to improvement of patient safety in Chinese hospitals. Research on the effect of patient safety climate on outcomes is necessary to implement effective polices to improve patient safety and quality outcomes in China.
Robertson, Lindsay A; Marsh, L
The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process. Stage one comprised an audit and content analysis of smoke-free policies. In stage two, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to investigate the process of developing and implementing policies. Qualitative content analysis was undertaken on interview notes. Policies were identified for most institutions (n = 26/29), though varied widely in nature. Only nine mandated 100% smoke-free campuses without exceptions and few prohibited the sale of tobacco on campus, or connections with the tobacco industry. During interviews (n = 22/29), cited barriers to developing a 100% smoke-free policy included enforcement challenges and anticipated opposition from staff and students. However, participants from institutions with 100% smoke-free policies reported having encountered few challenges. Varying levels of compliance with 100% smoke-free policies were reported yet, overall, these policies were viewed as being effective. Smoke-free campus policies could be strengthened to better reflect a completely tobacco-free organization. Other institutions and workplaces could use these findings to develop 100% smoke-free policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Laugesen, M; Meads, C
Total cigarettes (all brands) sold weekly by a panel of 60 New Zealand supermarkets were monitored electronically for 42 weeks, a period when cigarette advertisements were in plain format with strong, varied disease warnings. Real cigarette price, newspaper advertising of old, regular and upmarket brands, and the number of newspaper news items on smoking issues were inversely associated with cigarette sales. Tending to increase total sales (all brands) were: more non-shopping days in the current week, and in the week following; volume of grocery items purchased, to indicate income and store traffic; and real advertising expenditure in newspapers for new downmarket cigarette brands, particularly one heavily-advertised brand (Peter Jackson) which was in late 1989 smoked by 4% of teenage smokers. All factors when interacting, explained 93% of changes in weekly cigarette sales. Most of the change occurred in the same week, and was 90% in place after a further 3 weeks. Newspapers, by doubling news coverage of smoking issues or by banning cigarette advertisements, can lower cigarette consumption as much as can a 10% price increase.
Hamdan, Motasem; Saleem, Abed Alra'oof
To assess the prevalent patient safety culture in Palestinian public hospitals. A cross-sectional design, Arabic translated version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used. All the 11 general public hospitals in the West Bank. A total of 1460 clinical and non-clinical hospital staff. No. Twelve patient safety culture composites and 2 outcome variables (patient safety grade and events reported in the past year) were measured. Most of the participants were nurses and physicians (69.2%) with direct contact with patients (92%), mainly employed in medical/surgical units (55.1%). The patient safety composites with the highest positive scores were teamwork within units (71%), organizational learning and continuous improvement (62%) and supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety (56%). The composites with the lowest scores were non-punitive response to error (17%), frequency of events reported (35%), communication openness (36%), hospital management support for patient safety (37%) and staffing (38%). Although 53.2% of the respondents did not report any event in the past year, 63.5% rated patient safety level as 'excellent/very good'. Significant differences in patient safety scores and outcome variables were found between hospitals of different size and in relation to staff positions and work hours. This study highlights the existence of a punitive and blame culture, under-reporting of events, lack of communication openness and inadequate management support that are key challenges for patient safe hospital care. The baseline survey results are valuable for designing and implementing the patient safety program and for measuring future progress.
Ardagh, Michael W; Tonkin, Gary; Possenniskie, Clare
To determine the most common challenges to improving acute patient flow and resolving emergency department (ED) overcrowding in New Zealand hospitals, and to share some of the promising initiatives that have been implemented in response to them. To facilitate progress towards achievement of the Shorter Stays in Emergency Departments Health Target (the Target), the authors visited every District Health Board (DHB) in New Zealand. These visits followed a standardised visit format and subsequent to each visit a report was produced that noted the observed challenges, initiatives and successes in relation to the DHB's pursuit of the Target. Using these reports, the significant challenges and the promising initiatives across all of the DHBs were collated. Access to hospital beds, access to diagnostic tests and inpatient team delays were the most common challenges, followed by increased demand for ED services, ED facility deficiencies, ED staff deficiencies, delay to discharge of inpatients, difficulty engaging hospital clinical staff in changes, difficulty accessing aged care beds, and problems at nights and weekends. Promising initiatives were noted in relation to each of these. To improve acute care, resolve ED overcrowding and achieve the Target we need a comprehensive, whole of system approach and some significant changes to the way we use our physical and human resources. To address common challenges we need to share our experiences and expertise.
Collings, Sunny C; Kemp, Christopher G
Health, government, and media organizations around the world have responded to research demonstrating the imitative effects of suicide coverage in the news media by developing guidelines to foster responsible reporting. Implementation of these guidelines has encountered some resistance, and little is known about the media perspective on suicide coverage and its effects on guideline use. This qualitative study provides an in-depth appreciation of this perspective by investigating the experiences of journalists covering suicide in New Zealand. Fifteen newspaper, television and radio journalists were interviewed between December 2008 and March 2009 and transcripts were analyzed using a grounded hermeneutic editing approach. Five themes were identified: public responsibility, media framing of suicide, professional practice, personal experience of suicide reporting, and restricted reporting. Participants asserted the role of the media in the protection of the public good. Though this stance aligns them with the goals of health policymakers, it is derived from a set of professional mores at odds with the perceived paternalism of suicide reporting guidelines. Participants were stakeholders in the issue of suicide coverage. We conclude that policymakers must engage with the news media and acknowledge the competing imperatives that provide the context for the application of suicide reporting guidelines by individual journalists. Collaborative guideline development will be vital to effective implementation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gholamzadeh Nikjoo, Raana; Jabbari Beyrami, Hossein; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohammad
Background: The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP) models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals. Methods: In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study, systematic review and expert panel has been done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second step we prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicators by Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 and Expert Choice11 software’s. Results: In quality – effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections (100%), hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%), pure rate of hospital mortality (63%), patient satisfaction percentage (53%), in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatient waiting time (100%) and average outpatient waiting time (74%), and in financial – efficiency area, indicators including average length of stay (100%), bed occupation ratio (99%), specific income to total cost ratio (97%) have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the pri¬oritization of the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own, operate) and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance in¬dicator areas. Conclusion: This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different. PMID:24688942
Sánchez-Martínez, Fernando; Abellán-Perpiñán, José-María; Martínez-Pérez, Jorge-Eduardo; Puig-Junoy, Jaume
The objective of this paper is to provide a description and analysis of the main costing and pricing (reimbursement) systems employed by hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Hospitals cost calculations are mostly based on a full costing approach as opposite to other systems like direct costing or activity based costing. Regional and hospital differences arise on the method used to allocate indirect costs to cost centres and also on the approach used to measure resource consumption. Costs are typically calculated by disaggregating expenditure and allocating it to cost centres, and then to patients and DRGs. Regarding public reimbursement systems, the impression is that unit costs are ignored, except for certain type of high technology processes and treatments.
Niska, Richard W
To identify hospital characteristics that predict collaboration with public safety organizations on bioterrorism response plans and mass casualty drills. The 2003 and 2004 Bioterrorism and Mass Casualty Supplements to the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey examined collaboration with emergency medical services (EMS), hazardous materials teams (HAZMAT), fire departments, and law enforcement. The sample included 112 geographic primary sampling units and 1,110 hospitals. Data were weighted by inverse selection probability, to yield nationally representative estimates. Characteristics included residency and medical school affiliation, bed capacity, ownership, urbanicity and Joint Commission accreditation. The response rate was 84.6%. Chi-square analysis was performed with alpha set at p < 0.05. Logistic regression modeling yielded odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. During a bioterrorism incident, 68.9% of hospitals would contact EMS, 68.7% percent law enforcement, 61.6% fire departments, 58.1% HAZMAT, and 42.8% all four. About 74.2% had staged mass casualty drills with EMS, 70.4% with fire departments, 67.4% with law enforcement, 43.3% with HAZMAT, and 37.0% with all four. Predictors of drilling with some or all of these public safety organizations included larger bed capacity, nonprofit and proprietary ownership, and JCAHO accreditation. Medical school affiliation was a negative predictor of drilling with EMS. The majority of hospitals involve public safety organizations in their emergency plans or drills. Bed capacity was most predictive of drilling with these organizations. Medical school affiliation was the only characteristic negatively associated with drilling.
Brusa, Margherita; Barilan, Y Michael
The paper explores the ethical aspects of introducing cultural circumcision of children into the EU public health system. We reject commonplace arguments against circumcision: considerations of good medical practice, justice, bodily integrity, autonomy and the analogy from female genital mutilation. From the unique structure of patient-medicine interaction, we argue that the incorporation of cultural circumcision into EU public health services is a kind of medicalization, which does not fit the ethos of universal healthcare. However, we support a utilitarian argument that finds hospital based circumcision safer than non-medicalized alternatives. The argument concerning medicalization and the utilitarian argument both rely on preliminary empirical data, which depend on future validation
Brown, H C; Jewkes, R; Levin, J; Dickson-Tetteh, K; Rees, H
To describe the current management of incomplete abortion in South African public hospitals and to discuss the extent to which management is clinically appropriate. A multicentre, prospective descriptive study. South African public hospitals that manage gynaecological emergencies. Hospitals were selected using a stratified random sampling method. All women who presented to the above sampled hospitals with incomplete abortion during the three week data collection period in 2000 were included. A data collection sheet was completed at the time of discharge for each woman admitted with a diagnosis of incomplete, complete, missed or inevitable abortion during the study period. Information gathered included demographic data, clinical signs and symptoms at admission, medical management, surgical management, anaestetic management, use of blood products and antibiotics and complications. Three clinical severity categories were used for the purpose of data analysis and interpretation. Detail of medical management, detail of surgical management, use of blood products and antibiotics, methods of analgesia and anaesthesia used, and use of abortifacients. There is a trend towards low cost technology such as the use of manual vacuum aspiration and sedation anaesthesia; however, this is mainly limited to the better resourced tertiary hospitals linked to academic units. The use of antibiotics and blood products has decreased but much of the use is inappropriate. The use of abortifacients does include some use of misoprostol but merely as an adjunct to surgical evacuation. The management of incomplete abortion remains a problem in South Africa, a low income country that is still managing a common clinical problem with costly interventions. The evidence of a trend towards low cost technology is promising, albeit limited to tertiary centres. This study has given us information as how to best address this problem. More training in low cost methods is needed, targeting in particular the
Background The hierarchical pyramid inside Spanish public hospitals was radically changed by the Health Reform Law promulgated in 1986. According to it, the manpower of the hospitals was divided into three divisions (Medical, Nursing, General Services/Administration), which from then on occupied the same level, only subject to the general manager. Ten years after the implementation of the law, the present study was designed in order to investigate if the legal changes had indeed produced a real change in the balance of power inside the hospitals, as perceived by the different workers within them. Materials and Methods A questionnaire was administered to 1,027 workers from four different public hospitals (two university-based and two district hospitals). The participants belonged to all divisions, and to all three operative levels (staff, supervisory and managerial) within them. The questionnaire inquired about the perceived power inside each division and hierarchical level, as well as about that of the other divisions and hierarchical levels. Results Every division attributed the least power to itself. The Nursing and the Administrative division attributed the highest power to the physicians, and these attributed the highest power to the General Services/Administrative division. All hierarchical levels (including the formal top of the pyramid) attributed significantly more power to the other than to them. Conclusions More than ten years after the implementation of the new law, the majority of workers still perceive that the real power within the hospitals is held by the physicians (whereas these feel that it has shifted to the administrators). No division or hierarchical level believes it holds any significant degree of power, and this carries with it the danger of also not accepting any responsibility. PMID:11574049
Salvadores, P; Schneider, J; Zubero, I
The hierarchical pyramid inside Spanish public hospitals was radically changed by the Health Reform Law promulgated in 1986. According to it, the manpower of the hospitals was divided into three divisions (Medical, Nursing, General Services/Administration), which from then on occupied the same level, only subject to the general manager. Ten years after the implementation of the law, the present study was designed in order to investigate if the legal changes had indeed produced a real change in the balance of power inside the hospitals, as perceived by the different workers within them. A questionnaire was administered to 1,027 workers from four different public hospitals (two university-based and two district hospitals). The participants belonged to all divisions, and to all three operative levels (staff, supervisory and managerial) within them. The questionnaire inquired about the perceived power inside each division and hierarchical level, as well as about that of the other divisions and hierarchical levels. Every division attributed the least power to itself. The Nursing and the Administrative division attributed the highest power to the physicians, and these attributed the highest power to the General Services/Administrative division. All hierarchical levels (including the formal top of the pyramid) attributed significantly more power to the other than to them. More than ten years after the implementation of the new law, the majority of workers still perceive that the real power within the hospitals is held by the physicians (whereas these feel that it has shifted to the administrators). No division or hierarchical level believes it holds any significant degree of power, and this carries with it the danger of also not accepting any responsibility.
de Oliveira Vasconcelos Filho, Paulo; de Souza, Miriam Regina; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon; D'Ávila Viana, Ana Luiza
Physician shortage is a global issue that concerns Brazil's authorities. The organizational structure and the environment of a medical institution can hide a low-quality life of a physician. This study examines the relationship between the hospital work environment and physicians' job satisfaction and motivation when working in a large public academic hospital. The study was restricted to one large, multispecialty Brazil's hospital. Six hundred hospital physicians were invited to participate by e-mail. A short version of the Physician Worklife Survey (PWS) was used to measure working satisfaction. Physicians were also asked for socio-demographic information, medical specialty, and the intention to continue working in the hospital. Data from 141 questionnaires were included in the analyses. Forty-five physicians graduated from the hospital's university, and they did not intend to leave the hospital under any circumstance (affective bond). The motivating factor for beginning the career at the hospital and to continue working there were the connection to the medical school and the hospital status as a "prestigious academic hospital"; the physicians were more satisfied with the career than the specialty. Only 30% completely agreed with the statement "If I had to start my career over again, I would choose my current specialty," while 45% completely agreed with the statement "I am not well compensated given my training and experience." The greater point of satisfaction was the relationship with physician colleagues. They are annoyed about the amount of calls they are requested to take and about how work encroaches on their personal time. No significant differences between medical specialties were found in the analysis. The participants were satisfied with their profession. The fact that they remained at the hospital was related to the academic environment, the relationship with colleagues, and the high prestige in which society holds the institution. The points of
Andaleeb, Syed Saad; Siddiqui, Nazlee; Khandakar, Shahjahan
The purpose of this study is to propose a doctors' service orientation (DSO) scale and uses it to compare the services received in public, private and foreign hospitals in a developing country from the patient's perspective. The scale was derived from the service quality literature and qualitative research. A questionnaire was designed next. Data were collected from patients who had used the services of doctors in a hospital. The scale demonstrated appropriate psychometric properties. Two clear patterns emerge from the study results: on 10 out of 12 measures of doctors' service orientation, there was no significant difference in their perceived behaviors between public and private hospitals and foreign doctors were "always" rated significantly higher. This study focused on one major city because of time and resource constraints. The findings are thus not generalizable to hospitals across the country. Also, because of translation and retranslation issues, the scale ought to be further tested for wider use. The scale may be used periodically in a comprehensive quality assurance program to exhort doctors to become more service oriented and to improve their performance over time.
Noval de la Torre, A; Bulchand Gidumal, J; Melián González, S
Background. There are not too many studies that deal with the organizational commitment of emergency physicians. This commitment has been shown to impact organizational performance. The aim of this paper is to analyse the degree of commitment of the emergency physicians in Spanish public hospitals and the factors that may influence it. Method. Online survey using SurveyMonkey to emergency physicians in Spanish public hospitals. Results. Two hundred and five questionnaires were received, 162 from physicians and 43 from heads of the emergency service. Results show an intermediate level of commitment, with affective commitment showing the lowest level and continuance commitment showing the highest level. The capabilities of the physician have an influence on their affective commitment; specific training in emergency procedures and seniority has an influence on their continuance commitment; and the opinion they hold about the organization of their service influences affective commitment. Conclusions. Emergency physicians show an average involvement in the hospital in which they work (average 3.8 on a range of 1 to 5), feel an average affection for it (3.4), and have a high intention to keep working there (4.0). The resources the hospital has due to its level do not have an influence on this commitment, while the training and perceptions of the service do have an influence.
Anselmi, M L; Duarte, G G; Angerami, E L
This study aimed at estimating the employment "survival" time of nursing workers after their admission to a public hospital as a turnover index. The Life Table method was used in order to calculate the employment survival probability by X years for each one of the categories of workers. The results showed an accentuated turnover of the work force in the studied period. The categories nursing auxiliary and nurse presented low stability in employment while the category nursing technician was more stable.
Librero, J.; Peiro, S.; Calderon, S. M.
BACKGROUND—The aim of this study was to describe the variability in caesarean rates in the public hospitals in the Valencia Region, Spain, and to analyse the association between caesarean sections and clinical and extra-clinical factors. METHODS—Analysis of data contained in the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) compiled for all births in 11 public hospitals in Valencia during 1994-1995 (n=36 819). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the association between caesarean section rates and specific risk factors. The multivariate model was used to construct predictions about caesarean rates for each hospital, for comparison with rates observed. RESULTS—Caesarean rates were 17.6% (inter-hospital range: 14.7% to 25.0%), with ample variability between hospitals in the diagnosis of maternal-fetal risk factors (particularly dystocia and fetal distress), and the indication for caesarean in the presence of these factors. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal-fetal risk factors correlated strongly with caesarean section, although extra-clinical factors, such as the day of the week, also correlated positively. After adjusting for the risk factors, the inter-hospital variation in caesarean rates persisted. CONCLUSIONS—Although certain limitations (imprecision of some diagnoses and information biases in the MBDS) make it impossible to establish unequivocal conclusions, results show a high degree of variability among hospitals when opting for caesarean section. This variability cannot be justified by differences in obstetric risks. Keywords: hospital utilisation; medical practice variation; caesarean section; administrative databases PMID:10890876
Hussain, Matloub; Malik, Mohsin
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to prioritize 21 healthcare wastes in public and private hospitals of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach - Seven healthcare wastes linked with lean management are further decomposed in to sub-criteria and to deal with this complexity of multi criteria decision-making process, analytical hierarchical process (AHP) method is used in this research. Findings - AHP framework for this study resulted in a ranking of 21 healthcare wastes in public and private hospitals of UAE. It has been found that management in private healthcare systems of UAE is putting more emphasis on the inventory waste. On the other hand, over processing waste has got highest weight in public hospitals of UAE. Research limitations/implications - The future directions of this research would be to apply a lean set of tools for the value stream optimization of the prioritized key improvement areas. Practical implications - This is a contribution to the continuing research into lean management, giving practitioners and designers a practical way for measuring and implementing lean practices across health organizations. Originality/value - The contribution of this research, through successive stages of data collection, measurement analysis and refinement, is a set of reliable and valid framework that can be subsequently used in conceptualization, prioritization of the waste reduction strategies in healthcare management.
Navarro Espigares, José Luis; Martínez Navarro, Luis; Castilla Alcalá, José Antonio; Hernández Torres, Elisa
Most studies on the costs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) identify the total cost of the procedure with the direct cost, without considering important items such as overhead or intermediate costs. The objective of this study was to determine the cost per ART procedure in a public hospital in 2003 and to compare the results with those in the same hospital in 1998. Data from the Human Reproduction Unit of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital in Granada (Spain) from 1998 and 2003 were analyzed. Since the total costs of the unit were known, the cost of the distinct ART procedures performed in the hospital was calculated by means of a methodology for cost distribution. Between 1998 and 2003, the activity and costs of the Human Reproduction Unit analyzed evolved differently. Analysis of activity showed that some techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection, were consolidated while others, such as stimulation without assisted reproduction or intracervical insemination were abandoned. In all procedures, unit costs per cycle and per delivery decreased in the period analyzed. Important changes took place in the structure of costs of ART in the Human Reproduction Unit of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital between 1998 and 2003. Some techniques were discontinued, while others gained importance. Technological advances and structural innovations, together with a "learning effect," modified the structure of ART-related costs.
Aiura, Hiroshi; Sanjo, Yasuo
We analyze a duopolistic health care market in which a rural public hospital competes against an urban public hospital on medical quality, by using a Hotelling-type spatial competition model extended into a two-region model. We show that the rural public hospital provides excess quality for each unit of medical service as compared to the first-best quality, and the profits of the rural public hospital are lower than those of the urban public hospital because the provision of excess quality requires larger expenditure. In addition, we investigate the impact of the partial (or full) privatization of local public hospitals.
Climate change is one of the most important social, economic, ecological and ethical issues of the 21st century. The effects of climate change on human health are now widely accepted as a genuine threat and the Australian Government has initiated policy and legislative responses. In addition, in the 2009-2010 budget the Australian Government has committed A$64 billion to public health and hospital reform. But will this Commonwealth funding support--and should it support--the government's high-profile climate change policy? Does Commonwealth funding translate to an obligation to support Commonwealth policies? This article explores the role of public hospitals as champions and role models of the Australian Government's climate change policy and how this might be done without detracting from the primary purpose of public hospital funding: improving patient care.
On Tuesday, February 22, 2011, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck Christchurch, New Zealand. This qualitative study explored the intensive care units (ICUs) staff experiences and adopted leadership approaches to manage a large-scale crisis resulting from the city-wide disaster. To date, there have been a very small number of research publications to provide a comprehensive overview of crisis leadership from the perspective of multi-level interactions among staff members in the acute clinical environment during the process of the crisis management. The research was qualitative in nature. Participants were recruited into the study through purposive sampling. A semi-structured, audio-taped, personal interview method was chosen as a single data collection method for this study. This study employed thematic analysis. Formal team leadership refers to the actions undertaken by a team leader to ensure the needs and goals of the team are met. Three core, formal, crisis-leadership themes were identified: decision making, ability to remain calm, and effective communication. Informal leaders are those individuals who exert significant influence over other members in the group to which they belong, although no formal authority has been assigned to them. Four core, informal, crisis-leadership themes were identified: motivation to lead, autonomy, emotional leadership, and crisis as opportunity. Shared leadership is a dynamic process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group or organizational goals. Two core, shared-leadership themes were identified: shared leadership within formal medical and nursing leadership groups, and shared leadership between formal and informal leaders in the ICU. The capabilities of formal leaders all contributed to the overall management of a crisis. Informal leaders are a very cohesive group of motivated people who can make a substantial contribution and improve overall team performance in a
Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Landon, Jason; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max
In New Zealand, a public health programme on gambling policy development is part of a national gambling harm reduction and prevention strategy mandated by the Gambling Act 2003. Funded by the Ministry of Health, the programme directs workplace/organisational gambling policies, non-gambling fundraising policies, and local council policies on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). We carried out a process evaluation of this programme to identify practical information (e.g. advocacy approaches; challenges and ameliorating strategies) that can be used by programme planners and implementers to reinforce programme effectiveness and serve to guide similar policy-focused public health initiatives elsewhere. Evaluation criteria, based on the programme's official service specifications, guided our evaluation questions, analysis and reporting. To identify informative aspects of programme delivery, we thematically analysed over 100 six-monthly implementer progress reports (representing 3 years of programme delivery) and transcript of a focus group with public health staff. Identified output-related themes included purposeful awareness raising to build understanding about gambling harms and the need for harm-reduction policies and stakeholder relationship development. Outcome-related themes included enhanced community awareness about gambling harms, community involvement in policy development, some workplace/organisational policy development, and some influences on council EGM policies. Non-gambling fundraising policy development was not common. The programme offers an unprecedented gambling harm reduction approach. Although complex (due to its three distinct policy focus areas targeting different sectors) and challenging (due to the extensive time and resources needed to develop relationships and overcome counteractive views), the programme resulted in some policy development. Encouraging workplace/organisational policy development requires increased awareness of costs to
From 1992 to 1999, the Kennett government in Victoria moved to competitive market models of service delivery and the measurement of service provision through casemix funding. Public hospital managers were given greater accountability for the costs and provision of service delivery and a new range of service providers, many from the private sector, entered the public health market. The decentralisation of the industrial relations system led to new developments in bargaining that brought both opportunities and problems. In the Victorian public health system there was an increasing emphasis on decentralisation in both service provision and employment relations. In this paper I suggest that there were contradictions in these developments for government, and new challenges and difficulties for employers, employees and trade unions.
Flint, Douglas H
This study has two objectives. First, to predict the outcomes of a public sector downsizing; second to measure effects of downsizing at organizational and inter-organizational levels. Primary data to assess the organizational level effects was collected through interviews with senior executives at two of Metro-Toronto's hospitals. Secondary data, to assess the inter-organizational effects, was collected from government documents and media reports. Due to the exploratory nature of the study's objectives a case study method was employed. Most institutional downsizing practices aligned with successful outcomes. Procedures involved at the inter-organizational level aligned with unsuccessful outcomes and negated organizational initiatives. This resulted in an overall alignment with unsuccessful procedures. The implication, based on private sector downsizings, is that the post-downsized hospital system was more costly and less effective.
Karatza, Christine; Zyga, Sofia; Tziaferi, Styliani; Prezerakos, Panagiotis
In this quantitative, cross-sectional study, the authors identified the impact of workplace bullying on nursing staff employed at select Greek public hospitals. They conducted the study using the Negative Acts Questionnaire with a convenience sample of 841 participants employed by five Greek hospitals in the 1st Regional Health Authority of Attica. One third of the respondents reported having been psychologically harassed at work in the past 6 months. According to the results, the impact workplace bullying has on nursing staff varies depending on the existence of a supportive familial or friend environment and if nurses parent children. These findings demonstrate the value of family and friend support when coping with workplace bullying.
Collao, Juan F; Smith, Felicity; Barber, Nick
There is a growing interest in high income countries to control expenditure on medicines by improving the rationale for their selection. However, in middle income countries with differing priorities and needs, little attention has been paid to this issue. In this paper we explore the policies and processes for the selection and use of medicines in a group of hospitals in Chile, a middle income country which has recently joined the OECD. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. A national survey questionnaire was distributed to investigate the role and operation of PTCs (Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees). Interviews were conducted with key actors in the selection of medicines in large urban public hospitals. The national survey had an overall response rate of 42% (83 out of 196), whilst 7 out of 14 hospitals participated in the qualitative study. High complexity hospitals are large urban hospitals; all of which claim to have a working PTC. The pharmacy offices are mainly involved in dispensing medicines with little involvement in clinical duties.The interviews conducted suggest that the formulary of all the hospitals visited is no more than a stock list. PTCs are unable to influence the prescribing practices of doctors. Members do not feel prepared to challenge the opinions of specialists requesting a certain drug, and decisions are based primarily on costs. The inclusion of medicines in the clinical practice of hospitals is as a result of doctors bypassing the PTC and requesting the purchase of exceptional items, some of which are included in the formulary if they are widely used. There is an urgent need to develop medicine policies in hospitals in Chile. The procedures used to purchase medicines need to be revised. Central guidance for PTCs could help ensure a more rational use of medicines. PTCs need to be empowered to design formularies which cover all the clinical needs of doctors, training members in the analysis of scientific
Background There is a growing interest in high income countries to control expenditure on medicines by improving the rationale for their selection. However, in middle income countries with differing priorities and needs, little attention has been paid to this issue. In this paper we explore the policies and processes for the selection and use of medicines in a group of hospitals in Chile, a middle income country which has recently joined the OECD. Methods A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. A national survey questionnaire was distributed to investigate the role and operation of PTCs (Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees). Interviews were conducted with key actors in the selection of medicines in large urban public hospitals. Results The national survey had an overall response rate of 42% (83 out of 196), whilst 7 out of 14 hospitals participated in the qualitative study. High complexity hospitals are large urban hospitals; all of which claim to have a working PTC. The pharmacy offices are mainly involved in dispensing medicines with little involvement in clinical duties. The interviews conducted suggest that the formulary of all the hospitals visited is no more than a stock list. PTCs are unable to influence the prescribing practices of doctors. Members do not feel prepared to challenge the opinions of specialists requesting a certain drug, and decisions are based primarily on costs. The inclusion of medicines in the clinical practice of hospitals is as a result of doctors bypassing the PTC and requesting the purchase of exceptional items, some of which are included in the formulary if they are widely used. Conclusions There is an urgent need to develop medicine policies in hospitals in Chile. The procedures used to purchase medicines need to be revised. Central guidance for PTCs could help ensure a more rational use of medicines. PTCs need to be empowered to design formularies which cover all the clinical needs of doctors, training
Yan, Bryan P; Ajani, Andrew E; Duffy, Stephen J; New, Gishel; Horrigan, Mark; Szto, Gregory; Walton, Antony; Eccleston, David; Lefkovits, Jeffery; Black, Alexander; Sebastian, Martin; Brennan, Angela L; Reid, Christopher M; Clark, David J
We aimed to assess the pattern of use of drug-eluting stents (DESs) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in Victorian public hospitals. Prospective study comparing the use of one or more DESs versus bare-metal stents (BMSs) only, in consecutive patients undergoing 2428 PCIs with stent implantation from 1 April 2004 to 31 December 2005 at seven Victorian public hospitals. Adherence to current Victorian Department of Human Services guidelines which recommend DES use in patients with high-risk features for restenosis (diabetes, small vessels, long lesions, in-stent restenotic lesions, chronic total occlusions and bifurcation lesions). Of the 2428 PCIs performed, at least one DES was implanted in 1101 (45.3%) and BMSs only were implanted in 1327 (54.7%). In 87.7% (966/1101) of PCI with DESs, there was at least one criterion for high risk of restenosis. DESs were more likely to be used in patients with diabetes (risk ratio [RR], 2.45; 95% CI, 2.02-2.97), small vessels (RR, 3.35; 95%CI, 2.35-4.76), long lesions (RR, 3.87; 95% CI, 3.23-4.65), in-stent restenotic lesions (RR, 3.98; 95%CI, 2.67-6.06), chronic total occlusions (RR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.51-2.88) and bifurcation lesions (RR, 2.23; 95%CI, 1.57-3.17). However, 66.2% (1608/2428) of all PCIs were in patients eligible for DESs according to Victorian guidelines, and in 39.9% (642/1608) of these PCIs, a BMS was used. In Victorian public hospitals, DESs have been largely reserved for patients at high risk of restenosis in accordance with Department of Human Services guidelines. However, many patients with high-risk criteria for restenosis did not receive DESs. Greater use of DESs in these patients may improve outcomes by reducing the need for repeat revascularisation.
Caballer-Tarazona, Maria; Clemente-Collado, Antonio; Vivas-Consuelo, David
Public-private partnership (PPP) initiatives are extending around the world, especially in Europe, as an innovation to traditional public health systems, with the intention of making them more efficient.There is a varied range of PPP models with different degrees of responsibility from simple public sector contracts with the private, up to the complete privatisation of the service. As such, we may say the involvement of the private sector embraces the development, financing and provision of public infrastructures and delivery services.In this paper, one of the oldest PPP initiatives developed in Spain and transferred to other European and Latin American countries is evaluated for first time: the integrated healthcare delivery Alzira model.Through a comparison of public and PPP hospital performance, cost and quality indicators, the efficiency of the PPP experience in five hospitals is evaluated to identify the influence of private management in the results.Regarding the performance and efficiency analysis, it is seen that the PPP group obtains good results, above the average, but not always better than those directly managed. It is necessary to conduct studies with a greater number of PPP hospitals to obtain conclusive results.
Beck, Ben; Bray, Janet E; Smith, Karen; Walker, Tony; Grantham, Hugh; Hein, Cindy; Thorrowgood, Melanie; Smith, Anthony; Inoue, Madoka; Smith, Tony; Dicker, Bridget; Swain, Andy; Bosley, Emma; Pemberton, Katherine; McKay, Michael; Johnston-Leek, Malcolm; Cameron, Peter; Perkins, Gavin D; Finn, Judith
The present study aimed to describe and examine similarities and differences in the current service provision and resuscitation protocols of the ambulance services participating in the Aus-ROC Australian and New Zealand out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) Epistry. Understanding these similarities and differences is important in identifying ambulance service factors that might explain regional variation in survival of OHCA in the Aus-ROC Epistry. A structured questionnaire was completed by each of the ambulance services participating in the Aus-ROC Epistry. These ambulance services were SA Ambulance Service, Ambulance Victoria, St John Ambulance Western Australia, Queensland Ambulance Service, St John Ambulance NT, St John New Zealand and Wellington Free Ambulance. The survey aimed to describe ambulance service and dispatch characteristics, resuscitation protocols and details of cardiac arrest registries. We observed similarities between services with respect to the treatment of OHCA and dispatch systems. Differences between services were observed in the serviced population; the proportion of paramedics with basic life support, advanced life support or intensive care training skills; the number of OHCA cases attended; guidelines related to withholding or terminating resuscitation attempts; and the variables that might be used to define 'attempted resuscitation'. All seven participating ambulance services were noted to have existing OHCA registries. There is marked variation between ambulance services currently participating in the Aus-ROC Australian and New Zealand OHCA Epistry with respect to workforce characteristics and key variable definitions. This variation between ambulance services might account for a proportion of the regional variation in survival of OHCA. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Goonan, Sarah; Mirosa, Miranda; Spence, Heather
Foodservice organizations, particularly those in hospitals, are large producers of food waste. To date, research on waste in hospitals has focused primarily on plate waste and the affect of food waste on patient nutrition outcomes. Less focus has been placed on waste generation at the kitchen end of the hospital food system. We used a novel approach to understand reasons for hospital food waste before consumption and offer recommendations on waste minimization within foodservices. A mixed methods ethnographic research approach was adopted. Three New Zealand hospital foodservices were selected as research sites, all of which were contracted to an external foodservice provider. Data collection techniques included document analyses, observations, focus groups with kitchen staff, and one-on-one interviews with managers. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate common themes. Most food waste occurred during service and as a result of overproduction. Attitudes and habits of foodservice personnel were considered influential factors of waste generation. Implications of food waste were perceived differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, kitchen staff drew upon social implications. Organizational plans, controls, and use of pre-prepared ingredients assisted in waste minimization. An array of factors influenced waste generation in hospital foodservices. Exploring attitudes and practices of foodservice personnel allowed an understanding of reasons behind hospital food waste and ways in which it could be minimized. This study provides a foundation for further research on sustainable behavior within the wider foodservice sector and dietetics practice. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neriz, Liliana; Núñez, Alicia; Ramis, Francisco
In Chile, the use of costing systems in the public sector is limited. The Ministry of Health requires hospitals to manage themselves with the aim of decentralizing health care services and increasing their quality. However, self-management with a lack of accounting information is almost impossible. On the other hand, nutrition department costs have barely been studied before, and there are no studies specifically for activity based costing (ABC) systems. ABC focuses on the process and traces health care activities to gain a more accurate measurement of the object costs and the financial performance of an organization. This paper uses ABC in a nutrition unit of a public hospital of high complexity to determine costs associated with the different meals for inpatients. The paper also provides an activity based management (ABM) analysis for this unit. The results show positive effects on the reduction of costs for the nutrition department after implementing ABC/ABM. Therefore, there are opportunities to improve the profitability of the area and the results could also be replicated to other areas in the hospital. ABC shed light on the amount of nutritionist time devoted to completing paperwork, and as a result, system changes were introduced to reduce this burden and allow them to focus on more relevant activities. Additional efficiencies were achieved through the elimination of non-value adding activities and automation of reports. ABC reduced the cost of the nutrition department and could produce similar results in other areas of the hospital. This is a practical application of a financial management tool, ABC, which would be useful for hospital managers to reduce costs and improve the management of the unit. This paper takes ABC and examines its use in an area, which has had little exposure to the benefits of this tool.
Oldroyd, J C; Venardos, K M; Aoki, N J; Zatta, A J; McQuilten, Z K; Phillips, L E; Andrianopoulos, N; Cooper, D J; Cameron, P A; Isbister, J P; Wood, E M
The Australian and New Zealand (ANZ) Massive Transfusion (MT) Registry (MTR) has been established to improve the quality of care of patients with critical bleeding (CB) requiring MT (≥ 5 units red blood cells (RBC) over 4 h). The MTR is providing data to: (1) improve the evidence base for transfusion practice by systematically collecting data on transfusion practice and clinical outcomes; (2) monitor variations in practice and provide an opportunity for benchmarking, and feedback on practice/blood product use; (3) inform blood supply planning, inventory management and development of future clinical trials; and (4) measure and enhance translation of evidence into policy and patient blood management guidelines. The MTR commenced in 2011. At each participating site, all eligible patients aged ≥18 years with CB from any clinical context receiving MT are included using a waived consent model. Patient information and clinical coding, transfusion history, and laboratory test results are extracted for each patient's hospital admission at the episode level. Thirty-two hospitals have enrolled and 3566 MT patients have been identified across Australia and New Zealand between 2011 and 2015. The majority of CB contexts are surgical, followed by trauma and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Validation studies have verified that the definition of MT used in the registry correctly identifies 94 % of CB events, and that the median time of transfusion for the majority of fresh products is the 'product event issue time' from the hospital blood bank plus 20 min. Data linkage between the MTR and mortality databases in Australia and New Zealand will allow comparisons of risk-adjusted mortality estimates across different bleeding contexts, and between countries. Data extracts will be examined to determine if there are differences in patient outcomes according to transfusion practice. The ratios of blood components (e.g. FFP:RBC) used in different types of critical bleeding will also
Cheung, Winston; Myburgh, John; McGuinness, Shay; Chalmers, Debra; Parke, Rachael; Blyth, Fiona; Seppelt, Ian; Parr, Michael; Hooker, Claire; Blackwell, Nikki; DeMonte, Shannon; Gandhi, Kalpesh; Kol, Mark; Kerridge, Ian; Nair, Priya; Saunders, Nicholas M; Saxena, Manoj K; Thanakrishnan, Govindasamy; Naganathan, Vasi
An influenza pandemic has the potential to overwhelm intensive care resources, but the views of the general public on how resources should be allocated in such a scenario were unknown. We aimed to determine Australian and New Zealand public opinion on how intensive care unit beds should be allocated during an influenza pandemic. A postal questionnaire was sent to 4000 randomly selected registered voters; 2000 people each from the Australian Electoral Commission and New Zealand Electoral Commission rolls. The respondents' preferred method to triage ICU patients in an influenza pandemic. Respondents chose from six methods: use a "first in, first served" approach; allow a senior doctor to decide; use pre-determined health department criteria; use random selection; use the patient's ability to pay; use the importance of the patient to decide. Respondents also rated each of the triage methods for fairness. Australian respondents preferred that patients be triaged to the ICU either by a senior doctor (43.2%) or by pre-determined health department criteria (38.7%). New Zealand respondents preferred that triage be performed by a senior doctor (45.9%). Respondents from both countries perceived triage by a senior doctor and by pre-determined health department criteria to be fair, and the other four methods of triage to be unfair. In an influenza pandemic, when ICU resources would be overwhelmed, survey respondents preferred that ICU triage be performed by a senior doctor, but also perceived the use of pre-determined triage criteria to be fair.
Wagner, J-D; Bezuidenhout, M C; Roos, J H
This study aimed to establish and describe the level of communication satisfaction that professional nurses experience in selected public hospitals in the City of Johannesburg, South Africa. The success of any organisation depends on the effectiveness of its communication systems and the interaction between staff members. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, based on the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), from a sample of 265 professional nurses from different categories, chosen using a disproportionate random stratified sampling method. The results indicated poor personal feedback between nurse managers (operational managers) and professional nurses, as well as dissatisfaction among nurse managers and professional nurses with regard to informal communication channels. A lack of information pertaining to policies, change, financial standing and achievements of hospitals was identified. Nurse managers should play a leadership role in bringing staff of different departments together by creating interactive communication forums for the sharing of ideas. The results emphasise the need for nurse managers to improve communication satisfaction at all levels of the hospital services in order to enhance staff satisfaction and create a positive working environment for staff members. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John wiley & Sons Ltd.
Takasaka, Y; Yokota, O; Tanioka, T; Nagata, K; Yasuoka, K; Toda, H
We investigate the effects of music therapy concerts, which were held 60 times over a four year period, 1992 to 1996, in Geiyo Psychiatric Hospital, Kochi Prefecture and found that; 1) Musicians who performed at the concerts were not only from Kochi prefecture but also from other prefectures (10 times) and from four foreign countries (7 times). 2) Live concerts in a small hall had a positive influence on patients and drew the patient's attention and interest away from their hallucinations and delusions to the real world. Moreover, the concerts provided the patients with chances to acquire social graces such as being well-groomed. 3) Explanations by the musicians, interviews with the musicians and the seasonal choruses accompanied by the musicians were helpful to give the patients motives for recovering communication skills and to interact with society. 4) Inquiries to the patients about the concerts indicated discrepancies between the poor observed estimations during the concerts (83.3%) and the good subjective impressions expressed by the patients (82.0%), suggesting that the patients were not good at expressing their internal emotions through facial expressions or attitudes. 5) Many citizens including children came to the concerts and/or gave aid to the hospital because the concerts were open to the public and we suggest that this contributed to improving the general publics' image of psychiatric hospitals. Questionnaires revealed that 90% of people in a control group had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals in Japan, but only 32% of the members of the general public who attended our concerts had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals. In addition, the revolving ratio of the hospital beds rose from 0.4 to 1.2 over the four years, which also suggests a beneficial effect on the patients.
Parackal, Mathew; Parackal, Sherly; Eusebius, Shobhit; Mather, Damien
Social media is gaining recognition as a platform for delivering public health messages. One area attracting attention from public health researchers and professionals is Facebook's advertising channel. This channel is reported to have a broad reach and generate high user engagement with the disseminated campaign materials. However, to date, no study has examined the communication process via this channel which this study aimed to address. The specific objectives of the study were to (1) examine user engagement for a public health campaign based on the metadata provided by Facebook, (2) analyze comments generated by the campaign materials using text mining, and (3) investigate the relationship between the themes identified in the comments and the message and the sentiments prevalent in the themes that exhibited significant relationships. This study examined a New Zealand public health pilot campaign called "Don't Know? Don't Drink," which warned against drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The campaign conveyed the warning through a video and three banner ads that were delivered as news feeds to women aged 18-30 years. Thematic analysis using text mining performed on the comments (n=819) identified four themes. Logistic regression was used to identify meaning-making themes that exhibited association with the message. The users' engagement was impressive with the video receiving 203,754 views. The combined likes and shares for the promotional materials (video and banner ads) amounted to 6125 and 300, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed two meaning-making themes, namely, risk of pregnancy (P=.003) and alcohol and culture (P<.001) exhibited association with the message. The sentiment analysis carried out on the two themes revealed there were more negative than positive comments (47% vs 28%). The user engagement observed in this study was consistent with previous research. The numbers reported for views, likes, and shares may be seen as unique
Background Social media is gaining recognition as a platform for delivering public health messages. One area attracting attention from public health researchers and professionals is Facebook’s advertising channel. This channel is reported to have a broad reach and generate high user engagement with the disseminated campaign materials. However, to date, no study has examined the communication process via this channel which this study aimed to address. Objective The specific objectives of the study were to (1) examine user engagement for a public health campaign based on the metadata provided by Facebook, (2) analyze comments generated by the campaign materials using text mining, and (3) investigate the relationship between the themes identified in the comments and the message and the sentiments prevalent in the themes that exhibited significant relationships. Methods This study examined a New Zealand public health pilot campaign called “Don’t Know? Don’t Drink,” which warned against drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The campaign conveyed the warning through a video and three banner ads that were delivered as news feeds to women aged 18-30 years. Thematic analysis using text mining performed on the comments (n=819) identified four themes. Logistic regression was used to identify meaning-making themes that exhibited association with the message. Results The users’ engagement was impressive with the video receiving 203,754 views. The combined likes and shares for the promotional materials (video and banner ads) amounted to 6125 and 300, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed two meaning-making themes, namely, risk of pregnancy (P=.003) and alcohol and culture (P<.001) exhibited association with the message. The sentiment analysis carried out on the two themes revealed there were more negative than positive comments (47% vs 28%). Conclusions The user engagement observed in this study was consistent with previous research. The numbers reported
Woon, See-Tarn; Ameratunga, Rohan
New Zealand is a developed geographically isolated country in the South Pacific with a population of 4.4 million. Genetic diagnosis is the standard of care for most patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). Since 2005, we have offered a comprehensive genetic testing service for PIDs and other immune-related disorders with a published sequence. Here we present results for this program, over the first decade, between 2005 and 2014. We undertook testing in 228 index cases and 32 carriers during this time. The three most common test requests were for X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP), tumour necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Of the 32 suspected XLP cases, positive diagnoses were established in only 2 patients. In contrast, genetic defects in 8 of 11 patients with suspected X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) were confirmed. Most XLA patients were initially identified from absence of B cells. Overall, positive diagnoses were made in about 23% of all tests requested. The diagnostic rate was lowest for several conditions with locus heterogeneity. Thorough clinical characterisation of patients can assist in prioritising which genes should be tested. The clinician-driven customised comprehensive genetic service has worked effectively for New Zealand. Next generation sequencing will play an increasing role in disorders with locus heterogeneity.
Lee, Kunsei; Kim, Hyun Joo; You, Myoungsoon; Lee, Jin-Seok; Eun, Sang Jun; Jeong, Hyoseon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Lee, Jin Yong
This study aims to identify which activities of a public community hospital (PHC) should be included in their definition of publicness and tries to achieve a consensus among experts using the Delphi method. We conduct 2 rounds of the Delphi process with 17 panel members using a developed draft of tentative activities for publicness including 5 main categories covering 27 items. The questions remain the same in both rounds and the applicability of each of the 27 items to publicness is measured on a 9-point scale. If the participants believe government funding is needed, we ask how much they think the government should support each item on a 0% to 100% scale. After conducting 2 rounds of the Delphi process, 22 out of the 27 items reached a consensus as activities defining the publicness of the PHCs. Among the 5 major categories, in category C, activities preventing market failure, all 10 items were considered activities of publicness. Nine of these were evaluated as items that should be compensated at 100% of total financial loss by the Korean government. Throughout results, we were able to define the activities of the PCH that encompassed its publicness and confirm that there are "good deficits" in the context of the PCHs. Thus, some PCH deficits are unavoidable and not wasted as these monies support a necessary role and function in providing public health. The Korean government should therefore consider taking actions such as exempting such "good deficits" or providing additional financial aid to reimburse the PHCs for "good deficits."
Cassidy, T John; Edgar, Dale W; Phillips, Michael; Cameron, Peter; Cleland, Heather; Wood, Fiona M
In Australia and New Zealand (ANZ), health care is provided for ∼26 million people dispersed across the eight million square kilometres of the two countries. Providing optimal care prior to and during transfer across such vast distances is challenging. Lengthening the time taken to definitive burn care has a negative impact on burn outcome. The aims of this study were to determine if transfer time and admission pathway influenced burn mortality and to identify the factors predicting burn mortality in ANZ. The study included all adult burn patient admission data from 15 of 17 burn services submitted to the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association bi-national registry (2010-2012). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to address the study aims. Of the 2892 patients, 69 (2.4%) died following burn. Time to admission and direct admission to a burn centre did not independently influence burn mortality except when patients with inhalation injury took >16 h to transfer to definitive care. The risk of death was increased 5.7 times in the presence of inhalation injury. Burn size and age amplified the risk of death while gender did not. In ANZ, pre-hospital transport systems and peripheral hospital stabilisation were not associated with an increased risk of death due to burn except when inhalation injury was present. The results of this study indicate that burn patients with inhalation injury should be stabilised and transferred to a burn service within 16 h of burn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983
Gallego, Gisselle; Taylor, Susan J.; McNeill, Paul; Brien, Jo‐anne E.
Abstract Objective To gather information about views of members of the general public about access to High Cost Medications (HCMs) in public hospitals. Methods A structured questionnaire was administered to members of the general public. Individuals were approached in train stations, shopping centres and different venues in the Sydney metropolitan area. People were eligible to answer the survey if they were: over 18 years of age, Australian permanent residents and able to complete the questionnaire in English. Results Two hundred people completed the survey. Of these 56% were females, 47% were married, 84% spoke English at home, 88% were working either full‐time or part‐time, 61% had a university degree, 27% had a household annual income greater than $100 000 and 68% had private health insurance. Participants considered factors such as treatment outcomes, quality of life and current health status when determining who should have access to HCMs. Participants wanted resources to be allocated to provide the ‘greatest benefit to the greatest number of people’. Almost half the respondents did not want direct involvement in decision‐making, however, 38% did. Conclusions The results offered support for indirect involvement through the development of a process to involve community members in discussion on policy on the provision of treatment and services within health‐care institutions and specifically, to seek the views of members of the public on the provision of HCMs and expensive services within public hospitals. PMID:17678511
The Diabcare-Asia project was initiated to study the status of diabetes care and prevalence of diabetic complications in Asia and this study was done to evaluate the above in public hospitals in Malaysia and compare to a similar study done in 1998. A total of 19 public hospitals participated in this study from which a total of 1099 patients were included and analysed. The majority of patients (94.8%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus and 66.5% were overweight or obese. As for glycaemic control only 41.0% of the patients had HbA1c < 7% and 18% had FPG < 6.1 mmol/L. As for lipid levels, only 32.0% of the patients had total cholesterol < 4.8 mmol/L; 59.6% had HDL-cholesterol > 1.1 mmol/L and 51.1% had triglycerides < 1.7 mmol/L. Despite the high proportion of patients having dyslipidaemia, only 52.8% of the patients were on lipid lowering therapy. As for blood pressure, 15.0% of the patients had blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg. Although 75.9% of the patients were on antihypertensive medication only 11.3% had blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg. Only 54.8% of patients admitted to adhering to a diabetic diet regularly and 38.9% exercised regularly. As for glucose monitoring, only 26.8% of the patients did home blood glucose monitoring and 1.8% did home urine glucose testing. There was also a high complication rate with the commonest being neuropathy (19.0%) followed by albuminuria (15.7%), background retinopathy (11.1%) and microalbuminuria (6.6%). Compared to the 1998 study, there was some improvement in the percentage of patients achieving target levels and a reduction in the prevalence of complications. In conclusion, the majority of diabetic patients treated at the public hospitals were still not satisfactorily controlled and this was still associated with a high prevalence of complications. There is still an urgent need to educate both patients and health care personnel on the importance of achieving the clinical targets and greater effort must be made to achieve these targets.
A growing corpus of anthropological scholarship demonstrates how science and medicine in Mexico are imbued by national concerns with modernization. Drawing on ethnographic research in a public hospital located in the south of Mexico City, I unpack one manifestation of this dynamic, which is the conjugation of the normal and the modern in Mexican reconstructive surgery. The aspiration toward normality underlies everyday clinic practices and relationships in this field, including why parents want surgery for their children and how doctors see their patients and their responsibilities toward them. It is also central to the professional ethic of reconstructive surgeons. I argue that the realities of health care provision in Mexico coalesced with this ethic to produce reconstructive surgeons as political subjects. They aimed to modernize craniofacial surgery in Mexico and so make the bodies of craniofacial patients normal.
Thompson, Stephen L; Salmon, J Warren
In a study to investigate the factors that would drive attending physicians employed in a public hospital to seek collective bargaining with their employer, the authors developed an instrument to determine which variables and which hypotheses were predictive of union proneness. The findings reveal that a desire for voice was the number one reason for physicians' wanting to join a union. Union-prone physicians had a lower salary on average, were more dissatisfied with their income, were more likely to feel the effects of work "speed up" (too many patients and too little time), were less likely to have administrative functions (thus a larger patient care role), had a strong sense of entitlement to collective bargaining, believed that unions improve participation in decisions affecting their jobs (reinforcing their desire for voice), and had a sense that a union would improve their treatment by supervisors (reinforcing their desire for due process and equity).
Gwyther, L; Krause, R; Cupido, C; Stanford, J; Grey, H; Credé, T; De Vos, A; Arendse, J; Raubenheimer, P
With the recent approval of a South African (SA) National Policy Framework and Strategy for Palliative Care by the National Health Council, it is pertinent to reflect on initiatives to develop palliative care services in public hospitals. This article reviews the development of hospital-based palliative care services in the Western Cape, SA. Palliative care services in SA started in the non-governmental sector in the 1980s. The first SA hospital-based palliative care team was established in Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital in 2001. The awareness of the benefit of palliative care in the hospital setting led to the development of isolated pockets of excellence providing palliative care in the public health sector in SA. This article describes models for palliative care at tertiary, provincial and district hospital level, which could inform development of hospital-based palliative care as the national policy for palliative care is implemented in SA.
Walker, Daniel M; Diana, Mark L
Health information technology (IT) has the potential to improve the nation's public health infrastructure. In support of this belief, meaningful use incentives include criteria for hospitals to electronically report to immunization registries, as well as to public health agencies for reportable laboratory results and syndromic surveillance. Electronic reporting can facilitate faster and more appropriate public health response. However, it remains unclear the extent that hospitals have adopted IT for public health efforts. To examine hospital adoption of IT for public health and to compare hospitals capable of using and not using public health IT. Cross-sectional design with data from the 2012 American Hospital Association annual survey matched with data from the 2013 American Hospital Association Information Technology Supplement. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare hospital characteristics. Inverse probability weights were applied to adjust for selection bias because of survey nonresponse. All acute care general hospitals in the United States that matched across the surveys and had complete data available were included in the analytic sample. Three separate outcome measures were used: whether the hospital could electronically report to immunization registries, whether the hospital could send electronic laboratory results, and whether the hospital can participate in syndromic surveillance. A total of 2841 hospitals met the inclusion criteria. Weighted results show that of these hospitals, 62.7% can electronically submit to immunization registries, 56.6% can electronically report laboratory results, and 54.4% can electronically report syndromic surveillance. Adjusted and weighted results from the multivariate analyses show that small, rural hospitals and hospitals without electronic health record systems lag in the adoption of public health IT capabilities. While a majority of hospitals are using public health IT, the infrastructure still has
Noto, Konosuke; Kojo, Takao; Innami, Ichiro
Background: Many of public hospitals in Japan have had a deficit for a long time. Japanese local governments have been encouraging public hospitals to use group purchasing of drugs to benefit from the economies of scale, and increase their bargaining power for obtaining discounts in drug purchasing, thus improving their financial situation. In this study, we empirically investigate whether or not the scale of public hospitals actually affects their bargaining power. Methods: Using micro-level panel data on public hospitals, we examine the effect of the scale of public hospitals (in terms of the number of occupancy beds) on drug purchasing efficiency (DPE) (the average discount rate in purchasing drugs) as a proxy variable of the bargaining power. Additionally, we evaluate the effect of the presence or absence of management responsibility in public hospital for economic efficiency as the proxy variable of an economic incentive and its interaction with the hospital scales on the bargaining power. In the estimations, we use the fixed effects model to control the heterogeneity of each hospital in order to estimate reliable parameters. Results: The scale of public hospitals does not positively correlate with bargaining power, whereas the management responsibility for economic efficiency does. Additionally, scale does not interact with management responsibility. Conclusion: Giving management responsibility for economic efficiency to public hospitals is a more reliable way of gaining bargaining power in drug purchasing, rather than promoting the increase in scale of these public hospitals. PMID:29172376
Dorner, Daniel G.
Recent legislation in New Zealand has placed statutory obligations on its government organizations to introduce sound records management practices and to ensure long-term access to their digital records. To obtain a base level of knowledge on current digital preservation practices and on awareness of digital preservation issues, an online survey…
Le, Dang Ha; Bloom, Sharon A; Nguyen, Quang Hien; Maloney, Susan A; Le, Quynh Mai; Leitmeyer, Katrin C; Bach, Huy Anh; Reynolds, Mary G; Montgomery, Joel M; Comer, James A; Horby, Peter W; Plant, Aileen J
The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Vietnam was amplified by nosocomial spread within hospital A, but no transmission was reported in hospital B, the second of two designated SARS hospitals. Our study documents lack of SARS-associated coronavirus transmission to hospital B workers, despite variable infection control measures and the use of personal protective equipment.
Regazzi, John J.
This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…
Development of an otitis media strategy in the Pacific: key informant perspectivesThe Matthew effect in New Zealand rural hospital trauma and emergency care: why rural simulation-based education matters.
Gutenstein, Marc; Kiuru, Sampsa
We describe a phenomenon of self-reinforcing inequality between New Zealand rural hospitals and urban trauma centres. Rural doctors work in remote geographical locations, with rare exposure to managing critical injuries, and with little direct support when they do. Paradoxically, but for the same reasons, they also have little access to the intensive training resources and specialist oversight of their university hospital colleagues. In keeping with international experience, we propose that using simulation-based education for rural hospital trauma and emergency team training will mitigate this effect. Along with several different organisations in New Zealand, the University of Otago rural postgraduate programme is developing inter-professional simulation content to address this challenge and open new avenues for research.
Pavlakis, A; Kaitelidou, D; Theodorou, M; Galanis, P; Sourtzi, P; Siskou, O
Conflict among health-care personnel has been identified as an issue within health-care settings around the world. To investigate the existence and management of conflict among health-care personnel in public hospitals in Cyprus; to assess the factors leading to conflict among staff members; to evaluate the consequences of conflict arising; and to consider the management strategies. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a random sample of 1037 health-care professionals in all (seven) state-run hospitals in Cyprus in 2008. Mean age of respondents was 41 years, and 75% were female. Sixty-four per cent of respondents reported that they had never been informed about conflict management strategies, with physicians being the least informed as the relative percentage was 79.8% (χ(2) = 33, P < 0.001). Sixty per cent of health-care professionals reported conflict at work with other health-care personnel one to five times per week, and 37% of the respondents stated that they devote 90 min (mean value) from work during their shift in conflict resolution, meaning that managing conflicts may absorb 19% of working time daily. The majority of respondents agreed that organizational problems and communication gaps were the main issues creating conflict. Avoidance and collaboration were the preferable strategies for conflict resolution, used by 36.6% and 37.5% of the respondents, respectively. Better communication, fair management practices and clear job descriptions and expectations may be needed in order to facilitate change and reverse the negative atmosphere that exists. Further education in conflict management for physicians, nurses and their managers may also be needed. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.
Linna, Miika; Häkkinen, Unto; Peltola, Mikko; Magnussen, Jon; Anthun, Kjartan S; Kittelsen, Sverre; Roed, Annette; Olsen, Kim; Medin, Emma; Rehnberg, Clas
The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hospital care in four Nordic countries: Norway, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. Using national discharge registries and cost data from hospitals, cost efficiency in the production of somatic hospital care was calculated for public hospitals. Data were collected using harmonized definitions of inputs and outputs for 184 hospitals and data envelopment analysis was used to calculate Farrell efficiency estimates for the year 2002. Results suggest that there were marked differences in the average hospital efficiency between Nordic countries. In 2002, average efficiency was markedly higher in Finland compared to Norway and Sweden. This study found differences in cost efficiency that cannot be explained by input prices or differences in coding practices. More analysis is needed to reveal the causes of large efficiency disparities between Nordic hospitals.
Riley, Andrew F; Malik, Tahira Y; Grupcheva, Christina N; Fisk, Michael J; Craig, Jennifer P; McGhee, Charles N
Aim: To prospectively assess cataract surgery in a major New Zealand public hospital by defining presenting clinical parameters and surgical and clinical outcomes in a cohort of subjects just below threshold for treatment, based upon a points based prioritisation system. Methods: The prospective observational study comprised 488 eyes of 480 subjects undergoing consecutive cataract operations at Auckland Hospital. All subjects underwent extensive ophthalmic examination before and after surgery. Details of the surgical procedure, including any intraoperative difficulties or complications, were documented. Postoperative review was performed at 1 day and 4 weeks after surgery. Demographic data, clinical outcomes, and adverse events were correlated by an independent assessor. Results: The mean age at surgery was 74.9 (SD 9.6) years with a female predominance (62%). Significant systemic disease affected 80% of subjects, with 20% of the overall cohort exhibiting diabetes mellitus. 26% of eyes exhibited coexisting ocular disease and in 7.6% this affected best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA). A mean spherical equivalent of −0.49 (1.03) D and mean BSCVA of 0.9 (0.6) log MAR units (Snellen equivalent approximately 6/48) was noted preoperatively. Local anaesthesia was employed in 99.8% of subjects (94.9% sub-Tenon's). The majority of procedures (97.3%) were small incision phacoemulsification with foldable lens implant. Complications included: 4.9% posterior capsule tears, 3.8% cystoid macular oedema, and one case (0.2%) of endophthalmitis. Mean BSCVA after surgery was 0.1 (0.2) log MAR units (6/7.5 Snellen equivalent), with a mean spherical equivalent of −0.46 (0.89) D, and was 6/12 or better in 88% of all eyes. A drop in BSCVA, thought to be directly attributable to the surgical intervention, was recorded in a small percentage of eyes (1.5%) after surgery. Conclusion: This study provides a representative assessment of the management of cataract in the New
Kifle, Meron Mehari; Ghirmai, Filmon Abraham; Berhe, Soliana Amanuel; Tesfay, Winta Sium; Weldegebriel, Yodit Teklemariam; Gebrehiwet, Zebib Tesfamariam
Exploring patient satisfaction contributes to provide quality maternity care, but there is paucity of epidemiologic data in Eritrea. To determine the predictors of women's satisfaction with intrapartum care in Asmara public maternity hospitals in Eritrea. A cross-sectional study among 771 mothers who gave birth in three public Hospitals. Chi-square tests were done to analyze the difference in proportion and logistic regression to assess the predictors of satisfaction with intrapartum care. Overall, only 20.8% of the participants were satisfied with intrapartum service. The key predictors of satisfaction with intrapartum care were provision of clean bed and beddings (AOR = 18.87, 2.33-15.75), privacy during examinations (AOR = 10.22, 4.86-21.48), using understandable language (AOR = 8.72, 3.57-21.27), showing how to summon for help (AOR = 8.16, 4.30-15.48), showing baby immediately after birth (AOR = 8.14, 2.87-23.07), control of the delivery room (AOR = 6.86, 2.65-17.75), receiving back massage (AOR = 6.43, 3.23-12.81), toilet access and cleanliness (AOR = 6.09, 3.25-11.42), availability of chairs for relatives (AOR = 5.96, 3.14-11.30), allowing parents to stay during labour (AOR = 3.52, 1.299-9.56), and request for permission before any procedure (AOR = 2.39, 1.28-4.46). To increase satisfaction with intrapartum care, maternity service providers need to address the general maternity ward cleanliness, improve the quality of physical facilities, and sensitize health providers for better communication with clients. Policy makers need to adopt strategies that ensure more women involvement in decision making and consideration of privacy and reassurance needs during the whole delivery process.
Outsourcing was one process of privatisation used in the Victorian public health sector in the 1990s. However it was used to varying degrees and across a variety of different services. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Why have managers outsourced? What have managers considered when they have decided to outsource? The research was carried out in a rural hospital and a metropolitan network in Victoria. The key findings highlight the factors that decision makers considered to be important and those that led to negative outcomes. Economic factors, such as frequency of exchange, length of relationships between the parties, and information availability, were often ignored. However, other factors such as outcome measurability, technology, risk, labour market characteristics and goal conflict, and political factors such as relative power of management over labour were often perceived as important in the decision-making process. Negative outcomes from outsourcing were due to the short length of relationships and accompanying difficulties with trust, commitment and loyalty; poor quality; and excessive monitoring and the measurement of outcomes.
Fernandes, Juliana da Costa; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Griep, Rosane Harter
To analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. This is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279). Men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. Both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.
Vogt, Sibylle Emilie; Silva, Kátia Silveira da; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos
To compare collaborative and traditional childbirth care models. Cross-sectional study with 655 primiparous women in four public health system hospitals in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011 (333 women for the collaborative model and 322 for the traditional model, including those with induced or premature labor). Data were collected using interviews and medical records. The Chi-square test was used to compare the outcomes and multivariate logistic regression to determine the association between the model and the interventions used. Paid work and schooling showed significant differences in distribution between the models. Oxytocin (50.2% collaborative model and 65.5% traditional model; p < 0.001), amniotomy (54.3% collaborative model and 65.9% traditional model; p = 0.012) and episiotomy (collaborative model 16.1% and traditional model 85.2%; p < 0.001) were less used in the collaborative model with increased application of non-pharmacological pain relief (85.0% collaborative model and 78.9% traditional model; p = 0.042). The association between the collaborative model and the reduction in the use of oxytocin, artificial rupture of membranes and episiotomy remained after adjustment for confounding. The care model was not associated with complications in newborns or mothers neither with the use of spinal or epidural analgesia. The results suggest that collaborative model may reduce interventions performed in labor care with similar perinatal outcomes.
del Llano, J; Martínez-Cantarero, J F; Gol, J; Raigada, F
To determine the opinion of chief executive officers (CEOs) and physicians in public hospitals concerning new managerial trends. We performed a qualitative study designed to determine the opinion of CEOs and physicians on the organizational innovations that affect more than one level of health management intervention. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to identify behavior, experiences, opinions, knowledge and other personal and institutional aspects related to the study's aim. Focus groups (two study groups and one control group) were also used. Interaction between groups was used to obtain different types of information on the development of ideas, operational capacity, and the degree of consensus and disagreement on the subjects discussed. Comparison between the control and the study groups revealed that the new management trends added value in the following areas: economy of contracts, delegation, administrative decentralization, incentives, risk avoidance, process re-engineering, heath care continuity, competitiveness, leadership, information systems and client centeredness. Physicians are showing increased interest in organizational innovations while CEOs are ambivalent about their changing role and respective responsibilities. There is evidence of resistance to change. There is no single institutional model; institutional design depends on internal factors (cohesion and leadership) and external factors (environment, size and technology). The incipient development of innovations reveals the need for changes in the style and characteristics of management structure (composition, functions, responsibilities).
Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Yong-Jun; Park, Hyeung-Keun; Do, Young Kyung; Eun, Sang-Jun
After the 1997 economic crisis, the South Korean government implemented neoliberal policies in many sectors. In health care, the government attempted to privatize nine public hospitals, framing the initiative as "better management." In this discourse, public hospital workers were stereotyped as lazy and incompetent, while public hospitals were portrayed as poorly managed and of low quality. However, the government did not present any relevant evidence of improvement in already privatized hospitals, even though three hospitals had been semi-privatized at that time. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of the semi-privatization, comparing the performance of the semi-privatized hospitals with that of the nine other hospitals targeted for privatization. The study found adverse effects on performance, unlike the claims made by the government. Semi-privatization intensified the workloads of hospital workers and the instability of employment, froze or decreased real wages, and drastically increased hospital revenue per patient stay. The changes may have resulted from redefining profit as the goal of the hospitals, as opposed to the previous focus on decision-making on public health. These research findings played a decisive role in the struggle to keep the targeted public hospitals free of privatization, especially in two of the nine hospitals targeted for privatization in 2001.
Grigg, Celia P; Tracy, Sally K; Schmied, Virginia; Monk, Amy; Tracy, Mark B
There is worldwide debate regarding the appropriateness and safety of different birthplaces for well women. The Evaluating Maternity Units (EMU) study's primary objective was to compare clinical outcomes for well women intending to give birth in either a tertiary level maternity hospital or a freestanding primary level maternity unit. Little is known about how women experience having to change their birthplace plans during the antenatal period or before admission to a primary unit, or transfer following admission. This paper describes and explores women's experience of these changes-a secondary aim of the EMU study. This paper utilised the six week postpartum survey data, from the 174 women from the primary unit cohort affected by birthplace plan change or transfer (response rate 73%). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The study was undertaken in Christchurch, New Zealand, which has an obstetric-led tertiary maternity hospital and four freestanding midwife-led primary maternity units (2010-2012). The 702 study participants were well, pregnant women booked to give birth in one of these facilities, all of whom received continuity of midwifery care, regardless of their intended or actual birthplace. Of the women who had to change their planned place of birth or transfer the greatest proportion of women rated themselves on a Likert scale as unbothered by the move (38.6%); 8.8% were 'very unhappy' and 7.6% 'very happy' (quantitative analysis). Four themes were identified, using thematic analysis, from the open ended survey responses of those who experienced transfer: 'not to plan', control, communication and 'my midwife'. An interplay between the themes created a cumulatively positive or negative effect on their experience. Women's experience of transfer in labour was generally positive, and none expressed stress or trauma with transfer. The women knew of the potential for change or transfer, although it was not wanted or planned
Singh, Simone R; Bakken, Erik; Kindig, David A; Young, Gary J
Achieving meaningful population health improvements has become a priority for communities across the United States, yet funding to sustain multisector initiatives is frequently not available. One potential source of funding for population health initiatives is the community benefit expenditures that are required of nonprofit hospitals to maintain their tax-exempt status. In this article, we explore the importance of nonprofit hospitals' community benefit dollars as a funding source for population health. Hospitals' community benefit expenditures were obtained from their 2009 IRS (Internal Revenue Service) Form 990 Schedule H and complemented with data on state and local public health spending from the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials and the National Association of County & City Health Officials. Key measures included indicators of hospitals' community health spending and governmental public health spending, all aggregated to the state level. Univariate and bivariate statistics were used to describe how much hospitals spent on programs and activities for the community at large and to understand the relationship between hospitals' spending and the expenditures of state and local health departments. Tax-exempt hospitals spent a median of $130 per capita on community benefit activities, of which almost $11 went toward community health improvement and community-building activities. In comparison, median state and local health department spending amounted to $82 and $48 per capita, respectively. Hospitals' spending thus contributed an additional 9% to the resources available for population health to state and local health departments. Spending, however, varied widely by state and was unrelated to governmental public health spending. Moreover, adding hospitals' spending to the financial resources available to governmental public health agencies did not reduce existing inequalities in population health funding across states. Hospitals' community
Grigg, Celia P; Tracy, Sally K; Tracy, Mark; Schmied, Virginia; Monk, Amy
to examine the transfers from primary maternity units to a tertiary hospital in New Zealand by describing the frequency, timing, reasons and outcomes of those who had antenatal or pre-admission birthplace plan changes, and transfers in labour or postnatally. mixed methods prospective (concurrent) cohort study, which analysed transfer and clinical outcome data (407 primary unit cohort, 285 tertiary hospital cohort), and data from the six week postpartum survey (571 respondents). well, pregnant women booked to give birth in a tertiary maternity hospital or primary maternity unit in one region in New Zealand (2010-2012). All women received midwifery continuity of care, regardless of their intended or actual birthplace. fewer than half of the women who planned a primary unit birth gave birth there (191 or 46.9%). A change of plan may have been made either antenatally or before admission in labour; and transfers were made after admission to the primary unit in labour or during the postnatal stay (about 48 hours). Of the 117 (28.5%) planning a primary unit birth who changed their planned birthplace type antenatally 73 (62.4%) were due to a clinical indication. Earthquakes accounted for 28.1% of birthplace change (during the research period major earthquakes occurred in the study region). Most (73.8%) labour changes occurred before admission in labour to the primary unit. For the 76 women who changed plan at this stage the most common reasons to do so were a rapid labour (25.0%) or prolonged rupture of membranes (23.7%). Transfers in labour from primary unit to tertiary hospital occurred for 27 women (12.6%) of whom 26 (96.3%) were having their first baby. "Slow progress" of labour accounted for 21 (77.8%) of these and 17 (62.9%) were classified as 'non-emergency'. The average transfer time for 'emergency' transfers was 58 minutes. The average time for all labour transfers from specialist consultation to birth was 4.5 hours. Nine postnatal transfers (maternal or neonatal
Barry, Lorelle; Coleborne, Catharine
This article examines Māori patients at the Auckland Mental Hospital between 1860 and 1900.We argue that the patient case notes reveal 'European' categories in which Māori were situated, and demonstrate the extent to which the authorities at the hospital grappled with their appearance, their language and their culture, all of which were elements of their ethnicity. We argue that the use of institutional case records is highly suggestive of some of the historical meanings of insanity for Māori, including the lack of detailed or sustained collection of information about patients' tribal affiliations, the interest shown in their rights to land in maintenance payment inquiries, the experiences of cultural alienation or mate Māori, and the sad outcomes for Māori.
Wright, Donald J
It has been observed that specialist physicians who work in private hospitals are usually paid by fee-for-service while specialist physicians who work in public hospitals are usually paid by salary. This paper provides an explanation for this observation. Essentially, fee-for-service aligns the interests of income preferring specialists with profit maximizing private hospitals and results in private hospitals treating a high proportion of short stay patients. On the other hand, salary aligns the interests of fairness preferring specialists with benevolent public hospitals that commit to admit all patients irrespective of their expected length of stay.
Ghirmai, Filmon Abraham; Berhe, Soliana Amanuel; Tesfay, Winta Sium; Weldegebriel, Yodit Teklemariam; Gebrehiwet, Zebib Tesfamariam
Background Exploring patient satisfaction contributes to provide quality maternity care, but there is paucity of epidemiologic data in Eritrea. Objectives To determine the predictors of women's satisfaction with intrapartum care in Asmara public maternity hospitals in Eritrea. Methods A cross-sectional study among 771 mothers who gave birth in three public Hospitals. Chi-square tests were done to analyze the difference in proportion and logistic regression to assess the predictors of satisfaction with intrapartum care. Results Overall, only 20.8% of the participants were satisfied with intrapartum service. The key predictors of satisfaction with intrapartum care were provision of clean bed and beddings (AOR = 18.87, 2.33–15.75), privacy during examinations (AOR = 10.22, 4.86–21.48), using understandable language (AOR = 8.72, 3.57–21.27), showing how to summon for help (AOR = 8.16, 4.30–15.48), showing baby immediately after birth (AOR = 8.14, 2.87–23.07), control of the delivery room (AOR = 6.86, 2.65–17.75), receiving back massage (AOR = 6.43, 3.23–12.81), toilet access and cleanliness (AOR = 6.09, 3.25–11.42), availability of chairs for relatives (AOR = 5.96, 3.14–11.30), allowing parents to stay during labour (AOR = 3.52, 1.299–9.56), and request for permission before any procedure (AOR = 2.39, 1.28–4.46). Conclusion To increase satisfaction with intrapartum care, maternity service providers need to address the general maternity ward cleanliness, improve the quality of physical facilities, and sensitize health providers for better communication with clients. Policy makers need to adopt strategies that ensure more women involvement in decision making and consideration of privacy and reassurance needs during the whole delivery process. PMID:29445401
Botvin, Judith D
Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Conn. finds some patients gravitate to Boston or New York City for high-tech procedures. Being the first Connecticut hospital with the daVinci Robotic Surgery System, it developed an advertising campaign emphasizing high-tech surgery with the human touch. Hartford also broadcast a robotic prostatectomy on its popular live webcast series.
Hsu, Edbert B; Casani, Julie A; Romanosky, Al; Millin, Michael G; Singleton, Christa M; Donohue, John; Feroli, E Robert; Rubin, Melvin; Subbarao, Italo; Whyne, Dianne M; Snodgrass, Thomas D; Kelen, Gabor D
In the event of a major chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE) attack or a natural disaster, large quantities of pharmaceuticals and medical supplies may be required with little or no warning. Pharmaceutical surge capacity for immediate response, before Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) supplies become available, remains a significant gap in emergency preparedness. To date, limited attempts have been made to assess collective regional hospital pharmaceutical response capabilities. In this project, we characterized the level of hospital pharmaceutical response preparedness in a major metropolitan region. The Johns Hopkins Office of Critical Event Preparedness and Response (CEPAR) convened a collaborative partnership to assess hospital pharmaceutical response capabilities. A survey was developed to characterize pharmaceutical response preparedness to CBRNE threats. All 22 acute care hospitals in the Maryland region were sent pharmaceutical response surveys, and responses were received from 86% (19/22). Within the past year, 84% (16/19) of hospitals had implemented an exercise with pharmacy participation. More than half of the hospitals expect to receive assistance from the SNS in 48 hours or less. Seventy-four percent (14/19) of the hospitals reported an additional dedicated reserve supply for biological events, 74% (14/19) for chemical events, and 58% (11/19) for radiological events. Many hospitals in this metropolitan region have taken important steps toward enhancing pharmaceutical preparedness. However, hospitals generally remain underprepared for CBRNE threats and collectively have limited supplies of antibiotics to provide prophylaxis or treatment for hospital staff, their families, and patients in the event of a significant biological incident.
Fedder, Jens; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Petersen, Lars J; Rasmussen, Claus; Lauszus, Finn F; Frost, Lars; Hornung, Nete; Lederballe, Ole; Andersen, Jens Peter
As we found no recent published reports on the amount and kind of research published from Danish hospitals without university affiliation, we have found it relevant to conduct a bibliometric survey disclosing these research activities. We retrieved all scientific papers published in the period 2000-2009 emanating from all seven Danish non-university hospitals in two regions, comprising 1.8 million inhabitants, and which were registered in a minimum of one of the three databases: PubMed MEDLINE, Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Elsevier's Scopus. In 878 of 1,252 papers, the first and/or last author was affiliated to a non-university hospital. Original papers made up 69% of these publications versus 86% of publications with university affiliation on first or last place. Case reports and reviews most frequently had authors from regional hospitals as first and/or last authors. The total number of publications from regional hospitals increased by 48% over the 10-year period. Publications were cited more often if the first or last author was from a university hospital and even more so if they were affiliated to foreign institutions. Cardiology, gynaecology and obstetrics, and environmental medicine were the three specialities with the largest number of regional hospital publications. A substantial number of scientific publications originate from non-university hospitals. Almost two thirds of the publications were original research published in international journals. Variations between specialities may reflect local conditions. not relevant. not relevant.
Boyle, Leah; Grainger, Rebecca; Hall, Rosemary M; Krebs, Jeremy D
People with diabetes mellitus (DM) are using mobile phone apps to support self-management. The numerous apps available to assist with diabetes management have a variety of functions. Some functions, like insulin dose calculators, have significant potential for harm. The study aimed to establish (1) whether people with DM in Wellington, New Zealand, use apps for DM self-management and evaluate desirable features of apps and (2) whether health professionals (HPs) in New Zealand treating people with DM recommend apps to patients, the features HPs regard as important, and their confidence with recommending apps. A survey of patients seen at a hospital diabetes clinic over 12 months (N=539) assessed current app use and desirable features. A second survey of HPs attending a diabetes conference (n=286) assessed their confidence with app recommendations and perceived usefulness. Of the 189 responders (35.0% response rate) to the patient survey, 19.6% (37/189) had used a diabetes app. App users were younger and in comparison to other forms of diabetes mellitus, users prominently had type 1 DM. The most favored feature of the app users was a glucose diary (87%, 32/37), and an insulin calculator was the most desirable function for a future app (46%, 17/37). In non-app users, the most desirable feature for a future app was a glucose diary (64.4%, 98/152). Of the 115 responders (40.2% response rate) to the HPs survey, 60.1% (68/113) had recommended a diabetes app. Diaries for blood glucose levels and carbohydrate counting were considered the most useful app features and the features HPs felt most confident to recommend. HPs were least confident in recommending insulin calculation apps. The use of apps to record blood glucose was the most favored function in apps used by people with diabetes, with interest in insulin dose calculating function. HPs do not feel confident in recommending insulin dose calculators. There is an urgent need for an app assessment process to give
Background The aim of this study were to describe acute care of ischemic stroke patients and adherence to performance measures, as well as the outcomes of these events, in a sample of patients treated in public hospitals in Chile. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients with ischemic stroke from a sample of seven public hospitals in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. We analyzed adherence to the following evidence-based measures: clinical evaluation at admission, use of intravenous thrombolysis, dysphagia screening and prescription of antithrombotic therapy at discharge. As outcome measures we analyzed post-stroke pneumonia and 30-day case-fatality. We used a logistic regression model by each outcome with generalized estimating equations, which accounted for clustering of patients within hospitals and included sex, age (years), clinical status at admission (reduced level of consciousness, speech disturbance, aphasia and hemiplegia), comorbidities, dysphagia screening and neurological evaluation at admission as measures of acute stroke care. Results We reviewed the charts of 677 patients, of which 52.3% were men. The mean age was 69.8 years in women and 66.3 years in men. Diagnosis of stroke was confirmed by a computed tomography scan within 4.5 hours of symptom onset in only 9.6% of the patients. Intravenous thrombolysis was administered in 1.7%. Dysphagia screening was performed in 12.1% (95% CI 9.7-15.0) and antithrombotic therapy was prescribed in 68.9% (95% CI 64.6-72.9). Pneumonia was diagnosed in 23.6% (95% CI 20.4-27.2). Thirty-day fatality was 8.7% (95% CI 6.7-11.3). The variables independently associated with 30-day case fatality were age (OR 1.08, 95% 1.06-1.10), pneumonia (OR 7.7, 95% 95% CI 4.0-14.7), aphasia (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.6), reduced level of consciousness (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4), and speech disturbance (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9). No association was found between 30-day case fatality and dysphagia screening or
Canaway, Rachel; Bismark, Marie; Dunt, David; Prang, Khic-Houy; Kelaher, Margaret
Public reporting of hospital performance data is a developing area that is gaining increased attention. This is the first study to explore a range of stakeholder opinions on how such public reporting could be strengthened in Australia. Thirty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of expert healthcare consumer, provider and purchaser informants who worked in a variety of senior roles and had knowledge of or involvement in public reporting of hospital data within the public or private healthcare sectors. Informants from all Australian states, territory and national jurisdictions participated. Thematic analysis was used to gain an overview of experts' opinions to inform policy and systems-development for strengthening foundational frameworks for public reporting of health services performance. Themes arising were synthesised to generate explanatory figures to highlight key areas for strengthening public reporting. Our findings suggest that in Australia there is a lack of agreement on what the objectives and who the audience are for public reporting of hospital performance data. Without this shared understanding it is difficult to strengthen frameworks and impacts of public reporting. When developing frameworks for public reporting of hospital data in Australia, more explicit definition of what or who are the 'public' is needed along with identification of barriers, desired impacts, data needs, and data collection/reporting/feedback mechanisms. All relevant stakeholders should be involved in design of public reporting frameworks. Offering multiple systems of public reporting, each tailored to particular audiences, might enable greater impact of reporting towards improved hospital quality and safety, and consumer knowledge to inform treatment decisions. This study provides an overview of perspectives, but further research is warranted to develop PR frameworks that can generate greatest impacts for the needs of various audiences
Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Geraghty, Ruth
The aim was to examine, critically, 19th century hospital sanitary reform with reference to theories about infection and contagion. In the nineteenth century, measures to control epidemic diseases focused on providing clean water, removing waste and isolating infected cases. These measures were informed by the ideas of sanitary reformers like Chadwick and Nightingale, and hospitals were an important element of sanitary reform. Informed by the paradigmatic tradition of social history, the study design was a historical analysis of public health policy. Using the methods of historical research, documentary primary sources, including official reports and selected hospital archives and related secondary sources, were consulted. Emerging theories about infection were informing official bodies like the Board of Superintendence of Dublin Hospitals in their efforts to improve hospital sanitation. The Board secured important reforms in hospital sanitation, including the provision of technically efficient sanitary infrastructure. Public health measures to control epidemic infections are only as effective as the state of knowledge of infection and contagion and the infrastructure to support sanitary measures. Today, public mistrust about the safety of hospitals is reminiscent of that of 150 years ago, although the reasons are different and relate to a fear of contracting antimicrobial-resistant infections. A powerful historical lesson from this study is that resistance to new ideas can delay progress and improved sanitary standards can allay public mistrust. In reforming hospital sanitation, policies and regulations were established--including an inspection body to monitor and enforce standards--the benefits of which provide lessons that resonate today. Such practices, especially effective independent inspection, could be adapted for present-day contexts and re-instigated where they do not exist. History has much to offer contemporary policy development and practice reform and
Wang, Man-Li; Fang, Hai-Qing; Tao, Hong-Bing; Cheng, Zhao-Hui; Lin, Xiao-Jun; Cai, Miao; Xu, Chang; Jiang, Shuai
China implemented the public hospital reform in 2012. This study utilized bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the 2012 public hospital reform. Data from 127 county public hospitals (39, 45, and 43 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, respectively) were collected during 2012-2015. Changes of TE and productivity over time were estimated by bootstrapping DEA and bootstrapping Malmquist. The disparities in TE and productivity among public hospitals in the three regions of China were compared by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test. The average bias-corrected TE values for the four-year period were 0.6442, 0.5785, 0.6099, and 0.6094 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, and the entire country respectively, with average non-technical efficiency, low pure technical efficiency (PTE), and high scale efficiency found. Productivity increased by 8.12%, 0.25%, 12.11%, and 11.58% in China and its three regions during 2012-2015, and such increase in productivity resulted from progressive technological changes by 16.42%, 6.32%, 21.08%, and 21.42%, respectively. The TE and PTE of the county hospitals significantly differed among the three regions of China. Eastern and Western China showed significantly higher TE and PTE than Central China. More than 60% of county public hospitals in China and its three areas operated at decreasing return scales. There was a considerable space for TE improvement in county hospitals in China and its three regions. During 2012-2015, the hospitals experienced progressive productivity; however, the PTE changed adversely. Moreover, Central China continuously achieved a significantly lower efficiency score than Eastern and Western China. Decision makers and administrators in China should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase the efficiency of county
Nogueira-Martins, Maria Cezira Fantini; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Siqueira, Siomara Roberta
To analyze the profile of volunteers and their work process in hospital humanization. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview, applied to 26 volunteer coordinators and 26 volunteers, who belong to 25 hospitals in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Interviews were analyzed according to thematic analysis principles. Five main themes were identified: volunteer profile (age, sex, level of income); volunteer work organization (volunteer agreement, training); volunteer-hospital relationship (relationship with hospital management and employees); motivation (solidarity, previous experience with family members' or one's own diseases, personal satisfaction, conflict resolution) and benefits (individual, dual, collective); and humanization and volunteer activities (patient care, logistic support, emotional support, development of patients' abilities, leisure, organization of commemorative events). In the activity developed by volunteers, there are positive aspects (such as the contribution to hospital humanization) and negative aspects (such as volunteers performing activities assigned to employees). Attention should be paid to the regulation of volunteer activities, especially patient care, and actions that value volunteer work in hospitals and volunteer integration into humanization work groups.
Lewis, M A; La Forgia, G M; Sulvetta, M B
Effective analysis of hospital performance requires the existence of accurate cost and output data. However, these are missing ingredients in most developing countries due to lack of information systems or other sources of data. Typically, expenditures are substituted for actual costs in analyzing hospital finance. This paper presents a methodology and analysis of the actual costs of inpatient, emergency, and outpatient services in a Dominican hospital. Through applying a set of survey instruments to a large sample of patients, the study measures and costs all hospital staff time, in-kind goods (drugs, medical supplies, reagents, etc.), overhead, and the depreciated value of plant and equipment related to the treatment of each patient. The results are striking. The budget is over 50% higher than the actual costs of services, reflecting the high cost of waste, down time, and low productivity. For example, high fixed costs translate into immunizations that on the average cost over 20% more than outpatient surgical interventions. The most disturbing finding is that although physicians represent the bulk of personnel spending, the surveys could account for only 12% of the contracted time of staff physicians, including time dedicated to treatment, supervision, administration, and teaching. As a proportion of the hospital total budget, personnel spending represents a high 84%. Yet staff costs for patient treatment never exceed 12%. These results suggest gross inefficiency, chaotic medical care organization, and poor hospital management.
Dobson, Allen; DaVanzo, Joan E; El-Gamil, Audrey M; Berger, Gregory
Two key health reform bills in the House of Representatives and Senate include the option of a "public plan" as an additional source of health coverage. At least initially, the plan would primarily be structured to cover many of the uninsured and those who now have individual coverage. Because it is possible, and perhaps even likely, that this new public payer would pay less than private payers for the same services, such a plan could negatively affect hospital margins. Hospitals may attempt to recoup losses by shifting costs to private payers. We outline the financial pressures that hospitals and private payers could experience under various assumptions. High uninsured enrollment in a public plan would bolster hospital margins; however, this effect is reversed if the privately insured enter a public plan in large proportions, potentially stressing the hospital industry and increasing private insurance premiums.
Background Empirical evidence on how ownership type affects the quality and cost of medical care is growing, and debate on these topics is ongoing. Despite the fact that the private sector is a major provider of hospital services in Greece, little comparative information on private versus public sector hospitals is available. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare the operation and performance of private for-profit (PFP) and public hospitals in Greece, focusing on differences in nurse staffing rates, average lengths of stay (ALoS), and Social Health Insurance (SHI) payments for hospital care per patient discharged. Methods Five different datasets were prepared and analyzed, two of which were derived from information provided by the National Statistical Service (NSS) of Greece and the other three from data held by the three largest SHI schemes in the country. All data referred to the 3-year period from 2001 to 2003. Results PFP hospitals in Greece are smaller than public hospitals, with lower patient occupancy, and have lower staffing rates of all types of nurses and highly qualified nurses compared with public hospitals. Calculation of ALoS using NSS data yielded mixed results, whereas calculations of ALoS and SHI payments using SHI data gave results clearly favoring the public hospital sector in terms of cost-efficiency; in all years examined, over all specialties and all SHI schemes included in our study, unweighted ALoS and SHI payments for hospital care per discharge were higher for PFP facilities. Conclusions In a mixed healthcare system, such as that in Greece, significant performance differences were observed between PFP and public hospitals. Close monitoring of healthcare provision by hospital ownership type will be essential to permit evidence-based decisions on the future of the public/private mix in terms of healthcare provision. PMID:21943020
Kondilis, Elias; Gavana, Magda; Giannakopoulos, Stathis; Smyrnakis, Emmanouil; Dombros, Nikolaos; Benos, Alexis
Empirical evidence on how ownership type affects the quality and cost of medical care is growing, and debate on these topics is ongoing. Despite the fact that the private sector is a major provider of hospital services in Greece, little comparative information on private versus public sector hospitals is available. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare the operation and performance of private for-profit (PFP) and public hospitals in Greece, focusing on differences in nurse staffing rates, average lengths of stay (ALoS), and Social Health Insurance (SHI) payments for hospital care per patient discharged. Five different datasets were prepared and analyzed, two of which were derived from information provided by the National Statistical Service (NSS) of Greece and the other three from data held by the three largest SHI schemes in the country. All data referred to the 3-year period from 2001 to 2003. PFP hospitals in Greece are smaller than public hospitals, with lower patient occupancy, and have lower staffing rates of all types of nurses and highly qualified nurses compared with public hospitals. Calculation of ALoS using NSS data yielded mixed results, whereas calculations of ALoS and SHI payments using SHI data gave results clearly favoring the public hospital sector in terms of cost-efficiency; in all years examined, over all specialties and all SHI schemes included in our study, unweighted ALoS and SHI payments for hospital care per discharge were higher for PFP facilities. In a mixed healthcare system, such as that in Greece, significant performance differences were observed between PFP and public hospitals. Close monitoring of healthcare provision by hospital ownership type will be essential to permit evidence-based decisions on the future of the public/private mix in terms of healthcare provision.
Cotta, M O; Chen, C; Tacey, M; James, R S; Buising, K L; Marshall, C; Thursky, K A
Identifying themes associated with inappropriate prescribing in Australian public and private hospitals will help target future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. To describe current antimicrobial prescribing practices, identify similarities and differences between hospital sectors and provide target areas for improvement specific to each hospital sector. All hospitals included in the study were part of the 2014 national antimicrobial prescribing survey and conducted one of the following: a whole hospital point prevalence survey, serial point prevalence surveys or a sample of randomly selected patients. Data on the types of antibiotics used, their indications for use and the quality of prescription based on compliance with national and local prescribing guidelines were collected. Two hundred and two hospitals (166 public and 36 private) comprising 10 882 patients and 15 967 antimicrobial prescriptions were included. Public hospitals had higher proportions of prescriptions for treatment (81.5% vs 48.4%) and medical prophylaxis (8.8% and 4.6%), whilst private hospitals had significantly higher surgical prophylaxis use (9.6% vs 46.9%) (P < 0.001). In public hospitals, the main reasons for non-compliance of treatment prescriptions were spectrum being too broad (30.5%) while in private it was incorrect dosing. Prolonged duration was the main reason for non-compliance among surgical prophylaxis prescriptions in both types of hospitals. Australian hospitals need to target specific areas to improve antimicrobial use. Specifically, unnecessary broad-spectrum therapy should be a priority area in public hospitals, whilst emphasis on curtailing antimicrobial overuse in surgical prophylaxis needs to be urgently addressed across in the private hospital sector. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Pérotin, Virginie; Zamora, Bernarda; Reeves, Rachel; Bartlett, Will; Allen, Pauline
Using patient experience survey data, the paper investigates whether hospital ownership affects the level of quality reported by patients whose care is funded by the National Health Service in areas other than clinical quality. We estimate a switching regression model that accounts for (i) some observable characteristics of the patient and the hospital episode; (ii) selection into private hospitals; and (iii) unmeasured hospital characteristics captured by hospital fixed effects. We find that the experience reported by patients in public and private hospitals is different, i.e. most dimensions of quality are delivered differently by the two types of hospitals, with each sector offering greater quality in certain specialties or to certain groups of patients. However, the sum of all ownership effects is not statistically different from zero at sample means. In other words, hospital ownership in and of itself does not affect the level of quality of the average patient's reported experience. Differences in mean reported quality levels between the private and public sectors are entirely attributable to patient characteristics, the selection of patients into public or private hospitals and unobserved characteristics specific to individual hospitals, rather than to hospital ownership. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Das, Manidipa; Stewart, Rebecca; Ardagh, Michael; Deely, Joanne M; Dodd, Stuart; Bartholomew, Nadia V; Pearson, Scott; Spearing, Ruth; Williams, Tracey; Than, Martin
To perform a descriptive study of the drinking behaviour (amounts, types, sources of alcohol consumed) preceding alcohol-affected presentations to Christchurch Hospital Emergency Department (ED). Over 336 hours in the ED, patients with recent alcohol consumption or alcohol-related attendances were identified, classified as alcohol-affected or alcohol- unaffected, and invited to consent to answering questions on types, amounts and sources of alcohol consumed in the drinking session preceding or implicated in their ED attendance. Demographic information and level of intoxication were also recorded. Data were summarised descriptively. Alcohol-affected patients were more frequently young (16-25 years) and male. Median alcohol consumption was 14 (range 1 to 71) standard drinks. Beer was the most popular beverage (34%), but spirits (23%), ready-to-drink mixes (21%) and wine (20%) were also popular. Liquor stores (45%) were the most popular source of alcohol, followed by on-licence premises (25%), and supermarkets (21%). The popularity of different types of beverages and their source varied according to patient age and gender. Consumption of large amounts, as well as allegedly 'safe' amounts, of a range of alcoholic beverages, most commonly from an off-licence source, contributed to alcohol-affected presentations to the ED. Beverage and source popularity varied by age and gender.
Ellis, C; Hammett, C; Ranasinghe, I; French, J; Briffa, T; Devlin, G; Elliott, J; Lefkovitz, J; Aliprandi-Costa, B; Astley, C; Redfern, J; Howell, T; Carr, B; Lintern, K; Bloomer, S; Farshid, A; Matsis, P; Hamer, A; Williams, M; Troughton, R; Horsfall, M; Hyun, K; Gamble, G; White, H; Brieger, D; Chew, D
We aimed to assess differences in patient management, and outcomes, of Australian and New Zealand patients admitted with a suspected or confirmed acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We used comprehensive data from the binational Australia and New Zealand ACS 'SNAPSHOT' audit, acquired on individual patients admitted between 00.00 h on 14 May 2012 to 24.00 h on 27 May 2012. There were 4387 patient admissions, 3381 (77%) in Australia and 1006 (23%) in New Zealand; Australian patients were slightly younger (67 vs 69 years, P = 0.0044). Of the 2356 patients with confirmed ACS, Australian patients were at a lower cardiovascular risk with a lower median Global Registry Acute Coronary Events score (147 vs 154 P = 0.0008), but as likely to receive an invasive coronary angiogram (58% vs 54%, P = 0.082), or revascularisation with percutaneous coronary intervention (32% vs 31%, P = 0.92) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (7.0% vs 5.6%, P = 0.32). Of the 1937 non-segment elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina pectoris (NSTEMI/UAP) patients, Australian patients had a shorter time to angiography (46 h vs 67 h, P < 0.0001). However, at discharge, Australian NSTEMI/UAP survivors were less likely to receive aspirin (84% vs 89%, P = 0.0079, a second anti-platelet agent (57% vs 63%, P = 0.050) or a beta blocker (67% vs 77%, P = 0.0002). In-hospital death rates were not different (2.7% vs 3.2%, P = 0.55) between Australia and New Zealand. Overall more similarities were seen, than differences, in the management of suspected or confirmed ACS patients between Australia and New Zealand. However, in several management areas, both countries could improve the service delivery to this high-risk patient group. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Aboutorabi, Ali; Ghiasipour, Maryam; Rezapour, Aziz; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Tanoomand, Asghar
Informal payments in the health sector of many developing countries are considered as a major impediment to health care reforms. Informal payments are a form of systemic fraud and have adverse effects on the performance of the health system. In this study, the frequency and extent of informal payments as well as the determinants of these payments were investigated in general hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, 300 discharged patients were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. First, three hospitals were selected randomly; then, through a simple random sampling, we recruited 300 discharged patients from internal, surgery, emergency, ICU & CCU wards. All data were collected by structured telephone interviews and questionnaire. We analyzed data using Chi- square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The results indicated that 21% (n=63) of individuals paid informally to the staff. About 4% (n=12) of the participants were faced with informal payment requests from hospital staff. There was a significant relationship between frequency of informal payments with marital status of participants and type of hospitals. According to our findings, none of the respondents had informal payments to physicians. The most frequent informal payments were in cash and were made to the hospitals' housekeeping staff to ensure more and better services. There was no significant relationship between the informal payments with socio-demographic characteristics, residential area and insurance status. Our findings revealed that many strategies can be used for both controlling and reducing informal payments. These include training patients and hospitals' staff, increasing income levels of employees, improving the quantity and quality of health services and changing the entrenched beliefs that necessitate informal payments.
Arrieta, Alejandro; Guillén, Jorge
Peru is moving toward a universal health insurance system, and it is facing important challenges in the provision of public health services. As more citizens gain access to health insurance, the flow of patients exceeds the capacity of public hospitals to provide care with quality. In this study we explore the relationship between technical efficiency and patient safety events in neonatal care units of Peru's public hospitals. We use Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) with output congestion to assess the association between technical efficiency and patient safety events. We study 35 neonatal care units of public hospitals in Peru's Social Security Health System, and identify two undesirable (risk-adjusted) safety outcomes: neonatal mortality and near-miss neonatal mortality. We found that for about half of hospital's neonatal care units, technical efficiency is affected by output congestion. For those hospitals, patient safety is being compromised by receiving too many patients. Our results are consistent with public reports indicating that hospitals in the Peru's Social Security Health System are overcrowded, affecting efficiency and jeopardizing quality of care. We found that most congested hospitals are located in the capital city and suburban areas, and are more likely to be hospitals with the lowest and the highest level of care. Our results call for improvements in the patient referral system and capacity expansion.
Pavel, Md Sadik; Chakrabarty, Sayan; Gow, Jeff
A central aim of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is protection for all against the cost of illness. In a low income country like Bangladesh the cost burden of health care in tertiary facilities is likely to be significant for most citizens. This cost of an episode of illness is a relatively unexplored policy issue in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to estimate an outpatient's total cost of illness as result of treatment in private and public hospitals in Sylhet, Bangladesh. The study used face to face interviews at three hospitals (one public and two private) to elicit cost data from presenting outpatients. Other socio-economic and demographic data was also collected. A sample of 252 outpatients were randomly selected and interviewed. The total cost of outpatients comprises direct medical costs, non-medical costs and the indirect costs of patients and caregivers. Indirect costs comprise travel and waiting times and income losses associated with treatment. The costs of illness are significant for many of Bangladesh citizens. The direct costs are relatively minor compared to the large indirect cost burden that illness places on households. These indirect costs are mainly the result of time off work and foregone wages. Private hospital patients have higher average direct costs than public hospital patients. However, average indirect costs are higher for public hospital patients than private hospital patients by a factor of almost two. Total costs of outpatients are higher in public hospitals compared to private hospitals regardless of patient's income, gender, age or illness. Overall, public hospital patients, who tend to be the poorest, bear a larger economic burden of illness and treatment than relatively wealthier private hospital patients. The large economic impacts of illness need a public policy response which at a minimum should include a national health insurance scheme as a matter of urgency.
Rattanachotphanit, Thananan; Limwattananon, Chulaporn; Limwattananon, Supon; Johns, Jeff R; Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of hospital pharmacy services and to determine the environmental factors affecting pharmacy service efficiency. The technical efficiency of a hospital pharmacy was assessed to evaluate the hospital's ability to use pharmacy manpower in order to produce the maximum output of the pharmacy service. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used as an efficiency measurement. The two labor inputs were pharmacists and support personnel and the ten outputs were from four pharmacy activities: drug dispensing, drug purchasing and inventory control, patient-oriented activities, and health consumer protection services. This was used to estimate technical efficiency. A Tobit regression model was used to determine the effect of the hospital size, location, input mix of pharmacy staff, working experience of pharmacists at the study hospitals, and use of technology on the pharmacy service efficiency. Data for pharmacy service input and output quantities were obtained from 155 respondents. Nineteen percent were found to have full efficiency with a technical efficiency score of 1.00. Thirty-six percent had a technical efficiency score of 0.80 or above and 27% had a low technical efficiency score (< 0.60). The average TE score increased in respect to the hospital size (0.60, 0.71, 0.75, and 0.83 in 10, 30, 60, and 90-120 bed hospitals, respectively). Hospital size and geographic location were significantly associated with pharmacy service efficiency.
Herrero Tabanera, Luis; Martín Martín, José Jesús; López del Amo González, Ma del Puerto
To assess the technical efficiency of traditional public hospitals without their own legal identity and subject to administrative law, and that of public enterprise hospitals, with their own legal identities and partly governed by private law, all of them belonging to the taxypayer-funded health system of Andalusia during the period 2005 -2008. The study included the 32 publicly-owned hospitals in Andalusia during the period 2005-2008. The method consisted of two stages. In the first stage, the indices of technical efficiency of the hospitals were calculated using Data Envelopment Analysis, and the change in total factor productivity was estimated using the Malmquist index. The results were compared according to perceived quality, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted through an auxiliary model and bootstrapping. In the second stage, a bivariate analysis was performed between hospital efficiency and organization type. Public enterprises were more efficient than traditional hospitals (on average by over 10%) in each of the study years. Nevertheless, a process of convergence was observed between the two types of organizations because, while the efficiency of traditional hospitals increased slightly (by 0.50%) over the study period, the performance of public enterprises declined by over 2%. The possible reasons for the greater efficiency of public enterprises include their greater budgetary and employment flexibility. However, the convergence process observed points to a process of mutual learning that is not necessarily efficient. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Bazzoli, Gloria J; Harless, David W; Clement, Jan P
There are many studies examining the effects of financial pressure from different payment sources on hospital quality of care, but most have assumed that quality of care is a public good in that payment changes from one payer will affect all hospital patients rather than just those directly associated with the payer. Although quality of hospital care can be either a public or private good, few studies have tested which of these scenarios are more likely to hold. To examine whether the change in the magnitude of in-hospital mortality for Medicare and managed care patients is different based on financial pressure resulting from the Balanced Budget Act and growing managed care market penetration; and to examine what role hospital competition may play in affecting these changes. The unit of analysis for the study was the hospital. Multiple data sources were used including the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality State Inpatient Databases, American Hospital Association Annual Surveys, Area Resource File, and health maintenance organization data from InterStudy. A difference-in-difference-in-difference model was applied for a 2-period panel design. In general, Balanced Budget Act financial pressure and managed care market share did not magnify the difference in in-hospital mortality rates between Medicare and managed care patients. The results suggest that quality of cardiac care in the hospital setting is more likely to be a public good; however, more investigation using other quality indicators and the role of hospital competition under different payment systems is recommended.
Vallet, Guy; Perrin, Anne; Keller, Christiane; Fieschi, Marius
For the past eight years, the Ministry of Health has released information about the services and quality of care in public hospitals, in response to the increasing concern about hospital performance expressed by patient associations. The press publishes hospital ratings based on this information. This survey asked hospital administrators about their views of communication on this topic. This survey, conducted from 7 October through 20 November 2004, sent a two-page open questionnaire to a variety of hospital executive personnel - medical directors, chief administrators, medical school deans, and public information officers - to determine their views on this subject. The response rate was 34%. Without contesting either the legitimacy of the expectation for information or the transparency owed to patients, health professionals expressed the need to know in advance the "rules of the game" and the methodology of the rating techniques to be used. Most reported few changes in their professional behavior due to these publications, the methodology and criteria of which they contested. They suggested changes including different criteria and indicators for the rating, the ability to contest the conclusions drawn from the PMSI data, and the need for preliminary work to define criteria by working groups composed of physicians, other professionals, and even those outside the health field. On the other hand, only half were willing to participate in such a working group. These hospital managers see a need for specialists in the analysis of hospital data, who can clarify the meaning of the statistics and improve the public's understanding of them, now shaped by the mass media's failure to provide meaningful analysis.
Ramli, N. A.; Zawawi, E. M.; Arif, N. R. M.; Mahbob, N. S.; Sulaiman, Z.; Zainol, N. N.
Cleaning being a major contributor to the operations and maintenance expenditure and also Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) issues. Improper and ineffective cleaning can harm the environment and poses greatest risk to health. The use of traditional cleaning products presents a variety of human health and ecological concerns; and may contribute to poor IEQ. As an effort to reduce the issue of operations and maintenance costs and IEQ issues in a building, it is important to establish a green cleaning programme to ensure that the buildings are cleaned in a green way. Numbers of scholars has pointed out the factors which had prevented the green cleaning implementation in hospital buildings. Nonetheless, the significance of these factors has yet to be practically explored in the Malaysian context. Hence, the aim of the paper is to identify the most critical factor that prevents the implementation of green cleaning in Malaysian hospital building. A questionnaire survey and personal communication (i.e. interview) was conducted which involved two groups of respondents. They are the hospital maintenance staff (Cleansing Service Department) and cleaning contractors. Frequency and criticality index calculations have been used to rank these factors according to the level of importance. The result showed that an “unclear components and requirements of green cleaning” indicated as the most critical factor that prevent the implementation of green cleaning in Malaysian hospital building. In the concern for a successful implementation of green cleaning, it is hope that the findings of these studies can be enlightenment to the cleaning contractors as well as the hospital maintenance management team in Malaysia.
Galián Muñoz, Inmaculada; Llor Esteban, Bartolomé; Ruiz Hernández, José Antonio
The workplace violence has special relevance for the health care workers. Nursing staff is one of the professions most affected by this risk. Our objective is to determine the prevalence during the past year of diverse hostile manifestations by users towards professional hospital nursing staff who depend on the "Servicio Murciano de Salud" [Health Service of Murcia] (SMS), as well as to detect the sociodemographic and occupational workers characteristics associated with higher exposure. A cross-sectional study carried out during the year 2010 of a random sample of nursing personnel from all the hospitals of SMS, through a self-administered and anonymous survey (Ecoh-U scale). The sample was stratified by hospitals and services (30% of the workers) and finally we got a sample of 1.489 workers (confidence level 99%; sampling error 1,75%). We compared the punctuation average obtained in the scale according to variables sociodemographics and laborables. We used the test t of student in variables dichotomous and ANOVA and Tukey in variables multi-response. The 21,8% of the surveyed people reported that they suffered from "anger due to assistential delay" at least once a month. The workers who obtained punctuations significantly larger were psychiatric hospital workers (19,7), emergency workers (20,60), temporary (16,38) and with old 6-10 years in the profession (17,20). Although nursing staff is one of the professions most exposed to violence, the risk distribution is not homogeneous. Significant differences were found according to marital status, age, hospital, service, profession, contract type, shift and seniority in the profession.
Hwabamungu, Boroto; Brown, Irwin; Williams, Quentin
Recent literature on organisational strategy has called for greater emphasis on individuals (stakeholders) and what they do in the process of strategizing. Public sector organisations have to engage with an array of heterogeneous stakeholders in fulfilling their mandate. The public health sector in particular needs to engage with a diversity of stakeholders at local, regional and national levels when strategising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of stakeholder relations on the implementation of Information Systems (IS) strategy in public hospitals in South Africa. An interpretive approach using two provinces was employed. The Activity Analysis and Development (ActAD) framework, an enhanced form of activity theory, was used as the theoretical framework. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, meetings, documents analysis, physical artefacts and observation. The collected data was analysed using thematic analysis. Findings reveal that IS strategy implementation in public hospitals involves a large and complex network of stakeholder groups at different levels, and over different time periods. These stakeholder groups act in accordance with formal and informal roles, rules and modalities. Various contextual conditions together with the actions of, and interactions between stakeholder groups give rise to the situationality of stakeholder relations dynamics and strategy implementation. The multiple actions and interactions over time lead to the realisation of some aspects of the IS strategy in public hospitals. Given the complexity and dynamism of the context there are also certain unplanned implementations as well. These relationships are captured in a Stakeholder Relations Influence (SRI) framework. The SRI framework can be assistive in the assessment and mapping of stakeholders and stakeholder relations, and the assessment of the implications of these relations for effective IS strategy implementation in public hospitals. The
Ballbè, Montse; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve; Cabezas, Carmen; Riccobene, Anna; Valverde, Araceli; Gual, Antoni; Fernández, Esteve
The provision of smoking cessation interventions in hospitals has been strongly recommended. The aim of this study is to determine the maintenance of smoking cessation programmes for inpatients and hospital workers in hospitals of Catalonia (Spain) seven years after the implementation of a Tobacco Cessation Programme. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all hospitals that offer public service in Catalonia, Spain (n=73). An online questionnaire was sent to all coordinators of the smoke-free hospital project or managers of each hospital. The survey included questions about the type of hospital, type of programmes implemented and availability and source of smoking cessation drugs. Responses to the questionnaire were submitted by 58 hospitals (79.5%). 74% and 93.1% of the hospitals had smoking cessation programmes for inpatients and workers, respectively. Most of the hospitals maintained the programmes and started routinely buying smoking cessation drugs after a period of receiving them free-of-charge. However, 17.2% of the hospitals refused to buy these drugs and 24% never had these drugs available. Through a supportive Tobacco Cessation Programme, most hospitals have smoking cessation programmes for both patients and workers. Most of them have incorporated smoking cessation drugs as a regular resource in their services' portfolio. The lack of these resources may jeopardise the maintenance of well-established programmes in hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McNair, Peter; Duckett, Stephen
On 1 July 1993 Victoria became the first Australian state to use casemix information to set budgets for its public hospitals commencing with casemix funding for inpatient services. Victoria's casemix funding approach now embraces inpatient, outpatient and rehabilitation services.
... Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the Department of... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.50 Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the...
... Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the Department of... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.50 Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the...
... Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the Department of... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.50 Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the...
This paper contributes to research in health systems and hospitals governance by examining the reasons and expected outcomes of the generalization of corporate governance rules in both public and private non-profit hospitals, all over the world, in order to achieve its clinical, quality and financial objectives.
Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran
Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…
Collins, C; Green, A
An important feature of health care systems in recent years is the change in the organizational position and relations of public sector hospitals. Health sector reforms have led to increasing heterogeneity in the organizational location and status of public sector hospitals and new organizational forms of public-private relations are being developed by and for hospitals. These changes can have important implications for health and health care. They raise issues around equity, control, accountability and performance of health care. Yet the policy process in practice may be failing to develop and implement appropriate forms of policy formulation on health sector reform. This paper focuses on the organizational position and relations of hospitals within public sector health services. It firstly outlines key elements of health sector reform and relates these to two dimensions of organizational change for hospitals: increasing heterogeneity and forms of public-private relations. The paper provides a descriptive format for classifying forms of hospital organizational change and proposes a framework of six questions for analysing these organizational forms. This may be used to assess the appropriateness of specific policies to particular country situations and to develop more open debate around hospital organizational forms.
Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J
To investigate whether tax-exempt hospitals' investments in community health are associated with patterns of governmental public health spending focusing specifically on the relationship between hospitals' community benefit expenditures and the spending patterns of local health departments (LHDs). We combined data on tax-exempt hospitals' community benefit spending with data on spending by the corresponding LHD that served the county in which a hospital was located. Data were available for 2 years, 2009 and 2013. Generalized linear regressions were estimated with indicators of hospital community benefit spending as the dependent variable and LHD spending as the key independent variable. Hospital community benefit spending was unrelated to how much local public health agencies spent, per capita, on public health in their communities. Patterns of local public health spending do not appear to impact the investments of tax-exempt hospitals in community health activities. Opportunities may, however, exist for a more active engagement between the public and private sector to ensure that the expenditures of all stakeholders involved in community health improvement efforts complement one another. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Pettersen, Inger Johanne; Solstad, Elsa
The hospital sector in Norway has been continuously reorganized since 2002 and the reforms have created organizations that are functionally/vertically controlled, whereas the production lines are coordinated on a process or a lateral basis. The purpose of this paper is to focus on both the perceived functional vertical control and horizontal controls within and between the local hospitals and the regional administrative levels. A national survey study, complemented with interviews of some key informants and document studies. The study shows that the functional and vertical lines of management control are perceived to be operating according to the traditional views of management control. The study indicates that the horizontal tasks are not very well implemented, and we did not find interactive and lateral uses of management control systems for managerial purposes. New control problems arise when services are to be coordinated between autonomous units. The paper focuses on the control problems found within the horizontal, flat relationship between production units in hospitals; new organizational structures have emerged where lateral relations are important, but traditional control practices follow functional, vertical lines.
Ramos, Marcelo Cristiano de Azevedo; da Cruz, Lucila Pedroso; Kishima, Vanessa Chaer; Pollara, Wilson Modesto; de Lira, Antônio Carlos Onofre; Couttolenc, Bernard François
OBJECTIVE To analyze if size, administrative level, legal status, type of unit and educational activity influence the hospital network performance in providing services to the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated data from the Hospital Information System and the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde (National Registry of Health Facilities), 2012, in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. We calculated performance indicators, such as: the ratio of hospital employees per bed; mean amount paid for admission; bed occupancy rate; average length of stay; bed turnover index and hospital mortality rate. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS The hospital occupancy rate in small hospitals was lower than in medium, big and special-sized hospitals. Higher hospital occupancy rate and bed turnover index were observed in hospitals that include education in their activities. The hospital mortality rate was lower in specialized hospitals compared to general ones, despite their higher proportion of highly complex admissions. We found no differences between hospitals in the direct and indirect administration for most of the indicators analyzed. CONCLUSIONS The study indicated the importance of the scale effect on efficiency, and larger hospitals had a higher performance. Hospitals that include education in their activities had a higher operating performance, albeit with associated importance of using human resources and highly complex structures. Specialized hospitals had a significantly lower rate of mortality than general hospitals, indicating the positive effect of the volume of procedures and technology used on clinical outcomes. The analysis related to the administrative level and legal status did not show any significant performance differences between the categories of public hospitals.
Ramos, Marcelo Cristiano de Azevedo; da Cruz, Lucila Pedroso; Kishima, Vanessa Chaer; Pollara, Wilson Modesto; de Lira, Antônio Carlos Onofre; Couttolenc, Bernard François
OBJECTIVE To analyze if size, administrative level, legal status, type of unit and educational activity influence the hospital network performance in providing services to the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated data from the Hospital Information System and the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimento s de Saúde (National Registry of Health Facilities), 2012, in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. We calculated performance indicators, such as: the ratio of hospital employees per bed; mean amount paid for admission; bed occupancy rate; average length of stay; bed turnover index and hospital mortality rate. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS The hospital occupancy rate in small hospitals was lower than in medium, big and special-sized hospitals. Higher hospital occupancy rate and bed turnover index were observed in hospitals that include education in their activities. The hospital mortality rate was lower in specialized hospitals compared to general ones, despite their higher proportion of highly complex admissions. We found no differences between hospitals in the direct and indirect administration for most of the indicators analyzed. CONCLUSIONS The study indicated the importance of the scale effect on efficiency, and larger hospitals had a higher performance. Hospitals that include education in their activities had a higher operating performance, albeit with associated importance of using human resources and highly complex structures. Specialized hospitals had a significantly lower rate of mortality than general hospitals, indicating the positive effect of the volume of procedures and technology used on clinical outcomes. The analysis related to the administrative level and legal status did not show any significant performance differences between the categories of public hospitals. PMID:26247385
Shi, Guang; O'Rourke, Michael; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhong, Dongbo; Liu, Xiuying; Li, Jing
Public hospital reform in China since the mid 1980s has had detrimental effects on hospitals' social functions, especially the provision of care for poor people. This study of hospitals in Northern China, using a range of economic measurements, indicated that there has been an overall decline in social functions since 1985, especially in secondary and tertiary level hospitals. Reason for this include the increasingly competitive medical market in China and, under the decentralisation reforms, the imperative for hospitals to generate revenue. We put forward policies to strengthen hospital social functions, including funding for essential packages of services to specifically benefit the poor and vulnerable, and increased government subsidies to support social functions in primary level hospitals where care can be more easily accessed.
Fu, Hongqiao; Li, Ling; Li, Mingqiang; Yang, Chunyu; Hsiao, William
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been searching for effective strategies to reform their inefficient and wasteful public hospitals. Recently, China developed a model of systemic reforms called the Sanming model to address the inefficiency and waste at public hospitals. In this article, we explain and evaluate how the Sanming model reformed its 22 public hospitals in 2013 by simultaneously restructuring the hospital governance structure, altering the payment system to hospitals, and realigning physicians' incentives. By employing the difference-in-difference (DID) method and using the hospital-level data from 187 public hospitals in Fujian province, we find that the Sanming model has reduced medical costs significantly without measurably sacrificing clinical quality and productive efficiency. The systemic reform, on average, has reduced the medical care cost per outpatient visit and per inpatient admission by 6.1% (P-value = 0.0445) and 15.4% (P-value < 0.001), respectively. It is largely accomplished through a decrease in drug expenditures per outpatient visit and per inpatient admission of about 29% (P-value < 0.001) and 53% (P-value < 0.001). These results show that the Sanming model has achieved at least a short-term success in improving the performance of the public hospitals. These findings suggest that such a systemic transformation of public hospitals, where the governance structure, payment system and physician compensation methods are aligned, are crucial to improving their performance; it holds critical lessons for China and other LMICs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hanning, Brian W T
The additional cost of treating acute care type Victorian private patients as public patients in Victorian public hospitals based on the current public sector payment model and rates was calculated, as was the loss of health fund income to public hospitals. If all private cases became public the net recurrent cost would be $1.05 billion assuming all patients were still treated. If private health insurance (PHI) uptake had declined to 23.3% as was projected without Lifetime Health Cover and the 30% rebate, the additional operating cost and income loss would be $385 million. This compares to the Victorian cost of the 30% rebate for acute hospital cases of $383 million. This takes no account of capital costs and possible public sector access problems. The analysis suggests that 31 extra operating theatres would be needed in the public sector (had the transfer of surgical patients from the public sector to the private sector not occurred). This analysis suggests that without the PHI rebate the current stresses on Victorian public hospitals would be increased, not decreased.
Muñoz-Esparza, Nelly Carolina; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio
The study aimed to demonstrate that the duration of hospitalization has a significant effect on the nutritional status of children treated in a university hospital. A longitudinal study was conducted during 2014, with a non-random sampling site concentration in children from birth to 19 years who were admitted to the hospital in the past 24 hours and who met the inclusion criteria and had signed informed consent. Upon entering, at 7 days, and at discharge, anthropometric indices, including weight/age, height/age, weight/height, BMI/age, head circumference/age, triceps and subscapular skin folds, and fat percentage, were obtained. Student's t-test, U Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, chi square, Wilcoxon, and odds ratios were used to analyze the data. In total, 206 patients were included: 40% infants, 25% preschoolers, 15% schoolchildren, and 20% teenagers. Infants had a significant improvement from admission to discharge in the indices weight/length (p = 0.042) and BMI (p = 0.002); adolescents showed decreased BMI from admission to discharge from the hospital (p = 0.05). Patients with longer hospitalization (more than 10 days) had an increased deficit in anthropometric indices at admission (p < 0.05). Infants had a higher risk of deficit in the BMI index and height/age than preschoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents between admission and discharge. When the nutritional condition of a child was critical at admission, the child remained hospitalized significantly longer. Infants come under the age group most vulnerable to malnutrition and require greater monitoring of nutritional status during hospitalization.
Ross, Joseph S.; Sheth, Sameer D.; Krumholz, Harlan M.
The prevalence of state public reporting initiatives focused on hospital quality is not known. We systematically reviewed state-sponsored publicly reporting programs focused on clinical aspects of hospital quality and performance for adults, surveying the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. We found that while identifying information about programs was frequently a challenge, programs were present in 25 states (49%) and provided hospital quality information that varied considerably from state to state both by condition and by process and outcome measures reported. We examine the implications of these findings for future state initiatives. PMID:21134936
Rahimi, Benny; Mizrahi, Ronit; Magnezi, Racheli
Outsourcing is a method that enables an organization to focus on its expertise by transferring its other services to professionals who can fulfill them. In recent years, research has repeatedly shown that health services use a variety of outsourcing companies. To describe the experience acquired using outsourcing in public and private hospitals in Israel, and to present the factors, budgetary parameters, opportunities and problems affecting outsourcing. The questionnaire was sent to 36 hospitals in Israel, constituting 88.2% of all hospitals in Israel--private, public, H.M.O ("Clalit") and governmental. The response to the questionnaire reached 97.2% and revealed the following: 94% of the hospitals use outsourcing services in the following fields: security, cleaning, Laundry service, cafeterias, and I.T.; 42% of the hospitals assign 0-5% of their annual budget for outsourcing contracts. Private hospitals use more outsourcing services than public hospitals. The factors driving outsourcing are: cost restrictions (82.8%), operational flexibility (77%), and focus on the core business (74.2%). The potential advantages of outsourcing are: improvement in services 180.5%), customer satisfaction (72.2%), and cost reduction (69.4%). Difficulties affecting outsourcing are: dependence on external resources (83.3%] and internal organizational resistance (69.4%). The results of the outsourcing are lower costs, reduced number of personnel by 1-10% and high level of satisfaction. It seems that in recent years outsourcing is being used in hospitals and is central to the areas of infrastructure and logistics, as well as legal and medical services. Using outsourcing in hospitals provides opportunities for improved customer satisfaction, better focus for the hospital on its core activities and cost reduction. HospitaLs that succeed in synergetically integrating the external and the internal service providers will flourish. INNOVATION/VALUE: This research exposes, for the first time
Biro, Mary A; Knight, Michelle; Wallace, Euan; Papacostas, Kerrie; East, Christine
The effects of place of birth on birth outcomes have been examined in several studies both locally and internationally. However, none has examined the impact on caesarean section rates of different level maternity hospitals operating within the one health service. This study aimed to examine the impact of place of (Hospital level 6; 4-5 or 4) on birth outcomes in a large metropolitan health service in Victoria. A cross-sectional study utilising data on births to low-risk first-time mothers during 2010-2011. Data were obtained from the Birthing Outcome System (BOS) database of Monash Health. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were undertaken using logistic regression to examine the association between place of birth and caesarean section. In this group of low-risk nulliparae, there was evidence of a significant association between place of birth and caesarean section. The lower the acuity of the hospital, the higher the odds for the caesarean section. Compared with the level 6 hospital, the AdjOR for caesarean section at the level 4 hospital was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.37-2.41) and at the level 4-5 hospital, 1.30 (95% CI: 1.0-1.7). Low-risk nulliparae in spontaneous labour giving birth at the level 4 hospital in this health service are at significantly increased risk of caesarean section. This may have implications for the organisation and resource management of other level 4 public maternity units. Care in a tertiary (level 6) service may not necessarily equate to the higher rates of intervention reported by others. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
According to the Japan Pediatric Society, the mean extra work hours of hospital pediatricians in 2010 was approximately 80 h per month, which is the certification criterion for Karoshi (death from overwork), but there is no precise picture of personnel management at hospitals because the labor authorities do not disclose detailed statistics concerning labor law violations to the public. Most local governments have a disclosure system, and the local governments that operate public hospitals were requested to disclose warning documents issued by the labor authorities from March 2002 to March 2011. A total of 208/369 public hospitals (56.4%) with ≥200 beds in Japan were warned of labor law violations. Offenses included exceeding the limit of working hours (177 hospitals) and non-payment of increased wages for night and holiday work (98 hospitals). Many public hospitals in Japan did not always pay workers including physicians for increased workload because they do not regard night and holiday duties as work hours. © 2012 The Author. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.
Lovell, C A Knox; Rodríguez-Alvarez, Ana; Wall, Alan
The literature to date on the effect of demand uncertainty on public hospital costs and excess capacity has not taken into account the role of expense preference behaviour. Similarly, the research on expense preference behaviour has not taken demand uncertainty into account. In this paper, we argue that both demand uncertainty and expense preference behaviour may affect public hospital costs and excess capacity and that ignoring either of these effects may lead to biased parameter estimates and misleading inference. To show this, we extend the analysis of Rodríguez-Alvarez and Lovell (Health Econ. 2004; 13: 157-169) by incorporating demand uncertainty into the technology to account for the hospital activity of providing standby capacity or insurance against the unexpected demand. We find that demand uncertainty in Spanish public hospitals affects hospital production decisions and increases costs. Our results also show that overcapitalization in these hospitals can be explained by hospitals providing insurance demand when faced with demand uncertainty. We also find evidence of expense preference behaviour. We conclude that both stochastic demand and expense preference behaviour should be taken into account when analysing hospital costs and production. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Clarke, J A; Langley, J D
In March 1992 a private members Bill was introduced into parliament which sought to place tighter restrictions on the sale of fireworks. The primary purpose of this research was to document the nature and extent of firework related injury in New Zealand for the purpose of preparing a submission on this Bill. Firework related injuries were examined in relation to the legislative history of fireworks control in New Zealand to ascertain if existing regulations had been effective in reducing firework injuries and whether there was justification for greater control. Between 1979 and 1992 (inclusive) 237 persons were admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries related to fireworks. The overall incidence rate for this period was 0.52 per 100,000 persons per year. Eighty five percent of all events involved males. Children (< 15 years) comprised 68% of the victims with the 10-14 year age group having the highest rate of injury, at 2.5 per 100,000 persons per year. The authors concluded that, on the basis of morbidity, it may be premature to impose a complete ban on the public sale of fireworks (as is proposed in the Bill). The current legislation could well be supported though, by extending the ban on the types of fireworks publicly available to include skyrockets.
Brousseau, Ruth Tebbets; Jameson, Wendy; Kalanj, Boris; Kerr, Kathleen; O'Malley, Kate; Pantilat, Steven
Historically, California's 17 public hospital systems-those that are county owned and operated, and those University of California medical centers with the mandate to serve low income, vulnerable populations-have struggled to implement Palliative Care Consultation Services (PCCS)-this, despite demonstrated need for these services among the uninsured and Medicaid populations served by these facilities. Since 2008, through a collaborative effort of a foundation, a palliative care training center, and a nonprofit quality improvement organization, the Spreading Palliative Care in Public Hospitals initiative (SPCPH) has resulted in a 3-fold increase in the number of California public hospitals providing PCCS, from 4 to 12. The SPCPH leveraged grant funding, the trusted relationships between California public hospitals and their quality improvement organization, technical assistance and training, peer support and learning, and a tailored business case demonstrating the financial/resource utilization benefits of dedicated PCCS. This article describes the SPCPH's distinctive design, features of the public hospital PCCS, patient and team characteristics, and PCCS provider perceptions of environmental factors, and SPCPH features that promoted or impeded their success. Lessons learned may have implications for other hospital systems undertaking implementation of palliative care services. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.
Sadeghi, Ahmad; Barati, Omid; Bastani, Peivand; Jafari, Davood Danesh; Etemadian, Masoud
To review the experiences of selected countries in the use of public-private partnership in the provision of hospital services. This comparative study was conducted in 2015 in Iran. To collect data, valid databases as well as articles, theses, reports and related books in the field of private-sector partnership in hospital services were employed. Using purposive sampling, countries such as the United Kingdom, Spain, Canada, Turkey, Australia and Lesotho, which had successful experiences in the field of application of the public-private partnership in hospital services, were included. Likewise, the only experience in Iran in this field was also reviewed. Studies done between 1980 and 2015 were examined. The results obtained from each country were compared. Implementing public-private partnership had great and valuable outcomes and achievements for governmental hospitals. Moreover, clinical and nonclinical service delivery, hospital utilisation and management along with building, repairing and supportive operations through public-private partnership contracts can be differently divided among the partners. Furthermore, duration of the projects ranged from 12 to 40 years in different countries, depending on the type of the model used. A successful experience in the use of the public-private partnership in the provision of hospital services was observed.
Yeo, Young Hyun; Lee, Keon-Hyung; Kim, Hye Jeong
Just as living organisms have a creation-maintenance-extinction life cycle, organizations also have a life cycle. Private organizations will not survive if they fail to acquire necessary resources through market competition. Public organizations, however, continue to survive because the government has provided financial support in order to enhance public interest. Only a few public organizations in Korea have closed. With the introduction of new public management since the economic crisis in 1997, however, public organizations have had to compete with private organizations. Public hospitals are not free to open or close their business. They are also controlled by the government in terms of their prices, management, budgets, and operations. As they pursue public interest by fulfilling the government’s order such as providing free or lower-priced care to the vulnerable population, they tend to provide a lower quality of care and suffer a financial burden. Employing a case study analysis, this study attempts to understand the external environment that local public hospitals face. The fundamental problem of local public hospitals in Korea is the value conflict between public interest and profitability. Local public hospitals are required to pursue public interest by assignment of a public mission including building a medical safety net for low-income patients and managing nonprofitable medical facilities and emergent health care situations. At the same time, they are required to pursue profitability by achieving high-quality care through competition and the operation of an independent, self-supporting system according to private business logic. Under such paradoxical situations, a political decision may cause an unexpected result. PMID:29355194
Yeo, Young Hyun; Lee, Keon-Hyung; Kim, Hye Jeong
Just as living organisms have a creation-maintenance-extinction life cycle, organizations also have a life cycle. Private organizations will not survive if they fail to acquire necessary resources through market competition. Public organizations, however, continue to survive because the government has provided financial support in order to enhance public interest. Only a few public organizations in Korea have closed. With the introduction of new public management since the economic crisis in 1997, however, public organizations have had to compete with private organizations. Public hospitals are not free to open or close their business. They are also controlled by the government in terms of their prices, management, budgets, and operations. As they pursue public interest by fulfilling the government's order such as providing free or lower-priced care to the vulnerable population, they tend to provide a lower quality of care and suffer a financial burden. Employing a case study analysis, this study attempts to understand the external environment that local public hospitals face. The fundamental problem of local public hospitals in Korea is the value conflict between public interest and profitability. Local public hospitals are required to pursue public interest by assignment of a public mission including building a medical safety net for low-income patients and managing nonprofitable medical facilities and emergent health care situations. At the same time, they are required to pursue profitability by achieving high-quality care through competition and the operation of an independent, self-supporting system according to private business logic. Under such paradoxical situations, a political decision may cause an unexpected result.
Salarvand, Shahin; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Salarvand, Hamed
Nowadays, hospitals have turned increasingly towards the Internet and develop their own web presence. Hospital Websites could be operating as effective web resources of information and interactive communication mediums to enhance hospital services to the public. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of websites in Tehran's public hospitals. This cross-sectional analysis involved all public hospitals in Iran's capital city, Tehran, with a working website or subsites between April and June, 2014 (N=59). The websites were evaluated using three validated instruments: a localized checklist, Google page rank, and the Alexa traffic ranking. The mentioned checklist consisted of 112 items divided into five sections: technical characteristics, hospital information and facilities, medical services, interactive on-line services and external activities. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The mean website evaluation score was 45.7 out of 224 for selected public hospitals. All the studied websites were in the weak category based on the earned quality scores. There was no statistically significant association between the website evaluation score with Google page rank (P=0.092), Alexa global traffic rank and Alexa traffic rank in Iran (P>0.05). The hospital websites had a lower quality score in the interactive online services and external activities criteria in comparing to other criteria. Due to the low quality level of the studied websites and the importance of hospital portals in providing information and services on the Internet, the authorities should do precise planning for the appreciable improvement in the quality of hospital websites.
Arasli, Huseyin; Ekiz, Erdogan Haktan; Katircioglu, Salih Turan
The purpose of this research is to develop and compare some determinants of service quality in both the public and private hospitals of Northern Cyprus. There is considerable lack of literature with respect to service quality in public and private hospitals. Randomly, 454 respondents, who have recently benefited from hospital services in Famagusta, were selected to answer a modified version of the SERVQUAL Instrument. The instrument contained both service expectations and perceptions questions. This study identifies six factors regarding the service quality as perceived in both public and private Northern Cyprus hospitals. These are: empathy, giving priority to the inpatients needs, relationships between staff and patients, professionalism of staff, food and the physical environment. Research results revealed that the various expectations of inpatients have not been met in either the public or the private hospitals At the micro level, the lack of management commitment to service quality in both hospital settings leads doctors and nurses to expend less effort increasing or improving inpatient satisfaction. Hospital managers should also satisfy their employees, since job satisfaction leads to customer satisfaction and loyalty. Additionally, hospital administrations need to gather systematic feedback from their inpatients, establish visible and transparent complaint procedures so that inpatients' complaints can be addressed effectively and efficiently. The hospitals need to organize training sessions based on the critical importance of service quality and the crucial role of inpatient satisfaction in the health care industry. Future studies should include the remaining regions in Cyprus in order to increase research findings' generalizability. Additionally, including other dimensions such as hospital processes and discharge management and co-ordination may provide further insights into understanding inpatients' perceptions and intentions.
Salarvand, Shahin; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Salarvand, Hamed
Introduction: Nowadays, hospitals have turned increasingly towards the Internet and develop their own web presence. Hospital Websites could be operating as effective web resources of information and interactive communication mediums to enhance hospital services to the public. Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of websites in Tehran’s public hospitals. Material and methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved all public hospitals in Iran’s capital city, Tehran, with a working website or subsites between April and June, 2014 (N=59). The websites were evaluated using three validated instruments: a localized checklist, Google page rank, and the Alexa traffic ranking. The mentioned checklist consisted of 112 items divided into five sections: technical characteristics, hospital information and facilities, medical services, interactive on-line services and external activities. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The mean website evaluation score was 45.7 out of 224 for selected public hospitals. All the studied websites were in the weak category based on the earned quality scores. There was no statistically significant association between the website evaluation score with Google page rank (P=0.092), Alexa global traffic rank and Alexa traffic rank in Iran (P>0.05). The hospital websites had a lower quality score in the interactive online services and external activities criteria in comparing to other criteria. Due to the low quality level of the studied websites and the importance of hospital portals in providing information and services on the Internet, the authorities should do precise planning for the appreciable improvement in the quality of hospital websites. PMID:27147806
Panzer, R J
The goals of public accountability and quality improvement are compatible in theory but not necessarily in practice. Both concepts emphasize the customer. However, those working toward these two goals design systems with quite different roles and relationships between the providers and consumers of health care. Superficial interactions obstruct meaningful dialogue about how to build a better system meeting both sets of goals. Current practices of public accountability and quality improvement have fundamentally different paradigms concerning the roles and responsibilities of those who provide and those who consume health care. There are at least three ways to improve the current relationship between public accountability and quality improvement. First, optimizing the design and performance of each effort would be an improvement since the goals are highly compatible. Neither ideal currently meets its own expectations, creating distrust among the proponents of each when reality falls short. Second, the two efforts could be coordinated through joint community-level planning and sharing. Finally and optimally, the two concepts could be made part of the same community-level cooperative system, an approach that offers the greatest opportunity for achieving shared goals.
Zhao, Lue-Ping; Yu, Guo-Pei; Liu, Hui; Ma, Xie-Min; Wang, Jing; Kong, Gui-Lan; Li, Yi; Ma, Wen; Cui, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Yu, Na; Bao, Xiao-Yuan; Guo, Yu; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yan; Xie, Xue-Qin; Jiang, Bao-Guo; Ke, Yang
With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS), cost per day (CPD), inpatient mortality rate (IMR), and length of stay (LOS), using a generalized additive model. There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (P<0.001), from CNY 1,531 in 2006 to CNY 2,169 in 2010. The increasing CPD seemed synchronous with the steady rising of the national annual income per capita. Surgical cost was the main contributor to the temporal change of CPD, while medicine and examination costs tended to be stable over time. From 2006 and 2010, IMR decreased by 36%, while LOS reduced by 25%. Increasing hospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role. However, purely market-oriented health-care reform could also
Fiedler, J L; Schmidt, R M; Wight, J B
National hospitals in developing countries command a disproportionate share of medical care budgets, justified on the grounds that they have a more difficult patient case mix and higher occupancy rates than decentralized district hospitals or clinics. This paper empirically tests the hypothesis by developing direct measures of the severity of patient illness, hospital case-mix and a resource intensity index for each of El Salvador's public hospitals. Based on an analysis of inpatient care staffing requirements, national hospitals are found to receive funding far in excess of what case-mix and case-load considerations would warrant. The findings suggest that significant system-wide efficiency gains can be realized by allocating hospital budgets on the bases of performance-related criteria which incorporate the case-mix approach developed here.
Mitropoulos, Panagiotis; Mitropoulos, Ioannis; Sissouras, Aris
This paper evaluates the efficiency of public hospitals with two alternative conceptual models. One model targets resource usage directly to assess production efficiency, while the other model incorporates financial results to assess economic efficiency. Performance analysis of these models was conducted in two stages. In stage one, we utilized data envelopment analysis to obtain the efficiency score of each hospital, while in stage two we took into account the influence of the operational environment on efficiency by regressing those scores on explanatory variables that concern the performance of hospital services. We applied these methods to evaluate 96 general hospitals in the Greek national health system. The results indicate that, although the average efficiency scores in both models have remained relatively stable compared to past assessments, internal changes in hospital performances do exist. This study provides a clear framework for policy implications to increase the overall efficiency of general hospitals.
Than, Thet Mon; Saw, Yu Mon; Khaing, Moe; Win, Ei Mon; Cho, Su Myat; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki
Cost information is important for efficient allocation of healthcare expenditure, estimating future budget allocation, and setting user fees to start new financing systems. Myanmar is in political transition, and trying to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. This study assessed the unit cost of healthcare services at two public hospitals in the country from the provider perspective. The study also analyzed the cost structure of the hospitals to allocate and manage the budgets appropriately. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at 200-bed Magway Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Pyinmanar General Hospital (PMN GH), in Myanmar, for the financial year 2015-2016. The step-down costing method was applied to calculate unit cost per inpatient day and per outpatient visit. The costs were calculated by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The unit costs per inpatient day varied largely from unit to unit in both hospitals. At PMN GH, unit cost per inpatient day was 28,374 Kyats (27.60 USD) for pediatric unit and 1,961,806 Kyats (1908.37 USD) for ear, nose, and throat unit. At MTH, the unit costs per inpatient day were 19,704 Kyats (19.17 USD) for medicine unit and 168,835 Kyats (164.24 USD) for eye unit. The unit cost of outpatient visit was 14,882 Kyats (14.48 USD) at PMN GH, while 23,059 Kyats (22.43 USD) at MTH. Regarding cost structure, medicines and medical supplies was the largest component at MTH, and the equipment was the largest component at PMN GH. The surgery unit of MTH and the eye unit of PMN GH consumed most of the total cost of the hospitals. The unit costs were influenced by the utilization of hospital services by the patients, the efficiency of available resources, type of medical services provided, and medical practice of the physicians. The cost structures variation was also found between MTH and PMN GH. The findings provided the basic information regarding the healthcare cost of public hospitals which can apply the efficient utilization of the
Ibarra, Mariano; Torrents, Milagros; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Ferrero, Fernando
The number of publications in the scientific literature coming from an institution is an indicator of its scientific production. The scientific production of the hospitals of the Government of the City of Buenos Aires (GCBA) has been evaluated previously, but without discriminating how much of that production corresponded to other academic institutions settled there (University of Buenos Aires, UBA, National Council of Scientific Research and Techniques, CONICET). Our objective was to evaluate the publications included in PubMed that correspond to hospitals of the GCBA, describe their main characteristics, and discriminate the contribution of other academic institutions (UBA and CONICET). It is a cross-sectional study based on a PubMed search, using the name of each of the 34 GCBA hospitals, CONICET and UBA in the "affiliation" field. In total, 2727 publications from GCBA hospitals were identified (4.6% of Argentine publications); 73.9% in English, 78.9% in relation to humans, 37.2% in the last 5 years; 6.4% with high level of evidence (clinical trials and meta-analysis), and 28.4% including children. Compared to the national total, the GCBA publications include fewer works in English, more research in humans, more clinical trials and more research in children. Of the publications corresponding to hospitals of the GCBA, 90.4% did not share the affiliation with CONICET or with UBA. In conclusion, the GCBA hospitals generated 4.6% of the total Argentine publications in PubMed; and 90% of these was not shared with UBA or CONICET. Publications from GCBA institutions include more clinical trials and research in children.
Liu, Wenbin; Shi, Lizheng; Pong, Raymond W; Chen, Yingyao
Hospital social responsibility is receiving increasing attention, especially in China where major changes to the healthcare system have taken place. This study examines how patients viewed hospital social responsibility in China and explore the factors that influenced patients' perception of hospital social responsibility. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 5385 patients from 48 public hospitals in three regions of China: Shanghai, Hainan, and Shaanxi. A multilevel regression model was employed to examine factors influencing patients' assessments of hospital social responsibility. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to estimate the proportion of variance in the dependent variables determined at the hospital level. The scores for service quality, appropriateness, accessibility and professional ethics were positively associated with patients' assessments of hospital social responsibility. Older outpatients tended to give lower assessments, while inpatients in larger hospitals scored higher. After adjusted for the independent variables, the ICC rose from 0.182 to 0.313 for inpatients and from 0.162 to 0.263 for outpatients. The variance at the patient level was reduced by 51.5 and 48.6 %, respectively, for inpatients and outpatients. And the variance at the hospital level was reduced by 16.7 % for both groups. Some hospital and patient characteristics and their perceptions of service quality, appropriateness, accessibility and professional ethics were associated with their assessments of public hospital social responsibility. The differences were mainly determined at the patient level. More attention to law-abiding behaviors, cost-effective health services, and charitable works could improve perceptions of hospitals' adherence to social responsibility.
This image taken from the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument of New Zealand was collected on January 9, 2015 when the phytoplankton were blooming — particularly to the east of the islands and along the Chatham Rise. Derived from the Greek words phyto (plant) and plankton (made to wander or drift), phytoplankton are microscopic organisms that live in watery environments, both salty and fresh. Credit: NASA/Goddard/NPP NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Gianduzzo, Troy R J; Gardiner, Robert A; Rashid, Prem; Young, Rhys; Frydenberg, Mark; Kelly, Sarah
To assess the general public's understanding of urologists and of the Urological Society of Australian and New Zealand (USANZ) and gauge the effectiveness with which the USANZ disseminates health information about urological conditions to health consumers. Using prostate cancer as an example, a Qualtrics online market survey of Australian healthcare consumers recruited from an online pool was conducted. The number of districts sampled within each state or territory was proportional to the size of the target population within each region and were proportionately distributed across metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. Demographic characteristics were comparable with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Census figures corresponding to the target age group. The survey assessed knowledge of the roles of medical specialties through open-ended responses to qualitative items, association tasks, and recall/recognition questions. Subjects were asked to rate their familiarity of medical specialists and of six medical specialty logos. There were 302 respondents. Subjects indicated less awareness of urology vs other medical specialties, were relatively unaware that urologists were concerned with the prostate, and the USANZ branding was among the least familiar (P < 0.001, Friedman test). When asked the first medical specialist that came to mind when told of prostate cancer, only 22% wrote urologist. The general public has a limited understanding of urologists and of the USANZ. Sub-brand names that explicitly link urologists to urological conditions, has been suggested as a means to increase the public's understanding of urologists and of the USANZ, and improve the USANZ's ability to promulgate urological health information. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Van Tuong, Phan; Duc Thanh, Nguyen
The aim of this paper was to develop a leadership and managerial competency framework for public hospital managers in Vietnam. This mixed-method study used a four-step approach. The first step was a position description content analysis to identify the tasks hospital managers are required to carry out. The resulting data were used to identify the leadership and managerial competency factors and items in the second step. In the third step, a workshop was organized to reach consensus about the validity of these competency factors and items. Finally, a quantitative survey was conducted across a sample of 891 hospital managers who are working in the selected hospitals in seven geographical regions in Vietnam to validate the competency scales using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Cronbach's alpha. The study identified a number of tasks required for public hospital managers and confirmed the competencies for implementing these tasks effectively. Four dimensions with 14 components and 81 items of leadership and managerial competencies were identified. These components exhibited 83.8% of variance and Cronbach's alpha were at good level of 0.9. These competencies are required for public hospital managers which provide guidance to the further development of the competency-based training for the current management taskforce and preparing future hospital managers.
Van Tuong, Phan; Duc Thanh, Nguyen
Objective The aim of this paper was to develop a leadership and managerial competency framework for public hospital managers in Vietnam. Methods This mixed-method study used a four-step approach. The first step was a position description content analysis to identify the tasks hospital managers are required to carry out. The resulting data were used to identify the leadership and managerial competency factors and items in the second step. In the third step, a workshop was organized to reach consensus about the validity of these competency factors and items. Finally, a quantitative survey was conducted across a sample of 891 hospital managers who are working in the selected hospitals in seven geographical regions in Vietnam to validate the competency scales using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Cronbach's alpha. Results The study identified a number of tasks required for public hospital managers and confirmed the competencies for implementing these tasks effectively. Four dimensions with 14 components and 81 items of leadership and managerial competencies were identified. These components exhibited 83.8% of variance and Cronbach's alpha were at good level of 0.9. Conclusions These competencies are required for public hospital managers which provide guidance to the further development of the competency-based training for the current management taskforce and preparing future hospital managers. PMID:29546227
Longman, Jo; Pilcher, Jennifer M; Donoghue, Deborah A; Rolfe, Margaret; Kildea, Sue V; Kruske, Sue; Oats, Jeremy J N; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Barclay, Lesley M
This paper articulates the importance of accurately identifying maternity services. It describes the process and challenges of identifying the number, level and networks of rural and remote maternity services in public hospitals serving communities of between 1000 and 25000 people across Australia, and presents the findings of this process. Health departments and the national government's websites, along with lists of public hospitals, were used to identify all rural and remote Australian public hospitals offering maternity services in small towns. State perinatal reports were reviewed to establish numbers of births by hospital. The level of maternity services and networks of hospitals within which services functioned were determined via discussion with senior jurisdictional representatives. In all, 198 rural and remote public hospitals offering maternity services were identified. There were challenges in sourcing information on maternity services to generate an accurate national picture. The nature of information about maternity services held centrally by jurisdictions varied, and different frameworks were used to describe minimum requirements for service levels. Service networks appeared to be based on a combination of individual links, geography and transport infrastructure. The lack of readily available centralised and comparable information on rural and remote maternity services has implications for policy review and development, equity, safety and quality, network development and planning. Accountability for services and capacity to identify problems is also compromised.
Walker, Kara Odom; Calmes, Daphne; Hanna, Nancy; Baker, Richard
Background Challenges around safety-net hospital closure have impacted medical student and resident exposure to urban public healthcare sites that may influence their future practice choices. Objective To assess the impact of the closure of a public safety-net teaching hospital for the clinical medical education of Charles Drew University medical students and residents. Method Retrospective cohort study of medical students’ and residents’ and clinical placement into safety-net experiences after the closure of the primary teaching hospital. Results The hospital closure impacted both medical student and residency training experiences. Only 71% (17/24) of medical student rotations and 13% (23/180) of residents were maintained at public safety-net clinical sittings. The closure of the public safety-net hospital resulted in the loss of 36% of residency training spots sponsored by historically black medical schools in the United States and an even larger negative impact on the number of physicians training in underserved urban areas of Los Angeles County. Conclusion While the medical educational program changes undertaken in the wake of hospital closure have negatively affected the immediate clinical educational experiences of medical students and residents, it remains to be seen whether the training site location changes will alter their long-term preferences in specialty choice and practice location. PMID:19110905
Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão
OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão
OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661
Walker, Kara Odom; Calmes, Daphne; Hanna, Nancy; Baker, Richard
Challenges around safety-net hospital closure have impacted medical student and resident exposure to urban public healthcare sites that may influence their future practice choices. To assess the impact of the closure of a public safety-net teaching hospital for the clinical medical education of Charles Drew University medical students and residents. Retrospective cohort study of medical students' and residents' and clinical placement into safety-net experiences after the closure of the primary teaching hospital. The hospital closure impacted both medical student and residency training experiences. Only 71% (17/24) of medical student rotations and 13% (23/180) of residents were maintained at public safety-net clinical sittings. The closure of the public safety-net hospital resulted in the loss of 36% of residency training spots sponsored by historically black medical schools in the United States and an even larger negative impact on the number of physicians training in underserved urban areas of Los Angeles County. While the medical educational program changes undertaken in the wake of hospital closure have negatively affected the immediate clinical educational experiences of medical students and residents, it remains to be seen whether the training site location changes will alter their long-term preferences in specialty choice and practice location.
Mugoyela, Veronica; Mwambete, Kennedy D
Purpose Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the medicines. Although sterility is not a requirement in official compendia for nonsterile pharmaceuticals, bioburdens need to be within acceptable limits. Therefore, this study investigated microbial contamination of 10 nonsterile pharmaceuticals frequently delivered to outpatients by identifying and quantifying microbial contaminants and susceptibility pattern testing on the microbes isolated. Methods The study was carried out at Amana Municipal Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The protocol for the study involved structured selection of representative tablets, syrups, and capsules from the hospital’s outpatient pharmacy. Constitutive microorganisms were elaborated and enumerated using standard microbiologic procedures. Results Results showed that 50% of all tested products were heavily contaminated, and the predominant contaminants comprised Klebsiella, Bacillus, and Candida species. Furthermore, the results showed that the isolated Bacillus and Klebsiella species were resistant to Augmentin ® and cloxacillin. The differences in means for cfu/mL and zones of inhibition among the microorganisms isolated were considered significant at P < 0.05. Conclusion The nonsterile pharmaceuticals were presumably microbiologically contaminated due to poor handling during dispensing, repackaging, and/or nonadherence to good manufacturing practice. Therefore, training and educating the dispensers, as well as patients, on the proper handling and use of medicines cannot be overemphasized, because these are key aspects in controlling cross-contamination of medicines. PMID:20957135
Cid P, Camilo; Bastías S, Gabriel
In 2011 the Chilean National Health Fund (FONASA) commissioned a study to assess the costs of the 120 most relevant hospital care services with an established fee, in a large sample of public hospitals. We herein report the cost evaluation results of such study, considering the financial condition of those hospitals in the year of the study. Based on the premise that the expenses derived from the provision of institutional and appraised hospital services should be identical to the billing of hospitals to FONASA, the prices are undervalued, since they cover only 56% of billing, generating a gap between expenses and invoicing. This gap shows an important limitation of tariffs, since their prices do not cover the real costs. However not all hospitals behave in the same way. While the provision of services of some hospitals is even higher than their billing, most hospitals do not completely justify their invoicing. These assumptions would imply that, generally speaking, hospital debts are justified by the costs incurred. However, hospitals have heterogeneous financial situations that need to be analyzed carefully. In particular, nothing can be said about their relative efficiency if cost estimations are not adjusted by the complexity of patients attended and comparison groups are not defined.
McPake, Barbara; Yepes, Francisco Jose; Lake, Sally; Sanchez, Luz Helena
Many countries are experimenting with public hospital reform - both increasing the managerial autonomy with which hospitals conduct their affairs, and separating 'purchaser' and 'provider' sides of the health system, thus increasing the degree of market pressure brought to bear on hospitals. Evidence suggesting that such reform will improve hospital performance is weak. From a theoretical perspective, it is not clear why public hospitals should be expected to behave like firms and seek to maximize profits as this model requires. Empirically, there is very slight evidence that such reforms may improve efficiency, and reason to be concerned about their equity implications. In Colombia, an ambitious reform programme includes among its measures the attempt to universalize a segmented health system, the creation of a purchaser-provider split and the transformation of public hospitals into 'autonomous state entities'. By design, the Colombian reform programme avoids the forces that produce equity losses in other developing countries. This paper reports the results of a study that has tried to track hospital performance in other dimensions in the post-reform period in Bogotá. Trends in hospital inputs, production and productivity, quality and patient satisfaction are presented, and qualitative data based on interviews with hospital workers are analyzed. The evidence we have been able to collect is capable of providing only a partial response to the study question. There is some evidence of increased activity and productivity and sustained quality despite declining staffing levels. Qualitative data suggest that hospital workers have noticed considerable changes, which include greater responsiveness to patients but also a heavier administrative burden. It is difficult to attribute specific causality to all of the changes measured and this reflects the inherent difficulty of judging the effects of large-scale reform programmes as well as weaknesses and gaps in the data
Williams, Michael J A; Harding, Scott A; Devlin, Gerard; Nunn, Chris; El-Jack, Sief; Scott, Tony; Lee, Mildred; Kerr, Andrew J
The New Zealand Cardiac Clinical Network and the Ministry of Health recommend a "3-day door-to-catheter target" for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) admissions, requiring that at least 70% of ACS patients referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA) undergo this within 3 days of hospital admission. We assessed the variability in use of ICA, timing of ICA, and duration of hospital admission across New Zealand District Health Boards (DHBs). All patients admitted to all New Zealand public hospitals with suspected ACS undergoing ICA over 1 year ending November 2014 had demographic, risk factor, and diagnostic data collected prospectively using the All New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement (ANZACS-QI) registry. Complete datasets were available in 7,988 (98.4%) patients. DHBs were categorised as those able to perform percutaneous coronary intervention on-site (intervention-capable) or not. There was a near two-fold variation between DHBs in the age standardised rate (ASR) of ICA ranging from 16.8 per 10,000 to 34.1 per 10,000 population (New Zealand rate; 27.9 per 10,000). Patients in intervention-capable DHBs had a 30% higher ASR of ICA. The proportion of ACS patients meeting the 3-day target ranged from 56.7% to 92.9% (New Zealand; 76.4%). Those in intervention-capable DHBs were more likely to meet the target (78.7% vs 68.0%, p<0.0001) and spent 0.84 days (p<.0001) less in hospital. There is a considerable variation in the rate and timing of ICA in New Zealand. Patients with ACS admitted to DHBs without interventional-capability are disadvantaged. New initiatives to correct this discrepancy are needed.
Cousineau, Michael R.; Tranquada, Robert E.
The Los Angeles County University of Southern California Medical Center will open soon, replacing the county’s current 74-year-old facility with a modern, although smaller, facility. Los Angeles County has provided hospital care to the indigent since 1858, during which time, the operation of public hospitals has shifted from a state-mandated welfare responsibility to a preeminent part of the county’s public health mission. As this shift occurred, the financing of Los Angeles County hospitals changed from primarily county support to state and federal government sources, particularly Medicaid. The success of the new hospital will depend on whether government leaders at all levels provide the reforms needed to help the county and its partners stabilize its funding base. PMID:17329642
Ko, Michelle; Needleman, Jack; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Laugesen, Miriam J; Ponce, Ninez A
Residential segregation is associated geographic disparities in access to care, but its impact on local health care policy, including public hospitals, is unknown. We examined the effects of racial residential segregation on U.S. urban public hospital closures from 1987 to 2007, controlling for hospital, market, and policy characteristics. We found that a high level of residential segregation moderated the protective effects of Black population composition, such that a high level of residential segregation, in combination with a high percentage of poor residents, conferred a higher likelihood of hospital closure. More segregated and poorer communities face disadvantages in access to care that may be compounded as a result of instability in the health care safety net. Policy makers should consider the influence of social factors such as residential segregation on the allocation of the safety net resources.
James, Chris D; Peabody, John; Hanson, Kara; Solon, Orville
In low- and middle-income countries, government budgets are rarely sufficient to cover a public hospital's operating costs. Shortfalls are typically financed through a combination of health insurance contributions and user charges. The mixed nature of this financing arrangement potentially creates financial incentives to treat patients with equal health need unequally. Using data from the Philippines, the authors analyzed whether doctors respond to such incentives. After controlling for a patient's condition, they found that patients using insurance, paying more for hospital accommodation, and being treated in externally monitored hospitals were likely to receive more care. This highlights the worrying possibility that public hospital patients with equal health needs are not always equally treated. © 2011 APJPH.
van der Schee, Evelien; de Jong, Judith D; Groenewegen, Peter P
Incidents in health care happen every now and then. Incidents are often extensively covered by the news media. In this study, we investigated the impact of an incident in a Dutch hospital on public trust in health care in the population living in the vicinity of where the incident took place and in the national population. News media coverage of the incident started in Fall 2008. We collected data in three samples, using a postal questionnaire on public trust in health care. Two samples were a cross-section of the Dutch population; one was questioned in October 2006 and the other in October 2008. The third sample, also questioned in October 2008, consisted of 1000 people living in the surrounding area of the hospital where the incident occurred. The cross-sectional sample of October 2006 was a reference group, and at that time no incidents in health care were covered in the media. In the local population, the incident had a strong impact on public trust in the hospital and among the specialists working there. Also, in the local population, the impact of the incident was generalized to trust in hospitals and specialists in general. In the national population, no impact of the incident on the public's trust was found, despite national news media coverage. Local incidents have an impact on public trust in health care in the local population. However, these incidents do not influence public trust in health care in the national population.
Griffin, Eve; Dillon, Christina B; O'Regan, Grace; Corcoran, Paul; Perry, Ivan J; Arensman, Ella
Recent research on the patterns of self-harm around public holidays is lacking. This study used national data to examine the patterns of hospital-treated self-harm during public holidays, and to examine associated factors. Data on self-harm presentations to all emergency departments were obtained from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland. The association between self-harm presentations and public holidays was examined using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses. A total of 104,371 presentations of self-harm were recorded between 2007 and 2015. The mean number of self-harm presentations was 32 on public holidays. St. Patrick's Day had the highest number of presentations compared to all other public holidays, with a daily mean of 44 presentations. Across all years, self-harm presentations during public holidays had a 24% increased risk of involving alcohol consumption compared to all other days and this effect was most pronounced during the Christmas period. The association with alcohol remained significant at a multivariate level. Presentations on public holidays were more likely to attend out of normal working hours. An increase in male presentations involving self-cutting was observed on public holidays and there was an over-representation of males presenting for the first time. It is likely that extent of alcohol involvement in self-harm presentations reported here is an underestimate, as it was dependent on the information being recorded by the attending clinician. Public holidays are associated with an elevated number of self-harm presentations to hospital, with presentations to hospital involving alcohol significantly increased on these days. Hospital resources should be targeted to address increases during public holidays, including during out-of-hours. Involvement of alcohol may delay delivery of care to these patients in emergency settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Charney, Rachel L; Rebmann, Terri; Esguerra, Cybill R; Lai, Charlene W; Dalawari, Preeti
During natural and manmade disasters, the hospital is perceived as a central rallying and care site for the public, for both those with and without emergency medical needs. The expectations of the public may outstrip hospital plans and abilities to provide nonmedical assistance. Our objective was to determine the public expectations of the hospital during disasters regarding resource provision. A survey was distributed to adult patients or family members at three emergency departments (EDs). Respondents were asked to evaluate hospital responsibility to provide nine resources to those without emergency medical needs, including vaccination, medication refill or replacement, food and water, grief/stress counseling, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) access assistance, short/long-term shelter, family reunification, and hospital. Additionally, respondents answered questions regarding prior disaster experience and demographics. There were 961 respondents (66.9% were female, 47.5% were white, and 44.6% were black). Respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the hospital should provide the following services: event-specific vaccination (84%), medication refill/replacement (76.5%), food and water (61%), grief or stress counseling (53%), FEMA access assistance (52%), short-term shelter (51%), family reunification (50%), long-term shelter (38%), and hospital transportation (29%). Those 36-45 years of age were less likely to expect services (p < 0.05) and non-whites and those with a family member with a medical condition requiring electricity were more likely to expect services (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). There were no differences based on frequency of ED use, sex, income, or prior disaster experience. There is a high public expectation that hospitals will provide significant nonmedical disaster relief. Understanding these expectations is essential to appropriate community disaster planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lunkes, Rogério Joao; Naranjo-Gil, David; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto
Healthcare authorities are encouraging managers in hospitals to acquire clinical experience and knowledge in order to better carry out and coordinate healthcare service delivery. The main objective of this paper is to analyse how the clinical experience of hospital managers is related to public health institutions’ performance. It is proposed that the effect of the clinical experience on operative and financial organizational performance is indirect through the mediating variables of perceived utility of management information and horizontal management control system. This paper analyses how these variables impact hospital performance through the data from a survey sent to 364 hospital managers in Brazil. The results show that managers’ clinical experience is related to higher perceived utility of historical, financial, short-term, and internal information, but not with horizontal control adoption in hospitals. Furthermore, our results show that, in hospitals, perceived utility of forecasted, non-financial, long-term, and external managerial information positively affects hospitals’ financial performance, while adoption of horizontal control management positively affects operational performance. Through showing evidence that clinical background could explain the differences not only in hospital service management but also in information capabilities and management control processes, this study offer meaningful implications for healthcare authorities and hospital managers involved in the development and implementation of strategies in the health sector.
Mwangi, Rose; Chandler, Clare; Nasuwa, Fortunata; Mbakilwa, Hilda; Poulsen, Anja; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Reyburn, Hugh
User and provider perceptions of quality of care are likely to affect both use and provision of services. However, little is known about how health workers and mothers perceive the delivery of care in hospital paediatric wards in Africa. Paediatric staff and mothers of paediatric inpatients were interviewed to explore their opinions and experience of the admission process and conditions on the ward. Overcrowding, unsanitary conditions and lack of food were major concerns for mothers on the ward, who were deterred from seeking treatment earlier due to fears that hospital admission posed a significant risk of exposure to infection. While most staff were seen as being sympathetic and supportive to mothers, a minority were reported to be judgemental and authoritarian. Health workers identified lack of trained staff, overwork and low pay as major concerns. Staff shortages, lack of effective training and equipment are established problems but our findings also highlight a need for wards to become more parent-friendly, particularly with regard to food, hygiene and space. Training programmes focused on professional conduct and awareness of the problems that mothers face in seeking and receiving care may result in a more supportive and cooperative attitude between staff and mothers.
Wang, Wenhua; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen; Loban, Ekaterina; Haggerty, Jeannie
In rural China, patients have free choice of health facilities for outpatient services. Comparison studies exploring the attributes of different health facilities can help identify optimal primary care service models. Using a representative sample of Chinese provinces, this study aimed to compare patients' rating of three primary care service models used by rural residents (public clinics, public hospitals and private clinics) on a range of health care attributes related to responsiveness. This was a secondary analysis using the household survey data from World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Using a multistage cluster sampling strategy, eight provinces were selected and finally 3435 overall respondents reporting they had visited public clinics, public hospitals or private clinics during the last year, were included in our analysis. Five items were used to measure patient perceived quality in five domains including prompt attention, communication and autonomy, dignity and confidentiality. ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc tests were used to conduct comparative analysis of five domains. Separate multivariate linear regression models were estimated to examine the association of primary care service models with each domain after controlling for patient characteristics. The distribution of last health facilities visited was: 29.5% public clinics; 31.2% public hospitals and; 39.3% private clinics. Public clinics perform best in all five domains: prompt attention (4.15), dignity (4.17), communication (4.07), autonomy (4.05) and confidentiality (4.02). Public hospitals perform better than private clinics in dignity (4.03 vs 3.94), communication (3.97 vs 3.82), autonomy (3.92 vs 3.74) and confidentiality (3.94 vs 3.73), but equivalently in prompt attention (3.92 vs 3.93). Rural residents who are older, wealthier, and with higher self-rated health status have significantly higher patient perceived quality of care in all domains. Rural
Lindsay, Robyn; Hanson, Lisa; Taylor, Melanie; McBurney, Helen
To identify and measure the effects of workplace stressors experienced by Victorian regional physiotherapists. Survey questionnaire. A questionnaire was distributed to three Victorian regional public physiotherapy departments and data were collected from 80 physiotherapists. The type and frequency of workplace stressors, the nature and frequency of common signs and symptoms of stress and the amount of leave taken as a result of stress were measured. Caseload quantity, complexity of patients, constant excessive workload, covering staff on leave and staff shortages, were reported as key workplace stressors. Physiotherapists aged between 20 and 29 years were significantly more likely to report a higher number of workplace stressors (F = 4.173, n = 80, P = 0.009). Inpatient rehabilitation physiotherapists were significantly more likely to report stress at a higher frequency than physiotherapists working in other areas (chi(2) = 14.359, n = 73, P = 0.002). Eleven per cent of all respondents reported taking leave from work as a result of stress with no significant difference identified between those who took leave and those who did not. There was, however, a trend identified with senior staff (Z = 1.792, n = 80, P = 0.073) and those who work in inpatient rehabilitation (chi(2) = 6.926, n = 80, P = 0.074) being more likely to take leave as a result of stress. Many of these physiotherapists did not make their employers aware of the reasons for the leave (77%, n = 9). High caseloads, periods of increased activity and staff shortages are some of the factors that contribute to stress in regional physiotherapists. Younger therapists were more likely to identify stressors with greater frequency. Strategies to monitor, prevent and manage stress should be implemented to minimise burnout in regional physiotherapists.
Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan
The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating
De Geyndt, Willy
Governments in middle and low income countries have sought ways for the past decades to make their public hospitals more performing. The objectives of this assessment are to: (a) synthesize the experience of eleven countries at granting autonomy to their public hospitals and the obstacles encountered; (b) deduce which autonomy policies have or have not been effective documenting successes and failures; and (c) propose evidence-based recommendations to policy makers. Data for five countries are derived from the author's participation in the autonomy process augmented by current updates provided by national colleagues. Data for the other six countries are derived from publications available in the literature. Policies granting autonomy to public hospitals have had limited success. In all cases Boards of Directors have been created. Governance of autonomized hospitals by Boards however is obstructed by the resistance of central level entities to have their authority diminished. The Ministry of Finance tends to maintain control over revenues and expenditures. The Public Service Commission resists abdicating its role to hire, promote, transfer and dismiss government employees. The Ministry of Health attempts to keep its authority to appoint hospital staff, procure medical supplies and equipment; it may do so directly or indirectly by selecting and appointing Board members. Management information systems continue to collect activity measures to be aggregated at the national level for statistical purposes and do not provide financial and clinical data useful for decision making by the Boards and by senior management. Decentralizing decision making to the operational level has had limited success. Stakeholders at the central level devise strategies to maintain their power. Two main obstacles are delegating authority over human resources and finances that are sine qua non conditions for governing and increasing the performance of public hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier
Cortada, Aline Pinheiro dos Santos; da Silva, Telma Gomes; da Silva, André Campos; Golmia, Ricardo Prado; Guerra, Renata Leborato; Takemoto, Maíra Libertad Soligo; Monteiro, Roberta Dyonisio Canaveira; Scheinberg, Morton Aaron
Objective To compare therapy for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and costs related to hospitalization of patients undergoing total knee and hip replacement within the context of the Brazilian health system. Methods A retrospective study of patients undergoing arthroplasty in 2010 in a public hospital and two private hospitals in the state of São Paulo, conducted by means of medical record review. Costs were estimated based on the use of health care resources during hospitalization. A descriptive analysis was performed using frequency and mean (standard deviation) according to the type of care delivered (by public or private organization). Results A total of 215 patients were evaluated, and 56.3% were submitted to knee surgery and 43.7%, to hip replacement. Approximately 88% and 98% of patients from public and private health services, respectively, received some form of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, and enoxaparin was the drug most widely used in both systems. The total cost of prophylaxis was R$ 1,873.01 (R$ 26.38 per patient) in the public service and R$ 21,559.73 (R$ 163.33 per patient) in the private service. For the individuals who presented with thromboembolism, the average cost of hospitalization was R$ 6,210.80 and R$ 43,792.59 per patient in public and private health services, respectively. Conclusion Thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients undergoing arthroplasty is most commonly used in the private health services than public organizations, despite its high costs in both services. The cost per patient with thrombosis during hospitalization was higher than the total cost of prophylaxis, suggesting that prevention is associated to better cost-benefit ratio. PMID:26313439
Verzulli, Rossella; Fiorentini, Gianluca; Lippi Bruni, Matteo; Ugolini, Cristina
This paper examines the behaviour of public hospitals in response to the average payment incentives created by price changes for patients classified in different diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). Using panel data on public hospitals located within the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, we test whether a 1-year increase in DRG prices induced public hospitals to increase their volume of activity and whether a potential response is associated with changes in waiting times and/or length of stay. We find that public hospitals reacted to the policy change by increasing the number of patients with surgical treatments. This effect was smaller in the 2 years after the policy change than in later years, and for providers with a lower excess capacity in the pre-policy period, whereas it did not vary significantly across hospitals according to their degree of financial and administrative autonomy. For patients with medical DRGs, instead, there appeared to be no effect on inpatient volumes. Our estimates also suggest that an increase in DRG prices had no impact on the proportion of patients waiting more than 6 months. Finally, we find no evidence of a significant effect on patients' average length of stay. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Koh, Thean Howe Bryan; Kong, Keng He; Low, Yin Peng
With increasing evidence to support its practice, acupuncture has been integrated within many hospitals around the world. The purpose of this study is to understand the factors affecting decision making of patients as they select acupuncture treatment for their medical conditions and symptoms within a public hospital. A qualitative study consisting of in depth interviews with 14 patients was conducted. All patients attended an acupuncture clinic within a public hospital. Data collected was analysed via thematic analysis. Four main factor groups affecting decision making of patients were identified- factors affecting the level and value of patient-centric care, the confidence and trust patients place within the acupuncture service, the presence of collaborative efforts between acupuncturists and Western medicine practitioners, and the knowledge, culture and belief society has regarding the role of acupuncture and Western medicine. All participants interviewed had more than one factor group present as enablers toward their eventual selection of acupuncture for ailment management. It was also noted that although the majority of participants had sufficient knowledge regarding acupuncture, there were a select few who had misperceptions or no knowledge regarding certain aspects of acupuncture. There may be certain patterns in the way patients choose to utilise acupuncture services in public hospitals. Further studies should also be carried out in other public hospitals to analyse the factor groups identified further.
Ward, Paul R; Rokkas, Philippa; Cenko, Clinton; Pulvirenti, Mariastella; Dean, Nicola; Carney, A Simon; Meyer, Samantha
Waiting times for hospital appointments, treatment and/or surgery have become a major political and health service problem, leading to national maximum waiting times and policies to reduce waiting times. Quantitative studies have documented waiting times for various types of surgery and longer waiting times in public vs private hospitals. However, very little qualitative research has explored patient experiences of waiting, how this compares between public and private hospitals, and the implications for trust in hospitals and healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to provide a deep understanding of the impact of waiting times on patient trust in public and private hospitals. A qualitative study in South Australia, including 36 in-depth interviews (18 from public and 18 from private hospitals). Data collection occurred in 2012-13, and data were analysed using pre-coding, followed by conceptual and theoretical categorisation. Participants differentiated between experiences of 'waiting for' (e.g. for specialist appointments and surgery) and 'waiting in' (e.g. in emergency departments and outpatient clinics) public and private hospitals. Whilst 'waiting for' public hospitals was longer than private hospitals, this was often justified and accepted by public patients (e.g. due to reduced government funding), therefore it did not lead to distrust of public hospitals. Private patients had shorter 'waiting for' hospital services, increasing their trust in private hospitals and distrust of public hospitals. Public patients also recounted many experiences of longer 'waiting in' public hospitals, leading to frustration and anxiety, although they rarely blamed or distrusted the doctors or nurses, instead blaming an underfunded system and over-worked staff. Doctors and nurses were seen to be doing their best, and therefore trustworthy. Although public patients experienced longer 'waiting for' and 'waiting in' public hospitals, it did not lead to widespread distrust
Mays, Glen P.; Mamaril, Cezar B.
Objectives. We investigated changes in hospital participation in local public health systems and the delivery of public health activities over time and assessed the relationship between hospital participation and the scope of activities available in local public health systems. Methods. We used longitudinal observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems to examine how hospital contributions to the delivery of core public health activities varied in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We then used multivariate regression to assess the relationship between the level of hospital contributions and the overall availability of public health activities in the system. Results. Hospital participation in public health activities increased from 37% in 1998 to 41% in 2006 and down to 39% in 2012. Regression results indicated a positive association between hospital participation in public health activities and the total availability of public health services in the systems. Conclusions. Hospital collaboration does play an important role in the overall availability of public health services in local public health systems. Efforts to increase hospital participation in public health may have a positive impact on the scope of services provided and population health in US communities. PMID:26066929
... Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals. 17.51 Section 17.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.51 Emergency use of Department of Defense, Public Health...
... Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals. 17.51 Section 17.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.51 Emergency use of Department of Defense, Public Health...
... Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals. 17.51 Section 17.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.51 Emergency use of Department of Defense, Public Health...
Zhang, Ju-Yang; Long, Ru-Yin; Yan, Hai; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo
Purpose: Since the beginning of the new health care reform in 2009, the state has illustrated the top design and health care improvement strategy of "encouraging social capital to participate in the reform of public hospitals", in accordance with the program's general objective. All areas have been explored on this matter and the results obtained are very interesting, not to mention the acquisition of significant experience. At present, the existing business models in China are mainly the following: Rebuild-Operate-Transfer (ROT), franchise business model, Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, mixed ownership model and business insurance model. This paper introduces a variety of alternative models, and provides a simple analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, for the reform of public hospitals, the government shares should go into franchise mode or mixed ownership, and all property rights should be transferred to the government to ensure the conservation and proliferation of state-owned assets.
Freeman, Nadia; Quigley, Paul
To examine statistics on paracetamol overdose in New Zealand and investigate options to reduce paracetamol overdose rates, through supply reduction strategies. Data was gathered from the Ministry of Health's National Minimum Dataset and Wellington Hospital Emergency Department attendances. Twenty articles on supply reduction strategies were sourced through article database searches. A survey on paracetamol availability from online pharmacies within New Zealand was conducted by searching for New Zealand online pharmacies through Google. A five-year audit of data (2007-2012) from the Wellington Hospital Emergency Department revealed that paracetamol was the most common medication used for overdose (23%). National data on aminophenol derivatives accounted for 22.4% of poisonings in New Zealand's public hospitals. An online search found that 25 out of 27 online pharmacies sold packets containing 50 grams of paracetamol. However, the literature supported restricting packets to the minimum threshold for an acute exposure (10 g). Paracetamol poisoning is the most common form of drug overdose in many developed countries. Tightening restrictions on the quantity of paracetamol sold per packet, in all outlets in New Zealand, may be an effective strategy to reduce overdose rates. This includes online pharmacies where large quantities of paracetamol per packet are available for sale.
Lelièvre, Joachim; Lebel, Denis; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia
Objective To describe publications by hospital pharmacists in France and Quebec and evaluate factors predictive of publication productivity. Method Variables related to scientific publication productivity were identified through a search of the literature and organized into 4 themes (ie, personal and professional characteristics, hospital activities, research and publishing activities, publication-related motivations and perceptions). A questionnaire was developed that included short-answer items and 58 multiple-choice questions to determine respondents' level of agreement with statements about their motivations and perceptions surrounding publishing. Results Four hundred twenty-two hospital pharmacists (218 respondents from France and 204 from Quebec) were recruited. Respondents from France were more prolific than those from Quebec, even when considering factors such as time worked and gender. Furthermore, the percentage of respondents working in a university health center was lower in France than Quebec (46% vs. 70%, p = 0.001), as was the percentage of respondents indicating a mastery of English (43% vs. 88%, p = 0.001). Conclusion Seven factors were predictive of the number of publications per respondent in France and Quebec: practicing hospital pharmacy in France, being male, having academic duties or a PhD, having participated in a clinical trial, having secured funding in one's own name for a research project, and allocating a greater number of hours per week to research. PMID:21451771
Ahmadi, Hossein; Nilashi, Mehrbakhsh; Ibrahim, Othman
This study mainly integrates the mature Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework and recently developed Human-Organization-Technology (HOT) fit model to identify factors that affect the hospital decision in adopting Hospital Information System (HIS). Accordingly, a hybrid Multi-Criteria-Decision-Making (MCDM) model is used to address the dependence relationships of factors with the aid of Analytic Network Processes (ANP) and Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) approaches. The initial model of the study is designed by considering four main dimensions with 13 variables as organizational innovation adoption factors with respect to HIS. By using DEMATEL, the interdependencies strength among the dimensions and variables are tested. The ANP method is then adopted in order to determine the relative importance of the adoption factors, and is used to identify how these factors are weighted and prioritized by the public hospital professionals, who are wholly familiar with the HIS and have years of experience in decision making in hospitals' Information System (IS) department. The results of this study indicate that from the experts' viewpoint "Perceived Technical Competence" is the most important factor in the Human dimension. In the Technology dimension, the experts agree that the "Relative Advantage" is more important in relation to the other factors. In the Organization dimension, "Hospital Size" is considered more important rather than others. And, in the Environment dimension, according to the experts judgment, "Government Policy" is the most important factor. The results of ANP survey from experts also reveal that the experts in the HIS field believed that these factors should not be overlooked by managers of hospitals and the adoption of HIS is more related to more consideration of these factors. In addition, from the results, it is found that the experts are more concerned about Environment and Technology for the adoption HIS. The
He, Xiao Yan; Bundorf, M Kate; Gu, Jian Jun; Zhou, Ping; Xue, Di
The National Health and Family Planning Commission of China has issued more than 400 clinical pathways to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of medical care delivered by public hospitals in China. The aim of our study is to determine whether patient care is compliant with national clinical pathways in public general hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai. We identified the clinical pathways established by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China for 5 common conditions (community-acquired pneumonia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, cesarean section, type-2 diabetes). We randomly selected patients with each condition admitted to one of 7 public general hospitals in Pudong New Area in China in January, 2013. We identified key process indicators (KPIs) for each pathway and, based on chart review for each patient, determined whether the patient's care was compliant for each indicator. We calculated the proportion of care which was compliant with clinical pathways for each indicator, the average proportion of indicators that were met for each patient, and the proportion of patients whose care was compliant for all measures. For selected indicators, we compared compliance rates among hospitals in our study with those from other countries. Average compliance rates across the KPIs for each condition ranged from 61 % for AMI to 89 % for pneumonia. The percent of patient receiving fully compliant care ranged from 0 for AMI and heart failure to 39 % for pneumonia. Compared to the compliance rate for process indicators in the hospitals of other countries, some rates in the hospitals that we audited were higher, but some were lower. Few patients received care that complied with all the pathways for each condition. The reasons for low compliance with national clinical pathways and how to improve clinical quality in public hospitals of China need to be further explored.
Bréchat, Pierre-Henri; Antoine, Leenhardt; Mathieu-Grenouilleau, Marie-Christine; Rymer, Roland; Matisse, François; Baraille, Denis; Beaufils, Philippe
The implementation of the recent act to amend the law on hospitals, patient health and territories (HPST Law) completes the reform of the organization and governance of health facilities, which was announced in 2002 by the "Hospital 2007" plan. What kind of assessments and perspectives can be considered and envisaged for these Hospital Activity Poles? We compared our experience with a review of the professional and scientific literature in order to stimulate answers to these questions for advocacy purposes prior to the Act's implementation. The hospital's cluster of activities should reinforce--not call into question the core activities and the financial stability of the facility, while respecting the contract on agreed objectives and the necessary means and resources to meet the health needs of the catchment population as well as national priorities. Although significant, but limited, successes exist, five obstacles to hospital reorganization can be identified. These include, for example: lack of delegation of management and centralization of decisions, the heterogeneity of numerous Hospital Activity Poles or problems related to timing. These obstacles may cause strain, or put the Hospital Activity Poles and the health facilities in a difficult situation with respect to their dynamics. This may show that the State and social health insurance should steer and direct public health policy and that the delegation of management roles and responsibilities to the Hospital Activity Poles should be addressed.
Jiang, Shuai; Min, Rui; Fang, Peng-Qian
The new round of Healthcare Reform in China has implemented over 3 years since 2009, and promoted greatly the development of public county hospitals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate county hospitals efficiency before and after the healthcare reform, and further assess the reform effectiveness through the comparative analysis of the efficiency. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was employed to calculate the efficiency of 1105 sample hospitals which were selected from 31 provinces of China, also, Tobit regression was used to regress against those main external environmental factors. Our results show that the scales and amounts of service of hospitals had increased sharply, however, the efficiency was relatively low and decreased slightly from 2008 to 2012. Thirteen (1.18%) in 2008 and six (0.54%) hospitals in 2012 were defined as technically efficient, and the average scores were 0.2916 and 0.2503. The technical efficiency average score of the post-reform was significantly less than that of the pre-reform (p < 0.001), and the score of eastern region was highest and the western was lowest among three regions of China. It suggests the reform had not well improved county hospital efficiency although hospitals have reached a fair developing scale, and the corresponding policies and measures should be put into effect for improving efficiency, especially in the level and structure of health investment, operation and supervision mechanism of county hospitals.
Healthcare authorities are encouraging managers in hospitals to acquire clinical experience and knowledge in order to better carry out and coordinate healthcare service delivery. The main objective of this paper is to analyse how the clinical experience of hospital managers is related to public health institutions’ performance. It is proposed that the effect of the clinical experience on operative and financial organizational performance is indirect through the mediating variables of perceived utility of management information and horizontal management control system. This paper analyses how these variables impact hospital performance through the data from a survey sent to 364 hospital managers in Brazil. The results show that managers’ clinical experience is related to higher perceived utility of historical, financial, short-term, and internal information, but not with horizontal control adoption in hospitals. Furthermore, our results show that, in hospitals, perceived utility of forecasted, non-financial, long-term, and external managerial information positively affects hospitals’ financial performance, while adoption of horizontal control management positively affects operational performance. Through showing evidence that clinical background could explain the differences not only in hospital service management but also in information capabilities and management control processes, this study offer meaningful implications for healthcare authorities and hospital managers involved in the development and implementation of strategies in the health sector. PMID:29673192
Patterns of trauma and trauma systems in New Zealand are similar to those in Australia. Both countries have geographical considerations, terrain and distance, that can cause delay to definitive care. There are only 7 hospitals in New Zealand that currently manage major trauma patients, and consequently, trauma patients are often hospitalized some distance from their homes. The prehospital services are provided by one major provider throughout the country, with a high level of volunteers providing these services in the rural areas. New Zealand has a national no-fault accident insurance system, the Accident Compensation Corporation, which funds all trauma-related healthcare from the roadside to rehabilitation. This insurance system provides 24-hour no-fault personal injury insurance coverage. The Accident Compensation Corporation provides bulk funding to hospitals for resources to manage the care of trauma patients. Case managers are assigned for major trauma patients. This national system also has a rehabilitation focus. The actual funds are managed by the hospitals, and this allows hospital staff to provide optimum care for trauma patients. New Zealand works closely with Australia in the development of a national trauma registry, research, and education in trauma care for patients in Australasia (the islands of the southern Pacific Ocean, including Australia, New Zealand, and New Guinea).
Vergeire-Dalmacion, Godofreda Ruiz; Itable, Jill Rafols; Baja, Emmanuel Saporna
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. However, limited information is available about the risk of HAIs in naturally ventilated wards (NVWs) and mechanically ventilated intensive care units (MVICUs) of public hospitals in the Philippines. We aimed to assess the association between HAIs and type of ventilation in an urban tertiary care hospital in the Philippines. A cross-sectional point-prevalence survey of infections was done in NVWs and MVICUs of a tertiary care hospital in December 2013. Multivariate analyses were done to examine the associations between HAIs and type of ventilation and other risk factors. Of the 224 patients surveyed, 63 (28%) patients had 69 HAIs. Pneumonia was the most common HAI (35%). Wards near areas with high vehicular activity had more respiratory HAI cases. Being immunocompromised is a risk factor for HAI for pediatric and adult patients. Among pediatric patients, staying in MVICUs had a lower risk for HAIs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-1.08) compared to staying in NVWs. For adult patients, a higher risk for HAIs (AOR: 2.41; 95% CI: 0.29-18.20) was observed in MVICUs compared to NVWs. Type of ventilation is not a risk factor for HAIs. Patients who are immunocompromised may be at a higher risk for HAI. Indoor air pollution, proximity to congested main thoroughfare, and increased human foot traffic may contribute to the susceptibility of patients to HAIs. Hospital layout should be considered in infection control.
Ben Cheikh, Wafa; Abad, José María; Arribas, Federico; Andrés, Eva; Rabanaque, María José
To describe hospitalization rates and hospital morbidity among the foreign population residing in Aragon (Spain) by country of birth, between 2004 and 2007, and to compare these rates with those in the autochthonous population. A retrospective longitudinal study was carried out of hospital discharges of the foreign population in public hospitals in Aragon. Utilization rates were estimated by sex, age, country of birth and main diagnosis. Poisson regression was used to estimate the utilization rate ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Hospitalization rates were lower in the foreign population (adjusted RR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.51-0.56), except in women aged between 15 and 24 years (RR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.8-3.0) and among those born in the Maghreb (RR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.7; 1.9), sub-Saharan Africa (RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.9-2.1) and Asia (RR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3-1.6). When hospital discharges related to obstetrics and gynecology were excluded, only women born in sub-Saharan Africa continued to have adjusted RR greater than 1. These women had higher hospitalization rates in groups of infectious and parasitic diseases (RR: 2.5) and blood and blood-forming organs (RR: 2.8). In Aragon (Spain), public hospital utilization is lower in foreigners than in the autochthonous population. The diseases treated varied by country of birth. The diseases prevalent in these countries, together with hereditary diseases, can increase hospital utilization rates. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Micallef, Christianne; Kildonaviciute, Kornelija; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Scibor-Stepien, Aleksandra; Santos, Reem; Aliyu, Sani H; Cooke, Fiona J; Pacey, Sarah; Holmes, Alison H; Enoch, David A
The rising global tide of antimicrobial resistance is a well-described phenomenon. Employing effective and innovative antimicrobial stewardship strategies is an essential approach to combat this public health threat. Education of the public and patients is paramount to enable the success of such strategies. A panel of hospital multidisciplinary healthcare professionals was set up and a short quiz containing true/false statements around antimicrobial stewardship and resistance was designed and piloted. An educational leaflet with the correct replies and supporting information was also produced and disseminated. Participants were recruited on a single day (18 November 2015) from the hospital outpatient clinics and the hospital outpatient pharmacy waiting room. One hundred and forty-five completed quizzes were returned, providing a total of 1450 answers. Overall, 934 of 1450 (64%) statements were scored correctly whilst 481 (33%) were scored incorrectly; 35 (3%) statements were left unscored. We speculate that these results may demonstrate that respondents understood the statements, as only a small proportion of statements were left unanswered. The question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial resistance and the question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial stewardship obtained the most incorrect replies (85% and 72%, respectively). However, a specific factual recall question regarding only one microorganism (MRSA) received the most correct responses (99%). We describe a simple, innovative method of engagement with patients and the general public to help educate and disseminate important public health messages around antimicrobial resistance and stewardship. We also identified the need for public health campaigns to address the knowledge gaps found around this topic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Elias, Paulo Eduardo
To analyze social health organizations in the light of public control and the guarantee of equity of access to health services. Utilizing the case study technique, two social health organizations in the metropolitan region of São Paulo were selected. The analytical categories were equity of access and public control, and these were based on interviews with key informants and technical-administrative reports. It was observed that the overall funding and administrative control of the social health organizations are functions of the state administrator. The presence of a local administrator is important for ensuring equity of access. Public control is expressed through supervisory actions, by means of accounting and financial procedures. Equity of access and public control are not taken into consideration in the administration of these organizations. The central question lies in the capacity of the public authorities to have a presence in implementing this model at the local level, thereby ensuring equity of access and taking public control into consideration.
Charney, Rachel L; Rebmann, Terri; Dalawari, Preeti; Endrizal, Amy
Hospitals are perceived as stable sources of support and assistance for the community during disasters. Expectations may outstrip hospital plans or ability to provide for the public. The purpose of this project was to explore racial disparities found in prior research and general perceptions related to the public's expectations of hospitals during disasters. Qualitative interviews were conducted with members of the general public. Content analysis was used to analyze the data and identify themes that describe racial differences related to public expectations of hospitals. A total of 28 interviews were conducted. Half of the participants (n = 14) were black, 57% (n = 16) female, with a mean age of 49 years. No racial differences in terms of the general public's expectations of hospitals were identified. Participants believed that hospitals have a service role and responsibility during disaster response to provide both tangible and intangible supplies and resources to the uninjured public. Hospitals were perceived as able to provide these resources, in terms of having sufficient funds and supplies to share with the uninjured public. In addition, hospitals are perceived as being caring organizations that have compassion toward the public and thus as welcoming places to seek assistance following a disaster. Hospitals need to be prepared to manage the general public's expectations both before and during disasters.
Ozgulbas, Nermin; Kisa, Adnan
The Turkish health system is mainly financed by public sources such as taxes and premiums collected from workers. According to 2003 data, total health expenditures were 4.5% of the country's Gross Domestic Product. Currently, 56% of the system is financed by the Ministry of Health, and services are also provided by the Ministry. The main sources of finance among the Ministry of Health hospitals are general budget contributions made by the Ministry and revolving funds. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the financial conditions of those Ministry of Health hospitals that have revolving funds. The financial trends of 2514 hospitals were followed from 1996 to 2000, and financial statement analyses were conducted. The results of the study show that the Ministry of Health hospitals are not professionally administered for their financial situation and also that their financial resources are not used effectively. The hospitals had difficulty in collecting debts and had problems in cash returns. At the end of the study, policy suggestions are made for health care managers toward improving financial conditions in these public hospitals.
Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S
Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. Methods: We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. Results: The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Conclusion: Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly. PMID:12034999
Zhang, Fengfan; Luo, Zhenni; Chen, Ting; Min, Rui; Fang, Pengqian
Objective The aim of the present study was to explore prominent factors affecting turnover intentions among public hospital doctors in urban areas, particularly in Xiangyang City, Hubei Province, a middle-level city in central China. Methods Questionnaires were used to collect data from 284 public hospital doctors. Pearson's Chi-squared was used to assess whether sociodemographic and other factors were related to the turnover intentions of public hospital doctors. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine the significant factors that influence turnover intentions. Results The analysis revealed that 28.2% of public hospital doctors intended to leave the hospital where they were currently employed. Dissatisfaction with working conditions and hospital management processes, as well as work pressures, were significant factors contributing to the turnover intentions of public hospital doctors. Conclusion Research into turnover intentions indicates that public hospital doctors surveyed in urban China give greater weight to their professional environment and career development rather than salary in their employment decisions. What is known about the topic? Turnover of medical staff is a concern to hospital administrators because it is costly and detrimental to organisational performance and quality of care. Most studies have focused on the effects of individual and organisational factors on nurses' intentions to leave their employment. Income dissatisfaction was one of the determining factors of turnover intentions in previous studies. What does this paper add? The satisfaction of public hospital doctors with regard to income is not a determining factor of turnover intentions. In contrast with findings of previous studies, the doctors in public hospitals in urban China in the present study gave greater weight to their professional environment and career development in their employment decisions. What are the implications for practitioners? The findings suggest
Monteiro, Inês; Chillida, Manuela de Santana Pi; Moreno, Luciana Contrera
Nursing personnel is essential in hospital, health centers and enterprises and is the large work force in health system. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a large city in two public hospitals and five health centre with the objective of to evaluate the work ability and health aspects of nursing staff. The sample was composed by 570 workers. The Work Ability Index - WAI and a questionnaire with socio-demographic, health and life style data was applied. The majority of workers was women (83%), married (50.4%), and was working in night shift work (65.6%); 61.4% was auxiliary nursing, 22.3% was registered nurses (RN). The average age was 38.9 years (SD 7.8) and the Body Mass Index mean was 25.8 (SD 5.3). Only 17.2% referred to practice at least 150 minutes of physical exercise five times per week or more. 26.8% had a second job. The work ability mean was 39.3 (SD 5.3) points. Age had a negative correlation with WAI (p=0.0052). Public hospital and health centre workers had poor work ability score when compared with workers from another branches. Public policies related to workplace health promotion need to be implemented in public hospital and health centre to improve the work ability.
Hanlon, N T
An era of managerialism in health care delivery systems is now well ensconced throughout the nations of the OECD. This development has occurred, in large part, as a response to funding pressures in institutionally based health care delivery imposed by principal third party insurers. In the case of publicly funded hospitals, the more traditional concerns for stewardship and appeasement of professional groups is being replaced by a greater emphasis on cost consciousness and corporate-style leadership as these organizations seek to reposition themselves in new funding and regulatory environments. While institutional theory and strategic management perspectives help illuminate these issues, this paper argues that a place-based perspective is also needed to understand the changes currently underway in health care delivery and publicly funded human services more generally. This is illustrated with reference to developments in the strategic management of public hospitals in the province of Ontario. Evidence from a survey of senior administrators of public hospitals, distributed at the height of these policy reform initiatives, is examined to shed light on local level management responses to changing policy and fiscal pressures. The data suggest that the latest policy directions in the province of Ontario will 'encourage' hospital executives in particular community settings to steer their organizations in very unfamiliar directions. The findings suggest a need for greater attention to context and setting in health services research and policy.
Bozaykut, Tuba; Gurbuz, F Gulruh
Given the salience of the interplay between trust and power relations in organizational settings, this paper examines the perceptions of social power and its effects on trust in supervisors within the context of public hospitals. Following the theoretical background from which the study model is developed, the recent situation of hospitals within Turkish healthcare system is discussed to further elucidate the working conditions of physicians. Sample data were collected employing a structured questionnaire that was distributed to physicians working at seven different public hospitals. The statistical analyses indicate that perceptions of supervisors' social power affect subordinates' trust in supervisors. Although coercive power is found to have the greatest impact on trust in supervisors, the influence of the power base is weak. In addition, the results show that perceptions of social power differ between genders. However, the results do not support any of the hypotheses regarding the relations between trust in supervisors and the examined demographic variables. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rourke, Diane; Samsundar, Devica Ramjit; Shalini, Channapatna
Baptist Hospital of Miami has been honoring its staff authors annually during National Library Week since 1979, at the time the library was relocated. Upon "doing the math" and realizing that twenty-five years had passed, a special event was planned to celebrate the occasion in 2004. A merger of four hospitals in 1995 to form Baptist Health South Florida, and an addition of a fifth hospital in 2003 added into the complexity of these publications. Organizing the event led to the conclusion that there had to be a "better way" to manage the publication archive. This paper will include a look back at the event's past, present efforts to develop an archival database, and future plans to make articles available electronically to users, copyright permitting.
Alonso, José M; Clifton, Judith; Díaz-Fuentes, Daniel
Madrid has recently become the site of one of the most controversial cases of public healthcare reform in the European Union. Despite the fact that the introduction of New Public Management (NPM) into Madrid hospitals has been vigorous, little scholarship has been done to test whether NPM actually led to technical efficiency. This paper is one of the first attempts to do so. We deploy a bootstrapped data envelopment analysis to compare efficiency scores in traditionally managed hospitals and those operating with new management formulas. We do not find evidence that NPM hospitals are more efficient than traditionally managed ones. Moreover, our results suggest that what actually matters may be the management itself, rather than the management model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weerawat, Waressara; Pichitlamken, Juta; Subsombat, Peerapong
The orthopedic outpatient department (OPD) ward in a large Thai public hospital is modeled using Discrete-Event Stochastic (DES) simulation. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used to measure effects across various clinical operations during different shifts throughout the day. By considering various KPIs such as wait times to see doctors, percentage of patients who can see a doctor within a target time frame, and the time that the last patient completes their doctor consultation, bottlenecks are identified and resource-critical clinics can be prioritized. The simulation model quantifies the chronic, high patient congestion that is prevalent amongst Thai public hospitals with very high patient-to-doctor ratios. Our model can be applied across five different OPD wards by modifying the model parameters. Throughout this work, we show how DES models can be used as decision-support tools for hospital management.
Rossi, T; Murillo Fort, C; Puente Karolys, J C
This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation.Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality.Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budget administration (activity and negotiation indicators). Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares), which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public hospitals have adequate purchase negotiation instruments and a uniform legal framework, they can achieve a good level of activity. Furthermore, public hospitals can contribute to reductions in price and price dispersion, at the same time as improving efficiency in the assignation and utilization of
Saturno-Hernández, Pedro Jesús; Martínez-Nicolás, Ismael; Poblano-Verástegui, Ofelia; Vértiz-Ramírez, José de Jesús; Suárez-Ortiz, Erasto Cosme; Magaña-Izquierdo, Manuel; Kawa-Karasik, Simón
To select, pilot test and implement a set of indicators for tertiary public hospitals. Quali-quantitative study in four stages: identification of indicators used internationally; selection and prioritization by utility, feasibility and reliability; exploration of the quality of sources of information in six hospitals; pilot feasibility and reliability, and follow-up measurement. From 143 indicators, 64 were selected and eight were prioritized. The scan revealed sources of information deficient. In the pilot, three indicators were feasible with reliability limited. Has conducted workshops to improve records and sources of information; nine hospitals reported measurements of a quarter. Eight priority indicators could not be measured immediately due to limitations in the data sources for its construction. It is necessary to improve mechanisms of registration and processing of data in this group of hospital.
Matis, Georgios K; Birbilis, Theodossios A; Chrysou, Olga I
The scope of this research has been to investigate the satisfaction of Greek patients hospitalized in a tertiary care university public hospital in Alexandroupolis, Greece, in order to improve medical, nursing and organizational/administrative services. It is a cross-sectional study involving 200 patients hospitalized for at least 24 h. We administered a satisfaction questionnaire previously approved by the Greek Health Ministry. Four aspects of satisfaction were employed (medical, hotel facilities/organizational, nursing, global). Using principal component analysis, summated scales were formed and tested for internal consistency with the aid of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The non-parametric Spearman rank correlation coefficient was also used. The results reveal a relatively high degree of global satisfaction (75.125%), yet satisfaction is higher for the medical (89.721%) and nursing (86.432%) services. Moreover, satisfaction derived from the hotel facilities and the general organization was found to be more limited (76.536%). Statistically significant differences in participant satisfaction were observed (depending on age, gender, citizenship, education, number of previous admissions and self-assessment of health status at the first and last day of patients' stay) for the medical, nursing and hotel facilities/organizational dimension, but not for global satisfaction. The present study confirms the results of previously published Greek surveys.
Lievens, Delfine; Vander Laenen, Freya; Christiaens, Johan
In view of the current economic crisis and the resulting austerity measures being implemented by governments across Europe, public expenditure for substance abuse treatment has increasingly become a subject of discussion. An EU cross-country comparison would allow an estimation of the total amount of public resources spent on substance abuse treatment, compare various substance abuse treatment funding options, and evaluate the division of expenditures between alcohol and illegal drugs. The purpose of this study is to estimate the public spending of EU countries for alcohol and illegal drug abuse treatment in hospitals. Our study uses a uniform methodology in order to enable valid cross-national comparisons. Our data are drawn from the Eurostat database, which provides anno 2010 data on government spending for the treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in 21 EU member states. The cross-country comparison is restricted to hospitals, since data were unavailable for other types of treatment providers. The systematic registration of in- and outpatient data is essential to monitoring public expenditures on substance abuse treatment using international databases. Total public spending for hospital-based treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in the 21 EU member states studied is estimated to be 7.6 billion euros. Per capita expenditures for treatment of illegal drug abuse vary, ranging from 0.1 euros in Romania to 13 euros in Sweden. For alcohol abuse, that figure varied from 0.9 euros in Bulgaria to 24 euros in Austria. These results confirm other studies indicating that public expenditures for alcohol treatment exceed that for illegal drug treatment. Multiple factors may influence the number of hospital days for alcohol or illegal substance abuse treatment, and expenditures fluctuate accordingly. In this respect, we found a strong correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and public expenditures per hospital day. The prevalence of problematic
Background In view of the current economic crisis and the resulting austerity measures being implemented by governments across Europe, public expenditure for substance abuse treatment has increasingly become a subject of discussion. An EU cross-country comparison would allow an estimation of the total amount of public resources spent on substance abuse treatment, compare various substance abuse treatment funding options, and evaluate the division of expenditures between alcohol and illegal drugs. The purpose of this study is to estimate the public spending of EU countries for alcohol and illegal drug abuse treatment in hospitals. Methods Our study uses a uniform methodology in order to enable valid cross-national comparisons. Our data are drawn from the Eurostat database, which provides anno 2010 data on government spending for the treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in 21 EU member states. The cross-country comparison is restricted to hospitals, since data were unavailable for other types of treatment providers. The systematic registration of in- and outpatient data is essential to monitoring public expenditures on substance abuse treatment using international databases. Results Total public spending for hospital-based treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in the 21 EU member states studied is estimated to be 7.6 billion euros. Per capita expenditures for treatment of illegal drug abuse vary, ranging from 0.1 euros in Romania to 13 euros in Sweden. For alcohol abuse, that figure varied from 0.9 euros in Bulgaria to 24 euros in Austria. These results confirm other studies indicating that public expenditures for alcohol treatment exceed that for illegal drug treatment. Conclusions Multiple factors may influence the number of hospital days for alcohol or illegal substance abuse treatment, and expenditures fluctuate accordingly. In this respect, we found a strong correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and public expenditures per
Darney, Blair G; Simancas-Mendoza, Willis; Edelman, Alison B; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Tolosa, Jorge E; Rodriguez, Maria I
Until 2006, legal induced abortion was completely banned in Colombia. Few facilities are equipped or willing to offer abortion services; often adolescents experience even greater barriers of access in this context. We examined post abortion care (PAC) and legal induced abortion in two large public hospitals. We tested the association of hospital site, procedure type (manual vacuum aspiration vs. sharp curettage), and age (adolescents vs. women 20 years and over) with service type (PAC or legal induced abortion). Retrospective cohort study using 2010 billing data routinely collected for reimbursement (N=1353 procedures). We utilized descriptive statistics, multivariable logistic regression and predicted probabilities. Adolescents made up 22% of the overall sample (300/1353). Manual vacuum aspiration was used in one-third of cases (vs. sharp curettage). Adolescents had lower odds of documented PAC (vs. induced abortion) compared with women over age 20 (OR=0.42; 95% CI=0.21-0.86). The absolute difference of service type by age, however, is very small, controlling for hospital site and procedure type (.97 probability of PAC for adolescents compared with .99 for women 20 and over). Regardless of age, PAC via sharp curettage is the current standard in these two public hospitals. Both adolescents and women over 20 are in need of access to legal abortion services utilizing modern technologies in the public sector in Colombia. Documentation of abortion care is an essential first step to determining barriers to access and opportunities for quality improvement and better health outcomes for women. Following partial decriminalization of abortion in Colombia, in public hospitals nearly all abortion services are post-abortion care, not induced abortion. Sharp curettage is the dominant treatment for both adolescents and women over 20. Women seek care in the public sector for abortion, and must have access to safe, quality services. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tilma, Jens; Nørgaard, Mette; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Johnsen, Søren Paaske
We aimed to determine the incidence rate and time trend of approved treatment injuries in Danish public hospitals from 2006 to 2012 and also to identify independent predictors of severe treatment injuries among patient and system factors and characterize the injuries. We performed a nationwide, historical observational study on data from the Danish Patient Compensation Association, which receives all compensation claims from Danish health care. All approved closed claims of treatment injuries occurring in public hospitals 2006-12 were included. Health care activity information was obtained through Statistics Denmark. Incidence rates were determined as treatment injuries per year by population and by public hospital contacts. By using a multivariable logistic regression model, we calculated mutually adjusted odds ratios to assess the association between potential predictors and severe injuries among approved claims. We identified 10,959 approved treatment injury claims in 2006-12. The total payout was USD 339 million. The mean incidence rate medians were 27.9 injuries/100,000 inhabitants/year and 0.21 injuries/1000 public hospital contacts/year. These did not increase overtime. Severe injuries and preventable cases comprised 11.0 and 41.0%, respectively. Predictors of severe injury included age 0 and above 40 years, male gender and higher level of comorbidity. The incidence rate of approved closed claims at Danish public hospitals appears stable. A high proportion of injuries are preventable and both patient- and system-related factors may predict severe injuries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Kisa, Adnan
By nature, hospitals are extremely complex organizations, combining many different professional groups within an intricate administrative structure. Conflicts therefore expectedly arise between individuals, groups, and departments. It is in the interest of health care administrators to periodically assess the major factors giving rise to these conflicts. In this study, a questionnaire designed to measure sources of conflict in the workplace was completed by 204 staff members at Gazi University Hospital. Of the participants, 30.9% were physicians, and 12.5% were administrators at various levels; 61.5% were female, and 38.5% were male. In terms of work experience, 52.6% of participants had worked less than 5 years at the hospital. The results of the study show that educational differences among the hospital staff were a major barrier to good communication and information flow between groups. Professionals in the same specialties experienced fewer conflicts. Another source of conflict was that resource allocation was considered unfair across departments. Although the hospital management provided an ombudsman for staff concerns, staff rarely resorted to the ombudsman because of the stigma associated with complaining. A lack of opportunity for career advancement was mentioned by 52% of the participants as a source of conflict. At present, job performance and rewards are not closely related in public university hospitals in Turkey because promotions and pay raises are strictly limited by law. Bureaucracy was also perceived to be a source of conflict, with 48.4% of participants saying that their performance was less than optimal because of the presence of multiple supervisors. This pilot study suggests that in Turkey, legislative reform is needed to give public university hospitals more flexibility regarding work incentives, open-door policies at the administrative level, and social interactions to improve teamwork among hospital staff.
Pinilla, María Y; Abadía, César E
In this article, we narrate and analyze the historical configuration that a group of female workers and a collective of social organizations made about the Hospital San Juan de Dios (HSJD) and Instituto Materno Infantil (IMI) in Bogotá, Colombia, within the neoliberal crisis in health. Our ethnographic research intersects the Latinamerican traditions of collaborative ethnography and historic anthropology. The research was conducted in two sites. In the first one, from 2005 until 2015, we had informal conversations and conducted workshops and semi-structured interviews with IMI workers. The second site corresponds to our participation in the deliberations of the Mesa Jurídica por el San Juan de Dios (2008-2009), which aimed to elevate a class action to defend the hospitals. We found that workers and social organizations made use of the colonial origin of the hospitals and their institutionalization as center of welfare policies in the country as a way to highlight their patrimonial, historical, educational and social importance. This historical construction critiques efforts that negate or transform the public character of the hospitals and helped them carry on different actions to denounce the neoliberal health care reform as the cause of the hospitals most important crisis and closing. The different actors denounce the change in the hospitals-state relationship, which transited from being central for the development of social policies to reflecting a symbolic and material elimination of the hospitals. Such transition benefits the market interests established by the neoliberal model.
Doshmangir, Leila; Rashidian, Arash; Jafari, Mehdi; Takian, Amirhossein; Ravaghi, Hamid
Policy formulation and adoption often happen in a black box. Implementation challenges affect and modify the nature of a policy. We analyzed hospitals' autonomy policy in Iran that was intended to reduce hospitals' financial burden on government and improve their efficiency. We followed a retrospective case-study methodology, involving inductive and deductive analyses of parliamentary proceedings, policy documents, gray literature, published papers and interview transcripts. We analyzed data to develop a policy map that included important dates and events leading to the policy process milestones. We identified four time-periods with distinctive features: 'moving toward the policy' (1989 - 1994), disorganized implementation' (1995 - 1997), 'continuing challenges and indecisiveness in hospitals financing' (1998 - 2003), and 'other structural and financial policies in public hospitals' (2004 to date). We found that stakeholders required different and conflicting objectives, which certainly resulted in an unsatisfactory implementation process. The policy led to long-lasting and often negative changes in the hospital sector and the entire Iranian health system. Hospital autonomy appeared to be an ill-advised policy to remedy the inefficiency problems in low socioeconomic areas of the country. The assumption that hospital autonomy reforms would necessarily result in a better health system, may be a false assumption as their success relies on many contextual, structural and policy implementation factors.
Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Tae Hyun; Yoo, Ji Won
Purpose This study compared in-hospital mortality within 30 days of admission, lengths of stay, and inpatient charges among patients with heart failure admitted to public and private hospitals in South Korea. Materials and Methods We obtained health insurance claims data for all heart failure inpatients nationwide between November 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. These data were then matched with hospital-level data, and multi-level regression models were examined. A total of 8406 patients from 253 hospitals, including 31 public hospitals, were analyzed. Results The in-hospital mortality rate within 30 days of admission was 0.92% greater and the mean length of stay was 1.94 days longer at public hospitals than at private hospitals (mortality: 5.18% and 4.26%, respectively; LOS: 12.08 and 10.14 days, respectively). The inpatient charges were 11.4% lower per case and 24.5% lower per day at public hospitals than at private hospitals. After adjusting for patient- and hospital-level confounders, public hospitals had a 1.62-fold higher in-hospital mortality rate, a 16.5% longer length of stay, and an 11.7% higher inpatient charge per case than private hospitals, although the charges of private hospitals were greater in univariate analysis. Conclusion We recommend that government agencies and policy makers continue to monitor quality of care, lengths of stay in the hospital, and expenditures according to type of hospital ownership to improve healthcare outcomes and reduce spending. PMID:25837196
McCrabb, Sam; Baker, Amanda L; Attia, John; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie; Palazzi, Kerrin; Naylor, Justine; Harris, Ian A; Doran, Christopher M; George, Johnson; Wolfenden, Luke; Skelton, Eliza; Bonevski, Billie
Background: Smoke-free hospital policies are becoming increasingly common to promote good health and quit attempts among patients who smoke. This study aims to assess: staff perceived enforcement and compliance with smoke-free policy; the current provision of smoking cessation care; and the characteristics of staff most likely to report provision of care to patients. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey of medical, nursing, and allied staff from two Australian public hospitals was conducted. Staff report of: patient and staff compliance with smoke-free policy; perceived policy enforcement; the provision of the 5As for smoking cessation (Ask, Assess, Advise, Assist, and Arrange follow-up); and the provision of stop-smoking medication are described. Logistic regressions were used to determine respondent characteristics related to the provision of the 5As and stop-smoking medication use during hospital admission. Results: A total of 805 respondents participated. Self-reported enforcement of smoke-free policy was low (60.9%), together with compliance for both patients (12.9%) and staff (23.6%). The provision of smoking cessation care was variable, with the delivery of the 5As ranging from 74.7% (ask) to 18.1% (arrange follow-up). Medical staff (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, CI = 1.13, 3.85, p = 0.018) and full time employees (OR = 2.03, CI = 1.06, 3.89, p = 0.033) were more likely to provide smoking cessation care always/most of the time. Stop-smoking medication provision decreased with increasing age of staff (OR = 0.98, CI = 0.96, 0.99, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Smoke-free policy enforcement and compliance and the provision of smoking cessation care remains low in hospitals. Efforts to improve smoking cessation delivery by clinical staff are warranted.
Tiong, M K; Levinson, M R; Oldroyd, J C; Staples, M P
Medical student numbers in Australian universities have more than doubled since 2000. There are concerns about the ability for existing clinical training sites to accommodate this increase in student numbers, and there have been calls to increase training in private hospitals. The receptiveness of patients in private hospitals will influence the success of such placements. We aimed to evaluate whether patients in a private hospital are as receptive to medical students as patients in a public hospital. Cross-sectional survey of patients conducted at a private and a public teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Main outcome measures were willingness to allow a medical student to participate in an interview, physical examination and procedures (electrocardiogram, venepuncture and digital rectal examination), and patient attitudes towards medical students as assessed by a series of 20 attitude statements and a summative attitude score. Patients at the private hospital were more willing than patients at the public hospital to allow a medical student to take their history unsupervised (112/146, 76.7% vs 90/141, 63.8%; P = 0.02). The distribution of patient willingness did not otherwise differ between hospitals for physical examination or procedures. There was no difference in the mean attitude score between hospitals (15.3 ± 0.8 private vs 15.4 ± 1.2 public, P = 0.38), and responses differed between hospitals for only four of the 20 attitude statements. Our findings suggest that patients in a private hospital are at least as receptive to medical students as patients in a public hospital. © 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Zailani, Suhaiza; Gilani, Mina Sayyah; Nikbin, Davoud; Iranmanesh, Mohammad
The purpose of this study is to explore the determinants of telemedicine acceptance in selected public hospitals in Malaysia and to investigate the effect of health culture on the relationship between these determinants and telemedicine acceptance. Data were gathered by means of a survey of physicians and nurses as the main group of users of telemedicine technology from hospitals that are currently using telemedicine technology. The results indicated that government policies, top management support, perception of usefulness and computer self-efficiency have a positive and significant impact on telemedicine acceptance by public hospitals in Malaysia. The results also confirmed the moderating role of health culture on the relationship between government policies as well as perceived usefulness on telemedicine acceptance by Malaysian hospitals. The results are useful for decision-makers as well as managers to recognize the potential role of telemedicine and assist in the process of implementation, adoption and utilization, and, therefore, spread the usage of telemedicine technology in more hospitals in the country.
Villa, Stefano; Kane, Nancy
Many countries with universal health systems have relied primarily on publicly-owned hospitals to provide acute care services to covered populations; however, many policymakers have experimented with expansion of the private sector for what they hope will yield more cost-effective care. The study provides new insight into the effects of hospital privatization in three American states (California, Florida, and Massachusetts) in the period 1994 to 2003, focusing on three aspects: 1) profitability; 2) productivity and efficiency; and 3) benefits to the community (particularly, scope of services offered, price level, and impact on charity care). For each variable analyzed, we compared the 3-year mean values pre- and postconversion. Pre- and postconversion changes in hospitals' performance were then compared with a nonequivalent comparison group of American public hospitals. The results of our study indicate that following privatization, hospitals increased operating margins, reduced their length of stay, and enjoyed higher occupancy, but at some possible cost to access to care for their communities in terms of higher price markups and loss of beneficial but unprofitable services. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Hao; Dong, Siping
China has long been stuck in applying traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to measure technical efficiency of public hospitals without bias correction of efficiency scores. In this article, we have introduced the Bootstrap-DEA approach from the international literature to analyze the technical efficiency of public hospitals in Tianjin (China) and tried to improve the application of this method for benchmarking and inter-organizational learning. It is found that the bias corrected efficiency scores of Bootstrap-DEA differ significantly from those of the traditional Banker, Charnes, and Cooper (BCC) model, which means that Chinese researchers need to update their DEA models for more scientific calculation of hospital efficiency scores. Our research has helped shorten the gap between China and the international world in relative efficiency measurement and improvement of hospitals. It is suggested that Bootstrap-DEA be widely applied into afterward research to measure relative efficiency and productivity of Chinese hospitals so as to better serve for efficiency improvement and related decision making. PMID:26396090
Islam, M. Saiful; Luby, Stephen P.; Sultana, Rebeca; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Uddin, Main; Nahar, Nazmun; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Gurley, Emily S.
Background Family caregivers are integral to patient care in Bangladeshi public hospitals. This study explored family caregivers’ activities and their perceptions and practices related to disease transmission and prevention in public hospitals. Methods Trained qualitative researchers conducted a total of 48 hours of observation in 3 public tertiary care hospitals and 12 in-depth interviews with family caregivers. Results Family caregivers provided care 24 hours a day, including bedside nursing, cleaning care, and psychologic support. During observations, family members provided 2,065 episodes of care giving, 75% (1,544) of which involved close contact with patients. We observed family caregivers washing their hands with soap on only 4 occasions. The majority of respondents said diseases are transmitted through physical contact with surfaces and objects that have been contaminated with patient secretions and excretions, and avoiding contact with these contaminated objects would help prevent disease. Conclusion Family caregivers are at risk for hospital-acquired infection from their repeated exposure to infectious agents combined with their inadequate hand hygiene and knowledge about disease transmission. Future research should explore potential strategies to improve family caregivers’ knowledge about disease transmission and reduce family caregiver exposures, which may be accomplished by improving care provided by health care workers. PMID:24406254
Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn; Sutherns, Rebecca; Macdonald, Margaret; Luce, Jacquelyne
as the boundaries between public and private spaces become increasingly fluid, interest is growing in exploring how those spaces are used as work environments, how professionals both construct and convey themselves in those spaces, and how the lines dividing spaces traditionally along public and private lines are blurred. This paper draws on literature from critical geography, organisational studies, and feminist sociology to interpret the work experiences of midwives in Ontario, Canada who provide maternity care both in hospitals and in clients' homes. qualitative design involving in-depth semi-structured interviews content coded thematically. Ontario, Canada. community midwives who practice at home and in hospital. the accounts of practicing midwives illustrate the ways in which hospital and home work spaces are sites of both compromise and resistance. With the intention of making birthing women feel more `at home', midwives describe how they attempt to recreate the woman's home in the hospital. Similarly, midwives also reorient women's homes to a certain degree into a more standardised work space for home birth attendance. Many midwives also described how they like `guests' in both settings. there seems to be a conscious or unconscious convergence of midwifery work spaces to accommodate Ontario midwives' unique model of practice. we link these findings of midwives' place of work on their experiences as workers to professional work experiences in both public and private spaces and offer suggestions for further exploration of the concept of professionals as guests in their places of work. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Islam, M Saiful; Luby, Stephen P; Sultana, Rebeca; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Uddin, Main; Nahar, Nazmun; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M Jahangir; Gurley, Emily S
Family caregivers are integral to patient care in Bangladeshi public hospitals. This study explored family caregivers' activities and their perceptions and practices related to disease transmission and prevention in public hospitals. Trained qualitative researchers conducted a total of 48 hours of observation in 3 public tertiary care hospitals and 12 in-depth interviews with family caregivers. Family caregivers provided care 24 hours a day, including bedside nursing, cleaning care, and psychologic support. During observations, family members provided 2,065 episodes of care giving, 75% (1,544) of which involved close contact with patients. We observed family caregivers washing their hands with soap on only 4 occasions. The majority of respondents said diseases are transmitted through physical contact with surfaces and objects that have been contaminated with patient secretions and excretions, and avoiding contact with these contaminated objects would help prevent disease. Family caregivers are at risk for hospital-acquired infection from their repeated exposure to infectious agents combined with their inadequate hand hygiene and knowledge about disease transmission. Future research should explore potential strategies to improve family caregivers' knowledge about disease transmission and reduce family caregiver exposures, which may be accomplished by improving care provided by health care workers. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Goytia, Elliott J; Lounsbury, David W; McCabe, Mary S; Weiss, Elisa; Newcomer, Meghan; Nelson, Deena J; Brennessel, Debra; Rapkin, Bruce D; Kemeny, M Margaret
Many cancer centers and community hospitals are developing novel models of survivorship care. However, few are specifically focused on services for socio-economically disadvantaged cancer survivors. To describe a new model of survivorship care serving culturally diverse, urban adult cancer patients and to present findings from a feasibility evaluation. Adult cancer patients treated at a public city hospital cancer center. The clinic provides comprehensive medical and psychosocial services for patients within a public hospital cancer center where they receive their oncology care. Longitudinal data collected over a 3-year period were used to describe patient demographics, patient needs, and services delivered. Since inception, 410 cancer patients have been served. Demand for services has grown steadily. Hypertension was the most frequent comorbid condition treated. Pain, depression, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and bowel dysfunction were the most common post-treatment problems experienced by the patients. Financial counseling was an important patient resource. This new clinical service has been well-integrated into its public urban hospital setting and constitutes an innovative model of health-care delivery for socio-economically challenged, culturally diverse adult cancer survivors.
Otter, J A; French, G L
To investigate bacterial contamination on hand-touch surfaces in the public transport system and in public areas of a hospital in central London. Dipslides were used to sample 118 hand-touch surfaces in buses, trains, stations, hotels and public areas of a hospital in central London. Total aerobic counts were determined, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were identified and characterized. Bacteria were cultured from 112 (95%) of sites at a median concentration of 12 CFU cm(-2). Methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (MSSA) was cultured from nine (8%) of sites; no sites grew methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA). Hand-touch sites in London are frequently contaminated with bacteria and can harbour MSSA, but none of the sites tested were contaminated with MRSA. Hand-touch sites can become contaminated with staphylococci and may be fomites for the transmission of bacteria between humans. Such sites could provide a reservoir for community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) in high prevalence areas but were not present in London, a geographical area with a low incidence of CA-MRSA.
Moody-Thomas, Sarah; Horswell, Ronald; Celestin, Michael D; Dellinger, Amy B; Kaiser, Michael; Butler, Michael
The 2000 United States Public Health Service (USPHS) clinical practice guideline, "Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence," recommends systems interventions to integrate the treatment of tobacco into routine health care. The Tobacco Control Initiative employed a systems approach to integrate evidence-based treatment for tobacco use into patient care practices in Louisiana's safety net health care system. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in awareness and implementation of the USPHS clinical practice guideline. Surveys were administered to a purposive sample of hospital personnel from key departments in the Louisiana State University system of public hospitals in 2003 (n = 24) and 2007 (n = 44). Perceptions of implementation success improved for 50 of 59 distinct survey items. Rasch scaling was used to assess overall (scaled) change and showed substantial improvement from 2003 to 2007 (P < 0.001). Survey items also were grouped into 6 logical key concept sets. Improvement occurred in perceptions for all 6 key concepts; however, not uniformly. Results of the 2003 and 2007 surveys illustrate the potential effectiveness of using a systems approach to integrate the assessment and treatment of tobacco use into routine care practices in a public health care delivery system that serves medically vulnerable populations.
Cox, Nicholas; Brennan, Angela; Dinh, Diem; Brien, Rita; Cowie, Kath; Stub, Dion; Reid, Christopher M; Lefkovits, Jeffrey
Clinical outcome registries are an increasingly vital component of ensuring quality and safety of patient care. However, Australian hospitals rarely have additional resources or the capacity to fund the additional staff time to complete the task of data collection and entry. At the same time, registry funding models do not support staff for the collection of data at the site but are directed towards the central registry tasks of data reporting, managing and quality monitoring. The sustainability of a registry is contingent on building efficiencies into data management and collection. We describe the methods used in a large Victorian public hospital to develop a sustainable data collection system for the Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry (VCOR), using existing staff and resources common to many public hospitals. We describe the features of the registry and the hospital specific strategies that allowed us to do this as part of our routine business of providing good quality cardiac care. All clinical staff involved in patient care were given some data collection task with the entry of these data embedded into the staff's daily workflow. A senior cardiology registrar was empowered to allocate data entry tasks to colleagues when data were found to be incomplete. The task of 30-day follow-up proved the most onerous part of data collection. Cath-lab nursing staff were allocated this role. With hospital accreditation and funding models moving towards performance based quality indicators, collection of accurate and reliable information is crucial. Our experience demonstrates the successful implementation of clinical outcome registry data collection in a financially constrained public hospital environment utilising existing resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan J
The need to balance resources between community and hospital-based mental health services in the post-deinstitutionalisation era has been well-documented. However, few indicators have been developed to monitor the relationship between community and hospital services, in either developed or developing countries. There is a particular need for such indicators in the South African context, with its history of inequitable services based in custodial institutions under apartheid, and a new policy that proposes the development of more equitable community-based care. Indicators are needed to measure the distribution of resources and the relative utilisation of community and hospital-based services during the reform process. These indicators are potentially useful for assessing the implementation of policy objectives over time. To develop and document community/hospital indicators in public sector mental health services in South Africa. A questionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health coordinators requesting numbers of full-time equivalent (FTE) staff who provide mental health care at all service levels, annual patient admissions to hospitals and annual patient attendances at ambulatory care facilities. The information was supplemented by consultations with mental health coordinators in each of the 9 provinces. Population data were obtained from preliminary findings of the 1996 census. The community/hospital indicator measuring staff distribution was defined as the ratio of staff employed in community settings to all staff, expressed as a percentage. The community/hospital indicator measuring patient service utilisation was defined as the ratio of the annual ambulatory care attendance rate per 100,000 population to the sum of this rate and the annual hospital admission rate per 100,000 population, expressed as a percentage. Of psychiatric public sector staff, 25% are located in community settings in South Africa (provincial range: 11-70%). If hospital outpatient
Prinja, Shankar; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh
Despite an impetus for strengthening public sector district hospitals for provision of secondary health care in India, there is lack of robust evidence on cost of services provided through these district hospitals. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the unit cost of an outpatient visit consultation, inpatient bed-day of hospitalization, surgical procedure and overall per-capita cost of providing secondary care through district hospitals. Economic costing of five randomly selected district hospitals in two north Indian States - Haryana and Punjab, was undertaken. Cost analysis was done using a health system perspective and employing bottom-up costing methodology. Quantity of all resources - capital or recurrent, used for delivering services was measured and valued. Median unit costs were estimated along with their 95 per cent confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to assess the effect of uncertainties in prices and other assumptions; and to generalize the findings for Indian set-up. The overall annual cost of delivering secondary-level health care services through a public sector district hospital in north India was ' 11,44,13,282 [US Dollars (USD) 2,103,185]. Human resources accounted for 53 per cent of the overall cost. The unit cost of an inpatient bed-day, surgical procedure and outpatient consultation was ' 844 (USD 15.5), ' 3481 (USD 64) and ' 170 (USD 3.1), respectively. With the current set of resource allocation, per-capita cost of providing health care through district hospitals in north India was ' 139 (USD 2.5). The estimates obtained in our study can be used for Fiscal planning of scaling up secondary-level health services. Further, these may be particularly useful for future research such as benefit-incidence analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and national health accounts including disease-specific accounts in India.
Issel, L Michele; Lurie, Christine Fitzpatrick; Bekemeier, Betty
The labor market perspective focuses on supply and demand for registered nurses (RNs) as employees. This perspective contrasts with beliefs in the public health sector that RNs working in local health departments (LHD) as public health nurses (PHNs) accept lower wages because of factors other than market demand. This study sought to describe the extent to which hourly wages of RNs working in LHDs are competitive with hospital RN wages within the same county market. A repeated measures survey design was used in collecting 2010 and 2014 data. The unit of analysis was the county, as an RN labor market for LHDs and hospitals. Survey questions captured factors common in human resources benefits and wage packages, such as differential pay, hourly rate pay based on years of experience, components of benefit packages (eg, sick and vacation leave), and reimbursement for education. Within each county, the LHD and all hospitals constituted a "market," yielding a potential 12 markets in our study sample. Human resources representatives from each of the 12 LHDs and from all hospitals within those 12 counties were invited to participate. We conducted comparisons with survey data using t test of mean differences on mean RN wages across years of experience. On average, LHDs paid significantly less than hospitals in their markets, at all levels of RN experience, and this gap increased with RN experience in the sample markets. Salary compression was evident in 2010 and worsened for PHNs in 2014, when compared with hospital RNs. In 2014, 100% of the sample LHDs offered reimbursements for continuing education for PHNs compared with 89% of hospitals providing this benefit. This study contributes to our understanding of the human resources challenges faced by LHDs and provides evidence elucidating resources issues that need to be addressed in order to improve recruitment and retention of PHNs.
Prinja, Shankar; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh
Background & objectives: Despite an impetus for strengthening public sector district hospitals for provision of secondary health care in India, there is lack of robust evidence on cost of services provided through these district hospitals. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the unit cost of an outpatient visit consultation, inpatient bed-day of hospitalization, surgical procedure and overall per-capita cost of providing secondary care through district hospitals. Methods: Economic costing of five randomly selected district hospitals in two north Indian States - Haryana and Punjab, was undertaken. Cost analysis was done using a health system perspective and employing bottom-up costing methodology. Quantity of all resources - capital or recurrent, used for delivering services was measured and valued. Median unit costs were estimated along with their 95 per cent confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to assess the effect of uncertainties in prices and other assumptions; and to generalize the findings for Indian set-up. Results: The overall annual cost of delivering secondary-level health care services through a public sector district hospital in north India was 11,44,13,282 [US Dollars (USD) 2,103,185]. Human resources accounted for 53 per cent of the overall cost. The unit cost of an inpatient bed-day, surgical procedure and outpatient consultation was 844 (USD 15.5), i; 3481 (USD 64) and 170 (USD 3.1), respectively. With the current set of resource allocation, per-capita cost of providing health care through district hospitals in north India was 139 (USD 2.5). Interpretation & conclusions: The estimates obtained in our study can be used for Fiscal planning of scaling up secondary-level health services. Further, these may be particularly useful for future research such as benefit-incidence analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and national health accounts including disease-specific accounts in India. PMID:29355142
In Kenya, cancers as a disease group rank third as a cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that the annual incidence of cancer is about 37,000 new cases with an annual mortality of 28,000 cases (Kenya National Cancer Control Strategy 2010). The incidence of non-communicable diseases accounts for more than 50% of total hospital admissions and over 55% of hospital deaths (Kenya National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non Communicable Diseases 2015-2020). The prevalence of HIV is 6.8 (KIAS 2014). Most of these patients will benefit from palliative care services, hence the need to integrate palliative care services in the public healthcare system. The process of integrating palliative care in public hospitals involved advocacy both at the national level and at the institutional level, training of healthcare professionals, and setting up services within the hospitals that we worked with. Technical support was provided to each individual institution as needed. Eleven provincial hospitals across the country have now integrated palliative care services (Palliative Care Units) and are now centres of excellence. Over 220 healthcare providers have been trained, and approximately, over 30,000 patients have benefited from these services. Oral morphine is now available in the hospital palliative care units. As a success of the pilot project, Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association (KEHPCA) is now working with the Ministry of Health Kenya to integrate palliative care services in 30 other county hospitals across the country, thus ensuring more availability and access to more patients. Other developing countries can learn from Kenya's successful experience.
Moser, H Ronald; Freeman, Gordon L
This study investigates current opinions about hospital advertising and compares them to the attitudes expressed 25 years ago. It replicates a survey done in 1985, using the same questionnaire and population to compare responses longitudinally. The study indicates some changes in the public's opinions of hospital advertising. Although the image of hospitals remains positive, most of the 2010 respondents' opinions were rather mixed regarding whether it is proper for hospitals to advertise. The study also confirmed that the quality of service and reputation of hospitals remain more important to the public than price.
Public health safety and environmental management are concerns that pose challenges worldwide. This paper briefly assesses a selected impact of the environment on public health. The study used an assessment of environmental mechanism to analyse the underlying different pathways in which the health sector is affected in inadequate hospital and health care settings. We reviewed the limited available evidence of the association between the health sector and the environment, and the likely pathways through which the environment influences health. The paper also models the use of private health care as a function of costs and benefits relative to public care and no care. The need to enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening interventions on environment using international agreements, like Rio Conventions, including measures to control hospital-related infection, planning for human resources and infrastructure construction development have linkage to improve environment care and public health. The present study findings partly also demonstrate the influence of demand for health on the environment. The list of possible interventions includes enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening Rio Conventions implementation on environmental concerns, control of environmental hazards and public health. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gallegos Espinosa, Sylvia; Nicolalde Cifuentes, Marcelo; Santana Porbén, Sergio
The ELAN Ecuadorian Study of Hospital Malnutrition returned a malnutrition rate of 37.1% in public hospitals of Ecuador [Gallegos Espinosa S, Nicolalde Cifuentes M, Santana Porbén S; para el Grupo Ecuatoriano de Estudio de la Desnutrición Hospitalaria. State of malnutrition in hospitals of Ecuador. Nutr Hosp (España) 2014;30:425-35]. Hospital malnutrition could be the result of institutional cultural practices affecting the patient's nutritional status. To present the current state of food and nutritional care provided to patients assisted in public hospitals of Ecuador. The state of food and nutritional care provided to 5,355 patients assisted in 36 hospitals of 23 provinces of the country was documented by means of the Hospital Nutrition Survey (HNS), conducted as part of the ELAN Study. HNS recorded the completion of nutritional assessment exercises, the use of food-bymouth, fasting, use of oral nutritional supplements, and implementation and conduction of Artificial nutritional schemes (Enteral/Parenteral); respectively. Less than 0.1% of clinical charts had a diagnosis of malnutrition included in the list of the patient's health problems. Less than half of the patients had been measured and weighted on admission. Serum Albumin values and Total Lymphocytes Counts were annotated on admission in only 13.5% and 59.2% of the instances, respectively. Current weight value was registered in only 59.4% of the patients with length of stay ³ 15 days. An oral nutritional supplement was prescribed in just 3.5% of non-malnourished patients in which significant metabolic stress and/or reduced food intakes concurred. Although up to 10 different indications for use of Artificial nutrition were identified in the sample study, any of these techniques was administered to just 2.5% (median of observed percentages; range: 1.3 - 11.9%) of surveyed patients. Currently, nutritional status of hospitalized patient is not included within therapeutic goals, nutritional assessment
Aman, Bakhtiar; Abbas, Faisal
To determine patients' perception regarding service and quality of healthcare at public-sector institutions. The descriptive quantitative study was conducted in Kohat district, Pakistan, between July and December 2014, and focussed on 30 variables to assess the participants' perceptions of the actual healthcare service quality delivered. SERVQUAL instrument was used to measure the reliability and cronbach alpha was calculated to measure the reliability and validity of the instrument. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed and 157(78.5%) were received back fully filled. Of them, 105(67%) were men and 52(33%) were women.The mean value of Assurance parameter was 3.05±0.88, indicating trust in public hospitals was high as they had experienced and capable doctors. On the other hand, the lowest mean value of 2.61±0.84 was for Empathy, highlighting the fact that public hospitals lacked the ability to handle patients' problem properly, services were not offered in time and they were short of staff. Public hospitals were largely seen as failing to deliver quality service.
Safavi, Kyan C; Dai, Feng; Gilbertsen, Todd A; Schonberger, Robert B
Objective To determine whether surgical quality measures that Medicare publicly reports provide a basis for patients to choose a hospital from within their geographic region. Data Source The Department of Health and Human Services' public reporting website, Medicare Claims Processing Manual Baltimore, MD CMS http://www.medicare.gov/hospitalcompare. Study Design We identified hospitals (n = 2,953) reporting adherence rates to the quality measures intended to reduce surgical site infections (Surgical Care Improvement Project, 1–3) in 2012. We defined regions within which patients were likely to compare hospitals using the hospital referral regions (HRRs) from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care Project. We described distributions of reported SCIP adherence within each HRR, including medians, interquartile ranges (IQRs), skewness, and outliers. Principal Findings Ninety-seven percent of HRRs had median SCIP-1 scores ≥95 percent. In 93 percent of HRRs, half of the hospitals in the HRR were within 5 percent of the median hospital's score. In 62 percent of HRRs, hospitals were skewed toward the higher rates (negative skewness). Seven percent of HRRs demonstrated positive skewness. Only 1 percent had a positive outlier. SCIP-2 and SCIP-3 demonstrated similar distributions. Conclusions Publicly reported quality measures for surgical site infection prevention do not distinguish the majority of hospitals that patients are likely to choose from when selecting a surgical provider. More studies are needed to improve public reporting's ability to positively impact patient decision making. PMID:24611578
Background Third-grade hospitals in Beijing have been rapidly developing in capacity and scale for many years. These hospitals receive a large number of patients, and ensuring their efficient operation is crucial in meeting people’s healthcare needs. In this context, a study of their relative efficiency and productivity would be helpful to identify the driving factors and further improve their performance. Methods After a review of literature, the current numbers of open beds and employees were selected as input variables. The number of outpatient and emergency visits and the number of discharged patients were selected as output variables. A total of 12 third-grade Class A general public hospitals in Beijing were selected for a preliminary study. The panel data from 2006–2009 were collected by the National Institute of Hospital Administration, Ministry of Health of P.R. China. Descriptive analysis and data envelopment analysis were used to analyze the data using Stata 10.0 and DEAP(V2.1) software. Results In the 2006–2009 period, descriptive results show that sample hospitals continuously expanded their capacity and scale, with growth rate of total revenue being the highest among all variables. The DEA results show that the average annual growth rate of productivity was 26.7%, and the rates were 47.3%, 21.3% and 13.8% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technological change was 28.3%, and the rates were 49.4%, 21.5% and 16.4% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technical efficiency change was -1.3%, and the rates were -1.4%, -0.02% and -2.2% respectively for two consecutive years. Conclusions The sample hospitals in Beijing experienced substantial productivity growth, but annual growth rates were declining. Substantial technological change was the main contributor to the growth. Although some hospitals exhibited improvements in technical efficiency, there was a slight decline in
Xenos, P; Yfantopoulos, J; Nektarios, M; Polyzos, N; Tinios, P; Constantopoulos, A
This study is an initial effort to examine the dynamics of efficiency and productivity in Greek public hospitals during the first phase of the crisis 2009-2012. Data were collected by the Ministry of Health after several quality controls ensuring comparability and validity of hospital inputs and outputs. Productivity is estimated using the Malmquist Indicator, decomposing the estimated values into efficiency and technological change. Hospital efficiency and productivity growth are calculated by bootstrapping the non-parametric Malmquist analysis. The advantage of this method is the estimation efficiency and productivity through the corresponding confidence intervals. Additionally, a Random-effects Tobit model is explored to investigate the impact of contextual factors on the magnitude of efficiency. Findings reveal substantial variations in hospital productivity over the period from 2009 to 2012. The economic crisis of 2009 had a negative impact in productivity. The average Malmquist Productivity Indicator (MPI) score is 0.72 with unity signifying stable production. Approximately 91% of the hospitals score lower than unity. Substantial increase is observed between 2010 and 2011, as indicated by the average MPI score which fluctuates to 1.52. Moreover, technology change scored more than unity in more than 75% of hospitals. The last period (2011-2012) has shown stabilization in the expansionary process of productivity. The main factors contributing to overall productivity gains are increases in occupancy rates, type and size of the hospital. This paper attempts to offer insights in efficiency and productivity growth for public hospitals in Greece. The results suggest that the average hospital experienced substantial productivity growth between 2009 and 2012 as indicated by variations in MPI. Almost all of the productivity increase was due to technology change which could be explained by the concurrent managerial and financing healthcare reforms. Hospitals operating
Li, Hao; Dong, Siping; Liu, Tingfang
Third-grade hospitals in Beijing have been rapidly developing in capacity and scale for many years. These hospitals receive a large number of patients, and ensuring their efficient operation is crucial in meeting people's healthcare needs. In this context, a study of their relative efficiency and productivity would be helpful to identify the driving factors and further improve their performance. After a review of literature, the current numbers of open beds and employees were selected as input variables. The number of outpatient and emergency visits and the number of discharged patients were selected as output variables. A total of 12 third-grade Class A general public hospitals in Beijing were selected for a preliminary study. The panel data from 2006-2009 were collected by the National Institute of Hospital Administration, Ministry of Health of P.R. China. Descriptive analysis and data envelopment analysis were used to analyze the data using Stata 10.0 and DEAP(V2.1) software. In the 2006-2009 period, descriptive results show that sample hospitals continuously expanded their capacity and scale, with growth rate of total revenue being the highest among all variables. The DEA results show that the average annual growth rate of productivity was 26.7%, and the rates were 47.3%, 21.3% and 13.8% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technological change was 28.3%, and the rates were 49.4%, 21.5% and 16.4% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technical efficiency change was -1.3%, and the rates were -1.4%, -0.02% and -2.2% respectively for two consecutive years. The sample hospitals in Beijing experienced substantial productivity growth, but annual growth rates were declining. Substantial technological change was the main contributor to the growth. Although some hospitals exhibited improvements in technical efficiency, there was a slight decline in general. To improve overall efficiency and
Jat, Tej Ram; Sebastian, Miguel San
Scarcity of resources for healthcare is a well-acknowledged problem. In this context, efficient utilization of existing financial and human resources becomes crucial for strengthening the healthcare delivery. The assessment of efficiency of health facilities can guide decision makers in ensuring the optimum utilization of available resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) of the public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, with special emphasis on maternal healthcare services, using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Data from 40 district hospitals from January to December 2010 were collected from the health management information system and other records of the department of health and family welfare of the state. DEA was performed with input orientation and variable returns to scale assumption. TE and scale efficiency scores of the district hospitals were 0.90 (SD = 0.14) and 0.88 (SD = 0.15), respectively. Of the total district hospitals in the study, 20 (50%) were technically efficient constituting the 'best practice frontier'. The other half were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 0.79 (SD = 0.12) meaning that these hospitals could produce the same outputs by using 21% less inputs from current input levels. Twenty-six (65%) district hospitals were found to be scale inefficient, manifesting a mean score of 0.81 (SD = 0.16). Half of the district hospitals in the study were operating inefficiently. Decision makers and administrators in the state should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase efficiency of these hospitals.
Rijswijk, K.; Brazendale, R.
Purpose: An innovation network, called the Pasture Improvement Leadership Group (PILG), was formed to improve the quality and consistency of advice provided to dairy farmers in New Zealand, after they expressed dissatisfaction with their pastures. The aim of this paper is to better understand the challenges of forming and maintaining networks to…
Sesma-Vázquez, Sergio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Wirtz, Veronika J; Castro-Tinoco, Manuel
To analyze the availability of drugs in public hospitals, the prescription-filling patterns for in-patients when they are discharged and their out-of-pocket expenditure during their hospitalization. Using the National Satisfaction and Responsiveness Survey (ENSATA) 2009, which includes a representative sample of public hospitals in Mexico in 2009, the availability of 83 essential medicines in the hospital pharmacies at the day of visit, the proportion of prescriptions completely filled for patients when they are discharged and their out-of-pocket expenditure during their hospitalization were analyzed. A total of 26 271 patients in 160 public hospitals were interviewed. The mean availability of drugs was 82% for all hospitals, with the lowest availability for the Ministry of Health (SESA) hospitals (77%, with a range of 30 to 96%). Patients discharged at social security hospitals received in 97% of cases a complete prescription filling, while in SESA hospitals the average was only 56.2%, with a large variance among states (13 to 94%). The median inpatient spending was 150 pesos in national currency (1% spent over 10 000 pesos). The lack of medicines in public hospitals may increase in-patient morbidity and mortality and has an economic impact on household spending, particularly in those with scarce resources.
Roslan, Shazwa; Tahir, Herniza Md; Nordin, Noraimi Azlin Mohd; Zaharudin, Zati Aqmar
Emergency and Trauma Department (ETD) is an important element for a hospital. It provides medical service, which operates 24 hours a day in most hospitals. However overcrowding is not exclusion for ETD. Overflowing occurs due to affordable services provided by public hospitals, since it is funded by the government. It is reported that a patient attending ETD must be treated within 90 minutes, in accordance to achieve the Key Performance Indicator (KPI). However, due to overcrowd situations, most patients have to wait longer than the KPI standard. In this paper, patient's average waiting time is analyzed. Using Chi-Square Test of Goodness, patient's inter arrival per hour is also investigated. As conclusion, Monday until Wednesday was identified as the days that exceed the KPI standard while Chi-Square Test of Goodness showed that the patient's inter arrival is independent and random.
Verzulli, Rossella; Jacobs, Rowena; Goddard, Maria
Since 2004, English NHS hospitals have been given the opportunity to acquire a more autonomous status known as a Foundation Trust (FT), whereby regulations and restrictions over financial, management, and organizational matters were reduced in order to create incentives to deliver higher-quality services in the most efficient way. Using difference-in-difference models, we test whether achieving greater autonomy (FT status) improved hospital performance, as proxied by measures of financial management, quality of care, and staff satisfaction. Results provide little evidence that the FT policy per se has made any difference to the performance of hospitals in most of these domains. Our findings have implications for health policy and inform the trend towards granting greater autonomy to public-sector organizations.
Infante, Maria; dos Santos, Maria Angélica Borges
Despite their importance for hospital operations, discussions of healthcare organization logistics and supply and materials management are notably lacking in Brazilian literature. This paper describes a methodology for organizing the supply of medical materials in public hospitals, based on an action-research approach. Interventions were based on the assumption that a significant portion of problems in Brazil's National Health System (SUS) facilities derive from the fact that their clinical and administrative departments do not see themselves as belonging to the same production chain - neither the hospital nor the supply department is aware of what the other produces. The development of the methodology and its main steps are presented and discussed, against a background of recent literature and total quality and supply chain management concepts.
Background Eritrean gross national income of Int$610 per capita is lower than the average for Africa (Int$1620) and considerably lower than the global average (Int$6977). It is therefore imperative that the country’s resources, including those specifically allocated to the health sector, are put to optimal use. The objectives of this study were (a) to estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of public secondary level community hospitals in Eritrea, based on data generated in 2007, (b) to estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient, and (c) to estimate using Tobit regression analysis the impact of institutional and contextual/environmental variables on hospital inefficiencies. Methods A two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method is used to estimate efficiency of hospitals and to explain the inefficiencies. In the first stage, the efficient frontier and the hospital-level efficiency scores are first estimated using DEA. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed on some institutional and contextual/environmental variables using a Tobit model. In 2007 there were a total of 20 secondary public community hospitals in Eritrea, nineteen of which generated data that could be included in the study. The input and output data were obtained from the Ministry of Health (MOH) annual health service activity report of 2007. Since our study employs data that are five years old, the results are not meant to uncritically inform current decision-making processes, but rather to illustrate the potential value of such efficiency analyses. Results The key findings were as follows: (i) the average constant returns to scale technical efficiency score was 90.3%; (ii) the average variable returns to scale technical efficiency score was 96.9%; and (iii) the average scale efficiency score was 93.3%. In 2007, the inefficient hospitals could
Zhuang, Min; Cao, Juan; Cui, Minglan; Yuan, Songtao; Liu, Qinghuai; Fan, Wen
High cataract incidence and low cataract surgical rate are serious public health problems in China, despite the fact that efficient day care cataract surgery has been implemented in some public Tertiary A hospitals in China. In this study, we compared not only clinical outcomes, hospitalization time and total costs but also payment manners between day care and inpatient procedures for cataract surgery in a Jiangsu public Tertiary A hospital to put forward several instructional suggestions for the improvement of government medical policies. In total, 4151 day care cases and 2509 inpatient cases underwent the same cataract surgery in the day care ward and ordinary ward respectively, and were defined as two groups. General information, complications, postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), hospitalization time, total costs and especially payment method were analyzed to compare day care versus inpatient. The general data display no significant differences (P > 0.05), and no significant difference between complications and postoperative BCVA were observed between the two groups (P > 0.05). The period of stay in hospital was significantly different (P < 0.001). The total costs were lower for day care than for inpatients (P < 0.001). To avoid sampling error, we analyzed the data of payment manner for each patient among this period. Day care patients tended to pay for the procedure using the Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) method, while inpatients tended to use the Out-of-Pocket Medical Treatment (OMT) payment method (P < 0.001). Day surgery of cataract is more cost-effective and efficient than inpatient surgery with equivalent clinical outcomes. As an efficient therapeutic regimen, day care surgery should be further promoted and supported by the government policies.
Kim, Yukyoung; Kim, Soungmin; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Hyung Ryong
South Korean national university dental hospitals (NUDHs) face unprecedented challenges in maintaining primary function as public hospitals and surviving in intensified competition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the perceived service quality of NUDH patients and its influences on behavior and to gain managerial implications. Perceived service quality, value, satisfaction, and behavioral intention were measured in 438 NUDH patients from 3 NUDHs. With demographic analyses, the authors used structural equation models to test the validity to prove the relationship between dimensions. showed that the dimension of dentist concern directly influenced satisfaction and behavior, and tangibles was the only significant antecedent factor of value that had a significant positive effect on satisfaction. Based on demographic characteristics, highly educated, self-motivated patients who underwent multiple treatments had lower perceptions of value and satisfaction. NUDHs need to maintain their public image and to improve the dimensions of communication and tangibles to gain competitiveness.
Hernández-Vicente, Irma Alejandra; Lumbreras-Guzmán, Marivel; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Rojas-Lima, Elodia; Cervantes-Rodríguez, Margarita; Juárez-Flores, Clara Arlina
To validate a scale for assessing the labour quality of life in public hospitals (LQL-PH) from Tlaxcala, Mexico. The instrument was validated among 669 health workers from six hospitals from the Ministry of Health of Tlaxcala, Mexico. Content validity was by inquiry to experts, construct validity by factor analysis, criterion validity by comparing with other scales, and reliability with Cronbach's Alpha. The factor analysis uncovered four dimensions: "individual welfare", "conditions and labour environment", "organization", and "well-being accomplished by the work"; reliability was 0.921. Workers who perceibed better LQL-PH were: under 50 years old, with temporary contract, with less seniority in job, with work schedule at daytime of weekends, and those with academic degree. LQL-PH showed to be an instrument phsycometrically valid and reliable. It's recommendable to prove this scale in other public and private health institutions, as well as its relationship with key health care indicators of labour performance and management.
The distinctiveness of management of a university psychiatric hospital which has the status of a public health institution is manifested in the following ways: * Distinctive features and characteristics of managing service provider organizations compared to those whose operational results involve tangible products; * Distinctive features of management which originate from its role as a regional hospital and a tertiary research and educational institution in the field of psychiatry, with special importance for the Republic of Slovenia as a whole; * Distinctive features of management that are defined by the social and legal framework of operation of public health institutions and their special social mission. This paper therefore discusses the specific theoretical and practical findings regarding management of service provider organizations from the viewpoint of their social mission and significance, as well as their legal organization, internal structure and values.
The paper explores the link between managerial performance and cost efficiency of 617 Japanese general local public hospitals in 1999-2007. Treating managerial performance as unobservable heterogeneity, the paper employs a panel data stochastic cost frontier model with latent classes. Financial parameters associated with better managerial performance are found to be positively significant in explaining the probability of belonging to the more efficient latent class. The analysis of latent class membership was consistent with the conjecture that unobservable technological heterogeneity reflected in the existence of the latent classes is related to managerial performance. The findings may support the cause for raising efficiency of Japanese local public hospitals by enhancing the quality of management. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Chatterjee, Susmita; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch
OBJECTIVE The study estimated cost of illness from the provider's perspective for diabetic patients who received treatment during the fiscal year 2008 at Waritchaphum Hospital, a 30-bed public district hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province in northeastern Thailand. METHODS This retrospective, prevalence-based cost-of-illness study looked at 475 randomly selected diabetic patients, identified by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes E10-E14. Data were collected from the hospital financial records and medical records of each participant and were analysed with a stepwise multiple regression. KEY FINDINGS The study found that the average public treatment cost per patient per year was US$94.71 at 2008 prices. Drug cost was the highest cost component (25% of total cost), followed by inpatient cost (24%) and outpatient visit cost (17%). A cost forecasting model showed that length of stay, hospitalization, visits to the provincial hospital, duration of disease and presence of diabetic complications (e.g. diabetic foot complications and nephropathy) were the significant predictor variables (adjusted R(2) = 0.689). CONCLUSIONS According to the fitted model, avoiding nephropathy and foot complications would save US$19 386 and US$39 134 respectively per year. However, these savings are missed savings for the study year and the study hospital only and not projected savings, as that would depend on the number of diabetic patients managed in the year, the ratio of complicated to non-complicated cases and effectiveness of the prevention programmes. Nonetheless, given the high avoidable cost associated with complications of diabetes, healthcare providers in Thailand should focus on initiatives that delay the progression of complications in diabetic patients. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Osei, Daniel; d'Almeida, Selassi; George, Melvill O; Kirigia, Joses M; Mensah, Ayayi Omar; Kainyu, Lenity H
Background The Government of Ghana has been implementing various health sector reforms (e.g. user fees in public health facilities, decentralization, sector-wide approaches to donor coordination) in a bid to improve efficiency in health care. However, to date, except for the pilot study reported in this paper, no attempt has been made to make an estimate of the efficiency of hospitals and/or health centres in Ghana. The objectives of this study, based on data collected in 2000, were: (i) to estimate the relative technical efficiency (TE) and scale efficiency (SE) of a sample of public hospitals and health centres in Ghana; and (ii) to demonstrate policy implications for health sector policy-makers. Methods The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach was used to estimate the efficiency of 17 district hospitals and 17 health centres. This was an exploratory study. Results Eight (47%) hospitals were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 61% and a standard deviation (STD) of 12%. Ten (59%) hospitals were scale inefficient, manifesting an average SE of 81% (STD = 25%). Out of the 17 health centres, 3 (18%) were technically inefficient, with a mean TE score of 49% (STD = 27%). Eight health centres (47%) were scale inefficient, with an average SE score of 84% (STD = 16%). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated to policy-makers the versatility of DEA in measuring inefficiencies among individual facilities and inputs. There is a need for the Planning and Budgeting Unit of the Ghana Health Services to continually monitor the productivity growth, allocative efficiency and technical efficiency of all its health facilities (hospitals and health centres) in the course of the implementation of health sector reforms. PMID:16188021
Arrieta, Alejandro; Suárez, Gabriela; Hakim, Galed
To assess the patient safety culture in Peruvian hospitals from the perspective of healthcare professionals, and to test for differences between the private and public healthcare sectors. Patient safety is defined as the avoidance and prevention of patient injuries or adverse events resulting from the processes of healthcare delivery. A non-random cross-sectional study conducted online. An online survey was administered from July to August 2016, in Peru. This study reports results from Lima and Callao, which are the capital and the port region of Peru. A total of 1679 healthcare professionals completed the survey. Participants were physicians, medical residents and nurses working in healthcare facilities from the private sector and public sector. Assessment of the degree of patient safety and 12 dimensions of patient safety culture in hospital units as perceived by healthcare professionals. Only 18% of healthcare professionals assess the degree of patient safety in their unit of work as excellent or very good. Significant differences are observed between the patient safety grades in the private sector (37%) compared to the public sub-sectors (13-15%). Moreover, in all patient safety culture dimensions, healthcare professionals from the private sector give more favorable responses for patient safety, than those from the public sub-systems. The most significant difference in support comes from patient safety administrators through communication and information about errors. Overall, the degree of patient safety in Peru is low, with significant gaps that exist between the private and the public sectors.
Carreiro, Paulo Roberto Lima; Drumond, Domingos André Fernandes; Starling, Sizenando Vieira; Moritz, Mônica; Ladeira, Roberto Marini
Show the steps of a Trauma Registry (TR) implementation in a Brazilian public hospital and evaluate the initial data from the database. Descriptive study of the a TR implementation in João XXIII Hospital (Hospital Foundation of the state of Minas Gerais) and analysis of the initial results of the first 1,000 patients. The project was initiated in 2011 and from January 2013 we began collecting data for the TR. In January 2014 the registration of the first 1000 patients was completed. The greatest difficulties in the TR implementation were obtaining funds to finance the project and the lack of information within the medical records. The variables with the lowest completion percentage on the physiological conditions were: pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate and Glasgow coma scale. Consequently, the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) could be calculated in only 31% of cases and the TRISS methodology applied to 30.3% of patients. The main epidemiological characteristics showed a predominance of young male victims (84.7%) and the importance of aggression as a cause of injuries in our environment (47.5%), surpassing traffic accidents. The average length of stay was 6 days, and mortality 13.7%. Trauma registries are invaluable tools in improving the care of trauma victims. It is necessary to improve the quality of data recorded in medical records. The involvement of public authorities is critical for the successful implementation and maintenance of trauma registries in Brazilian hospitals.
Sulku, Seher Nur
Turkey initiated the 'Health Transformation Programme' (HTP) in 2003 to align its health care system with the European Union and OECD countries. This study investigates the impact of these reforms on the efficiency of public hospitals. Our study would contribute to the existing literature with a comprehensive analysis of the health system in a developing country. We employ the data envelopment approach and the Malmquist index to comparatively examine before and after the reform years. Our analyses compare the performances of public hospitals served in provincial markets. Inputs of number of beds, number of primary care physician, and number of specialists, and how they are used to produce outputs of inpatient discharges, outpatient visits and surgical operations are investigated. Indeed, as the performance indicators dead rate, hospital bed occupation rate and average length of stay are considered. The HTP was generally successful in boosting productivity due to advancements in technology and technical efficiency but in the socio-economically disadvantaged provinces productivity gains have not been achieved. The average technical efficiency gains took place because of the significantly improved scale efficiencies, as the average pure technical efficiency slightly improved. Lastly, the hospital performance indicators have not improved in the short run. It appears that the expected benefits from the health reforms in Turkey have been partially achieved in the short run.
McIntosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria; Jack, Brian; Nkabane-Nkholongo, Elizabeth Limakatso; Vian, Taryn
Health care public-private partnerships (PPPs) between a government and the private sector are based on a business model that aims to leverage private-sector expertise to improve clinical performance in hospitals and other health facilities. Although the financial implications of such partnerships have been analyzed, few studies have examined the partnerships' impact on clinical performance outcomes. Using quantitative measures that reflected capacity, utilization, clinical quality, and patient outcomes, we compared a government-managed hospital network in Lesotho, Africa, and the new PPP-managed hospital network that replaced it. In addition, we used key informant interviews to help explain differences in performance. We found that the PPP-managed network delivered more and higher-quality services and achieved significant gains in clinical outcomes, compared to the government-managed network. We conclude that health care public-private partnerships may improve hospital performance in developing countries and that changes in management and leadership practices might account for differences in clinical outcomes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Jiamjarasrangsi, W; Bualert, S; Chongthaleong, A; Chaindamporn, A; Udomsantisuk, N; Euasamarnjit, W
Forty-two community and general hospitals in central Thailand. To examine the adequacy of indoor ventilation for nosocomial tuberculosis (TB) prevention in public hospitals in central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 patient care and ancillary areas in the target hospitals. Data on indoor ventilation rate were collected by the tracer gas method and reported as air changes per hour (ACH). The adequacy of the measured ventilation rates were then determined by comparison with the international recommended standard values. Indoor ventilation rates were inadequate in almost half of the studied areas (144/323, 44.6%). The inadequacy was particularly serious in the emergency rooms (ERs) and radiological areas, where 73.8% (31/42 each) of the rooms had ACH below the recommended standards. Detailed analysis showed that most of the rooms with natural ventilation had air exchange rates that exceeded the recommended standards, while the opposite was the case for rooms with air-conditioning, particularly the window or wall-mount type. Indoor ventilation in high-risk nosocomial TB areas in public hospitals in Thailand was inadequate due to the installation of air-conditioning systems in modern buildings.
Background Parts of New Public Management-reforms of the public sector depend on introduction of market-like mechanisms to manage the sector, like free choice of hospital. However, patients may delegate the choice of hospital to agents like general practitioners (GPs). We have investigated which factors Danish GPs reported as decisive for their choice of hospital on behalf of patients, and their utilisation of formal and informal data sources when they chose a hospital on behalf of patients. Methods Retrospective questionnaire study of all of the 474 GPs practising in three counties which constituted a single uptake area. Patients were free to choose a hospital in another county in the country. The GPs were asked about responsibility for choice of the latest three patients referred by the GP to hospital; which of 16 factors influenced the choice of hospital; which of 15 sources of information about clinical quality at various hospitals/departments were considered relevant, and how often were six sources of information about waiting time utilised. Results Fifty-one percent (240 GPs) filled in and returned the questionnaire. One hundred and eighty-three GPs (76%) reported that they perceived that they chose the hospital on behalf of the latest referred patient. Short distance to hospital was the most common reason for choice of hospital. The most frequently used source of information about quality at hospital departments was anecdotal reports from patients referred previously, and the most important source of information about waiting time was the hospitals’ letters of confirmation of referrals. Conclusions In an area with free choice of public hospital most GPs perceived that they chose the hospital on behalf of patients. Short distance to hospital was the factor which most often decided the GPs’ choice of hospital on behalf of patients. GPs attached little weight to official information on quality and service (waiting time) at hospitals or departments, focusing
Roger, Nuria; Burgos, Felip; Giner, Jordi; Rosas, Alba; Tresserras, Ricard; Escarrabill, Joan
Underdiagnosis is one of the problems with the greatest impact on respiratory disease management and requires specific interventions. Access to quality spirometry is especially important and is an objective of the Master Plan for Respiratory Diseases of the Department of Health of the Generalitat de Catalunya. To determine the current use of spirometry at public hospitals in Catalonia, possible deficiencies and options for improvement. A cross-sectional survey of 65 public hospitals in Catalonia in 2009. Descriptive analyses were developed for each public health-care region. A lack of uniformity was observed in the use of spirometry at the regional level (between 0,98 and 1.50 spirometries per 100 inhabitants). We identified two factors associated with a higher rate of spirometry: i) the existence of a Respiratory Medicine Department at the hospital, and ii) the existence of a set location to carry out spirometries. Several areas for improvement also were identified: quality control of the test itself, the inclusion of spirometry in electronic health-care records and continuing education programs. The results of this study have identified areas for improvement in spirometry programs. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Whittington, Melanie D; Bradley, Cathy J; Atherly, Adam J; Campbell, Jonathan D; Lindrooth, Richard C
To estimate the association of 1 activity of the Prevention and Public Health Fund with hospital bloodstream infections and calculate the return on investment (ROI). The activity was funded for 1 year (2013). A difference-in-differences specification evaluated hospital standardized infection ratios (SIRs) before funding allocation (years 2011 and 2012) and after funding allocation (years 2013 and 2014) in the 15 US states that received the funding compared with hospital SIRs in states that did not receive the funding. We estimated the association of the funded public health activity with SIRs for bloodstream infections. We calculated the ROI by dividing cost offsets from infections averted by the amount invested. The funding was associated with a 33% (P < .05) reduction in SIRs and an ROI of $1.10 to $11.20 per $1 invested in the year of funding allocation (2013). In 2014, after the funding stopped, significant reductions were no longer evident. This activity was associated with a reduction in bloodstream infections large enough to recoup the investment. Public health funding of carefully targeted areas may improve health and reduce health care costs.
Murakami, Yukiko; Iwami, Taku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Takashi
The strategy to place public-access automated external defibrillators (AEDs) has not yet been established in real settings. This, prospective, population-based observational study in Osaka, Japan, included consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with resuscitation attempts during 7 years, from January 2005 through December 2011. The trends in the proportion of public-access AED use and 1-month survival with neurologically favorable outcome were evaluated by location. Factors associated with neurologically favorable outcome (defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2) after ventricular fibrillation were also assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 9453 bystander-witnessed OHCAs of cardiac origin were documented and 894 (9.5%) of them occurred at public places. The proportion of public-access AED use significantly increased from 0.0% (0/20) in 2005 to 41.2% (7/17) in 2011 at railway stations and from 0.0% (0/7) to 56.5% (13/23) at sports facilities. Mean time from collapse to shock was 5.0 minutes among those who received shocks with public-access AEDs. The proportion of neurologically favorable outcome was 28.0% (33/118) at railway stations, 51.6% (48/93) at sports facilities, 23.3% (20/86) in public buildings, and 41.9% (13/31) in schools. In multivariate analysis, early defibrillation, irrespective of bystander or emergency medical service (EMS) personnel, was significantly associated with neurologically favorable outcome (adjusted odds ratio for 1-minute increment, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.92). This large, population-based OHCA registry demonstrated that earlier shock, irrespective the shock provider (bystander or EMS personnel), contributed to improving outcome, and a public-access defibrillation program was successfully implemented so that shocks with public-access AEDs were delivered to over 40% of bystander-witnessed OHCAs and time to shock was shortened in some kinds of public places.
Ibrahim, Ireen Munira; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Ahmad, Norazura; Najmuddin, Ahmad Farid
Emergency department (ED) is the main unit of a hospital that provides emergency treatment. Operating 24 hours a day with limited number of resources invites more problems to the current chaotic situation in some hospitals in Malaysia. Delays in getting treatments that caused patients to wait for a long period of time are among the frequent complaints against government hospitals. Therefore, the ED management needs a model that can be used to examine and understand resource capacity which can assist the hospital managers to reduce patients waiting time. Simulation model was developed based on 24 hours data collection. The model developed using Arena simulation replicates the actual ED's operations of a public hospital in Selangor, Malaysia. The OptQuest optimization in Arena is used to find the possible combinations of a number of resources that can minimize patients waiting time while increasing the number of patients served. The simulation model was modified for improvement based on results from OptQuest. The improvement model significantly improves ED's efficiency with an average of 32% reduction in average patients waiting times and 25% increase in the total number of patients served.
Nabilou, Bahram; Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadi Fard Azar, Farbod; Salem Safi, Parviz; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal
Background: Due to the increasing health care costs, the issue of productivity in hospitals must be taken into great consideration in order to provide, preserve and promote public health services. Thus, increasing the level of productivity must become the main aim of any hospital. Objective of this study is to determine the total factor productivity and its components over the period under the study. Methods: In this cross sectional study, total factor productivity changes of hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were measured according to Malmquist index over the period 2009-2014. To estimate total productivity changes using Data Envelopment Analysis method, inputoriented and variable return to scale assumptions were applied and Deap2.1 software was used. Results: The mean value of total productivity changes was 1.013. It means that during the study period the productivity experienced a 1.3% decrease. Technological efficiency changes have the greatest influence on productivity decrease than the other factors. Scale efficiency, managerial efficiency and technical efficiency changes were ranked. Conclusion: Lack of knowledge of hospital personnel on proper application of technology in patient treatment is the main factor leading to productivity decrease resulting from technological changes in the studied hospitals. Therefore, holding courses for personnel in order to teach them the proper use of technology in diagnosis and patient care can be helpful. PMID:27390686
Crises occurred in recent decades show that organizations' preparedness to predict and respond to undesired problems is directly related to the degree of their capabilities and preparedness to manage crises in this context, hospitals compared to other organizations are more viable to suffer damages if a crisis occurs. This study investigates the degree of public hospitals capabilities and preparedness to handled possible crises. Responses from hospital managers and directors show that most of them were not familiar with crisis management, while majority of them mentioned that they had crisis management plan and committee in their hospitals. Moreover, most of the respondents believed that if a crisis occurs in the hospital, patients, personnel and documents will be the first victims of the crisis. The study also indicates that having a crisis plan and crisis committee without being familiar with knowledge of crisis management, do not help managers to cope with crisis. Moreover, correlations show that older managers were more familiar with crisis management experiences abroad, and defined responsibilities contributed to setting up crisis committee, and taking crisis seriously.
Listyowardojo, Tita Alissa; Yan, Xiaoling; Leyshon, Stephen; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Yu, Xin Yan; Zheng, Kai; Duan, Tao
Objective To assess safety culture at a public maternity hospital in Shanghai, China, using a sequential mixed methods approach. The study was part of a bigger study looking at the application of the mixed methods approach to assess safety culture in health care in different organizations and countries. Methodology A mixed methods approach was utilized by first distributing the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire measuring six safety culture dimensions and five independent items to all hospital staff (n=1482) working in 18 departments at a single hospital. Afterward, semistructured interviews were conducted using convenience sampling, where 48 hospital staff from nine departments at the same hospital were individually interviewed. Results The survey received a response rate of 96%. The survey findings show significant differences between the hospital departments in almost all safety culture dimensions and independent items. Similarly, the interview findings revealed that there were different, competing priorities between departments perceived to result in a reduced quality of collaboration and bottlenecks in care delivery. Another major finding was that staff who worked more hours per week would perceive working conditions significantly more negatively. Issues related to working conditions were also the most common concerns discussed in the interviews, especially the issue on high workload. High workload was also reflected in the fact that 91.45% of survey respondents reported that they worked 40 hours or longer per week. Finally, interview findings complemented survey findings, thus providing a more complete and accurate picture of safety culture. Conclusion Hospital leaders need to prioritize interventions focused on improving the quality of cross-department collaboration and reducing workload. A mixed methods assessment of safety culture provides more meaningful, targeted results, enabling leaders to prioritize and tailor improvement efforts to increase the impact of
Rocha, J S; Simões, B J
The last decade saw the creation and implementation of the Brazilian National Health System (NHS)--public, universal and equalitarian--with the objective of offering wide coverage to meet the population's health needs. The objective of the study was the assessment of the evolution of public and private hospital care on a populational basis during the period of the implementation of the NHS. The 984,142 inpatients of the general hospitals of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, during the period 1986 to 1996 were studied and those of them living in their own municipal district were selected. The inpatients are classified according to the financing system as private, pre-payment and NHS; the social situation of the patients and the profile of hospital morbidity are analysed. In the period studied a continuous growth in the number of hospitalizations is observed, both in absolute numbers and in coefficient per thousand inhabitants, increasing from 43,773 to 55,844 inpatients per year. Though when the categories of the hospitalizations are studied, it is seen that private inpatients present a reduction both in absolute numbers and as a coefficient from 3,181 (7.3%) to 2,215 (3.9%); the NHS inpatients decrease in absolute numbers and in a percentage by a third at the end of the period--falling from 33,254 (76.0%) to 29,373 (51.7%). On the other hand the pre-payment inpatient system triplicates in absolute numbers and duplicates by rate for inhabitant--from 7,338 (16.8%) to 25,256 (44.4%). The NHS hospital care attends mainly unskilled and semi-skilled manual workers; the professionals, technicians, non manual and skilled manual workers being assisted by the private services. The hospital morbidity of NHS inpatients is different from that of the private inpatient systems. The health policy in that period, limiting NHS financing, repressing demand and discouraging the private providers to work with NHS inpatients led to negative selectivity. The result was an increase in difference
Ausserer, J; Schwamberger, J; Preloznik, R; Klimek, M; Paal, P; Wenzel, V
Tragic accidents, e.g. involving celebrity patients or severe incidents in hospital occur suddenly without any advance warning, often produce substantial interest by the media and quickly overburden management personnel involved in both hospitals and emergency medical services. While doctors, hospitals and emergency medical services desire objective media reports, the media promote emotionalized and dramatized reports to ensure maximum attention and circulation. When briefing the media, the scales may quickly tilt from professional, well-deliberated information to unfortunate, often unintended disinformation. Such phenomena may result in continuing exaggerated reports in the tabloid press, which in the presence of aggressive lawyers and a competitive hospital environment can turn into image and legal problems. In this article, several aspects are discussed in order to achieve successful public relations.Interviews should be given only after consultation with the responsible press officer and the director of the respective department or hospital director. Requests for information by the media should always be answered as otherwise one-sided, unintentional publications can result that are extremely difficult to correct later. One should be available to be contacted easily by journalists, regular press conferences should be held and critics should be taken seriously and not be brushed off. Questions by journalists should be answered in a timely manner as journalists are continuously under time pressure and do not understand unnecessary delays. Information for the media should always be provided at the same time, no publication should be given preference and an absolutely current list of E-mail contacts is required. When facing big events a press conference is preferred as many questions can be answered at once. Always be well prepared for an interview or even for just a statement. Each interview should be regarded as an opportunity to put a story forward which you
Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Shojaei, Saeed; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi
Information systems are "computer systems that collect, store, process, retrieve, show, and provide timely information required in practice, education, management, and research". The purpose of these systems is to support hospital activities in practical, tactical, and strategic levels in order to provide better service to patients. This study aimed to evaluate the communication and information system (MCI) in public hospitals in Sabzevar city in 2014 from the perspective of human resources according to international standards of the Joint Commission Accreditation Hospital (JCAH). This study was a practical, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of Sabzevar nurses who used hospital information system. Sampling was done by classification method and in proportion to the number of nurses in each health care units in hospitals in 2014. The sample size was 200 and after referring to hospitals, 200 questionnaires were completed. Sample size was calculated by the formula n=Z(2)P (1-P)/d(2) with P=0.5, α=0.05, d=0.05, and Z=1.96. Data collection tool was the questionnaire of assessment of hospital information systems of JCAH, which has 124 specific questions, including 6 areas. To assess the effect of demographic variables with MCI standards of two questionnaires (feasibility and implementation), the following steps were taken. 1. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine whether responses were normal or not. 2. In case of normal data, t-test was used for dual groups and one-way ANOVA test for groups of three or more. 3. If not normal, Mann-Whitney test was used for dual groups and Kruskal-Wallis test for groups of three or more. Research findings show the mean results of feasibility and implementation of all 6 areas of international standards MCI have feasibility in three hospitals in Sabzevar in 20 sections (H1=105.01±10.468), (H1=196.31±4.662), (H2=104.26±9.099), (H2=195.33±3.778) (H3=106.48±11.545) and (H3=197.57±4
Ghorbani, Ali Asghar; Hesamzadeh, Ali; Khademloo, Mohammad; Khalili, Salimeh; Hesamzadeh, Shamim; Berger, Valerie
Background: Nurses’ perceptions of ethical climate patterns have certain undeniable effects on hospitals. There is little evidence of possible differences in this element between public and private hospitals and contributing factors. Objectives: This study investigated whether the perceptions of the ethical climate in nurses’ working in public hospitals differ from that of nurses in private hospitals, and which factors may affect nurses’ perceptions. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of randomly selected registered nurses (n = 235), working in four public hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, and three private hospitals, was conducted in Sari City, Iran. A self-administered questionnaire, containing demographic characteristics and the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey (HECS), were used to assess registered nurses’ perceptions of public and private hospitals ethical climate. An independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Across the five factors of HECS, the highest and lowest mean scores pertained to managers and physicians, respectively, in both public and private hospitals. Nurses who had a conditional employment situation and those working in pediatric intensive care units showed significantly more positive perceptions of the ethical work climate when compared to their peers (P < 0.05). Although the mean score of ethical work climate in private hospitals (3.82 ± 0.61) was higher than that in public hospitals (3.76 ± 0.54), no significant difference was found (P = 0.44). Conclusions: Hospital managers need to discover better ways to promote safety and health programs for their staff according to nurses’ area of work and their type of units. They should also encourage greater levels of participation in safety-enhancing initiatives in the hospital’s ethical climate, especially in the areas of nurses’ perceptions of their physician colleagues, and for nurses with a conditional
Karolinski, A; Mercer, R; Micone, P; Ocampo, C; Mazzoni, A; Fontana, O; Messina, A; Winograd, R; Frers, M C; Nassif, J C; Elordi, H C; Lapidus, A; Taddeo, C; Damiano, M; Lambruschini, R; Muzzio, C; Pecker, B; Natale, S; Nowacki, D; Betular, A; Breccia, G; Di Biase, L; Montes Varela, D; Dunaiewsky, A; Minsk, E; Fernández, D; Martire, L; Huespe, M; Laterra, C; Spagnuolo, R; Gregoris, C
To analyse life-threatening obstetric complications that occurred in public hospitals in Argentina. Multicentre collaborative cross-sectional study. Twenty-five hospitals included in the Perinatal Network of Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. Women giving birth in participating hospitals during a 1-year period. All cases of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and maternal mortality (MM) during pregnancy (including miscarriage and induced abortion), labour and puerperium were included. Data were collected prospectively. Identification criteria, main causes and incidence of SMM; case-fatality rates, morbidity-mortality index and effective intervention's use rate. A total of 552 women with life-threatening conditions were identified: 518 with SMM, 34 with MM. Identification criteria for SMM were case-management (48.9%), organ dysfunction (15.2%) and mixed criteria (35.9%). Incidence of SMM was 0.8% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.73-0.87%) and hospital maternal death ratio was 52.3 per 100 000 live births (95% CI 35.5-69.1). Main causes of MM were abortion complications and puerperal sepsis; main causes of SMM were postpartum haemorrhage and hypertension. Overall case-fatality rate was 6.2% (95% CI 4.4-8.6): the highest due to sepsis (14.8%) and abortion complications (13.3%). Morbidity-mortality index was 15:1 (95% CI 7.5-30.8). Use rate of known effective interventions to prevent or treat main causes of MM and SMM was 52.3% (95% CI 46.9-57.7). This study describes the importance of life-threatening obstetric complications that took place in public hospitals with comprehensive obstetric care and the low utilisation of known effective interventions that may decrease rates of SMM and MM. It also provides arguments that justify the need to develop a surveillance system for SMM. © 2013 RCOG.
Fabeiro, M; Dalieri, M; Martínez, M; Galarraga, M; Prozzi, M; Barcellandi, P; Hernández, J; Alberti, M J; Fernández, A
The intensive care of patients at home had probed important beneficialness for the patient and the Health System. There are very few experiences of this kind of care from the Public Hospitals. To develop a social-sanitary analysis of the feasibility of the implementation of HPN on patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) from a Public Hospital. Patients hospitalized between 1985-2009 were included. We analyzed: age, residual intestine length (RIL), time between de indication and the beginning of HPN, HPN duration, treatment modality and clinical outcome. Social determinants: home place, habitat conditions, employment conditions, educational level, social security and Low Socioeconomic Status (LSS). The group were divided in two: 1- patients with feasibility of HPN when it was prescribed; 2- patients without feasibility of HPN. 61 patients were included, RIL x: 21.7 ± 11.6 cm. The HPN was feasible (G1) in 32 patients (52.4%) and no feasible (G2) in 29 (47.6%). The home treatment modality was in self-caring 25 (81%) and with nurses support 7 (19 %). The social determinants associated with the HPN feasibility were: more than one takecare (p 0.03), educational level (p 0.01), adequate habitat conditions (p 0.02) and Low Socioeconomis Status (LSS) (p 0.07). 17 patients reached intestinal adaptation (28%), 6 (10%) were transplanted, 19 (31%) died and 19 (31%) are actually on HPN. The HPN realized from the Public Hospital is feasible. Different social determinants were observed. The care of this group of patients must be done by an interdisciplinary group including general aspects of the child and the family.
Li, Xiaoji; Hu, Youping
The beginning of TCM acupuncture in New Zealand dates back to the middle of 19th century. After self-improvement for more than 100 years, TCM acupuncture has gained a considerable development. From the perspective of history and current situation, the development of acupuncture in New Zealand was elaborated in this article; in addition, the sustainable development of acupuncture was discussed from the perspective of education and training. In New Zealand, the TCM acupuncture and dry needling have played a dominant role in acupuncture treatments, which are practiced by TCM practitioners and physical therapists. The TCM acupuncture is widely applied in department of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, and pediatrics, etc., while the dry needling is li-mited for traumatology and pain disorder. Therefore, including TCM acupuncture into the public medical and educational system in New Zealand should be an essential policy of Ministry of Health to provide welfare for the people.
ANJARANI, Soghra; SAFADEL, Nooshafarin; DAHIM, Parisa; AMINI, Rana; MAHDAVI, Saeed; MIRAB SAMIEE, Siamak
In September 2007 national standard manual was finalized and officially announced as the minimal quality requirements for all medical laboratories in the country. Apart from auditing laboratories, Reference Health Laboratory has performed benchmarking auditing of medical laboratory network (surveys) in provinces. 12th benchmarks performed in Tehran and Alborz provinces, Iran in 2010 in three stages. We tried to compare different processes, their quality and accordance with national standard measures between public and private hospital laboratories. The assessment tool was a standardized checklist consists of 164 questions. Analyzing process show although in most cases implementing the standard requirements are more prominent in private laboratories, there is still a long way to complete fulfillment of requirements, and it takes a lot of effort. Differences between laboratories in public and private sectors especially in laboratory personnel and management process are significant. Probably lack of motivation, plays a key role in obtaining less desirable results in laboratories in public sectors. PMID:23514840
Elliott, Marc N; Cohea, Christopher W; Lehrman, William G; Goldstein, Elizabeth H; Cleary, Paul D; Giordano, Laura A; Beckett, Megan K; Zaslavsky, Alan M
Measure HCAHPS improvement in hospitals participating in the second and fifth years of HCAHPS public reporting; determine whether change is greater for some hospital types. Surveys from 4,822,960 adult inpatients discharged July 2007-June 2008 or July 2010-June 2011 from 3,541 U.S. hospitals. Linear mixed-effect regression models with fixed effects for time, patient mix, and hospital characteristics (bedsize, ownership, Census division, teaching status, Critical Access status); random effects for hospitals and hospital-time interactions; fixed-effect interactions of hospital characteristics and patient characteristics (gender, health, education) with time predicted HCAHPS measures correcting for regression-to-the-mean biases. National probability sample of adult inpatients in any of four approved survey modes. HCAHPS scores increased by 2.8 percentage points from 2008 to 2011 in the most positive response category. Among the middle 95 percent of hospitals, changes ranged from a 5.1 percent decrease to a 10.2 percent gain overall. The greatest improvement was in for-profit and larger (200 or more beds) hospitals. Five years after HCAHPS public reporting began, meaningful improvement of patients' hospital care experiences continues, especially among initially low-scoring hospitals, reducing some gaps among hospitals. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Clarke, Christina A; Asch, Steven M; Baker, Laurence; Bilimoria, Karl; Dudley, R Adams; Fong, Niya; Holliday-Hanson, Merry L; Hopkins, David S P; Imholz, Elizabeth M; Malin, Jennifer; Moy, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Maryann; Parker, Joseph P; Saigal, Christopher S; Spurlock, Bruce; Teleki, Stephanie; Zingmond, David; Lang, Lance
Most patients, providers, and payers make decisions about cancer hospitals without any objective data regarding quality or outcomes. We developed two online resources allowing users to search and compare timely data regarding hospital cancer surgery volumes. Hospital cancer surgery volumes for all California hospitals were calculated using ICD-9 coded hospital discharge summary data. Cancer surgeries included (bladder, brain, breast, colon, esophagus, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, rectum, and stomach) were selected on the basis of a rigorous literature review to confirm sufficient evidence of a positive association between volume and mortality. The literature could not identify threshold numbers of surgeries associated with better or worse outcomes. A multidisciplinary working group oversaw the project and ensured sound methodology. In California in 2014, about 60% of surgeries were performed at top-quintile-volume hospitals, but the per-hospital median numbers of surgeries for esophageal, pancreatic, stomach, liver, or bladder cancer surgeries were four or fewer. At least 670 patients received cancer surgery at hospitals that performed only one or two surgeries for a particular cancer type; 72% of those patients lived within 50 miles of a top-quintile-volume hospital. There is clear potential for more readily available information about hospital volumes to help patient, providers, and payers choose cancer surgery hospitals. Our successful public reporting of hospital volumes in California represents an important first step toward making publicly available even more provider-specific data regarding cancer care quality, costs, and outcomes, so those data can inform decision-making and encourage quality improvement.
Vanzetta, Marina; Vellone, Ercole; Dal Molin, Alberto; Rocco, Gennaro; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Rosaria, Alvaro
In 2010 the Italian Ministry of Health set out recommendations for the use of social technology and Web 2.0, inviting organisations within the Italian national health service (Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, SSN) to equip themselves with instruments. 1. to ascertain how many local health authorities (Aziende Sanitarie Locali, ASL) and public hospitals have a presence on the most widely used social media websites in Italy: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube; 2. to find out how well the Facebook, Twitter and YouTube pages of ASLs and public hospitals are known among the general population; 3. to find out how ASLs and public hospitals engage with the general public on social media sites. The websites of all ASLs and public hospitals across the country were visited to look for the icons of the social media sites under examination. The data considered were publicly available upon access. A total of 245 websites were analysed. 7.34% ASLs and hospitals had social media accounts. 8 organisations had an account on all three of the social media sites considered in the study. The results show a low presence of ASLs and hospitals on social media. Other studies are needed in this field.
Herrmann, Lisa E; Hall, Matthew; Kyler, Kathryn; Cochran, Joseph; Andrews, Annie L; Williams, Derek J; Wilson, Karen M; Shah, Samir S
The annual Pediatric Hospital Medicine (PHM) conference serves as a venue for the dissemination of research in this rapidly growing discipline. A measure of research validity is subsequent publication in peer-reviewed journals. To identify the publication rate of abstracts submitted to the 2014 PHM conference and determine whether presentation format was associated with subsequent journal publication or time to publication. We identified abstracts submitted to the 2014 PHM conference. Presentation formats included rejected abstracts and poster and oral presentations. Abstracts subsequently published in journals were identified by searching the author and abstract title in PubMed, MedEdPORTAL, and Google Scholar. We used logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models to determine if presentation format was associated with publication, time to publication, and publishing journal impact factor. Of 226 submitted abstracts, 19.0% were rejected, 68.0% were selected for posters, and 12.8% were selected for oral presentations; 36.3% were subsequently published within 30 months after the conference. Abstracts accepted for oral presentation had more than 7-fold greater odds of publication (adjusted odds ratio 7.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-23.5) and a 4-fold greater likelihood of publication at each month (adjusted hazard ratio 4.5; 95% CI, 2.1-9.7) compared with rejected abstracts. Median journal impact factor was significantly higher for oral presentations than other presentation formats (P < 0.01). Abstract reviewers may be able to identify methodologically sound studies for presentation; however, the low overall publication rate may indicate that presented results are preliminary or signify a need for increased mentorship and resources for research development in PHM.
Skipworth, Jeremy; Brinded, Phil; Chaplow, David; Frampton, Chris
This paper examines clinical and forensic outcomes for defendants found not guilty by reason of insanity in New Zealand, and explores the implications for policy development and clinical rehabilitation in this population. All insanity acquittees disposed of by the courts as special patients after 1976 and released before 2004 are described. Their duration of inpatient care, rates of reconviction and rehospitalization following release are examined. The high resolution rate for violent crime reported to police suggests that reconviction rates are a reasonable proxy for violent reoffending. Factors predicting duration of inpatient care and reoffending are analysed. Severity of Index Offence was the only variable predicting duration of inpatient care of the 135 special patients. Offenders of more serious offences were securely detained for longer periods--averaging 6 years in the case of those charged with murder. Most patients were readmitted over the decade following discharge. Only 6% had violently reoffended 2 years after release into the community. Prior offending, age at release, ethnicity and gender predicted reoffending, but not diagnosis or duration of inpatient admission. Following discharge into the community, insanity acquittees are reconvicted of violent crimes at a very low rate, although readmission to hospital is common. It may be that insanity acquittees are initially detained in hospital longer than is clinically indicated, and that safe forensic community treatment can occur at an earlier stage of recovery without compromising public safety.
Dagne, Tesfaye; Beyene, Waju; Berhanu, Negalign
Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. Facility based cross-sectional survey was employed. All health professionals who served at least for 6 months in Ambo, Gedo and Gindeberet hospitals were included. Self-administered Likert scale type questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mean motivation calculated as percentage of maximum scale score was used. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were done to see the independent effects of explanatory variables. The overall motivation level of health professionals was 63.63%. Motivation level of health professionals varied among the hospitals. Gindeberet Hospital had lower motivation score as compared to Ambo Hospital (B = -0.54 and 95% CI; -0.08,-0.27). The mean motivation score of health professionals who got monthly financial benefit was significantly higher than those who did not (B = 0.71 and 95% CI; 0.32, 1.10). Environmental factors had higher impact on doctors' motivation compared to nurses' (B = 0.51 and 95% CI; 0.10, 0.92). Supervisor-related factors highly varied in motivation relative to other variables. Motivation of health professionals was affected by factors related to supervisor, financial benefits, job content and hospital location. Efforts should be made to provide financial benefits to health professionals as appropriate especially, to those who did not get any such benefits. Officially recognizing best performance is also suggested.
de Barros Reis, Carla; Knust, Renata Erthal; de Aguiar Pereira, Claudia Cristina; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo
The present study estimated the cost of advanced non-small cell lung cancer care for a cohort of 251 patients enrolled in a Brazilian public hospital and identified factors associated with the cost of treating the disease, considering sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of patients, service utilization patterns and survival time. Estimates were obtained from the survey of direct medical cost per patient from the hospital's perspective. Data was collected from medical records and available hospital information systems. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method with logarithmic transformation of the dependent variable for the analysis of cost predictors was used to take into account the positive skewness of the costs distribution. The average cost of NSCLC was US$ 5647 for patients, with 71% of costs being associated to outpatient care. The main components of cost were daily hospital bed stay (22.6%), radiotherapy (15.5%) and chemotherapy (38.5%). The OLS model reported that, with 5% significance level, patients with higher levels of education, with better physical performance and less advanced disease have higher treatment costs. After controlling for the patient's survival time, only education and service utilization patterns were statistically significant. Individuals who were hospitalized or made use of radiotherapy or chemotherapy had higher costs. The use of these outpatient and hospital services explained most of the treatment cost variation, with a significant increase of the adjusted R 2 of 0.111 to 0.449 after incorporation of these variables in the model. The explanatory power of the complete model reached 62%. Inequities in disease treatment costs were observed, pointing to the need for strategies that reduce lower socioeconomic status and population's hurdles to accessing cancer care services.
Tabassum, Tahirah; Ashraf, Mariam; Thaver, Inayat
The awareness of patient's rights is negligible in developing countries where no legal framework is present to protect these rights and Pakistan is no exception. Not only is there an absence of legal structure for protection of patients' rights, but the enforcement and implementation for existing law is also questionable. Pakistan has an Islamic Charter of Medical and Health Ethics which includes the medical behaviour and physician's rights and duties towards the patients. Despite all these charters on patients' rights, there is little to no awareness regarding these rights and their practice remains low in healthcare system of Pakistan. This assessment of awareness among patients about their rights will guide in formulating recommendations to improve the existing system of healthcare delivery in the country. This descriptive cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in two hospitals in Lahore, each belonging to public and private sector. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from patients. A total of 220 patients were selected to participate in the study, 110 belonging to each private and public hospital. The findings indicate that most of the patients (64%) were not aware of their rights. The awareness level was better in patients seeking care from private hospital than those from public hospital. Education, monthly income and type of hospital utilized were found to be positively associated with the level of awareness. Most of the patients were not satisfied with the practices of their rights, especially in public hospitals. The lack of awareness regarding the rights of a patient was more common in patients of public/government hospitals compared to private hospitals. A nation-wide healthcare education program is needed to increase awareness and practice of patients' rights in the country.
Ismail, Abdussalaam Iyanda; Abdul Majid, Abdul Halim; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Abdullah, Nor Azimah Chew; Hamzah, Sulaiman; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah
The current study aims to examine the effects of human resource (measured with the perception of health workers' perception towards UNHS), screening equipment, program layout and screening techniques on healthcare practitioners' awareness (measured with knowledge) of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) in Malaysian non-public hospitals. Via cross sectional approach, the current study collected data using a validated questionnaire to obtain information on the awareness of UNHS program among the health practitioners and to test the formulated hypotheses. 51, representing 81% response rate, out of 63 questionnaires distributed to the health professionals were returned and usable for statistical analysis. The survey instruments involving healthcare practitioners' awareness, human resource, program layout, screening instrument, and screening techniques instruments were adapted and scaled with 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (little) to 7 (many). Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm and bootstrapping techniques were employed to test the hypotheses of the study. With the result involving beta values, t-values and p-values (i.e. β=0.478, t=1.904, p<0.10; β=0.809, t=3.921, p<0.01; β= -0.436, t=1.870, p<0.10), human resource, measured with training, functional equipment and program layout, are held to be significant predictors of enhanced knowledge of health practitioners. Likewise, program layout, human resource, screening technique and screening instrument explain 71% variance in health practitioners' awareness. Health practitioners' awareness is explained by program layout, human resource, and screening instrument with effect size (f2) of 0.065, 0.621, and 0.211 respectively, indicating that program layout, human resource, and screening instrument have small, large and medium effect size on health practitioners' awareness respectively. However, screening technique has zero effect on health practitioners' awareness, indicating the reason why T-statistics is
Amorim, Maria do Socorro Teixeira; Melo, Aurea Nogueira de
To revisit the head circumference (HC) of newborns in public and private maternity hospitals; to correlate our findings with the gestational age, gender, and type of delivery; and build and validate graphs and curves. This was a prospective study performed on healthy newborns. Differences in HC were analyzed as a function of gestational age, gender, the healthcare system and the type of delivery. Smoothed percentile curves were created using the least mean squares method. Of the included newborns, 697 were born in private maternity hospitals and 2,150 were born in public maternity hospitals. In all, 839 were born by vaginal delivery, and 1,311 were born by cesarean delivery. At 37 to 42 weeks of gestation, male newborns had a larger HC than females. Infants born in private maternity and those born by cesarean delivery had a larger HC. An important result of the present study is that our analyses allowed us to generate curves and statistically-validated graphs that can be used in clinical neonatal practice.
de Carvalho, Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima; Arruda, Lidyane Parente; do Nascimento, Nayanne Karen Pinheiro; Sampaio, Renata Lopes; Cavalcante, Maria Lígia Silva Nunes; Costa, Ana Carolina Pinto
ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the culture of safety in three public hospitals. Method: transversal study undertaken in three Brazilian public hospitals, with health professionals through applying the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). Scores greater than or equal to 75 were considered positive. Results: a total of 573 professionals participated in the study, including nurse technicians and auxiliary nurses 292 (51%), nurses 105 (18.3%), physicians 59 (10.3%), and other professionals 117 (20.4%). The mean of the SAQ varied between 65 and 69 in the three hospitals. Among the domains, however, 'Job satisfaction' presented a higher score, and the opposite was observed for the domain 'Perceptions of management'. The outsourced professionals presented a better perception of the culture of safety than did the statutory professionals. The professionals with higher education presented a better perception of the stressing factors than did the professionals educated to senior high school level. Conclusion: the level of the culture of safety found is below the ideal. The managerial actions are considered the main contributing factor to the culture's weakness; however, the professionals demonstrated themselves to be satisfied with the work. PMID:28301029
Chen, Kang-Pan; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Yang, Hsiu-Fan
To explore the prevalence, types and sources of violence in the nursing workplace and to assess the factors related to violence. Workplace violence in nursing is not a new phenomenon; in recent years, much more attention has been paid to the issue in Taiwan. Few studies, however, have investigated the overall distribution of violence and the reasons for not reporting these incidents in nursing workplaces. This descriptive, correlational study used structured questionnaires to collecting information about workplace violence experienced by nurses over the last year. Nurses (n = 880) working in a public hospital in southern Taiwan were invited to complete the questionnaires, with a response rate of 89·9%. Nurses working in outpatient units and emergency rooms experienced more frequent violence than those on surgical wards and intensive care units. These findings provide evidence of workplace violence in hospitals and may aid hospital and nursing administration to reduce and control violence. RELEVANCE TO NURSING PRACTICE: These results provide evidence in relation to the importance of effective communication training to nurses and will assist hospital administrations in establishing higher-quality, healthy workplace environments. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Escobar-Rodriguez, Tomas; Escobar-Pérez, Bernabe; Monge-Lozano, Pedro
Public resources should always be managed efficiently, more so in times of crisis. Due to the specific characteristics of the healthcare sector, there is a need for special attention, especially in regards to hospitals. Administrators need useful tools to be able to efficiently manage available resources, such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. Therefore, an analysis of the effects of their implementation and use in hospitals is valuable. This study has two purposes. One is to analyse the role ERP systems play in aiding the integration of hospital data, with focus on user satisfaction as well as possible resistance to change. The other purpose is to analyse the effects of implanting and using ERP systems in the hospital environment and identifying how certain variables influence the process, especially the existence of different organisational cultures. Results indicate that clinical information has become notably more integrated, despite the lack of flow in the economic-financial area. The heterogeneous nature of the different groups, clinical (Medical, Nursing) and non-clinical (Economic-Financial, Accounting), had a negative influence on the implementation process, and limited the integration of information as well as the system's performance.
Why do we work in public hospitals, what do we look for and what do we find working at these places? There are several answers. The heritage, the places where we learnt, the places where medicine is practiced. A model that feeds us. They cannot be improved and it is difficult to accept their limitations. However, many factors such as teaching, research and group work, encourage us to continue working in them. Variation and simultaneity, they are places with many variables, a living organism. The myth, the mother, that transmits its principles and behaviors, gives us a sense of life, feeds us and allows us to feed others. Economical reasons and performance. When performance of physicians is analyzed, positive values such as contact with patients, hours of discussion and study, quality of care, risks, dedication and training difficulties must be taken into consideration. Hospitals are not a patient assembly line. Fantasies and representations. We are participating in a health community and hospitals become a place for personal growth. Respect towards poverty. Helping the less fortunate. Knowledge and learning. Experiencing values. Forgotten words. Bioethics brought back several principles that are present in hospitals such as compassion, empathy, sweetness, service, humility, gratitude.
May, Thomas; Aulisio, Mark P
The problem of surge capacity in the wake of a terror-related emergency has lead to a number of interesting proposals designed to mitigate the effects of crowds as well as deficiencies in patient care capacities. The most controversial of these is a proposal to close hospital doors in the wake of a mass casualty terror event. However, several specific challenges posed by mass casualty events make closing hospitals doors undesirable. These include the need for efficient movement of resources, maintenance of social order, and providing the moral reassurance needed by the general public in times of crisis. Importantly, these challenges are related to features of terrorist events that distinguish such events from circumstances of "normal" surge that might result in, for example, closure of emergency rooms.
Mazzoni, Agustina; Althabe, Fernando; Gutierrez, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Liu, Nancy H; Bonotti, Ana María; Izbizky, Gustavo H; Ferrary, Marta; Viergue, Nora; Vigil, Silvia I; Zalazar Denett, Gabriela; Belizán, José M
Rates of caesarean section have steadily increased in most middle- and high-income countries over the last few decades without medical justification. Maternal request is one of the frequently cited non-medical factors contributing to this trend. The objectives of this study were to assess pregnant women's preferences regarding mode of delivery and to compare actual caesarean section rates in the public and private sectors. A prospective cohort study was conducted in two public and three private hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. 382 nulliparous pregnant women (183 from the private sector and 199 from the public sector) aged 18 to 35 years, with single pregnancies over 32 weeks of gestational age were enrolled during antenatal care visits between October 2010 and September 2011. We excluded women with pregnancies resulting from assisted fertility, women with known pre-existing major diseases or, with pregnancy complications, or with a medical indication of elective cesarean section. We used two different approaches to assess women's preferences: a survey using a tailored questionnaire, and a discrete choice experiment. Only 8 and 6% of the healthy nulliparous women in the public and private sectors, respectively, expressed a preference for caesarean section. Fear of pain and safety were the most frequently expressed reasons for preferring caesarean section. When reasons for delivery mode were assessed by a discrete choice experiment, women placed the most emphasis on sex after childbirth. Of women who expressed their preference for vaginal delivery, 34 and 40% ended their pregnancies by caesarean section in public and private hospitals, respectively. The preference for caesarean section is low among healthy nulliparous women in Buenos Aires. The reasons why these women had a rate of more than 35% caesarean sections are unlikely related to their preferences for mode of delivery.
Goldman, L Elizabeth; Henderson, Stuart; Dohan, Daniel P; Talavera, Jason A; Dudley, R Adams
Safety-net hospitals (SNHs) may gain little financial benefit from the rapidly spreading adoption of public reporting and pay-for-performance, but may feel compelled to participate (and bear the costs of data collection) to meet public expectations of transparency and accountability. To better understand the concerns that SNH administrators have regarding public reporting and pay-for-performance, we interviewed 37 executives at randomly selected California SNHs. The main concerns noted by SNH executives were that human and financial resource constraints made it difficult for SNHs to accurately measure their performance. Additionally, some executives felt that market-driven public reporting and pay-for-performance may focus on clinical areas and incentive structures that may not be high-priority clinical areas for SNHs. Executives at SNHs suggested several policy responses to these concerns-such as offering training programs for SNH data collectors-that could be relatively inexpensive and might improve the cost-benefit ratio of public reporting and pay-for-performance programs.
Alexander, Diane; Currie, Janet
There is continuing controversy about the extent to which publicly insured children are treated differently than privately insured children, and whether differences in treatment matter. We show that on average, hospitals are less likely to admit publicly insured children than privately insured children who present at the ER and the gap grows during high flu weeks, when hospital beds are in high demand. This pattern is present even after controlling for detailed diagnostic categories and hospital fixed effects, but does not appear to have any effect on measurable health outcomes such as repeat ER visits and future hospitalizations. Hence, our results raise the possibility that instead of too few publicly insured children being admitted during high flu weeks, there are too many publicly and privately insured children being admitted most of the time. PMID:28063679
Background Violence against healthcare workers in Palestinian hospitals is common. However, this issue is under researched and little evidence exists. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, magnitude, consequences and possible risk factors for workplace violence against nurses and physicians working in public Palestinian hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional approach was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on different aspects of workplace violence against physicians and nurses in five public hospitals between June and July 2011. The questionnaires were distributed to a stratified proportional random sample of 271 physicians and nurses, of which 240 (88.7%) were adequately completed. Pearson’s chi-square analysis was used to test the differences in exposure to physical and non-physical violence according to respondents’ characteristics. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess potential associations between exposure to violence (yes/no) and the respondents’ characteristics using logistic regression model. Results The majority of respondents (80.4%) reported exposure to violence in the previous 12 months; 20.8% physical and 59.6% non-physical. No statistical difference in exposure to violence between physicians and nurses was observed. Males’ significantly experienced higher exposure to physical violence in comparison with females. Logistic regression analysis indicated that less experienced (OR: 8.03; 95% CI 3.91-16.47), and a lower level of education (OR: 3; 95% CI 1.29-6.67) among respondents meant they were more likely to be victims of workplace violence than their counterparts. The assailants were mostly the patients' relatives or visitors, followed by the patients themselves, and co-workers. Consequences of both physical and non-physical violence were considerable. Only half of victims received any type of treatment. Non-reporting of violence was a concern, main reasons were lack of
Weldegebriel, Zemichael; Ejigu, Yohannes; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Woldie, Mirkuzie
Health professionals' motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach's α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation) used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson's correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05). Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores) were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational burnout scale. Professional category, age, type of the hospital, nonfinancial motivators like performance evaluation and management, staffing and work schedule, staff development and promotion, availability of necessary resources, and ease of communication were found to be strong predictors of health worker motivation. Across the hospitals and professional categories, health workers' overall level of motivation with absolute level of compensation was not
Weldegebriel, Zemichael; Ejigu, Yohannes; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Woldie, Mirkuzie
Background Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach’s α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation) used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05). Results Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores) were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational burnout scale. Professional category, age, type of the hospital, nonfinancial motivators like performance evaluation and management, staffing and work schedule, staff development and promotion, availability of necessary resources, and ease of communication were found to be strong predictors of health worker motivation. Across the hospitals and professional categories, health workers’ overall level of motivation with absolute
Lim, Su Ann; Wong, Wan Ling; Fu, Esther; Goh, Kong Yong; Seah, Alvin; Tan, Clement; Tow, Sharon; Cullen, James F; Wong, Tien Y
To describe the incidence of neuro-ophthalmic diseases in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Singapore. Prospective study in public hospitals in Singapore. All neuro-ophthalmic cases seen in four public sector hospitals over a 22-month period (September 2002 to June 2004) were identified using a standardized protocol. The 2004 Singapore population was used as a denominator to estimate annual incidence. The prevalence of ischemic risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia) among cases was compared to population data. A total of 1,356 patients with neuro-ophthalmic diseases were seen during the study period, of which 627 were new incident cases. The overall annual incidence of neuro-ophthalmic diseases was 9.81 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval, 8.80-10.90). The incidence increased with age. After controlling for age, the annual incidence was similar between men (10.75 per 100,000) and women (9.00 per 100,000), but was higher in Chinese (10.33 per 100,000) and Indians (9.34 per 100,000) than in Malays (6.62 per 100,000). The three commonest specific neuro-ophthalmic conditions were abducens nerve palsy (1.27 per 100,000), anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (1.08 per 100,000) and oculomotor nerve palsy (0.91 per 100,000). The incidence of optic neuritis was 0.83 per 100,000. Compared with the Singapore general population, the prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher in people aged 40-59, while the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was significantly higher in 60-69 year age group. In this study of public hospitals in Singapore, the incidence of neuro-ophthalmic diseases was higher in Chinese and Indians compared to Malays.
Si, Damin; Runnegar, Naomi; Marquess, John; Rajmokan, Mohana; Playford, Elliott G
To describe the epidemiology and rates of all health care-associated bloodstream infections (HA-BSIs) and of specific HA-BSI subsets in public hospitals in Queensland. Standardised HA-BSI surveillance data were collected in 23 Queensland public hospitals, 2008-2012. HA-BSIs were prospectively classified in terms of place of acquisition (inpatient, non-inpatient); focus of infection (intravascular catheter-associated, organ site focus, neutropenic sepsis, or unknown focus); and causative organisms. Inpatient HA-BSI rates (per 10,000 patient-days) were calculated. There were 8092 HA-BSIs and 9418 causative organisms reported. Inpatient HA-BSIs accounted for 79% of all cases. The focus of infection in 2792 cases (35%) was an organ site, intravascular catheters in 2755 (34%; including 2240 central line catheters), neutropenic sepsis in 1063 (13%), and unknown in 1482 (18%). Five per cent (117 of 2240) of central line-associated BSIs (CLABSIs) were attributable to intensive care units (ICUs). Eight groups of organisms provided 79% of causative agents: coagulase-negative staphylococci (18%), Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Escherichia coli (11%), Pseudomonas species (9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca (8%), Enterococcus species (7%), Enterobacter species (6%), and Candida species (5%). The overall inpatient HA-BSI rate was 6.0 per 10,000 patient-days. The rates for important BSI subsets included: intravascular catheter-associated BSIs, 1.9 per 10,000 patient-days; S. aureus BSIs, 1.0 per 10,000 patient-days; and methicillin-resistant S. aureus BSIs, 0.3 per 10,000 patient-days. The rate of HA-BSIs in Queensland public hospitals is lower than reported by similar studies elsewhere. About one-third of HA-BSIs are attributable to intravascular catheters, predominantly central venous lines, but the vast majority of CLABSIs are contracted outside ICUs. Different sources of HA-BSIs require different prevention strategies.
Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas
This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff.
Bao, Yuhua; Fan, Guanrong; Zou, Dongdong; Wang, Tong; Xue, Di
Over 90% of outpatient care in China was delivered at public hospitals, making outpatient experience in this setting an important aspect of quality of care. To assess outpatient experience with different aspects of physician services at China's public hospitals and its association with overcrowding of the hospital outpatient departments. Retrospective analysis of a large survey of outpatient experience in Shanghai, China. We tested the hypotheses that patient experience was poorer with physician-patient communication, education, and shared decision-making and where and when there was greater overcrowding of the hospital outpatient departments. Ordered logistic models were estimated separately for general and specialty hospitals. 7,147 outpatients at 40 public hospitals in Shanghai, China, in 2014. Patient experience with physician services were self-reported based on 12 questions as part of a validated instrument. Indicators of overcrowding included time of visit (morning vs. afternoon, Monday vs. rest of the week) and hospital outpatient volume in the first half of 2014. Overall, patients reported very favorable experience with physician services. Two out of the 12 questions pertaining to both communication and shared decision-making consistently received lower ratings. Hospitals whose outpatient volumes were in the top two quartiles received lower patient ratings, but the relationship achieved statistical significance among specialty hospitals only. Inadequate physician-patient communication and shared decision-making and hospital overcrowding compromise outpatient experience with physician services at Chinese public hospitals. Effective diversion of patients with chronic and less complex conditions to community health centers will be critical to alleviate the extreme workloads at hospitals with high patient volumes and, in turn, improve patient experience.
Escobar-Pérez, Bernabé; Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Bartual-Sopena, Lourdes
Public healthcare organisations are moving towards the use of new technologies to automate and improve their internal processes in order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their use of resources. The aim of this research is to tackle the systematic evaluation of an experience of integrating information in a healthcare organisation, paying attention to the implications that this entails. The results show that the integration of the information in the hospital results in higher levels of quality. This study contributes a vision of interrelated work, in which tasks are shared and aims are jointly established. © The Author(s) 2015.
Makaroun, Lena K; Bowman, Chelsea; Duan, Kevin; Handley, Nathan; Wheeler, Daniel J; Pierluissi, Edgar; Chen, Alice Hm
Access to specialty care in the United States safety net, already strained, is fac-ing increasing pressure with an influx of patients following the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We surveyed 18 public hospitals and health systems across the country to describe the current state of specialty care delivery in safety-net systems. We elicited information regarding challenges, provider models, metrics of access and productivity, and strategies for improving access. Based on our findings, we propose a framework for assessing and improving specialty care access with a focus on population health planning.
Ortíz-Barrios, Miguel Angel; Escorcia-Caballero, Juan P; Sánchez-Sánchez, Fabián; De Felice, Fabio; Petrillo, Antonella
Healthcare systems are evolving towards a complex network of interconnected services due to the increasing costs and the increasing expectations for high service levels. It is evidenced in the literature the importance of implementing management techniques and sophisticated methods to improve the efficiency of healthcare systems, especially in emerging economies. This paper proposes an integrated collaboration model between two public hospitals to reach the reduction of weighted average lead time in outpatient internal medicine department. A strategic framework based on value stream mapping and collaborative practices has been developed in real case study settled in Colombia.
Boulay, F; Chevallier, T; Staccini, P; Chichmanian, R M
According to a recent circular reforming french medical studies, we propose a teaching of medical information and pharmacology in situ within hospital instructions. Students could acquire an investigation methodology on the medicine economy. It will cover in four sessions the succeeding stages of medical information processing and be subject to an assessment: case studies and appreciation on student's, instruction record. By combining public health teaching with clinical practice, our project promotes its development in contact with other learnings and activities such as clinical research.
Wang, Hung-Yuan; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this study is two-fold: to explore the differences in online medical information searching behaviors, including evaluative standards and search strategies, of the general public (general group) and those of hospital patients and their relatives (hospital group); and to compare the predictive relationship between the evaluative…
Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian
Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…
Background Ethiopia is encountering a growing burden of non-communicable diseases along with infectious diseases, perinatal and nutritional problems that have long been considered major problems of public health importance. This retrospective analysis was carried out to examine the mortality patterns from communicable diseases and non communicable diseases in public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa. Methods Approximately 47,153 deaths were captured over eight years (2002–2010) in forty three public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data collectors (43 hospital clerks) and coordinators (3 nurses) had been extensively trained on how to review hospital death records. Information obtained included: dates of admission and death, age, sex, address, and principal cause of death. Only the diseases responsible for deaths are taken as the cause of death. Cause of death was coded using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and data were double entered. Diseases were classified into: Group I (communicable diseases, maternal conditions and nutritional deficiencies); Group II (non-communicable causes); and Group III (injuries). Percentages, proportional mortality ratios, 95% confidence intervals (CI) and Adjusted odd ratios (OR) were calculated. Results Overall, 59% of the deaths were attributed to Group I diseases, and 31% to Group II diseases and 12% to injuries. Nearly 56% of the males and 68% of the females deaths were due to five leading causes (conditions arising during perinatal period, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory infections). Significantly larger proportions of females died from Group I (67%) and Group II diseases (32%) compared with males (where the respective proportions were 52% and 30%). Significantly higher proportion of males (17%) than females (6%) were dying from Group III diseases. Deaths due to Group I diseases decreased while those due to Group II diseases increased with age. Overall Group I
Zhang, Xing; Tone, Kaoru; Lu, Yingzhe
To assess the change in efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) of the local public hospitals in Japan after the local public hospital reform launched in late 2007, which was aimed at improving the financial capability and operational efficiency of hospitals. Secondary data were collected from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications on 213 eligible medium-sized hospitals, each operating 100-400 beds from FY2006 to FY2011. The improved slacks-based measure nonoriented data envelopment analysis models (Quasi-Max SBM nonoriented DEA models) were used to estimate dynamic efficiency score and Malmquist Index. The dynamic efficiency measure indicated an efficiency gain in the first several years of the reform and then was followed by a decrease. Malmquist Index analysis showed a significant decline in the TFP between 2006 and 2011. The financial improvement of medium-sized hospitals was not associated with enhancement of efficiency. Hospital efficiency was not significantly different among ownership structure and law-application system groups, but it was significantly affected by hospital location. The results indicate a need for region-tailored health care policies and for a more comprehensive reform to overcome the systemic constraints that might contribute to the decline of the TFP. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Shih, Sophy T F; Carter, Rob; Heward, Sue; Sinclair, Craig
While skin cancer is still the most common cancer in Australia, important information gaps remain. This paper addresses two gaps: i) the cost impact on public hospitals; and ii) an up-to-date assessment of economic credentials for prevention. A prevalence-based cost approach was undertaken in public hospitals in Victoria. Costs were estimated for inpatient admissions, using State service statistics, and outpatient services based on attendance at three hospitals in 2012-13. Cost-effectiveness for prevention was estimated from 'observed vs expected' analysis, together with program expenditure data. Combining inpatient and outpatient costs, total annual costs for Victoria were $48 million to $56 million. The SunSmart program is estimated to have prevented more than 43,000 skin cancers between 1988 and 2010, a net cost saving of $92 million. Skin cancer treatment in public hospitals ($9.20∼$10.39 per head/year) was 30-times current public funding in skin cancer prevention ($0.37 per head/year). At about $50 million per year for hospitals in Victoria alone, the cost burden of a largely preventable disease is substantial. Skin cancer prevention remains highly cost-effective, yet underfunded. Implications for public health: Increased funding for skin cancer prevention must be kept high on the public health agenda. Hospitals would also benefit from being able to redirect resources to non-preventable conditions. © 2017 The Authors.
Grover, Piyush; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Oehmen, Raoul; Vitry, Agnes
Medicines Access Programs (MAP) offer access to publicly unfunded medicines at the discretion of pharmaceutical companies. Limited literature is available on their extent and scope in Australia and New Zealand. This study aims to identify MAPs for cancer medicines that were operational in 2014-15 in Australia and New Zealand and describe their characteristics. A preliminary list of MAPs was sent to hospital pharmacists in Australia and New Zealand to validate and collect further information. Pharmaceutical companies were contacted directly to provide information regarding MAPs offered. Key stakeholders were interviewed to identify issues with MAPs. Fifty-one MAPs were identified covering a range of indications. The majority of MAPs were provided free of charge to the patient for medicines that were registered or in the process of being registered but were not funded. Variability in the number of MAPs across institutions and characteristics was observed. Australia offered more MAPs than New Zealand. Only two of 17 pharmaceutical companies contacted agreed to provide information on their MAPs. Eight stakeholder interviews were conducted. This identified that while MAPs are widely operational there is lack of clinical monitoring, inequity to access, operational issues and lack of transparency. Our results suggest a need for a standardised and mandated policy to mitigate issues with MAPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huesch, Marco D; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth; Doctor, Jason N
Publicly available hospital quality reports seek to inform consumers of important healthcare quality and affordability attributes, and may inform consumer decision-making. To understand how much consumers search for such information online on one Internet search engine, whether they mention such information in social media and how positively they view this information. A leading Internet search engine (Google) was the main focus of the study. Google Trends and Google Adwords keyword analyses were performed for national and Californian searches between 1 August 2012 and 31 July 2013 for keywords related to 'top hospital', best hospital', and 'hospital quality', as well as for six specific hospital quality reports. Separately, a proprietary social media monitoring tool was used to investigate blog, forum, social media and traditional media mentions of, and sentiment towards, major public reports of hospital quality in California in 2012. (1) Counts of searches for keywords performed on Google; (2) counts of and (3) sentiment of mentions of public reports on social media. National Google search volume for 75 hospital quality-related terms averaged 610 700 searches per month with strong variation by keyword and by state. A commercial report (Healthgrades) was more commonly searched for nationally on Google than the federal government's Hospital Compare, which otherwise dominated quality-related search terms. Social media references in California to quality reports were generally few, and commercially produced hospital quality reports were more widely mentioned than state (Office of Statewide Healthcare Planning and Development (OSHPD)), or non-profit (CalHospitalCompare) reports. Consumers are somewhat aware of hospital quality based on Internet search activity and social media disclosures. Public stakeholders may be able to broaden their quality dissemination initiatives by advertising on Google or Twitter and using social media interactively with consumers looking
Sultan, Wasim I M; Crispim, José
While health needs and expenditure in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) are growing, the international donations are declining and the economic situation is worsening. The purpose of this paper is twofold, to evaluate the productive efficiency of public hospitals in West Bank and to study contextual factors contributing to efficiency differences. This study examined technical efficiency among 11 public hospitals in West Bank from 2010 through 2015 targeting a total of 66 observations. Nationally representative data were extracted from the official annual health reports. We applied input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models to estimate efficiency scores. To elaborate further on performance, we used Tobit regression to identify contextual factors whose impact on inefficient performance is statistically significant. Despite the increase in efficiency mean scores by 4% from 2010 to 2015, findings show potential savings of 14.5% of resource consumption without reducing the volume of the provided services. The significant Tobit model showed four predictors explaining the inefficient performance of a hospital (p < 0.01) are: bed occupancy rate (BOR); the outpatient-inpatient ratio (OPIPR); hospital's size (SIZE); and the availability of primary healthcare centers within the hospital's catchment area (PRC). There is a strong effect of OPIPR on efficiency differences between hospitals: A one unit increase in OPIPR will lead a decrease of 19.7% in the predicted inefficiency level holding all other factors constant. To date, no previous studies have examined the efficiency of public hospitals in the OPT. Our work identified their efficiency levels for potential improvements and the determinants of efficient performance. Based on the measurement of efficiency, the generated information may guide hospitals' managers, policymakers, and international donors improving the performance of the main national healthcare provider. The scope of this study is
Abera, Goitom Gigar; Alemayehu, Yibeltal Kiflie; Herrin, Jeph
Physicians who work in the private sector while also holding a salaried job in a public hospital, known as "dual practice," is one of the main retention strategies adopted by the government of Ethiopia. Dual practice was legally endorsed in Tigray National Regional State, Ethiopia in 2010. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the extent of dual practice, reasons why physicians engage in it, and its effects on public hospital services in this state in northern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study using mixed methods was conducted from February to March 2011 in six geographically representative public hospitals of Tigray National Regional State. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all physicians working in the study hospitals, and an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire was used to collect data from admitted patients. Focus group discussions were conducted with hospital governing boards. Quantitative and qualitative data were used in the analysis. Data were collected from 31 physicians and 449 patients in the six study hospitals. Six focus group discussions were conducted. Twenty-eight (90.3%) of the physicians were engaged in dual practice to some extent: 16 (51.6%) owned private clinics outside the public hospital, 5 (16.1%) worked part-time in outside private clinics, and 7 (22.6%) worked in the private wing of public hospitals. Income supplementation was the primary reason for engaging in dual practice, as reported by 100% of the physicians. The positive effects of dual practice from both managers' and physicians' perspectives were physician retention in the public sector. Ninety-one patients (20.3%) had been referred from a private clinic immediately prior to their current admission-a circular diversion pattern. Eighteen (19.8%) of the diverted patients reported that health workers in the public hospitals diverted them. Circular diversion pattern of referral system is the key negative consequence of dual
Naranjo Gil, David
To analyze the relationship between hospital managers' characteristics and the use of the balanced scorecard and the budget. A further aim was to analyze how these two techniques influence strategic goals aimed at cost reduction and enhancing service flexibility. Data were collected through a questionnaire sent to 884 members of top management teams in 218 public hospitals in Spain. The response rate was 53.51% with 473 useful questionnaires. Structural equation techniques were used to validate the metric scales and the model used. Younger managers and less tenured managers were more likely to use the balanced scorecard than the budget. Diversity in the top management team was related to the use of distinct management control techniques. The use of the balanced scorecard was positively associated with the implementation of healthcare strategies focused on enhancing service flexibility and reducing healthcare cost. The adoption of management control systems is not only a function of the outcome of a rational decision-making process and institutional pressures but also crucially depends on the characteristics of the individuals ultimately responsible for such decisions. The use of the balanced scorecard facilitates hospitals' implementation of plans with multiple strategic goals. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Faga, A; Valdatta, L; Magnani, S; Thione, A
The authors describe the advantages and disadvantages of plastic surgery performed in a day-care public hospital unit. A retrospective study was made of the day-surgery activities over 16 months (1998-1999) as part of a centralized system. Data were compared to day-surgery activities undertaken in 1997 using a non-centralized system. The study was based in the Macchi Foundation Hospital in Varese. A total of 179 patients were treated from all age group whose clinical, intellectual and social characteristics enabled them to be treated using a day-hospital regime. The pathologies treated can be classified into six groups: benign skin pathologies, malignant skin pathologies, scar pathologies, hand disorders, burns and others. All operations were performed as planned under general, local or regional anesthesia with the help of an anesthetist. The centralized system has a number of advantages of a social and technical kind; there are few disadvantages, mainly consisting in the impossibility of using this approach for emergency surgery and its overall rigidity. This form of surgery provides a service that stands out for its quality, organisational efficiency and low cost.
Weber, Alan S; Verjee, Mohamud A; Musson, David; Iqbal, Navid A; Mosleh, Tayseer M; Zainel, Abdulwahed A; Al-Salamy, Yassir
To analyze the factors associated with the level of satisfaction of outpatients in their relationship with their doctor at the largest public hospital in Qatar. This study was a cross-sectional survey of attitudes. Researchers surveyed 626 outpatients at Hamad General Hospital in Doha, Qatar from September 2009 to January 2010 using a novel questionnaire assessing satisfaction with patients' interaction(s) with their doctor (spent time with patient, took case seriously, maintained confidentiality, and the overall quality of visit). Mean responses on 4 Likert scale items (one to 5) were as follows: "spent enough time with patient" = 4.39; "doctor took case seriously" = 4.57; "satisfaction with doctor-patient confidentiality" = 4.71; "overall quality of visit" = 4.46. Age, gender, citizenship, level of education, and number of visits did not significantly impact the level of satisfaction. For 73.1% of patients, the physician's qualification was the most important factor in choosing a doctor. Of those surveyed, 40.7% of men and 28.1% of women preferred to see a doctor of their own gender. A positive correlation between perceived communication and satisfaction with the doctor-patient encounter was established. This study found that patients in the Out-Patient Department at Hamad Hospital were highly satisfied with their relationships with their doctors, and physician qualification was the most significant factor in choosing a doctor. A significant number of males and females preferred a physician of their own gender. Communication difficulty correlated with lower satisfaction.
Alghoury, Abdulbasit; El-Hamshary, Eman; Azazy, Ahmed; Hussein, Eman; Rayan, Hanan Z.
Objectives Hydatid disease is endemic and represents a major health problem in Yemen. The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of hydatidosis in patients attending Public and Private Hospitals at Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods 66 patients with hydatid disease were identified during the period from August 2006 to February 2007. Complete medical history for all CE patients were collected and analyzed. Results Among the 66 CE patients, 67% were females and 33% males. Liver was the most common involved organ. Single cyst was more frequently detected than multiple cysts and approximately 94% of the cysts were ≥5 cm. Moreover, Public hospitals were the main source of patients with CE disease. Conclusion Hydatidosis is still an endemic disease and an important health problem in Yemen which needs to be studied further. Therefore, accurate information on the distribution of the disease is the first step for the control and prevention of the disease. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate the role of different intermediate hosts and genotypes of E. granulosus in humans and animals. PMID:22125707
Schickedanz, Adam; Gupta, Reshma; Arora, Vineet M; Braddock, Clarence H
Graduate medical education (GME) lacks measures of resident preparation for high-quality, cost-conscious practice. The authors used publicly reported teaching hospital value measures to compare internal medicine residency programs on high-value care training and to validate these measures against program director perceptions of value. Program-level value training scores were constructed using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program hospital quality and cost-efficiency data. Correlations with Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Annual Survey high-value care training measures were examined using logistic regression. For every point increase in program-level VBP score, residency directors were more likely to agree that GME programs have a responsibility to contain health care costs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.18, P = .04), their faculty model high-value care (aOR 1.07, P = .03), and residents are prepared to make high-value medical decisions (aOR 1.07, P = .09). Publicly reported clinical data offer valid measures of GME value training.
de Castro, Renata Reis Matutino; Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; de Andrade, Aline Mendonça; Jaques, Bruno Dórea
OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of patients treated in the trauma and orthopedics nursing of a trauma care referral public hospital of in the state of Bahia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which data were collected from medical records of patients in the period from July to December 2008. RESULTS: The profile of the patients involved was formed by subjects mostly male young subjects, victims of trauma from accidents, especially those with motorcycles or car runover. On the other hand,the most frequent traumas associated with urban violence were perforations by gunshot and stab wounds. The primary injury presented by these individuals was exposed fracture of the femur and the most common treatment was external fixation. The most frequent in-hospital complication was wound infection, which required another surgical approach. Most inpatients were discharged and only one death was reported during this period. CONCLUSION: The results of this study corroborate those from other institutions in the country, which may contribute to elaborate public policies for accidents and violence prevention. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453666
de Castro, Renata Reis Matutino; Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; de Andrade, Aline Mendonça; Jaques, Bruno Dórea
To describe the profile of patients treated in the trauma and orthopedics nursing of a trauma care referral public hospital of in the state of Bahia. Cross-sectional study in which data were collected from medical records of patients in the period from July to December 2008. The profile of the patients involved was formed by subjects mostly male young subjects, victims of trauma from accidents, especially those with motorcycles or car runover. On the other hand,the most frequent traumas associated with urban violence were perforations by gunshot and stab wounds. The primary injury presented by these individuals was exposed fracture of the femur and the most common treatment was external fixation. The most frequent in-hospital complication was wound infection, which required another surgical approach. Most inpatients were discharged and only one death was reported during this period. The results of this study corroborate those from other institutions in the country, which may contribute to elaborate public policies for accidents and violence prevention. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.
Adie, Sam; Dao, Alan; Harris, Ian A; Naylor, Justine M; Mittal, Rajat
In Australia, the majority of total knee and hip replacement surgeries occur in the private sector. Outcome-based research needs to be inclusive of this sector if the findings are intended to reflect the broader picture. This study compares outcomes up to 1 year post knee and hip replacement between patients treated in the public and private sectors. A prospective, observational study was performed in four high-volume joint replacement centres: two public, two private. Experienced orthopaedic surgeons contributed via their public and private practices. Knee and hip patients were recruited preoperatively. Self-reported questionnaires were completed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The primary outcome was satisfaction with surgery. Secondary outcomes included Oxford score, and SF-36 physical and mental component summary scores. Regression modelling was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Three hundred and thirty-one patients (184 public, 147 private; 215 knees, 116 hips) were recruited, with 6- and 12-month follow-up rates of 95% and 89%, respectively. Satisfaction rates were high in both public and private patients (approximately 90%) at 6 and 12 months, but