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  1. Effects of Lycopene on the Initial State of Atherosclerosis in New Zealand White (NZW) Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Mario; Fechner, Mandy; Kalkowski, Janine; Fröhlich, Kati; Trautmann, Anne; Böhm, Volker; Liebisch, Gerhard; Lehneis, Stefan; Schmitz, Gerd; Ludwig, Antje; Baumann, Gert; Stangl, Karl; Stangl, Verena

    2012-01-01

    Background Lycopene is the main carotenoid in tomatoes, where it is found in high concentrations. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that lycopene may provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. We therefore studied the effects of lycopene on diet-induced increase in serum lipid levels and the initiation of atherosclerosis in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Methodology/Principal Findings The animals, divided into four groups of 9 animals each, were fed either a standard diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol, a high-cholesterol diet containing placebo beadlets, or a high-cholesterol diet plus 5 mg/kg body weight/day of lycopene (in the form of lycopene beadlets), for a period of 4 weeks. We found significantly elevated lycopene plasma levels in the animal group treated with lycopene beadlets. Compared to the high-cholesterol and the placebo group, this was associated with a significant reduction of 50% in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol serum levels in the lycopene group. The amount of cholesteryl ester in the aorta was significantly decreased by lycopene. However, we did not observe a significant decrease in the extent of aortic surface lipid accumulation in the lycopene group. In addition, no differences in the intima-media thickness among groups were observed. Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilation in isolated rabbit aortic and carotid rings did not differ among any of the animal groups. Conclusions Lycopene supplementation for 4 weeks increased lycopene plasma levels in the animals. Although we found strongly reduced total and LDL cholesterol serum levels as well as significantly lower amounts of cholesteryl ester in the aortae in the lycopene-treated group, no significant differences in initial lesions in the aortae were detected. PMID:22295112

  2. Deterministic Models of Inhalational Anthrax in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Computational models describing bacterial kinetics were developed for inhalational anthrax in New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits following inhalation of Ames strain B. anthracis. The data used to parameterize the models included bacterial numbers in the airways, lung tissue, draining lymph nodes, and blood. Initial bacterial numbers were deposited spore dose. The first model was a single exponential ordinary differential equation (ODE) with 3 rate parameters that described mucociliated (physical) clearance, immune clearance (bacterial killing), and bacterial growth. At 36 hours postexposure, the ODE model predicted 1.7×107 bacteria in the rabbit, which agreed well with data from actual experiments (4.0×107 bacteria at 36 hours). Next, building on the single ODE model, a physiological-based biokinetic (PBBK) compartmentalized model was developed in which 1 physiological compartment was the lumen of the airways and the other was the rabbit body (lung tissue, lymph nodes, blood). The 2 compartments were connected with a parameter describing transport of bacteria from the airways into the body. The PBBK model predicted 4.9×107 bacteria in the body at 36 hours, and by 45 hours the model showed all clearance mechanisms were saturated, suggesting the rabbit would quickly succumb to the infection. As with the ODE model, the PBBK model results agreed well with laboratory observations. These data are discussed along with the need for and potential application of the models in risk assessment, drug development, and as a general aid to the experimentalist studying inhalational anthrax. PMID:24527843

  3. Influence of simethicone and fasting on the quality of abdominal ultrasonography in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kassy Gomes; de Andrade, Carla; Sotomaior, Cristina Santos

    2017-07-17

    Presence of significant quantities of gas in the intestines may hinder a proper conduction of abdominal ultrasonography. In humans, preparatory techniques are used to solve this, but measures to avoid ultrasonographic complications due to intestinal gas in rabbits have not been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of fasting and simethicone administered orally on the quality of ultrasonographic images of the gallbladder, kidneys, and jejunum in adult New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. A total of 28 adult NZW rabbits were included in a crossover design study, involving four groups: F: fasting for 4-6 h before the examination; FS: fasting and application of simethicone (20 mg/kg, orally) 20 to 30 min before the examination; S: application of simethicone 20-30 min before the examination without fasting; and C: controls without fasting and no application of simethicone. Evaluation of the ultrasonographic images was done in terms of percentage of visualization of each organ and image quality using a 3-point scoring system (unacceptable, acceptable, or excellent). The kidneys and the gallbladder were visualized at an equal frequency in all groups, while the jejunum was visualized more frequently in the FS group. The image quality scores for gallbladder, right kidney, and left kidney was similar for all groups, but for the jejunum, a higher number of images with acceptable scores was found within the FS group.

  4. A Probability Analysis of Historical Pregnancy and Fetal Data from Dutch Belted and New Zealand White Rabbit Strains from Embryo-Fetal Development Studies.

    PubMed

    Posobiec, Lorraine M; Cox, Estella M; Solomon, Howard M; Lewis, Elise M; Wang, Kai-fen; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies, typically in pregnant rats and rabbits, are conducted prior to enrolling females of reproductive age in clinical trials. Common rabbit strains used are the New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch Belted (DB). As fetal abnormalities can occur in all groups, including controls, Historical Control Data (HCD) is compiled using data from control groups of EFD studies, and is used along with each study's concurrent control group to help determine whether fetal abnormalities are caused by the test article or are part of background incidences. A probability analysis was conducted on 2014 HCD collected at Charles River Inc., Horsham PA on Covance NZW, Covance DB, and Charles River (CR) NZW rabbits. The analysis was designed to determine the probability of 2 or 3 out of a group of 22 does aborting their litter or of having a fetal abnormality by chance. Results demonstrate that pregnancy parameters and fetal observations differ not only between strains, but between sources of rabbits of the same strain. As a result the probability of these observations occurring by chance in two or three litters was drastically different. Although no one single strain is perfect, this analysis highlights the need to appreciate the inherent differences in pregnancy and fetal abnormalities between strains, and points out that an apparent isolated increased incidence of an observation in one strain will not necessarily be test-article related in another strain. A robust HCD is critical for interpretation of EFD rabbit studies, regardless of the rabbit strain used. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Efficacy of ETI-204 monoclonal antibody as an adjunct therapy in a New Zealand white rabbit partial survival model for inhalational anthrax.

    PubMed

    Biron, Bethany; Beck, Katie; Dyer, David; Mattix, Marc; Twenhafel, Nancy; Nalca, Aysegul

    2015-04-01

    Inhalational anthrax is characterized by extensive bacteremia and toxemia as well as nonspecific to mild flu-like symptoms, until the onset of hypotension, shock, and mortality. Without treatment, the mortality rate approaches 100%. Antibiotic treatment is not always effective, and alternative treatments are needed, such as monotherapy for antibiotic-resistant inhalational anthrax or as an adjunct therapy in combination with antibiotics. The Bacillus anthracis antitoxin monoclonal antibody (MAb) ETI-204 is a high-affinity chimeric deimmunized antibody which targets the anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA). In this study, a partial protection New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit model was used to evaluate the protective efficacy of the adjunct therapy with the MAb. Following detection of PA in the blood, NZW rabbits were administered either an antibiotic (doxycycline) alone or the antibiotic in conjunction with ETI-204. Survival was evaluated to compare the efficacy of the combination adjunct therapy with that of an antibiotic alone in treating inhalational anthrax. Overall, the results from this study indicate that a subtherapeutic regimen consisting of an antibiotic in combination with an anti-PA MAb results in increased survival compared to the antibiotic alone and would provide an effective therapeutic strategy against symptomatic anthrax in nonvaccinated individuals. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Atrial Fibrillation Pacing Decreases Intravascular Shear Stress in a New Zealand White Rabbit Model: Implications in Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Nelson; Yu, Fei; Lee, Juhyun; Wasmund, Steve; Dai, Xiaohu; Chen, Christina; Chawareeyawong, Pai; Yang, Yongmo; Li, Rongsong; Hamdan, Mohamed H.; Hsiai, Tzung

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by multiple rapid and irregular atrial depolarization leading to rapid ventricular responses exceeding 100 beats per minute (bpm). We hypothesized that rapid and irregular pacing reduced intravascular shear stress (ISS) with implication to modulating endothelial responses. To simulate AF, we paced the left atrial appendage of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (n=4) at rapid and irregular intervals. Surface electrical cardiograms (ECG) were recorded for atrial and ventricular rhythm, and intravascular convective heat transfer was measured by micro thermal sensors, from which ISS was inferred. Rapid and irregular pacing decreased arterial systolic and diastolic pressures (baseline: 99/75 mmHg; rapid regular pacing: 92/73; rapid irregular pacing: 90/68; P < 0.001, n=4), temporal gradients (∂τ/∂t from 1275 ± 80 to 1056 ± 180 dyne/cm2·s), and reduced ISS (from baseline at 32.0 ± 2.4 to 22.7 ± 3.5 dyne/cm2). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code demonstrated that experimentally inferred ISS provided a close approximation to the computed wall shear stress (WSS) at a given catheter to vessel diameter ratio, shear stress range, and catheter position. In an in vitro flow system in which time-averaged shear stress was maintained at τavg=23 ±4 dyn·cm−2·s−1, we further demonstrated that rapid pulse rates at 150 bpm down-regulated endothelial nitric oxide (NO), promoted superoxide (O2·−) production, and increased monocyte binding to endothelial cells. These findings suggest that rapid pacing reduces ISS and ∂τ/∂t, and rapid pulse rates modulate endothelial responses. PMID:22983703

  7. Development of Protective Immunity in New Zealand White Rabbits Challenged with Bacillus anthracis Spores and Treated with Antibiotics and Obiltoxaximab, a Monoclonal Antibody against Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Henning, Lisa N; Carpenter, Sarah; Stark, Gregory V; Serbina, Natalya V

    2018-02-01

    The recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax protective antigen (PA), is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for the treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease reemergence after treatment cessation is a concern, and there is a need to understand the development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens. Here, acquired protective immunity was examined in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits challenged with a targeted lethal dose of Bacillus anthracis spores and treated with antibiotics, obiltoxaximab, or a combination of both. Survivors of the primary challenge were rechallenged 9 months later and monitored for survival. Survival rates after primary and rechallenge for controls and animals treated with obiltoxaximab, levofloxacin, or a combination of both were 0, 65, 100, and 95%, and 0, 100, 95, and 89%, respectively. All surviving immune animals had circulating antibodies to PA and serum toxin-neutralizing titers prior to rechallenge. Following rechallenge, systemic bacteremia and toxemia were not detected in most animals, and the levels of circulating anti-PA IgG titers increased starting at 5 days postrechallenge. We conclude that treatment with obiltoxaximab, alone or combined with antibiotics, significantly improves the survival of rabbits that received a lethal inhalation B. anthracis spore challenge dose and does not interfere with the development of immunity. Survivors of primary challenge are protected against reexposure, have rare incidents of systemic bacteremia and toxemia, and have evidence of an anamnestic response. Copyright © 2018 Henning et al.

  8. Analysis of the New Zealand Black contribution to lupus-like renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, C.G.; Rozzo, S.J.; Hirschfeld, H.F.

    1995-03-01

    F{sub 1} progeny of New Zealand Black (NZB) and New Zealand White (NZW) mice spontaneously develop an autoimmune process remarkably similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus. Previous studies have implicated major genetic contributions from the NZW MHC and from a dominant NZB gene on chromosome 4. To identify additional NZB contributions to lupus-like disease, (NZB x SM/J)F{sub 1} x NZW backcross mice were followed for the development of severe renal disease and were comprehensively genotyped. Despite a 50% incidence of disease significant associations between the presence of the NZB genotype and disease were noted on chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 10,more » 13, and 19. The data indicated that multiple NZB genes, in different combinations, contribute to severe renal disease, and that no single gene is required. To further investigate this NZB contribution, NZB x SM/J (NXSM) recombinant inbred (RI) strains were crossed with NZW mice, and F{sub 1} progeny were analyzed for the presence of lupus-like renal disease. Interestingly, nearly all of the (RI x NZW)F{sub 1} cohorts studies expressed some level of disease. Five RI strains generated a high incidence of disease, similar to (NZB x NZW)F{sub 1} mice, and nearly one-half of the cohorts developed disease at intermediate levels. Only two cohorts demonstrated very little disease, supporting the conclusion that multiple genes are capable of disease induction. Experiments correlating the genotypes of these RI strains with their ability to generate disease revealed that none of the disease-associated loci defined by the backcross analysis were present in all five RI strains that generated disease at high levels. Overall, both the backcross data and RI analysis provide additional support for the genetic complexity of lupus nephritis and uphold the conclusion that heterogeneous combinations of contributing NZB genes seem to operate in a threshold manner to generate the disease phenotype. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  9. Is that Your Mom? A Qualitative Investigation of White Mothers of Non-White Children in the United States and in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Wood, Tracy Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight biological and adoptive White mothers of non-White children were interviewed in New Zealand and in the United States. Through a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews and interview notes, 7 primary themes emerged (a) looking like a family means looking alike and looking White, (b) mothering as vulnerability, (c) teen girls'…

  10. Assessing Anticalcification Treatments in Bioprosthetic Tissue by Using the New Zealand Rabbit Intramuscular Model

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gregory A; Faught, Joelle M; Olin, Jane M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit intramuscular model can be used for detecting calcification in bioprosthetic tissue and to compare the calcification in the rabbit to that of native human valves. The rabbit model was compared with the commonly used Sprague–Dawley rat subcutaneous model. Eighteen rabbits and 18 rats were used to assess calcification in bioprosthetic tissue over time (7, 14, 30, and 90 d). The explanted rabbit and rat tissue discs were measured for calcium by using atomic absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Calcium deposits on the human valve explants were assessed by using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the NZW rabbit model is robust for detecting calcification in a shorter duration (14 d), with less infection complications, more space to implant tissue groups (thereby reducing animal use numbers), and a more metabolically and mechanically dynamic environment than the rat subcutaneous model . The human explanted valves and rabbit explanted tissue both showed Raman peaks at 960 cm−1 which is representative of hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is the final calcium and phosphate species in the calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves and rabbit intramuscular implants. The NZW rabbit intramuscular model is an effective model for assessing calcification in bioprosthetic tissue. PMID:19619417

  11. Whakaari (White Island volcano, New Zealand): Magma-hydrothermal laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Yan; Heap, Michael J.; Reuschle, Thierry; Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Gilg, H. Albert; Kennedy, Ben M.; Letham-Brake, Mark; Jolly, Arthur; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Whakaari, active andesitic stratovolcano of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (New Zealand), hosts an open, highly reactive hydrothermal system in the amphitheatre of an earlier sector collapse. Its recent volcanic activity is primarily characterized by sequences of steam-driven (phreatic) and phreatomagmatic explosive eruptions, although a lava dome briefly extruded in 2012. The volcano provides a natural laboratory for the study of aggressive fluids on the permeability of the hydrothermal system, on phreatomagmatic volcanism as well as on the volcano edifice structural stability. Here, we present a holistic experimental dataset on the reservoir rocks properties (mineralogy, permeability, seismic velocity) and their response to changes in stress (strength, deformation mechanisms, fragmentation) and temperature (mineralogical breakdown). We show that the advance degree of alteration in the system, nearly replaced all the original rock-forming minerals. This alteration has produced generally weak rocks, which, when subjected to a differential stress, can undergo transition from a dilatant response (brittle) to a compactant response with a mere confining pressure of about 15-20 MPa (corresponding to depth of about 1 km). Thermal stressing experiments reveal that the alteration phases breakdown at 500 °C (alunite) and 700 °C (dehydrated alum and sulphur), generating much weakened skeletal rocks, deteriorated by a mass loss of 20 wt.%, resulting in an increase in porosity and permeability of about 15 vol.% and an order of magnitude, respectively. Novel thermal stressing tests at high-heating rates (<1000 K/min) suggest that the onset of this mineralogical debilitation is pushed to higher temperatures with heating rates, carrying implication for the stability of the reservoir rocks and explosions during magma movement at variable rates in the upper edifice. Rock strength imposes an important control on the stability of volcanic edifices and of the hydrothermal reservoir rocks

  12. Pathological changes of thymic epithelial cells and autoimmune disease in NZB, NZW and (NZB × NZW)F1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Vries, M. J. De; Hijmans, W.

    1967-01-01

    An extensive histological study was carried out of NZB, NZW and (NZB × NZW)F1, (BWF1), mice of all ages between birth and 18 months. The thymuses of these mice were compared to those of three normal mouse strains. The study of the NZW mice showed that these mice, although they only occasionally have weakly positive Coombs' tests, may develop a renal disease probably of an autoimmune nature, similar to that of the NZB and the BWF1 mice. Mice of all the three NZ strains developed lesions of the skin, liver, intestines, lymphatic tissues and kidneys much resembling those occurring in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), neonatally thymectomized mice and, with the exception of the renal changes, the lesions of graft versus host disease. The comparative study of the thymus in autoimmune and normal strains, revealed that important changes of the large medullary epithelial cells, involved in the formation of Hassall's corpuscles, occur very early in the three autoimmune strains. In the NZB mice the large epithelial cells are severely decreased in number in the first weeks following birth. The depletion of epithelial cells could be ascribed to a secondary degeneration of these cells soon after birth. In contrast with the NZB mice, an extensive hyperplasia of the large epithelial cells and Hassall's corpuscles was observed in the NZW and BWF1 mice, and was already apparent in the newborn animal. Many of the epithelial aggregates seemed to have been invaded by lymphoid cells. Both epithelial cells and the lymphoid cells engaged in this process showed a variety of degenerative changes. As in the NZB, a depletion of epithelial cells occurred in a later phase, at the age of 8 months in the BWF1 and at 1 year in the NZW. In the majority of young mice of the normal strains invasion of islands of epithelial cells by lymphoid cells may also be observed, although this process is far less extensive than in the autoimmune strains and does not result in either epithelial

  13. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice onmore » 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.« less

  14. Using Telemetry Data to Refine Endpoints for New Zealand White Rabbits Challenged with Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Dawson, David G; Bower, Kristin A; Burnette, Candace N; Holt, Rebecca K; Swearengen, James R; Dabisch, Paul A; Scorpio, Angelo

    2017-11-01

    We used a continuous-monitoring digital telemetry system to investigate temperature response in New Zealand White rabbits after inhalation or subcutaneous challenge with Bacillus anthracis. Two spore preparations of B. anthracis Ames A2084 were evaluated by using a nose-only inhalation model, and 2 strains, B. anthracis Ames A2084 and B. anthracis UT500, were evaluated in a subcutaneous model. Animal body temperature greater than 3 SD above the mean baseline temperature was considered a significant increase in body temperature (SIBT). All rabbits that exhibited SIBT after challenge by either route of infection or bacterial strain eventually died or were euthanized due to infection, and all rabbits that died or were euthanized due to infection exhibited SIBT during the course of disease. The time at onset of SIBT preceded clinical signs of disease in 94% of the rabbits tested by as long as 2 days. In addition, continuous temperature monitoring facilitated discrimination between the 2 B. anthracis strains with regard to the time interval between SIBT and death. These data suggest that for the New Zealand White rabbit anthrax model, SIBT is a reliable indicator of infection, is predictive of experimental outcome in the absence of treatment, and is measurable prior to the appearance of more severe signs of disease. The use of digital telemetry to monitor infectious disease course in animal models of anthrax can potentially be used in conjunction with other clinical score metrics to refine endpoint euthanasia criteria.

  15. Exciting (and modulating) very-long-period seismic signals on White Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberg, Jurgen; Jolly, Art

    2014-05-01

    Very-long-period seismic signals (VLP) on volcanoes can be used to fill the gap between classic seismology and deformation studies. In this contribution we reiterate the principal processing steps to retrieve from a velocity seismogram 3D ground displacement with tiny amplitudes far beyond the resolution of GPS. As a case study we use several seismic and infrasonic signals of volcanic events from White Island, New Zealand. We apply particle motion analysis and deformation modelling tools to the resulting displacement signals and exam the potential link between ground displacement and the modulation of harmonic tremor, in turn linked to a hydrothermal system. In this way we want to demonstrate the full potential of VLPs in monitoring and modelling of volcanic processes.

  16. Effects of fentanyl on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Barter, Linda S; Hawkins, Michelle G; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2015-02-01

    To determine effects of increasing plasma fentanyl concentrations on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits. 6 adult female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen; ventilation was controlled and body temperature maintained between 38.5° and 39.5°C. Fentanyl was administered IV by use of a computer-controlled infusion system to achieve 6 target plasma concentrations. Isoflurane MAC was determined in duplicate by use of the bracketing technique with a supramaximal electrical stimulus. Blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma fentanyl concentration at each MAC determination. The MAC values were analyzed with a repeated-measures ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak pairwise comparisons. Mean ± SD plasma fentanyl concentrations were 0 ± 0 ng/mL (baseline), 1.2 ± 0.1 ng/mL, 2.2 ± 0.3 ng/mL, 4.4 ± 0.4 ng/mL, 9.2 ± 0.4 ng/mL, 17.5 ± 2.6 ng/mL, and 36.8 ± 2.4 ng/mL. Corresponding mean values for isoflurane MAC were 1.92 ± 0.16%, 1.80 ± 0.16%, 1.60 ± 0.23%, 1.46 ± 0.22%, 1.12 ± 0.19%, 0.89 ± 0.14%, and 0.70 ± 0.15%, respectively. Isoflurane MAC for plasma fentanyl concentrations ≥ 2.2 ng/mL differed significantly from the baseline value. In 3 rabbits, excessive spontaneous movement prevented MAC determination at the highest plasma fentanyl concentration. Fentanyl reduced isoflurane MAC by approximately 60% in New Zealand White rabbits. Further studies will be needed to investigate the cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane and fentanyl combinations in rabbits; however, fentanyl may prove to be a useful adjunct to inhalation anesthesia in this species.

  17. Ground-based and airborne measurements of volcanic gas emissions at White Island in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirpitz, Jan-Lukas; Poehler, Denis; Bobrowski, Nicole; Christenson, Bruce; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative understanding of volcanic gas emissions has twofold relevance for nature and society: 1) Variation in gas emission and/or in emitted gas ratios are tracers of the dynamic processes in the volcano interior indicating its activity. 2) Volcanic degassing plays an important role for the Earth's climate, for local sometimes even regional air quality and atmospheric chemistry. In autumn 2015, a campaign to White Island Volcano in New Zealand was organized to perform ground-based as well as airborne in-situ and remote sensing gas measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and bromine monoxide (BrO). For all three gases the ratios and total emission rates were determined in different plume types and ages. An overview over the data will be presented with focus on the two most notable outcomes: 1) The first determination of the BrO/SO2 ratio in the White Island plume and a minimum estimate of the volcano's bromine emission rate; two of many parameters, which are important to assess the impact of volcanic degassing on the atmospheric halogen chemistry. 2) In-situ SO2 data was very successfully recorded with the PITSA, a prototype of a portable and cost-effective optical instrument. It is based on the principle of non-dispersive UV absorption spectroscopy and features different advantages over the customary electrochemical sensors, including a sub second response time, negligible cross sensitivities to other gases, and inherent calibration. The campaign data demonstrates the capabilities and limitations of the PITSA and shows, that it can be well applied as substitute for conventional electrochemical systems.

  18. Using volcanic tremor for eruption forecasting at White Island volcano (Whakaari), New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardot, Lauriane; Jolly, Arthur D.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Fournier, Nicolas; Sherburn, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Eruption forecasting is a challenging task because of the inherent complexity of volcanic systems. Despite remarkable efforts to develop complex models in order to explain volcanic processes prior to eruptions, the material Failure Forecast Method (FFM) is one of the very few techniques that can provide a forecast time for an eruption. However, the method requires testing and automation before being used as a real-time eruption forecasting tool at a volcano. We developed an automatic algorithm to issue forecasts from volcanic tremor increase episodes recorded by Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) at one station and optimised this algorithm for the period August 2011-January 2014 which comprises the recent unrest period at White Island volcano (Whakaari), New Zealand. A detailed residual analysis was paramount to select the most appropriate model explaining the RSAM time evolutions. In a hindsight simulation, four out of the five small eruptions reported during this period occurred within a failure window forecast by our optimised algorithm and the probability of an eruption on a day within a failure window was 0.21, which is 37 times higher than the probability of having an eruption on any day during the same period (0.0057). Moreover, the forecasts were issued prior to the eruptions by a few hours which is important from an emergency management point of view. Whereas the RSAM time evolutions preceding these four eruptions have a similar goodness-of-fit with the FFM, their spectral characteristics are different. The duration-amplitude distributions of the precursory tremor episodes support the hypothesis that several processes were likely occurring prior to these eruptions. We propose that slow rock failure and fluid flow processes are plausible candidates for the tremor source of these episodes. This hindsight exercise can be useful for future real-time implementation of the FFM at White Island. A similar methodology could also be tested at other

  19. Development of a Zealand White Rabbit Deposition Model to Study Inhalation Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, A.P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits. PMID:26895308

  20. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    SciTech Connect

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits asmore » a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.« less

  1. Is omphalocele a non-specific malformation in New Zealand White rabbits?

    PubMed

    Daston, George P; Beekhuijzen, Manon

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the incidence of omphalocele, a malformation that occurs sporadically in many studies. We assembled data on external malformations using all treatment groups from every study published in three major journals over the past 35 years using New Zealand White rabbits. Fifty-eight papers were included: 4905 litters and 36,977 fetuses. Omphalocele was reported in 43% and was among the most common defects, occurring at a rate of 1.10% (litter) and 0.16% (fetus). The defect did not appear to be treatment-related, although it may have been in two studies, based on rate and dose-responsiveness. Removing these two studies from the analysis, the defect was still prevalent (0.77% litter, 0.11% fetal incidence). Three studies evaluated the effects of food restriction and omphalocele was observed with food restriction in two of them, suggesting that decreased maternal weight gain or food consumption may be causal. Otherwise, it appears to be spontaneous and common. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Crater Lake Controls on Volcano Stability: Insights From White Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamling, Ian J.

    2017-11-01

    Many volcanoes around the world host summit crater lakes but their influence on the overall stability of the edifice remains poorly understood. Here I use satellite radar data acquired by TerraSAR-X from early 2015 to July 2017 over White Island, New Zealand, to investigate the interaction of the crater lake and deformation of the surrounding edifice. An eruption in April 2016 was preceded by a period of uplift within the crater floor and drop in the lake level. Modeling of the uplift indicates a shallow source located at ˜100 m depth in the vicinity of the crater lake, likely coinciding with the shallow hydrothermal system. In addition to the drop in the lake level, stress changes induced by the inflation suggest that the pressurization of the shallow hydrothermal system helped promote failure along the edge of the crater lake which collapsed during the eruption. After the eruption, and almost complete removal of the crater lake, large areas of the crater wall and lake edge began moving downslope at rates approaching 400 mm/yr. The coincidence between the rapid increase in the displacement rates and removal of the crater lake suggests that the lake provides a physical control on the stability of the surrounding edifice.

  3. Effect of Sedation with Xylazine and Ketamine on Intraocular Pressure in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Holve, Dana L; Gum, Glenwood G; Pritt, Stacy L

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of intravenous and intramuscular xylazine–ketamine on intraocular pressure (IOP) in laboratory rabbits, 10 New Zealand white rabbits received xylazine (0.46 mg/kg) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg) intravenously whereas another 10 rabbits received intramuscular xylazine (10 mg/kg) and ketamine (50 mg/kg). IOP was measured at baseline and 5, 10, 20, and 25 min after administration in rabbits that were injected intravenously and at baseline and 10, 20, 30, and 45 min in rabbits injected intramuscularly. Baseline IOP (mean ± 1 SD; intravenous group, 20.15 ± 2.24 mm Hg; intramuscular group, 19.03 ± 1.77 mm Hg) did not differ between groups. Compared with baseline values, IOP decreased significantly after intravenous administration at 10, 20, and 25 min (decreases of 2.73, 4.10, and 4.55 mm Hg, respectively) but not at 5 min (decrease of 1.40 mm Hg). IOP in intramuscularly dosed rabbits showed significant differences from baseline at 10, 20, 30, and 45 min (decreases of 2.88, 3.30, 3.95, and 4.60 mm Hg, respectively). In the intravenous group, IOP differed at 10 min compared with 25 min (1.83 mm Hg, P = 0.0143) but not at 20 min compared with 25 min (0.450 mm Hg). In the intramuscular group, differences in IOP at 10 min compared with 20 min, 20 min compared with 30 min, and 30 min compared with 45 min were nonsignificant. Intravenous and intramuscular xylazine–ketamine decreased IOP in laboratory rabbits and may be used safely during ocular procedures for which increased IOP is a concern. PMID:23849448

  4. Oral Transmucosal Detomidine Gel in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Morika D; Long, C Tyler; Durrant, Jessica R; McKeon, Gabriel P; Shive, Heather R; Griffith, Emily H; Messenger, Kristen M; Fish, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Handling and restraining rabbits for routine procedures may be impossible without prior sedation, result in unnecessary stress or injury to the rabbit or handler, and increase experimental variability. Parenteral administration of sedatives can cause stress also, as well as localized pain and tissue damage, especially in fractious animals. Detomidine hydrochloride, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is commercially available in an oral transmucosal (OTM) gel formulation that is FDA-approved for sedation and restraint in horses. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of detomidine gel as an alternative to injectable sedation in rabbits. Eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits each received 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg/kg OTM detomidine gel. Physiologic parameters and sedation scores (SS) were assessed at 10-min intervals from before administration until 100 min afterward. Histopathology of cardiac tissue was scored through 12 d after dosing. Gel administration increased the SS in all rabbits, but none of the animals developed clinically effective sedation (SS of 10 or greater, based on 5 reflex responses on a 3- or 4-point scale). The SS did not differ among dosage groups, and the time–dose interaction was not statistically significant. Heart rate decreased rapidly in all rabbits, with no difference among dosage groups, and there was no effect of time or dosage on peripheral capillary oxygen saturation. Minimal to mild degenerative changes were seen in the myocardium of all treated rabbits, but myocyte necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and mural thrombi—reported previously in rabbits that had received parenteral detomidine—did not occur. OTM detomidine gel was safely and easily administered to rabbits, but the duration and level of sedation were unpredictable. The use of OTM detomidine as a sole agent to facilitate handling and restraint of rabbits does not offer advantages over existing parenteral regimens. PMID:28724493

  5. Oral Transmucosal Detomidine Gel in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Williams, Morika D; Long, C Tyler; Durrant, Jessica R; McKeon, Gabriel P; Shive, Heather R; Griffith, Emily H; Messenger, Kristen M; Fish, Richard E

    2017-07-01

    Handling and restraining rabbits for routine procedures may be impossible without prior sedation, result in unnecessary stress or injury to the rabbit or handler, and increase experimental variability. Parenteral administration of sedatives can cause stress also, as well as localized pain and tissue damage, especially in fractious animals. Detomidine hydrochloride, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is commercially available in an oral transmucosal (OTM) gel formulation that is FDA-approved for sedation and restraint in horses. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of detomidine gel as an alternative to injectable sedation in rabbits. Eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits each received 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg/kg OTM detomidine gel. Physiologic parameters and sedation scores (SS) were assessed at 10-min intervals from before administration until 100 min afterward. Histopathology of cardiac tissue was scored through 12 d after dosing. Gel administration increased the SS in all rabbits, but none of the animals developed clinically effective sedation (SS of 10 or greater, based on 5 reflex responses on a 3- or 4-point scale). The SS did not differ among dosage groups, and the time-dose interaction was not statistically significant. Heart rate decreased rapidly in all rabbits, with no difference among dosage groups, and there was no effect of time or dosage on peripheral capillary oxygen saturation. Minimal to mild degenerative changes were seen in the myocardium of all treated rabbits, but myocyte necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and mural thrombi-reported previously in rabbits that had received parenteral detomidine-did not occur. OTM detomidine gel was safely and easily administered to rabbits, but the duration and level of sedation were unpredictable. The use of OTM detomidine as a sole agent to facilitate handling and restraint of rabbits does not offer advantages over existing parenteral regimens.

  6. Efficacy of delayed brincidofovir treatment against a lethal rabbitpox virus challenge in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Irma M; Foster, Scott A; Gainey, Melicia R; Krile, Robert T; Dunn, John A; Brundage, Thomas; Khouri, Jody M

    2017-07-01

    In the event of a bioterror attack with variola virus (smallpox), exposure may only be identified following onset of fever. To determine if antiviral therapy with brincidofovir (BCV; CMX001) initiated at, or following, onset of fever could prevent severe illness and death, a lethal rabbitpox model was used. BCV is in advanced development as an antiviral for the treatment of smallpox under the US Food and Drug Administration's 'Animal Rule'. This pivotal study assessed the efficacy of immediate versus delayed treatment with BCV following onset of symptomatic disease in New Zealand White rabbits intradermally inoculated with a lethal rabbitpox virus (RPXV), strain Utrecht. Infected rabbits with confirmed fever were randomized to blinded treatment with placebo, BCV, or BCV delayed by 24, 48, or 72 h. The primary objective evaluated the survival benefit with BCV treatment. The assessment of reduction in the severity and progression of clinical events associated with RPXV were secondary objectives. Clinically and statistically significant reductions in mortality were observed when BCV was initiated up to 48 h following the onset of fever; survival rates were 100%, 93%, and 93% in the immediate treatment, 24-h, and 48-h delayed treatment groups, respectively, versus 48% in the placebo group (p < 0.05 for each vs. placebo). Significant improvements in clinical and virologic parameters were also observed. These findings provide a scientific rationale for therapeutic intervention with BCV in the event of a smallpox outbreak when vaccination is contraindicated or when diagnosis follows the appearance of clinical signs and symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Femoral fracture repair and postoperative management in new zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Jon D; Ovadia, Shira; Howell, Paula; Jaskwich, David H

    2002-07-01

    Low bone density and large muscle mass predispose rabbits to femoral fractures. However, there are few reports describing treatment and prognosis. Two New Zealand White rabbits presented with unilateral left rear limb abduction and lateral rotation of the distal left rear limb 2 and 17 days after experimental surgery to create a "stair step" in the patellar groove of the left medial femoral chondyle. This procedure was performed after approval by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Radiography revealed a spiral oblique mid-shaft fracture of the left femur in both rabbits. Open fracture reduction was undertaken. Because of the presence of screws and Kirschner-wires in the medial femoral condyle, a lateral approach to surgical correction was chosen. Intramedullary fixation was used to reduce and stabilize the fractures. A 0.062" Kirschner wire was selected for the intramedullary device, because it was sufficiently flexible to allow easy passage into the femoral canal while being sufficiently stiff to promote reduction of the fracture. In addition, the ends of the fracture were secured with a 0.032" Kirschner cerclage wire to provide additional control of rotation and angulation. Then we assessed the range of motion of the knee joint to determine fracture stability and ensure that the hardware did not impinge on soft-tissue elements. After closure and application of sterile dressing, the hind legs were hobbled proximal to the hock by using elastic veterinary wrap in a figure-eight pattern to maintain limb alignment and prevent formation of pressure ulcers. Intraoperative fluoroscopic evaluation and postoperative radiographs confirmed fracture reduction. Bruising and seroma formation occurred at the surgical site, and transient anorexia developed. Rabbits were treated with fluids, analgesics, antibiotics, and fitted with Elizabethan collars. They were housed in isolation to limit excessive environmental stimulation, which could alarm them and provoke

  8. Effects of adjuvants for human use in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-prone (New Zealand black/New Zealand white) F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Favoino, E; Favia, E I; Digiglio, L; Racanelli, V; Shoenfeld, Y; Perosa, F

    2014-01-01

    The safety of four different adjuvants was assessed in lupus-prone New Zealand black/New Zealand white (BW)F1 mice. Four groups of mice were injected intraperitoneally with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), squalene (SQU) or aluminium hydroxide (ALU). An additional group received plain phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (UNT group). Mice were primed at week 9 and boosted every other week up to week 15. Proteinuria became detectable at weeks 17 (IFA group), 24 (CFA group), 28 (SQU and ALU groups) and 32 (UNT group). Different mean values were obtained among the groups from weeks 17 to 21 [week 17: one-way analysis of variance (anova) P = 0·016; weeks 18 and 19: P = 0·048; weeks 20 and 21: P = 0·013] being higher in the IFA group than the others [Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) post-test P < 0·05]. No differences in anti-DNA antibody levels were observed among groups. Anti-RNP/Sm antibody developed at week 19 in only one CFA-treated mouse. Mean mouse weight at week 18 was lower in the ALU group than the IFA (Tukey's HSD post-test P = 0·04), CFA (P = 0·01) and SQU (P < 0·0001) groups, while the mean weight in the SQU group was higher than in the IFA (P = 0·009), CFA (P = 0·013) and UNT (P = 0·005) groups. The ALU group weight decreased by almost half between weeks 29 and 31, indicating some toxic effect of ALU in the late post-immunization period. Thus, SQU was the least toxic adjuvant as it did not (i) accelerate proteinuria onset compared to IFA; (ii) induce toxicity compared to ALU or (iii) elicit anti-RNP/Sm autoantibody, as occurred in the CFA group. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  9. rhBMP-2 (ACS and CRM formulations) overcomes pseudarthrosis in a New Zealand white rabbit posterolateral fusion model.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, James P; Waked, Walid; Gillon, Thomas J; White, Andrew P; Spock, Christopher R; Biswas, Debdut; Rosenberger, Patricia; Troiano, Nancy; Albert, Todd J; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2007-05-15

    The study design consisted of a New Zealand white rabbit model of pseudarthrosis repair. Study groups consisting of no graft, autograft, or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) or compression resistant matrix (CRM) were evaluated. To evaluate the relative efficacy of bone graft materials (autograft, ACS, and CRM). rhBMP-2 has been shown to have a 100% fusion rate in a primary rabbit fusion model, even in the presence of nicotine, which is known to inhibit fusion. Seventy-two New Zealand white rabbits underwent posterolateral lumbar fusion with iliac crest autograft. To establish pseudarthroses, nicotine was administered to all animals. At 5 weeks, the spines were explored and all pseudarthroses were redecorticated and implanted with no graft, autograft, rhBMP-2/ACS, or rhBMP-2/CRM. At 10 weeks, fusions were assessed by manual palpation and histology. Eight rabbits (11%) were lost to complications. At 5 weeks, 66 (97%) had pseudarthroses. At 10 weeks, attempted pseudarthrosis repairs were fused in 1 of 16 of no graft rabbits (6%), 5 of 17 autograft rabbits (29%), and 31 of 31 rhBMP-2 rabbits (with ACS or CRM) (100%). Histologic analysis demonstrated more mature bone formation in the rhBMP-2 groups. The 2 rhBMP-2 formulations led to significantly higher fusion rates and histologic bone formation than no graft and autograft controls in this pseudarthrosis repair model.

  10. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Six Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Four Bio-Based Jet Fuels with Two Petroleum JP-8 Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    NA 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) Sterner, Teresa R.1; Hurley, Jonathon M.2; Edwards, James T.3; Shafer, Linda M.4; Mattie , David R... Mattie , D.R. 2014. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Ten Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Synthetic and Bio -Based Jet Fuels with...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2014-0046 ACUTE DERMAL IRRITATION STUDY OF SIX JET FUELS IN NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBITS: COMPARISON OF FOUR BIO -BASED JET FUELS

  11. Sequelae of Occult Aggression Disqualifying Young, Socially Housed, Female New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from Participation in Dermal Toxicology Studies.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Moorman-White, Diane M; Ventura, Donnalee; Schneider, Brett W; Bittner, Thomas W

    2017-10-01

    International animal welfare organizations and federal, regional, and institutional oversight bodies encourage social housing of gregarious species, such as New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to promote animal wellbeing in research, teaching, testing and farming settings. At our institution, 2 groups of female New Zealand white rabbits (approximate age, 11 wk; mean weight, 2.35 kg), compatibly paired at the vendor for 5 wk, were paired in caging or group-housed in a floor pen. The rabbits appeared compatible, demonstrating primarily affiliative behaviors throughout 6 wk of daily observations. However, occult aggression that occurred between daily observations or nocturnally resulted in skin wounding. The skin injuries, first identified during prestudy clipping of fur from the back of each rabbit 6 wk after arrival, disqualified every animal from participation in skin toxicology and muscle implantation studies. Success meeting scientific research requirements while promoting animal welfare and health when socially housing New Zealand white rabbits requires examining the behavioral repertoire of their wild counterparts, European rabbits. Factors including age, sex, and housing density influence territoriality, dominance hierarchy, social ranking, and natural, agonistic, injurious, behavioral tendencies. IACUC and other relevant oversight bodies, researchers, and animal care staff should consider this case study and the species-specific natural history of New Zealand white rabbits when assessing the harm and benefit of social housing in regard to research utility and animal welfare.

  12. Evaluation of Lacrimation Characteristics in Clinically Normal New Zealand White Rabbits by Using the Schirmer Tear Test I

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Williams, David L

    2015-01-01

    Rabbits are a common animal model in eye research and in safety testing of novel chemical agents. In addition, ocular disease is a routine presentation in clinical practice. However, few studies have quantitatively examined lacrimation kinetics in this species. This study used a noninvasive method of tear measurement (the Schirmer tear test, STT) to quantify values for basal and reflex tearing and to determine the kinetic nature of tear production in 76 New Zealand white rabbits. We obtained a value of 7.58 ± 2.3 mm/min for the standard 1-min STT. Calculated values for mean residual tear volume and reflex tear flow were 1.95 µL and 0.035 µL/s, respectively. In addition, this study provides preliminary evidence for an interaction effect between eyes given that higher STT values were obtained from the second eye tested. PMID:26632789

  13. Construction of an in vitro primary lung co-culture platform derived from New Zealand white rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Joshua D.; Hess, Becky M.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-05-01

    We report the construction of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) co-culture platform consisting of differentiated lung epithelial cells and monocytes from New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbit lung epithelial cells were successfully grown at air-liquid interface, produced mucus, and expressed both sialic acid alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,6. Blood-derived CD14+ monocytes were deposited above the epithelial layer resulting in the differentiation of a subset of monocytes into CD11c+ cells within the co-culture. These proof-of-concept findings provide a convenient means to comparatively study in vitro versus in vivo rabbit lung responses as they relate to inhalation or lung-challenge studies.

  14. Cystic Mammary Adenocarcinoma Associated with a Prolactin-secreting Pituitary Adenoma in a New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Sikoski, Paul; Trybus, James; Cline, J Mark; Muhammad, F Salih; Eckhoff, Andrew; Tan, Josh; Lockard, Mandy; Jolley, Tammy; Britt, Susan; Kock, Nancy D

    2008-01-01

    A 44-mo-old, female, nulliparous New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) presented with bilaterally diffusely enlarged mammary glands with enlarged, discolored teats that exuded brown, mucoid discharge. The complete blood count and serum chemistry panels were within normal limits, bacteria were not isolated from a culture of the discharge, and the clinical signs did not resolve with antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography and serum prolactin levels supported the diagnosis of mammary gland dysplasia, possibly due to a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. Histologic evaluation confirmed the presence of a pituitary adenoma, mammary hyperplasia, dysplasia, and cystic mammary adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of abundant prolactin secreting cells in the pituitary adenoma. This is the second report of hyperprolactinemia with mammary dysplasia in rabbits, and the first report of cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a rabbit. PMID:18589874

  15. Characterization of New Zealand White Rabbit Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues and Use as Viral Oncology Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Haines, Robyn A; Urbiztondo, Rebeccah A; Haynes, Rashade A H; Simpson, Elaine; Niewiesk, Stefan; Lairmore, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have served as a valuable animal model for the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including those related to agents that gain entry through the gastrointestinal tract such as human T cell leukemia virus type 1. However, limited information is available regarding the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of major rabbit leukocyte populations in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. Herein, we describe the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of leukocytes from gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) from 12-week-old New Zealand White rabbits. Our data indicate that rabbits have similar distribution of leukocyte subsets as humans, both in the GALT inductive and effector sites and in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and peripheral blood. GALT inductive sites, including appendix, cecal tonsil, Peyer's patches, and ileocecal plaque, had variable B cell/T cell ratios (ranging from 4.0 to 0.8) with a predominance of CD4 T cells within the T cell population in all four tissues. Intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments contained mostly T cells, with CD4 T cells predominating in the lamina propria compartment and CD8 T cells predominating in the intraepithelial compartment. Mesenteric lymph node, peripheral blood, and splenic samples contained approximately equal percentages of B cells and T cells, with a high proportion of CD4 T cells compared with CD8 T cells. Collectively, our data indicate that New Zealand White rabbits are comparable with humans throughout their GALT and support future studies that use the rabbit model to study human gut-associated disease or infectious agents that gain entry by the oral route. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Seismic source models for very-long period seismic signals on White Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwani-Brown, Elliot; Neuberg, Jurgen; Jolly, Art

    2015-04-01

    Very-long-period seismic signals (VLP) from White Island have a duration of only a few tens of seconds and a waveform that indicates an elastic (or viscoelastic) interaction of a source region with the surrounding medium; unlike VLP signals on some other volcanoes that indicate a step function recorded in the near field of the seismic source, White Island VLPs exhibit a Ricker waveform. We explore a set of isotropic, seismic source models based on the interaction between magma and water/brine in direct contact. Seismic amplitude measurements are taken into account to estimate the volume changes at depth that can produce the observed displacement at the surface. Furthermore, the influence of different fluid types are explored.

  17. The experiment of magnesium ECAP miniplate as alternative biodegradable material (on male white New Zealand rabbits)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiwanto, Siska; Sulistyani, Lilies Dwi; Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Supriadi, Sugeng; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo; Latief, Benny Syariefsyah

    2018-02-01

    Study of biodegradations of Magnesium ECAP (Equal Channel Angular Pressing) miniplate in the osteosynthesis system has been used as a new material for plate and screw in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This miniplate and screw that were made of Magnesium ECAP were implanted in the femurs of New Zealand rabbits. The degradation process was detected through pocket gas that appeared in hard and soft tissues surrounding in the implanted miniplates and screws. From the changes on the tissues, we can assess the biodegradation process by measuring the gas pocket through micro-CT Scan. Upon the first month of study we euthanized the rabbits and made a micro-CT Scan to see how far the effect of the gas pocket was. Histological analyses were performed to investigate the local tissue response adjacent to the Magnesium ECAP miniplates. We analyzed the femur of a rabbit a month, three months, and five months after implantation. The result showed a degradation rate in the implanted Magnesium ECAP miniplate of 0.61±0.39 mm/year. Unlike the screws, miniplates have higher water content and blood flow than bone, therefore they degrade faster. This study shows promising results for further development of Magnesium ECAP and in the production of osteosynthesis material for rigid fixation in Oral and Maxillofacial skeleton.

  18. Long-Term In Vivo Electromechanical Reshaping for Auricular Reconstruction in the New Zealand White Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Karam W.; Manuel, Cyrus T.; Loy, Anthony Chin; Conderman, Christian; Yau, Yuk Yee; Lin, Jennifer; Tjoa, Tjoson; Su, Erica; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To demonstrate the dosimetry effect of electromechanical reshaping (EMR) on cartilage shape change, structural integrity, cellular viability, and remodeling of grafts in an in vivo long-term animal model. Study Design Animal study. Methods A subperichondrial cartilaginous defect was created within the base of the pinna of 31 New Zealand white rabbits. Autologous costal cartilage grafts were electromechanically reshaped to resemble the rabbit auricular base framework and mechanically secured into the pinna base defect. Forty-nine costal cartilage specimens (four control and 45 experimental) successfully underwent EMR using a paired set of voltage-time combinations and survived for 6 or 12 weeks. Shape change was measured, and specimens were analyzed using digital imaging, tissue histology, and confocal microscopy with LIVE-DEAD viability assays. Results Shape change was proportional to charge transfer in all experimental specimens (P <.01) and increased with voltage. All experimental specimens contoured to the auricular base. Focal cartilage degeneration and fibrosis was observed where needle electrodes were inserted, ranging from 2.2 to 3.9 mm. The response to injury increased with increasing charge transfer and survival duration. Conclusions EMR results in appropriate shape change in cartilage grafts with chondrocyte injury highly localized. These studies suggest that elements of auricular reconstruction may be feasible using EMR. Extended survival periods and further optimization of voltage-time pairs are necessary to evaluate the long-term effects and shape-change potential of EMR. PMID:25779479

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of Heliotropium indicum Linn on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Asiamah, Emmanuel Akomanin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) on endotoxin-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits. METHODS Clinical signs of uveitis including flares, iris hyperemia and miosis, were sought for and scored in 1.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced uveitic rabbits treated orally with HIE (30-300 mg/kg), prednisolone (30 mg/kg), or normal saline (10 mL/kg). The number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrating, the protein concentration, as well as levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and monocyte chemmoattrant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the aqueous humor after the various treatments were also determined. A histopathological study of the anterior uveal was performed. RESULTS The extract and prednisolone-treatment significantly reduced (P≤0.001) both the clinical scores of inflammation (1.0-1.8 compared to 4.40±0.40 in the normal saline-treated rabbits) and inflammatory cells infiltration. The level of protein, and the concentrations of TNF-α, PGE2 and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor were also significantly reduced (P≤0.001). Histopathological studies showed normal uveal morphology in the HIE and prednisolone-treated rabbits while normal saline-treated rabbits showed marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION The HIE exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced uveitis possibly by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. PMID:27162723

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of Heliotropium indicum Linn on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Asiamah, Emmanuel Akomanin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) on endotoxin-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits. Clinical signs of uveitis including flares, iris hyperemia and miosis, were sought for and scored in 1.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced uveitic rabbits treated orally with HIE (30-300 mg/kg), prednisolone (30 mg/kg), or normal saline (10 mL/kg). The number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrating, the protein concentration, as well as levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and monocyte chemmoattrant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the aqueous humor after the various treatments were also determined. A histopathological study of the anterior uveal was performed. The extract and prednisolone-treatment significantly reduced (P≤0.001) both the clinical scores of inflammation (1.0-1.8 compared to 4.40±0.40 in the normal saline-treated rabbits) and inflammatory cells infiltration. The level of protein, and the concentrations of TNF-α, PGE2 and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor were also significantly reduced (P≤0.001). Histopathological studies showed normal uveal morphology in the HIE and prednisolone-treated rabbits while normal saline-treated rabbits showed marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. The HIE exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced uveitis possibly by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of cigarette smoking on the olfactory neuroepithelium of New Zealand white rabbit, using scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Iskander, Nagi M; El-Hennawi, Diaa M; Yousef, Tarek F; El-Tabbakh, Mohammed T; Elnahriry, Tarek A

    2017-06-01

    To detect ultra-structural changes of Rabbit's olfactory neuro-epithelium using scanning electron microscope after exposure to cigarette smoking. Sixty six rabbits (Pathogen free New Zealand white rabbits weighing 1-1.5 kg included in the study were randomly assigned into one of three groups: control group did not expose to cigarette smoking, study group 1 was exposed to cigarette smoking for 3 months and study group 2 was exposed to cigarette smoking 3 months and then stopped for 2 months. Olfactory neuro-epithelium from all rabbits were dissected and examined under Philips XL-30 scanning electron microscope. Changes that were found in the rabbits of study group 1 in comparison to control group were loss of microvilli of sustentacular cells (p = 0.016) and decreases in distribution of specialized cilia of olfactory receptor cells (p = 0.046). Also respiratory metaplasia was detected. These changes were reversible in study group 2. Cigarette smoking causes ultra-structural changes in olfactory neuro-epithelium which may explain why smell was affected in cigarette smokers. Most of these changes were reversible after 45 days of cessation of cigarette smoking to the rabbits.

  2. Application Of A Potentiometric Electronic Tongue For The Determination Of Free SO2 And Other Analytical Parameters In White Wines From New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mednova, Olga; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kilmartin, Paul; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present study deals with a potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system applied for the simultaneous determination of several chemical parameters for white wines produced in New Zealand. Methods in use for wine quality control are often expensive and require considerable time and skilled operation. The ET approach usually offers a simple and fast measurement protocol and allows automation for on-line analysis under industrial conditions. The ET device developed in this research is capable of quantifying the free and total SO2 content, total acids and some polyphenolic compounds in white wines with acceptable analytical errors.

  3. Enhanced inflammation in New Zealand white rabbits when MERS-CoV reinfection occurs in the absence of neutralizing antibody

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Katherine V.; Gretebeck, Lisa; Vogel, Leatrice; Sutton, Troy; Orandle, Marlene; Moore, Ian N.

    2017-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic betacoronavirus that was first detected in humans in 2012 as a cause of severe acute respiratory disease. As of July 28, 2017, there have been 2,040 confirmed cases with 712 reported deaths. While many infections have been fatal, there have also been a large number of mild or asymptomatic cases discovered through monitoring and contact tracing. New Zealand white rabbits are a possible model for asymptomatic infection with MERS-CoV. In order to discover more about non-lethal infections and to learn whether a single infection with MERS-CoV would protect against reinfection, we inoculated rabbits with MERS-CoV and monitored the antibody and inflammatory response. Following intranasal infection, rabbits developed a transient dose-dependent pulmonary infection with moderately high levels of viral RNA, viral antigen, and perivascular inflammation in multiple lung lobes that was not associated with clinical signs. The rabbits developed antibodies against viral proteins that lacked neutralizing activity and the animals were not protected from reinfection. In fact, reinfection resulted in enhanced pulmonary inflammation, without an associated increase in viral RNA titers. Interestingly, passive transfer of serum from previously infected rabbits to naïve rabbits was associated with enhanced inflammation upon infection. We further found this inflammation was accompanied by increased recruitment of complement proteins compared to primary infection. However, reinfection elicited neutralizing antibodies that protected rabbits from subsequent viral challenge. Our data from the rabbit model suggests that people exposed to MERS-CoV who fail to develop a neutralizing antibody response, or persons whose neutralizing antibody titers have waned, may be at risk for severe lung disease on re-exposure to MERS-CoV. PMID:28817732

  4. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, serum chemistry, and intestinal histology of New Zealand White fryer rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, M A; Girgis, G N; Brash, M; Smith, T K

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins to fryer rabbits. The efficacy of a glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also examined. Thirty 5-wk-old male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a control diet, a contaminated diet, or a contaminated diet + 0.2% GMA for 21 d. Experimental diets contained deoxynivalenol (DON; vomitoxin) at a concentration of 0.25, 4.3, and 4.9 μg/g, respectively. Feed intake was measured daily and water intake was measured every 3 d. At the end of the feeding period, blood was collected for evaluation of serum chemistry and hematology. Visceral organs were excised, weighed, and processed for histopathological examination. Body weight gain and water intake were greater in rabbits fed the contaminated diet (P = 0.075 and 0.020, respectively) and those fed the contaminated + GMA diet (P = 0.026 and 0.002, respectively) compared with controls. Rabbits fed the contaminated + GMA diet had significantly increased serum urea concentrations (P = 0.023) and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (P = 0.020) compared with controls. Increase in BW gain of rabbits fed the contaminated diets was caused by increased water consumption. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of diet on relative organ weights, but decreased infiltrations with eosinophilic granulocytes were observed in different regions of the intestine in rabbits fed the contaminated or the contaminated + GMA diet. It was concluded that rabbits could be adversely affected by feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins but appear to be less sensitive than other mammalian species. Supplementation with GMA did not reduce many of the effects of feed-borne mycotoxins.

  5. Replacement of berseem hay by Salix tetrasperma on physiological performance of New Zealand White rabbits under subtropical conditions of Egypt.

    PubMed

    AbuHafsa, Salma H; Hassan, Ayman A; Camacho, Luis M; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M

    2014-10-01

    Forty-eight growing New Zealand White male rabbits aged 6 weeks (874 ± 1.3 g initial body weight (BW)) were used to study effects of partial replacement of berseem hay (BH) with Salix tetrasperma hay (ST) on growth and physiological responses. Rabbits were allotted to one of four diets of 12 rabbits each for 75 days in a completely randomized design. The treatments were as follows: control (30 % BH), ST25 (7.5 % ST + 22.5 % BH), ST50 (15 % ST + 15 % BH), ST75 (22.5 % ST + 7.5 % BH). Nutrient digestibility coefficients, nutritive value and N utilization of rabbits fed with the ST50 rations were higher (P < 0.05) than the other groups. Final live BW, average daily gain, feed intake and feed efficiency of rabbits fed ST25 and ST50 were higher (P < 0.05) than those fed ST75 and the control. Serum biochemical metabolites of urea, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase concentrations varied among diets, with the rank order (P < 0.05) ST75 > ST25 and ST50 > control. Glucose level was higher (P < 0.05) for the control than the other diets. Rabbits fed with the mixed diets of ST had lower (P < 0.05) total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides levels than those fed with control. Haematological indices of packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells and lymphocyte counts were lower (P < 0.05), but monocyte was higher, in rabbits fed with the ST75 than the other groups. However, other haematological parameters were similar among diets. Since all the performance and blood parameters were within normal ranges for healthy rabbits, and there were no signs of toxicity, we conclude that partial replacement of BH by ST improves rabbit growth performance, and did not impact rabbit health.

  6. Variable interpretation of ultrasonograms may contribute to variation in the reported incidence of white matter damage between newborn intensive care units in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D L; Bloomfield, F H; Teele, R L; Harding, J E

    2006-01-01

    Background The incidence of cerebral white matter damage reported to the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) varies between neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Hypothesis Differences in the capture, storage, and interpretation of the cerebral ultrasound scans could account for some of this variation. Methods A total of 255 infants of birth weight <1500 g and gestation <32 weeks born between 1997 and 2002 and drawn equally from each of the six NICUs in New Zealand were randomly selected from the ANZNN database. Half had early cerebral ultrasound scans previously reported to ANZNN as normal, and half had scans reported as abnormal. The original scans were copied, anonymised, and independently read by a panel of three experts using a standardised method of reviewing and reporting. Results There was considerable variation between NICUs in methods of image capture, quality, and completeness of the scans. There was only moderate agreement between the reviewers' reports and the original reports to the ANZNN (κ 0.45–0.51) and between the reviewers (κ 0.54–0.64). The reviewers reported three to six times more white matter damage than had been reported to the ANZNN. Conclusion Some of the reported variation in white matter damage between NICUs may be due to differences in capture and interpretation of cerebral ultrasound scans. PMID:16159954

  7. Fourteen-Day Subacute Intravenous Toxicity Study of Hypertonic Saline/ Dextran 70 (Trade name) and its Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran 70C and its Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits," Toxicology Series 248, was audited on 20 October 1989. CAROLYNM...at tA "e a .6 L C C o L a L Lm .. .. a. a4 1 . . ao 3.&ow2 aCCa .0 00 c -C a- 4;. *; a 0O .. t x.T 2Cu u . u uu0 0 Uc L 01 2.:4A.1 4xa&C -I - -N .CA -e

  8. Evaluation of objects and food for environmental enrichment of NZW rabbits.

    PubMed

    Harris, L D; Custer, L B; Soranaka, E T; Burge, J R; Ruble, G R

    2001-01-01

    The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals states that both structural and social environments should be considered when addressing the husbandry needs of laboratory animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental enrichment strategies that could potentially enhance the well-being of rabbits. Male and female 6-week old New Zealand White rabbits were divided into three groups: food-enriched (Bunny Stix, Bunny Blocks, or celery), non-food enriched (Jingle Ball, Kong toy, or Nylabone), and not enriched. Animals were given a particular enrichment for 1 h daily for 15 days. Home cages were fitted with specially designed plexiglass doors, which allowed the animals' interactions with the objects to be videotaped. The amount of time the animal interacted with each object and the total activity during the 1-h taped session were recorded for each rabbit. Rabbits were weighed weekly. Rabbits spent significantly more time interacting with the Bunny Stix than any other food item or non-food object. In addition, total activity time was significantly greater for all rabbits enriched with food versus any of the non-food items. Weight gains after 15 days did not differ significantly, but there was a trend towards increased weight gains in food-enriched rabbits. In this study, food was a stronger, more sustained enrichment device than were non-food objects.

  9. High spatial variation in population size and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with white clover in New Zealand pasture soils.

    PubMed

    Wakelin, Steven; Tillard, Guyléne; van Ham, Robert; Ballard, Ross; Farquharson, Elizabeth; Gerard, Emily; Geurts, Rene; Brown, Matthew; Ridgway, Hayley; O'Callaghan, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation through the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is important for sustainable pastoral production. In New Zealand, the most widespread and valuable symbiosis occurs between white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (Rlt). As variation in the population size (determined by most probable number assays; MPN) and effectiveness of N-fixation (symbiotic potential; SP) of Rlt in soils may affect white clover performance, the extent in variation in these properties was examined at three different spatial scales: (1) From 26 sites across New Zealand, (2) at farm-wide scale, and (3) within single fields. Overall, Rlt populations ranged from 95 to >1 x 108 per g soil, with variation similar at the three spatial scales assessed. For almost all samples, there was no relationship between rhizobia population size and ability of the population to fix N during legume symbiosis (SP). When compared with the commercial inoculant strain, the SP of soils ranged between 14 to 143% efficacy. The N-fixing ability of rhizobia populations varied more between samples collected from within a single hill country field (0.8 ha) than between 26 samples collected from diverse locations across New Zealand. Correlations between SP and calcium and aluminium content were found in all sites, except within a dairy farm field. Given the general lack of association between SP and MPN, and high spatial variability of SP at single field scale, provision of advice for treating legume seed with rhizobia based on field-average MPN counts needs to be carefully considered.

  10. High spatial variation in population size and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with white clover in New Zealand pasture soils

    PubMed Central

    Tillard, Guyléne; van Ham, Robert; Ballard, Ross; Farquharson, Elizabeth; Gerard, Emily; Geurts, Rene; Brown, Matthew; Ridgway, Hayley; O’Callaghan, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation through the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is important for sustainable pastoral production. In New Zealand, the most widespread and valuable symbiosis occurs between white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (Rlt). As variation in the population size (determined by most probable number assays; MPN) and effectiveness of N-fixation (symbiotic potential; SP) of Rlt in soils may affect white clover performance, the extent in variation in these properties was examined at three different spatial scales: (1) From 26 sites across New Zealand, (2) at farm-wide scale, and (3) within single fields. Overall, Rlt populations ranged from 95 to >1 x 108 per g soil, with variation similar at the three spatial scales assessed. For almost all samples, there was no relationship between rhizobia population size and ability of the population to fix N during legume symbiosis (SP). When compared with the commercial inoculant strain, the SP of soils ranged between 14 to 143% efficacy. The N-fixing ability of rhizobia populations varied more between samples collected from within a single hill country field (0.8 ha) than between 26 samples collected from diverse locations across New Zealand. Correlations between SP and calcium and aluminium content were found in all sites, except within a dairy farm field. Given the general lack of association between SP and MPN, and high spatial variability of SP at single field scale, provision of advice for treating legume seed with rhizobia based on field-average MPN counts needs to be carefully considered. PMID:29489845

  11. LMW Heparin Prevents Increased Kidney Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in (NZBxNZW)F1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanapathippillai, Premasany; Rekvig, Ole Petter; Fenton, Kristin Andreassen

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that continuous infusion of low molecular weight (LMW) heparin delays autoantibody production and development of lupus nephritis in (NZBxNZW)F1 (B/W) mice. In this study we investigated the effect of LMW heparin on renal cytokine and chemokine expression and on nucleosome-mediated activation of nucleosome-specific splenocytes. Total mRNA extracted from kidneys of heparin-treated or -untreated B/W mice was analysed by qPCR for the expression of several cytokines, chemokines, and Toll-like receptors. Splenocytes taken from B/W mice were stimulated with nucleosomes with or without the presence of heparin. Splenocyte cell proliferation as thymidine incorporation and the expression of costimulatory molecules and cell activation markers were measured. Heparin treatment of B/W mice reduced the in vivo expression of CCR2, IL1β, and TLR7 compared to untreated B/W mice. Nucleosome-induced cell proliferation of splenocytes was not influenced by heparin. The expression of CD80, CD86, CD69, CD25, CTLA-4, and TLR 2, 7, 8, and 9 was upregulated upon stimulation by nucleosomes, irrespective of whether heparin was added to the cell culture or not. In conclusion, treatment with heparin lowers the kidney expression of proinflammatory mediators in B/W mice but does not affect nucleosomal activation of splenocytes. PMID:24151519

  12. Effect of genetic background on the contribution of New Zealand Black loci to autoimmune lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Rozzo, Stephen J.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Drake, Charles G.; Kotzin, Brian L.

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus are complex genetic traits with contributions from major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and multiple unknown non-MHC genes. Studies of animal models of lupus have provided important insight into the immunopathogenesis of disease, and genetic analyses of these models overcome certain obstacles encountered when studying human patients. Genome-wide scans of different genetic crosses have been used to map several disease-linked loci in New Zealand hybrid mice. Although some consensus exists among studies mapping the New Zealand Black (NZB) and New Zealand White (NZW) loci that contribute to lupus-like disease, considerable variability is also apparent. A variable in these studies is the genetic background of the non-autoimmune strain, which could influence genetic contributions from the affected strain. A direct examination of this question was undertaken in the present study by mapping NZB nephritis-linked loci in backcrosses involving different non-autoimmune backgrounds. In a backcross with MHC-congenic C57BL/6J mice, H2z appeared to be the strongest genetic determinant of severe lupus nephritis, whereas in a backcross with congenic BALB/cJ mice, H2z showed no influence on disease expression. NZB loci on chromosomes 1, 4, 11, and 14 appeared to segregate with disease in the BALB/cJ cross, but only the influence of the chromosome 1 locus spanned both crosses and showed linkage with disease when all mice were considered. Thus, the results indicate that contributions from disease-susceptibility loci, including MHC, may vary markedly depending on the non-autoimmune strain used in a backcross analysis. These studies provide insight into variables that affect genetic heterogeneity and add an important dimension of complexity for linkage analyses of human autoimmune disease. PMID:8986781

  13. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in fish, crab and sediment from El Temsah Lake, Suez Canal, Egypt and their effect on mitochondrial ATPase of the New Zealand white rabbit.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M T; Ismail, S M

    1991-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides were monitored in the muscles of Bolti fish Tilapia zillii, the crab Lupa pelagicus and sediment samples collected from El Temsah lake around Ismailia using gas liquid chromatography. The beta isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (beta.HCH) was the most dominant compound detected in all samples, followed by P, P-DDE and P, P-DDT. Results showed the crab to contain higher concentrations of organochlorine in comparison to concentrations detected in fish muscles. The In-vitro effect of the residues extracted from fish, and crab on the mitochondrial brain and liver ATPase of the New Zealand white rabbit Orcytolagus cuniculus was also studied. Residues of organochlorine pesticides have induced activation in the ATPase enzyme system of both brain and liver. The mixtures of organochlorine residues of both fish and crab were able to activate liver ATPase more than brain ATPase. The present study was conducted to extrapolate possible effects incurred on man if consumed such food.

  14. Vapor-phase cristobalite as a durable indicator of magmatic pore structure and halogen degassing: an example from White Island volcano (New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ian Schipper, C.; Mandon, Céline; Maksimenko, Anton; Castro, Jonathan M.; Conway, Chris E.; Hauer, Peter; Kirilova, Martina; Kilgour, Geoff

    2017-10-01

    Vesicles in volcanic rocks are physical records of magmatic degassing; however, the interpretation of their textures is complicated by resorption, coalescence, and collapse. We discuss the textural significance of vesicle-hosted vapor-phase cristobalite (high-T, low-P SiO2 polymorph), and its utility as a complement to textural assessments of magmatic degassing, using a representative dacite bomb erupted from White Island volcano (New Zealand) in 1999. Imaging in 2D (SEM) and 3D (CT) shows the bomb to have 56% bulk porosity, almost all of which is connected ( 99%) and devoid of SiO2 phases. The remaining ( 1%) of porosity is in isolated, sub-spherical vesicles that have corroded walls and contain small (< 30 μm across) prismatic vapor-phase cristobalite crystals (98.4 ± 0.4 wt.% SiO2 with diagnostic laser Raman spectra). Halogen degassing models show vapor-phase cristobalite to be indicative of closed-system chlorine and fluorine partitioning into H2O-rich fluid in isolated pores. At White Island, this occurred during shallow (< 100s of meters) ascent and extensive ( 50%) groundmass crystallization associated with slow cooling in a volcanic plug. Pristine textures in this White Island bomb demonstrate the link between pore isolation and vapor-phase cristobalite deposition. We suggest that because these crystals have higher preservation potential than the bubbles in which they form, they can serve as durable, qualitative textural indicators of halogen degassing and pre-quench bubble morphologies in slowly cooled volcanic rocks (e.g., lava flows and domes), even where emplacement mechanisms have overprinted original bubble textures.

  15. White cell count in the normal range and short-term and long-term mortality: international comparisons of electronic health record cohorts in England and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Thornley, Simon; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Denaxas, Spiros; Jackson, Rod; Hemingway, Harry

    2017-02-17

    Electronic health records offer the opportunity to discover new clinical implications for established blood tests, but international comparisons have been lacking. We tested the association of total white cell count (WBC) with all-cause mortality in England and New Zealand. Primary care practices in England (ClinicAl research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records (CALIBER)) and New Zealand (PREDICT). Analysis of linked electronic health record data sets: CALIBER (primary care, hospitalisation, mortality and acute coronary syndrome registry) and PREDICT (cardiovascular risk assessments in primary care, hospitalisations, mortality, dispensed medication and laboratory results). People aged 30-75 years with no prior cardiovascular disease (CALIBER: N=686 475, 92.0% white; PREDICT: N=194 513, 53.5% European, 14.7% Pacific, 13.4% Maori), followed until death, transfer out of practice (in CALIBER) or study end. HRs for mortality were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, ethnicity and total:high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio. We found 'J'-shaped associations between WBC and mortality; the second quintile was associated with lowest risk in both cohorts. High WBC within the reference range (8.65-10.05×10 9 /L) was associated with significantly increased mortality compared to the middle quintile (6.25-7.25×10 9 /L); adjusted HR 1.51 (95% CI 1.43 to 1.59) in CALIBER and 1.33 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.65) in PREDICT. WBC outside the reference range was associated with even greater mortality. The association was stronger over the first 6 months of follow-up, but similar across ethnic groups. Clinically recorded WBC within the range considered 'normal' is associated with mortality in ethnically different populations from two countries, particularly within the first 6 months. Large-scale international comparisons of electronic health record cohorts might yield new insights from widely

  16. Blastema cells derived from New Zealand white rabbit's pinna carry stemness properties as shown by differentiation into insulin producing, neural, and osteogenic lineages representing three embryonic germ layers.

    PubMed

    Saeinasab, Morvarid; Matin, Maryam M; Rassouli, Fatemeh B; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-05-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are known as undifferentiated cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacities. Regeneration is a phenomenon that occurs in a limited number of animals after injury, during which blastema tissue is formed. It has been hypothesized that upon injury, the dedifferentiation of surrounding tissues leads into the appearance of cells with SC characteristics. In present study, stem-like cells (SLCs) were obtained from regenerating tissue of New Zealand white rabbit's pinna and their stemness properties were examined by their capacity to differentiate toward insulin producing cells (IPCs), as well as neural and osteogenic lineages. Differentiation was induced by culture of SLCs in defined medium, and cell fates were monitored by specific staining, RT-PCR and flow cytometry assays. Our results revealed that dithizone positive cells, which represent IPCs, and islet-like structures appeared 1 week after induction of SLCs, and this observation was confirmed by the elevated expression of Ins, Pax6 and Glut4 at mRNA level. Furthermore, SLCs were able to express neural markers as early as 1 week after retinoic acid treatment. Finally, SLCs were able to differentiate into osteogenic lineage, as confirmed by Alizarin Red S staining and RT-PCR studies. In conclusion, SLCs, which could successfully differentiate into cells derived from all three germ layers, can be considered as a valuable model to study developmental biology and regenerative medicine.

  17. Towards a viscoelastic model for the unfused midpalatal suture: development and validation using the midsagittal suture in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Romanyk, D L; Liu, S S; Lipsett, M G; Toogood, R W; Lagravère, M O; Major, P W; Carey, J P

    2013-06-21

    Maxillary expansion treatment is a commonly used procedure by orthodontists to widen a patient's upper jaw. As this is typically performed in adolescent patients, the midpalatal suture, connective tissue adjoining the two maxilla halves, remains unfused. Studies that have investigated patient response to expansion treatment, generally through finite element analysis, have considered this suture to behave in a linear elastic manner or it was left vacant. The purpose of the study presented here was to develop a model that could represent the midpalatal suture's viscoelastic behavior. Quasilinear viscoelastic, modified superposition, Schapery's, and Burgers modeling approaches were all considered. Raw data from a previously published study using New Zealand White Rabbits was utilized for model parameter estimation and validation. In this study, Sentalloy(®) coil springs at load levels of 0.49N (50g), 0.98N (100g), and 1.96N (200g) were used to widen the midsagittal suture of live rabbits over a period of 6 weeks. Evaluation was based on a models ability to represent experimental data well over all three load sets. Ideally, a single set of model constants could be used to represent data over all loads tested. Upon completion of the analysis it was found that the modified superposition method was able to replicate experimental data within one standard deviation of the means using a single set of constants for all loads. Future work should focus on model improvement as well as prediction of treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Amanda D.; Adams, Mathew M.; Lampert, Bernhard; Foster, Scott; Lanier, Randall; Robertson, Alice; Painter, George; Moyer, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV) infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. PMID:21369346

  19. Morphological analysis of patchy thickening and reddish discoloration of active hair growth areas in the skin of New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Tomoko; Yamashita, Haruhiro; Sakurai, Takanobu; Morita, Junya; Sakamoto, Kouji; Ishii, Aiko; Sasaki, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Patchy thickening and reddish discoloration of active hair growth areas of skin in rabbits are occasionally found, and this gross feature could affect precise evaluation when conducting a dermal irritation test. Since little is known about the mechanism of this phenomenon, we examined the dorsal skin of New Zealand White rabbits morphologically and immunohistochemically in order to identify the possible mechanism responsible for developing these skin changes in relation to the hair cycle. Skin samples from 4 rabbits were divided into three groups (5 samples/group) based on their macroscopic characteristics: a thickened skin, erythematous skin, and smooth skin group. Histomorphological examination revealed that the percentage of hair follicles in the anagen phase, hair follicle length, hair follicle area, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the hair follicles were greater in the thickened skin and erythematous skin groups than in the smooth skin group. Unlike mice and rats, the dermis was nearly adjacent to the muscular layer with a thin hypodermis, and the whole lengths of hair follicles in the anagen phase were located in the dermis in the rabbit skin. These results suggest that large hair follicles in the anagen phase compressed the surrounding dermis; therefore, the skin was grossly raised and showed thickening. A higher number of CD31-positive blood vessels, suggesting the occurrence of angiogenesis, was observed around the hair follicles in the erythematous skin group, and they seemed to affect the reddish discoloration of skin noted grossly.

  20. Description and comparison of excretory urography performed during radiography and computed tomography for evaluation of the urinary system in healthy New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Vilalta, Laura; Altuzarra, Raul; Espada, Yvonne; Dominguez, Elisabet; Novellas, Rosa; Martorell, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of excretory urography performed during radiography (REU) and CT (CTEU) in healthy rabbits, determine timings of urogram phases, and compare sensitivities of REU and CTEU for detection of these phases. ANIMALS 13 New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PROCEDURES Rabbits were screened for signs of systemic and urinary tract disease. An REU examination of each was performed, followed ≥ 5 days later by a CTEU examination. Contrast images from each modality were evaluated for quality of opacification and intervals between initiation of contrast medium administration and detection of various urogram phases. RESULTS Excretory urograms of excellent diagnostic quality were achieved with both imaging modalities. For all rabbits, the nephrographic phase of the urogram appeared in the first postcontrast REU image (obtained between 34 and 40 seconds after initiation of contrast medium administration) and at a median interval of 20 seconds in CTEU images. The pyelographic phase began at a median interval of 1.63 minutes with both imaging modalities. Contrast medium was visible within the urinary bladder at a median interval of 2.20 minutes. Median interval to the point at which the nephrogram and pyelogram were no longer visible in REU images was 8 hours and 2.67 hours, respectively. The CTEU technique was better than the REU technique for evaluating renal parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that REU and, particularly, CTEU may be valuable tools for the diagnosis of renal and urinary tract disease in rabbits; however, additional evaluation in diseased rabbits is required.

  1. Novel nitric oxide producing probiotic wound healing patch: preparation and in vivo analysis in a New Zealand white rabbit model of ischaemic and infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mitchell; Ganopolsky, Jorge G; Labbé, Alain; Gilardino, Mirko; Wahl, Christopher; Martoni, Christopher; Prakash, Satya

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of chronic wounds poses a significant challenge for clinicians and patients alike. Here we report design and preclinical efficacy of a novel nitric oxide gas (gNO)-producing probiotic patch for wound healing. Specifically, a wound healing patch using lactic acid bacteria in an adhesive gas permeable membrane has been designed and investigated for treating ischaemic and infected full-thickness dermal wounds in a New Zealand white rabbit model for ischaemic wound healing. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed increased wound closure with gNO-producing patch-treated wounds over 21 days of therapy (log-rank P = 0·0225 and Wilcoxon P = 0·0113). Cox proportional hazard regression showed that gNO-producing patch-treated wounds were 2·52 times more likely to close compared with control patches (hazard P = 0·0375, score P = 0·032 and likelihood ratio P = 0·0355), and histological analysis showed improved wound healing in gNO-producing patch-treated animals. This study may provide an effective, safe and less costly alternative for treating chronic wounds. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  2. Preliminary Investigations on Therapy Thresholds for Laser Dosimetry, Cryogen Spray Cooling Duration, and Treatment Cycles for Laser Cartilage Reshaping in the New Zealand White Rabbit Auricle

    PubMed Central

    Chlebicki, Cara A.; Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Wong, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of laser irradiation (λ=1.45 μm) in tandem with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) to reshape rabbit auricular cartilage using total energy density of 14 J/cm2. The aim of this study was to further explore and identify the dosimetry parameter space for laser output energy, CSC duration, and treatment cycles required to achieve shape change while limiting skin and cartilage injury. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were treated with the 1.45 μm diode laser combined with cryogen spray cooling (Candela Smoothbeam™, Candela Co., Wayland, MA). The ear's central portion was bent around a cylindrical jig and irradiated in consecutive spots of 6 mm diameter (13 J/cm2 or 14 J/cm2 per spot) along 3 rows encompassing the bend. CSC was delivered during irradiation in cycles consisting of 25-35 ms. At thin and thick portions of the ear, 4-7 and 6-10 treatment cycles were delivered, respectively. After surgery, ears were examined and splinted for 6 weeks. Treatment parameters resulting in acceptable (Grades 1 & 2) and unacceptable (Grade 3) skin injuries for thick and thin regions were identified and shape change was observed. Confocal and histological analysis of cartilage tissue revealed several outcomes correlating to laser dosimetry, CSC duration, and treatment cycles. These outcomes included expansion of cartilage layers (thickening), partial cartilage injuries, and full thickness cartilage injuries. We determined therapy thresholds for laser output energy, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles in the rabbit auricular model. These parameters are a starting point for future clinical procedures aimed at correcting external ear deformities. PMID:24202858

  3. Preliminary investigations on therapy thresholds for laser dosimetry, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles for laser cartilage reshaping in the New Zealand white rabbit auricle.

    PubMed

    Chlebicki, Cara A; Protsenko, Dmitry E; Wong, Brian J

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of laser irradiation (λ = 1.45 μm) in tandem with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) to reshape rabbit auricular cartilage using a total energy density of 14 J/cm(2). The aim of this study was to further explore and identify the dosimetry parameter space for laser output energy, CSC duration, and treatment cycles required to achieve shape change while limiting skin and cartilage injury. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were treated with the 1.45 μm diode laser combined with cryogen spray cooling (Candela Smoothbeam™, Candela Co., Wayland, MA, USA). The ear's central portion was bent around a cylindrical jig and irradiated in consecutive spots of 6 mm diameter (13 or 14 J/cm(2) per spot) along three rows encompassing the bend. CSC was delivered during irradiation in cycles consisting of 25-35 ms. At thin and thick portions of the ear, 4-7 and 6-10 treatment cycles were delivered, respectively. After surgery, ears were examined and splinted for 6 weeks. Treatment parameters resulting in acceptable (grades 1 and 2) and unacceptable (grade 3) skin injuries for thick and thin regions were identified, and shape change was observed. Confocal and histological analysis of cartilage tissue revealed several outcomes correlating to laser dosimetry, CSC duration, and treatment cycles. These outcomes included expansion of cartilage layers (thickening), partial cartilage injuries, and full-thickness cartilage injuries. We determined therapy thresholds for laser output energy, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles in the rabbit auricular model. These parameters are a starting point for future clinical procedures aimed at correcting external ear deformities.

  4. Safety and clinical effectiveness of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    DiVincenti, Louis; Meirelles, Luiz A D; Westcott, Robin A

    2016-04-01

    To determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine, compared with effects of regular buprenorphine, for postoperative analgesia in rabbits. Blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. 24 purpose-bred adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Rabbits received titanium implants in each tibia as part of another study. Immediately prior to surgery, each rabbit received regular buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], SC, q 12 h for 3 days) or 1 dose of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (0.12 mg/kg [0.055 mg/lb], SC) followed by an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SC, q 12 h for 3 days) after surgery. For 7 days after surgery, rabbits were evaluated for signs of pain by means of rabbit grimace and activity scoring and for adverse effects. No significant differences were identified between treatment groups in grimace and activity scores at any point. No major adverse effects were detected for either drug. However, 3 rabbits that received regular buprenorphine had pain scores suggestive of moderate to severe pain by the time dose administration was due (ie, within the 12-hour administration interval). No clinically important differences were detected in intraoperative anesthetic or postoperative recovery variables. Sustained-release buprenorphine administered SC at 0.12 mg/kg was at least as effective as regular buprenorphine in providing analgesia for rabbits following orthopedic surgery without any major adverse effects. This sustained-release formulation represents an important alternative for rabbit analgesia with potential to improve rabbit welfare over existing analgesic standards.

  5. Variability of passive gas emissions, seismicity, and deformation during crater lake growth at White Island Volcano, New Zealand, 2002-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Hurst, T.; Scott, B.; Sherburn, S.; Christenson, B. W.; Britten, K.; Cole-Baker, J.; Mullan, B.

    2008-01-01

    We report on 4 years of airborne measurements of CO2, SO2, and H2S emission rates during a quiescent period at White Island volcano, New Zealand, beginning in 2003. During this time a significant crater lake emerged, allowing scrubbing processes to be investigated. CO2 emissions varied from a baseline of 250 to >2000 t d-1 and demonstrated clear annual cycling that was consistent with numbers of earthquake detections and annual changes in sea level. The annual variability was found to be most likely related to increases in the strain on the volcano during sea level highs, temporarily causing fractures to reduce in size in the upper conduit. SO2 emissions varied from 0 to >400 t d-1 and were clearly affected by scrubbing processes within the first year of lake development. Scrubbing caused increases of SO42- and Cl- in lake waters, and the ratio of carbon to total sulphur suggested that elemental sulphur deposition was also significant in the lake during the first year. Careful measurements of the lake level and chemistry allowed estimates of the rate of H2O(g) and HCl(g) input into the lake and suggested that the molar abundances of major gas species (H2O, CO2, SO2, and HCl) during this quiescent phase were similar to fumarolic ratios observed between earlier eruptive periods. The volume of magma estimated from CO2 emissions (0.015-0.04 km3) was validated by Cl- increases in the lake, suggesting that the gas and magma are transported from deep to shallow depths as a closed system and likely become open in the upper conduit region. The absence of surface deformation further leads to a necessity of magma convection to supply and remove magma from the degassing depths. Two models of convection configurations are discussed.

  6. Variability of passive gas emissions, seismicity, and deformation during crater lake growth at White Island Volcano, New Zealand, 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, C.; Hurst, T.; Scott, B.; Sherburn, S.; Christenson, B.W.; Britten, K.; Cole-Baker, J.; Mullan, B.

    2008-01-01

    We report on 4 years of airborne measurements of CO2, SO2, and H2S emission rates during a quiescent period at White Island volcano, New Zealand, beginning in 2003. During this time a significant crater lake emerged, allowing scrubbig processes to be investigated. CO2 emissions varied from a baseline of 250 to >2000 t d-1 and demonstrated clear annual cycling that was consistent with numbers of earthquake detections and annual changes in sea level. The annual variability was found to be most likely related to increases in the strain on the volcano during sea level highs, temporarily causing fractures to reduce in size in the upper conduit. SO2 emissions varied from 0 to >400 t d-1 and were clearly affected by scrubbing processes within the first year of take development. Scrubbing caused increases of SO42- and Cl- in lake waters, and the ratio of carbon to total sulphur suggested that elemental sulphur deposition was also significant in the lake during the first year. Careful measurements of the lake level and chemistry allowed estimates of the rate of H2O(g) and HCl(g) input into the lake and suggested that the molar abundances of major gas species (H2O, CO2, SO2, and HCl) during this quiescent phase were similar to fumarolic ratios observed between earlier eruptive periods. The volume of magma estimated from CO2 emissions (0.0 15-0.04 km3) was validated by Cl- increases in the lake, suggesting that the gas and magma are transported from deep to shallow depths as a closed system and likely become open in the upper conduit region. The absence of surface deformation further leads to a necessity of magma convection to supply and remove magma from the degassing depths. Two models of convection configurations are discussed. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Application of a hyaluronic acid gel after intrauterine surgery may improve spontaneous fertility: a randomized controlled trial in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Huberlant, Stephanie; Fernandez, Herve; Vieille, Pierre; Khrouf, Mohamed; Ulrich, Daniela; deTayrac, Renaud; Letouzey, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) are the most common complication after hysteroscopy in patients of reproductive age. Intra-abdominal anti-adhesion gel reduces the incidence of adhesions, but effects on fertility after uterine surgery are not known. The objective of our work was to evaluate the effect of intrauterine anti-adhesion gel on spontaneous fertility after repeated intrauterine surgery with induced experimental synechiae in the rabbit model. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits underwent a double uterine curettage 10 days apart and were randomized into two groups. Each rabbit served as its own control: one uterine tube was the treatment group (A), the second uterine tube was the control group (B) to avoid bias through other causes of infertility. Group A received a post curettage intrauterine instillation of anti-adhesion gel whereas group B, the control group, underwent curettage without instillation of the gel. After a recovery period, the rabbits were mated. An abdominal ultrasound performed 21 days after mating allowed us to diagnose pregnancy and quantify the number of viable fetuses. There was a significant difference in total fetuses in favor of group A, with an average of 3.7 (range, 0-9) total fetuses per tube against 2.1 (0-7) in group B (p = .04). The number of viable fetuses shows a trend in favor of group A, with an average of 3.4 (0-7) viable fetuses per tube against 1.9 (0-6) viable fetuses per tube in group B (p = .05). The use of immediate postoperative anti-adhesion gel improved fertility in an animal model after intrauterine surgery likely to cause uterine synechiae. This experimental model will permit comparison of different anti-adhesion solutions, including assessment of their tolerance and potential mucosal toxicity on embryonic development.

  8. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing

    PubMed Central

    Nakyinsige, K.; Fatimah, A. B.; Aghwan, Z. A.; Zulkifli, I.; Goh, Y. M.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05) were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05) with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out. PMID:25049968

  9. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Fatimah, A B; Aghwan, Z A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Sazili, A Q

    2014-03-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05) were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05) with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out.

  10. Recombinant protective antigen anthrax vaccine improves survival when administered as a postexposure prophylaxis countermeasure with antibiotic in the New Zealand white rabbit model of inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Leffel, Elizabeth K; Bourdage, James S; Williamson, E Diane; Duchars, Matthew; Fuerst, Thomas R; Fusco, Peter C

    2012-08-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a potentially lethal form of disease resulting from exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores. Over the last decade, incidents spanning from the deliberate mailing of B. anthracis spores to incidental exposures in users of illegal drugs have highlighted the importance of developing new medical countermeasures to protect people who have been exposed to "anthrax spores" and are at risk of developing disease. The New Zealand White rabbit (NZWR) is a well-characterized model that has a pathogenesis and clinical presentation similar to those seen in humans. This article reports how the NZWR model was adapted to evaluate postexposure prophylaxis using a recombinant protective antigen (rPA) vaccine in combination with an oral antibiotic, levofloxacin. NZWRs were exposed to multiples of the 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of B. anthracis spores and then vaccinated immediately (day 0) and again on day 7 postexposure. Levofloxacin was administered daily beginning at 6 to 12 h postexposure for 7 treatments. Rabbits were evaluated for clinical signs of disease, fever, bacteremia, immune response, and survival. A robust immune response (IgG anti-rPA and toxin-neutralizing antibodies) was observed in all vaccinated groups on days 10 to 12. Levofloxacin plus either 30 or 100 μg rPA vaccine resulted in a 100% survival rate (18 of 18 per group), and a vaccine dose as low as 10 μg rPA resulted in an 89% survival rate (16 of 18) when used in combination with levofloxacin. In NZWRs that received antibiotic alone, the survival rate was 56% (10 of 18). There was no adverse effect on the development of a specific IgG response to rPA in unchallenged NZWRs that received the combination treatment of vaccine plus antibiotic. This study demonstrated that an accelerated two-dose regimen of rPA vaccine coadministered on days 0 and 7 with 7 days of levofloxacin therapy results in a significantly greater survival rate than with antibiotic treatment alone. Combination of

  11. A multidisciplinary approach to quantify the permeability of the Whakaari/White Island volcanic hydrothermal system (Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Michael J.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Farquharson, Jamie I.; Ashworth, James; Mayer, Klaus; Letham-Brake, Mark; Reuschlé, Thierry; Gilg, H. Albert; Scheu, Bettina; Lavallée, Yan; Siratovich, Paul; Cole, Jim; Jolly, Arthur D.; Baud, Patrick; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-02-01

    Our multidisciplinary study aims to better understand the permeability of active volcanic hydrothermal systems, a vital prerequisite for modelling and understanding their behaviour and evolution. Whakaari/White Island volcano (an active stratovolcano at the north-eastern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand) hosts a highly reactive hydrothermal system and represents an ideal natural laboratory to undertake such a study. We first gained an appreciation of the different lithologies at Whakaari and (where possible) their lateral and vertical extent through reconnaissance by land, sea, and air. The main crater, filled with tephra deposits, is shielded by a volcanic amphitheatre comprising interbedded lavas, lava breccias, and tuffs. We deployed field techniques to measure the permeability and density/porosity of (1) > 100 hand-sized sample blocks and (2) layered unlithified deposits in eight purpose-dug trenches. Our field measurements were then groundtruthed using traditional laboratory techniques on almost 150 samples. Our measurements highlight that the porosity of the materials at Whakaari varies from ∼ 0.01 to ∼ 0.7 and permeability varies by eight orders of magnitude (from ∼ 10-19 to ∼ 10-11 m2). The wide range in physical and hydraulic properties is the result of the numerous lithologies and their varied microstructures and alteration intensities, as exposed by a combination of macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy) observations, quantitative mineralogical studies (X-ray powder diffraction), and mercury porosimetry. An understanding of the spatial distribution of lithology and alteration style/intensity is therefore important to decipher fluid flow within the Whakaari volcanic hydrothermal system. We align our field observations and porosity/permeability measurements to construct a schematic cross section of Whakaari that highlights the salient findings of our study. Taken together, the alteration typical of a volcanic

  12. Intravenous infusion of PAF affects ovulation, fertilization and preimplantation embryonic development in NZB x NZW F1 hybrid mice.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, Maria; Drakakis, Peter; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Anagnostou, Elli; Loutradis, Dimitris; Patargias, Theoxaris

    2008-03-01

    Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) is a bioactive phospholipid, which exhibits a variety of biological activities and plays a significant role in all aspects of reproduction. In this work, a single intravenous injection of various concentrations of PAF shortly after Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) administration as well as 24 and 48 h before HCG administration was studied in NZB x NZW F1 hybrid mice. Optimum results were observed when PAF was injected just after the administration of HCG. In this protocol, the concentrations of PAF exhibited bell-shaped response to every stage of development. Any concentration of PAF between 5.5 x 10(-11) and 5.5 x 10(-15)g/g b.w., caused an improved ovulation rate, an increased fertilization rate, an increased rate of cell cycle and an enhanced hatching blastocyst rate (P<0.05 for all stages). Injection of lyso-PAF had no effect in any stage. Our data show that the effect of PAF on early stages of embryo development in vitro is dependent on its way of administration, on the concentrations used as well as on the time PAF is injected.

  13. NZB/NZW F1 mouse nephritis and immune response are not changed by treatment with a 15-lipoxygenase derivative.

    PubMed

    Aldigier, J C; Cook, J; Delebassée, S; Guibert, F; Touchard, G; Juzan, M; Gualde, N

    1992-10-01

    15-HETE is an arachidonic acid derivative issued from the 15 lipoxygenase pathway. This fatty acid possesses immunomodulatory capabilities since it was reported that it generates CD8 + suppressor T-cells either in vitro or ex vivo. The aim of the present report was to study if the suppressive capabilities of 15-HETE were able to influence the onset of the NZB/NZW Fl auto-immune disease. For that purpose we produced 15-HETE and injected the eicosanoid twice a week to NZB/WFI mice for 40 weeks. During the 15-HETE treatment of the animals it was observed an augmentation of the proliferative response of lectin-stimulated splenocytes (at weeks 20 and 30) then the thymidine uptake decreased (at week 40). In fact we observed that among 15-HETE treated mice the evolution of the nephropathy was not changed, the 'glomerular activity score' remained the same for the treated animals compared to controls. On the contrary antinuclear antibodies occurred earlier even if in some experiments the generation of CD8 + cells was demonstrated.

  14. Dark shadow of the long white cloud: Neighborhood safety is associated with self-rated health and cortisol during pregnancy in Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Zaneta M

    2017-12-01

    Auckland, Aotearoa /New Zealand is a culturally and ethnically diverse city. Despite popular global conceptions regarding its utopian nature, the lived experience for many individuals in Auckland attests to the substantial social, economic, and health inequalities that exist there. In particular, rapidly rising home prices constrain housing decisions and force individuals to live in less desirable neighborhoods, with potential impacts on individual health. One of the pathways through which adverse neighborhood conditions could impact health is through alterations in the functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis, which regulates the physiological stress response. This paper evaluates the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety, self-rated health, and cortisol, an end product of HPA-axis activation, among women in late pregnancy. Pregnant women living in neighborhoods where they were concerned about safety of their property had poorer self-rated health and elevated morning cortisol, even after adjusting for maternal age, material deprivation, and ethnicity. However, fear of personal safety was unrelated to self-rated health and cortisol. These results suggest that maternal health in pregnancy is sensitive to perceptions regarding neighborhood safety. Such findings are important since higher cortisol levels in pregnancy could not only influence maternal health, but also the health and development of women's children.

  15. New Zealand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This image taken from the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument of New Zealand was collected on January 9, 2015 when the phytoplankton were blooming — particularly to the east of the islands and along the Chatham Rise. Derived from the Greek words phyto (plant) and plankton (made to wander or drift), phytoplankton are microscopic organisms that live in watery environments, both salty and fresh. Credit: NASA/Goddard/NPP NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. New Zealand Defense into 2035 -- Future 35 Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    language and grammar used is therefore designed to meet United States requirements, rather than those expected in New Zealand. The change of spelling...accessed 15 March 2012). 3New Zealand Government, Ministry of Defence, Defence White Paper 2010, November 2010, http://nzdf.mil.nz/downloads/ pdf ...public-docs/2010/ defence_white_paper_2010. pdf (accessed 15 March 2012), 16. 2 world, and the wider Search and Rescue Zone exponentially increases

  17. Palliative effects of extra virgin olive oil, gallic acid, and lemongrass oil dietary supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed growing New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Al-Sagheer, Adham A; Daader, Ahmed H; Gabr, Hassan A; Abd El-Moniem, Elham A

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks. Results revealed that the overall mean of temperature humidity index was 84.67 ± 0.35, reflecting a state of severe heat stress. Moreover, dietary supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO significantly increased live body weight and daily body weight gain but decreased both feed conversion ratio and daily water consumption. Additionally, a significant increase in both organic matter and crude protein digestibility besides a remarkable elevation in the nutritive values of digestible crude protein, total digestible nutrients, and digestible energy, as well as an increase in the numbers of WBCs, lymphocytes, and heterophils was significant in EVOO-supplemented rabbits. Supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO in the heat-stressed growing rabbit's diet enhanced catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, whereas EVOO-treated rabbits had the highest values. Also, malondialdehyde activity was reduced in response to all tested additives. In conclusion, these findings suggested that addition of EVOO, GA, or LGEO in growing rabbit's diet could be used effectively to alleviate negative impacts of heat stress load on performance, nutrient digestibility, oxidative status, and hemato-biochemical features. Furthermore, among these additives, EVOO achieved the best effects.

  18. Intranuclear delivery of the transcription modulation domain of Tbet-improved lupus nephritis in (NZB/NZW) F1 lupus-prone mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae-Seung; Mun, Chin Hee; Kim, Jung-Ho; Cho, Jen-Young; Park, Sung-Dong; Park, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Jin-Su; Ho, Chun-Chang; Park, Yong-Beom; Ghosh, Sankar; Bothwell, Alfred L M; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Sang-Kyou

    2018-05-01

    Excessive expression of Tbet and IFNγ is evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in lupus patients. In this study, the nucleus-transducible form of Transcription Modulation Domain (TMD) of Tbet (ntTbet-TMD), which is a fusion protein between Protein Transduction Domain Hph-1 (Hph-1-PTD) and the TMD of Tbet comprising DNA binding domain and isotype-specific domain, was generated to inhibit Tbet-mediated transcription in the interactomic manner. ntTbet-TMD was effectively delivered into the nucleus of the cells and specifically inhibited Tbet-mediated transcription without influencing the differentiation of other T cell subsets and signaling events for T cell activation. The severity of nephritis was significantly reduced by ntTbet-TMD as effectively as methylprednisolone in lupus-prone mice. The number of Th1, Th2 or Th17 cells and the secretion of their cytokines substantially decreased in the spleen and kidney of lupus-prone mice by ntTbet-TMD treatment. In contrast to methylprednisolone, the marked increase of Treg cells and the secretion of their immunosuppressive cytokine were detected in the spleen of (NZB/NZW) F1 mice treated with ntTbet-TMD. Thus, ntTbet-TMD can improve nephritis in lupus-prone mice by modulating the overall proinflammatory microenvironment and rebalancing T cell subsets, leading to new immune therapeutics for Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. All rights reserved.

  19. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

    This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

    The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National

  20. Exercise Capacity and Response to Training Quantitative Trait Loci in a NZW X 129S1 Intercross and Combined Cross Analysis of Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Michael P.; Avila, Joshua J.; Kim, Seung Kyum

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors determining exercise capacity and the magnitude of the response to exercise training are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with exercise training in mice. Based on marked differences in training responses in inbred NZW (-0.65 ± 1.73 min) and 129S1 (6.18 ± 3.81 min) mice, a reciprocal intercross breeding scheme was used to generate 285 F2 mice. All F2 mice completed an exercise performance test before and after a 4-week treadmill running program, resulting in an increase in exercise capacity of 1.54 ± 3.69 min (range = -10 to +12 min). Genome-wide linkage scans were performed for pre-training, post-training, and change in run time. For pre-training exercise time, suggestive QTL were identified on Chromosomes 5 (57.4 cM, 2.5 LOD) and 6 (47.8 cM, 2.9 LOD). A significant QTL for post-training exercise capacity was identified on Chromosome 5 (43.4 cM, 4.1 LOD) and a suggestive QTL on Chromosomes 1 (55.7 cM, 2.3 LOD) and 8 (66.1 cM, 2.2 LOD). A suggestive QTL for the change in run time was identified on Chromosome 6 (37.8 cM, 2.7 LOD). To identify shared QTL, this data set was combined with data from a previous F2 cross between B6 and FVB strains. In the combined cross analysis, significant novel QTL for pre-training exercise time and change in exercise time were identified on Chromosome 12 (54.0 cM, 3.6 LOD) and Chromosome 6 (28.0 cM, 3.7 LOD), respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that combined cross analysis can be used to identify novel QTL and narrow the confidence interval of QTL for exercise capacity and responses to training. Furthermore, these data support the use of larger and more diverse mapping populations to identify the genetic basis for exercise capacity and responses to training. PMID:26710100

  1. Astronomy in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Although New Zealand is a young country, astronomy played a significant role in its early exploration and discovery during the three voyages of Cook from 1769. In the later 19th century several expeditions came to New Zealand to observe the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 and New Zealand's rich history of prominent amateur astronomers dates from this time. The Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand (founded in 1920) has catered for the amateur community. Professional astronomy however had a slow start in New Zealand. The Carter Observatory was founded in 1941. But it was not until astronomy was taken up by New Zealand's universities, notably by the University of Canterbury from 1963, that a firm basis for research in astronomy and astrophysics was established. Mt John University Observatory with its four optical telescopes (largest 1.8 m) is operated by the University of Canterbury and is the main base for observational astronomy in the country. However four other New Zealand universities also have an interest in astronomical research at the present time. There is also considerable involvement in large international projects such as MOA, SALT, AMOR, IceCube and possibly SKA.

  2. New Zealand Southern Alps

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-06-20

    This anaglyph from the MISR instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft shows the rugged Southern Alps extending some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand South Island. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  3. Inclusive Academic Language Teaching in New Zealand: History and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Meeting the educational needs of a linguistically diverse population is a challenge for many countries. This is a particular challenge for New Zealand (NZ) which, until the 1980s, had a White Immigration Policy. The last 30 years have seen NZ become a full member of the Asia Pacific Region and move from being a mostly homogenous society to one of…

  4. New Zealand Glaciers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-09

    New Zealand contains over 3,000 glaciers, most of which are in the Southern Alps on the South Island. Since 1890, the glaciers have been retreating, with short periods of small advances, as shown in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft. The image cover an area of 39 by 46 km, and are located at 43.7 degrees south, 170 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21509

  5. The Challenges of Data Rate and Data Accuracy in the Analysis of Volcanic Systems: An Assessment Using Multi-Parameter Data from the 2012-2013 Eruption Sequence at White Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, A. D.; Christenson, B. W.; Neuberg, J. W.; Fournier, N.; Mazot, A.; Kilgour, G.; Jolly, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Volcano monitoring is usually undertaken with the collection of both automated and manual data that form a multi-parameter time-series having a wide range of sampling rates and measurement accuracies. Assessments of hazards and risks ultimately rely on incorporating this information into usable form, first for the scientists to interpret, and then for the public and relevant stakeholders. One important challenge is in building appropriate and efficient strategies to compare and interpret data from these exceptionally different datasets. The White Island volcanic system entered a new eruptive state beginning in mid-2012 and continuing through the present time. Eruptive activity during this period comprised small phreatic and phreato-magmatic events in August 2012, August 2013 and October 2013 and the intrusion of a small dome that was first observed in November 2012. We examine the chemical and geophysical dataset to assess the effects of small magma batches on the shallow hydrothermal system. The analysis incorporates high data rate (100 Hz) seismic, and infrasound data, lower data rate (1 Hz to 5 min sampling interval) GPS, tilt-meter, and gravity data and very low data rate geochemical time series (sampling intervals from days to months). The analysis is further informed by visual observations of lake level changes, geysering activity through crater lake vents, and changes in fumarolic discharges. We first focus on the problems of incorporating the range of observables into coherent time frame dependant conceptual models. We then show examples where high data rate information may be improved through new processing methods and where low data rate information may be collected more frequently without loss of fidelity. By this approach we hope to improve the accuracy and efficiency of interpretations of volcano unrest and thereby improve hazard assessments.

  6. Characterization of self-T-cell response and antigenic determinants of U1A protein with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in NZB x NZW F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Suen, J L; Wu, C H; Chen, Y Y; Wu, W M; Chiang, B L

    2001-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by the existence of a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies directed against nuclear intact structures, such as nucleosomes and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Autoantibodies against snRNPs are of special interest because they are detectable in the majority of SLE patients. Although the B-cell antigenic determinants have been well characterized, very limited data have been reported in regard to the T-cell epitopes of snRNPs. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated that determination of the auto-T-cell epitopes recognized by freshly isolated T cells is difficult from unprimed lupus mice when self-antigen-pulsed B cells or macrophages are used as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in vitro. In the present study, we showed a novel approach for determining the auto-T-cell epitopes, using bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) pulsed with the murine U1A protein - an immunodominant antigen of the U1 snRNPs - which is capable of activating freshly isolated T cells from unprimed (NZB x NZW) F1 (BWF1) mice in vitro. The T-cell epitope area was found to be located at the C-terminus of U1A, overlapping the T-cell epitope of human U1A that has been reported in human SLE. Identification of the autoreactive T-cell epitope(s) in snRNPs will help to elucidate how reciprocal T-B determinant spreading of snRNPs emerges in lupus. The results presented here also indicate that it is feasible to use this approach to further explore strategies to design immunotherapy for patients with lupus.

  7. Performing Manaaki and New Zealand Refugee Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazou, Rand T.

    2018-01-01

    In September 2015, and in response to the Syrian refugee crisis, there were widespread calls in New Zealand urging the Government to raise its annual Refugee Quota. Maori Party co-leader Marama Fox argued that New Zealand could afford to take on more refugees as part of its global citizenship and suggested that New Zealand's policy might be shaped…

  8. Volcanic hazards of North Island, New Zealand-overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibble, R. R.; Nairn, I. A.; Neall, V. E.

    1985-10-01

    In October 1980, a National Civil Defence Planning Committee on Volcanic Hazards was formed in New Zealand, and solicited reports on the likely areas and types of future eruptions, the risk to public safety, and the need for special precautions. Reports for eight volcanic centres were received, and made available to the authors. This paper summarises and quantifies the type and frequency of hazard, the public risk, and the possibilities for mitigation at the 7 main volcanic centres: Northland, Auckland, White Island, Okataina, Taupo, Tongariro, and Egmont. On the basis of Recent tephrostratigraphy, eruption probabilities up to 20% per century (but commonly 5%), and tephra volumes up to 100 km 3 are credible.

  9. Learning from Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    Last February, in search of expanded thinking, the author led a group of 20 early childhood professionals on a study tour to Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). The group included two Canadians and two Aussies, with everyone else from the United States. While they knew they had much to learn from the overall system of early childhood education in NZ, the…

  10. Ethics committees in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant; Douglass, Alison

    2012-12-01

    The ethical review of research in New Zealand after the Cartwright Report of 1988 produced a major change in safeguards for and empowerment of participants in health care research. Several reforms since then have streamlined some processes but also seriously weakened some of the existing safeguards. The latest reforms, against the advice of various ethics bodies and the New Zealand Law Society, further reduced and attenuated the role of ethics committees so that New Zealand has moved from being a world leader in ethical review processes to there being serious doubt whether it is in conformity to international Conventions and codes. The latest round of reforms, seemingly driven by narrow economic aspirations, anecdote and innuendo, have occurred without any clear evidence of dysfunction in the system nor any plans for the resourcing required to improve quality of ethical review or to audit the process. It is of serious concern both to ethicists and medical lawyers in New Zealand that such hasty and poorly researched changes should have been made which threaten the hard-won gains of the Cartwright reforms.

  11. Stereo Pair: Wellington, New Zealand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-11

    Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, is located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor at the south end of North Island. The city was founded in 1840 by British emigrants and now has a regional population of more than 400,000 residents.

  12. Public Education in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Wellington (New Zealand).

    Intended to stimulate public discussion on the aims and policies of New Zealand education, this background paper has three major sections. The first section discusses the role of education in relation to equal opportunity, democracy, cultural difference, national development, and personal development. In part two, graphs, tables, and text give a…

  13. Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    All around the world, people live in places where the threat of natural disaster is high. On the North Island of New Zealand, the Mount Ruapehu volcano is just such a threat. A towering, active stratovolcano (the classic cone-shaped volcano), snow-capped Ruapehu Volcano is pictured in this enhanced-color image. The image is made from topography data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000, and imagery collected by the Landsat satellite on October 23, 2002. Ruapehu is one of New Zealand’s most active volcanoes, with ten eruptions since 1861. The eruptions aren’t the only threat from the volcano, however. Among the most serious threats is a volcanic mudflow called a lahar. In between eruptions, a lake forms in the volcano’s caldera from melting snow. If a previous eruption has deposited a dam of ash, rocks and mud in the lake’s natural overflow point, then the lake becomes dangerously full, held back only by the temporary dam. In this scene, the lake is nestled among the ridges at the top of the volcano. Eventually, the dam gives way and a massive flow of mud and debris churns down the mountain toward farmland and towns below. Scientists estimate that Ruapehu has experienced 60 lahars in the last 150 years. A devastating lahar in 1953 killed more than 150 people, who died when a passenger train plunged into a ravine when a railroad bridge was taken out by the lahar. The flank of the volcano below the lake is deeply carved by the path of previous lahars; the gouge can be seen just left of image center. Currently scientists in the region are predicting that the lake will overflow in a lahar sometime in the next year. There is great controversy about how to deal with the threat. News reports from the region indicate that the government is planning to invest in a high-tech warning system that will alert those who might be affected well in advance of any catastrophic release. Others feel

  14. Wood in New Zealand's Native Forest Streams. Recent Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, M. A.; Davies-Colley, R.

    2005-05-01

    We conducted a series of research projects to investigate the importance of wood in native forested streams of New Zealand. We examined abundance and geomorphic role of wood in 18 pristine native forest streams (channel width: 3-6 m) throughout New Zealand. Forest type and geographic location had no discernable influence on wood abundance, possibly reflecting the confounding influences of local features (e.g., tree fall regime) and methodology (`snap-shot' survey of a dynamic system). Number (18-66 per 100 m) and dead wood volume (85-470 m3 ha-1) of stream logs were at the high end of the international range. Living trees contributed up to 25% of total wood, and tree ferns were strongly represented (up to 11% of volume). The largest 10% of pieces contributed 75% of the total volume. The importance of the large wood pieces (>10 m3) was explored further with surveys within that watershed containing the site with the greatest wood volume. The largest pieces were rare but seemed relatively uniformly distributed. To explore the biological consequences of stream wood, we studied use of wood-related micro-habitat by the crayfish (Paranephrops planifrons White). Our findings suggest that wood is an important component of New Zealand's forested stream ecosystems.

  15. Geothermal Field Near Rotorua, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Historical sketches show the indigenous Maori cooking with natural hot waters and steam prior to the arrival of Europeans on North Island, New Zealand. Since the 1950s, geothermal heat and steam have been exploited for both heating and electrical power generation, and some excess electrical power is exported to South Island. The geothermal development can be identified by the unique patterns of infrastructure that look like tan beads on a string in the midst of otherwise green vegetation. This one near the town of Rotorua lies within a northeast-trending line of active volcanoes (Ruapehu, Tongariro, and White Island) that are the surface result of the Pacific tectonic plate descending beneath the Australian-Indian plate. Image STS110-726-10 was taken by space shuttle crewmembers in April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  16. White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    White dwarf stars, also known as degenerate dwarfs, represent the endpoint of the evolution of stars with initial masses ranging from about 0.08 to about 8 solar masses. This large range encompasses the vast majority of stars formed in our Galaxy and thus white dwarf stars represent the most common endpoint of STELLAR EVOLUTION. It is believed that over 95% of the stars of our Galaxy will eventu...

  17. New Zealand geothermal: Wairakei -- 40 years

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    This quarterly bulletin highlights the geothermal developments in New Zealand with the following articles: A brief history of the Wairakei geothermal power project; Geothermal resources in New Zealand -- An overview; Domestic and commercial heating and bathing -- Rotorua area; Kawerau geothermal development: A case study; Timber drying at Kawerau; Geothermal greenhouses at Kawerau; Drying of fibrous crops using geothermal steam and hot water at the Taupo Lucerne Company; Prawn Park -- Taupo, New Zealand; Geothermal orchids; Miranda hot springs; and Geothermal pipeline.

  18. Electronic Medical Consultation: A New Zealand Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brebner, Campbell; Jones, Raymond; Marshall, Wendy; Parry, Graham

    2001-01-01

    Electronic medical consultation is available worldwide through access to the World Wide Web (WWW). This article outlines a research study on the adoption of electronic medical consultation as a means of health delivery. It focuses on the delivery of healthcare specifically for New Zealanders, by New Zealanders. It is acknowledged that the WWW is a global marketplace and that it is therefore difficult to identify New Zealanders' use of such a global market; nevertheless, we attempt to provide a New Zealand perspective on electronic medical consultation. PMID:11720955

  19. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  20. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  1. Selection of School Counsellors in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthei, R. J.

    This paper presents the views of the New Zealand Counselling and Guidance Association regarding the need for changes in the system of selecting individuals for training as school counselors in New Zealand. A number of options are offered for improving the mechanics of selection, recommending selection criteria, and suggesting procedures for…

  2. California's coast redwood in New Zealand

    Treesearch

    Tom Gaman

    2012-01-01

    New Zealanders are making a significant effort to develop their forest industry to benefit from rapid growth exhibited by Sequoia sempervirens on both the North Island and South Island. US and New Zealand forest products companies have established redwood plantations in the past decade, and have found that microclimate, site preparation, soil chemistry, fertilization...

  3. Evolution of campylobacter species in New Zealand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New Zealand is an isolated archipelago in the South-West Pacific with a unique fauna and flora, a feature partly attributable to it being the last sizable land mass to be colonized by man. In this chapter we test the hypothesis that different periods in the history of New Zealand – from pre-history ...

  4. Early Childhood Services in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oborn, Glennie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the types and characteristics of New Zealand early childhood education services. Specific areas addressed include: (1) Te Whaariki, the New Zealand early childhood curriculum; (2) great outdoors as a feature of early education; (3) education and care centers; (4) kindergartens and playcenters; and (5) Te Kohanga Reo, Maori language and…

  5. The Cost Efficiency New Zealand's Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Malcolm; Doucouliagos, Hristos

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand the most important institutions that are responsible for the delivery of vocational education and training programs are the government owned and operated tertiary education institutions known as polytechnics. The New Zealand polytechnics deliver programs at the certificate, diploma and degree level. During the course of the 1990s,…

  6. New Zealand Police and Restorative Justice Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…

  7. Obesity and Intellectual Disability in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Kurstyn V.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international literature suggests that obesity is likely to be more pronounced in the population of people with intellectual disability (ID). However, there are no published New Zealand data for this population. Method: We accessed a database containing anonymous data for a New Zealand ID population. Ninety-eight people of 141 had…

  8. Lactose malabsorption in Polynesian and white children in the south west Pacific studied by breath hydrogen technique.

    PubMed Central

    Seakins, J M; Elliott, R B; Quested, C M; Matatumua, A

    1987-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption was studied by a breath hydrogen technique in 139 Samoan and 68 white schoolchildren. The Samoans were studied in four locations, two in Western Samoa and two in New Zealand, and the white children in both the Cook Islands and New Zealand. The prevalence of malabsorption varied with location: for Samoans it ranged from 41% to 60% in Western Samoa and 0% to 35% in New Zealand; white children had rates of 27% in the Cook Islands and 5% in New Zealand. Environmental factors rather than genetic factors are likely to play the main part in initiating if not perpetuating lactose malabsorption. In both races lactose malabsorption had no effect on the acceptance of, consumption of, and number of gastrointestinal symptoms caused by milk and milk biscuits. Children who had symptoms after consuming a particular dairy product were more likely to say they disliked it than those who reported no symptoms. PMID:3119083

  9. White grubs

    Treesearch

    Albert E. Mayfield

    2012-01-01

    White grubs are soil-dwelling larvae of insects commonly known as “May beetles” or “June beetles” in the family Scarabaeidae. These grubs feed on herbaceous plant roots and other soil organic matter, but will also feed on the roots of woody plants, including all types of coniferous and hardwood seedlings in nursery settings. Numerous genera known to cause damage in...

  10. Solar White

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-20

    Robert Youngquist, Ph.D., tests a sample disk with a "Solar White" cryogenic selective surface coating with a flash light, demonstrating the coating’s reflective properties. The innovative coating is predicted to reflect more than 99.9 percent of the simulated solar infrared radiation. This technology could enable storing super-cold, or cryogenic, liquids and support systems that shield astronauts against radiation during the Journey to Mars.

  11. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov compounds to chemicals and fuels Numeric modeling of chemical reaction kinetics and reactor hydrodynamics

  12. CULTURE, PSYCHIATRY AND NEW ZEALAND

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A.N.; Dobson, Teara Wharemate

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a critical appraisal of the importance of cultural perspective in the psychiatric diagnosis and management plan. The working philosophy of mental health services in New Zealand is primarily monocultural and based on Western medical conceptualisation of diagnosis and treatment protocol. In view of the emphasis on bicultural health perspectives in recent years and in tune with the objectives of the Treaty of Waitangi's ethnocultural partnership, the provision of a culturally safe and sensitive mental health coverage of Maori and Pacific Islander clients has become an important health issue in the country. The present discussion of the ethnocultural influence on clinical psychiatry highlights some of the relevant issues from the transcultural perspective. PMID:21206600

  13. [Current situation of acupuncture in New Zealand].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoji; Hu, Youping

    2017-04-12

    The beginning of TCM acupuncture in New Zealand dates back to the middle of 19th century. After self-improvement for more than 100 years, TCM acupuncture has gained a considerable development. From the perspective of history and current situation, the development of acupuncture in New Zealand was elaborated in this article; in addition, the sustainable development of acupuncture was discussed from the perspective of education and training. In New Zealand, the TCM acupuncture and dry needling have played a dominant role in acupuncture treatments, which are practiced by TCM practitioners and physical therapists. The TCM acupuncture is widely applied in department of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, and pediatrics, etc., while the dry needling is li-mited for traumatology and pain disorder. Therefore, including TCM acupuncture into the public medical and educational system in New Zealand should be an essential policy of Ministry of Health to provide welfare for the people.

  14. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  15. Anaglyph, Landsat Overlay: Wellington, New Zealand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-11

    This anaglyph, from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, is of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  16. Bicentenary 2016: The First New Zealand School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alison; Jenkins, Kuni Kaa

    2016-01-01

    Maori leaders visiting Australia invited a Pakeha (in this case, English) teacher to come to New Zealand to teach the children to read and write. On 12th August 1816, 200 years ago this year, the first school in New Zealand opened. Twenty-four Maori children came on that day, and each had his or her name written down. The teacher Thomas Kendall…

  17. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum

  18. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and muscle amino-acid profile of different rabbits breeds and their crosses.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Abd-Elhamid, Tamer; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Meat production efficiency can be enhanced by crossbreeding to capture heterosis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of rabbit genotype on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acids profile. A total of 504 weaned rabbits from nine genotypes of full factorial crossing of New Zealand White (NZW), Californian (CA) and Rex (RX) were used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were assessed for meat quality and amino acids profile. There were no differences between groups at weaning and 6weeks, but by 10weeks differences were significant (P<0.001) and the numerically heaviest groups were CA×RX and RX×NZW (1970g, P<0.001) with to some extent better amino acids profile. In conclusion, RX growth performance was improved by crossing CA sire with RX dam and RX sire with NZW dam and to have dual purpose breed with better growth performance without hazard on carcass and meat quality. CA×RX and RX×NZW had the heaviest body weight at 10weeks of age and highest body weight gain during the whole finishing period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New Zealand's National Landslide Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, B.; Dellow, S.; Haubrook, S.; Glassey, P.

    2016-12-01

    Since 1780, landslides have caused an average of about 3 deaths a year in New Zealand and have cost the economy an average of at least NZ$250M/a (0.1% GDP). To understand the risk posed by landslide hazards to society, a thorough knowledge of where, when and why different types of landslides occur is vital. The main objective for establishing the database was to provide a centralised national-scale, publically available database to collate landslide information that could be used for landslide hazard and risk assessment. Design of a national landslide database for New Zealand required consideration of both existing landslide data stored in a variety of digital formats, and future data, yet to be collected. Pre-existing databases were developed and populated with data reflecting the needs of the landslide or hazard project, and the database structures of the time. Bringing these data into a single unified database required a new structure capable of storing and delivering data at a variety of scales and accuracy and with different attributes. A "unified data model" was developed to enable the database to hold old and new landslide data irrespective of scale and method of capture. The database contains information on landslide locations and where available: 1) the timing of landslides and the events that may have triggered them; 2) the type of landslide movement; 3) the volume and area; 4) the source and debris tail; and 5) the impacts caused by the landslide. Information from a variety of sources including aerial photographs (and other remotely sensed data), field reconnaissance and media accounts has been collated and is presented for each landslide along with metadata describing the data sources and quality. There are currently nearly 19,000 landslide records in the database that include point locations, polygons of landslide source and deposit areas, and linear features. Several large datasets are awaiting upload which will bring the total number of landslides to

  20. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahmudur; Khatun, Amina; Liu, Lei; Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2018-01-21

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ), white mustard ( Brassica alba ), Ethiopian mustard ( B. carinata ), Asian mustard ( B. juncea ), oilseed rape ( B. napus ), black mustard ( B. nigra ), rapeseed ( B. rapa ), white ball mustard ( Calepina irregularis ), ball mustard ( Neslia paniculata ), treacle mustard ( Erysimum repandum ), hedge mustard ( Sisymbrium officinale ), Asian hedge mustard ( S. orientale ), smooth mustard ( S. erysimoides ) and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  1. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. Happy Birthday White House!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Doris; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An integrated elementary teaching package offers interesting facts about presidents and the White House. Cross-curricular activities focus on architecture, presidential birthplaces, portraits, communications, science, technology, touring the White House, children in the White House, a day in the life of the White House, and a White House birthday…

  3. Mitochondrial phylogeography of New Zealand freshwater crayfishes, Paranephrops spp.

    PubMed

    Apte, S; Smith, P J; Wallis, G P

    2007-05-01

    Tectonic movement at the boundary of the Indo-Australian and Pacific Plates during the Miocene and Pliocene is recognized as a driving force for invertebrate speciation in New Zealand. Two endemic freshwater crayfish (koura) species, Paranephrops planifrons White 1842 and Paranephrops zealandicus White 1842, represent good model taxa to test geological hypotheses because, due to their low dispersal capacity and life history, geographical restriction of populations may be caused by vicariant processes. Analysis of a mitochondrial DNA marker (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) reveals not two, but three major koura lineages. Contrary to expectation, the cryptic West Coast group appears to be more closely related to P. zealandicus than to P. planifrons and has diverged earlier than the final development (Late Pleistocene) of Cook Strait. Our date estimates suggest that koura lineage diversification probably coincided with early to mid-Alpine orogeny in the mid-Pliocene. Estimates of node ages and the phylogenies are inconsistent with both ancient Oligocene and recent postglacial Pleistocene range expansion, but suggest central to north colonization of North Island and west to east movement in South Island during mid- to late Pliocene. Crypsis and paraphyly of the West Coast group suggest that morphological characters presently used to classify koura species could be misleading.

  4. An overview of New Zealand's trauma system.

    PubMed

    Paice, Rhondda

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of trauma and trauma systems in New Zealand are similar to those in Australia. Both countries have geographical considerations, terrain and distance, that can cause delay to definitive care. There are only 7 hospitals in New Zealand that currently manage major trauma patients, and consequently, trauma patients are often hospitalized some distance from their homes. The prehospital services are provided by one major provider throughout the country, with a high level of volunteers providing these services in the rural areas. New Zealand has a national no-fault accident insurance system, the Accident Compensation Corporation, which funds all trauma-related healthcare from the roadside to rehabilitation. This insurance system provides 24-hour no-fault personal injury insurance coverage. The Accident Compensation Corporation provides bulk funding to hospitals for resources to manage the care of trauma patients. Case managers are assigned for major trauma patients. This national system also has a rehabilitation focus. The actual funds are managed by the hospitals, and this allows hospital staff to provide optimum care for trauma patients. New Zealand works closely with Australia in the development of a national trauma registry, research, and education in trauma care for patients in Australasia (the islands of the southern Pacific Ocean, including Australia, New Zealand, and New Guinea).

  5. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  6. Safety in New Zealand's adventure tourism industry: the client accident experience of adventure tourism operators.

    PubMed

    Bentley , T A; Page, S J; Laird, I S

    2000-01-01

    Injuries and fatalities among participants of adventure tourism activities have the potential to seriously impact on New Zealand's tourism industry. However, the absence of statistics for tourist accidents in New Zealand, and the lack of detailed academic research into adventure tourism safety, means the extent of the problem is unknown. The aims of the present study were to determine the incidence of client injuries across a range of adventure tourism activity sectors, and to identify common accident events and contributory risk factors. A postal questionnaire survey of New Zealand adventure tourism operators was used. Operators were asked to provide information related to their business; the number of recorded client injuries during the preceding 12 month period, January to December 1998; common accident and injury events associated with their activity; and perceived risk factors for accidents in their sector of the adventure tourism industry. The survey was responded to by 142 New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The operators' reported client injury experience suggests the incidence of serious client injuries is very low. Highest client injury incidence rates were found for activities that involved the risk of falling from a moving vehicle or animal (e.g., cycle tours, quad biking, horse riding, and white-water rafting). Slips, trips, and falls on the level were common accident events across most sectors of the industry. Perceived accident/incident causes were most commonly related to the client, and in particular, failure to attend to and follow instructions. The prevalence of client injuries in activity sectors not presently covered by government regulation, suggests policy makers should look again at extending codes of practice to a wider range of adventure tourism activities. Further research considering adventure tourism involvement in overseas visitor hospitalized injuries in New Zealand, is currently in progress. This will provide supporting evidence

  7. Services Available to Visually Impaired Persons in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrow, S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Royal New Zealand Foundation for the Blind is primarily responsible for services to visually impaired people in New Zealand. The article describes its history, structure, services, and plans for the future. (Author/JDD)

  8. Predator-Free New Zealand: Conservation Country.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Innes, John G; Brown, Philip H; Byrom, Andrea E

    2015-05-01

    Eradications of invasive species from over 1000 small islands around the world have created conservation arks, but to truly address the threat of invasive species to islands, eradications must be scaled by orders of magnitude. New Zealand has eradicated invasive predators from 10% of its offshore island area and now proposes a vision to eliminate them from the entire country. We review current knowledge of invasive predator ecology and control technologies in New Zealand and the biological research, technological advances, social capacity and enabling policy required. We discuss the economic costs and benefits and conclude with a 50-year strategy for a predator-free New Zealand that is shown to be ecologically obtainable, socially desirable, and economically viable. The proposal includes invasive predator eradication from the two largest offshore islands, mammal-free mainland peninsulas, very large ecosanctuaries, plus thousands of small projects that will together merge eradication and control concepts on landscape scales.

  9. Electroconvulsive Therapy Practice in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark Wilkinson; Morrison, John; Jones, Paul Anthony

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in New Zealand. A 53-item questionnaire was sent to all services providing ECT as of December 2015. Electroconvulsive therapy was provided by 16 services covering 15 district health boards funded by the New Zealand government. No private facilities provided ECT. All services providing ECT responded to an online survey questionnaire. Rates of ECT utilization were low relative to similar countries. Survey results indicated ECT was practiced to an overall good standard. Several resource and logistical issues potentially contributing to low ECT utilization were identified. Electroconvulsive therapy in New Zealand is provided using modern equipment and practices. However, overall rates of utilization remain low, perhaps as a result of controversy surrounding ECT and some resourcing issues.

  10. Predator-Free New Zealand: Conservation Country

    PubMed Central

    Russell, James C.; Innes, John G.; Brown, Philip H.; Byrom, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Eradications of invasive species from over 1000 small islands around the world have created conservation arks, but to truly address the threat of invasive species to islands, eradications must be scaled by orders of magnitude. New Zealand has eradicated invasive predators from 10% of its offshore island area and now proposes a vision to eliminate them from the entire country. We review current knowledge of invasive predator ecology and control technologies in New Zealand and the biological research, technological advances, social capacity and enabling policy required. We discuss the economic costs and benefits and conclude with a 50-year strategy for a predator-free New Zealand that is shown to be ecologically obtainable, socially desirable, and economically viable. The proposal includes invasive predator eradication from the two largest offshore islands, mammal-free mainland peninsulas, very large ecosanctuaries, plus thousands of small projects that will together merge eradication and control concepts on landscape scales. PMID:26955079

  11. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T

    2010-08-02

    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine

  12. New Zealand environmental standards and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vant, William N.; McGlinchy, Brian J.

    1983-11-01

    This paper describes the primary energy resources of New Zealand and their relative importance. It describes the principal legislation that provides environmental protection and public participation with which State and private agencies are bound to comply. The paper then discusses air pollution in further detail and cites three examples where there is cause for concern. By international standards, air pollution is not a serious problem in New Zealand and so the economic consequences have received little attention Two simple examples are cited. A map showing the main centers and the location of facilities referred to in the text is included

  13. Marine Biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Dennis P.; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A.; Ahyong, Shane T.

    2010-01-01

    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30° of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine diversity

  14. An Overview of New Zealand Career Development Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Career development services have existed in New Zealand since the early part of the 20th century. In many aspects, the profession has developed in New Zealand parallel to the development of career guidance and counselling in other Western countries but New Zealand also represents a unique context. In acknowledgement of the distinctive…

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United...

  16. The New Zealand Curriculum: Emergent Insights and Complex Renderings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovens, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The launch of New Zealand Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007) brings into question the future of the reforms introduced in the 1999 curriculum, Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand National Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 1999). The aim of this paper is to critique recent physical education curriculum policy in New Zealand and…

  17. The adaptive capacity of New Zealand communities to wildfire

    Treesearch

    Pamela J. Jakes; E.R. Langer

    2012-01-01

    When we think of natural disasters in New Zealand, we tend to think of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. However, a series of events is placing New Zealand communities at greater risk of wildfire. In a case study of a rural New Zealand community that experienced wildfire, process elements such as networks and relationships among locals, development and application of...

  18. White Men's Racial Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Increasingly, researchers and educators have argued that alternative conceptions of Whiteness and White racial identity are needed because current conceptions have undermined, rather than strengthened, our critical pedagogies with White people. Grounded in critical Whiteness studies, and drawing especially on the writings of…

  19. Unveiling White Privilege.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Georgia

    1995-01-01

    Racism, discrimination, and prejudice are typically viewed from the perspective of the disadvantaged ethnic minority, but another approach is to address the advantages of whites. There is one culture that is usually invisible to whites, and that is "whiteness." To grow up white is to be the focal point from which others differ. Whites…

  20. Toward a Pedagogical Framework: New Zealand Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Squirrel

    2007-01-01

    Educators in New Zealand (NZ) stand poised to shift from a humanistic to a pedagogical viewpoint in their induction practices. Survey results discussed in this research brief are part of the first study to combine qualitative and quantitative methods in low-socio-economic primary schools. As part of her research for the New Teachers Center in…

  1. A case of botulism in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Duncan; Deverall, Eamonn; Balm, Michelle; Nesdale, Annette; Rosemergy, Ian

    2015-11-20

    We describe the first case of food-borne botulism seen in New Zealand for 30 years. Botulism is an important diagnosis to consider in a patient with rapidly progressive descending paralysis and normal sensorium. Early recognition, timely institution of intensive care support and administration of botulism antitoxin are the most important aspects of management.

  2. School Property Funding in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2004

    2004-01-01

    New Zealand's special funding system allows state schools a greater level of independence in managing their property compared to most other countries. Schools receive a fixed budget as an entitlement from the three "pots" of the educational property funding structure. The government's unique use of accrual accounting together with a new…

  3. Critical Health Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Katie; Burrows, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Health education in Aotearoa New Zealand is an enigma. Premised on ostensibly open and holistic philosophical premises, the school curriculum not only permits, but in some ways prescribes, pedagogies and teacher dispositions that engage with the diversity of young people at its centre. A capacity, to not only understand contemporary health…

  4. Ten Ideas Worth Stealing from New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarchow, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    New Zealand educators have some ideas worth stealing, including morning tea-time, the lie-flat manifold duplicate book for recording classroom observation comments, school uniforms, collegial planning and grading of college assignments, good meeting etiquette, a whole-child orientation, portable primary architecture, group employment interviews…

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  6. New Zealand Dairy Farmers as Organisational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Claire; Hurley, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    A strategy for improving learning and competitiveness in the New Zealand dairy industry examined barriers to farmers' learning and adopted action research with a group of women farmers. This form of participant involvement appeared to facilitate individual learning and technology transfer. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  7. Tsunami Forecasting and Monitoring in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, William; Gale, Nora

    2011-06-01

    New Zealand is exposed to tsunami threats from several sources that vary significantly in their potential impact and travel time. One route for reducing the risk from these tsunami sources is to provide advance warning based on forecasting and monitoring of events in progress. In this paper the National Tsunami Warning System framework, including the responsibilities of key organisations and the procedures that they follow in the event of a tsunami threatening New Zealand, are summarised. A method for forecasting threat-levels based on tsunami models is presented, similar in many respects to that developed for Australia by Allen and Greenslade (Nat Hazards 46:35-52, 2008), and a simple system for easy access to the threat-level forecasts using a clickable pdf file is presented. Once a tsunami enters or initiates within New Zealand waters, its progress and evolution can be monitored in real-time using a newly established network of online tsunami gauge sensors placed at strategic locations around the New Zealand coasts and offshore islands. Information from these gauges can be used to validate and revise forecasts, and assist in making the all-clear decision.

  8. Lessons from New Zealand: Leadership for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Sarah; Borthwick, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    Last February, members of ISTE's Special Interest Group for Teacher Educators (SIGTE) traveled to New Zealand as part of a SIG-sponsored study tour. While there, the 13-member group visited seven schools and attended the Learning@School 2010 conference. In this third and final installment about their trip, they share observations about New…

  9. Earthquakes in the New Zealand Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Cleland

    1995-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of earthquakes in New Zealand, discussing plate tectonics, seismic measurement, and historical occurrences. Includes 10 figures illustrating such aspects as earthquake distribution, intensity, and fissures in the continental crust. Tabular data includes a list of most destructive earthquakes and descriptive effects…

  10. Development Education Revisited: The New Zealand Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the educational implications of the "no-comparison message" that is present in almost all of the publicity material produced by New Zealand-based agencies working in the area of aid and development. Calls for a radical reorientation of the messages being promoted and actions undertaken. Contains 20 references. (AMA)

  11. Ethics Education in New Zealand Medical Schools.

    PubMed

    McMillan, John; Malpas, Phillipa; Walker, Simon; Jonas, Monique

    2018-07-01

    This article describes the well-developed and long-standing medical ethics teaching programs in both of New Zealand's medical schools at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland. The programs reflect the awareness that has been increasing as to the important role that ethics education plays in contributing to the "professionalism" and "professional development" in medical curricula.

  12. Worker Education in Australia and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagglund, George

    The history of the recent development of worker education in Australia and New Zealand shows that, in just the past 15 years or so, very significant improvements have occurred in delivery of trade union education. To a very large degree these developments took place because of the existence of a close relationship between the union movement and…

  13. Fractures in New Zealand Elementary School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubie-Davies, Christine M.; Townsend, Michael A. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is a need for greater international understanding of student safety in schools. This New Zealand study investigated the causes and school location of fractures sustained by students attending elementary school, with special emphasis on the types of fractures sustained following falls from playground equipment of various heights.…

  14. Culture and Crisis Response in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jean; Dean, Shelley; Henry, Geoff; McGhie, Desiree; Phillipson, Roger

    2010-01-01

    New Zealand is a bicultural nation, founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by the native Maori and the British Crown. It is also home to people from many countries, cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, culturally-relevant response to crisis events has become a significant aspect of the Ministry of Education's interdisciplinary Traumatic…

  15. Teaching Gender Geography in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand universities, gender is still not a substantial part of the curriculum in most geography departments. Although at the University of Waikato, the situation is different. Its specific history of radical scholarship has enabled feminist academics in a variety of disciplines including geography to have had a stronger voice than in other…

  16. Project ACTIVate: Innovations from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelas, Janet; Engles, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This case study discusses a collaborative three year project involving two school clusters located in the North Island and South Island of New Zealand. The project was named "Project ACTIVate" and its main thrust was to study how the use of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) combined with teaching, learning and research across schools. The…

  17. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN NEW ZEALAND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    NEW ZEALAND HAS A POPULATION OF 2.6 MILLION AND AN ECONOMY BASED UPON AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS. THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. EDUCATION IS FREE, COMPULSORY, AND SECULAR FOR ALL TO AGE 15, AND FREE TO AGE 19. IN THE FIRST 2 YEARS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION, BEGINNING AT AGE 13, STUDY IS IN GENERAL SUBJECTS…

  18. Health Promoting Schools: A New Zealand Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Penni

    2008-01-01

    In the last 20 years the health promoting schools movement has gained momentum internationally. Without strong national leadership and direction its development in New Zealand has been ad hoc and sporadic. However, as the evidence supporting the role of health promoting schools in contributing to students' health and academic outcomes becomes more…

  19. Workload and Stress in New Zealand Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Sally; Wylie, Cathy

    This study examined the workloads of academic, general, support, library, and technical staff of New Zealand universities. It focused on current levels of workload, changes in workload levels and content, connections between workload and stress, and staff attitudes towards the effects of workload changes and educational reforms on the quality of…

  20. Sarcoptes scabiei on hedgehogs in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaum, Caroline; Pomroy, William; Gedye, Kristene

    2018-03-01

    European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were introduced into New Zealand from Britain during the period from 1869 to the early 1900s. The only mite found on New Zealand hedgehogs in early studies was Caparinia tripilis, with Sarcoptes scabiei first being reported in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Sarcoptes infestation on hedgehogs in New Zealand, the number of mites found and the degree of mange observed. Dead hedgehogs were collected from veterinary clinics, rescue centres, members of the public and from road-kill. Twenty-one (55.3%) of the animals examined had visible skin lesions. Both Caparinia and Sarcoptes mites were identified on microscopic examination with Sarcoptes the most common, being found on over 70% of animals examined (n = 38). The numbers of mites recovered after brushing the head and body ranged from 1 to 5659 (median = 341 mites) with only six animals (22.2%) having fewer than 10 Sarcoptes mites found. Caparinia mites were seen on fewer animals and generally in very low numbers. These findings indicate a change in the mite populations on hedgehogs in New Zealand and that infected animals develop the debilitating hyperkeratotic form of sarcoptic mange without an accompanying hypersensitivity response limiting numbers of mites. Analysis of the cox 1 gene of Sarcoptes from two hedgehogs showed close alignment to sequences derived from a pig with one and from a dog with the second. More work needs to be undertaken to identify the source(s) of the Sarcoptes found on hedgehogs in New Zealand and whether other mammalian hosts may be infected from contact with hedgehogs.

  1. New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    New Zealand straddles the juncture of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates, two of Earth's major crustal plates. The two plates generally converge in subduction zones, but in a scissor-like pattern, with the Indo-Austalian plate overriding the Pacific plate to the north and the Pacific plate overriding the Indo-Australian plate to the south. New Zealand is 'what happens' in between at and near the cross point of this scissor pattern. Here the convergence has built two major islands that together exhibit very active volcanoes and fault systems, and these geologic features are very evident in the topographic pattern.

    The North Island lies at the southern end of the west-over-east (Indo-Australian over Pacific) plate convergence. The Pacific plate dives under the North Island and this subduction process leads to melting of rocks at depth, the rise of magma to the surface, and the formation of volcanoes and other geothermal features. Most notable are Mount Taranaki on the west coast, and Mounts Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, and Tongariro just south of the island's centerpoint, all of which are shown with white peaks in this display. The Rotorua geothermal field occurs further northeast and is evident here as a scattering of comparatively small bumps created by smaller volcanic eruptions.

    The South Island straddles the cross point of the subduction scissor pattern and prominently features a fault system that connects the two subduction zones. (The east-over-west (Pacific over Indo-Australian) plate convergence generally occurs south of the South Island.) The Alpine fault is the major strand of this fault system along most of the length of the island, near and generally paralleling the west coast. Its impact upon the topography is unmistakable, forming an extremely sharp and straight northwest boundary to New Zealand's tallest mountains, the Southern Alps. Although offsets on the Alpine fault are generally right-lateral (35-40 millimeters per year) and

  2. Updating the New Zealand Glacier Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, S. C.; Anderson, B.; Mackintosh, A.; Lorrey, A.; Chinn, T.; Collier, C.; Rack, W.; Purdie, H.

    2017-12-01

    The last complete glacier inventory of New Zealand dates from the year 1978 (North Island 1988) and was manually constructed from oblique aerial photographs and geodetic maps (Chinn 2001). The inventory has been partly updated by Gjermundsen et al. (2011) for the year 2002 (40% of total area) and by Sirguey & More (2010) for the year 2009 (32% of total area), both using ASTER satellite imagery. We used Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS satellite data from February/March 2016 to map the total glaciated area. Clean and debris-covered ice were mapped semi-automatically. The band ratio approach was used for clean ice (ratio: red/SWIR). We mapped debris-covered ice using a supervised classification (maximum likelihood). Manual post processing was necessary due to misclassifications (e.g. lakes, clouds) or mapping in shadowed areas. It was also necessary to manually combine the clean and debris-covered parts into single glaciers. Additional input data for the post processing were Sentinel 2 images from the same time period, orthophotos from Land Information New Zealand (resolution: 0.75 m, date: Nov 2014), and the 1978/88 outlines from the GLIMS database (http://www.glims.org/). As the Sentinel 2 data were more heavily cloud covered compared to the Landsat 8 images, they were only used for post processing and not for the classification itself. Initial results show that New Zealand glaciers covered an area of about 1050 km² in 2016, a reduction of 16% since 1978. Approximately 17% of glacier area was covered in surface debris. The glaciers in the central Southern Alps around Mt Cook reduced in area by 24%. Glaciers in the North Island of New Zealand reduced by 71% since 1988, and only 2 km² of ice cover remained in 2016. Chinn, TJH (2001). "Distribution of the glacial water resources of New Zealand." Journal of Hydrology (NZ) 40(2): 139-187 Gjermundsen, EF, Mathieu, R, Kääb, A, Chinn, TJH, Fitzharris, B & Hagen, JO (2011). "Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and

  3. Structure of New Zealand sweetpotato starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Xie, Qian

    2018-05-15

    New Zealand sweetpotatoes (kumara) (Ipomoea batatas) represent unique genetic resources for sweetpotato diversity, though they are much under-studied. In this study, 7 New Zealand sweetpotato varieties with commercial significance were collected for the characterization of the molecular and granular structure of the starches. In particular, the internal molecular structure of the amylopectins was detailed by chromatographic and enzymatic techniques. Maize and potato starches with normal amylose contents, which are among the most important commercial starch sources, were employed for comparison. The results revealed a degree of diversity in amylose composition, unit and internal chain composition, granule size distribution, and degree of crystallinity among the 7 sweetpotato starches. All the sweetpotato starches showed C A -type polymorph. The sweetpotato amylopectins have intermediate amounts of both short and long internal unit chains among amylopectins of different botanical sources. The differences in the structure of sweetpotato starches suggest differences in physicochemical properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Breast cancer survival in New Zealand women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ian D; Scott, Nina; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Kollias, James; Walters, David; Taylor, Corey; Webster, Fleur; Zorbas, Helen; Roder, David M

    2015-01-01

    The Quality Audit (BQA) of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand includes a broad range of data and is the largest New Zealand (NZ) breast cancer (BC) database outside the NZ Cancer Registry. We used BQA data to compare BC survival by ethnicity, deprivation, remoteness, clinical characteristic and case load. BQA and death data were linked using the National Health Index. Disease-specific survival for invasive cases was benchmarked against Australian BQA data and NZ population-based survivals. Validity was explored by comparison with expected survival by risk factor. Compared with 93% for Australian audit cases, 5-year survival was 90% for NZ audit cases overall, 87% for Maori, 84% for Pacific and 91% for other. BC survival in NZ appears lower than in Australia, with inequities by ethnicity. Differences may be due to access, timeliness and quality of health services, patient risk profiles, BQA coverage and death-record methodology. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. White on whiteness: becoming radicalized about race.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Diana L

    2007-06-01

    Race difference and whiteness--key elements in the construction of my cultural identity - became a focus of my reflective practice that began over 5 years ago. This article reflects critically on the production of white identity from my social location as a white nurse. My attention focused on two aspects of whiteness: the social location from which I live and learn, and the hegemonic but unmarked discourse that informs the knowledge I read and create as a researcher. My white identity is characterized by four features: the absent presence of whiteness; the need for an oppositional identity; the entitlement of choice and subjectivity; and the denial of a dominant position and relation to the racialized Other. Exploring these features is critically important at this juncture in global and professional history because of the persistence of neoliberalism and the popularity of culturalist approaches to diversity. Examining the process of my radicalization about race simultaneously calls attention to the historiography of ideas about whiteness and race difference and the institutionalization of beliefs and practices about race difference that continuously reproduce racialized identities and inform collective nursing practice and research.

  6. Confronting White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalwell, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Even as the United States becomes more diverse, a new era of "white flight" is unfolding. Whether they live in urban, suburban or rural communities, white students are likely to attend schools that reinforce their perceptions of cultural dominance. The average white student attends a school where 77 percent of the student body is of their race.…

  7. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    President Barack Obama spoke at the White House Science Fair Tuesday, May 27, 2014 at the White House. NASA Administrator Charles Bolden attended and was recognized by the President at the fourth White House Science Fair, which included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  8. Multifocal retinitis in New Zealand sheep dogs.

    PubMed

    Hughes, P L; Dubielzig, R R; Kazacos, K R

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-nine percent of 1,448 working sheep dogs were affected with varying degrees of multifocal retinal disease on ophthalmoscopic examination. Lesions consisted of localized areas of hyperreflexia in the tapetal fundus, often associated with hyperpigmentation. Severely affected animals had widespread hyperreflexia with retinal vascular attenuation. Only 6% of 125 New Zealand dogs raised in urban environment were similarly affected. Both eyes of 70 dogs from New Zealand were examined histologically. Forty-seven of 70 dogs had ocular inflammatory disease. Ten other dogs had noninflammatory eye disease, and 13 dogs had normal eyes. Histologically, eyes with inflammatory disease were divided into three categories: Dogs 3 years of age or less with active inflammatory disease of the retina, uvea, and vitreous. Four dogs in this group had migrating nematode larvae identified morphologically as genus Toxocara. Diffuse retinitis and retinal atrophy in conjunction with localized retinal necrosis and choroidal fibrosis. Dogs in this category were severely, clinically affected. Chronic, low-grade retinitis with variable retinal atrophy. Most dogs in this category were over 3 years of age, and many were visually functional. The existence of a definable spectrum of morphological changes associated with inflammation, suggests that Toxocara sp. ocular larva migrans may be the cause of a highly prevalent, potentially blinding syndrome of working sheep dogs in New Zealand.

  9. Towards integrated catchment management, Whaingaroa, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    van Roon, M; Knight, S

    2001-01-01

    The paper examines progress towards integrated catchment management and sustainable agriculture at Whaingaroa (Raglan), New Zealand. Application of the Canadian "Atlantic Coastal Action Program" model (ACAP) has been only partially successful within New Zealand's bicultural setting. Even before the introduction of the ACAP process there existed strong motivation and leadership by various sectors of the community. A merging of resource management planning and implementation processes of the larger community and that of the Maori community has not occurred. Research carried out by Crown Research Institutes has clearly shown the actions required to make pastoral farming more sustainable. There are difficulties in the transference to, and uptake of, these techniques by farmers. An examination of the socio-economic context is required. There has been a requirement on local government bodies to tighten their focus as part of recent reform. This has occurred concurrently with a widening of vision towards integrated and sustainable forms of management. This (as well as a clear belief in empowerment of local communities) has lead to Council reliance on voluntary labour. There is a need to account for the dynamic interaction between social and political history and the geological and biophysical history of the area. As part of a re-examination of sustainable development, New Zealand needs to reconcile the earning of the bulk of its foreign income from primary production, with the accelerating ecological deficit that it creates. A sustainability strategy is required linking consumer demand, property rights and responsibilities.

  10. Imported malaria in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Camburn, Anna E; Ingram, R Joan H; Holland, David; Read, Kerry; Taylor, Susan

    2012-11-09

    To describe the current malaria situation in Auckland, New Zealand. We collected data on all cases of malaria diagnosed in Auckland from 1st October 2008 to 30th September 2009. Enhanced surveillance was arranged with all hospital and community haematology laboratories in the region. Laboratories notified us when a diagnosis of malaria was made. After obtaining informed consent the patient was asked about their travel, prophylaxis taken and symptoms. Laboratory results were collected. There were 36 cases of malaria in 34 patients. Consent could not be obtained from two patients so data is from 34 cases in 32 patients. (One patient had P.falciparum then later P.vivax, the other had P.vivax and relapsed.) There were 24 males and 8 females with a median age of 21 years (range 6 months to 75 years). Eleven of the 32 were New Zealand residents. 8 of these 11 had travelled to visit friends or relatives (VFR) while 3 were missionaries. In this group 6 had P.falciparum, 4 P.vivax and one had both. Twenty-one of the 32 were new arrivals to New Zealand: 11 refugees and 10 migrants. Malaria in Auckland is seen in new arrivals and VFR travellers, not in tourist travellers.

  11. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, E. V.; Nyst, M.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Molas, G.

    2014-12-01

    To quantify risk in New Zealand we examine the impact of updating the seismic hazard model. The previous RMS New Zealand hazard model is based on the 2002 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2002). The 2015 RMS model, based on Stirling et al., (2012) will update several key source parameters. These updates include: implementation a new set of crustal faults including multi-segment ruptures, updating the subduction zone geometry and reccurrence rate and implementing new background rates and a robust methodology for modeling background earthquake sources. The number of crustal faults has increased by over 200 from the 2002 model, to the 2012 model which now includes over 500 individual fault sources. This includes the additions of many offshore faults in northern, east-central, and southwest regions. We also use the recent data to update the source geometry of the Hikurangi subduction zone (Wallace, 2009; Williams et al., 2013). We compare hazard changes in our updated model with those from the previous version. Changes between the two maps are discussed as well as the drivers for these changes. We examine the impact the hazard model changes have on New Zealand earthquake risk. Considered risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance. New Zealand is interesting in that the city with the majority of the risk exposure in the country (Auckland) lies in the region of lowest hazard, where we don't have a lot of information about the location of faults and distributed seismicity is modeled by averaged Mw-frequency relationships on area sources. Thus small changes to the background rates

  12. The Enduring Legacy of New Zealand's UNCLOS Investment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, R.; Davy, B. W.; Herzer, R. H.; Barnes, P.; Barker, D. H.; Stagpoole, V.; Uruski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Data collected by surveys for New Zealand's extended continental shelf project have contributed to research into the tectonic history and resource potential of New Zealand. More than 20 scientific papers and a similar number of conference presentations and posters have used the data collected by these surveys. Data collected by these surveys have added significantly to national and international databases. Although the surveys were generally oriented to establish prolongation rather than to cross structural trends, the data have revealed the crustal, basement and sedimentary structure of many parts of the New Zealand region. In the area east of New Zealand, the data provide insight into the Cretaceous evolution of the New Zealand sector of Gondwana. Data collected southwest of New Zealand provided details about the relatively sudden transition from sea floor spreading between New Zealand and Australia in the Tasman Sea to orthogonal spreading in the Emerald Basin and the development of the modern Australian-Pacific plate boundary, including Late Tertiary motion on the Alpine Fault in the South Island, New Zealand. The data have been used to understand the formation of the New Caledonia Basin, the Norfolk Ridge and their associated structures, and they underpin the international collaboration between New Zealand, New Caledonia and Australia to promote resource exploration in the Tasman Sea. Data north of New Zealand have been used to understand the complex tectonic history of back arc spreading and island arc migration in the South Fiji Basin region. Seismic data collected along the axis of the New Caledonia Basin led to extensive hydrocarbon exploration surveys in the deepwater Taranaki region inside New Zealand's EEZ, and to an application for a hydrocarbon exploration licence in New Zealand's extended continental shelf.

  13. Health economics and health policy: experiences from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.

  14. Alpine Fault, New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Alpine fault runs parallel to, and just inland of, much of the west coast of New Zealand's South Island. This view was created from the near-global digital elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and is almost 500 kilometers (just over 300 miles) wide. Northwest is toward the top. The fault is extremely distinct in the topographic pattern, nearly slicing this scene in half lengthwise.

    In a regional context, the Alpine fault is part of a system of faults that connects a west dipping subduction zone to the northeast with an east dipping subduction zone to the southwest, both of which occur along the juncture of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates. Thus, the fault itself constitutes the major surface manifestation of the plate boundary here. Offsets of streams and ridges evident in the field, and in this view of SRTM data, indicate right-lateral fault motion. But convergence also occurs across the fault, and this causes the continued uplift of the Southern Alps, New Zealand's largest mountain range, along the southeast side of the fault.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast (image top to bottom) direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect

  15. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The principal time balls of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinns, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Accurate time signals in New Zealand were important for navigation in the Pacific. Time balls at Wellington and Lyttelton were noted in the 1880 Admiralty list of time signals, with later addition of Otago. The time ball service at Wellington started in March 1864 using the first official observatory in New Zealand, but there was no Wellington time ball service during a long period of waterfront redevelopment during the 1880s. The time ball service restarted in November 1888 at a different harbour location. The original mechanical apparatus was used with a new ball, but the system was destroyed by fire in March 1909 and was never replaced. Instead, a time light service was inaugurated in 1912. The service at Lyttelton, near Christchurch, began in December 1876 after construction of the signal station there. It used telegraph signals from Wellington to regulate the time ball. By the end of 1909, it was the only official time ball in New Zealand, providing a service that lasted until 1934. The Lyttelton time ball tower was an iconic landmark in New Zealand that had been carefully restored. Tragically, the tower collapsed in the 2011 earthquakes and aftershocks that devastated Christchurch. A daily time ball service at Port Chalmers, near Dunedin, started in June 1867, initially using local observatory facilities. The service appears to have been discontinued in October 1877, but was re-established in April 1882 as a weekly service, with control by telegraph from Wellington. The service had been withdrawn altogether by the end of 1909. Auckland never established a reliable time ball service, despite provision of a weekly service for mariners by a public-spirited citizen between August 1864 and June 1866. A time ball was finally installed on the Harbour Board building in 1901, but the signal was unreliable and it ceased in 1902. Complaints from ships' masters led to various proposals to re-establish a service. These concluded with erection of a time ball on the new

  17. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Bobak Ferdowsi, a system's engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory who became widely known for his mohawk hairstyle during the broadcast of the Curiosity landing on Mars, is seen here discussing a project with a participant in the White House Science Fair. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. The ABCs of New Zealand Sign Language: Aerial Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Aerial spelling is the term given for the way many people with deafness in New Zealand (NZ) manually represent letters of the alphabet. This article examines the nature and role of aerial spelling in New Zealand Sign Language, particularly that form used by older members of the NZ deaf community. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  19. Transforming Knowledge into Wealth in a New Zealand Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Barry; Dunn, Wendell; Whitcher, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how New Zealand's leading research university, the University of Auckland, dealt with the issue of transforming knowledge into wealth using a "whole of institution" approach. The context of New Zealand's growth and innovation initiatives is outlined and the University of Auckland's engagement with and institutional…

  20. The socio-cultural value of New Zealand wilderness

    Treesearch

    Kerry Wray

    2011-01-01

    New Zealand's wilderness resource has become iconic on both a national and international scale, and provides an important source of cultural identity for many Kiwis (a colloquial term for a New Zealander). Now, in the early 21st Century, however, social changes such as urbanization, globalization, increasing consumerism, and growing international tourism may be...

  1. The New Zealand Model for Prevention of Cyberviolence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Liz

    2003-01-01

    Describes the national initiative of the New Zealand Internet Safety Group to prevent cyberviolence through education. The effort includes distribution of an Internet Safety Kit to each school in the country, research on Internet use in New Zealand, and a national symposium on the social impact of the Internet. (SLD)

  2. GIS in New Zealand Schools: Issues and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Lex

    2006-01-01

    There are undoubtedly many parallels between Australia and New Zealand in the history of geographic information system (GIS) in schools. These parallels occur in the social, institutional, professional development, and curricula areas, and each of these topics is considered in this article. In New Zealand at least, there is still a lot that needs…

  3. The Literacy Debates: What Are the Issues in New Zealand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbrick, Libby

    The 1970 International Educational Achievement (IEA) survey placed New Zealand's nine and fourteen year olds first in reading achievement in comparison with all other participating countries. Literacy educators the world over have studied New Zealand's methods and classroom environments, and its approaches to reading/writing instruction have been…

  4. Small Country, Big Business? New Zealand as Education Exporter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Kerstin; Starke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses New Zealand's role in the global market for tertiary education. The internationalisation and liberalisation of education markets is progressing rapidly in today's globalising world, as reflected by the incorporation of education as a service into the GATS framework. Through the example of New Zealand as a case study for the…

  5. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Treesearch

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  6. Towards 2015: The Future of Mainline Protestantism in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of the population involved in the Christian church in New Zealand has been declining since the middle of the 1960s. Most seriously affected has been the mainline Protestant denominations such as Presbyterian, Anglican and Methodist. This article analyses and presents data collected by the National Church Life Survey New Zealand 2001…

  7. Parents, Participation, Partnership: Problematising New Zealand Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Angel; Ritchie, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This article interrogates notions of teacher "partnership with parents" within early childhood care and education settings in the context of Aotearoa (New Zealand). "Te Whariki," the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, clearly positions children's learning and development as being fostered when their families' cultures and…

  8. A Biographical Experience of Teacher Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, John

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses initial teacher education (ITE) policy and practice in Aotearoa New Zealand over forty years. Central to the local ITE context was the incorporation of the "monotechnic" colleges of teacher education into the university sector in the 1990s and 2000s, following New Zealand's structural adjustments to the state…

  9. Information Services in New Zealand and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnie, Mary A.

    This paper examines information services and resource sharing within New Zealand with a view to future participation in a Pacific resource sharing network. Activities of the National Library, the New Zealand Library Resources Committee, and the Information Services Committee are reviewed over a 40-year period, illustrating library cooperative…

  10. Anti-Nuclear Attitudes in New Zealand and Australia,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Wellington, 5 March 1985. 5. John Henderson, Keith Jackson , Richard Kennawav, eds. Beyond New Zealand; The Foreign Policy of a Small State. (Auckland...the city of San Francisco this first day of September, 1951. For Australia: PERCY C. SPENDER For New Zealand: C.A. BERENDSEN For the United States of

  11. An Exploratory Study of Collaboration in New Zealand Tertiary Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Colleen

    2005-01-01

    The shift in policy from market driven behaviour towards a more cooperative tertiary sector is having an effect on New Zealand academic libraries and their relationships. Despite this, there has been no investigation of collaboration specifically targeting New Zealand tertiary libraries. This research project examine the state of collaboration…

  12. Spirituality in Career from a New Zealand Maori Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.; Reid, Lynette

    New Zealand Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand Aotearoa, a relatively small nation of 4 million people. The juxtaposition of Maori and European cultures presents an opportunity to contrast the highly spiritual nature of Maori culture with European traditions of linearity and rationality. This contrast can be especially appreciated in…

  13. Recovery Competencies for New Zealand Mental Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hagan, Mary

    This book contains a detailed report of the recovery principles set out in the Mental Health Commission's Blueprint for Mental Health Services in New Zealand. The competencies, endorsed by the New Zealand government, describe what mental health workers need to know about using the recovery approach in their work with people with mental illness.…

  14. Relativism, Values and Morals in the New Zealand Curriculum Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, SueAnn

    2004-01-01

    "The New Zealand Curriculum Framework", 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in…

  15. International Students in New Zealand: Needs and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew; McGrath, Terry

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the pastoral care needs of international students in New Zealand. Using the relatively new Code of Practice for the Pastoral Care of International Students as its departure point, this paper critically evaluates the assertion that there is a crisis in New Zealand's export education industry. It does this through considering…

  16. Community Psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…

  17. New Zealand Teachers Respond to the "National Writing Project" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Terry; Whitehead, David; Dix, Stephanie; Cawkwell, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on early data from a two-year project (2009-11) being undertaken in the New Zealand context by the authors entitled: "Teachers as Writers: Transforming Professional Identity and Classroom Practice". Based on the National Writing Project in the USA (and in New Zealand in the 1980s) its hypothesis is that when teachers…

  18. International Briefing 17: Training and Development in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pio, Edwina

    2007-01-01

    New Zealand is one of the world's most geographically isolated and least crowded countries. New Zealand organizations are increasingly becoming aware of the importance of training and development as the country becomes more technologically sophisticated, multiethnic and older. The country needs higher productivity, business investment and skills…

  19. Educational Policy Research in New Zealand: Issues and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemaker, H.

    As exemplified by New Zealand, the nature of educational policy research is shaped by political and social factors that impinge upon the research environment. Following a description of the educational system and research funding methods, this paper analyzes three areas that affect policy research in New Zealand and addresses relevant social…

  20. The management of Graves' disease in New Zealand 2014.

    PubMed

    Cox, Stephanie C; Tamatea, Jade Au; Conaglen, John V; Elston, Marianne S

    2016-06-10

    Treatment options for Graves' disease (GD), namely anti-thyroid drugs (ATD), surgery or radioiodine (RAI), have not changed over the past two decades. There is no 'gold-standard' treatment for GD. To assess whether the management of GD in New Zealand has changed since the previous 1991 New Zealand survey and compare current management with that of contemporary international studies. We conducted an online survey of New Zealand physicians currently practising internal medicine, diabetes and/or endocrinology, using the cases and questions from the original European and 1991 New Zealand studies. The first-line use of RAI was 5.5%, compared to 41% in the 1991 New Zealand survey. This corresponded to an increase in ATD use, while the rates of surgery as a first-line treatment have remained static over time. New Zealand physicians use technetium scanning for diagnosis, whereas ultrasound and radioiodine uptake were the most commonly selected investigations by European and North American physicians, respectively. The pattern of ATD use in pregnancy was similar to international practice. Treatment of GD in New Zealand has shifted away from the use of RAI as first line treatment. There are significant differences in the investigation and treatment of Grave's disease between New Zealand, Europe and North America.

  1. White Space, White Privilege: Mapping Discursive Inquiry into the Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Ronald L., II

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role of communication in the strategic self-definition of "whiteness." Uses transcripts from two focus group interviews (with Whites from two historically Black universities) to map the discourses of "White" participants concerning the nature of "whiteness." Implies that the space Whites occupy is not clearly constructed and defined…

  2. Firework related injury in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J A; Langley, J D

    1994-10-26

    In March 1992 a private members Bill was introduced into parliament which sought to place tighter restrictions on the sale of fireworks. The primary purpose of this research was to document the nature and extent of firework related injury in New Zealand for the purpose of preparing a submission on this Bill. Firework related injuries were examined in relation to the legislative history of fireworks control in New Zealand to ascertain if existing regulations had been effective in reducing firework injuries and whether there was justification for greater control. Between 1979 and 1992 (inclusive) 237 persons were admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries related to fireworks. The overall incidence rate for this period was 0.52 per 100,000 persons per year. Eighty five percent of all events involved males. Children (< 15 years) comprised 68% of the victims with the 10-14 year age group having the highest rate of injury, at 2.5 per 100,000 persons per year. The authors concluded that, on the basis of morbidity, it may be premature to impose a complete ban on the public sale of fireworks (as is proposed in the Bill). The current legislation could well be supported though, by extending the ban on the types of fireworks publicly available to include skyrockets.

  3. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: a New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Ian; Van Dalen, Roelof; Lolohea, Simione; Wu, Linus

    2018-06-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a proven alternative therapy to either radical surgery or endoscopic mucosal resection for rectal neoplasms. It has proven benefits with lower morbidity and mortality compared with total mesorectal excision, and a lower local recurrence rate when compared to endoscopic mucosal techniques. A retrospective data collection of TEMS procedures performed through Waikato District Health Board, New Zealand, from 2010 to 2015 was conducted. Supportive follow-up data were sourced from patient records and from local centres around New Zealand. A total of 137 procedures were performed over the study period, with five being repeat procedures. Procedures were mostly performed for benign lesions (66.4%) with an overall complication rate of 15.3%, only five of which were Clavien-Dindo grade III (3.6%). Our local recurrence rate after resection of benign lesions was 5.1%. Our data set demonstrates the TEMS procedure to be safe compared to radical resection (total mesorectal excision) for sessile rectal lesions. Close endoscopic follow-up is recommended, especially for close or incomplete margins. Good therapeutic results can be obtained for appropriately selected early malignant lesions. TEMS provides better oncological results than endoscopic mucosal resection or transanal excision. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Whites in Desegregated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL. Center for Equal Education.

    In 1972, over 1.3 million white children attended schools in which they were a minority. This document consists of articles addressing this little studied phenomenon. In Gretchen Schafft's article, an anthropological method is employed to study the role of white children in a predominantly black junior high school in Washington, D.C. Jean Le…

  5. Whiteness and Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ricky Lee

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to rethink critical pedagogy by imagining it from a race-radical perspective that owes its lineage to scholars like W. E. B. Du Bois. The author assembles a critical pedagogy that hopes to contribute to both the transformation of white identity and the abolition of white supremacy. He draws from the roots of critical…

  6. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    U.S. President Barack Obama speaks as he hosts the third-ever White House Science Fair in the East Room at the White House in Washington, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    U.S. President Obama recognizes NASA Administrator Charles Bolden during his remarks at the 3rd Annual White House Science Fair in the East Room of the White House on Monday, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. White Teachers Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American teachers'…

  9. White Pine Weevil

    Treesearch

    Abdul Hamid; Thomas M. O' Dell; Steven Katovich

    1995-01-01

    The white pine weevil - Pissodes strobi (Peck) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - is a native insect attacking eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). The latest cytogenetic and breeding studies indicate that two other North American pine weevil species - the Sitka spruce weevil and the Engelmann spruce weevil-also should be classified as Pissodes strobi. The present...

  10. The Hidden Curriculum of Whiteness: White Teachers, White Territory, and White Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ricky Lee

    This paper suggests that space and spatiality are major features of racial identity and the formation of student resistance. It brings together critical studies of "Whiteness," human territoriality, and theories of resistance in education. The problems between white teachers and students of color can be understood better through a combination of…

  11. Racializing white drag.

    PubMed

    Rhyne, Ragan

    2004-01-01

    While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.

  12. Sailing to White Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

  13. Cytofluorometric analysis of chondrotoxicity of fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Hayem, G; Petit, P X; Levacher, M; Gaudin, C; Kahn, M F; Pocidalo, J J

    1994-02-01

    To better understand quinolone-related arthropathy, we conceived an experimental ex vivo model using cell cultures of articular chondrocytes issued from pretreated New Zealand White rabbits (NZW). Juvenile (4- to 5-week-old) NZW were orally dosed with ofloxacin or pefloxacin (300 mg/kg of body weight for 1 day) or with pefloxacin (300 mg/kg for 7 days). Adult (5-month-old) NZW were treated with pefloxacin (300 mg/kg for 1 day). Chondrocytes were enzymatically recovered from cartilage and were analyzed by cytofluorometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR), reflecting cellular respiratory-burst activity, and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) and 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange (NAO), specific for the mitochondrial activity and mass, respectively. A significant increase in the respiratory burst was detected by DCFH-DA and DHR in all treated groups of young animals, compared with untreated control groups. No significant increase of respiratory burst was noted in older treated rabbits. The 7-day treatment resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial uptake of Rh123 and an increase in NAO uptake. Fluoroquinolone arthrotoxicity seems to involve in its early phase the respiratory burst of immature articular chondrocytes.

  14. Monitoring injury in the New Zealand adventure tourism sector: an operator survey.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Edwards, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Client safety is a major risk management concern for the commercial adventure tourism sector in New Zealand. This study built on previous exploratory analyses of New Zealand adventure tourism safety, including industry surveys conducted by these authors in 1999 and 2003. The aims of the study were to provide a continuation of injury monitoring across the sector through data collected from self-reported injury incidence by industry operators and to compare findings with those from other primary and secondary research studies conducted by the authors. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators during 2006. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, and safety management practices. Some 21 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n = 127), with most operations being very small in terms of staff numbers, although responding operators catered to nearly 1 million clients in total annually. Highest ranked risk factors for client injury included clients not following instructions; level of client skill, ability, and fitness; and changeable/unpredictable weather conditions. Highest client injury was reported for horse riding, ecotourism, and white water rafting sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evidenced across the sector. Slips, trips, and falls were the most frequently reported injury mechanism, while safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the sector. The industry should address reporting culture issues and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (eg, falls) as well as catastrophic events.

  15. Changes in the age pattern of New Zealand suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, John

    2017-01-13

    It is timely to examine changes in male and female suicide rates across the age range in New Zealand, comparing them to some of the changes recorded in Australia. Data regarding suicide and population figures in New Zealand and Australia were obtained. The suicide rates of different age-groups in the two countries were calculated and compared. Data concerning 'open verdicts' were also obtained. The age patterns of suicide rates in New Zealand and Australia have changed markedly and similarly. Suicide rates of New Zealand males in their twenties increased threefold between the 1960s and 1990s, with a fall since then. Nevertheless, the 2009-13 youth suicide rates in New Zealand were double the corresponding rates in Australia. Since 1979-88 a decrease in suicide rates of men and women aged 60-79 has been even greater than in Australia. The Māori suicide rate is high in young men but almost zero in old age. The persistently high suicide rate of New Zealand youths (Māori much more than non-Māori) remains of concern. The rate is equally high among indigenous young Australians. There has been a welcome decrease in late-life suicide rates in New Zealand and Australia.

  16. New Zealand supereruption provides time marker for the Last Glacial Maximum in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunbar, Nelia W.; Iverson, Nels A.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Sigl, Michael; Alloway, Brent V.; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Mastin, Larry G.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Wilson, Colin J. N.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple, independent time markers are essential to correlate sediment and ice cores from the terrestrial, marine and glacial realms. These records constrain global paleoclimate reconstructions and inform future climate change scenarios. In the Northern Hemisphere, sub-visible layers of volcanic ash (cryptotephra) are valuable time markers due to their widespread dispersal and unique geochemical fingerprints. However, cryptotephra are not as widely identified in the Southern Hemisphere, leaving a gap in the climate record, particularly during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Here we report the first identification of New Zealand volcanic ash in Antarctic ice. The Oruanui supereruption from Taupo volcano (25,580  ±  258 cal. a BP) provides a key time marker for the LGM in the New Zealand sector of the SW Pacific. This finding provides a high-precision chronological link to mid-latitude terrestrial and marine sites, and sheds light on the long-distance transport of tephra in the Southern Hemisphere. As occurred after identification of the Alaskan White River Ash in northern Europe, recognition of ash from the Oruanui eruption in Antarctica dramatically increases the reach and value of tephrochronology, providing links among climate records in widely different geographic areas and depositional environments.

  17. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  18. International nurse migration: impacts on New Zealand.

    PubMed

    North, Nicola

    2007-08-01

    As a source and destination country, nurse flows in and out of New Zealand (NZ) are examined to determine impacts and regional contexts. A descriptive statistics method was used to analyze secondary data on nurses added to the register, NZ nurse qualifications verified by overseas authorities, nursing workforce data, and census data. It found that international movement of nurses was minimal during the 1990s, but from 2001 a sharp jump in the verification of NZ-registered nurses (RNs) by overseas authorities coincided with an equivalent increase in international RNs (IRNs) added to the NZ nursing register-a pattern that has been sustained to the present. Movement of NZ RNs to Australia is expedited by the Trans-Tasman Agreement, whereas entry of IRNs to NZ is facilitated by nursing being an identified Priority Occupation. Future research needs to consider health system and nurse workforce contexts and take a regional perspective on migration patterns.

  19. The New Zealand accident compensation scheme.

    PubMed

    Barter, R W

    1977-05-01

    Reference is made to legislation concerned with the introduction of the New Zealand Accident Compensation Scheme in 1974. The author's experience of the Scheme is based on an exchange visit in 1975. The basic principles are community responsibility and universal entitlement to compensation. Earnings-related benefits are paid to the injured person, and flat-rate payments to non-earners. The Scheme is administered by a three-man Commission with wide responsibilities for accident prevention, rehabilitation services, administration of funds, records, public relations, and an independent Appeals Authority. There have been far reaching consequences on medical practice. The Commission construe the phrase 'Personal Injury by Accident' as damage to the human system which is not designed by the person injured: the implications of such a definition are briefly discussed. The administrative costs of any similar Scheme in the United Kingdom would be enormous and it is doubtful whether the benefits would justify the cost.

  20. New Zealand SIR-B science investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A.; Oliver, P. J.; Cochrane, G. R.; Cole, J.; Coombs, D. S.; Barnes, E. J.; Ching, N. P.; Bennets, R. L.; Stephens, P. H.; Laing, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that shuttle imaging radar (SIR) data be used to study unusual geological features of New Zealand. Particular attention is planned for geological faults. SIR-B imagery is to be compared with LANDSAT multispectral imagery. Three other investigations which are to use SIR data are discussed. An ocean eddy is to be studied from a correlation of SIR-B and advanced very high resolution radiometer imagery. Timber volume is to be assessed by determining the age and size of pine forests from SIR-B data. Soil moisture is to be investigated by comparing SIR-B data with simultaneous gravimetric data. Land cover in a region already subjected to intensive investigation using LANDSAT and aircraft scanner data is to be discriminated by SIR-B data.

  1. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    PubMed

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  2. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Crystal Brockington and Aaron Barron, both 18 years old, designed a more efficient and cost effective solar cell that harnesses energy without cadmium, which has been shown to be harmful to the environment. They were selected to participate in the White House Science Fair after they were awarded the High School Grand Prize at the Siemens We Can Change the World Challenge. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House on May 27, 2014 and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Bobak Ferdowsi, a system's engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, speaks with a member of "invenTeam" at the White House Science Fair. Olivia Van Amsterdam, 16, Katelyn Sweeney, 17, and their team of student engineers from Natick, MA, invented a 120 lb remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that can help search-and-rescue dive teams search for bodies in dangerous, icy waters. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  4. White is green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Hal

    1998-12-01

    Green is the center of the visible spectrum and the hue to which we are most sensitive. In RGB color, green is 60 percent of white. When we look through a prism at a white square, as Goethe did, we see white between yellow and cyan, just where green appears in the spectrum of Newton. Additional arguments were published previously and appear at www.csulb.edu/-percept, along with the Percept color chart of the hue/value relationships. A new argument, derived from the perception of leaves, is presented here. The Percept color chart transformed into a color wheel is also presented.

  5. The cardiac sonography workforce in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Belinda; White, Steve; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian

    2013-05-01

    Introduction : The aim of this paper is to investigate the cardiac sonography workforce characteristics and registration requirements in New Zealand (NZ), with a comparison to similar workforces internationally. Methods : The Survey of Clinical Echocardiography in New Zealand 2 (SCANZ2) audit was performed in December 2010. All of NZ's public-funded District Health Board (DHB) centers providing echocardiography services responded to questions relating to staff, equipment, procedure types and patient statistics. The Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB), Clinical Physiologists Registration Board (CPRB) and Australian Sonographers Association Registry (ASAR) websites were reviewed in March 2012 for registered sonographers with a cardiac scope of practice. The cardiac sonography workforces in Australia, the UK, the USA and Canada were investigated for comparison. Results : There are 84 cardiac sonographers (60.3 full-time equivalent) working in DHBs: 71% from a cardiac technical background; 40% have post-graduate qualifications; a further 17% are undertaking post-graduate qualifications; and 59 cardiac sonographers have registration with professional bodies in NZ and/or Australia. Cardiac sonographers in NZ do not undergo compulsory registration, but other sonographers in NZ have compulsory registration with the MRTB. Sonographers are predominantly not licensed internationally. Discussion : Disparity exists between registration of cardiac and non-cardiac sonographers in NZ. Many cardiac sonographers have voluntary registration but few are registered with the MRTB. Reasons for this include professional alignment, educational qualifications and representation. International trends show increased pressure from governments and professional bodies to regulate sonographers. Conclusion : This study provides a snapshot of the cardiac sonography workforce in NZ for the first time.

  6. Survival on Home Dialysis in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Mark R.; Walker, Rachael C.; Polkinghorne, Kevan R.; Lynn, Kelvin L.

    2014-01-01

    Background New Zealand (NZ) has a high prevalence of both peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home haemodialysis (HD) relative to other countries, and probably less selection bias. We aimed to determine if home dialysis associates with better survival than facility HD by simultaneous comparisons of the three modalities. Methods We analysed survival by time-varying dialysis modality in New Zealanders over a 15-year period to 31-Dec-2011, adjusting for patient co-morbidity by Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression. Results We modelled 6,419 patients with 3,254 deaths over 20,042 patient-years of follow-up. Patients treated with PD and facility HD are similar; those on home HD are younger and healthier. Compared to facility HD, home dialysis (as a unified category) associates with an overall 13% lower mortality risk. Home HD associates with a 52% lower mortality risk. PD associates with a 20% lower mortality risk in the early period (<3 years) that is offset by a 33% greater mortality risk in the late period (>3 years), with no overall net effect. There was effect modification and less observable benefit associated with PD in those with diabetes mellitus, co-morbidity, and in NZ Maori and Pacific People. There was no effect modification by age or by era. Conclusion Our study supports the culture of home dialysis in NZ, and suggests that the extent and duration of survival benefit associated with early PD may be greater than appreciated. We are planning further analyses to exclude residual confounding from unmeasured co-morbidity and other sociodemographic factors using database linkage to NZ government datasets. Finally, our results suggest further research into the practice of PD in NZ Maori and Pacific People, as well as definitive study to determine the best timing for switching from PD in the late phase. PMID:24806458

  7. The practice of surrogacy in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynley; Snelling, Jeanne; Tomlins-Jahnke, Huia

    2012-06-01

    Commercial surrogacy is prohibited in New Zealand by the Human Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2004 (HART Act). However, altruistic clinic-assisted surrogacy is permitted. Couples wishing to attempt altruistic surrogacy must apply for approval to a statutorily appointed ethics committee. One of seven principles that underpin the HART Act stipulates that the needs, values and beliefs of Maori (NZ's indigenous population) should be considered and treated with respect. This paper reviews the outcomes of surrogacy applications since the HART Act was established and the uptake of surrogacy by Maori. The authors examined the demographic data provided to the ethics committee by way of surrogacy applications and the outcome data provided by fertility clinics. This paper reviews the outcomes for surrogacy applications: the number accepted/declined, the number of live births, those applications discontinued and uptake by Maori. Of 104 applications for surrogacy between 2005 and 2010, 4 (3.8%) were declined. By July 2011, of 100 approved, there have been 26 (26%) live births; 52 (52%) were discontinued, and 22 (22%) remain ongoing. Maori are much less likely to utilise surrogacy. Of the 104 original applications, 9 (8.6%) Maori women were willing to act as a surrogate, and 2 (1.9%) were intended mothers. 7 (6.7%) Maori were partners of a surrogate, with 2 (1.9%) intending mothers having Maori partners. The process of surrogacy applications is comprehensive and robust, resulting in few being declined. Further research is required to discover why applications are discontinued and why, despite explicit attempts to meet the needs of Maori, few utilise surrogacy. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. New Zealand traffic and local air quality.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand.

  9. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae) from New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, P. J.; Heenan, P. B.; Houliston, G. J.; Rolfe, J. R.; Mitchell, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA). One species, Lepidium castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with Lepidium oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, Lepidium amissum sp. nov. and Lepidium obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from Lepidium banksii, Lepidium flexicaule and Lepidium oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (Lepidium aegrum sp. nov., Lepidium crassum sp. nov. and Lepidium juvencum sp. nov.). One of these, Lepidium juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (Lepidium flexicaule, Lepidium oblitum sp. nov., Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., Lepidium panniforme sp. nov., and Lepidium rekohuense sp. nov.), one of which, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, Lepidium seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to Lepidium oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for Lepidium banksii, Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum. PMID:23794938

  10. The cardiac sonography workforce in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    White, Steve; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The aim of this paper is to investigate the cardiac sonography workforce characteristics and registration requirements in New Zealand (NZ), with a comparison to similar workforces internationally. Methods: The Survey of Clinical Echocardiography in New Zealand 2 (SCANZ2) audit was performed in December 2010. All of NZ's public‐funded District Health Board (DHB) centers providing echocardiography services responded to questions relating to staff, equipment, procedure types and patient statistics. The Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB), Clinical Physiologists Registration Board (CPRB) and Australian Sonographers Association Registry (ASAR) websites were reviewed in March 2012 for registered sonographers with a cardiac scope of practice. The cardiac sonography workforces in Australia, the UK, the USA and Canada were investigated for comparison. Results: There are 84 cardiac sonographers (60.3 full‐time equivalent) working in DHBs: 71% from a cardiac technical background; 40% have post‐graduate qualifications; a further 17% are undertaking post‐graduate qualifications; and 59 cardiac sonographers have registration with professional bodies in NZ and/or Australia. Cardiac sonographers in NZ do not undergo compulsory registration, but other sonographers in NZ have compulsory registration with the MRTB. Sonographers are predominantly not licensed internationally. Discussion: Disparity exists between registration of cardiac and non‐cardiac sonographers in NZ. Many cardiac sonographers have voluntary registration but few are registered with the MRTB. Reasons for this include professional alignment, educational qualifications and representation. International trends show increased pressure from governments and professional bodies to regulate sonographers. Conclusion: This study provides a snapshot of the cardiac sonography workforce in NZ for the first time. PMID:28191178

  11. Regional model simulations of New Zealand climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renwick, James A.; Katzfey, Jack J.; Nguyen, Kim C.; McGregor, John L.

    1998-03-01

    Simulation of New Zealand climate is examined through the use of a regional climate model nested within the output of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation nine-level general circulation model (GCM). R21 resolution GCM output is used to drive a regional model run at 125 km grid spacing over the Australasian region. The 125 km run is used in turn to drive a simulation at 50 km resolution over New Zealand. Simulations with a full seasonal cycle are performed for 10 model years. The focus is on the quality of the simulation of present-day climate, but results of a doubled-CO2 run are discussed briefly. Spatial patterns of mean simulated precipitation and surface temperatures improve markedly as horizontal resolution is increased, through the better resolution of the country's orography. However, increased horizontal resolution leads to a positive bias in precipitation. At 50 km resolution, simulated frequency distributions of daily maximum/minimum temperatures are statistically similar to those of observations at many stations, while frequency distributions of daily precipitation appear to be statistically different to those of observations at most stations. Modeled daily precipitation variability at 125 km resolution is considerably less than observed, but is comparable to, or exceeds, observed variability at 50 km resolution. The sensitivity of the simulated climate to changes in the specification of the land surface is discussed briefly. Spatial patterns of the frequency of extreme temperatures and precipitation are generally well modeled. Under a doubling of CO2, the frequency of precipitation extremes changes only slightly at most locations, while air frosts become virtually unknown except at high-elevation sites.

  12. Thermal Threshold Testing for Evaluation of Analgesics in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Barter, Linda S; Kwiatkowski, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We adapted a thermal analgesiometric device developed for cats for use in unrestrained rabbits. A probe composed of an electrical element and temperature sensor was held against shaved skin by using an elasticized band placed circumferentially around the thorax. An inflated bladder located between the probe and elastic maintained constant contact between probe and skin. The probe was heated until the rabbit displayed a behavioral reaction or the safety cutoff of 55 °C was reached. Threshold temperatures in unmedicated rabbits were stable over a 5-h period provided that tests were 15 min or more apart. Careful acclimation and testing resulted in no false-negative responses, and sham testing did not produce false-positive results. When compared with baseline values, thermal thresholds were significantly increased from 30 to 240 min, but not 300 min, after the administration of morphine at 3 mg/kg. Administration of equivalent volumes of saline via the same route had no effect on thermal threshold. This device may be suitable for investigating analgesic pharmacology in rabbits. PMID:23562032

  13. Conjunctival Expansion Using a Subtenon's Silicone Implant in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ie-na; Lee, Dong-hoon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose In the field of ophthalmology, the conjunctival autograft is a useful therapeutic material in many cases, but the small size of the autograft is a disadvantage. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of taking an expanded sample of conjunctival tissue using a subtenon's silicone implant. Materials and Methods We included a total of nine rabbits; eight rabbits were operative cases, and one was a control. A portion of conjunctival tissue from the control rabbit, which did not undergo surgery, was dissected and examined to determine whether it was histologically different from the experimental group. The surgical procedure was performed on eight rabbits via a subtenon's insertion of a silicone sponge in the left superior-temporal portion; after surgery, we dropped antibiotics into the eyes. We sacrificed a pair of rabbits every three days (on days 3, 6, 9, and 12) after surgery, removed the expanded conjunctival tissues with the silicone sponge implants, and measured their sizes. Results The mean size of the expanded conjunctival tissues was 194.4 mm2. On the third day, we were able to harvest a 223.56 mm2 section of conjunctival tissue, which was the most expanded sample of tissue in the study. On the twelfth day, we removed a 160.38 mm2 section of conjunctival tissue, which was the least expanded sample of tissue. Statistically, there were no significant differences in the mean dimensions of the expanded conjunctival tissues for each time period. Microscopic examinations showed no histological differences between the expanded conjunctival tissues and the normal conjunctival tissues. Conclusion The results reveal that this procedure is a useful method to expand the conjunctiva for grafting and transplantation. PMID:18159586

  14. Pupil - white spots

    MedlinePlus

    ... a white pupil or cloudy cornea needs immediate attention, preferably from an eye specialist. It is important to get diagnosed early if the problem is caused by retinoblastoma since this disease can be fatal.

  15. ESCO White Paper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.

  16. Distribution System White Papers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA worked with stakeholders and developed a series of white papers on distribution system issues ranked of potentially significant public health concern (see list below) to serve as background material for EPA, expert and stakeholder discussions.

  17. White Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  18. Beyond Black and White.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James P.

    Black and white conflict is a by-product of a more basic problem: the failure of this society to develop a social system that enables all people to meet their basic human needs at a reasonable level. Until this is done, we will not be able to move beyond black and white. The underlying problem is related to a sudden acceleration of human history…

  19. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    Joey Hudy demonstrates his Intel Galileo-based 10x10x10 LED Cube during the first ever White House Maker Faire which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    Planetary Society Executive Director and “Bill Nye the Science Guy” host Bill Nye, right, photographs himself with NASA Mars Curiosity Landing mission controller, Bobak "Mohawk Guy" Ferdowsi, during the White House Science Fair held at the White House, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Alpine Fault, New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-06

    The Alpine fault runs parallel to, and just inland of, much of the west coast of New Zealand South Island. This view was created from the near-global digital elevation model produced by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM.

  2. The Educational Needs of Graduate Mechanical Engineers in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deans, J.

    1999-01-01

    Surveys graduate and undergraduate mechanical engineering students at the University of Auckland. Shows that the dominant work activities of New Zealand mechanical engineers include design and consultancy and that graduate engineers rapidly migrate into management. (Author/CCM)

  3. Overview and key to the New Zealand Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Ward, D F

    2014-10-30

    An overview of Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera) in New Zealand is presented with information on families, genera, and when available, species. Notes on their distribution, biology, and a taxonomic key are provided. The New Zealand cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with only 11 described species, and five genus-only taxa. The fauna is dominated by introduced species; two species have been deliberately introduced as biological control agents, and at least 12 taxa are definitely or probably adventives. Many of these species are widespread and collected from modified and non-native habitats. New generic records of Figitidae for New Zealand include: Xyalaspis (Anacharitinae), Ganaspis, (Eucoilinae), and Thoreauella (Emargininae), all of which are considered adventives. There are no native species of gall forming wasps (Cynipidae) in New Zealand, and only two native species of Figitidae are present: Anacharis zealandica Ashmead, 1900 and Kleidotoma subantarcticana Yoshimoto, 1964. 

  4. Sequestrate fungi of New Zealand: Elaphomyces (Ascomycota, Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae)

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Castellano; Ross E. Beever; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    Four species of the sequestrate fungal genus Elaphomyces are reported from New Zealand: Elaphomyces bollardii sp. nov. associated with Leptospermum spp. and Kunzea ericoides, E. luteicrustus sp. nov. associated with Nothofagus menziesii, E. putridus sp. nov. associated with...

  5. Establishing a Rational New Zealand/United States Defense Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-16 298-102 1~4CJC SRATGYESSAY WRCITING COMIPETITION ENTRY ESTABLISHING A RATIONAL NEW...AJBAvailability Codjes ALABAMA ABSTRACT TITLE: E lishng a Rational New Zealand/United States Defense Relationship AUTHOR.- Richard J. Newlands, Wing...Current Stetu of the New Zealand/United States Relationship 12 OutstandItg Issues .1 Toward a Rational New Zealan/Unted States Defense Relationship .16

  6. Junior Officer Leadership Development in the New Zealand Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    officers within the New Zealand Army and United States Army were gathered using a survey , to gain their perspective and identify any key areas for...senior officers within the New Zealand Army and United States Army were gathered using a survey , to gain their perspective and identify any key areas...time to take part in my survey , and contribute their wisdom and experience. The support and guidance that I received from other international

  7. Cultural safety in New Zealand midwifery practice. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Farry, Annabel; Crowther, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Midwives in New Zealand work within a unique cultural context. This calls for an understanding and appreciation of biculturalism and the equal status of Mãori and Europeans as the nation's founding peoples. This paper is the second of two papers that explore the notions of cultural safety and competence. Exploration and discussion take place in the New Zealand context, yet have transferable implications for midwives everywhere. This second paper focuses on midwifery education and practice.

  8. Innate resistance of New Zealand paua to abalone viral ganglioneuritis.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; McColl, Kenneth A; Williams, Lynette M; Slater, Joanne; Crane, Mark St J

    2017-06-01

    The susceptibility of New Zealand paua (Haliotis iris) to infection by abalone herpesvirus (Haliotid herpesvirus 1; HaHV) and to the disease abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) was determined. Infection challenges performed by intra-muscular injection and by immersion in infectious water containing HaHV demonstrated that New Zealand paua were highly resistant to infection by Haliotid herpesvirus 1 and were fully resistant to the disease AVG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The long locum: health propaganda in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Dow, Derek

    2003-03-14

    Health Department folklore since the 1950s has attributed the rise of health education in New Zealand almost entirely to the efforts of one man, 'Radio Doctor' Harold Turbott. The historical evidence reveals, however, a more extensive commitment by the Health Department, dating back to its foundation in 1900. This paper examines the evolution of health education in New Zealand and concludes that Turbott's role in its development has been overstated, largely at his own instigation.

  10. The New Zealand Tsunami Database: historical and modern records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Downes, G. L.; Cochran, U. A.; Clark, K.; Scheele, F.

    2016-12-01

    A database of historical (pre-instrumental) and modern (instrumentally recorded)tsunamis that have impacted or been observed in New Zealand has been compiled andpublished online. New Zealand's tectonic setting, astride an obliquely convergenttectonic boundary on the Pacific Rim, means that it is vulnerable to local, regional andcircum-Pacific tsunamis. Despite New Zealand's comparatively short written historicalrecord of c. 200 years there is a wealth of information about the impact of past tsunamis.The New Zealand Tsunami Database currently has 800+ entries that describe >50 highvaliditytsunamis. Sources of historical information include witness reports recorded indiaries, notes, newspapers, books, and photographs. Information on recent events comesfrom tide gauges and other instrumental recordings such as DART® buoys, and media ofgreater variety, for example, video and online surveys. The New Zealand TsunamiDatabase is an ongoing project with information added as further historical records cometo light. Modern tsunamis are also added to the database once the relevant data for anevent has been collated and edited. This paper briefly overviews the procedures and toolsused in the recording and analysis of New Zealand's historical tsunamis, with emphasison database content.

  11. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  12. Sustaining Adventure in New Zealand Outdoor Education: Perspectives from Renowned New Zealand Outdoor Adventurers on the Contested Cultural Understanding of Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Maurice; Tucker, Hazel

    2007-01-01

    One of the foundations of New Zealand's representation of itself to the world has been as a premier place of adventure. New Zealanders who have gained world recognition in outdoor leisure pursuits are used to promote this adventurous depiction of New Zealand. They are the focus of and contribute to the discourse which guides the New Zealand…

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in New Zealand: differences associated with being a practitioner in New Zealand compared to China.

    PubMed

    Patel, Asmita; Toossi, Vahideh

    2016-10-28

    While New Zealand has experienced an increase in the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) based acupuncture, very little is known about the practitioners who provide this type of treatment modality. Therefore, this study was designed to identify differences associated with being a TCM practitioner in New Zealand compared to China. Ten Auckland-based TCM practitioners were individually interviewed. The interview schedule comprised of questions that were designed to identify any potential differences in practising TCM in New Zealand compared to China. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. The main differences in practising between the two countries were related to the role and authority that a TCM practitioner had. This in turn resulted in differences between the conditions that were treated in these two countries. Differences in patient demography were also identified between the two countries. TCM is used as a form of alternative healthcare treatment in New Zealand for non-Chinese individuals. Acupuncture is the most utilised form of TCM treatment in New Zealand, and is predominantly used for pain management purposes. TCM treatment has been utilised by individuals from a number of different ethnic groups, reflecting the ethnic diversity of the New Zealand population.

  14. Strategic perspective: Nuclear issues in the New Zealand media

    SciTech Connect

    Fridriksson, L.N.

    New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy drew international attention and threw the nation into a foreign policy crisis with the United States over the trilateral mutual security pact ANZUS. After more than a year of diminished intelligence and military cooperation, New Zealand was expelled from the alliance. This study involved a content analysis of coverage of these events and other nuclear issues in selected newspapers of New Zealand and the United States. Research points to the roles of the media as a critical one in the overall relations among countries. Through their frequent use of official government sources, the media tend tomore » uphold the government line or status quo with regard to foreign affairs. This study sought to identify the nuclear issues covered in the New Zealand and US media, the characteristics of that coverage, the sources of that coverage and how coverage varied during changing US-New Zealand relations. The official frame prevailed in coverage of nuclear issues. In the New Zealand and US newspapers under study, most sources of nuclear issue news were government officials. This research also found that most coverage of nuclear issues in the New Zealand media was related to some aspect of US interests, and that coverage of New Zealand's policy in the US media was covered most often when related to the United States. Nuclear issue coverage was most often not crisis-oriented in New Zealand and US newspapers, but coverage of all nuclear issues increased dramatically during the period of the ANZUS policy crisis. This study found a number of changes in nuclear issue coverage in the New Zealand media after the policy crisis was resolved. Among those changes were a tendency to focus less on economic and trade effects of the anti-nuclear policy, a tendency to focus more on ties with other South Pacific nations, use more sources from those countries, and a tendency to focus less on the moral and ethical position of the country.« less

  15. Insanity acquittee outcomes in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Skipworth, Jeremy; Brinded, Phil; Chaplow, David; Frampton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines clinical and forensic outcomes for defendants found not guilty by reason of insanity in New Zealand, and explores the implications for policy development and clinical rehabilitation in this population. All insanity acquittees disposed of by the courts as special patients after 1976 and released before 2004 are described. Their duration of inpatient care, rates of reconviction and rehospitalization following release are examined. The high resolution rate for violent crime reported to police suggests that reconviction rates are a reasonable proxy for violent reoffending. Factors predicting duration of inpatient care and reoffending are analysed. Severity of Index Offence was the only variable predicting duration of inpatient care of the 135 special patients. Offenders of more serious offences were securely detained for longer periods--averaging 6 years in the case of those charged with murder. Most patients were readmitted over the decade following discharge. Only 6% had violently reoffended 2 years after release into the community. Prior offending, age at release, ethnicity and gender predicted reoffending, but not diagnosis or duration of inpatient admission. Following discharge into the community, insanity acquittees are reconvicted of violent crimes at a very low rate, although readmission to hospital is common. It may be that insanity acquittees are initially detained in hospital longer than is clinically indicated, and that safe forensic community treatment can occur at an earlier stage of recovery without compromising public safety.

  16. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    PubMed

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  17. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I

    2007-01-01

    Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television. PMID:17270053

  18. Campylobacter jejuni inactivation in New Zealand soils.

    PubMed

    Ross, C M; Donnison, A M

    2006-11-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the inactivation rate of Campylobacter jejuni in New Zealand soils. Farm dairy effluent (FDE) inoculated at c. 10(5) ml(-1) with C. jejuni was applied to intact soil cores at a rate of 2 l m(-2). Four soils were used: Hamilton (granular); Taupo (pumice); Horotiu and Waihou (allophanic). After FDE application cores were incubated at 10 degrees C for up to 32 days. For all four soils all the FDE remained within the cores and at least 99% of C. jejuni were retained in the top 5 cm. Campylobacter jejuni had declined to the limit of detection (two C. jejuni 100 g(-1)) by 25 days in Hamilton and Taupo soils and by 32 days in Waihou soil. In contrast, in Horotiu soil the decline was only three orders of magnitude after 32 days. Simulated heavy rainfall was applied 4 and 11 days after FDE application and only about 1% of the applied C. jejuni were recovered in leachates. This study demonstrated that at least 99% of applied C. jejuni were retained in the top 5 cm of four soils where they survived for at least 25 days at 10 degrees C. Soil retention of C. jejuni is efficient at FDE application rates that prevent drainage losses. The low infectious dose of C. jejuni and its ability to survive up to 25 days have implications for stock management on dairy farms.

  19. An Online Survey of New Zealand Vapers

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Marewa; Fraser, Trish

    2018-01-01

    Using electronic cigarettes (vaping) is controversial, but is increasingly widespread. This paper reports the results of an electronic survey of vapers in New Zealand, a country where the sale and supply of e-liquids containing nicotine is illegal, although vapers can legally access e-liquids from overseas. An on-line survey was conducted, using vaper and smoking cessation networks for recruitment, with follow up surveys conducted 1 and 2 months after the initial survey. 218 participants were recruited. Almost all had been smokers, but three quarters no longer smoked, with the remainder having significantly reduced their tobacco use. Three participants were non-smokers before starting to vape, but none had gone on to become smokers. The overriding motivation to begin and continue vaping was to stop or to reduce smoking. The results were consistent with a progression from initially both vaping and smoking using less effective electronic cigarette types, then moving to more powerful devices, experimentation with flavors and nicotine strengths—all resulting in reducing or stopping tobacco use. Lack of access to nicotine and lack of support for their chosen cessation method were the main problems reported. Vaping had resulted in effective smoking cessation for the majority of participants. PMID:29382129

  20. Trampoline injury in New Zealand: emergency care.

    PubMed Central

    Hume, P A; Chalmers, D J; Wilson, B D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine trampoline related injuries resulting in emergency department attendance. METHODS: Cases were identified by searching free text descriptions of the circumstances of injury contained in the records of the emergency department of a large city hospital. RESULTS: 114 cases were identified for a 12 month period, giving an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 89 to 129) compared with 9.3 hospital admissions per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 8.3 to 10.4) for a corresponding period reported in earlier research from New Zealand. This suggested that for every one hospital admission there are approximately 12 emergency department attendances. Of the cases, 95% were aged less than 20 years. As for the earlier research, falls from the trampoline to the surrounding surface were the commonest cause of injury. In the present study, sprains and strains were the commonest type of injury (40%), and the body site most frequently involved was the lower limb (46%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the conclusion from earlier research that although existing trampoline standards address many of the issues relating to trampoline safety, the need remains for measures to reduce the impact of falls from the trampoline to the ground surface and to prohibit the use of trampolines as unsupervised "play equipment". PMID:9015596

  1. White LED performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yimin; Narendran, Nadarajah; Freyssinier, Jean Paul

    2004-10-01

    Two life tests were conducted to compare the effects of drive current and ambient temperature on the degradation rate of 5 mm and high-flux white LEDs. Tests of 5 mm white LED arrays showed that junction temperature increases produced by drive current had a greater effect on the rate of light output degradation than junction temperature increases from ambient heat. A preliminary test of high-flux white LEDs showed the opposite effect, with junction temperature increases from ambient heat leading to a faster depreciation. However, a second life test is necessary to verify this finding. The dissimilarity in temperature effect among 5 mm and high-flux LEDs is likely caused by packaging differences between the two device types.

  2. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Girl Scout troop 2612 members from Tulsa, OK take photos of one another with Google Glass at the White House Science Fair Tuesday, May 27, 2014. Avery Dodson, 6; Natalie Hurley, 8; Miriam Schaffer, 8; Claire Winton, 8; and Lucy Claire Sharp, 8 participated in the Junior FIRST Lego League's Disaster Blaster Challenge, which invites elementary-school-aged students from across the country to explore how simple machines, engineering, and math can help solve problems posed by natural disasters. The girls invented the "Flood Proof Bridge" and built a model mechanizing the bridge using motors and developing a computer program to automatically retract the bridge when flood conditions are detected. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses with an all-girl engineering team that participated in the White House Science Fair. "Team Rocket Power" was one of 100 teams that qualified for last year’s Team America Rocketry Challenge (TARC). Nia'mani Robinson, 15, Jasmyn Logan, 15, and Rebecca Chapin-Ridgely, 17, gave up their weekends and free time after school to build and test their bright purple rocket, which is designed to launch to an altitude of about 750 ft, and then return a “payload” (an egg) to the ground safely. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House on May 27, 2014 and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  4. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    Director of Strategic Communications and Senior Science and Technology Policy Analyst, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, Rick Weiss, left, “Big Bang Theory” co-creator Bill Prady, center, and NASA Mars Curiosity Landing mission controller, Bobak "Mohawk Guy" Ferdowsi talk during the White House Science Fair held at the White House, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  6. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  7. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  8. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1997-06-24

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  9. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    President Barack Obama delivers his remarks at the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    The Maker Faire trailer is seen outside the rose garden during the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Estimated folic acid intakes from simulated fortification of the New Zealand food supply.

    PubMed

    Green, Tim; Newton, Rebecca; Bourn, Diane

    2003-01-24

    To identify a folic acid food fortification programme that will maximise the percentage of women of child-bearing age receiving at least 400 microg folic acid/day, the amount shown to reduce the risk of neural tube defect-affected pregnancies, while not putting population groups at risk of excessive intakes. 1997 New Zealand National Nutrition Survey data and a computer modelling programme were used to estimate folic acid intakes from simulated fortification scenarios. Breads fortified with folic acid at 150 microg/50 g, white flour at 100 microg/35 g and liquid milk at 200 microg/200 ml, were found to be the best fortification scenarios. Thirty one percent, 21% and 18% of women of child-bearing age received > or = 400 microg folic acid/day from the fortification of bread, white flour and milk respectively. The most effective scenario for folic acid fortification is bread fortified at 150 microg/50 g. However, it is impossible to fortify food at a level that ensures the majority of women of child-bearing age receive more than 400 microg folic acid/day without exposing some people to excessive amounts of folic acid. The current public health message encouraging women to select folic acid fortified foods and take folic acid supplements, needs to continue.

  12. Philopatry and migration of Pacific white sharks

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Salvador J.; Reeb, Carol A.; Chapple, Taylor K.; Anderson, Scot; Perle, Christopher; Van Sommeran, Sean R.; Fritz-Cope, Callaghan; Brown, Adam C.; Klimley, A. Peter; Block, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in electronic tagging and genetic research are making it possible to discern population structure for pelagic marine predators once thought to be panmictic. However, reconciling migration patterns and gene flow to define the resolution of discrete population management units remains a major challenge, and a vital conservation priority for threatened species such as oceanic sharks. Many such species have been flagged for international protection, yet effective population assessments and management actions are hindered by lack of knowledge about the geographical extent and size of distinct populations. Combining satellite tagging, passive acoustic monitoring and genetics, we reveal how eastern Pacific white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) adhere to a highly predictable migratory cycle. Individuals persistently return to the same network of coastal hotspots following distant oceanic migrations and comprise a population genetically distinct from previously identified phylogenetic clades. We hypothesize that this strong homing behaviour has maintained the separation of a northeastern Pacific population following a historical introduction from Australia/New Zealand migrants during the Late Pleistocene. Concordance between contemporary movement and genetic divergence based on mitochondrial DNA demonstrates a demographically independent management unit not previously recognized. This population's fidelity to discrete and predictable locations offers clear population assessment, monitoring and management options. PMID:19889703

  13. Liquid White Enamel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmar, Marge

    1985-01-01

    A secondary teacher describes how she has her students use liquid white enamel. With the enameling process, students can create lasting, exciting artwork. They can exercise an understanding of design and color while learning the value of careful, sustained craft skills. (RM)

  14. White-Spotted Sawyer

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1962-01-01

    The white-spotted sawyer (Monochamus scutellatus (Say)) is an important wood-boring insect in North America. Its range, encompasses an area from Newfoundland southward to North Carolina, westward from the Atlantic coast through the North Central States to Minnesota, and northwestward into Alaska, wherever its coniferous host, are found.

  15. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  16. White-tailed deer

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Johns; John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    from a public relations standpoint, the white-tailed deer (Odocileus virginiamus) is probably the most important wildlife species occurring on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS deer herd has been the subject of more scientific investigations than any comparable deer population in the world, resulting in more than 125 published papers. Each year...

  17. White clouds on Io?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. H.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports rapid changes in the distribution of bright white patches in one region of Io, close to the subjovian point and the caldera Karei Patera. A stable pattern of white patches in this region was recorded by Voyager in 1979. A strikingly different pattern was shown in the first Galileo-G1 image (1996 June). However, the patterns in another Galileo-G1 and several Galileo-G2 images (1996 September) were similar although not identical to that seen by Voyager. Hubble Space Telescope images in 1994 and 1995 also resembled the Voyager pattern. The changes in the first Galileo image are not easily attributable to differences in lighting and viewing angles, and appear to be real physical changes, which occurred over a matter of days during the Galileo-G1 encounter. They also do not have the characteristics expected of surface deposits. I suggest that some of these white patches may be drifting opaque white clouds. They may be emitted from volcanic sources which have recently been reported in this area.

  18. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  19. Corporal punishment and child maltreatment in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    On 2 May, 2007, the New Zealand Parliament passed a law repealing Section 59 of the Crimes Act. In so doing, New Zealand became the first English-speaking nation in the world to make corporal punishment of a child illegal. The passage of this legislation was surrounded by intense and persistent public debate, and supporters of corporal punishment continue to advocate against the law change to the present day. In Sweden, where the first stage of similar repeal took place in 1957, it may be difficult for many to understand the strength of the public opposition to this change in New Zealand. This article will present a viewpoint on the evolution of the debate in New Zealand, review the wider context of child maltreatment and family violence in New Zealand and summarize a range of attempts to prevent or intervene effectively in the cycle of dysfunction. Child maltreatment and family violence are public health issues of great importance, and a stain on all societies. While corporal punishment may be a significant contributing factor, there is no single 'solution'. Change must occur on multiple levels (political, economic, cultural, familial and professional) before the tide will turn.

  20. Japanese women's experiences of pharmacological pain relief in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Blue whale vocalizations recorded around New Zealand: 1964-2013.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian S; Collins, Kym; Barlow, Jay; Calderan, Susannah; Leaper, Russell; McDonald, Mark; Ensor, Paul; Olson, Paula A; Olavarria, Carlos; Double, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    Previous underwater recordings made in New Zealand have identified a complex sequence of low frequency sounds that have been attributed to blue whales based on similarity to blue whale songs in other areas. Recordings of sounds with these characteristics were made opportunistically during the Southern Ocean Research Partnership's recent Antarctic Blue Whale Voyage. Detections of these sounds occurred all around the South Island of New Zealand during the voyage transits from Nelson, New Zealand to the Antarctic and return. By following acoustic bearings from directional sonobuoys, blue whales were visually detected and confirmed as the source of these sounds. These recordings, together with the historical recordings made northeast of New Zealand, indicate song types that persist over several decades and are indicative of the year-round presence of a population of blue whales that inhabits the waters around New Zealand. Measurements of the four-part vocalizations reveal that blue whale song in this region has changed slowly, but consistently over the past 50 years. The most intense units of these calls were detected as far south as 53°S, which represents a considerable range extension compared to the limited prior data on the spatial distribution of this population.

  2. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Rheumatic heart disease in indigenous populations--New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Rheumatic fever continues unabated among the indigenous Māori and Pacific Island New Zealanders. Ethnic disparities have increased in the past decade. The major success story for disease control has been secondary penicillin prophylaxis with 28-day intramuscular benzathine penicillin with high penicillin delivery rates and low recurrence rates. A landmark study for primary prevention of acute rheumatic fever for group A streptococcal pharyngitis was published in 2009. New Zealand has helped establish the role of echocardiography in acute rheumatic fever, with subclinical carditis incorporated into guidelines as a major criterion of rheumatic fever in high prevalence regions. The rates of mitral valve repair for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are currently greater than 90% in the children's cardiac unit but remain low in adult cardiac units in New Zealand. This is particularly relevant to women of child bearing age where New Zealand data has shown that pregnancy outcomes for mothers with prosthetic valves on warfarin are poor. There are new initiatives to prevent severe RHD using portable echocardiography by screening school aged children. The prevalence of definite RHD was 2.4% in a large cohort of socially disadvantaged children in South Auckland studied in 2007-2008. Cost benefit models of screening need to be developed. Ongoing research involves international consensus standardisation of RHD patterns, and the need to define the natural history of subclinical RHD. Copyright 2010 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.

    2014-10-01

    White dwarfs are the evolutionary endpoint for nearly 95% of all stars born in our Galaxy, the final stages of evolution of all low- and intermediate mass stars, i.e., main sequence stars with masses below (8.5± 1.5) M_{odot}, depending on metallicity of the progenitor, mass loss and core overshoot. Massive white dwarfs are intrinsically rare objects, tand produce a gap in the determination of the initial vs. final mass relation at the high mass end (e.g. Weidemann 2000 A&A, 363, 647; Kalirai et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 594; Williams, Bolte & Koester 2009, ApJ, 693, 355). Main sequences stars with higher masses will explode as SNII (Smartt S. 2009 ARA&A, 47, 63), but the limit does depend on the metallicity of the progenitor. Massive white dwarfs are probably SNIa progenitors through accretion or merger. They are rare, being the final product of massive stars (less common) and have smaller radius (less luminous). Kepler et al. 2007 (MNRAS, 375, 1315), Kleinman et al. 2013 (ApJS, 204, 5) estimate only 1-2% white dwarfs have masses above 1 M_{odot}. The final stages of evolution after helium burning are a race between core growth and loss of the H-rich envelope in a stellar wind. When the burning shell is exposed, the star rapidly cools and burning ceases, leaving a white dwarf. As they cool down, the magnetic field freezes in, ranging from a few kilogauss to a gigagauss. Peculiar type Ia SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg suggest progenitors in the range 2.4-2.8 M_{odot}, and Das U. & Mukhopadhyay B. (2012, Phys. Rev. D, 86, 042001) estimate that the Chandrasekhar limit increases to 2.3-2.6 M_{odot} for extremely high magnetic field stars, but differential rotation induced by accretion could also increase it, according to Hachisu I. et al. 2012 (ApJ, 744, 69). García-Berro et al. 2012, ApJ, 749, 25, for example, proposes double degenerate mergers are the progenitors of high-field magnetic white dwarfs. We propose magnetic fields enhance the line broadening in

  5. Estimated dietary fluoride intake for New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Peter; Gaw, Sally; Love, John

    2010-01-01

    Existing fluoride concentration and consumption data were used to estimate fluoride intakes from the diet and toothpaste use, for New Zealand subpopulations, to identify any population groups at risk of high-fluoride intake. For each sub-population, two separate dietary intake estimates were made--one based on a non-fluoridated water supply (fluoride concentration of 0.1 mg/L), and the other based on a water supply fluoridated to a concentration of 1.0 mg/L. Fluoride concentration data were taken from historical surveys, while food consumption data were taken from national 24-hour dietary recall surveys or from simulated diets. Mean and 95th percentile estimations of dietary fluoride intake were well below the upper level of intake (UL), whether intakes were calculated on the basis of a non-fluoridated or fluoridated water supply. The use of fluoride-containing toothpastes provides additional fluoride intake. For many of the population groups considered, mean fluoride intakes were below the adequate intake (AI) level for caries protection, even after inclusion of the fluoride contribution from toothpaste. Intake of fluoride was driven by consumption of dietary staples (bread, potatoes),beverages (particularly tea, soft drinks, and beer), and the fluoride status of drinking water. Estimates of fluoride intake from the diet and toothpaste did not identify any groups at risk of exceeding the UL, with the exception of infants (6-12 months) living in areas with fluoridated water supplies and using high-fluoride toothpaste. In contrast, much of the adult population may be receiving insufficient fluoride for optimum caries protection from these sources, as represented by the AI.

  6. What is white?

    PubMed Central

    Bosten, J. M.; Beer, R. D.; MacLeod, D. I. A.

    2015-01-01

    To shed light on the perceptual basis of the color white, we measured settings of unique white in a dark surround. We find that settings reliably show more variability in an oblique (blue-yellow) direction in color space than along the cardinal axes of the cone-opponent mechanisms. This is against the idea that white perception arises at the null point of the cone-opponent mechanisms, but one alternative possibility is that it occurs through calibration to the visual environment. We found that the locus of maximum variability in settings lies close to the locus of natural daylights, suggesting that variability may result from uncertainty about the color of the illuminant. We tested this by manipulating uncertainty. First, we altered the extent to which the task was absolute (requiring knowledge of the illumination) or relative. We found no clear effect of this factor on the reduction in sensitivity in the blue-yellow direction. Second, we provided a white surround as a cue to the illumination or left the surround dark. Sensitivity was selectively worse in the blue-yellow direction when the surround was black than when it was white. Our results can be functionally related to the statistics of natural images, where a greater blue-yellow dispersion is characteristic of both reflectances (where anisotropy is weak) and illuminants (where it is very pronounced). Mechanistically, the results could suggest a neural signal responsive to deviations from the blue-yellow locus or an adaptively matched range of contrast response functions for signals that encode different directions in color space. PMID:26641948

  7. Complicating Whiteness: Identifications of Veteran White Teachers in Multicultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A scrupulous search of whiteness literatures in relation to multicultural education reveals a preponderance of scholarship noting White privilege and race evasiveness. Given contrasting scholarship arguing White identity as complicated, multifarious, and bound to social and historical context, concurrent with a dearth of scholarship that examines…

  8. White Students Reflecting on Whiteness: Understanding Emotional Responses

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Nathan R.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Aber, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors explored potential predictors of White students’ general emotional responses after they reflected on their Whiteness in a semi-structured interview (n = 88) or written reflection (n = 187). Specifically, the authors examined how color-blindness (i.e., awareness of White privilege) and racial affect (i.e., White empathy, White guilt, and White fear), assessed before the interview or written reflection, may predict positive and negative emotional responses, assessed immediately following the interview or written reflection. Furthermore, the authors considered whether affective costs of racism to Whites moderated the association between racial color-blindness and general positive and negative emotional responses of White students. Findings indicated that affective costs of racism moderated associations between racial color-blindness and general emotional responses. Specifically, White fear moderated associations for the written reflection group whereas White empathy moderated an association in the interview. White guilt did not moderate, but instead directly predicted a negative emotional response in the written reflection group. Findings suggest that the interaction between racial color-blindness and racial affect is important when predicting students’ emotional responses to reflecting on their Whiteness. Implications for educators and administrators are discussed. PMID:20657811

  9. Characteristics of and differences between Pasifika women and New Zealand European women diagnosed with breast cancer in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charis; Lao, Chunhuan; Lawrenson, Ross; Tin Tin, Sandar; Schaaf, Michelle; Kidd, Jacquie; Allan-Moetaua, Anne; Herman, Josephine; Raamsroop, Reena; Campbell, Ian; Elwood, Mark

    2017-12-15

    Breast cancer in New Zealand-based Pasifika women is a significant issue. Although Pasifika women have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared to New Zealand European women, they have higher breast cancer mortality and lower five-year survival. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and tumour biology of Pasifika women and to compare New Zealand European women to identify what factors impact on early (Stage 1 and 2) vs advanced stage (Stage 3 and 4) at diagnosis. Data on all Pasifika and New Zealand European women diagnosed with breast cancer (C50) during the period 1 June 2000 to 31 May 2013 was extracted from the Auckland and Waikato Breast Cancer Registries. Descriptive tables and Chi-square test were used to examine differences in characteristics and tumour biology between Pasifika and New Zealand European women. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that contributed to an increased risk of advanced stage at diagnosis. A significantly higher proportion of Pasifika women had advanced disease at diagnosis compared to New Zealand European women (33.3% and 18.3%, respectively). Cancer biology in Pasifika women was more likely to be: 1) HER2+, 2) ER/PR negative and 3) have a tumour size of ≥50mm. Pasifika women live in higher deprivation areas of 9-10 compared to New Zealand European women (55% vs 14%, respectively) and were less likely to have their cancer identified through screening. Logistic regression showed that if Pasifika women were on the screen-detected pathway they had similar odds (not sig.) of having advanced disease at diagnosis to New Zealand European women. Mode of detection, deprivation, age and some biological factors contributed to the difference in odds ratio between Pasifika and New Zealand European women. For those of screening age, adherence to the screening programme and improvements in access to earlier diagnosis for Pasifika women under the current screening age have the potential to make a substantial

  10. Relativism, Values and Morals in the New Zealand Curriculum Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, Sueann

    The New Zealand Curriculum Framework, 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in the school curriculum. This paper investigates the requirements for teaching attitudes, values and ethics in the curriculum statements for Science, Biology and Technology. The question is raised whether the teaching of skills for resolving moral and ethical dilemmas are required by the official education standards in New Zealand, and internationally. The paper reports on a survey done on pre-service teacher trainees of their understanding of these requirements. Implications for courses that might need to be provided in future pre-service teacher education programmes are briefly discussed.

  11. White matter of the brain

    MedlinePlus

    White matter is found in the deeper tissues of the brain (subcortical). It contains nerve fibers (axons), which are ... or covering called myelin. Myelin gives the white matter its color. It also protects the nerve fibers ...

  12. Portrait view of Terry White

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-04-10

    Terry White during a change-of-shift briefing in the JSC public affairs facility briefing room. White acted as one of the on-orbit public affairs officers and the landing PAO during the Challenger's STS-6 flight.

  13. First detection of Wolbachia in the New Zealand biota.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, Benjamin; Morgan-Richards, Mary; Wheeler, David; Trewick, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    Wolbachia is one of the most widespread intracellular bacteria on earth, estimated to infect between 40 and 66% of arthropod species in most ecosystems that have been surveyed. Their significance rests not only in their vast distribution, but also in their ability to modify the reproductive biology of their hosts, which can ultimately affect genetic diversity and speciation of infected populations. Wolbachia has yet to be formally identified in the fauna of New Zealand which has high levels of endemic biodiversity and this represents a gap in our understanding of the global biology of Wolbachia. Using High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of host DNA in conjunction with traditional molecular techniques we identified six endemic Orthoptera species that were positive for Wolbachia infection. In addition, short-sequence amplification with Wolbachia specific primers applied to New Zealand and introduced invertebrates detected a further 153 individuals positive for Wolbachia. From these short-range DNA amplification products sequence data was obtained for the ftsZ gene region from 86 individuals representing 10 host species. Phylogenetic analysis using the sequences obtained in this study reveals that there are two distinct Wolbachia bacteria lineages in New Zealand hosts belonging to recognised Wolbachia supergroups (A and B). These represent the first described instances of Wolbachia in the New Zealand native fauna, including detection in putative parasitoids of infected Orthoptera suggesting a possible transmission path. Our detection of Wolbachia infections of New Zealand species provides the opportunity to study local transmission of Wolbachia and explore their role in the evolution of New Zealand invertebrates.

  14. Food and nutrient availability in New Zealand: an analysis of supermarket sales data.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Sally; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Priest, Patricia

    2007-12-01

    To examine food and nutrient availability in New Zealand using supermarket sales data in conjunction with a brand-specific supermarket food composition database (SFD). The SFD was developed by selecting the top-selling supermarket food products and linking them to food composition data from a variety of sources, before merging with individualised sales data. Supermarket food and nutrient data were then compared with data from national nutrition and household budget/economic surveys. A supermarket in Wellington, New Zealand. Eight hundred and eighty-two customers (73% female; mean age 38 years) who shopped regularly at the participating supermarket store and for whom electronic sales data were available for the period February 2004-January 2005. Top-selling supermarket food products included full-fat milk, white bread, sugary soft drinks and butter. Key food sources of macronutrients were similar between the supermarket sales database and national nutrition surveys. For example, bread was the major source of energy and contributed 12-13% of energy in all three data sources. Proportional expenditure on fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, farm products and oils, and cereal products recorded in the Household Economic Survey and supermarket sales data were within 2% of each other. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to evaluate a number of important aspects of food and nutrient availability. Many of our findings were broadly comparable with national nutrition and food expenditure survey data, and supermarket sales have the advantage of being an objective, convenient, up-to-date and cost-effective measure of household food purchases.

  15. Medical practice in New Zealand 1769-1860.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, Ross

    2004-06-01

    New Zealand was discovered by Captain Cook in 1769. Over the next ninety years, increasing numbers of medical practitioners visited and began to settle in what became a British colony. The first medical visitors were usually naval surgeons or served on board whaling ships. The major influx of doctors occurred at the behest of the New Zealand Company between 1840 and 1848, although Christian missionaries, army doctors, and individual medical entrepreneurs also emigrated and provided services. This paper describes the pattern of medical settlement in the colony's earliest years and relates this to the health of the population and the development of medical and hospital services.

  16. Cultural safety in New Zealand midwifery practice. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Farry, Annabel; Crowther, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Midwives in New Zealand work within a unique cultural context. This calls for an understanding and appreciation of biculturalism and the equal status of Mãori and Europeans as the nation's founding peoples. This paper is the first of two papers that explore the notions of cultural safety and competence. Exploration and discussion take place in the New Zealand context, yet have transferable implications for midwives everywhere. This first paper provides a background to practice in a bicultural country where cultural safety strategies were introduced over 20 years ago to help reduce health disparities. The implications of these strategies are examined. The second paper will focus on midwifery education and practice.

  17. Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John

    2014-09-01

    Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The disease pyramid for acute gastrointestinal illness in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lake, R J; Adlam, S B; Perera, S; Campbell, D M; Baker, M G

    2010-10-01

    The disease pyramid of under-ascertainment for surveillance of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in New Zealand has been estimated using 2005-2007 data on notifiable diseases, a community telephone survey, and a survey of diagnostic laboratories. For each notified case of AGI there were an estimated 222 cases in the community, about 49 of which visited a general practitioner. Faecal samples were requested from about 15 of these cases, and 13 samples were provided. Of the faecal samples, pathogens were detected in about three cases. These ratios are similar to those reported in other developed countries, and provide baseline measurements of the AGI burden in the New Zealand community.

  19. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  20. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  1. Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. J.; White, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) is a major Pliocene-Quaternary NNE-SSW orientated,volcano-tectonic complex, about 250 km long and up to 60 km wide in the central North Island of New Zealand. The TVZ is one of the largest and most frequently active rhyolitic magmatic systems on Earth, characterised by intense shallow seismic activity, high natural heat flow (some 12-20 times the continental norm) and active NW-SE extension. To the north of the TVZ, subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the oceanic lithosphere of the Australian Plate is accompanied by a region of back-arc extension (the Havre Trough). The TVZ marks the southern continuation of this back-arc extension into continental lithosphere.The TVZ therefore represents an ideal opportunity to study the onset of back-arc spreading onshore. Here we present forward and inverse models of the crustal structure beneath the TVZ. These models incorporate both active and passive source data acquired from the NIGHT (North Island GeopHysical Transect) project. Common to both models is a 2-3km deep basin of low velocity sediments which we interpret to be ignimbrite deposits. Typical basement velocities of ˜6km/s are observed beneath and to either side of the TVZ, where they correlate well with mapped outcrops of basement rocks. Velocities of around 7.3 km/s are observed at depths greater than 16 km beneath the TVZ. Such velocities may be interpreted as anomalously low velocity upper manlte or heavly intruded lower crust. Having constrained the crustal structure we then use earthquake events from the subducting Pacific Plate to yield information on the velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the TVZ. NIGHT Working Group A. Harrison, J. Haines, R. White (University of Cambridge,United Kingdom); S. Henrys, S. Bannister, I. Pecher, F. Davey (Inst. Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt, New Zealand); T. Stern, W. Stratford (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand); H. Shimamura, Y. Nishimura, and A. Yamada

  2. Turbid white urine

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Manel; Molano, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Turbid white urine ‘albinuria’ is defined as a urine discoloration described as milky or cloudy. One of the most frequent causes of turbid white urine is chyluria complicating filariasis (Table 1). The extant causes of albinuria are non parasitic and rare. Amongst their aetiologies stand excessive mineral sediment excretion such as calciuria and phosphaturia, massive pyuria and fungal infections, and rarely congenital malformations of the lymphatic vessels. Malingering is also possible, in patients adding milk to their urine. We observed a case of albinuria in which the diagnostic work up led to diagnosing an exceptional cause of chyluria in a patient living in a region of Colombia where filariasis is not endemic. PMID:25949403

  3. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    The Made In Space company displays some of the tools that can be made by their 3D printer during the first ever White House Maker Faire which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The Made In Space 3D printer was just approved by NASA to be tested onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and NASA announced a challenge for students to design items that would be printed by this first 3D printer to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    A prototype model of the Made In Space 3D printer is on display during the first ever White House Maker Faire which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The Made In Space 3D printer was just approved by NASA to be tested onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and NASA announced a challenge for students to design items that would be printed by this first 3D printer to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    Lindsay Lawlor, of San Diego, Calif., left, demonstrates his creation, a 17-foot-tall, robotic giraffe that "walks" on wheels and is powered by a 12-horsepower hybrid fuel-engine motor, during the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. 'Snow White' Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 43, the 43rd Martian day after landing (July 8, 2008). This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White.'

    Two samples were delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory, which is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The first sample was taken from the surface area just left of the trench and informally named 'Rosy Red.' It was delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). The second sample, informally named 'Sorceress,' was taken from the center of the 'Snow White' trench and delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 41 (July 6, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    Sara Ann Wylie of Public Lab shows the do to yourself Balloon Mapping Kit, during the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The Balloon Mapping Kit enables you to take your own aerial photos from 1000 ft or higher. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Professional Development for E-Learning: Researching a Strategy for New Zealand's Tertiary Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Mansvelt, Juliana; Stein, Sarah; Suddaby, Gordon; Harris, Irene; O'Hara, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    This collaborative research project devised a framework to support professional development for e-learning within New Zealand's diverse and integrated tertiary education sector. The research was supported by New Zealand's Ministry of Education. The research included reviews of developments in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand and a…

  9. History in the New Zealand Curriculum: Discourse Shaping and Key Competencies Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Philippa

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on history in the New Zealand curriculum in light of its seemingly confused curriculum identity despite revision processes of the New Zealand Curriculum (NZC; New Zealand Ministry of Education, 2007). Some thinking about curriculum as a socially constructed political process that teachers can actively engage with sets the scene…

  10. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  11. Asia-Born New Zealand-Educated Business Graduates' Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Vivienne; McGrath, Terry; Butcher, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In 2008 the Asia New Zealand Foundation commissioned a three-year project examining Asia-born New Zealand-educated business graduates' study to work transitions. Data were collected through annual online surveys and in-depth interviews. Graduates were asked to discuss their post-study experiences, reflections on studying in New Zealand, and…

  12. An Evaluation of Characteristics of Environmental Education Practice in New Zealand Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eames, Chris; Cowie, Bronwen; Bolstad, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a national evaluation project that investigated characteristics of environmental education (EE) practice in New Zealand schools in 2002-2003. The research included a review of New Zealand and international environmental education literature, a survey of nearly 200 New Zealand schools and case studies of environmental…

  13. Asian Students' Voices: An Empirical Study of Asian Students' Learning Experiences at a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jacqui; Li, Mingsheng

    2008-01-01

    More than 85% of the international students in New Zealand are Asian in origin. The level of satisfaction of Asian international students with their learning experiences in New Zealand has been of enormous concern for the New Zealand export education industry. The results of this current research, based on a qualitative research study conducted at…

  14. The Transition from Teaching in an International Context Back to New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anthony; Carlyon, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    While there can be benefits from having overseas teaching experience, the transition back to New Zealand is not always easy for teachers who have previously gained their initial teaching qualification and certification in New Zealand. Upon returning to New Zealand from teaching in an international context, teachers can find it difficult having…

  15. Te Reo Maori: Indigenous Language Acquisition in the Context of New Zealand English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Keegan, Peter; McNaughton, Stuart; Kingi, Te Kani; Carr, Polly Atatoa; Schmidt, Johanna; Mohal, Jatender; Grant, Cameron; Morton, Susan

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the status of te reo Maori, the indigenous language of New Zealand, in the context of New Zealand English. From a broadly representative sample of 6327 two-year-olds ("Growing Up in New Zealand"), 6090 mothers (96%) reported their children understood English, and 763 mothers (12%) reported their children understood…

  16. A Visit to a New Zealand School: Informal but On-Task, Strict but Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfengardner, Jerrold D.; O'Dell, Frank L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a visit by two educators to a primary school in Auckland, New Zealand. Discusses the development of children, educational goals, traditions, curricula, administration, and facilities of this New Zealand school. Finds the major difference is the New Zealand school's child-centered approach. (MS)

  17. Emerging Voices or Linguistic Silence?: Examining a New Zealand Linguistic Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2010-01-01

    The monolingualism of New Zealand has often been remarked on, but statutory and demographic changes in recent years suggest a shift away from the dominance of the English language. New Zealand now has two official languages, the indigenous Maori language and New Zealand Sign Language, and census data report a decreasing proportion of monolingual…

  18. Taking the Step to Skill New Zealand. A Guide for Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Qualifications Authority, Wellington.

    Skill New Zealand is a strategy to raise the skill levels of all New Zealanders, an industry-led approach to skills development that will increase the quantity, quality, and diversity of training in that country. The booklet contains four sections. The first section explains what Skill New Zealand is and why employers should become involved it.…

  19. Why People Gamble: A Qualitative Study of Four New Zealand Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Samson; Dyall, Lorna; Clarke, Dave; Abbott, Max; Townsend, Sonia; Kingi, Pefi

    2012-01-01

    In multicultural countries such as New Zealand, it is particularly important that gambling research take into account possible cultural differences. Many New Zealanders come from cultures that do not have a history of gambling, including the Maori (New Zealand indigenous people), Pacific Islanders, and recent migrants. Little research has examined…

  20. A Closer Look at Completion in Higher Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David J.

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand has one of the lowest reported higher education qualification completion rates in the OECD, significantly below Australia. Why do so many New Zealand students not complete their qualification? This paper looks behind some of the numbers in an attempt to understand better and assess New Zealand's performance compared with Australia and…

  1. Dosing up on Food and Physical Activity: New Zealand Children's Ideas about "Health"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Lisette; Wright, Jan; McCormack, Jaleh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate New Zealand children's understandings of "health". Design: Secondary analysis of student responses to a task called "Being Healthy" in New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project. Setting: Year 4 (8-9 year-old) and Year 8 (12-13 year-old) students who took part in New Zealand's National…

  2. Collapsing white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, E.; Cooperstein, J.; Kahana, S.; Nomoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the hydrodynamic collapse of an accreting C + O white dwarf are presented. Collapse is induced by electron captures in the iron core behind a conductive deflagration front. The shock wave produced by the hydrodynamic bounce of the iron core stalls at about 115 km, and thus a neutron star formed in such a model would be formed as an optically quiet event.

  3. Odyssey/White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Mars Odyssey images show the 'White Rock' feature on Mars in both infrared (left) and visible (right) wavelengths. The images were acquired simultaneously on March 11, 2002. The box shows where the visible image is located in the infrared image. 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform that was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. The variations in brightness in the infrared image are due to differences in surface temperature, where dark is cool and bright is warm. The dramatic differences between the infrared and visible views of White Rock are the result of solar heating. The relatively bright surfaces observed at visible wavelengths reflect more solar energy than the darker surfaces, allowing them to stay cooler and thus they appear dark in the infrared image. The new thermal emission imaging system data will help to address the long standing question of whether the White Rock deposit was produced in an ancient crater lake or by dry processes of volcanic or wind deposition. The infrared image has a resolution of 100 meters (328 feet) per pixel and is 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide. The visible image has a resolution of 18 meters per pixel and is approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) wide. The images are centered at 8.2 degrees south latitude and 24.9 degrees east longitude.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Decoding white coat hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  5. Associations between dietary patterns, socio-demographic factors and anthropometric measurements in adult New Zealanders: an analysis of data from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Beck, K L; Jones, B; Ullah, I; McNaughton, S A; Haslett, S J; Stonehouse, W

    2018-06-01

    To investigate associations between dietary patterns, socio-demographic factors and anthropometric measurements in adult New Zealanders. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis in adults 15 years plus (n = 4657) using 24-h diet recall data from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Multivariate regression was used to investigate associations between dietary patterns and age, gender and ethnicity. After controlling for demographic factors, associations between dietary patterns and food insecurity, deprivation, education, and smoking were investigated. Associations between dietary patterns and body mass index and waist circumference were examined adjusting for demographic factors, smoking and energy intake. Two dietary patterns were identified. 'Healthy' was characterised by breakfast cereal, low fat milk, soy and rice milk, soup and stock, yoghurt, bananas, apples, other fruit and tea, and low intakes of pies and pastries, potato chips, white bread, takeaway foods, soft drinks, beer and wine. 'Traditional' was characterised by beef, starchy vegetables, green vegetables, carrots, tomatoes, savoury sauces, regular milk, cream, sugar, tea and coffee, and was low in takeaway foods. The 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with age, female gender, New Zealand European or other ethnicity, and a secondary school qualification, and inversely associated with smoking, food insecurity, area deprivation, BMI and waist circumference. The 'traditional' pattern was positively associated with age, male gender, smoking, food insecurity and inversely associated with a secondary school qualification. A 'Healthy' dietary pattern was associated with higher socio-economic status and reduced adiposity, while the 'traditional' pattern was associated with lower socio-economic status.

  6. Sixth New Zealand Computer Conference (Auckland 78). Volume I, Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Computer Society, Auckland.

    This collection of conference presentations includes 23 papers on a variety of topics pertaining to the use of computer in New Zealand. Among the topics discussed are computer science techniques in a commercial data processing situation, data processing personnel and their careers, the communication aspects of an airline system, implementation of…

  7. Video Self-Reflection and Coach Development in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Simon; Spencer, Kirsten; Kidman, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from semi-structured interviews with New Zealand coaches (N = 6), this study examined how video self-reflection (VSR) was perceived as a tool for learning within "on-going" coach development. This study also looked to determine the potential barriers experienced by coaches before engaging in VSR. Each participant was a…

  8. Honoring Family and Culture: Learning from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    The New Zealand Ministry of Education's early childhood curriculum policy is built on a framework called "Te Whariki." This framework provides a sociocultural context for children's early learning and emphasizes a learning partnership between teachers, parents, families, and community. Besides interpersonal relationships, Te Whariki…

  9. Aspiring Principal Development Programme Evaluation in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Youngs, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The New Zealand Ministry of Education has constructed a wide-ranging "Professional Development Plan" providing a four-stage national pathway for progression to principalship; the first stage has been the conduction of the National Aspiring Principals Pilot (NAPP) programme in five regional locations. The purpose of this paper is…

  10. The State of Accounting Education Scholarship in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines publishing trends of New Zealand accounting education scholars over the 20-year period 1991-2010. Longitudinal analyses of the annual number of publications, research theme studied, researcher productivity, and institutional productivity, along with cross-sectional analyses of authors' Hirsch "h"-index scores, the…

  11. Solar Wind drivers affecting GIC magnitude in New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Manus, D. H.; Rodger, C. J.; Dalzell, M.; Petersen, T.; Clilverd, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Interplanetary shocks arriving at the Earth drive magnetosphere and ionosphere current systems. Ground based magnetometers detect the time derivation of the horizontal magnetic field (dBH/dt) which can indicate the strength of these ionospheric currents. The strong dBH/dt spikes have been observed to cause large Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC) in New Zealand. Such could, potentially lead to large scale damage to technological infrastructure such as power network transformers; one transformer was written off in New Zealand after a sudden commencement on 6 November 2001. The strength of the incoming interplanetary shocks are monitored by satellite measurements undertaken at the L1 point. Such measurements could give power network operators a 20-60 minute warning before potentially damaging GIC occurs. In this presentation we examine solar wind measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Wind, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). We contrast those solar wind observations with GIC measured in New Zealand's South Island from 2001 to 2016. We are searching for a consistent relationship between the incoming interplanetary shock and the GIC magnitude. Such a relationship would allow Transpower New Zealand Limited a small time window to implement mitigation plans in order to restrict any GIC-caused damage.

  12. Peace Education in New Zealand. Peace Education Miniprints No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinge, James

    This paper reports that the story of peace education in New Zealand has been one of extremes. While there has been some interest in the subject for decades, it was only in the 1980s that there was any serious activity and widespread debate. In 1984, the conservative National government, which had ruled the country for 9 years, was replaced by a…

  13. The Polynesian and Educational Inequality in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoonley, Paul

    New Zealand shares with other Southeast Asian nations two sets of problems which stem from the presence of several distinct communities in one geographical/political area: the first relates to treatment of linguistic minorities, indigenous and immigrant; the second is that of social or regional dialects which, while not totally distinct from an…

  14. Shifting Landscapes of Counselling Identities in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The professional identity of counsellors and guidance practitioners in Aotearoa New Zealand is currently under review as a result of the passing of legislation regulating health professionals and the proposed introduction of national registration of counsellors. In this paper I explore this debate, and examine the professional identities claimed…

  15. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  16. Climatology of meteorological ``bombs'' in the New Zealand region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, L. M.; Leplastrier, M.; Buckley, B. W.; Qi, L.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a recently developed climatology of explosively developing south eastern Tasman Sea extra-tropical cyclones, or meteorological “bombs”, using a latitude dependent definition for meteorological bombs based on that of Simmonds and Keay (2000a, b), and Lim and Simmonds (2002). These highly transient systems, which have a damaging impact upon New Zealand, are frequently accompanied by destructive winds, flood rains, and coastal storm surges. Two cases are selected from the climatology and briefly described here. The first case study is the major flood and storm force wind event of June 20 to 21, 2002 that affected the Coromandel Peninsula region of the North Island of New Zealand. The second case was a “supercyclone” bomb that developed well to the southwest of New Zealand region during May 29 to 31, 2004, but which could easily have formed in the New Zealand region with catastrophic consequences. It was well-captured by the new high resolution Quikscat scatterometer instrument.

  17. The New Zealand Policy Framework for Career Information and Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lester; von Dadelszen, Jane

    The education sector of New Zealand was restructured in 1989. Career Services was created by integrating the Vocational Guidance Service and careers information functions from the Department of Labor. The goal of the Career Services is to assist in the achievement of government education, training, and employment goals through high quality…

  18. Reframing Health Education in New Zealand/Aotearoa Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkinson, Margaret; Burrows, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    Health education in New Zealand schools has a chequered history, peppered with controversy since its inclusion as a school subject in the early nineteenth century. In this paper we examine the trials and challenges faced by health education teachers over time, pointing to the particular components of this subject that are regarded as controversial…

  19. Images of Academic Leadership in Large New Zealand Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardno, Carol

    2013-01-01

    As accountability stakes continue to be raised in all education sectors, leadership as a factor that can have an impact on improved student outcomes is being studied with heightened interest. This study was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in New Zealand's large urban polytechnics with the aim of investigating the nature and expectations of academic…

  20. School Culture Meets Sport: A Case Study in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Lisette; McCormack, Jaleh

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic work undertaken with 21 students and several members of staff at an elite girls' school in New Zealand to investigate the relation between school culture, pedagogical practices and discourses of physical education and school sport. It explores what and who contours the participation of these young women in sport,…

  1. New Zealand Free Kindergartens: Free or Freely Forgotten?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s in New Zealand, the kindergarten service, once called the "flagship" within early childhood education, has changed in reaction to the need for "diversity" and "responsiveness" to its communities and restructured government requirements. This paper draws on life-history interviews with a small group of…

  2. Language Teacher Research in Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne, Ed.; Burton, Jill, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, inquiry-based teaching has become a highly valued component of professional development and practitioner research in Australia and New Zealand. This volume of the Language Teacher Research Series focuses on teaching and learning experiences in those two countries, which encompass a large geographical area with diverse…

  3. How New Zealand Consumers Respond to Plain English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nittaya

    1999-01-01

    Considers how New Zealand has seen a need for providing readily understandable business and government documents. Reports a psycholinguistic study testing the level of consumer comprehension of bank contracts, and the effect of using plain English to rewrite them. Finds that the most effective means of enhancing comprehension was that which…

  4. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  5. Structural Change, Professional Change: The New Zealand School Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Brian O.

    The New Zealand education structures were reorganized on a national scale in the late 1980s. In 18 months, a 100-year-old education system was radically restructured to create new administrative structures, new career paths, and new professional expectations for personnel. This paper summarizes these structural changes, reviews research reports…

  6. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  7. Understanding Student Learning in Environmental Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eames, Chris; Barker, Miles

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a perspective on environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand. To contextualise this perspective, it illustrates how environmental, socio-cultural and political imperatives have shaped the development of environmental education in this land. These imperatives illuminate the natural history of the country, the…

  8. Leadership Learning: A Development Initiative for Experienced New Zealand Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardno, Carol; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: During the 2000-2004 period, one New Zealand tertiary institution provided a management development programme for experienced secondary school principals. Aims to determine the extent to which the learning had been sustained beyond the formal programme. Design/methodology/approach: A postal questionnaire was administered to 80…

  9. New Zealand health reforms: effect on ophthalmic practice.

    PubMed

    Raynel, S; Reynolds, H

    1999-01-01

    Are specialized ophthalmic units with inpatient facilities going to disappear in the New Zealand public health system? We have entered the era of cost containment, business methodologies, bench marking, day case surgery, and technologic advances. The dilemma for nursing is maintenance of a skill base with dwindling clinical practice areas.

  10. Reporting of suicide by the New Zealand media.

    PubMed

    Thom, Katey; McKenna, Brian; Edwards, Gareth; O'Brien, Anthony; Nakarada-Kordic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Rates of suicide in New Zealand are high compared with those of other countries. International evidence suggests that the reporting of suicide may influence rates of suicidal behavior. No research exists, however, on the reporting of suicide by New Zealand media. This study provides the first baseline picture of the reporting of suicide by New Zealand media. The overall objective was to use the findings to inform future development of media guidelines by the Ministry of Health. Newspaper, Internet, television and radio news items on suicide were collected over 12 months. Descriptive statistical data on the nature and extent of the reporting of suicide were generated through content analysis of applicable items. A random sample of 10% was then subjected to a quality analysis to determine whether items aligned with the Ministry of Health's guideline for the reporting of suicide. A total of 3,483 items were extracted, most of which reported on an individual's attempted or completed suicide, while suicide methods were not often mentioned. Few items focused on people overcoming their difficulties or provided information to assist people struggling with suicidal ideation. The reporting of suicide by New Zealand media was extensive and generally of good quality. Better collaboration between the media and mental health professionals is needed, however, to increase information supplied within items on support services. More succinct guidelines and increased journalist awareness of their existence would also contribute to the quality of reporting on suicide.

  11. Somali Students' Perceptions of a New Zealand Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Cultural diversity is growing in New Zealand and deserves to be celebrated for the richness and opportunities for understanding it brings to our lives. Culturally-responsive approaches to education accept diversity and enable students to draw on their unique cultural capital as a learning resource. The aim of this study was to contribute to the…

  12. Commitment Approach to Motivating Community Recycling: New Zealand Curbside Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Wendy J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    In a New Zealand community, 200 households made commitment to recycle and 201 did not; 198 were asked to pay for recycling bins, 203 were not. A control group received only recycling information. Verbal commitment significantly increased participation. Difficulties in administering the financial incentive made it impossible to determine effect on…

  13. Knowledge Equivalence Discourse in New Zealand Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rata, Elizabeth; Taylor, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical inquiry undertaken in this paper examines the discourse of knowledge equivalence used to justify conflating academic and non-academic subjects in New Zealand secondary school science. The purpose is to open up a critical discussion of the discourse and its influence on curriculum and pedagogy. Using a conceptual methodology, we…

  14. A revision of the New Zealand Kunzea ericoides (Myrtaceae) complex

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand Kunzea ericoides complex is presented. This paper is the final of a series that has explored the systematics of the New Zealand Kunzea complex using cytological and molecular variation, as well as experimental hybridisations between postulated segregates. As a result of those studies ten species, all endemic to New Zealand, are recognised; seven of these are new. One species, Kunzea triregensis sp. nov., is endemic to the Three Kings Islands and another species Kunzea sinclairii, endemic to Aotea (Great Barrier Island). The North Island of New Zealand has seven species, Kunzea amathicola sp. nov., Kunzea salterae sp. nov., Kunzea serotina sp. nov., Kunzea robusta sp. nov., Kunzea tenuicaulis sp. nov., Kunzea toelkenii sp. nov., and Kunzea linearis comb. nov. Of these, Kunzea linearis, Kunzea salterae, Kunzea tenuicaulis and Kunzea toelkenii are endemic to the North Island, and Kunzea amathicola, Kunzea robusta and Kunzea serotina extend to the South Island which also supports one endemic, Kunzea ericoides. Typifications are published for Leptospermum ericoides A.Rich., Leptospermum ericoides var. linearis Kirk, Leptospermum ericoides var. microflorum G.Simps., Leptospermum ericoides var. pubescens Kirk, and Leptospermum sinclairii Kirk, names here all referred to Kunzea. The ecology, conservation, extent of natural hybridisation and some aspects of the ethnobotany (vernacular names) of these Kunzea are also discussed. PMID:25197228

  15. Education in New Zealand. Bulletin, 1964, No. 34. OE-14105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrien, Marcia T.

    1964-01-01

    This bulletin presents a study of the development of education in New Zealand. Chapter I, Historical Development of Education, covers the growth of education since 1877. Chapter II, Educational Administration and Finance provides details on the Act of 1877; the organization, functions and responsibilities of the Department of Education; and the…

  16. Auckland--New Zealand's Los Angeles or San Francisco?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogunovich, Dushko

    1995-01-01

    Compares Auckland (New Zealand) with San Francisco (California) in terms of topographical structure, geographic location, and urban development. Both cities contain striking similarities. Maintains that Auckland can become a world-class city renowned for its beauty if developers and government work in tandem. (MJP)

  17. Discursive Constructions of Literacies: Shifting Sands in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandretto, Susan; Tilson, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Literacy policy and pedagogy in Aotearoa New Zealand have a strong discursive heritage of traditional literacies, which emphasise code breaking and meaning making with linguistic codes and conventions over other possible modes of communication. In a rapidly evolving landscape where changes in communication technologies give birth to new literacies…

  18. Marketing fat and sugar to children on New Zealand television.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nick; Signal, Louise; Nicholls, Sarah; Thomson, George

    2006-02-01

    We aimed to determine the frequency and content of television food advertisements during children's viewing times on various New Zealand television channels. A content analysis was conducted of two free-to-air channels covering a total of 155 h of television time during children's viewing times (n = 858 food advertisements in 2005). Comparisons were made with data from 1997 and data from Australia. Compared to Australian channels, both New Zealand channels (TV3 and TV2) had significantly higher proportions of food advertisements that were classified as being "high in fat and/or sugar" (54% versus 80% and 69%, respectively). Using a more detailed classification system, 70.3% of food advertisements on the New Zealand channels were for foods "counter to improved nutrition" (95% CI: 67.1%, 73.3%) compared to those "favoring improved nutrition" at 5.1% (95% CI: 3.8%, 6.9%). The number of food advertisements per hour was higher in 2005 than in 1997 for the channel (TV2) for which there was time trend data (12.8 versus 8.0 per hour for the afternoon time slot). These findings provide further evidence that the majority of food advertising on New Zealand television is counter to nutritional guidelines. They suggest the need for further regulatory or other controls.

  19. New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum: The Politics of Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand early childhood curriculum, "Te Whariki" (Ministry of Education [MoE],1996), is frequently hailed as a community inspired curriculum, praised nationally and internationally for its collaborative development, emancipatory spirit and bicultural approach. In its best form community can be collaborative, consultative,…

  20. History of Transracial Adoption: A New Zealand Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the New Zealand legal history of adoption and the effect it has had on Maori. The status of children within Maori and European societies before and during the early contact periods differed, and it is from here that the author begins this article. These two societies had their own terms in relation to the care of children by…

  1. Inclusion in Aotearoa/New Zealand: From Rhetoric to Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    This article argues that the education system in Aotearoa/New Zealand relegates children with disabilities, along with Maori and children of minority groups, to the margins of education. It stresses the need for teachers to focus on ways in which inclusion practices are reinforcing the marginal position of many students. (Contains references.)…

  2. Noise impact issues on the Great Walks of New Zealand

    Treesearch

    Gordon R. Cessford

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the features of recreational noise impacts and presents examples from popular New Zealand backcountry trails. Some noise effects were noticed at very high levels, and a varied range of tolerance for these was noted. Aircraft noise provided the most extreme impact example, while noise impacts from motorboats and social behaviour in huts were also...

  3. Diversity in New Zealand Early Childhood Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuker, Mary Jane; Cherrington, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The early childhood education (ECE) sector in New Zealand has long been recognised for the diversity of service types and range of organisations involved in delivering ECE. However, less attention has been paid to diversity within individual ECE services. This article draws on a national survey carried out as part of a larger project, "The…

  4. Service Climate in New Zealand English Language Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on the findings of a study into staff perceptions of service climate in New Zealand English language centres (ELCs) offering ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) courses. Design/methodology/approach: A 71-item questionnaire based on a Likert scale was used to survey non-management teaching and…

  5. Adolescence in New Zealand. Volume Two: Wider Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.

    This is the second of a two-volume collection of research-based readings dealing with the New Zealand adolescent. This volume considers the areas of drugs and delinquency, as well as the world of work and Maori-pakeha differences. The following topics are included: marihuana use; vocational aspiration; alcohol and tobacco use; Maori-pakeha…

  6. Bringing Thunder: Tribal College Presidents Explore Indigenous New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease-Pretty, Janine

    2002-01-01

    Describes visit of American tribal college and university presidents, faculty, and staff to Maori tribal colleges and schools in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Suggests that findings from the study of Maori educational systems will affect tribal education in the U.S. (NB)

  7. New alphacoronavirus in Mystacina tuberculata bats, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J; Wang, Jing; Peacey, Matthew; Moore, Nicole E; McInnes, Kate; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2014-04-01

    Because of recent interest in bats as reservoirs of emerging diseases, we investigated the presence of viruses in Mystacina tuberculata bats in New Zealand. A novel alphacoronavirus sequence was detected in guano from roosts of M. tuberculata bats in pristine indigenous forest on a remote offshore island (Codfish Island).

  8. The Reform of New Zealand's University System: "After Neoliberalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Cris

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the legacy of three decades of neoliberal reforms on New Zealand's university system. By tracing the different government policies during this period, it seeks to contribute to wider debates about the trajectory of contemporary universities in an age of globalisation. Since Lyotard's influential report on "The Postmodern…

  9. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  10. Strategic Directions in New Zealand's Tertiary Education Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the different ways in which the polytechnics in Auckland in New Zealand have changed their growth strategies since they were given a degree of autonomy in 1990. Since then the three institutions have followed similar, but not entirely identical strategies, which has meant that the three institutions have…

  11. Lessons from New Zealand: Developing Student Voices with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Mike; Burt, Dorothy; Williams, Mia Kim

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen members of ISTE's Special Interest Group for Teacher Educators (SIGTE) traveled to Auckland, Rotorua, and Christchurch to visit seven schools and present and attend the Learning@School 2010 conference as part of a travel tour last February. This second installment about their trip features ways they saw technology used in New Zealand to…

  12. Forward to the Past in New Zealand Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Roger

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates how the culture of teacher education developed after World War II in New Zealand, highlighting the former Palmerston North College of Education and contending that the culture was shaped by: the ongoing requirement to train (at minimal cost) competent elementary teachers in accordance with government laws of supply and demand and…

  13. Some prehistory of New Zealand intensive care medicine.

    PubMed

    Trubuhovich, R V

    2009-07-01

    In taking 1960 as the foundation year for the practice of intensive care medicine in New Zealand, this paper briefly looks into the previous two centuries for some interventions in life-threatening conditions. With the help of descriptions in early 19th century journals and books by perceptive observers, the author focuses on some beliefs and practices of the Maori people during pre-European and later times, as well as aspects of medical treatment in New Zealand for early settlers and their descendents. Dr Laurie Gluckman's book Tangiwai has proved a valuable resource for New Zealand's medical history prior to 1860, while the recent publication of his findings from the examination of coroners' records for Auckland, 1841 to 1864, has been helpful. Drowning is highlighted as a common cause of accidental death, and consideration is given to alcohol as a factor. Following the 1893 foundation of the New Zealand Medical Journal, a limited number of its papers which are historically relevant to today's intensive care are explored: topics include tetanus, laryngeal diphtheria, direct cardiac massage, traumatic shock, thiopentone management for fitting and the ventilatory failure due to poliomyelitis.

  14. Before Five: Early Childhood Care and Education in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Dept. of Education, Wellington.

    This publication outlines the Government of New Zealand's new plans and policies for the administration of early childhood care and education. Specific features are discussed in detail in sections concerning: (1) early childhood care and education at the local level, specifically management structures and responsibilities, the use of Crown land,…

  15. Energy Literacy and Agency of New Zealand Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Bielschowsky, I.; Lawson, R.; Stephenson, J.; Todd, S.

    2017-01-01

    The development of energy literacy (knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviour) and agency of New Zealand children (age 9-10) were investigated through thematic and exploratory statistical analyses of interviews (October 2011-April 2012) with 26 children, their parents and teachers, focus groups and photo elicitation. The children knew that…

  16. Teacher Education in New Zealand 1974-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, Noeline

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand teacher education has been profoundly affected by major social and economic changes since 1974. From a separate sector controlled by the Department of Education, it has moved through deregulation to largely university provision with research imperatives for staff. Programme scope has broadened to embrace early childhood and the…

  17. Lost in Translation: Aligning Strategies for Research in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billot, Jennie; Codling, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to new criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur,…

  18. Liability for medical malpractice--recent New Zealand developments.

    PubMed

    Sladden, Nicola; Graydon, Sarah

    2009-03-01

    Over the last 30 years in New Zealand, civil liability for personal injury including "medical malpractice" has been most notable for its absence. The system of accident compensation and the corresponding bar on personal injury claims has been an interesting contrast to the development of tort law claims for personal injury in other jurisdictions. The Health and Disability Commissioner was appointed in 1994 to protect and promote the rights of health and disability consumers as set out in the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights. An important right in the Code, in terms of an equivalent to the common law duty to take reasonable care, is that patients have the right to services of an appropriate standard. Several case studies from the Commissioner's Office are used to illustrate New Zealand's unique medico-legal system and demonstrate how the traditional common law obligation of reasonable care and skill is applied. From an international perspective, the most interesting aspect of liability for medical malpractice in New Zealand is its relative absence - in a tortious sense anyway. This paper will give some general background on the New Zealand legal landscape and discuss recent case studies of interest.

  19. Development in New Zealand. Development Education Paper No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bob

    Although recognized as being out-of-date, two characteristics of New Zealand's outlook on the world (a monocultural attitude and isolationism), have played a significant part in forming community opinions and attitudes on national and international development questions. Attitudes toward Third World countries are narrowed by lack of information,…

  20. Patterns of fungal diversity in New Zealand Nothofagus forests.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter R; Johansen, Renee B; Williams, Alexandra F R; Paula Wikie, J; Park, Duckchul

    2012-03-01

    The development of protocols for the conservation of fungi requires knowledge of the factors controlling their distribution, diversity, and community composition. Here we compare patterns of variation in fungal communities across New Zealand's Nothofagus forests, reportedly the most myco-diverse in New Zealand and hence potentially key to effective conservation of fungi in New Zealand. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi, as assessed by culturing on agar plates, is assessed for three Nothofagus sp. growing in mixed stands from four sites. Host species was found to have a greater influence on fungal community assemblage than site. The leaf endophyte communities associated with Nothofagus solandri and Nothofagus fusca (both Nothofagus subgenus Fuscopora), were more similar to each other than either were to the community associated with Nothofagus menziesii (Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia). The broad taxonomic groups isolated, identified on the basis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, were similar to those found in similar studies from other parts of the world, and from an earlier study on the endophyte diversity in four podocarp species from New Zealand, but there were few matches at species level. Average levels of endophyte species diversity associated with single Nothofagus species and single podocarp species were similar, despite historical literature and collection data recording more than twice as many fungal species on average from the Nothofagus species. The significance of these findings to fungal conservation is discussed. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  2. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  3. Restorative Justice: Two Examples from New Zealand Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearmouth, Janice; McKinney, Rawiri; Glynn, Ted

    2007-01-01

    In this article, Janice Wearmouth, formerly professor of education at the University of Wellington, New Zealand and now at Liverpool Hope University, Rawiri McKinney, an advocate for Rangatahi who has recently completed his Master of Education degree, and Ted Glynn, foundation professor of teacher education at the University of Waikato, discuss…

  4. A Glimpse into the Thinking of Young New Zealanders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Hilary

    In 1984, New Zealand tested 12- and 13- year-old and 15- and 16-year old students as part of the International Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) tests. Although weaknesses appeared at both age levels in the organization of material, particularly in argumentative and expository writing, students could write functional letters competently…

  5. Professional Development Design: Embedding Educational Reform in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Louise; Yates, Anne; Meyer, Luanna H.; Hall, Cedric; Taylor, Mike; Stevens, Susan; Toia, Rawiri

    2009-01-01

    Teacher professional development variously supports ongoing skill development, new knowledge, and systems change. In New Zealand, the implementation of major assessment reforms in senior secondary schools provided opportunity to investigate teacher professional development as a function of the particular stage of an educational reform.…

  6. Refining Family Literacy Practice: A New Zealand Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseman, John

    2006-01-01

    Following the results of the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) in 1996, there has been an upsurge of interest in adult literacy in New Zealand. This interest is reflected in a national adult literacy strategy with foundation learning as one of the government's six priorities for the postschool sector. One result of this policy change has…

  7. The genus Dendrothele (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) in New Zealand

    Treesearch

    K.K. Nakasone; H.H. Burdsall

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen species of Dendrothele sensu lato are confirmed from New Zealand. Nine new taxa are described: Dendrothele arachispora, D. aucklandica, D. australis, D. cymbiformis, D. leptostachys, D. magnenavicularis, D. navicularis, D. novae-zelandiae and D. subellipsoidea. Ten species were previously reported, but...

  8. Penal Innovation in New Zealand: He Ara Hou.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Greg; Eskridge, Chris

    1994-01-01

    Explores prison history/development in New Zealand, focusing on recent implementation of progressive prison operation/management program, He Ara Hou. Notes extremely positive results of program, such as higher administrative efficiency; greatly decreased levels of internal disorder; competent, stable workforce; and human product whose senses of…

  9. The safety experience of New Zealand adventure tourism operators.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.

  10. Bioethical issues and health care chaplaincy in aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes survey and interview results from a cross-sectional study of New Zealand health care chaplaincy personnel concerning their involvement in multiple bioethical issues encountered by patients, families and clinical staff within the health care context. Some implications of this study concerning health care chaplaincy, ecclesiastical institutions, health care institutions and government responsibilities are discussed and recommendations presented.

  11. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response. PMID:17020623

  12. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-10-04

    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  13. Soil CO2 emissions as a proxy for heat and mass flow assessment, Taupō Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloomberg, S.; Werner, Cynthia A.; Rissmann, C.F.; Mazot, A.; Horton, Travis B.; Gravley, D; Kennedy, B.; Oze, C

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of heat and mass flow between deep reservoirs and the surface is important for understanding magmatic and hydrothermal systems. Here, we use high-resolution measurement of carbon dioxide flux (φCO2) and heat flow at the surface to characterize the mass (CO2 and steam) and heat released to the atmosphere from two magma-hydrothermal systems. Our soil gas and heat flow surveys at Rotokawa and White Island in the Taupō Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, include over 3000 direct measurements of φCO2 and soil temperature and 60 carbon isotopic values on soil gases. Carbon dioxide flux was separated into background and magmatic/hydrothermal populations based on the measured values and isotopic characterization. Total CO2 emission rates (ΣCO2) of 441 ± 84 t d−1 and 124 ± 18 t d−1were calculated for Rotokawa (2.9 km2) and for the crater floor at White Island (0.3 km2), respectively. The total CO2 emissions differ from previously published values by +386 t d−1 at Rotokawa and +25 t d−1 at White Island, demonstrating that earlier research underestimated emissions by 700% (Rotokawa) and 25% (White Island). These differences suggest that soil CO2 emissions facilitate more robust estimates of the thermal energy and mass flux in geothermal systems than traditional approaches. Combining the magmatic/hydrothermal-sourced CO2 emission (constrained using stable isotopes) with reservoir H2O:CO2mass ratios and the enthalpy of evaporation, the surface expression of thermal energy release for the Rotokawa hydrothermal system (226 MWt) is 10 times greater than the White Island crater floor (22.5 MWt).

  14. Nurses and the euthanasia debate: reflections from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Woods, M; Bickley Asher, J

    2015-03-01

    Through an examination of the present situation relating to legalizing euthanasia and/or physician-assisted death in New Zealand, this paper is intended to encourage nurses worldwide to ponder about their own position on the ever present topic of assisted dying and euthanasia. In New Zealand, euthanasia remains illegal, but in 2012, the 'End of Life Choice Bill' was put in the ballot for potential selection for consideration by Parliament, later to be withdrawn. However, it is increasingly likely that New Zealand will follow international trends to offer people a choice about how their lives should end, and that such a Bill will be resubmitted in the near future. Undoubtedly, the passage of such legislation would have an impact on the day-to-day practices of nurses who work with dying people. This article has been prepared following a comprehensive review of appropriate literature both in New Zealand and overseas. This article aims to highlight the importance of nursing input into any national debates concerning proposed euthanasia or assisted dying laws. The discussion therefore covers New Zealand's experience of such proposed legislation, that is, the draft Bill itself and the implications for nurses, the history of the assisted dying debate in New Zealand, public and professional opinion, and national and international nursing responses to euthanasia. New Zealand nurses will eventually have an opportunity to make their views on proposed euthanasia legislation known, and what such legislation might mean for their practice. Nurses everywhere should seriously consider their own knowledge and viewpoint on this vitally important topic, and be prepared to respond as both individuals and as part of their professional bodies when the time inevitably arrives. The result will be a better informed set of policies, regulations and legislation leading to a more meaningful and dignified experience for dying people and their families. Nurses need to be fully informed about

  15. Health information technology adoption in New Zealand optometric practices.

    PubMed

    Heidarian, Ahmadali; Mason, David

    2013-11-01

    Health information technology (HIT) has the potential to fundamentally change the practice of optometry and the relationship between optometrists and patients and to improve clinical outcomes. This paper aims to provide data on how health information technology is currently being used in New Zealand optometric practices. Also this paper aims to explore the potential benefits and barriers to the future adoption of health information technology in New Zealand. One hundred and six New Zealand optometrists were surveyed about their current use of health information technology and about potential benefits and barriers. In addition, 12 semi-structured interviews were carried out with leaders of health information technology in New Zealand optometry. The areas of interest were the current and intended use of HIT, the potential benefits of and barriers to using HIT in optometric offices and the level of investment in health information technology. Nearly all optometrists (98.7 per cent) in New Zealand use computers in their practices and 93.4 per cent of them use a computer in their consulting room. The most commonly used clinical assessment technology in optometric practices in New Zealand was automated perimeter (97.1 per cent), followed by a digital fundus/retinal camera (82.6 per cent) and automated lensometer (62.9 per cent). The pachymeter is the technology that most respondents intended to purchase in the next one to five years (42.6 per cent), followed by a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (36.8 per cent) and corneal topographer (32.9 per cent). The main benefits of using health information technology in optometric practices were improving patient perceptions of ‘state of the art’ practice and providing patients with information and digital images to explain the results of assessment. Barriers to the adoption of HIT included the need for frequent technology upgrades, cost, lack of time for implementation, and training. New Zealand optometrists are using HIT

  16. White vegetables: glycemia and satiety.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Soeandy, Chesarahmia Dojo; Smith, Christopher E

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the effect of white vegetable consumption on glycemia, satiety, and food intake. White vegetables is a term used to refer to vegetables that are white or near white in color and include potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, onions, parsnips, white corn, kohlrabi, and mushrooms (technically fungi but generally considered a vegetable). They vary greatly in their contribution to the energy and nutrient content of the diet and glycemia and satiety. As with other foods, the glycemic effect of many white vegetables has been measured. The results illustrate that interpretation of the semiquantitative comparative ratings of white vegetables as derived by the glycemic index must be context dependent. As illustrated by using the potato as an example, the glycemic index of white vegetables can be misleading if not interpreted in the context of the overall contribution that the white vegetable makes to the carbohydrate and nutrient composition of the diet and their functionality in satiety and metabolic control within usual meals. It is concluded that application of the glycemic index in isolation to judge the role of white vegetables in the diet and, specifically in the case of potato as consumed in ad libitum meals, has led to premature and possibly counterproductive dietary guidance.

  17. New Zealand = Maori, New Zealand = Bicultural: Ethnic Group Differences in a National Sample of Maori and Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jessica F.; Sibley, Chris G.; Robertson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    New Zealand (NZ) Europeans show a unique implicit bicultural effect, with research using the Implicit Association Test consistently showing that they associate Maori (the Indigenous peoples) and their own (dominant/advantaged majority) group as equally representative of the nation. We replicated and extended this NZ = bicultural effect in a small…

  18. The time light signals of New Zealand: yet another way of communicating time in the pre-wireless era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinns, Roger

    2017-08-01

    The signalling of exact time using an array of lights appears to have been unique to New Zealand. It was a simple and effective solution for calibration of marine chronometers when transmission of time signals by wireless was in its infancy. Three lights, coloured green, red and white, were arranged in a vertical array. They were switched on in a defined sequence during the evening and then extinguished together to signal exact time. Time lights were first operated at the Dominion Observatory in Wellington during February 1912 and on the Ferry Building in Auckland during October 1915. The Wellington lights were immediately adjacent to the observatory buildings, but those in Auckland were operated using telegraph signals from Wellington. The timings varied over the years, but the same physical arrangement was retained at each location. The time light service was withdrawn during 1937, when wireless signals had become almost universally available for civil and navigation purposes.

  19. White dwarfs and revelations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Lopes, Ilidio

    2018-05-01

    We use the most recent, complete and independent measurements of masses and radii of white dwarfs in binaries to bound the class of non-trivial modified gravity theories, viable after GW170817/GRB170817, using its effect on the mass-radius relation of the stars. We show that the uncertainty in the latest data is sufficiently small that residual evolutionary effects, most notably the effect of core composition, finite temperature and envelope structure, must now accounted for if correct conclusions about the nature of gravity are to be made. We model corrections resulting from finite temperature and envelopes to a base Hamada-Salpeter cold equation of state and derive consistent bounds on the possible modifications of gravity in the stars' interiors, finding that the parameter quantifying the strength of the modification Y< 0.14 at 95% confidence, an improvement of a factor of three with respect to previous bounds. Finally, our analysis reveals some fundamental degeneracies between the theory of gravity and the precise chemical makeup of white dwarfs.

  20. White piedra in children.

    PubMed

    Kiken, David A; Sekaran, Anand; Antaya, Richard J; Davis, Amy; Imaeda, Suguru; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2006-12-01

    White piedra is a fungal infection of the hair shaft caused by species of Trichosporon. Rarely has this infection been reported in the United States. Historically, infected individuals required shaving of their hair to achieve clearance of the infection. We sought to describe 8 cases of Trichosporon scalp infections seen in the northeastern United States. We conducted chart review and prospective evaluation of 7 girls and 1 boy seen in two dermatology practices in New Haven, Conn, and New York, NY. Seven girls, ages 4 to 16 years old, and one 4-year-old boy were determined to have Trichosporon scalp infection, all through culture. Of the 8 children who were available for follow-up, 7 had clearance of their infection with a combination of oral azole antifungal medication and azole antifungal shampoo, without shaving the scalp hair. This was a sample of patients from a localized region of the United States. White piedra is emerging as a commonly seen hair and scalp infection in the northeastern United States. Contrary to prior publications, scalp and hair infection may be successfully treated with a combination of oral azole antifungals and shampoos without shaving the scalp.

  1. Pacemaker Use in New Zealand - Data From the New Zealand Implanted Cardiac Device Registry (ANZACS-QI 15).

    PubMed

    Larsen, P D; Kerr, A J; Hood, M; Harding, S A; Hooks, D; Heaven, D; Lever, N A; Sinclair, S; Boddington, D; Tang, E W; Swampillai, J; Stiles, M K

    2017-03-01

    The New Zealand Cardiac Implanted Device Registry (Device) has recently been developed under the auspices of the New Zealand Branch of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. This study describes the initial Device registry cohort of patients receiving a new pacemaker, their indications for pacing and their perioperative complications. The Device Registry was used to audit patients receiving a first pacemaker between 1 st January 2014 and 1 st June 2015. We examined 1611 patients undergoing first pacemaker implantation. Patients were predominantly male (59%), and had a median age of 70 years. The most common symptom for pacemaker implantation was syncope (39%), followed by dizziness (30%) and dyspnoea (12%). The most common aetiology for a pacemaker was a conduction tissue disorder (35%), followed by sinus node dysfunction (22%). Atrioventricular (AV) block was the most common ECG abnormality, present in 44%. Dual chamber pacemakers were most common (62%), followed by single chamber ventricular pacemakers (34%), and cardiac resynchronisation therapy - pacemakers (CRT-P) (2%). Complications within 24hours of the implant procedure were reported in 64 patients (3.9%), none of which were fatal. The most common complication was the need for reoperation to manipulate a lead, occurring in 23 patients (1.4%). This is the first description of data entered into the Device registry. Patients receiving a pacemaker were younger than in European registries, and there was a low use of CRT-P devices compared to international rates. Complications rates were low and compare favourably to available international data. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New Zealand's tobacco control programme 1985-1998

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, M.; Swinburn, B.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To review the impact of New Zealand's tobacco control programme from 1985 to 1998 on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, and to estimate the scope for further reduction.
DESIGN—Country case study; interventions, with outcomes ranked internationally across time.
SETTING—New Zealand 1985-98; for 1985-95, 23 OECD countries.
INTERVENTIONS—Between 1985 and 1998, New Zealand eliminated tobacco advertising, halved the affordability of cigarettes, and reduced smoke exposure in work time by 39%.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Reduction in adult smoking prevalence and in tobacco products consumption per adult.
RESULTS—Changes in prevalence 1985-98: in adults (aged 15+ years), −17% (from 30% to 25%) but short of the 20% target for 2000; in youth (aged 15-24 years), −20% (from 35% to 28%); and in Maori adults (aged 15+ years), −17% (from 56% in 1981 to 46% in 1996). Changes in consumption 1985-98: tobacco products per adult aged 15+ years, −45% (2493 to 1377 cigarette equivalents); cigarettes smoked per smoker, −34% (22.7 to 15.0 per day). Between 1985 and 1995 New Zealand reduced tobacco products consumption per adult more rapidly than any other OECD country, and reduced youth prevalence more rapidly than most. The acceleration of the decline in cigarette attributable mortality rates in men and in women age 35-69 years averted an additional 1400 deaths between 1985 and 1996. Between 1981 and 1996 smoking prevalence among blue collar workers decreased only marginally, and in 14-15 year olds, rose by one third between 1992 and 1997.
CONCLUSION—In 13 years, New Zealand's tobacco control programme has been successful in almost halving tobacco products consumption, particularly by lowering consumption per smoker. With strong political support for quit campaigns, increased taxation, and the elimination of displays of tobacco products on sale, the consumption could theoretically be halved again in as little as 3-6 years

  3. New Zealand optometrists 2006: demographics, working arrangements and hours worked.

    PubMed

    Frederikson, Lesley G; Chamberlain, Kerry; Sangster, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Optometry is a regulated health profession in NZ, with limited student places. With 650 registered optometrists in 2005, the optometrist to population ratio was 1 : 6,291 with no apparent national shortage. If optometrists registered in NZ do not actually live there, a workforce shortage is possible. This paper presents findings from the New Zealand Association of Optometrists 2006 workforce survey of members, which aimed to profile the NZ optometric workforce and to explore factors relating to workforce capacity, job stress and future planning. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on employment status, hours worked and gender distribution of optometrists in New Zealand. It was circulated to 530 active members of the NZ Association of Optometrists representing 86 per cent of the available optometrists. Direct comparisons with the Australian optometric workforce numbers were also undertaken. Of the 243 respondents, 129 (53 per cent) were male. The median age of all respondents was 39 years (46 for males and 34 for females) and 75 per cent of the respondents were aged younger than 50 years. Fifty per cent had practised 15 years or less. Ten per cent of respondents had 'time-out' during their career and this was significantly more likely for females. Nearly half the respondents were self-employed (46 per cent) and eight per cent worked as locums. Part-time employees were more likely to be female and males were more likely to be in full-time self-employment. Half the group was under 40 (51 per cent), which accounted for 86 per cent of the full-time salaried arrangements. Those aged 30 to 39 included 52 per cent of the total part-time salaried workers. The average working week was 34 hours for women and 39 hours for men; the median was 40 hours for both groups. In the typical working week, 80 per cent of an optometrist's time was spent consulting with patients and five per cent was patient-related paperwork. The distribution of work arrangements was

  4. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Treesearch

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  5. White Faculty Transforming Whiteness in the Classroom through Pedagogical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbeneau, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this qualitative study is to present a conceptual framework of pedagogical practices reported by white faculty that serve to challenge the hegemony of whiteness in the university classroom. These transformative teaching practices surfaced through a review of racialized pedagogies discussed in the literature and in…

  6. Multiple Pathways to Whiteness: White Teachers' Unsteady Racial Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Erin T.

    2017-01-01

    Teacher education programs in the US, recognizing the mismatch that exists in preschool provision between mostly white teachers and a very diverse intake of young children, have begun to explore ways of raising racial awareness among pre-service teachers, with the aim of improving non-white children's classroom experiences and outcomes. This paper…

  7. One Black, One White: Power, White Privilege, & Creating Safe Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delano-Oriaran, Omobolade O.; Parks, Marguerite W.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of two professors as they teach about White privilege in predominately White institutions of higher education. The authors discuss how racial potentiality shapes the classroom climates of each of the professors and then present strategies that utilize safe spaces to navigate students away from the resistance…

  8. White Religious Educators Resisting White Fragility: Lessons from Mystics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Decades of work in dismantling racism have not yielded the kind of results for which religious educators have hoped. One primary reason has been what scholars term "white fragility," a symptom of the structural racism which confers systemic privilege upon White people. Lessons learned from Christian mystics point to powerful ways to…

  9. Breakin' down Whiteness in Antiracist Teaching: Introducing Critical Whiteness Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; Mackey, Janiece

    2016-01-01

    Because of the changing nature of race the role of antiracist teaching is a forever-evolving process. Acknowledging that the majority of the U.S. teaching force, from K-12 to teacher education in institutions of higher education, are white middle-class females, it becomes imperative to unveil pedagogical applications of critical whiteness studies.…

  10. The Achievement Gap between White and Non-White Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-LeBouef, Ana; Slate, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This Collection contains three seminal modules by Authors Ana Rojas-LeBouef and John R. Slate, professors and researchers from Sam Houston State University in Texas. They are nationally recognized scholars in the area of the academic inequity between White and Non-White students. This paper is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1--The…

  11. White Cliffs: Operating Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneff, S.

    1984-01-01

    The fourteen dish white cliffs solar power station area is remote and subject to extreme environmental conditions, solution of the associated problems required careful and thoughtful attention and the application of resources. Notwithstanding the wide range and harshness of conditions, the difficulties caused by remoteness and the lack of a technological base and the need for relatively rapid demonstration of success, the project has had a very positive outcome. Qualitative and quantitative information and lessons are now available to enable considerable simplifications to be made for a new system, reducing both hardware and operation and maintenance costs. Experience and lessons are presented, particularly in relation to: system performance in various environmental conditions; design philosophies for collectors, the array, control systems, engine and plant; operation and maintenance strategies and cost reducing possibilities. Experience so far gives encouragement for the future of such paraboloidal dish systems in appropriate areas.

  12. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

    Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old.

    The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at

    http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or

    http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc .

    The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope.

    The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars.

    Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the

  13. Frictional properties of exhumed fault gouges in DFDP-1 cores, Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulton, Carolyn; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.; Toy, Virginia G.; Townend, John; Southerland, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    Principal slip zone gouges recovered during the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1), Alpine Fault, New Zealand, were deformed in triaxial friction experiments at temperatures, T, of up to 350°C, effective normal stresses, σn′, of up to 156 MPa, and velocities between 0.01 and 3 µm/s. Chlorite/white mica-bearing DFDP-1A blue gouge, 90.62 m sample depth, is frictionally strong (friction coefficient, μ, 0.61–0.76) across all experimental conditions tested (T = 70–350°C, σn′ = 31.2–156 MPa); it undergoes a transition from positive to negative rate dependence as T increases past 210°C. The friction coefficient of smectite-bearing DFDP-1B brown gouge, 128.42 m sample depth, increases from 0.49 to 0.74 with increasing temperature and pressure (T = 70–210°C, σn′ = 31.2–93.6 MPa); the positive to negative rate dependence transition occurs as T increases past 140°C. These measurements indicate that, in the absence of elevated pore fluid pressures, DFDP-1 gouges are frictionally strong under conditions representative of the seismogenic crust.

  14. Identification of the first New Zealand case of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dunowska, M; Hardcastle, M R; Tonkin, F B

    2014-07-01

    A 10-year-old polo mare presented with a history of weight loss, poor condition and inappetance. The mare was tachycardic, tachypnoeic and febrile. Harsh lung sounds were auscultated over all lung fields. The mare initially responded to treatment with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs and bronchodilators. Throughout the course of treatment, there was a variable lymphocytosis, monocytosis and fluctuation in concentrations of fibrinogen. The mare also developed a mild anaemia, most likely due to chronic disease. Despite treatment, the mare's condition deteriorated over the following 2 months, and she was subject to euthanasia. On post mortem examination, white to pale tan, large coalescing fibrous nodules up to 5 cm in diameter were found distributed throughout the lungs. Histopathology revealed a multifocally severe interstitial pneumonia with superimposed bronchiolar or alveolar inflammation, fibrosis, Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia and histiocytic intranuclear inclusion bodies, consistent with the findings previously reported for cases of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF). Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis based on characteristic gross and histopathological findings. The diagnosis was strengthened by detection of DNA for equine herpesvirus 5 in the lung tissue. This report describes the first recognised case of EMPF in New Zealand. The affected horse did not respond to treatment and was subject to euthanasia. The prognosis for horses with EMPF, based on a limited number of cases worldwide, is currently considered poor.

  15. Student debt amongst junior doctors in New Zealand; part 2: effects on intentions and workforce.

    PubMed

    Moore, James; Gale, Jesse; Dew, Kevin; Simmers, Don

    2006-02-17

    To assess the effects of student debt on the intentions of first-year house officers in relation to location of practice and vocation, and to evaluate the relative importance of incentives to remain practising in New Zealand (NZ). A questionnaire sent to all 296 New Zealand-graduate first-year house officers practicing in New Zealand. The response rate was 53%. Eighty percent of respondents intended to practice in New Zealand for the bulk of their careers; however, 65% of respondents intended to leave New Zealand within 3 years of graduating. The most important factors influencing the decision to leave NZ were overseas travel, financial opportunities, and job/training opportunities. Fifty-five percent of respondents had considered leaving the country, specifically because of the student loan debt. The most important factors influencing vocational intentions were interest, lifestyle, and intellectual challenge. Forty-three percent of respondents stated that their student debt had influenced their intended specialty, and only 9% of respondents indicated their intention to pursue a career in general practice. The highest rated incentives for staying in New Zealand were increased salaries, employer contributions towards student loans, and training opportunities within New Zealand. Student debt influences both emigration and specialty choice intentions of junior doctors in New Zealand. This effect is an unintended but important consequence of our current tertiary education system in New Zealand. These results paint a worrying picture for the junior doctor and general practitioner workforce in New Zealand's future.

  16. New Zealand GTG plant more than halfway home

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, M.

    The 76 preassembled modules making up the New Zealand Synthetic Fuels Corporation natural gas-to-gasoline (GTG) plant will be an operating plant by 1986. The plant will produce 14,400 barrels per day, about a third of the country's gasoline needs. The project is a good example of cooperation between a government and a multinational corporation in which Mobil is a 25% partner with the New Zealand government. With a commitment for about 16% of the gas reserves in the Maui field, the facility will first convert the gas to methanol using a standard commercial process, then convert the methanol to gasolinemore » by a unique Mobil process that uses a zeolite catalyst. 1 figure.« less

  17. Oxalates in oca (New Zealand yam) (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.).

    PubMed

    Ross, A B; Savage, G P; Martin, R J; Vanhanen, L

    1999-12-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) or New Zealand yam, in common with other members of this genus, contains oxalate, an antinutritive factor. Twelve South American and two New Zealand cultivars of oca were analyzed for total and soluble oxalate contents of the tubers. The range of total oxalate levels was 92-221 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Levels of soluble and total oxalate extracted from the tubers were not significantly different, suggesting that no calcium oxalate is formed in the tubers. The oxalate concentrations obtained in this study for oca suggest that previously reported values are too low and that oca is a moderately high oxalate-containing food. This is the first report of a tuber crop containing moderate to high levels of soluble oxalates in the tubers and no insoluble oxalates.

  18. Oligocene and Miocene larger foraminiferida from Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaproniere, G. C. H.

    The lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and the systematics of larger foraminiferids at several Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene localities in Australia are described. In particular, sediments of this interval in the North West Cape area of the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia, yielded diverse faunas of larger and planktic foraminiferids. Areas in New Zealand were also sampled and studied. Forty species and subspecies, representing 25 genera or subgenera of larger foraminiferids, were recorded. Wherever possible, biometric methods have been used to discriminate between taxa. Such studies suggest that the rates of evolution of some groups of larger foraminiferids in New Zealand were different from those in the Australian region. Among the taxa that are illustrated and described in detail are two subspecies of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) proposed as new: Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) howchini praehowchini and Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) orakeiensis waikukuensis. Topotypes of L. (N.) orakeiensis hornibrooki and L. (N.) howchini howchini are discussed and figured.

  19. Socio-demographic correlates of divorce in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, G A

    1988-05-01

    "This paper links data obtained from a one-in-five systematic sample of New Zealand divorce files covering the period 1940-78 with published marriage and birth statistics to examine socio-demographic differentials in divorce rates among couples married between 1939 and 1973. Differentials investigated are those by age at marriage, relative age of bride and groom, marital status prior to marriage, relative marital status of bride and groom, pregnancy status of the wife at marriage, timing of the first birth, religion, country of birth and socioeconomic status. Several findings of overseas studies, such as the special proneness to divorce of very youthful marriages and remarriages following previous divorces, are verified for New Zealand. After controlling for age at marriage, pregnancy does not seem to have directly increased the risk of divorce." excerpt

  20. New Zealand Defense Policy Framework, A Strategic Reappraisal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-19

    viii THE NEW ZEALAND DEFENSE POLICY FRAMEWORK – A STRATEGIC APPRAISAL What we demand is that the world be made fit and safe to live in. Woodrow Wilson...pressure on some governments and often results in armed conflict. The former Yugoslavia and Soviet Union stand out as prominent examples of the... demand access to the products, services and lifestyles that are evident in other nations. This is problematic for governments who set values and

  1. New Zealand Freshwater Management: Changing Policy for a Changing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, H. L.; Norton, N.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh water is essential to New Zealand's economic, environmental, cultural and social well-being. In line with global trends, New Zealand's freshwater resources are under pressure from increased abstraction and changes in land-use which contribute contaminants to our freshwater systems. Recent central government policy reform introduces greater national direction and guidance, to bring about a step-change in freshwater management. An existing national policy for freshwater management introduced in 2011 requires regional authorities to produce freshwater management plans containing clear freshwater objectives (measurable statements about the desired environmental state for water bodies) and associated limits to resource use (such as environmental flows and quantity allocation limits, and loads of contaminants to be discharged). These plans must integrate water quantity and quality management, consider climate change, and incorporate tangata whenua (New Zealand māori) roles and interests. In recent (2014) national policy amendments, the regional authorities are also required to implement national 'bottom-line' standards for certain attributes of the system to be managed; undertake accounting for all water takes and all sources of contaminants; and to develop and implement their plans in a collaborative way with communities. This rapid change in national policy has necessitated a new way of working for authorities tasked with implementation; many obstacles lie in their path. The scientific methods required to help set water quantity limits are well established, but water quality methods are less so. Collaborative processes have well documented benefits but also raise many challenges, particularly for the communication of complex and often uncertain scientific information. This paper provides background on the national policy changes and offers some early lessons learned by the regional authorities implementing collaborative freshwater management in New Zealand.

  2. Geophysical techniques for low enthalpy geothermal exploration in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soengkono, Supri; Bromley, Chris; Reeves, Robert; Bennie, Stewart; Graham, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    Shallow warm water resources associated with low enthalpy geothermal systems are often difficult to explore using geophysical techniques, mainly because the warm water creates an insufficient physical change from the host rocks to be easily detectable. In addition, often the system also has a limited or narrow size. However, appropriate use of geophysical techniques can still help the exploration and further investigation of low enthalpy geothermal resources. We present case studies on the use of geophysical techniques for shallow warm water explorations over a variety of settings in New Zealand (mostly in the North Island) with variable degrees of success. A simple and direct method for the exploration of warm water systems is shallow temperature measurements. In some New Zealand examples, measurements of near surface temperatures helped to trace the extent of deeper thermal water. The gravity method was utilised as a structural technique for the exploration of some warm water systems in New Zealand. Our case studies show the technique can be useful in identifying basement depths and tracing fault systems associated with the occurrence of hot springs. Direct current (DC) ground resistivity measurements using a variety of electrode arrays have been the most common method for the exploration of low enthalpy geothermal resources in New Zealand. The technique can be used to detect the extent of shallow warm waters that are more electrically conductive than the surrounding cold groundwater. Ground resistivity investigations using the electromagnetic (EM) techniques of audio magnetotellurics (AMT or shallow MT), controlled source audio magnetotellurics (CSAMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) methods have also been used. Highly conductive clays of thermal or sedimentary origin often limit the penetration depth of the resistivity techniques and can create some interpretation difficulties. Interpretation of resistivity anomalies needs to be treated in a site specific

  3. Rising levels of New Zealand medical student debt.

    PubMed

    Verstappen, Antonia; Poole, Phillippa

    2017-06-16

    There is little recent data on the debt levels accrued by New Zealand medical graduates. We aimed to quantify the level of student loan debt accrued by medical graduates upon completion of their medical degree, and to investigate the association of New Zealand Government Student Loan (GSL) debt with gender and age. At graduation each year from 2006-2015, students from one New Zealand medical programme were invited to complete a career intention survey that included information on levels of GSL debt and the number of income sources used. The overall response rate was 83.8%. On average, 92% of domestic students reported having some student loan debt, with 28% a debt of $90,000 or more. The proportion of students reporting a student loan debt of $90,000 or more increased over the period of the study (P<0.0001). While older students were more likely to have a larger student loan debt than younger students, there was no difference in debt levels by gender. Students with larger student loans were more likely to rely on a larger number of financial sources to fund their studies. New Zealand medical students are carrying higher levels of student loan debt year on year. The effect of this on the future medical workforce is not certain; however, this could be negative if graduates choose to enter careers that are more highly paid over areas of high need. The full impact of large loans on individuals and the health system will take years to determine.

  4. Friend or Ally? A Question for New Zealand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Many close observers of the manoeuvring which went on from the time the Lange government took power in July 1984 until George Shultz declared a...d s - - bu t we par t . George P. Shultz Manila, July 1986 ~ ITH THE WORDS, "we part," the Secretary of State for the United States of...the Western alliance. George Shultz’ simple words marked an historic turn- ing point in United States/New Zealand relations and, perhaps even more

  5. Measuring Snow Precipitation in New Zealand- Challenges and Opportunities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renwick, J. A.; Zammit, C.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring plays a pivotal role in determining sustainable strategy for efficient overall management of the water resource. Though periodic monitoring provides some information, only long-term monitoring can provide data sufficient in quantity and quality to determine trends and develop predictive models. These can support informed decisions about sustainable and efficient use of water resources in New Zealand. However the development of such strategies is underpinned by our understanding and our ability to measure all inputs in headwaters catchments, where most of the precipitation is falling. Historically due to the harsh environment New Zealand has had little to no formal high elevation monitoring stations for all climate and snow related parameters outside of ski field climate and snow stations. This leads to sparse and incomplete archived datasets. Due to the importance of these catchments to the New Zealand economy (eg irrigation, hydro-electricity generation, tourism) NIWA has developed a climate-snow and ice monitoring network (SIN) since 2006. This network extends existing monitoring by electricity generator and ski stations and it is used by a number of stakeholders. In 2014 the network comprises 13 stations located at elevation above 700masl. As part of the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE), NIWA is carrying out an intercomparison of precipitation data over the period 2013-2015 at Mueller Hut. The site was commissioned on 11 July 2013, set up on the 17th September 2013 and comprises two Geonor weighing bucket raingauges, one shielded and the other un-shielded, in association with a conventional tipping bucket raingauge and conventional climate and snow measurements (temperature, wind, solar radiation, relative humidity, snow depth and snow pillow). The presentation aims to outline the state of the current monitoring network in New Zealand, as well as the challenge and opportunities for measurement of precipitation in alpine

  6. Intensive (pasture) beef cattle operations: the perspective of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, S C

    1997-08-01

    Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most

  7. HIV and the decriminalization of sex work in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Healy, Catherine

    2006-12-01

    The decriminalization of sex work in New Zealand will protect the rights of sex workers and improve their working conditions and general well-being. It will also improve HIV prevention programs. In this article, which is based on a presentation at a "learning from practice" session at the conference, Catherine Healy describes the situation prior to decriminalization, and discusses the features of the new law and accompanying guidelines.

  8. Black Managers in White Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, John P.

    The study examines the major determinants of the career patterns of black managers in white businesses and the effects of corporations on their black managers' identities and relationships to the black community. Analyzed were occupational mobility theories; white and black managers' career patterns, goals, and related factors; company employment…

  9. Acting White: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis of acting White has been heatedly debated and influential over the last 20 years or so in explaining the Black-White test score gap. Recently, economists have joined the debate and started providing new theoretical and empirical analyses of the phenomenon. This paper critically reviews the arguments that have been advanced to…

  10. Residential care workers and residents: the New Zealand story.

    PubMed

    Kiata, Liz; Kerse, Ngaire; Dixon, Robyn

    2005-05-06

    To describe the nature and size of long-term residential care homes in New Zealand; funding of facilities; and the ethnic and gender composition of residents and residential care workers nationwide. A postal, fax, and email survey of all long-term residential care homes in New Zealand. Completed surveys were received from an eligible 845 facilities (response rate: 55%). The majority of these (54%) facilities housed less than 30 residents. Of the 438 (94%) facilities completing the questions about residents' ethnicity, 432 (99%) housed residents from New Zealand European (Pakeha) descent, 156 (33%) housed at least 1 Maori resident, 71 (15%) at least 1 Pacific (Islands) resident, and 61 (13%) housed at least 1 Asian resident. Facilities employed a range of ethnically diverse staff, with 66% reporting Maori staff. Less than half of all facilities employed Pacific staff (43%) and Asian staff (33%). Registered nursing staff were mainly between 46 and 60 years (47%), and healthcare assistant staff were mostly between 25 and 45 years old (52%). Wide regional variation in the ethnic make up of staff was reported. About half of all staff were reported to have moved within the previous 2 years. The age and turnover of the residential care workforce suggests the industry continues to be under threat from staffing shortages. While few ethnic minority residents live in long-term care facilities, staff come from diverse backgrounds, especially in certain regions.

  11. Teaching cultural safety in a New Zealand nursing education program.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Fran; Carryer, Jenny

    2005-05-01

    Cultural safety education is a concept unique to nursing in New Zealand. It involves teaching nursing students to recognize and understand the dynamics of cultural, personal, and professional power and how these shape nursing and health care relationships. This article describes the findings of a research study on the experience of teaching cultural safety. As a teacher of cultural safety, the first author was interested in exploring the experience of teaching the topic with other cultural safety teachers. A qualitative approach situated in a critical theory paradigm was used for the study. The study was informed by the ideas of Foucault and feminist theory. Fourteen women between ages 20 and 60 were interviewed about their experience of teaching cultural safety. Five women were Maori (the indigenous people of New Zealand), and 9 were Pakeha (the Maori name for New Zealanders of European descent). Following data analysis, three major themes were identified: that the Treaty of Waitangi provides for an examination of power in cultural safety education; that the broad concept of difference influences the experience of teaching cultural safety; and that the experience of teaching cultural safety has personal, professional, and political dimensions. These dimensions are experienced differently by Maori and Pakeha teachers.

  12. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  13. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927

  14. Attitudes towards smokefree campus policies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Louise; Robertson, Lindsay A; Cameron, Claire

    2014-05-02

    This study examines the level of support for a completely smokefree campus policy and other smokefree policy initiatives amongst staff and students at a New Zealand University. Attitudes to smoking on campus, smokefree campus policies, implementation and enforcement of smokefree policies were assessed using an online survey of 332 staff and 268 students; giving a response rate of 51% from staff and 41% from students. Most participants had never smoked, or were past smokers; few reported being current smokers. Participants agreed that exposure to second-hand smoke is harmful, disliked being exposed to second-hand smoke on campus, and felt the university should promote a healthy work and study environment. Results indicated strong support for smokefree policies, and participants made several recommendations regarding smokefree policies. Most disagreed that compliance with a smokefree policy should be voluntary, but felt that campus security should warn people who breach the policy. These results provide a sound basis for university administrators to implement smokefree policies. While around half of the tertiary education institutions in New Zealand already have a completely smokefree campus policy, greater adoption of this policy by tertiary education institutions would foster realisation of the government's goal that New Zealand become a smokefree nation by 2025. A potential barrier preventing tertiary education institutions working towards a smokefree campus is a perceived risk of opposition from staff and students. Our study found strong support for smokefree campus policies; these findings should encourage other universities, polytechnics and other tertiary education providers to adopt full campus smokefree policies.

  15. New Zealand consumers' perceptions of private insurance for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, Rajan; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Mirza, Wasif; Daiya, Mitali; Chandra, Himesh; Yousif, Ali; Girn, Maninder

    2014-01-01

    Private insurance plays a minor role in paying for pharmaceuticals in New Zealand, despite controversy about access through the public health system. The present study examines New Zealand consumers' perceptions of private insurance for pharmaceuticals. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 433 consumers at thirty pharmacies. The questionnaire included 18 questions on demographics, insurance status, perceptions of private insurance for pharmaceuticals and confidence in the public health system. Forty six percent of respondents had private health insurance. Respondents were more likely to have private health insurance as household income increased, and confidence in the public health system decreased. (Over two thirds of respondents were either confident or very confident in the public health system). Nineteen percent had private health insurance for pharmaceuticals, and the likelihood was not affected by household income or confidence in the public health system. Sixty one percent believed private insurance for pharmaceuticals would increase availability and affordability of pharmaceuticals. However, just over half were willing to pay for private insurance for pharmaceuticals. Of these, over two thirds were only willing to pay $20 per year or less. New Zealand pharmacy consumers' willingness to pay for private insurance for pharmaceuticals is very low.

  16. New Zealand doctors' attitudes towards the complaints and disciplinary process.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Wayne

    2004-07-23

    To examine attitudes held by doctors in New Zealand towards the complaints and disciplinary process. A questionnaire was sent to New Zealand doctors randomly selected to include vocationally registered general practitioners, vocationally registered hospital-based specialists, and general registrants. 598 respondents (33.6% having ever and 66.4% having never received a medical complaint) indicated that New Zealand doctors strongly support society's right to complain, having lay input, a sense of completion, and appropriate advice provided to the complaints process. Doctors also support society's notions of rights and responsibilities, and believe that the medical profession is capable of self-regulation. Fifty percent of doctors do not believe that complaints are a useful tool to improve medical practice. Doctor's attitudes diverge about how they believe society interacts with the profession through the complaints process. They are divided in their opinion as to whether complaints are warranted, whether complainants are normal people, and whether complaints are judged by appropriate standards. Doctor's attitudes towards the complaints and disciplinary system fall on a continuum between being consistent and divergent. Their attitudes are consistent with notions of professionalism, but suggest that using the complaints system to improve the delivery of medical care may be problematic.

  17. A feather precipitation hydrogen isoscape for New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. M.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Soto, D. X.; Bartle, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Forensic isotopic assays of feathers from historical Maori cloaks are a potential tool to link historical artefacts back to their native locales (Iwi) in New Zealand. In order to test this approach, we sampled feathers from extant museum archived birds of known origin for their feather hydrogen isotopes (δyHf) to assign their regional origin and location over time. We obtained feathers from two non-migratory bird species widely distributed around New Zealand, tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and quail (Callipepla californica). Feathers were sampled from archived birds collected between 1880-2002 held in 3 New Zealand museum collections. We determined regression coefficients of δ2H on location, latitude, δ2Hprecipitation, and age. The data showed that ground dwelling quail had higher regression coefficients with respect to latitude (r2=0.46) than the nectar feeding tui (r2=0.39). On the whole, both resident birds showed promise as regional geographical indicators of their habitat (r2=0.58). Year of collection had no meaningful effect on isotopic composition. We conclude that isotopic assays may therefore be used to aid in regional assignments relevant to the interpretation of historical artefacts.

  18. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-13

    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  19. Species Radiation of Carabid Beetles (Broscini: Mecodema) in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Julia; Knapp, Michael; Emberson, Rowan M.; Townsend, J. Ian; Trewick, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand biodiversity has often been viewed as Gondwanan in origin and age, but it is increasingly apparent from molecular studies that diversification, and in many cases origination of lineages, postdate the break-up of Gondwanaland. Relatively few studies of New Zealand animal species radiations have as yet been reported, and here we consider the species-rich genus of carabid beetles, Mecodema. Constrained stratigraphic information (emergence of the Chatham Islands) and a substitution rate for Coleoptera were separately used to calibrate Bayesian relaxed molecular clock date estimates for diversification of Mecodema. The inferred timings indicate radiation of these beetles no earlier than the mid-Miocene with most divergences being younger, dating to the Plio-Pleistocene. A shallow age for the radiation along with a complex spatial distribution of these taxa involving many instances of sympatry implicates recent ecological speciation rather than a simplistic allopatric model. This emphasises the youthful and dynamic nature of New Zealand evolution that will be further elucidated with detailed ecological and population genetic analyses. PMID:24465949

  20. Antidepressant poisoning deaths in New Zealand for 2001.

    PubMed

    Reith, David; Fountain, John; Tilyard, Murray; McDowell, Rebecca

    2003-10-24

    To compare the rates of death per volume of drug dispensed for antidepressants in New Zealand. Deaths from antidepressant poisonings were identified from the reports of coronial inquiries for New Zealand in 2001. Prescriptions for antidepressant medications were identified from the PharmHouse database from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2001. The rates of deaths (95% CI) per prescription, tablet/capsule or defined daily dose were calculated for individual antidepressants and classes of antidepressant. There were 200 poisoning deaths recorded in the database for New Zealand in 2001. Antidepressants were involved in 41 deaths, and death was attributed to an antidepressant in 23 cases. There were 5.52 (95% CI 3.85-7.68) deaths per 100 000 prescriptions for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and 2.51 (1.57-3.79) deaths per 100 000 prescriptions for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). There was marked variability in rates of death per volume of drug dispensed between individual antidepressants. SSRIs have lower rates of death per volume of drug dispensed than TCAs and there is also variation in these rates within these classes of drugs. Toxicity in overdose should be considered when prescribing antidepressants.

  1. Veterinary Pharmaceutics: An Opportunity for Interprofessional Education in New Zealand?

    PubMed

    McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica

    2017-07-26

    Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.

  2. Prevalence of transsexualism among New Zealand passport holders.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F

    2008-10-01

    Most previous studies of the prevalence of transsexualism have used data from individuals seeking sex reassignment surgery. New Zealand is unique in that transsexual people can apply to have an 'X' for the sex on their passport if they have a name on their birth certificate that is congruent with the sex opposite to their birth assigned sex, and provide a statutory declaration stating they have lived as a member of that sex. From information provided by the New Zealand Passports Office, it was ascertained that the prevalence of transsexualism among New Zealand passport holders was at least 1:6364. The prevalence of male-to-female transsexualism was estimated at 1:3639, and the corresponding figure for female-to-male transsexualism was 1:22,714. These estimates were higher than most previous estimates of transsexualism prevalence. There was also a larger than expected ratio of male-to-female transsexual people to female-to-male transsexual people (6:1), which could in part be due to female-to-male transsexual people being relatively overrepresented among those transsexual people for whom we did not have data on the direction of sex change, or this may be indicative of the demography of transsexualism in Australasia.

  3. Social inequality and ethnic differences in smoking in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Ross; Moon, Graham; Kearns, Robin

    2004-07-01

    This study tests a generalisation of the 'Wilkinson' thesis that the greater a nation's income inequality, the poorer the average national health status. We consider the effect of socio-economic inequality upon ethnic variations in smoking in New Zealand. Analysis of Maori and Pakeha (New Zealanders of European descent) smoking rates from the 1996 Census is conducted for 73 Territorial Local Authority areas in New Zealand, disaggregated by gender and rural-urban location. Partial correlation is used to control for absolute levels of deprivation and examine the independent effect of ethnic social inequality upon smoking rates. The level of social inequality between Maori and Pakeha has an independent effect on Maori smoking rates. Pakeha smoking rates by contrast are more sensitive to variations in absolute rather than relative deprivation. The effect of inequality is greatest for Maori women, especially among urban residents. By contrast, among Maori men the effects are greatest in rural areas. The results provide some qualified support for the Wilkinson thesis and suggest that policies which address fundamental issues of social inequality will play a small, but significant, role in helping to reduce high smoking rates amongst Maori. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Building an educated health informatics workforce--the New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Parry, David; Hunter, Inga; Honey, Michelle; Holt, Alec; Day, Karen; Kirk, Ray; Cullen, Rowena

    2013-01-01

    New Zealand has a rapidly expanding health information technology (IT) development industry and wide-ranging use of informatics, especially in the primary health sector. The New Zealand government through the National Health IT Board (NHITB) has promised to provide shared care health records of core information for all New Zealanders by 2014. One of the major barriers to improvement in IT use in healthcare is the dearth of trained and interested clinicians, management and technical workforce. Health Informatics New Zealand (HINZ) and the academic community in New Zealand are attempting to remedy this by raising awareness of health informatics at the "grass roots" level of the existing workforce via free "primer" workshops and by developing a sustainable cross-institutional model of educational opportunities. Support from the NHITB has been forthcoming, and the workshops started in early 2013, reaching out to clinical and other staff in post around New Zealand.

  5. Managing and eradicating wildlife tuberculosis in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, B; Livingstone, P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in

  6. Extemporaneous compounding in veterinary practice: a New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, D A; Chemal, C; Joda, L; Lee, Y J; Pilkington, M; Haywood, A; Garg, S

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the extent of extemporaneous compounding in veterinary centres throughout New Zealand and to determine whether pharmacists could collaborate with veterinarians to improve this service in New Zealand. Questionnaires were sent to 200 randomly selected veterinarians in New Zealand. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with selected participants from four animal facilities (zoos, research facilities and animal shelters) and two compounding pharmacies. Of the 200 veterinarian questionnaire recipients, 99 responded. Ten replies were withdrawn from the study giving a response rate of 44.5%. Of these 89, 33 (37%) compounded in their practice. Of the 33 compounding professionals, 3 (9%) compounded daily for animals under their care; 11 (34%) weekly, 18 (54%) monthly and 1 (3%) compounded yearly. Compounding was done by 29/33 (88%) veterinarians, 16/33 (48%) veterinary nurses or 6/33 (18%) others. It was carried out due to the unavailability of commercial products, or the need for dose adjustment to ease administration or improve compliance. The animals most commonly requiring veterinary compounding were dogs (21/33; 64%), cats (19/33; 58%) or cattle (15/33; 46%). Products which were commonly compounded included cyclosporin eye drops, methimazole gels and potassium bromide solutions. Issues commonly faced when compounding included unavailability of dosage forms (18/33; 55%) or appropriate ingredients (14/33; 42%), stability (12/33; 36%), time constraints (10/33; 30%) or unavailability of equipment (9/33; 27%). Reasons given for not compounding included medicines being commercially available (38/56; 68%), pharmacy compounding for those particular practices (24/56; 43%), lack of training (21/56; 38%), ingredients (16/56; 29%) or equipment (15/56; 11%). All participants who worked with a pharmacist (11/33; 33%) described this relationship as beneficial and indicated they would continue to do so in the future. Veterinary

  7. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  8. Throwing Icebergs at White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Where do the metals come from that pollute the atmospheres of many white dwarfs? Close-in asteroids may not be the only culprits! A new study shows that distant planet-size and icy objects could share some of the blame.Pollution ProblemsArtists impression of rocky debris lying close around a white dwarf star. [NASA/ESA/STScI/G. Bacon]When a low- to intermediate-mass star reaches the end of its life, its outer layers are blown off, leaving behind its compact core. The strong gravity of this white dwarf causes elements heavier than hydrogen and helium to rapidly sink to its center in a process known as sedimentation, leaving an atmosphere that should be free of metallic elements.Therefore its perhaps surprising that roughly 2550% of all white dwarfs are observed to have atmospheric pollution by heavy elements. The short timescales for sedimentation suggest that these elements were added to the white dwarf recently but how did they get there?Bringing Ice InwardIn the generally accepted theory, pre-existing rocky bodies or an orbiting asteroid belt survive the stars evolution, later accreting onto the final white dwarf. But this scenario doesnt explain a few observations that suggest white dwarfs might be accreting larger planetary-size bodies and bodies with ices and volatile materials.Dynamical evolution of a Neptune-like planet (a) and a Kuiper belt analog object (b) in wide binary star systems. Both have large eccentricity excitations during the white dwarf phase. [Stephan et al. 2017]How might you get large or icy objects which would begin on very wide orbits close enough to a white dwarf to become disrupted and accrete? Led by Alexander Stephan, a team of scientists at UCLA now suggest that the key is for the white dwarf to be in a binary system.Influence of a CompanionIn the authors model, the white-dwarf progenitor is orbited by both a distant stellar companion (a common occurrence) and a number of large potential polluters, which could have masses between that

  9. Toxicity of elevated partial pressures of carbon dioxide to invasive New Zealand mudsnails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielson, R. Jordan; Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors tested the efficacy of elevated partial pressures of CO2 to kill invasive New Zealand mudsnails. The New Zealand mudsnails were exposed to 100 kPa at three water temperatures, and the survival was modeled versus dose as cumulative °C-h. We estimated an LD50 of 59.4°C-h for adult and juvenile New Zealand mudsnails. The results suggest that CO2 may be an effective and inexpensive lethal tool to treat substrates, tanks, or materials infested with New Zealand mudsnails.

  10. Cardioprotective abilities of white wine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianhua; Tosaki, Arpad; Cordis, Gerald A; Bertelli, Alberto A E; Bertelli, Aldo; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-05-01

    To study if white wines, like red wine, can also protect the heart from ischemia reperfusion injury, ethanol-free extracts of three different white wines (WW1, WW2 and WW3) (100 mg/100 g body weight) were given orally to Sprague Dawley rats (200 g body weight) for three weeks. Control rats were given water only for the same period of time. After three weeks, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed, and the hearts excised for the preparation of isolated working rat heart. All hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by two hours of reperfusion. The results demonstrated that among the three different white wines, only WW2 showed cardioprotection as evidenced by improved post-ischemic ventricular recovery compared to control. The amount of malonaldehyde production in white wine-fed rat hearts were lower compared to that found in control hearts indicating reduced formation of the reactive oxygen species. In vitro studies using chemiluminescence technique revealed that these white wines scavenged both superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. The results of our study demonstrated that only WW2 white wine provided cardioprotection as evidenced by the improved the post-ischemic contractile recovery and reduced myocardial infarct size. The cardioprotective effect of this white wine may be attributed, at least in part, from its ability to function as an in vivo antioxidant.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: white sponge nevus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions White sponge nevus White sponge nevus Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description White sponge nevus is a condition characterized by the formation ...

  12. Solidification of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatzman, E.

    1982-01-01

    The internal structure of white dwarfs is discussed. Highly correlated plasmas are reviewed. Implications for phase separation in the core of cooling white dwarfs are considered. The consequences for evolution of white dwarfs are addressed.

  13. Gravity in extensional regimes: A case study in the Central Volcanic Region, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, A.; Stern, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Using the interpretation of a large crustal seismic experiment conducted in 2009 as boundary model, we produced a sequence of new 2D gravity models for the central North Island in New Zealand. The Bouguer gravity field in the region ranges from -100 to 60 mGal and is dominated by the long wavelength signals of the subduction of the Pacific beneath the Australian plate along the Hikurangi margin and the transition from continental to oceanic lithosphere about the Bay of Plenty coast (NE New Zealand). Removal of these broad regional trends reveals the presence of a triangular shaped area, within the lines Taranaki-Coromandel and Taranaki - White Island, with negative anomalies between -30 and 60 mGal and positive anomalies around 10 mGal along the margins. This area, commonly referred to as the Central Volcanic Region (CVR) represents the continental continuation of the Lau-Havre, oceanic, back-arc rift basin. The Taupo Volcanic Zone forms the active eastern half of the CVR, where anomalously high heat output, geothermal activity and active volcanism occur. The new gravity model includes the presence of a 90km wide, ca. 10 km thick rift pillow of new underplated, lower crust between the depths of 15 and 25 km. A positive density contrast of 300 kg/m3 for this body is consistent with the observed seismic velocities (6.8 ≤ Vp ≤ 7.1 km/s). A ca. 2.5 km deep basin dominates the upper crustal structure and is about 50 km wide, infilled by low density volcaniclastics, with adopted average negative densities of -425 kg/m3. In the mid-crustal region, between 2.5 and 15 km depth, isostatic compensation requires a small density contrast of -110 kg/m3. This density contrast, with respect to a standard crustal model, can be ascribed to the presence of low density intrusives, within the old and now stretched crust. On the basis of this new crustal structure model we estimate a stretching factor (ß) for the old crust of 2-2.4. The intruded mid crust and the underplated new

  14. Where have all the blue flowers gone: pollinator responses and selection on flower colour in New Zealand Wahlenbergia albomarginata.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D R; Bischoff, M; Lord, J M; Robertson, A W

    2012-02-01

    Although pollinators are thought to select on flower colour, few studies have experimentally decoupled effects of colour from correlated traits on pollinator visitation and pollen transfer. We combined selection analysis and phenotypic manipulations to measure the effect of petal colour on visitation and pollen export at two spatial scales in Wahlenbergia albomarginata. This species is representative of many New Zealand alpine herbs that have secondarily evolved white or pale flowers. The major pollinators, solitary bees, exerted phenotypic selection on flower size but not colour, quantified by bee vision. When presented with manipulated flowers, bees visited flowers painted blue to resemble a congener over white flowers in large, but not small, experimental arrays. Pollen export was higher for blue flowers in large arrays. Pollinator preference does not explain the pale colouration of W. albomarginata, as commonly hypothesized. Absence of bright blue could be driven instead by indirect selection of correlated characters. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. The Healthgrid White Paper.

    PubMed

    Breton, Vincent; Dean, Kevin; Solomonides, Tony; Blanquer, I; Hernandez, V; Medico, E; Maglaveras, N; Benkner, S; Lonsdale, G; Lloyd, S; Hassan, K; McClatchey, R; Miguet, S; Montagnat, J; Pennec, X; De Neve, W; De Wagter, C; Heeren, G; Maigne, L; Nozaki, K; Taillet, M; Bilofsky, H; Ziegler, R; Hoffman, M; Jones, C; Cannataro, M; Veltri, P; Aloisio, G; Fiore, S; Mirto, M; Chouvarda, I; Koutkias, V; Malousi, A; Lopez, V; Oliveira, I; Sanchez, J P; Martin-Sanchez, F; De Moor, G; Claerhout, B; Herveg, J A M

    2005-01-01

    Over the last four years, a community of researchers working on Grid and High Performance Computing technologies started discussing the barriers and opportunities that grid technologies must face and exploit for the development of health-related applications. This interest lead to the first Healthgrid conference, held in Lyon, France, on January 16th-17th, 2003, with the focus of creating increased awareness about the possibilities and advantages linked to the deployment of grid technologies in health, ultimately targeting the creation of a European/international grid infrastructure for health. The topics of this conference converged with the position of the eHealth division of the European Commission, whose mandate from the Lisbon Meeting was "To develop an intelligent environment that enables ubiquitous management of citizens' health status, and to assist health professionals in coping with some major challenges, risk management and the integration into clinical practice of advances in health knowledge." In this context "Health" involves not only clinical procedures but covers the whole range of information from molecular level (genetic and proteomic information) over cells and tissues, to the individual and finally the population level (social healthcare). Grid technology offers the opportunity to create a common working backbone for all different members of this large "health family" and will hopefully lead to an increased awareness and interoperability among disciplines. The first HealthGrid conference led to the creation of the Healthgrid association, a non-profit research association legally incorporated in France but formed from the broad community of European researchers and institutions sharing expertise in health grids. After the second Healthgrid conference, held in Clermont-Ferrand on January 29th-30th, 2004, the need for a "white paper" on the current status and prospective of health grids was raised. Over fifty experts from different areas of grid

  16. The White Adolescent's Drug Odyssey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Douglas S.; Marel, Rozanne

    1980-01-01

    Presents a "typical" case history of a White middle-class teenager who becomes involved with marihuana and subsequently begins to abuse other drugs. Sociological findings from other research are interspersed in the anecdotal account. (GC)

  17. Snow White Trench After Scraping

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-24

    This view from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench informally named Snow White after a series of scrapings were done in preparation for collecting a sample for analysis from a hard subsurface layer.

  18. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  19. A nationwide classification of New Zealand aquifer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, Rogier; Tschritter, Constanze; Rawlinson, Zara; White, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater plays an essential role in water provision for domestic, industrial and agricultural use. Groundwater is also vital for ecology and environment, since it provides baseflow to many streams, rivers and wetlands. As groundwater is a 'hidden' resource that is typically poorly understood by the public, simple and informative maps can assist to enhance awareness for understanding groundwater and associated environmental issues. The first national aquifer map for New Zealand (2001) identified 200 aquifers at a scale of approximately 1:5 Million. Subsequently, regional councils and unitary authorities have updated their aquifer boundaries using a variety of methods. However, with increasing demand of groundwater in New Zealand and drought impacts expected to be more significant in the future, more consistent and more advanced aquifer characterisation and mapping techniques are needed to improve our understanding of the available resources. Significant resources have gone into detailed geological mapping in recent years, and the New Zealand 1:250,000 Geological Map (QMAP) was developed and released as a seamless GIS database in 2014. To date, there has been no national assessment of this significant data set for aquifer characterisation purposes. This study details the use of the QMAP lithological and chrono-stratigraphic information to develop a nationwide assessment of hydrogeological units and their properties. The aim of this study is to map hydrogeological units in New Zealand, with a long-term goal to use this as a basis for a nationally-consistent map of aquifer systems and aquifer properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity estimates). Internationally accepted aquifer mapping studies were reviewed and a method was devised that classifies hydrogeological units based on the geological attributes of the QMAP ArcGIS polygons. The QMAP attributes used in this study were: main rock type; geological age; and secondary rock type. The method was mainly based on

  20. The mouthfeel of white wine.

    PubMed

    Gawel, Richard; Smith, Paul A; Cicerale, Sara; Keast, Russell

    2017-07-05

    White wine mouthfeel which encompasses the tactile, chemosensory and taste attributes of perceived viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness is increasingly being recognized as an important component of overall white wine quality. This review summarizes the physiological basis for the perception of white wine mouthfeel and the direct and interactive effects of white wine composition, specifically those of low molecular weight phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pH, ethanol, glycerol, dissolved carbon dioxide, and peptides. Ethyl alcohol concentration and pH play a direct role in determining most aspects of mouthfeel perception, and provide an overall framework on which the other minor wine components can interact to influence white wine mouthfeel. Phenolic compounds broadly impact on the mouthfeel by contributing to its viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness. Their breadth of influence likely results from their structural diversity which would allow them to activate multiple sensory mechanisms involved in mouthfeel perception. Conversely, polysaccharides have a small modulating effect on astringency and hotness perception, and glycerol does not affect perceived viscosity within the narrow concentration range found in white wine. Many of the major sensory attributes that contribute to the overall impression of mouthfeel are elicited by more than one class compound suggesting that different physiological mechanisms may be involved in the construct of mouthfeel percepts.

  1. The rural hospital doctors workforce in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, Ross A; Nixon, Garry; Steed, Robin H

    2011-01-01

    The sustainability of New Zealand's rural hospitals has been in question for some years. Increasingly, clinical services have been centralised and specialist staff have moved to bigger centres. As well as clinical services, the governance of these hospitals has shifted, often due to a shortage of vocationally registered medical practitioners available to lead the clinical services. In 2009 the Medical Council of New Zealand (MCNZ) approved a new vocational scope of practice in Rural Hospital Medicine (RHM). The present study was designed to establish the current composition of the rural hospital medical workforce at the introduction of this new scope of practice. This study was a 2009 cross-sectional survey of rural hospitals approved for RHM training by the MCNZ. Hospital managers were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire. All medical practitioners providing medical care in these hospitals in 2009 were identified, and each was mailed an additional questionnaire. In all, 28 rural hospitals and 107 medical practitioners who provided clinical services were identified; 28 responses (100%) were received to the hospital managers' survey and 69 responses (64%) to the doctors' survey. The managers' survey revealed a shortage of medical practitioners and significant use of locum staff. The workforce had a median age of 47 years, was predominantly male (75%) and principally trained overseas (68%), and 54% was vocationally registered. A proportion of the hospitals (35%) did not have a recognised clinical leader or an active process for credentialing new medical staff. The findings were not unexpected but do quantify the shortage of medical practitioners and the governance issues facing small rural hospitals in New Zealand. The scope of RHM has the potential to attract new doctors into practice, providing greater stability and clinical leadership for these important facilities. The study provides a baseline for a future evaluation of the effectiveness of the introduction of

  2. Stroke awareness and knowledge in an urban New Zealand population.

    PubMed

    Bay, Jacquie L; Spiroski, Ana-Mishel; Fogg-Rogers, Laura; McCann, Clare M; Faull, Richard L M; Barber, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death and a major cause of chronic disability in New Zealand. Linked to risk factors that develop across the life-course, stroke is considered to be largely preventable. This study assessed the awareness of stroke risk, symptoms, detection, and prevention behaviors in an urban New Zealand population. Demographics, stroke risk factors awareness, symptoms, responsiveness, and prevention behaviors were evaluated using a structured oral questionnaire. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of stroke literacy. Although personal experience of stroke increased awareness of symptoms and their likeliness to indicate the need for urgent medical attention, only 42.7% of the respondents (n = 850) identified stroke as involving both blood and the brain. Educational attainment at or above a trade certificate, apprenticeship, or diploma increased the awareness of stroke symptoms compared with those with no formal educational attainment. Pacific Island respondents were less likely than New Zealand Europeans to identify a number of stroke risk factors. Māori, Pacific Island, and Asian respondents were less likely to identify symptoms of stroke and indicate the need for urgent medical attention. The variability in stroke awareness and knowledge may suggest the need to enhance stroke-related health literacy that facilitates understanding of risk and of factors that reduce morbidity and mortality after stroke in people of Māori and Pacific Island descent and in those with lower educational attainment or socioeconomic status. It is therefore important that stroke awareness campaigns include tailored components for target audiences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New Zealand nurses' views on preceptoring international nurses.

    PubMed

    Riden, H; Jacobs, S; Marshall, B

    2014-06-01

    New Zealand encourages internationally educated nurses to seek registration in New Zealand to reduce local nursing shortages. Internationally educated nurses must meet requirements of the Health Practitioners Competency Assurance Act 2003, and demonstrate competency to practise through a clinical competency assessment programme. The purpose was to establish whether preceptors believe they are adequately prepared to assess nurses for whom English is a second language, and to determine the support and recognition received in the role. Preceptor training, workload, understanding of ethical and legal accountability, and perceived organizational values, support and attitudes were evaluated via an anonymous internet survey. Some preceptors do not meet Nursing Council of New Zealand standards and some work environments require nurses to preceptor international nurses. Many nurses believe the role is not valued despite the high workload requirements. Training increased preceptor confidence and preparedness for clinical assessment but additional education is required to understand ethical and legal accountability within the role. Many preceptors indicated they felt pressured into recording assessments they were uncomfortable with. Enhancing preceptorship acceptance could be achieved through institutional recognition of the role's value via workload consideration, institutional recognition or financial means. Increased preceptorship training, particularly around ethical and legal issues, would encourage preceptor confidence. Organizations must find ways of meeting these challenges while recognizing they are responsible for the work environment of both preceptors and internationally registered nurses for whom English is a second language. A register of preceptors could provide a platform for audit and quality assurance principles, ensuring adequate education and preparation of preceptors. Effective preceptorship requires training, recognition and support. Successful

  4. Status assessment of New Zealand's naturally uncommon ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, Robert J; Wiser, Susan K; Williams, Peter A

    2012-08-01

    Globally, ecosystems are under increasing anthropogenic pressure; thus, many are at risk of elimination. This situation has led the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to propose a quantitative approach to ecosystem-risk assessment. However, there is a need for their proposed criteria to be evaluated through practical examples spanning a diverse range of ecosystems and scales. We applied the IUCN's ecosystem red-list criteria, which are based on changes in extent of ecosystems and reductions in ecosystem processes, to New Zealand's 72 naturally uncommon ecosystems. We aimed to test the applicability of the proposed criteria to ecosystems that are naturally uncommon (i.e., those that would naturally occur over a small area in the absence of human activity) and to provide information on the probability of ecosystem elimination so that conservation priorities might be set. We also tested the hypothesis that naturally uncommon ecosystems classified as threatened on the basis of IUCN Red List criteria contain more threatened plant species than those classified as nonthreatened. We identified 18 critically endangered, 17 endangered, and 10 vulnerable ecosystems. We estimated that naturally uncommon ecosystems contained 145 (85%) of mainland New Zealand's taxonomically distinct nationally critical, nationally endangered, and nationally vulnerable plant species, 66 (46%) of which were endemic to naturally uncommon ecosystems. We estimated there was a greater number of threatened plant species (per unit area) in critically endangered ecosystems than in ecosystems classified as nonthreatened. With their high levels of endemism and rapid and relatively well-documented history of anthropogenic change, New Zealand's naturally uncommon ecosystems provide an excellent case-study for the ongoing development of international criteria for threatened ecosystems. We suggest that interactions and synergies among decline in area, decline in function, and the scale of

  5. Surveillance for arboviral zoonoses in New Zealand birds

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Cheryl; Jakob-Hoff, Richard; Pulford, David; Castro, Isabel; Mackereth, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Given the significant burden that emerging infectious diseases place on global economies and public health, the monitoring and mitigation of, and early response to, potential infectious diseases are of the highest priority. The objective of this study was to survey for known and other potential arboviral zoonoses in multiple bird species at four locations in New Zealand. Methods Common bird species were targeted for blood sampling during two southern hemisphere summers. Sera from each period (n = 185 and n = 693) were screened in an epitope blocking enzyme immunoassay for flavivirus antibody detection. In the first season, testing for antibodies to specific alphaviruses was conducted on samples with sufficient sera (n = 22). In the second season, blood clots (n = 544) were screened for viral presence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for alphaviral and flaviviral RNA, and virus isolation (n = 146) was conducted. Results Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 13 species, and one Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) from one site was positive for antibodies to Ross River virus. PCR tests and virus isolation were all negative. Discussion: Evidence for flavivirus exposure in seabirds at Kaikoura Peninsula and Cape Kidnappers suggests that viruses isolated from seabirds and associated ticks in New Zealand in the late 1970s are still present. Evidence for flavivirus exposure in passerines at Kaikoura Peninsula, Cape Kidnappers and Mokoia Island is novel. The Ross River virus finding is also new and supports the hypothesis that migratory seabirds are an import pathway for such agents into New Zealand. PMID:24478919

  6. Categorical ethnicity and mental health literacy in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Marie, Dannette; Forsyth, Darryl K; Miles, Lynden K

    2004-08-01

    Public social policies in New Zealand assume that there are fundamental differences between Maori views of health phenomena and non-Maori perceptions. The biomedical model and a Maori model known as Te Whare Tapa Wha are commonly employed to characterise these differences. Using the categorical ethnicity demarcation 'Maori/non-Maori' we investigate this claim with respect to mental health literacy about depression. Participants were randomly selected from the General and Maori Electoral Rolls and recruited by post (N=205). A vignette methodology was employed and involved the development of a fictional character as a target stimulus who exhibited the minimum DSM-IV-R criteria for a major depressive disorder. Participants responded to items regarding problem recognition, well-being, causal attributions, treatment preferences, and likely prognosis. The majority of Maori and non-Maori participants correctly identified the problem the vignette character was experiencing and nominated congruent attributions for the causes of the problem. In relation to treatment strategies and likely prognosis, independent of self-assigned ethnicity, participants rated professional treatments above alternative options. Overall the categorical ethnicity distinction 'Maori and non-Maori' produced no systematic variation with regards to individual evaluative responses about a major depressive disorder. Contrary to the embedded assumption within New Zealand's public health strategies that there are essential differences between the way Maori and non-Maori view health problems, and that the categorical ethnicity demarcation reliably reflects these differences, we found no evidence for the veracity of this claim using a major depressive disorder as a target for judgements. Alternative explanations are canvassed as to why this assumption about fundamental differences based on categorical ethnicity has gained ascendancy and prominence within the sphere of New Zealand health.

  7. Health promotion funding, workforce recruitment and turnover in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Sarah A; Egan, Richard; Robertson, Lindsay; Hicks, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Almost a decade on from the New Zealand Primary Health Care Strategy and amidst concerns about funding of health promotion, we undertook a nationwide survey of health promotion providers. To identify trends in recruitment and turnover in New Zealand's health promotion workforce. Surveys were sent to 160 organisations identified as having a health focus and employing one or more health promoter. Respondents, primarily health promotion managers, were asked to report budget, retention and hiring data for 1 July 2009 through 1 July 2010. Responses were received from 53% of organisations. Among respondents, government funding for health promotion declined by 6.3% in the year ended July 2010 and health promoter positions decreased by 7.5% (equalling 36.6 full-time equivalent positions). Among staff who left their roles, 79% also left the field of health promotion. Forty-two organisations (52%) reported employing health promoters on time-limited contracts of three years or less; this employment arrangement was particularly common in public health units (80%) and primary health organisations (57%). Among new hires, 46% (n=55) were identified as Maori. Low retention of health promoters may reflect the common use of limited-term employment contracts, which allow employers to alter staffing levels as funding changes. More than half the surveyed primary health organisations reported using fixed-term employment contracts. This may compromise health promotion understanding, culture and institutional memory in these organisations. New Zealand's commitment to addressing ethnic inequalities in health outcomes was evident in the high proportion of Maori who made up new hires.

  8. Mortality in employees at a New Zealand agrochemical manufacturing site.

    PubMed

    McBride, David I; Burns, Carol J; Herbison, G Peter; Humphry, Noel F; Bodner, Kenneth; Collins, James J

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies at the Dow AgroSciences (Formerly Ivon Watkins-Dow) plant in New Plymouth, New Zealand, had raised concerns about the cancer risk in a subset of workers at the site with potential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. As the plant had been involved in the synthesis and formulation of a wide range of agrochemicals and their feedstocks, we examined the mortality risk for all workers at the site. To quantify the mortality hazards arising from employment at the Dow AgroSciences agrochemical production site in New Plymouth, New Zealand. Workers employed between 1 January 1969 and 1 October 2003 were followed up to the end of 2004. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using national mortality rates by employment duration, sex, period of hire and latency. A total of 1754 employees were followed during the study period and 247 deaths were observed. The all causes and all cancers SMRs were 0.97 (95% CI 0.85-1.10) and 1.01 (95% CI 0.80-1.27), respectively. Mortality due to all causes was higher for short-term workers (SMR 1.23, 95% CI 0.91-1.62) than long-term workers (SMR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80-1.06) and women had lower death rates than men. Analyses by latency and period of hire did not show any patterns consistent with an adverse impact of occupational exposures. The mortality experience of workers at the site was similar to the rest of New Zealand.

  9. Establishment of a New Zealand rabbit model of spinal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Guangqi; Wang, Qian; Shi, Jiandang; Yan, Junfa; Niu, Ningkui; Wang, Zili

    2015-04-01

    This was an experimental study. To investigate and evaluate the experimental method of establishing a New Zealand rabbit model of spinal tuberculosis. Establishing animal models of tuberculosis is critical to the experimental and clinical study of tuberculosis, especially spinal tuberculosis. However, the rapid spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and subsequent high mortality thwarted their effort. Since then, no animal models have been established of spinal tuberculosis. Forty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into experimental (n=20), control (n=20), and blank groups (n=2). Experimental animals were sensitized by complete Freund's adjuvant. A hole drilled under the upper endplate of the L4 vertebral body was filled with a gelfoam sponge infused with 0.1 mL H37Rv standard M. tuberculosis suspension (in controls, culture medium, and saline). Blank animals received no treatment. Survival 8 weeks after surgery was 89.5%, 94.7%, and 100% in experimental, control, and blank groups, respectively. The model was successfully established in all surviving experimental rabbits. In experimental animals, vertebral body destruction at 4 weeks was 50% by x-ray; 83.3% by computed tomography reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging; at 8 weeks, 58.8% by x-ray and 100% by computed tomograph reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging. At 8 weeks, experimental animals developed vertebral destruction, granulation, and necrosis and 17.6% had psoas abscess. Histopathology revealed numerous lymphocytes and epithelioid cells, trabecular bone fracture, and coagulative necrosis in the vertebrae of experimental animals; bacterium culture was 52.9% positive. Control and blank animals showed no such changes. A New Zealand rabbit of spinal tuberculosis model can be successfully established by drilling a hole in the upper endplate of the vertebral body, filling with gelfoam sponge infused with H37Rv standard M. tuberculosis suspension after sensitization by complete Freund

  10. Anthropometric Profiling of New Zealand Junior Elite Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhargav; Dave, Asmi; Kotecha, Nilesh; Oates, Myrtle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The triathlon involves a combination of three separate disciplines-swimming, cycling and running. To date, very few studies have been conducted on the anthropometric characteristics of the New Zealand junior elite triathletes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between physical traits of calf girth or sum of eight skinfolds (anthropometry) and running or cycling performances in the triathlon event. Methods Eleven junior elite triathletes (6 females, 5 males; (Av. age: 17) who were selected for the New Zealand national squad, were examined in this cross-sectional study. All athletes were measured for the complete anthropometric profile, as per the International Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) guidelines. It was then correlated with the cycling and running performances using interclass correlation (ICC) with 90% confidence interval (CI) limits. Results A non-significant positive correlation observed between eight skinfolds tests on running performance (ICC: 0.10; 90% CI: −0.68–0.77; p>0.05) and biking performance (ICC: 0.15; 90% CI: −0.65–0.79; p>0.05), suggested athletes with greater body fat may render a better athletic performance. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and running performance (ICC:−0.66; 90% CI: −0.94 – −0.12; p<0.05) and a non-significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and cycling performance (ICC:−0.94; 90% CI: −0.97– 0.68; p>0.05). Conclusion Anthropometric data can help in predicting an ideal body profile. This research indicates the similarities and differences of the New Zealand junior profile and the world junior profile. PMID:27504176

  11. Neonatal encephalopathy in New Zealand: Demographics and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Battin, M; Sadler, L; Masson, V; Farquhar, C

    2016-06-01

    To establish the incidence of moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy (NE) in term infants from New Zealand and to document demographic characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Cases were reported monthly via the New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Unit (NZPSU). Data were collected from paediatricians for neonatal items and lead maternity carers for pregnancy and birth details. Term neonatal deaths in the Perinatal and Maternal Mortality Review Committee dataset that were because of hypoxia and/or neonatal deaths from hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy were added to the cases identified via the NZPSU, if they had not previously been ascertained. For the period January 2010 to December 2012, there were 227 cases, equivalent to a rate of 1.30/1000 term births (95% CI 1.14-1.48). Rates of NE were high in babies of Pacific and Indian mothers but only reached statistical significance for the comparison between Pacific and NZ European. There was also a significant increase in NE rates with increasing deprivation. Resuscitation at birth was initiated for 209 (92.1%) infants with NE. Mechanical ventilation was required, following neonatal unit admission, in 171 (75.3%) infants. Anticonvulsants were used in 157 (69.2%) infants with phenobarbitone (65.6%), phenytoin (14.5%) and benzodiazapines (21.1%), the most common. Cooling was induced in 168 infants (74%) with 145 (86.3%) reported as commenced within a 6-h window. The rate of NE in New Zealand is consistent with reported international rates. Establishing antecedent factors for NE is an important part of improving care, which may inform strategic efforts to decrease rates of NE. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. The scientific value and potential of New Zealand swamp kauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Boswijk, Gretel; Hogg, Alan; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Christian S. M.; Fowler, Anthony M.; Ogden, John; Woolley, John-Mark

    2018-03-01

    New Zealand swamp kauri (Agathis australis) are relic trees that have been buried and preserved in anoxic bog environments of northern New Zealand for centuries through to hundreds of millennia. Kauri are massive in proportion to other native New Zealand trees and they can attain ages greater than 1000 years. The export market for swamp (subfossil) kauri has recently been driven by demand for a high-value workable timber, but there are concerns about the sustainability of the remaining resource, a situation exacerbated in recent years by the rapid extraction of wood. Economic exploitation of swamp kauri presents several unique opportunities for Quaternary science, however the scientific value of this wood is not well understood by the wider research community and public. Here, we summarise the history of scientific research on swamp kauri, and explore the considerable potential of this unique resource. Swamp kauri tree-ring chronologies are temporally unique, and secondary analyses (such as radiocarbon and isotopic analyses) have value for improving our understanding of Earth's recent geologic history and pre-instrumental climate history. Swamp kauri deposits that span the last interglacial-glacial cycle show potential to yield "ultra-long" multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies, and composite records spanning large parts of MIS3 (and most of the Holocene) may be possible. High-precision radiocarbon dating of swamp kauri chronologies can improve the resolution of the global radiocarbon calibration curve, while testing age modelling and chronologic alignment of other independent long-term high-resolution proxy records. Swamp kauri also has the potential to facilitate absolute dating and verification of cosmogenic events found in long Northern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. Future efforts to conserve these identified values requires scientists to work closely with swamp kauri industry operators, resource consent authorities, and export regulators to mitigate

  13. Mortality in employees at a New Zealand agrochemical manufacturing site

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; Herbison, G. Peter; Humphry, Noel F.; Bodner, Kenneth; Collins, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies at the Dow AgroSciences (Formerly Ivon Watkins-Dow) plant in New Plymouth, New Zealand, had raised concerns about the cancer risk in a subset of workers at the site with potential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. As the plant had been involved in the synthesis and formulation of a wide range of agrochemicals and their feedstocks, we examined the mortality risk for all workers at the site. Aims To quantify the mortality hazards arising from employment at the Dow AgroSciences agrochemical production site in New Plymouth, New Zealand. Methods Workers employed between 1 January 1969 and 1 October 2003 were followed up to the end of 2004. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using national mortality rates by employment duration, sex, period of hire and latency. Results A total of 1754 employees were followed during the study period and 247 deaths were observed. The all causes and all cancers SMRs were 0.97 (95% CI 0.85–1.10) and 1.01 (95% CI 0.80–1.27), respectively. Mortality due to all causes was higher for short-term workers (SMR 1.23, 95% CI 0.91–1.62) than long-term workers (SMR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80–1.06) and women had lower death rates than men. Analyses by latency and period of hire did not show any patterns consistent with an adverse impact of occupational exposures. Conclusions The mortality experience of workers at the site was similar to the rest of New Zealand. PMID:19297337

  14. Mortality after hip fracture: regional variations in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Walker, N; Norton, R; Vander Hoorn, S; Rodgers, A; MacMahon, S; Clark, T; Gray, H

    1999-07-23

    To determine the 35-day and one-year mortality rates following a hospital admission for hip fracture, among individuals aged 60 years or older in New Zealand. New Zealand Health Information Service mortality data for the years 1988 to 1992 were examined to determine the case fatality rate among individuals aged 60 years or older admitted to hospital for fractures of the neck of femur (ICD-9 N-code 820). Case fatality rates assessed at 35 days and one year after admission to hospital were examined by age, gender, year of admission, place of residence, area health board region and cause of death. Between 1988 and 1992, the case fatality rate was 8% within 35 days of admission to hospital and 24% within one year of admission. Case fatality rates were found to be twice as high in men compared to women and four to five times higher in individuals aged 85 years and older, compared to people aged between 60 and 64 years. The only regional difference in hip fracture mortality was found in the Canterbury area health board region, which had a 30% higher rate of hip fracture mortality compared to all regions combined. The two main cited underlying causes of death after hip fracture were accidental falls (ICD E880-E888) and ischaemic heart disease (ICD 410-414). Over three-quarters of individuals aged 60 years or older who are hospitalised with a hip fracture in New Zealand survive for at least one year after admission. However, significant variations in mortality exist with age and gender. These data highlight the importance of preventive strategies for hip fracture in older people and the need to identify ways of improving post-admission care.

  15. Australian and New Zealand Perfusion Survey: Equipment and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Robert A.; Willcox, Timothy W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The current practice of perfusion in Australia and New Zealand continues to adopt new techniques and procedures into clinical practice. Our aims were to report current practice in 2003 and to compare and contrast current practice with historic practice. A total of 62 centers (40 perfusion groups) performing procedures using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were identified and were e-mailed a detailed electronic survey. The survey was comprised of an excel worksheet that contained 233 single answer questions (either dropdown lists, yes/no, true/false, or numeric) and 12 questions that allowed the respondent to provide a commentary. Respondents were instructed to answer all questions based on what represented the predominant practice of perfusion in their institutions during 2003. We report an 89% response rate representing a caseload of 20,688 adult cases. These data allowed us to profile the following. A standard adult CPB setup in 2003 consisted of a membrane oxygenator (100% of cases), a roller pump (70%) as the main arterial pump, although a centrifugal pump would be considered for selected procedures (30%), a circuit incorporating a hard-shell venous reservoir (86%), and a mixture of biocompatible and nonbiocompatible circuit components (66%). The circuit would include a pre-bypass filter (88%), an arterial line filter (94%), and would allow monitoring of the following: hard-shell venous reservoir low level (100%) with servo-regulation of the arterial pump (85%), microbubble alarm (94%) with servo-regulation of the arterial pump (79.5%), arterial line pressures (100%) with servo-regulation of the arterial pump (79%), inline venous O2 saturation (100%), and inline hematocrit (58%). Perfusion practice in Australia and New Zealand has adopted changes over the last decade; however, some areas of practice show wide variation. This survey provides a baseline of contemporary practice for Australian and New Zealand perfusionists. PMID:17089508

  16. Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Michael R; Schaefer, Joerg M; Denton, George H; Barrell, David J A; Chinn, Trevor J H; Putnam, Aaron E; Andersen, Bjørn G; Finkel, Robert C; Schwartz, Roseanne; Doughty, Alice M

    2010-09-09

    Millennial-scale cold reversals in the high latitudes of both hemispheres interrupted the last transition from full glacial to interglacial climate conditions. The presence of the Younger Dryas stadial (approximately 12.9 to approximately 11.7 kyr ago) is established throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, but the global timing, nature and extent of the event are not well established. Evidence in mid to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, has remained perplexing. The debate has in part focused on the behaviour of mountain glaciers in New Zealand, where previous research has found equivocal evidence for the precise timing of increased or reduced ice extent. The interhemispheric behaviour of the climate system during the Younger Dryas thus remains an open question, fundamentally limiting our ability to formulate realistic models of global climate dynamics for this time period. Here we show that New Zealand's glaciers retreated after approximately 13 kyr bp, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, and in general over the subsequent approximately 1.5-kyr period. Our evidence is based on detailed landform mapping, a high-precision (10)Be chronology and reconstruction of former ice extents and snow lines from well-preserved cirque moraines. Our late-glacial glacier chronology matches climatic trends in Antarctica, Southern Ocean behaviour and variations in atmospheric CO(2). The evidence points to a distinct warming of the southern mid-latitude atmosphere during the Younger Dryas and a close coupling between New Zealand's cryosphere and southern high-latitude climate. These findings support the hypothesis that extensive winter sea ice and curtailed meridional ocean overturning in the North Atlantic led to a strong interhemispheric thermal gradient during late-glacial times, in turn leading to increased upwelling and CO(2) release from the Southern Ocean, thereby triggering Southern Hemisphere warming during the northern Younger Dryas.

  17. Regional white matter abnormalities in drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and their healthy unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Hailong; Hu, Maorong; Eyler, Lisa T; Jin, Hua; Wang, Juan; Ou, Jianjun; Guo, Xiaofeng; He, Zhong; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Jingping; Guo, Wenbin

    2015-03-01

    Shared neuropathological features between schizophrenia patients and their siblings may represent intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia and can be used to investigate genetic susceptibility to the illness. This study aimed to discover regional white matter abnormalities in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and their unaffected siblings compared to healthy subjects in the Chinese Han population using optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM). A total of 51 drug-naive, FES patients, 45 of their unaffected siblings and 59 healthy comparisons were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). FES patients exhibited significant regional white matter deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus and left joint of external capsule and internal capsule compared with healthy subjects (corrected FDR, p<0.005). The sibling group also showed significant white matter deficits in these two regions compared with the healthy comparison group (uncorrected, p<0.001). White matter deficits with a less stringent threshold for significance in the left cerebellum anterior lobe, left middle frontal gyrus, left hippocampus, right anterior cingulate and right internal capsule were observed in patients compared to their siblings. Our findings extend those from previous VBM analyses showing that FES patients and their unaffected siblings may share white matter deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left joint of external capsule and internal capsule. These regional white matter deficits may be related to genetic factors related to schizophrenia susceptibility. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  18. Let's Talk about Race, Baby: How a White Professor Teaches White Students about White Privilege and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of methods by which the themes of White privilege and racism can be presented to White students. By using the concept of racial identity a continuum of racism can be considered. Furthermore, addressing White privilege and racism in the context of a multicultural psychology course allows White students to have a greater…

  19. Moral Foundations Predict Religious Orientations in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bulbulia, Joseph; Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G.

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between religion, morality, and community-making is a core theme across human experience, yet scholars have only recently begun to quantify these links. Drawing on a sample of 1512 self-identified religious – mainly Christian (86.0%) – New Zealanders, we used structural equation modeling to test hypothesized associations between Religious Orientations (Quest, Intrinsic, Extrinsic Personal, Extrinsic Social) and Moral Foundations (Care/Harm, Fairness/Cheating, Loyalty/Betrayal, Authority/Subversion, Sanctity/Degradation). Our results show, for the first time in a comprehensive model, how different ways of valuing communities are associated with different ways of valuing religion. PMID:24339872

  20. Critical health psychology in New Zealand: Developments, directions and reflections.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Kerry; Lyons, Antonia C; Stephens, Christine

    2018-03-01

    We examine how critical health psychology developed in New Zealand, taking an historical perspective to document important influences. We discuss how academic appointments created a confluence of critical researchers at Massey University, how interest in health psychology arose and expanded, how the critical turn eventuated and how connections, both local and international, were important in building and sustaining these developments. We discuss the evolution of teaching a critical health psychology training programme, describe the research agendas and professional activities of academic staff involved and how this sustains the critical agenda. We close with some reflections on progress and attainment.

  1. New Zealand: Background and Bilateral Relations with the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-16

    Maori 15%, Polynesian 6.5% Livestock: 9.8 mill cattle and 39.2 mill sheep Religion: Anglican 15%, Roman Catholic 13%, Presbyterian 11% GDP growth...4.8% (2004) 2.6% (2005 est) Per Capita GDP : $23,807 (2004 est.) Major Markets: Australia 21.8%, U.S. 14.6%, Japan 11%, China 4.9%, & United Kingdom...Unemployment was an estimated 4.6% in 2004.5 New Zealanders’2004 per-capita GDP was an estimated $23,807 in U.S. dollars. New Zealand has a land

  2. The establishment of the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Deborah A; Henderson-Smart, David J

    2009-01-01

    The Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network was established in 1994 to monitor high-risk newborns admitted for care. Uniquely, all units in both countries have participated since inception, making it integral to the care of babies. The network's objectives include auditing care, publishing aggregated results annually, providing feedback to units, monitoring technologies and developing clinical indicators. Networking provides a forum for clinicians and a consortium of knowledge and advice. It facilitates collaborative research and clinical groups, producing projects from observational studies to randomised controlled trials. Members take a major role in reviewing the evidence for care and ensuring its effective use in clinical practice.

  3. Clouds near New Zealand photographed from Skylab space station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-12-12

    SL4-137-3566 (12 Dec. 1973) --- A group of clouds near New Zealand, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit by one of the Skylab 4 crew members. The camera used was a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad with SO-368 medium speed Ektachrome. This picture shows vividly how low sun angles enhance relief, giving these clouds a three-dimensional appearance. In addition to being "pretty," this photograph can be used to study the line of storms seen here at sunset. Relative heights of individuals cells can be measured, as well as their relation to the surrounding clouds. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Developing a New Zealand casemix classification for mental health services.

    PubMed

    Eagar, Kathy; Gaines, Phillipa; Burgess, Philip; Green, Janette; Bower, Alison; Buckingham, Bill; Mellsop, Graham

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a casemix classification of characteristics of New Zealand mental health services users. Over a six month period, patient information, staff time and service costs were collected from 8 district health boards. This information was analysed seeking the classification of service user characteristics which best predicted the cost drivers of the services provided. A classification emerged which explained more than two thirds of the variance in service user costs. It can be used to inform service management and funding, but it is premature to have it determine funding.

  5. Developing a New Zealand casemix classification for mental health services

    PubMed Central

    Eagar, Kathy; Gaines, Phillipa; Burgess, Philip; Green, Janette; Bower, Alison; Buckingham, Bill; Mellsop, Graham

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a casemix classification of characteristics of New Zealand mental health services users. Over a six month period, patient information, staff time and service costs were collected from 8 district health boards. This information was analysed seeking the classification of service user characteristics which best predicted the cost drivers of the services provided. A classification emerged which explained more than two thirds of the variance in service user costs. It can be used to inform service management and funding, but it is premature to have it determine funding. PMID:16633490

  6. Cancer incidence in indigenous people in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA: a comparative population-based study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Suzanne P; Antoni, Sébastien; Colquhoun, Amy; Healy, Bonnie; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Potter, John D; Garvey, Gail; Bray, Freddie

    2015-11-01

    Indigenous people have disproportionally worse health and lower life expectancy than their non-indigenous counterparts in high-income countries. Cancer data for indigenous people are scarce and incidence has not previously been collectively reported in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA. We aimed to investigate and compare, for the first time, the cancer burden in indigenous populations in these countries. We derived incidence data from population-based cancer registries in three states of Australia (Queensland, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory), New Zealand, the province of Alberta in Canada, and the Contract Health Service Delivery Areas of the USA. Summary rates for First Nations and Inuit in Alberta, Canada, were provided directly by Alberta Health Services. We compared age-standardised rates by registry, sex, cancer site, and ethnicity for all incident cancer cases, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers, diagnosed between 2002 and 2006. Standardised rate ratios (SRRs) and 95% CIs were computed to compare the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of each jurisdiction, except for the Alaska Native population, which was compared with the white population from the USA. We included 24 815 cases of cancer in indigenous people and 5 685 264 in non-indigenous people from all jurisdictions, not including Alberta, Canada. The overall cancer burden in indigenous populations was substantially lower in the USA except in Alaska, similar or slightly lower in Australia and Canada, and higher in New Zealand compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. Among the most commonly occurring cancers in indigenous men were lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer. In most jurisdictions, breast cancer was the most common cancer in women followed by lung and colorectal cancer. The incidence of lung cancer was higher in indigenous men in all Australian regions, in Alberta, and in US Alaska Natives than in their non-indigenous counterparts. For breast cancer

  7. Towards a Pre-Service Technology Teacher Education Resource for New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forret, Michael; Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; Granshaw, Bruce; Harwood, Cliff; Miller, Angela; O'Sullivan, Gary; Patterson, Moira

    2013-01-01

    The Pre-service Technology Teacher Education Resource (PTTER) was developed as a cross-institutional resource to support the development of initial technology teacher education programmes in New Zealand. The PTTER was developed through collaboration involving representatives from each of the six New Zealand university teacher education providers,…

  8. Building a Future-Oriented Science Education System in New Zealand: How Are We Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jane; Bull, Ally

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes the case for deep and radical change to New Zealand's approach to science education. It discusses the implications of recent science education research and policy work, and argues New Zealand still has a long way to go to developing a future-oriented science education system. It explores what needs to change and contains…

  9. Applying Funds of Knowledge Theory in a New Zealand High School: New Directions for Pedagogical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In New Zealand teacher practice is expected to be inclusive and supportive of all learners (Ministry of Education, 2007). However, diverse evidence highlights inequitable school experiences for Maori and Pasifika students. This study explored the application of funds of knowledge (FoK) theory within a New Zealand high school, with a focus on…

  10. Continuing Education for the Elderly in New Zealand: A Survey of the Opportunities. Working Paper #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, David

    One in seven New Zealanders is now 60 or older, and by the turn of the century the figure is expected to be one in five. Based on the admittedly incomplete information that is available, the majority of elderly New Zealanders live in their own homes, do not experience excessive financial hardships, and are not physically or mentally disabled.…

  11. Early Learnings from the National Library of New Zealand's National Digital Heritage Archive Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the digital preservation programme at the National Library of New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of the legislative and strategic context for digital preservation in New Zealand, details are provided of the system for the National Digital…

  12. Equity in New Zealand University Graduate Outcomes: Maori and Pacific Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Reremoana; Taumoepeau, Mele; Kokaua, Jesse; Tustin, Karen; Gollop, Megan; Taylor, Nicola; Hunter, Jackie; Kiro, Cynthia; Poulton, Richie

    2018-01-01

    Higher education confers significant private and social benefits. Maori and Pacific peoples are under-represented within New Zealand universities and have poorer labour market outcomes (e.g., lower wages, under-represented in skilled professions). A New Zealand tertiary education priority is to boost Maori and Pacific success in an effort to…

  13. Chain of Influence from Policy to Practice in the New Zealand Literacy Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperley, Helen S.; Parr, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand's literacy strategy seeks to translate into reality the broad policy goals of equipping all New Zealanders with the knowledge, skills and values to be successful citizens of the twenty-first century. The central policy concern is reflected in international surveys showing that although the country's student achievement is above the…

  14. Takina te Kawa: Laying the Foundation, a Research Engagement Methodology in Aotearoa (New Zealand)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwhati, Marama; Toia, Rawiri; Te Maro, Pania; McRae, Hiria; McKenzie, Tabitha

    2010-01-01

    In the bi-cultural context of Aotearoa (New Zealand), engagement with stakeholders that is transparent and culturally responsive is a priority for educational research. More common research approaches in New Zealand have followed a Western euro-centric model of engagement with research participants resulting in interventions and initiatives that…

  15. Leading Change in Reading for Young Adolescents: What Is Happening in New Zealand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Effective school leadership in supporting outcomes for all students is critical. This study focuses on six New Zealand principals as they endeavour to make a difference to reading outcomes for 11 to 13 year-old students. In New Zealand, there are approximately 20% of students who are underachieving in reading. Once they reach the final years of…

  16. Artists in Schools: "Kick Starting" or "Kicking Out" Dance from New Zealand Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snook, Barbara; Buck, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand primary school teachers have access to a comprehensive arts curriculum that includes dance, drama, music, and visual arts. This research focused on several teachers' reality of implementing the dance curriculum in New Zealand primary schools, drawing on Snook's (2012) study in this field. Our research valued the voices of teachers,…

  17. The Implementation, Evolution and Impact of New Zealand's National Qualifications Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strathdee, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines some of the major factors leading to the introduction of the New Zealand National Qualifications Framework (NQF). It also describes the NQF's design, outlines changes that were introduced following its introduction in 1991, and explores its impact to date. The New Zealand case is interesting, as the agency responsible for the…

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in accordance...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in accordance...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in accordance...