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Sample records for zealand white rabbit

  1. Deterministic Models of Inhalational Anthrax in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Computational models describing bacterial kinetics were developed for inhalational anthrax in New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits following inhalation of Ames strain B. anthracis. The data used to parameterize the models included bacterial numbers in the airways, lung tissue, draining lymph nodes, and blood. Initial bacterial numbers were deposited spore dose. The first model was a single exponential ordinary differential equation (ODE) with 3 rate parameters that described mucociliated (physical) clearance, immune clearance (bacterial killing), and bacterial growth. At 36 hours postexposure, the ODE model predicted 1.7×107 bacteria in the rabbit, which agreed well with data from actual experiments (4.0×107 bacteria at 36 hours). Next, building on the single ODE model, a physiological-based biokinetic (PBBK) compartmentalized model was developed in which 1 physiological compartment was the lumen of the airways and the other was the rabbit body (lung tissue, lymph nodes, blood). The 2 compartments were connected with a parameter describing transport of bacteria from the airways into the body. The PBBK model predicted 4.9×107 bacteria in the body at 36 hours, and by 45 hours the model showed all clearance mechanisms were saturated, suggesting the rabbit would quickly succumb to the infection. As with the ODE model, the PBBK model results agreed well with laboratory observations. These data are discussed along with the need for and potential application of the models in risk assessment, drug development, and as a general aid to the experimentalist studying inhalational anthrax. PMID:24527843

  2. Development of a Zealand White Rabbit Deposition Model to Study Inhalation Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, A.P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits. PMID:26895308

  3. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    SciT

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits asmore » a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.« less

  4. Using Telemetry Data to Refine Endpoints for New Zealand White Rabbits Challenged with Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Dawson, David G; Bower, Kristin A; Burnette, Candace N; Holt, Rebecca K; Swearengen, James R; Dabisch, Paul A; Scorpio, Angelo

    2017-11-01

    We used a continuous-monitoring digital telemetry system to investigate temperature response in New Zealand White rabbits after inhalation or subcutaneous challenge with Bacillus anthracis. Two spore preparations of B. anthracis Ames A2084 were evaluated by using a nose-only inhalation model, and 2 strains, B. anthracis Ames A2084 and B. anthracis UT500, were evaluated in a subcutaneous model. Animal body temperature greater than 3 SD above the mean baseline temperature was considered a significant increase in body temperature (SIBT). All rabbits that exhibited SIBT after challenge by either route of infection or bacterial strain eventually died or were euthanized due to infection, and all rabbits that died or were euthanized due to infection exhibited SIBT during the course of disease. The time at onset of SIBT preceded clinical signs of disease in 94% of the rabbits tested by as long as 2 days. In addition, continuous temperature monitoring facilitated discrimination between the 2 B. anthracis strains with regard to the time interval between SIBT and death. These data suggest that for the New Zealand White rabbit anthrax model, SIBT is a reliable indicator of infection, is predictive of experimental outcome in the absence of treatment, and is measurable prior to the appearance of more severe signs of disease. The use of digital telemetry to monitor infectious disease course in animal models of anthrax can potentially be used in conjunction with other clinical score metrics to refine endpoint euthanasia criteria.

  5. Oral Transmucosal Detomidine Gel in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Morika D; Long, C Tyler; Durrant, Jessica R; McKeon, Gabriel P; Shive, Heather R; Griffith, Emily H; Messenger, Kristen M; Fish, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Handling and restraining rabbits for routine procedures may be impossible without prior sedation, result in unnecessary stress or injury to the rabbit or handler, and increase experimental variability. Parenteral administration of sedatives can cause stress also, as well as localized pain and tissue damage, especially in fractious animals. Detomidine hydrochloride, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is commercially available in an oral transmucosal (OTM) gel formulation that is FDA-approved for sedation and restraint in horses. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of detomidine gel as an alternative to injectable sedation in rabbits. Eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits each received 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg/kg OTM detomidine gel. Physiologic parameters and sedation scores (SS) were assessed at 10-min intervals from before administration until 100 min afterward. Histopathology of cardiac tissue was scored through 12 d after dosing. Gel administration increased the SS in all rabbits, but none of the animals developed clinically effective sedation (SS of 10 or greater, based on 5 reflex responses on a 3- or 4-point scale). The SS did not differ among dosage groups, and the time–dose interaction was not statistically significant. Heart rate decreased rapidly in all rabbits, with no difference among dosage groups, and there was no effect of time or dosage on peripheral capillary oxygen saturation. Minimal to mild degenerative changes were seen in the myocardium of all treated rabbits, but myocyte necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and mural thrombi—reported previously in rabbits that had received parenteral detomidine—did not occur. OTM detomidine gel was safely and easily administered to rabbits, but the duration and level of sedation were unpredictable. The use of OTM detomidine as a sole agent to facilitate handling and restraint of rabbits does not offer advantages over existing parenteral regimens. PMID:28724493

  6. Oral Transmucosal Detomidine Gel in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Williams, Morika D; Long, C Tyler; Durrant, Jessica R; McKeon, Gabriel P; Shive, Heather R; Griffith, Emily H; Messenger, Kristen M; Fish, Richard E

    2017-07-01

    Handling and restraining rabbits for routine procedures may be impossible without prior sedation, result in unnecessary stress or injury to the rabbit or handler, and increase experimental variability. Parenteral administration of sedatives can cause stress also, as well as localized pain and tissue damage, especially in fractious animals. Detomidine hydrochloride, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is commercially available in an oral transmucosal (OTM) gel formulation that is FDA-approved for sedation and restraint in horses. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of detomidine gel as an alternative to injectable sedation in rabbits. Eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits each received 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg/kg OTM detomidine gel. Physiologic parameters and sedation scores (SS) were assessed at 10-min intervals from before administration until 100 min afterward. Histopathology of cardiac tissue was scored through 12 d after dosing. Gel administration increased the SS in all rabbits, but none of the animals developed clinically effective sedation (SS of 10 or greater, based on 5 reflex responses on a 3- or 4-point scale). The SS did not differ among dosage groups, and the time-dose interaction was not statistically significant. Heart rate decreased rapidly in all rabbits, with no difference among dosage groups, and there was no effect of time or dosage on peripheral capillary oxygen saturation. Minimal to mild degenerative changes were seen in the myocardium of all treated rabbits, but myocyte necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and mural thrombi-reported previously in rabbits that had received parenteral detomidine-did not occur. OTM detomidine gel was safely and easily administered to rabbits, but the duration and level of sedation were unpredictable. The use of OTM detomidine as a sole agent to facilitate handling and restraint of rabbits does not offer advantages over existing parenteral regimens.

  7. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report

    SciT

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice onmore » 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.« less

  8. Effect of Sedation with Xylazine and Ketamine on Intraocular Pressure in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Holve, Dana L; Gum, Glenwood G; Pritt, Stacy L

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of intravenous and intramuscular xylazine–ketamine on intraocular pressure (IOP) in laboratory rabbits, 10 New Zealand white rabbits received xylazine (0.46 mg/kg) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg) intravenously whereas another 10 rabbits received intramuscular xylazine (10 mg/kg) and ketamine (50 mg/kg). IOP was measured at baseline and 5, 10, 20, and 25 min after administration in rabbits that were injected intravenously and at baseline and 10, 20, 30, and 45 min in rabbits injected intramuscularly. Baseline IOP (mean ± 1 SD; intravenous group, 20.15 ± 2.24 mm Hg; intramuscular group, 19.03 ± 1.77 mm Hg) did not differ between groups. Compared with baseline values, IOP decreased significantly after intravenous administration at 10, 20, and 25 min (decreases of 2.73, 4.10, and 4.55 mm Hg, respectively) but not at 5 min (decrease of 1.40 mm Hg). IOP in intramuscularly dosed rabbits showed significant differences from baseline at 10, 20, 30, and 45 min (decreases of 2.88, 3.30, 3.95, and 4.60 mm Hg, respectively). In the intravenous group, IOP differed at 10 min compared with 25 min (1.83 mm Hg, P = 0.0143) but not at 20 min compared with 25 min (0.450 mm Hg). In the intramuscular group, differences in IOP at 10 min compared with 20 min, 20 min compared with 30 min, and 30 min compared with 45 min were nonsignificant. Intravenous and intramuscular xylazine–ketamine decreased IOP in laboratory rabbits and may be used safely during ocular procedures for which increased IOP is a concern. PMID:23849448

  9. Effects of fentanyl on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Barter, Linda S; Hawkins, Michelle G; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2015-02-01

    To determine effects of increasing plasma fentanyl concentrations on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits. 6 adult female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen; ventilation was controlled and body temperature maintained between 38.5° and 39.5°C. Fentanyl was administered IV by use of a computer-controlled infusion system to achieve 6 target plasma concentrations. Isoflurane MAC was determined in duplicate by use of the bracketing technique with a supramaximal electrical stimulus. Blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma fentanyl concentration at each MAC determination. The MAC values were analyzed with a repeated-measures ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak pairwise comparisons. Mean ± SD plasma fentanyl concentrations were 0 ± 0 ng/mL (baseline), 1.2 ± 0.1 ng/mL, 2.2 ± 0.3 ng/mL, 4.4 ± 0.4 ng/mL, 9.2 ± 0.4 ng/mL, 17.5 ± 2.6 ng/mL, and 36.8 ± 2.4 ng/mL. Corresponding mean values for isoflurane MAC were 1.92 ± 0.16%, 1.80 ± 0.16%, 1.60 ± 0.23%, 1.46 ± 0.22%, 1.12 ± 0.19%, 0.89 ± 0.14%, and 0.70 ± 0.15%, respectively. Isoflurane MAC for plasma fentanyl concentrations ≥ 2.2 ng/mL differed significantly from the baseline value. In 3 rabbits, excessive spontaneous movement prevented MAC determination at the highest plasma fentanyl concentration. Fentanyl reduced isoflurane MAC by approximately 60% in New Zealand White rabbits. Further studies will be needed to investigate the cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane and fentanyl combinations in rabbits; however, fentanyl may prove to be a useful adjunct to inhalation anesthesia in this species.

  10. Influence of simethicone and fasting on the quality of abdominal ultrasonography in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kassy Gomes; de Andrade, Carla; Sotomaior, Cristina Santos

    2017-07-17

    Presence of significant quantities of gas in the intestines may hinder a proper conduction of abdominal ultrasonography. In humans, preparatory techniques are used to solve this, but measures to avoid ultrasonographic complications due to intestinal gas in rabbits have not been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of fasting and simethicone administered orally on the quality of ultrasonographic images of the gallbladder, kidneys, and jejunum in adult New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. A total of 28 adult NZW rabbits were included in a crossover design study, involving four groups: F: fasting for 4-6 h before the examination; FS: fasting and application of simethicone (20 mg/kg, orally) 20 to 30 min before the examination; S: application of simethicone 20-30 min before the examination without fasting; and C: controls without fasting and no application of simethicone. Evaluation of the ultrasonographic images was done in terms of percentage of visualization of each organ and image quality using a 3-point scoring system (unacceptable, acceptable, or excellent). The kidneys and the gallbladder were visualized at an equal frequency in all groups, while the jejunum was visualized more frequently in the FS group. The image quality scores for gallbladder, right kidney, and left kidney was similar for all groups, but for the jejunum, a higher number of images with acceptable scores was found within the FS group.

  11. rhBMP-2 (ACS and CRM formulations) overcomes pseudarthrosis in a New Zealand white rabbit posterolateral fusion model.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, James P; Waked, Walid; Gillon, Thomas J; White, Andrew P; Spock, Christopher R; Biswas, Debdut; Rosenberger, Patricia; Troiano, Nancy; Albert, Todd J; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2007-05-15

    The study design consisted of a New Zealand white rabbit model of pseudarthrosis repair. Study groups consisting of no graft, autograft, or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) or compression resistant matrix (CRM) were evaluated. To evaluate the relative efficacy of bone graft materials (autograft, ACS, and CRM). rhBMP-2 has been shown to have a 100% fusion rate in a primary rabbit fusion model, even in the presence of nicotine, which is known to inhibit fusion. Seventy-two New Zealand white rabbits underwent posterolateral lumbar fusion with iliac crest autograft. To establish pseudarthroses, nicotine was administered to all animals. At 5 weeks, the spines were explored and all pseudarthroses were redecorticated and implanted with no graft, autograft, rhBMP-2/ACS, or rhBMP-2/CRM. At 10 weeks, fusions were assessed by manual palpation and histology. Eight rabbits (11%) were lost to complications. At 5 weeks, 66 (97%) had pseudarthroses. At 10 weeks, attempted pseudarthrosis repairs were fused in 1 of 16 of no graft rabbits (6%), 5 of 17 autograft rabbits (29%), and 31 of 31 rhBMP-2 rabbits (with ACS or CRM) (100%). Histologic analysis demonstrated more mature bone formation in the rhBMP-2 groups. The 2 rhBMP-2 formulations led to significantly higher fusion rates and histologic bone formation than no graft and autograft controls in this pseudarthrosis repair model.

  12. Femoral fracture repair and postoperative management in new zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Jon D; Ovadia, Shira; Howell, Paula; Jaskwich, David H

    2002-07-01

    Low bone density and large muscle mass predispose rabbits to femoral fractures. However, there are few reports describing treatment and prognosis. Two New Zealand White rabbits presented with unilateral left rear limb abduction and lateral rotation of the distal left rear limb 2 and 17 days after experimental surgery to create a "stair step" in the patellar groove of the left medial femoral chondyle. This procedure was performed after approval by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Radiography revealed a spiral oblique mid-shaft fracture of the left femur in both rabbits. Open fracture reduction was undertaken. Because of the presence of screws and Kirschner-wires in the medial femoral condyle, a lateral approach to surgical correction was chosen. Intramedullary fixation was used to reduce and stabilize the fractures. A 0.062" Kirschner wire was selected for the intramedullary device, because it was sufficiently flexible to allow easy passage into the femoral canal while being sufficiently stiff to promote reduction of the fracture. In addition, the ends of the fracture were secured with a 0.032" Kirschner cerclage wire to provide additional control of rotation and angulation. Then we assessed the range of motion of the knee joint to determine fracture stability and ensure that the hardware did not impinge on soft-tissue elements. After closure and application of sterile dressing, the hind legs were hobbled proximal to the hock by using elastic veterinary wrap in a figure-eight pattern to maintain limb alignment and prevent formation of pressure ulcers. Intraoperative fluoroscopic evaluation and postoperative radiographs confirmed fracture reduction. Bruising and seroma formation occurred at the surgical site, and transient anorexia developed. Rabbits were treated with fluids, analgesics, antibiotics, and fitted with Elizabethan collars. They were housed in isolation to limit excessive environmental stimulation, which could alarm them and provoke

  13. Efficacy of delayed brincidofovir treatment against a lethal rabbitpox virus challenge in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Irma M; Foster, Scott A; Gainey, Melicia R; Krile, Robert T; Dunn, John A; Brundage, Thomas; Khouri, Jody M

    2017-07-01

    In the event of a bioterror attack with variola virus (smallpox), exposure may only be identified following onset of fever. To determine if antiviral therapy with brincidofovir (BCV; CMX001) initiated at, or following, onset of fever could prevent severe illness and death, a lethal rabbitpox model was used. BCV is in advanced development as an antiviral for the treatment of smallpox under the US Food and Drug Administration's 'Animal Rule'. This pivotal study assessed the efficacy of immediate versus delayed treatment with BCV following onset of symptomatic disease in New Zealand White rabbits intradermally inoculated with a lethal rabbitpox virus (RPXV), strain Utrecht. Infected rabbits with confirmed fever were randomized to blinded treatment with placebo, BCV, or BCV delayed by 24, 48, or 72 h. The primary objective evaluated the survival benefit with BCV treatment. The assessment of reduction in the severity and progression of clinical events associated with RPXV were secondary objectives. Clinically and statistically significant reductions in mortality were observed when BCV was initiated up to 48 h following the onset of fever; survival rates were 100%, 93%, and 93% in the immediate treatment, 24-h, and 48-h delayed treatment groups, respectively, versus 48% in the placebo group (p < 0.05 for each vs. placebo). Significant improvements in clinical and virologic parameters were also observed. These findings provide a scientific rationale for therapeutic intervention with BCV in the event of a smallpox outbreak when vaccination is contraindicated or when diagnosis follows the appearance of clinical signs and symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Lycopene on the Initial State of Atherosclerosis in New Zealand White (NZW) Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Mario; Fechner, Mandy; Kalkowski, Janine; Fröhlich, Kati; Trautmann, Anne; Böhm, Volker; Liebisch, Gerhard; Lehneis, Stefan; Schmitz, Gerd; Ludwig, Antje; Baumann, Gert; Stangl, Karl; Stangl, Verena

    2012-01-01

    Background Lycopene is the main carotenoid in tomatoes, where it is found in high concentrations. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that lycopene may provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. We therefore studied the effects of lycopene on diet-induced increase in serum lipid levels and the initiation of atherosclerosis in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Methodology/Principal Findings The animals, divided into four groups of 9 animals each, were fed either a standard diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol, a high-cholesterol diet containing placebo beadlets, or a high-cholesterol diet plus 5 mg/kg body weight/day of lycopene (in the form of lycopene beadlets), for a period of 4 weeks. We found significantly elevated lycopene plasma levels in the animal group treated with lycopene beadlets. Compared to the high-cholesterol and the placebo group, this was associated with a significant reduction of 50% in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol serum levels in the lycopene group. The amount of cholesteryl ester in the aorta was significantly decreased by lycopene. However, we did not observe a significant decrease in the extent of aortic surface lipid accumulation in the lycopene group. In addition, no differences in the intima-media thickness among groups were observed. Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilation in isolated rabbit aortic and carotid rings did not differ among any of the animal groups. Conclusions Lycopene supplementation for 4 weeks increased lycopene plasma levels in the animals. Although we found strongly reduced total and LDL cholesterol serum levels as well as significantly lower amounts of cholesteryl ester in the aortae in the lycopene-treated group, no significant differences in initial lesions in the aortae were detected. PMID:22295112

  15. Is omphalocele a non-specific malformation in New Zealand White rabbits?

    PubMed

    Daston, George P; Beekhuijzen, Manon

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the incidence of omphalocele, a malformation that occurs sporadically in many studies. We assembled data on external malformations using all treatment groups from every study published in three major journals over the past 35 years using New Zealand White rabbits. Fifty-eight papers were included: 4905 litters and 36,977 fetuses. Omphalocele was reported in 43% and was among the most common defects, occurring at a rate of 1.10% (litter) and 0.16% (fetus). The defect did not appear to be treatment-related, although it may have been in two studies, based on rate and dose-responsiveness. Removing these two studies from the analysis, the defect was still prevalent (0.77% litter, 0.11% fetal incidence). Three studies evaluated the effects of food restriction and omphalocele was observed with food restriction in two of them, suggesting that decreased maternal weight gain or food consumption may be causal. Otherwise, it appears to be spontaneous and common. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Construction of an in vitro primary lung co-culture platform derived from New Zealand white rabbits

    SciT

    Powell, Joshua D.; Hess, Becky M.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-05-01

    We report the construction of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) co-culture platform consisting of differentiated lung epithelial cells and monocytes from New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbit lung epithelial cells were successfully grown at air-liquid interface, produced mucus, and expressed both sialic acid alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,6. Blood-derived CD14+ monocytes were deposited above the epithelial layer resulting in the differentiation of a subset of monocytes into CD11c+ cells within the co-culture. These proof-of-concept findings provide a convenient means to comparatively study in vitro versus in vivo rabbit lung responses as they relate to inhalation or lung-challenge studies.

  17. Cystic Mammary Adenocarcinoma Associated with a Prolactin-secreting Pituitary Adenoma in a New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Sikoski, Paul; Trybus, James; Cline, J Mark; Muhammad, F Salih; Eckhoff, Andrew; Tan, Josh; Lockard, Mandy; Jolley, Tammy; Britt, Susan; Kock, Nancy D

    2008-01-01

    A 44-mo-old, female, nulliparous New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) presented with bilaterally diffusely enlarged mammary glands with enlarged, discolored teats that exuded brown, mucoid discharge. The complete blood count and serum chemistry panels were within normal limits, bacteria were not isolated from a culture of the discharge, and the clinical signs did not resolve with antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography and serum prolactin levels supported the diagnosis of mammary gland dysplasia, possibly due to a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. Histologic evaluation confirmed the presence of a pituitary adenoma, mammary hyperplasia, dysplasia, and cystic mammary adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of abundant prolactin secreting cells in the pituitary adenoma. This is the second report of hyperprolactinemia with mammary dysplasia in rabbits, and the first report of cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a rabbit. PMID:18589874

  18. Characterization of New Zealand White Rabbit Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues and Use as Viral Oncology Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Haines, Robyn A; Urbiztondo, Rebeccah A; Haynes, Rashade A H; Simpson, Elaine; Niewiesk, Stefan; Lairmore, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have served as a valuable animal model for the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including those related to agents that gain entry through the gastrointestinal tract such as human T cell leukemia virus type 1. However, limited information is available regarding the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of major rabbit leukocyte populations in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. Herein, we describe the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of leukocytes from gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) from 12-week-old New Zealand White rabbits. Our data indicate that rabbits have similar distribution of leukocyte subsets as humans, both in the GALT inductive and effector sites and in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and peripheral blood. GALT inductive sites, including appendix, cecal tonsil, Peyer's patches, and ileocecal plaque, had variable B cell/T cell ratios (ranging from 4.0 to 0.8) with a predominance of CD4 T cells within the T cell population in all four tissues. Intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments contained mostly T cells, with CD4 T cells predominating in the lamina propria compartment and CD8 T cells predominating in the intraepithelial compartment. Mesenteric lymph node, peripheral blood, and splenic samples contained approximately equal percentages of B cells and T cells, with a high proportion of CD4 T cells compared with CD8 T cells. Collectively, our data indicate that New Zealand White rabbits are comparable with humans throughout their GALT and support future studies that use the rabbit model to study human gut-associated disease or infectious agents that gain entry by the oral route. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Evaluation of the effect of cigarette smoking on the olfactory neuroepithelium of New Zealand white rabbit, using scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Iskander, Nagi M; El-Hennawi, Diaa M; Yousef, Tarek F; El-Tabbakh, Mohammed T; Elnahriry, Tarek A

    2017-06-01

    To detect ultra-structural changes of Rabbit's olfactory neuro-epithelium using scanning electron microscope after exposure to cigarette smoking. Sixty six rabbits (Pathogen free New Zealand white rabbits weighing 1-1.5 kg included in the study were randomly assigned into one of three groups: control group did not expose to cigarette smoking, study group 1 was exposed to cigarette smoking for 3 months and study group 2 was exposed to cigarette smoking 3 months and then stopped for 2 months. Olfactory neuro-epithelium from all rabbits were dissected and examined under Philips XL-30 scanning electron microscope. Changes that were found in the rabbits of study group 1 in comparison to control group were loss of microvilli of sustentacular cells (p = 0.016) and decreases in distribution of specialized cilia of olfactory receptor cells (p = 0.046). Also respiratory metaplasia was detected. These changes were reversible in study group 2. Cigarette smoking causes ultra-structural changes in olfactory neuro-epithelium which may explain why smell was affected in cigarette smokers. Most of these changes were reversible after 45 days of cessation of cigarette smoking to the rabbits.

  20. Sequelae of Occult Aggression Disqualifying Young, Socially Housed, Female New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from Participation in Dermal Toxicology Studies.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Moorman-White, Diane M; Ventura, Donnalee; Schneider, Brett W; Bittner, Thomas W

    2017-10-01

    International animal welfare organizations and federal, regional, and institutional oversight bodies encourage social housing of gregarious species, such as New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to promote animal wellbeing in research, teaching, testing and farming settings. At our institution, 2 groups of female New Zealand white rabbits (approximate age, 11 wk; mean weight, 2.35 kg), compatibly paired at the vendor for 5 wk, were paired in caging or group-housed in a floor pen. The rabbits appeared compatible, demonstrating primarily affiliative behaviors throughout 6 wk of daily observations. However, occult aggression that occurred between daily observations or nocturnally resulted in skin wounding. The skin injuries, first identified during prestudy clipping of fur from the back of each rabbit 6 wk after arrival, disqualified every animal from participation in skin toxicology and muscle implantation studies. Success meeting scientific research requirements while promoting animal welfare and health when socially housing New Zealand white rabbits requires examining the behavioral repertoire of their wild counterparts, European rabbits. Factors including age, sex, and housing density influence territoriality, dominance hierarchy, social ranking, and natural, agonistic, injurious, behavioral tendencies. IACUC and other relevant oversight bodies, researchers, and animal care staff should consider this case study and the species-specific natural history of New Zealand white rabbits when assessing the harm and benefit of social housing in regard to research utility and animal welfare.

  1. Enhanced inflammation in New Zealand white rabbits when MERS-CoV reinfection occurs in the absence of neutralizing antibody

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Katherine V.; Gretebeck, Lisa; Vogel, Leatrice; Sutton, Troy; Orandle, Marlene; Moore, Ian N.

    2017-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic betacoronavirus that was first detected in humans in 2012 as a cause of severe acute respiratory disease. As of July 28, 2017, there have been 2,040 confirmed cases with 712 reported deaths. While many infections have been fatal, there have also been a large number of mild or asymptomatic cases discovered through monitoring and contact tracing. New Zealand white rabbits are a possible model for asymptomatic infection with MERS-CoV. In order to discover more about non-lethal infections and to learn whether a single infection with MERS-CoV would protect against reinfection, we inoculated rabbits with MERS-CoV and monitored the antibody and inflammatory response. Following intranasal infection, rabbits developed a transient dose-dependent pulmonary infection with moderately high levels of viral RNA, viral antigen, and perivascular inflammation in multiple lung lobes that was not associated with clinical signs. The rabbits developed antibodies against viral proteins that lacked neutralizing activity and the animals were not protected from reinfection. In fact, reinfection resulted in enhanced pulmonary inflammation, without an associated increase in viral RNA titers. Interestingly, passive transfer of serum from previously infected rabbits to naïve rabbits was associated with enhanced inflammation upon infection. We further found this inflammation was accompanied by increased recruitment of complement proteins compared to primary infection. However, reinfection elicited neutralizing antibodies that protected rabbits from subsequent viral challenge. Our data from the rabbit model suggests that people exposed to MERS-CoV who fail to develop a neutralizing antibody response, or persons whose neutralizing antibody titers have waned, may be at risk for severe lung disease on re-exposure to MERS-CoV. PMID:28817732

  2. Anti-inflammatory effect of Heliotropium indicum Linn on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Asiamah, Emmanuel Akomanin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) on endotoxin-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits. METHODS Clinical signs of uveitis including flares, iris hyperemia and miosis, were sought for and scored in 1.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced uveitic rabbits treated orally with HIE (30-300 mg/kg), prednisolone (30 mg/kg), or normal saline (10 mL/kg). The number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrating, the protein concentration, as well as levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and monocyte chemmoattrant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the aqueous humor after the various treatments were also determined. A histopathological study of the anterior uveal was performed. RESULTS The extract and prednisolone-treatment significantly reduced (P≤0.001) both the clinical scores of inflammation (1.0-1.8 compared to 4.40±0.40 in the normal saline-treated rabbits) and inflammatory cells infiltration. The level of protein, and the concentrations of TNF-α, PGE2 and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor were also significantly reduced (P≤0.001). Histopathological studies showed normal uveal morphology in the HIE and prednisolone-treated rabbits while normal saline-treated rabbits showed marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION The HIE exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced uveitis possibly by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. PMID:27162723

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of Heliotropium indicum Linn on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Asiamah, Emmanuel Akomanin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) on endotoxin-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits. Clinical signs of uveitis including flares, iris hyperemia and miosis, were sought for and scored in 1.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced uveitic rabbits treated orally with HIE (30-300 mg/kg), prednisolone (30 mg/kg), or normal saline (10 mL/kg). The number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrating, the protein concentration, as well as levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and monocyte chemmoattrant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the aqueous humor after the various treatments were also determined. A histopathological study of the anterior uveal was performed. The extract and prednisolone-treatment significantly reduced (P≤0.001) both the clinical scores of inflammation (1.0-1.8 compared to 4.40±0.40 in the normal saline-treated rabbits) and inflammatory cells infiltration. The level of protein, and the concentrations of TNF-α, PGE2 and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor were also significantly reduced (P≤0.001). Histopathological studies showed normal uveal morphology in the HIE and prednisolone-treated rabbits while normal saline-treated rabbits showed marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. The HIE exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced uveitis possibly by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

  4. Evaluation of Lacrimation Characteristics in Clinically Normal New Zealand White Rabbits by Using the Schirmer Tear Test I

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Williams, David L

    2015-01-01

    Rabbits are a common animal model in eye research and in safety testing of novel chemical agents. In addition, ocular disease is a routine presentation in clinical practice. However, few studies have quantitatively examined lacrimation kinetics in this species. This study used a noninvasive method of tear measurement (the Schirmer tear test, STT) to quantify values for basal and reflex tearing and to determine the kinetic nature of tear production in 76 New Zealand white rabbits. We obtained a value of 7.58 ± 2.3 mm/min for the standard 1-min STT. Calculated values for mean residual tear volume and reflex tear flow were 1.95 µL and 0.035 µL/s, respectively. In addition, this study provides preliminary evidence for an interaction effect between eyes given that higher STT values were obtained from the second eye tested. PMID:26632789

  5. Replacement of berseem hay by Salix tetrasperma on physiological performance of New Zealand White rabbits under subtropical conditions of Egypt.

    PubMed

    AbuHafsa, Salma H; Hassan, Ayman A; Camacho, Luis M; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M

    2014-10-01

    Forty-eight growing New Zealand White male rabbits aged 6 weeks (874 ± 1.3 g initial body weight (BW)) were used to study effects of partial replacement of berseem hay (BH) with Salix tetrasperma hay (ST) on growth and physiological responses. Rabbits were allotted to one of four diets of 12 rabbits each for 75 days in a completely randomized design. The treatments were as follows: control (30 % BH), ST25 (7.5 % ST + 22.5 % BH), ST50 (15 % ST + 15 % BH), ST75 (22.5 % ST + 7.5 % BH). Nutrient digestibility coefficients, nutritive value and N utilization of rabbits fed with the ST50 rations were higher (P < 0.05) than the other groups. Final live BW, average daily gain, feed intake and feed efficiency of rabbits fed ST25 and ST50 were higher (P < 0.05) than those fed ST75 and the control. Serum biochemical metabolites of urea, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase concentrations varied among diets, with the rank order (P < 0.05) ST75 > ST25 and ST50 > control. Glucose level was higher (P < 0.05) for the control than the other diets. Rabbits fed with the mixed diets of ST had lower (P < 0.05) total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides levels than those fed with control. Haematological indices of packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells and lymphocyte counts were lower (P < 0.05), but monocyte was higher, in rabbits fed with the ST75 than the other groups. However, other haematological parameters were similar among diets. Since all the performance and blood parameters were within normal ranges for healthy rabbits, and there were no signs of toxicity, we conclude that partial replacement of BH by ST improves rabbit growth performance, and did not impact rabbit health.

  6. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, serum chemistry, and intestinal histology of New Zealand White fryer rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, M A; Girgis, G N; Brash, M; Smith, T K

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins to fryer rabbits. The efficacy of a glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also examined. Thirty 5-wk-old male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a control diet, a contaminated diet, or a contaminated diet + 0.2% GMA for 21 d. Experimental diets contained deoxynivalenol (DON; vomitoxin) at a concentration of 0.25, 4.3, and 4.9 μg/g, respectively. Feed intake was measured daily and water intake was measured every 3 d. At the end of the feeding period, blood was collected for evaluation of serum chemistry and hematology. Visceral organs were excised, weighed, and processed for histopathological examination. Body weight gain and water intake were greater in rabbits fed the contaminated diet (P = 0.075 and 0.020, respectively) and those fed the contaminated + GMA diet (P = 0.026 and 0.002, respectively) compared with controls. Rabbits fed the contaminated + GMA diet had significantly increased serum urea concentrations (P = 0.023) and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (P = 0.020) compared with controls. Increase in BW gain of rabbits fed the contaminated diets was caused by increased water consumption. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of diet on relative organ weights, but decreased infiltrations with eosinophilic granulocytes were observed in different regions of the intestine in rabbits fed the contaminated or the contaminated + GMA diet. It was concluded that rabbits could be adversely affected by feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins but appear to be less sensitive than other mammalian species. Supplementation with GMA did not reduce many of the effects of feed-borne mycotoxins.

  7. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Six Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Four Bio-Based Jet Fuels with Two Petroleum JP-8 Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    NA 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) Sterner, Teresa R.1; Hurley, Jonathon M.2; Edwards, James T.3; Shafer, Linda M.4; Mattie , David R... Mattie , D.R. 2014. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Ten Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Synthetic and Bio -Based Jet Fuels with...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2014-0046 ACUTE DERMAL IRRITATION STUDY OF SIX JET FUELS IN NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBITS: COMPARISON OF FOUR BIO -BASED JET FUELS

  8. The experiment of magnesium ECAP miniplate as alternative biodegradable material (on male white New Zealand rabbits)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiwanto, Siska; Sulistyani, Lilies Dwi; Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Supriadi, Sugeng; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo; Latief, Benny Syariefsyah

    2018-02-01

    Study of biodegradations of Magnesium ECAP (Equal Channel Angular Pressing) miniplate in the osteosynthesis system has been used as a new material for plate and screw in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This miniplate and screw that were made of Magnesium ECAP were implanted in the femurs of New Zealand rabbits. The degradation process was detected through pocket gas that appeared in hard and soft tissues surrounding in the implanted miniplates and screws. From the changes on the tissues, we can assess the biodegradation process by measuring the gas pocket through micro-CT Scan. Upon the first month of study we euthanized the rabbits and made a micro-CT Scan to see how far the effect of the gas pocket was. Histological analyses were performed to investigate the local tissue response adjacent to the Magnesium ECAP miniplates. We analyzed the femur of a rabbit a month, three months, and five months after implantation. The result showed a degradation rate in the implanted Magnesium ECAP miniplate of 0.61±0.39 mm/year. Unlike the screws, miniplates have higher water content and blood flow than bone, therefore they degrade faster. This study shows promising results for further development of Magnesium ECAP and in the production of osteosynthesis material for rigid fixation in Oral and Maxillofacial skeleton.

  9. Long-Term In Vivo Electromechanical Reshaping for Auricular Reconstruction in the New Zealand White Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Karam W.; Manuel, Cyrus T.; Loy, Anthony Chin; Conderman, Christian; Yau, Yuk Yee; Lin, Jennifer; Tjoa, Tjoson; Su, Erica; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To demonstrate the dosimetry effect of electromechanical reshaping (EMR) on cartilage shape change, structural integrity, cellular viability, and remodeling of grafts in an in vivo long-term animal model. Study Design Animal study. Methods A subperichondrial cartilaginous defect was created within the base of the pinna of 31 New Zealand white rabbits. Autologous costal cartilage grafts were electromechanically reshaped to resemble the rabbit auricular base framework and mechanically secured into the pinna base defect. Forty-nine costal cartilage specimens (four control and 45 experimental) successfully underwent EMR using a paired set of voltage-time combinations and survived for 6 or 12 weeks. Shape change was measured, and specimens were analyzed using digital imaging, tissue histology, and confocal microscopy with LIVE-DEAD viability assays. Results Shape change was proportional to charge transfer in all experimental specimens (P <.01) and increased with voltage. All experimental specimens contoured to the auricular base. Focal cartilage degeneration and fibrosis was observed where needle electrodes were inserted, ranging from 2.2 to 3.9 mm. The response to injury increased with increasing charge transfer and survival duration. Conclusions EMR results in appropriate shape change in cartilage grafts with chondrocyte injury highly localized. These studies suggest that elements of auricular reconstruction may be feasible using EMR. Extended survival periods and further optimization of voltage-time pairs are necessary to evaluate the long-term effects and shape-change potential of EMR. PMID:25779479

  10. Thermal Threshold Testing for Evaluation of Analgesics in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Barter, Linda S; Kwiatkowski, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We adapted a thermal analgesiometric device developed for cats for use in unrestrained rabbits. A probe composed of an electrical element and temperature sensor was held against shaved skin by using an elasticized band placed circumferentially around the thorax. An inflated bladder located between the probe and elastic maintained constant contact between probe and skin. The probe was heated until the rabbit displayed a behavioral reaction or the safety cutoff of 55 °C was reached. Threshold temperatures in unmedicated rabbits were stable over a 5-h period provided that tests were 15 min or more apart. Careful acclimation and testing resulted in no false-negative responses, and sham testing did not produce false-positive results. When compared with baseline values, thermal thresholds were significantly increased from 30 to 240 min, but not 300 min, after the administration of morphine at 3 mg/kg. Administration of equivalent volumes of saline via the same route had no effect on thermal threshold. This device may be suitable for investigating analgesic pharmacology in rabbits. PMID:23562032

  11. Conjunctival Expansion Using a Subtenon's Silicone Implant in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ie-na; Lee, Dong-hoon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose In the field of ophthalmology, the conjunctival autograft is a useful therapeutic material in many cases, but the small size of the autograft is a disadvantage. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of taking an expanded sample of conjunctival tissue using a subtenon's silicone implant. Materials and Methods We included a total of nine rabbits; eight rabbits were operative cases, and one was a control. A portion of conjunctival tissue from the control rabbit, which did not undergo surgery, was dissected and examined to determine whether it was histologically different from the experimental group. The surgical procedure was performed on eight rabbits via a subtenon's insertion of a silicone sponge in the left superior-temporal portion; after surgery, we dropped antibiotics into the eyes. We sacrificed a pair of rabbits every three days (on days 3, 6, 9, and 12) after surgery, removed the expanded conjunctival tissues with the silicone sponge implants, and measured their sizes. Results The mean size of the expanded conjunctival tissues was 194.4 mm2. On the third day, we were able to harvest a 223.56 mm2 section of conjunctival tissue, which was the most expanded sample of tissue in the study. On the twelfth day, we removed a 160.38 mm2 section of conjunctival tissue, which was the least expanded sample of tissue. Statistically, there were no significant differences in the mean dimensions of the expanded conjunctival tissues for each time period. Microscopic examinations showed no histological differences between the expanded conjunctival tissues and the normal conjunctival tissues. Conclusion The results reveal that this procedure is a useful method to expand the conjunctiva for grafting and transplantation. PMID:18159586

  12. Safety and clinical effectiveness of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    DiVincenti, Louis; Meirelles, Luiz A D; Westcott, Robin A

    2016-04-01

    To determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine, compared with effects of regular buprenorphine, for postoperative analgesia in rabbits. Blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. 24 purpose-bred adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Rabbits received titanium implants in each tibia as part of another study. Immediately prior to surgery, each rabbit received regular buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], SC, q 12 h for 3 days) or 1 dose of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (0.12 mg/kg [0.055 mg/lb], SC) followed by an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SC, q 12 h for 3 days) after surgery. For 7 days after surgery, rabbits were evaluated for signs of pain by means of rabbit grimace and activity scoring and for adverse effects. No significant differences were identified between treatment groups in grimace and activity scores at any point. No major adverse effects were detected for either drug. However, 3 rabbits that received regular buprenorphine had pain scores suggestive of moderate to severe pain by the time dose administration was due (ie, within the 12-hour administration interval). No clinically important differences were detected in intraoperative anesthetic or postoperative recovery variables. Sustained-release buprenorphine administered SC at 0.12 mg/kg was at least as effective as regular buprenorphine in providing analgesia for rabbits following orthopedic surgery without any major adverse effects. This sustained-release formulation represents an important alternative for rabbit analgesia with potential to improve rabbit welfare over existing analgesic standards.

  13. Atrial Fibrillation Pacing Decreases Intravascular Shear Stress in a New Zealand White Rabbit Model: Implications in Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Nelson; Yu, Fei; Lee, Juhyun; Wasmund, Steve; Dai, Xiaohu; Chen, Christina; Chawareeyawong, Pai; Yang, Yongmo; Li, Rongsong; Hamdan, Mohamed H.; Hsiai, Tzung

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by multiple rapid and irregular atrial depolarization leading to rapid ventricular responses exceeding 100 beats per minute (bpm). We hypothesized that rapid and irregular pacing reduced intravascular shear stress (ISS) with implication to modulating endothelial responses. To simulate AF, we paced the left atrial appendage of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (n=4) at rapid and irregular intervals. Surface electrical cardiograms (ECG) were recorded for atrial and ventricular rhythm, and intravascular convective heat transfer was measured by micro thermal sensors, from which ISS was inferred. Rapid and irregular pacing decreased arterial systolic and diastolic pressures (baseline: 99/75 mmHg; rapid regular pacing: 92/73; rapid irregular pacing: 90/68; P < 0.001, n=4), temporal gradients (∂τ/∂t from 1275 ± 80 to 1056 ± 180 dyne/cm2·s), and reduced ISS (from baseline at 32.0 ± 2.4 to 22.7 ± 3.5 dyne/cm2). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code demonstrated that experimentally inferred ISS provided a close approximation to the computed wall shear stress (WSS) at a given catheter to vessel diameter ratio, shear stress range, and catheter position. In an in vitro flow system in which time-averaged shear stress was maintained at τavg=23 ±4 dyn·cm−2·s−1, we further demonstrated that rapid pulse rates at 150 bpm down-regulated endothelial nitric oxide (NO), promoted superoxide (O2·−) production, and increased monocyte binding to endothelial cells. These findings suggest that rapid pacing reduces ISS and ∂τ/∂t, and rapid pulse rates modulate endothelial responses. PMID:22983703

  14. Description and comparison of excretory urography performed during radiography and computed tomography for evaluation of the urinary system in healthy New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Vilalta, Laura; Altuzarra, Raul; Espada, Yvonne; Dominguez, Elisabet; Novellas, Rosa; Martorell, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of excretory urography performed during radiography (REU) and CT (CTEU) in healthy rabbits, determine timings of urogram phases, and compare sensitivities of REU and CTEU for detection of these phases. ANIMALS 13 New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PROCEDURES Rabbits were screened for signs of systemic and urinary tract disease. An REU examination of each was performed, followed ≥ 5 days later by a CTEU examination. Contrast images from each modality were evaluated for quality of opacification and intervals between initiation of contrast medium administration and detection of various urogram phases. RESULTS Excretory urograms of excellent diagnostic quality were achieved with both imaging modalities. For all rabbits, the nephrographic phase of the urogram appeared in the first postcontrast REU image (obtained between 34 and 40 seconds after initiation of contrast medium administration) and at a median interval of 20 seconds in CTEU images. The pyelographic phase began at a median interval of 1.63 minutes with both imaging modalities. Contrast medium was visible within the urinary bladder at a median interval of 2.20 minutes. Median interval to the point at which the nephrogram and pyelogram were no longer visible in REU images was 8 hours and 2.67 hours, respectively. The CTEU technique was better than the REU technique for evaluating renal parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that REU and, particularly, CTEU may be valuable tools for the diagnosis of renal and urinary tract disease in rabbits; however, additional evaluation in diseased rabbits is required.

  15. Fourteen-Day Subacute Intravenous Toxicity Study of Hypertonic Saline/ Dextran 70 (Trade name) and its Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran 70C and its Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits," Toxicology Series 248, was audited on 20 October 1989. CAROLYNM...at tA "e a .6 L C C o L a L Lm .. .. a. a4 1 . . ao 3.&ow2 aCCa .0 00 c -C a- 4;. *; a 0O .. t x.T 2Cu u . u uu0 0 Uc L 01 2.:4A.1 4xa&C -I - -N .CA -e

  16. Morphological analysis of patchy thickening and reddish discoloration of active hair growth areas in the skin of New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Tomoko; Yamashita, Haruhiro; Sakurai, Takanobu; Morita, Junya; Sakamoto, Kouji; Ishii, Aiko; Sasaki, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Patchy thickening and reddish discoloration of active hair growth areas of skin in rabbits are occasionally found, and this gross feature could affect precise evaluation when conducting a dermal irritation test. Since little is known about the mechanism of this phenomenon, we examined the dorsal skin of New Zealand White rabbits morphologically and immunohistochemically in order to identify the possible mechanism responsible for developing these skin changes in relation to the hair cycle. Skin samples from 4 rabbits were divided into three groups (5 samples/group) based on their macroscopic characteristics: a thickened skin, erythematous skin, and smooth skin group. Histomorphological examination revealed that the percentage of hair follicles in the anagen phase, hair follicle length, hair follicle area, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the hair follicles were greater in the thickened skin and erythematous skin groups than in the smooth skin group. Unlike mice and rats, the dermis was nearly adjacent to the muscular layer with a thin hypodermis, and the whole lengths of hair follicles in the anagen phase were located in the dermis in the rabbit skin. These results suggest that large hair follicles in the anagen phase compressed the surrounding dermis; therefore, the skin was grossly raised and showed thickening. A higher number of CD31-positive blood vessels, suggesting the occurrence of angiogenesis, was observed around the hair follicles in the erythematous skin group, and they seemed to affect the reddish discoloration of skin noted grossly.

  17. A Probability Analysis of Historical Pregnancy and Fetal Data from Dutch Belted and New Zealand White Rabbit Strains from Embryo-Fetal Development Studies.

    PubMed

    Posobiec, Lorraine M; Cox, Estella M; Solomon, Howard M; Lewis, Elise M; Wang, Kai-fen; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies, typically in pregnant rats and rabbits, are conducted prior to enrolling females of reproductive age in clinical trials. Common rabbit strains used are the New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch Belted (DB). As fetal abnormalities can occur in all groups, including controls, Historical Control Data (HCD) is compiled using data from control groups of EFD studies, and is used along with each study's concurrent control group to help determine whether fetal abnormalities are caused by the test article or are part of background incidences. A probability analysis was conducted on 2014 HCD collected at Charles River Inc., Horsham PA on Covance NZW, Covance DB, and Charles River (CR) NZW rabbits. The analysis was designed to determine the probability of 2 or 3 out of a group of 22 does aborting their litter or of having a fetal abnormality by chance. Results demonstrate that pregnancy parameters and fetal observations differ not only between strains, but between sources of rabbits of the same strain. As a result the probability of these observations occurring by chance in two or three litters was drastically different. Although no one single strain is perfect, this analysis highlights the need to appreciate the inherent differences in pregnancy and fetal abnormalities between strains, and points out that an apparent isolated increased incidence of an observation in one strain will not necessarily be test-article related in another strain. A robust HCD is critical for interpretation of EFD rabbit studies, regardless of the rabbit strain used. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in fish, crab and sediment from El Temsah Lake, Suez Canal, Egypt and their effect on mitochondrial ATPase of the New Zealand white rabbit.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M T; Ismail, S M

    1991-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides were monitored in the muscles of Bolti fish Tilapia zillii, the crab Lupa pelagicus and sediment samples collected from El Temsah lake around Ismailia using gas liquid chromatography. The beta isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (beta.HCH) was the most dominant compound detected in all samples, followed by P, P-DDE and P, P-DDT. Results showed the crab to contain higher concentrations of organochlorine in comparison to concentrations detected in fish muscles. The In-vitro effect of the residues extracted from fish, and crab on the mitochondrial brain and liver ATPase of the New Zealand white rabbit Orcytolagus cuniculus was also studied. Residues of organochlorine pesticides have induced activation in the ATPase enzyme system of both brain and liver. The mixtures of organochlorine residues of both fish and crab were able to activate liver ATPase more than brain ATPase. The present study was conducted to extrapolate possible effects incurred on man if consumed such food.

  19. Application of a hyaluronic acid gel after intrauterine surgery may improve spontaneous fertility: a randomized controlled trial in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Huberlant, Stephanie; Fernandez, Herve; Vieille, Pierre; Khrouf, Mohamed; Ulrich, Daniela; deTayrac, Renaud; Letouzey, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) are the most common complication after hysteroscopy in patients of reproductive age. Intra-abdominal anti-adhesion gel reduces the incidence of adhesions, but effects on fertility after uterine surgery are not known. The objective of our work was to evaluate the effect of intrauterine anti-adhesion gel on spontaneous fertility after repeated intrauterine surgery with induced experimental synechiae in the rabbit model. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits underwent a double uterine curettage 10 days apart and were randomized into two groups. Each rabbit served as its own control: one uterine tube was the treatment group (A), the second uterine tube was the control group (B) to avoid bias through other causes of infertility. Group A received a post curettage intrauterine instillation of anti-adhesion gel whereas group B, the control group, underwent curettage without instillation of the gel. After a recovery period, the rabbits were mated. An abdominal ultrasound performed 21 days after mating allowed us to diagnose pregnancy and quantify the number of viable fetuses. There was a significant difference in total fetuses in favor of group A, with an average of 3.7 (range, 0-9) total fetuses per tube against 2.1 (0-7) in group B (p = .04). The number of viable fetuses shows a trend in favor of group A, with an average of 3.4 (0-7) viable fetuses per tube against 1.9 (0-6) viable fetuses per tube in group B (p = .05). The use of immediate postoperative anti-adhesion gel improved fertility in an animal model after intrauterine surgery likely to cause uterine synechiae. This experimental model will permit comparison of different anti-adhesion solutions, including assessment of their tolerance and potential mucosal toxicity on embryonic development.

  20. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing

    PubMed Central

    Nakyinsige, K.; Fatimah, A. B.; Aghwan, Z. A.; Zulkifli, I.; Goh, Y. M.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05) were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05) with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out. PMID:25049968

  1. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Fatimah, A B; Aghwan, Z A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Sazili, A Q

    2014-03-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05) were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05) with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out.

  2. Towards a viscoelastic model for the unfused midpalatal suture: development and validation using the midsagittal suture in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Romanyk, D L; Liu, S S; Lipsett, M G; Toogood, R W; Lagravère, M O; Major, P W; Carey, J P

    2013-06-21

    Maxillary expansion treatment is a commonly used procedure by orthodontists to widen a patient's upper jaw. As this is typically performed in adolescent patients, the midpalatal suture, connective tissue adjoining the two maxilla halves, remains unfused. Studies that have investigated patient response to expansion treatment, generally through finite element analysis, have considered this suture to behave in a linear elastic manner or it was left vacant. The purpose of the study presented here was to develop a model that could represent the midpalatal suture's viscoelastic behavior. Quasilinear viscoelastic, modified superposition, Schapery's, and Burgers modeling approaches were all considered. Raw data from a previously published study using New Zealand White Rabbits was utilized for model parameter estimation and validation. In this study, Sentalloy(®) coil springs at load levels of 0.49N (50g), 0.98N (100g), and 1.96N (200g) were used to widen the midsagittal suture of live rabbits over a period of 6 weeks. Evaluation was based on a models ability to represent experimental data well over all three load sets. Ideally, a single set of model constants could be used to represent data over all loads tested. Upon completion of the analysis it was found that the modified superposition method was able to replicate experimental data within one standard deviation of the means using a single set of constants for all loads. Future work should focus on model improvement as well as prediction of treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of ETI-204 monoclonal antibody as an adjunct therapy in a New Zealand white rabbit partial survival model for inhalational anthrax.

    PubMed

    Biron, Bethany; Beck, Katie; Dyer, David; Mattix, Marc; Twenhafel, Nancy; Nalca, Aysegul

    2015-04-01

    Inhalational anthrax is characterized by extensive bacteremia and toxemia as well as nonspecific to mild flu-like symptoms, until the onset of hypotension, shock, and mortality. Without treatment, the mortality rate approaches 100%. Antibiotic treatment is not always effective, and alternative treatments are needed, such as monotherapy for antibiotic-resistant inhalational anthrax or as an adjunct therapy in combination with antibiotics. The Bacillus anthracis antitoxin monoclonal antibody (MAb) ETI-204 is a high-affinity chimeric deimmunized antibody which targets the anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA). In this study, a partial protection New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit model was used to evaluate the protective efficacy of the adjunct therapy with the MAb. Following detection of PA in the blood, NZW rabbits were administered either an antibiotic (doxycycline) alone or the antibiotic in conjunction with ETI-204. Survival was evaluated to compare the efficacy of the combination adjunct therapy with that of an antibiotic alone in treating inhalational anthrax. Overall, the results from this study indicate that a subtherapeutic regimen consisting of an antibiotic in combination with an anti-PA MAb results in increased survival compared to the antibiotic alone and would provide an effective therapeutic strategy against symptomatic anthrax in nonvaccinated individuals. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Preliminary Investigations on Therapy Thresholds for Laser Dosimetry, Cryogen Spray Cooling Duration, and Treatment Cycles for Laser Cartilage Reshaping in the New Zealand White Rabbit Auricle

    PubMed Central

    Chlebicki, Cara A.; Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Wong, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of laser irradiation (λ=1.45 μm) in tandem with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) to reshape rabbit auricular cartilage using total energy density of 14 J/cm2. The aim of this study was to further explore and identify the dosimetry parameter space for laser output energy, CSC duration, and treatment cycles required to achieve shape change while limiting skin and cartilage injury. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were treated with the 1.45 μm diode laser combined with cryogen spray cooling (Candela Smoothbeam™, Candela Co., Wayland, MA). The ear's central portion was bent around a cylindrical jig and irradiated in consecutive spots of 6 mm diameter (13 J/cm2 or 14 J/cm2 per spot) along 3 rows encompassing the bend. CSC was delivered during irradiation in cycles consisting of 25-35 ms. At thin and thick portions of the ear, 4-7 and 6-10 treatment cycles were delivered, respectively. After surgery, ears were examined and splinted for 6 weeks. Treatment parameters resulting in acceptable (Grades 1 & 2) and unacceptable (Grade 3) skin injuries for thick and thin regions were identified and shape change was observed. Confocal and histological analysis of cartilage tissue revealed several outcomes correlating to laser dosimetry, CSC duration, and treatment cycles. These outcomes included expansion of cartilage layers (thickening), partial cartilage injuries, and full thickness cartilage injuries. We determined therapy thresholds for laser output energy, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles in the rabbit auricular model. These parameters are a starting point for future clinical procedures aimed at correcting external ear deformities. PMID:24202858

  5. Preliminary investigations on therapy thresholds for laser dosimetry, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles for laser cartilage reshaping in the New Zealand white rabbit auricle.

    PubMed

    Chlebicki, Cara A; Protsenko, Dmitry E; Wong, Brian J

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of laser irradiation (λ = 1.45 μm) in tandem with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) to reshape rabbit auricular cartilage using a total energy density of 14 J/cm(2). The aim of this study was to further explore and identify the dosimetry parameter space for laser output energy, CSC duration, and treatment cycles required to achieve shape change while limiting skin and cartilage injury. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were treated with the 1.45 μm diode laser combined with cryogen spray cooling (Candela Smoothbeam™, Candela Co., Wayland, MA, USA). The ear's central portion was bent around a cylindrical jig and irradiated in consecutive spots of 6 mm diameter (13 or 14 J/cm(2) per spot) along three rows encompassing the bend. CSC was delivered during irradiation in cycles consisting of 25-35 ms. At thin and thick portions of the ear, 4-7 and 6-10 treatment cycles were delivered, respectively. After surgery, ears were examined and splinted for 6 weeks. Treatment parameters resulting in acceptable (grades 1 and 2) and unacceptable (grade 3) skin injuries for thick and thin regions were identified, and shape change was observed. Confocal and histological analysis of cartilage tissue revealed several outcomes correlating to laser dosimetry, CSC duration, and treatment cycles. These outcomes included expansion of cartilage layers (thickening), partial cartilage injuries, and full-thickness cartilage injuries. We determined therapy thresholds for laser output energy, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles in the rabbit auricular model. These parameters are a starting point for future clinical procedures aimed at correcting external ear deformities.

  6. Development of Protective Immunity in New Zealand White Rabbits Challenged with Bacillus anthracis Spores and Treated with Antibiotics and Obiltoxaximab, a Monoclonal Antibody against Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Henning, Lisa N; Carpenter, Sarah; Stark, Gregory V; Serbina, Natalya V

    2018-02-01

    The recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax protective antigen (PA), is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for the treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease reemergence after treatment cessation is a concern, and there is a need to understand the development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens. Here, acquired protective immunity was examined in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits challenged with a targeted lethal dose of Bacillus anthracis spores and treated with antibiotics, obiltoxaximab, or a combination of both. Survivors of the primary challenge were rechallenged 9 months later and monitored for survival. Survival rates after primary and rechallenge for controls and animals treated with obiltoxaximab, levofloxacin, or a combination of both were 0, 65, 100, and 95%, and 0, 100, 95, and 89%, respectively. All surviving immune animals had circulating antibodies to PA and serum toxin-neutralizing titers prior to rechallenge. Following rechallenge, systemic bacteremia and toxemia were not detected in most animals, and the levels of circulating anti-PA IgG titers increased starting at 5 days postrechallenge. We conclude that treatment with obiltoxaximab, alone or combined with antibiotics, significantly improves the survival of rabbits that received a lethal inhalation B. anthracis spore challenge dose and does not interfere with the development of immunity. Survivors of primary challenge are protected against reexposure, have rare incidents of systemic bacteremia and toxemia, and have evidence of an anamnestic response. Copyright © 2018 Henning et al.

  7. Blastema cells derived from New Zealand white rabbit's pinna carry stemness properties as shown by differentiation into insulin producing, neural, and osteogenic lineages representing three embryonic germ layers.

    PubMed

    Saeinasab, Morvarid; Matin, Maryam M; Rassouli, Fatemeh B; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-05-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are known as undifferentiated cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacities. Regeneration is a phenomenon that occurs in a limited number of animals after injury, during which blastema tissue is formed. It has been hypothesized that upon injury, the dedifferentiation of surrounding tissues leads into the appearance of cells with SC characteristics. In present study, stem-like cells (SLCs) were obtained from regenerating tissue of New Zealand white rabbit's pinna and their stemness properties were examined by their capacity to differentiate toward insulin producing cells (IPCs), as well as neural and osteogenic lineages. Differentiation was induced by culture of SLCs in defined medium, and cell fates were monitored by specific staining, RT-PCR and flow cytometry assays. Our results revealed that dithizone positive cells, which represent IPCs, and islet-like structures appeared 1 week after induction of SLCs, and this observation was confirmed by the elevated expression of Ins, Pax6 and Glut4 at mRNA level. Furthermore, SLCs were able to express neural markers as early as 1 week after retinoic acid treatment. Finally, SLCs were able to differentiate into osteogenic lineage, as confirmed by Alizarin Red S staining and RT-PCR studies. In conclusion, SLCs, which could successfully differentiate into cells derived from all three germ layers, can be considered as a valuable model to study developmental biology and regenerative medicine.

  8. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Amanda D.; Adams, Mathew M.; Lampert, Bernhard; Foster, Scott; Lanier, Randall; Robertson, Alice; Painter, George; Moyer, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV) infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. PMID:21369346

  9. Novel nitric oxide producing probiotic wound healing patch: preparation and in vivo analysis in a New Zealand white rabbit model of ischaemic and infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mitchell; Ganopolsky, Jorge G; Labbé, Alain; Gilardino, Mirko; Wahl, Christopher; Martoni, Christopher; Prakash, Satya

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of chronic wounds poses a significant challenge for clinicians and patients alike. Here we report design and preclinical efficacy of a novel nitric oxide gas (gNO)-producing probiotic patch for wound healing. Specifically, a wound healing patch using lactic acid bacteria in an adhesive gas permeable membrane has been designed and investigated for treating ischaemic and infected full-thickness dermal wounds in a New Zealand white rabbit model for ischaemic wound healing. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed increased wound closure with gNO-producing patch-treated wounds over 21 days of therapy (log-rank P = 0·0225 and Wilcoxon P = 0·0113). Cox proportional hazard regression showed that gNO-producing patch-treated wounds were 2·52 times more likely to close compared with control patches (hazard P = 0·0375, score P = 0·032 and likelihood ratio P = 0·0355), and histological analysis showed improved wound healing in gNO-producing patch-treated animals. This study may provide an effective, safe and less costly alternative for treating chronic wounds. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  10. Effect of anthrax immune globulin on response to BioThrax (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Malkevich, Nina V; Basu, Subhendu; Rudge, Thomas L; Clement, Kristin H; Chakrabarti, Ajoy C; Aimes, Ronald T; Nabors, Gary S; Skiadopoulos, Mario H; Ionin, Boris

    2013-11-01

    Development of anthrax countermeasures that may be used concomitantly in a postexposure setting requires an understanding of the interaction between these products. Anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIGIV) is a candidate immunotherapeutic that contains neutralizing antibodies against protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxins. We evaluated the interaction between AIGIV and BioThrax (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) in rabbits. While pharmacokinetics of AIGIV were not altered by vaccination, the vaccine-induced immune response was abrogated in AIGIV-treated animals.

  11. Anthrax vaccine antigen-adjuvant formulations completely protect New Zealand white rabbits against challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames strain spores.

    PubMed

    Peachman, Kristina K; Li, Qin; Matyas, Gary R; Shivachandra, Sathish B; Lovchik, Julie; Lyons, Rick C; Alving, Carl R; Rao, Venigalla B; Rao, Mangala

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to develop an improved anthrax vaccine that shows high potency, five different anthrax protective antigen (PA)-adjuvant vaccine formulations that were previously found to be efficacious in a nonhuman primate model were evaluated for their efficacy in a rabbit pulmonary challenge model using Bacillus anthracis Ames strain spores. The vaccine formulations include PA adsorbed to Alhydrogel, PA encapsulated in liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A, stable liposomal PA oil-in-water emulsion, PA displayed on bacteriophage T4 by the intramuscular route, and PA mixed with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin administered by the needle-free transcutaneous route. Three of the vaccine formulations administered by the intramuscular or the transcutaneous route as a three-dose regimen induced 100% protection in the rabbit model. One of the formulations, liposomal PA, also induced significantly higher lethal toxin neutralizing antibodies than PA-Alhydrogel. Even 5 months after the second immunization of a two-dose regimen, rabbits vaccinated with liposomal PA were 100% protected from lethal challenge with Ames strain spores. In summary, the needle-free skin delivery and liposomal formulation that were found to be effective in two different animal model systems appear to be promising candidates for next-generation anthrax vaccine development.

  12. Recombinant protective antigen anthrax vaccine improves survival when administered as a postexposure prophylaxis countermeasure with antibiotic in the New Zealand white rabbit model of inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Leffel, Elizabeth K; Bourdage, James S; Williamson, E Diane; Duchars, Matthew; Fuerst, Thomas R; Fusco, Peter C

    2012-08-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a potentially lethal form of disease resulting from exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores. Over the last decade, incidents spanning from the deliberate mailing of B. anthracis spores to incidental exposures in users of illegal drugs have highlighted the importance of developing new medical countermeasures to protect people who have been exposed to "anthrax spores" and are at risk of developing disease. The New Zealand White rabbit (NZWR) is a well-characterized model that has a pathogenesis and clinical presentation similar to those seen in humans. This article reports how the NZWR model was adapted to evaluate postexposure prophylaxis using a recombinant protective antigen (rPA) vaccine in combination with an oral antibiotic, levofloxacin. NZWRs were exposed to multiples of the 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of B. anthracis spores and then vaccinated immediately (day 0) and again on day 7 postexposure. Levofloxacin was administered daily beginning at 6 to 12 h postexposure for 7 treatments. Rabbits were evaluated for clinical signs of disease, fever, bacteremia, immune response, and survival. A robust immune response (IgG anti-rPA and toxin-neutralizing antibodies) was observed in all vaccinated groups on days 10 to 12. Levofloxacin plus either 30 or 100 μg rPA vaccine resulted in a 100% survival rate (18 of 18 per group), and a vaccine dose as low as 10 μg rPA resulted in an 89% survival rate (16 of 18) when used in combination with levofloxacin. In NZWRs that received antibiotic alone, the survival rate was 56% (10 of 18). There was no adverse effect on the development of a specific IgG response to rPA in unchallenged NZWRs that received the combination treatment of vaccine plus antibiotic. This study demonstrated that an accelerated two-dose regimen of rPA vaccine coadministered on days 0 and 7 with 7 days of levofloxacin therapy results in a significantly greater survival rate than with antibiotic treatment alone. Combination of

  13. Palliative effects of extra virgin olive oil, gallic acid, and lemongrass oil dietary supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed growing New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Al-Sagheer, Adham A; Daader, Ahmed H; Gabr, Hassan A; Abd El-Moniem, Elham A

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks. Results revealed that the overall mean of temperature humidity index was 84.67 ± 0.35, reflecting a state of severe heat stress. Moreover, dietary supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO significantly increased live body weight and daily body weight gain but decreased both feed conversion ratio and daily water consumption. Additionally, a significant increase in both organic matter and crude protein digestibility besides a remarkable elevation in the nutritive values of digestible crude protein, total digestible nutrients, and digestible energy, as well as an increase in the numbers of WBCs, lymphocytes, and heterophils was significant in EVOO-supplemented rabbits. Supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO in the heat-stressed growing rabbit's diet enhanced catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, whereas EVOO-treated rabbits had the highest values. Also, malondialdehyde activity was reduced in response to all tested additives. In conclusion, these findings suggested that addition of EVOO, GA, or LGEO in growing rabbit's diet could be used effectively to alleviate negative impacts of heat stress load on performance, nutrient digestibility, oxidative status, and hemato-biochemical features. Furthermore, among these additives, EVOO achieved the best effects.

  14. Assessing Anticalcification Treatments in Bioprosthetic Tissue by Using the New Zealand Rabbit Intramuscular Model

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gregory A; Faught, Joelle M; Olin, Jane M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit intramuscular model can be used for detecting calcification in bioprosthetic tissue and to compare the calcification in the rabbit to that of native human valves. The rabbit model was compared with the commonly used Sprague–Dawley rat subcutaneous model. Eighteen rabbits and 18 rats were used to assess calcification in bioprosthetic tissue over time (7, 14, 30, and 90 d). The explanted rabbit and rat tissue discs were measured for calcium by using atomic absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Calcium deposits on the human valve explants were assessed by using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the NZW rabbit model is robust for detecting calcification in a shorter duration (14 d), with less infection complications, more space to implant tissue groups (thereby reducing animal use numbers), and a more metabolically and mechanically dynamic environment than the rat subcutaneous model . The human explanted valves and rabbit explanted tissue both showed Raman peaks at 960 cm−1 which is representative of hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is the final calcium and phosphate species in the calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves and rabbit intramuscular implants. The NZW rabbit intramuscular model is an effective model for assessing calcification in bioprosthetic tissue. PMID:19619417

  15. Establishment of a New Zealand rabbit model of spinal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Guangqi; Wang, Qian; Shi, Jiandang; Yan, Junfa; Niu, Ningkui; Wang, Zili

    2015-04-01

    This was an experimental study. To investigate and evaluate the experimental method of establishing a New Zealand rabbit model of spinal tuberculosis. Establishing animal models of tuberculosis is critical to the experimental and clinical study of tuberculosis, especially spinal tuberculosis. However, the rapid spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and subsequent high mortality thwarted their effort. Since then, no animal models have been established of spinal tuberculosis. Forty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into experimental (n=20), control (n=20), and blank groups (n=2). Experimental animals were sensitized by complete Freund's adjuvant. A hole drilled under the upper endplate of the L4 vertebral body was filled with a gelfoam sponge infused with 0.1 mL H37Rv standard M. tuberculosis suspension (in controls, culture medium, and saline). Blank animals received no treatment. Survival 8 weeks after surgery was 89.5%, 94.7%, and 100% in experimental, control, and blank groups, respectively. The model was successfully established in all surviving experimental rabbits. In experimental animals, vertebral body destruction at 4 weeks was 50% by x-ray; 83.3% by computed tomography reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging; at 8 weeks, 58.8% by x-ray and 100% by computed tomograph reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging. At 8 weeks, experimental animals developed vertebral destruction, granulation, and necrosis and 17.6% had psoas abscess. Histopathology revealed numerous lymphocytes and epithelioid cells, trabecular bone fracture, and coagulative necrosis in the vertebrae of experimental animals; bacterium culture was 52.9% positive. Control and blank animals showed no such changes. A New Zealand rabbit of spinal tuberculosis model can be successfully established by drilling a hole in the upper endplate of the vertebral body, filling with gelfoam sponge infused with H37Rv standard M. tuberculosis suspension after sensitization by complete Freund

  16. [Effects of simulated weightlessness on pressure-volume relationships of femoral vein of New Zealand Rabbits].

    PubMed

    Yue, Yong; Yao, Yong-jie; Xie, Xiao-ping; Wang, Bing; Zhu, Qing-sheng; Wu, Xing-yu

    2002-12-01

    Objective. To observe the changes of pressure-volume relationships of rabbit femoral veins and their structural changes caused by simulated weightlessness. Method. Head-Down Tilt (HDT) -20 degrees rabbit model was used to simulate weightlessness. Twenty four healthy male New Zealand Rabbits were randomly divided into 21 d HDT group,10 d HDT group and control group, (8 in each group). Pressure-volume (P-V) relationship of rabbits femoral veins was measured and the microstructure of the veins was observed. Result. The femoral vein P-V relationship curves of HDT groups showed a larger volume change ratio than that of control group. This change was that 21 d HDT group was even more obvious than that of HDT-10 d group. B1 and B2 in quadratic equations of 21 d HDT group were significantly higher than the values of both 10 d HDT group and control group during expansion (inflow) and collapse (outflow) (P<0.01). The result of histological examination showed that the contents and structure of femoral vein wall of HDT-rabbits changed significantly. Endothelial cells of femoral vein became short and columnar or cubic, some of which fell off. Smooth muscle layer became thinner. Conclusion. Femoral venous compliance increased after weightlessness-simulation and the femoral venous compliance in 21 d-HDT rabbits increased more obviously than that in 10 d-HDT rabbits. The structure of femoral vein wall had changed obviously.

  17. The integration of FPGA TDC inside White Rabbit node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Xue, T.; Gong, G.; Li, J.

    2017-04-01

    White Rabbit technology is capable of delivering sub-nanosecond accuracy and picosecond precision of synchronization and normal data packets over the fiber network. Carry chain structure in FPGA is a popular way to build TDC and tens of picosecond RMS resolution has been achieved. The integration of WR technology with FPGA TDC can enhance and simplify the TDC in many aspects that includes providing a low jitter clock for TDC, a synchronized absolute UTC/TAI timestamp for coarse counter, a fancy way to calibrate the carry chain DNL and an easy to use Ethernet link for data and control information transmit. This paper presents a FPGA TDC implemented inside a normal White Rabbit node with sub-nanosecond measurement precision. The measured standard deviation reaches 50ps between two distributed TDCs. Possible applications of this distributed TDC are also discussed.

  18. [Protective effect of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on myocardial infarction in New Zealand rabbit].

    PubMed

    Guardia-Espinoza, Edith; Herrera-Hurtado, Gianina Liseth del Carmen; Garrido-Jacobi, Saúl; Cárdenas-Peralta, Danitza; Martínez-Romero, Christian; Hernández-Figueroa, Pedro; Condori-Calizaya, Mary; La Barrera-Llacchua, Juan; Flores-Ángeles, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Determine the protective effect of oil Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) on myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine in New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were randomized into five groups (8 per group): blank, negative control, experimental 1 (10 mg / kg), experimental 2 (20 mg / kg) and three experimental (40 mg/ kg). Experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received Helianthus annuus oil for two weeks. Epinephrine (2 mg/Kg) to the negative, Experimental Control 1, 2 and 3 groups was given over two consecutive days with an interval of 24 h after pretreatment with oil. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the rabbits were anesthetized and sacrificed. Serum troponin I and polymorphonuclear evaluated by .mu.m.sup.2. Significant difference between the negative control group and the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 was found in the serum variables troponin I and polymorphonuclear by .mu.m.sup.2. Helianthus annuus oil at doses of 20 mg/kg has protective effect on myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine in New Zealand rabbits.

  19. Comparative Phylodynamics of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Eden, John-Sebastian; Kovaliski, John; Duckworth, Janine A.; Swain, Grace; Mahar, Jackie E.; Strive, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Australia and New Zealand during the 1990s as a means of controlling feral rabbits is an important case study in viral emergence. Both epidemics are exceptional in that the founder viruses share an origin and the timing of their release is known, providing a unique opportunity to compare the evolution of a single virus in distinct naive populations. We examined the evolution and spread of RHDV in Australia and New Zealand through a genome-wide evolutionary analysis, including data from 28 newly sequenced RHDV field isolates. Following the release of the Australian inoculum strain into New Zealand, no subsequent mixing of the populations occurred, with viruses from both countries forming distinct groups. Strikingly, the rate of evolution in the capsid gene was higher in the Australian viruses than in those from New Zealand, most likely due to the presence of transient deleterious mutations in the former. However, estimates of both substitution rates and population dynamics were strongly sample dependent, such that small changes in sample composition had an important impact on evolutionary parameters. Phylogeographic analysis revealed a clear spatial structure in the Australian RHDV strains, with a major division between those viruses from western and eastern states. Importantly, RHDV sequences from the state where the virus was first released, South Australia, had the greatest diversity and were diffuse throughout both geographic lineages, such that this region was likely a source population for the subsequent spread of the virus across the country. IMPORTANCE Most studies of viral emergence lack detailed knowledge about which strains were founders for the outbreak or when these events occurred. Hence, the human-mediated introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Australia and New Zealand from known starting stocks provides a unique opportunity to understand viral evolution

  20. Variable changes in nematode infection prevalence and intensity after Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus emerged in wild rabbits in Scotland and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Alexander D; Boag, Brian; Neilson, Roy; Forrester, Naomi L

    2018-08-01

    The myxoma virus (a microparasite) reduced wild rabbit numbers worldwide when introduced in the 1950s, and is known to interact with co-infecting helminths (macroparasites) causing both increases and decreases in macroparasite population size. In the 1990s Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) infected rabbits and also significantly reduced rabbit numbers in several countries. However, not much is known about RHDV interactions with macroparasites. In this study, we compare prevalence and intensity of infection for three gastrointestinal nematode species ( Trichostrongylus retortaeformis , Graphidium strigosum and Passalurus ambiguus ) before and after RHDV spread across host populations in Scotland and New Zealand. During one common season, autumn, prevalence of T. retortaeformis was higher after RHDV spread in both locations, whereas it was lower for G. strigosum and P. ambiguus after RHDV arrived in New Zealand, but higher in Scotland. Meanwhile, intensity of infection for all species decreased after RHDV arrived in New Zealand, but increased in Scotland. The impact of RHDV on worm infections was generally similar across seasons in Scotland, and also similarities in seasonality between locations suggested effects on infection patterns in one season are likely similar year-round. The variable response by macroparasites to the arrival of a microparasite into Scottish and New Zealand rabbits may be due to differences in the environment they inhabit, in existing parasite community structure, and to some extent, in the relative magnitude of indirect effects. Specifically, our data suggest that bottom-up processes after the introduction of a more virulent strain of RHDV to New Zealand may affect macroparasite co-infections by reducing the availability of their shared common resource, the rabbits. Clearly, interactions between co-infecting micro- and macroparasites vary in host populations with different ecologies, and significantly impact parasite community

  1. Evaluation of Polyurethane Nasolacrimal Duct Stents: In Vivo Studies in New Zealand Rabbits

    SciT

    Wilhelm, K.E., E-mail: wilhelm@uni-bonn.de; Grabolle, B.; Urbach, H.

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic and biological effects of different polyurethane nasolacrimal duct stents in an animal model. Fifteen polyurethane nasolacrimal duct stents (n = 5 mushroom-type stents, n = 5 newly designed S-shaped TearLeader stents without hydrophilic coating, and n = 5 S-shaped TearLeader stents with hydrophilic coating) were implanted in the nasolacrimal ducts of eight unaffected New Zealand rabbits. One nasolacrimal system served as control. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed at 1-, 2-, and 4-week intervals, then after a 3-month interval, after which the animals were euthanized. All stents were implanted withoutmore » major periprocedural complications. The stents proved to be patent by the end of the procedure. During follow-up, all mushroom-type stents were occluded at 4 weeks. None of these stents opened to forced irrigation. Clinically, all rabbits demonstrated severe dacryocystitis. Three out of five TearLeader stents without hydrophilic coating were blocked at 4 weeks; one out of five was open to irrigation. Best results were observed in the stent group with hydrophilic coating. Follow-up dacryocystography demonstrated patent stents in nasolacrimal ducts of all animals after 4 weeks. In only one of five cases, the coated stent became partially occluded after 2 months. These animals were free of clinical symptoms. After 3 months, at least three out of five stents still opened to forced irrigation and only one stent was completely blocked. Dislocation of the stents was not observed. Refinement of the stent surface and stent design improves the results of nasolacrimal duct stenting in this animal model. Implantation of hydrophilic-coated S-shaped stents is highly superior to conventional mushroom-type stents and noncoated stent types. Hydrophilic coating seems to prevent foreign-body reactions, resulting in maximized stent patency.« less

  2. Optimized preparation of vinpocetine proliposomes by a novel method and in vivo evaluation of its pharmacokinetics in New Zealand rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongtao; He, Ling; Nie, Shufang; Guan, Jin; Zhang, Xiaoning; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan

    2009-11-16

    Free-flowing proliposomes which contained vinpocetine were prepared successfully to increase the oral bioavailability of vinpocetine. In this study the proliposomes were prepared by a novel method which was reported for the first time and the formulation was optimized using the centre composite design (CCD). The optimized formulation was Soybean phosphatidylcholine: 860 mg; cholesterol: 95 mg and sorbitol: 8000 mg. After the proliposomes were contacted with water, the suspension of vinpocetine liposomes formed automatically and the entrapment efficiency was approximately 86.3% with an average particle size of about 300 nm. The physicochemical properties of the proliposomes including SEM, TEM, XRD and FTIR were also detected. HPLC system was applied to study the concentration of vinpocetine in the plasma of the New Zealand rabbits after oral administration of vinpocetine proliposomes and vinpocetine suspension. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the software program DAS2.0. The concentration-time curves of vinpocetine suspension and vinpocetine proliposomes were much more different. There were two absorption peaks on the concentration-time curves of the vinpocetine proliposomes. The pharmacokinetic parameters of vinpocetine and vinpocetine proliposomes in New Zealand rabbits were T(max) 1 h and 3 h (there was also an absorption peak at 1 h); C(max) 163.82+/-12.28 ng/ml and 166.43+/-21.04 ng/ml; AUC(0-infinity) 1479.70+/-68.51 ng/ml h and 420.70+/-35.86 ng/ml h, respectively. The bioavailability of vinpocetine in proliposomes was more than 3.5 times higher than the vinpocetine suspension. The optimized vinpocetine proliposomes did improve the oral bioavailability of vinpocetine in New Zealand rabbits and offer a new approach to enhance the gastrointestinal absorption of poorly water soluble drugs.

  3. Is that Your Mom? A Qualitative Investigation of White Mothers of Non-White Children in the United States and in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Wood, Tracy Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight biological and adoptive White mothers of non-White children were interviewed in New Zealand and in the United States. Through a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews and interview notes, 7 primary themes emerged (a) looking like a family means looking alike and looking White, (b) mothering as vulnerability, (c) teen girls'…

  4. Whakaari (White Island volcano, New Zealand): Magma-hydrothermal laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Yan; Heap, Michael J.; Reuschle, Thierry; Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Gilg, H. Albert; Kennedy, Ben M.; Letham-Brake, Mark; Jolly, Arthur; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Whakaari, active andesitic stratovolcano of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (New Zealand), hosts an open, highly reactive hydrothermal system in the amphitheatre of an earlier sector collapse. Its recent volcanic activity is primarily characterized by sequences of steam-driven (phreatic) and phreatomagmatic explosive eruptions, although a lava dome briefly extruded in 2012. The volcano provides a natural laboratory for the study of aggressive fluids on the permeability of the hydrothermal system, on phreatomagmatic volcanism as well as on the volcano edifice structural stability. Here, we present a holistic experimental dataset on the reservoir rocks properties (mineralogy, permeability, seismic velocity) and their response to changes in stress (strength, deformation mechanisms, fragmentation) and temperature (mineralogical breakdown). We show that the advance degree of alteration in the system, nearly replaced all the original rock-forming minerals. This alteration has produced generally weak rocks, which, when subjected to a differential stress, can undergo transition from a dilatant response (brittle) to a compactant response with a mere confining pressure of about 15-20 MPa (corresponding to depth of about 1 km). Thermal stressing experiments reveal that the alteration phases breakdown at 500 °C (alunite) and 700 °C (dehydrated alum and sulphur), generating much weakened skeletal rocks, deteriorated by a mass loss of 20 wt.%, resulting in an increase in porosity and permeability of about 15 vol.% and an order of magnitude, respectively. Novel thermal stressing tests at high-heating rates (<1000 K/min) suggest that the onset of this mineralogical debilitation is pushed to higher temperatures with heating rates, carrying implication for the stability of the reservoir rocks and explosions during magma movement at variable rates in the upper edifice. Rock strength imposes an important control on the stability of volcanic edifices and of the hydrothermal reservoir rocks

  5. Heat loss regulation: role of appendages and torso in the deer mouse and the white rabbit.

    PubMed

    Conley, K E; Porter, W P

    1985-01-01

    Thermal conductance was subdivided into the component conductances of the appendages and torso using a heat transfer analysis for the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, and the white rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus. Our analysis was based on laboratory measurements of skin temperature and respiratory gas exchange made between air temperatures of 8 and 34 degrees C for the deer mouse, and from published data for the white rabbit. Two series conductances to heat transfer for each appendage and torso were evaluated: internal (hin), for blood flow and tissue conduction to the skin surface, and external (hex), for heat loss from the skin surface to the environment. These two series conductances were represented in a single, total conductance (htot). The limit to htot was set by hex and was reached by the torso htot of both animals. The increase in torso htot observed with air temperature for the mouse suggests that a pilomotor change in fur depth occurred. A control of htot below the limit set by hex was achieved by the hin of each appendage. Elevation of mouse thermal conductance (C) resulted from increases in feet, tail, and torso htot. In contrast, the rabbit showed no change in torso htot between 5 and 30 degrees C and ear htot exclusively increased C over these air temperatures. We suggest that the hyperthermia reported for the rabbit at 35 degrees C resulted from C reaching the physical limit set by torso and near hex. Thus the ear alone adjusted rabbit C, whereas the feet, tail, and the torso contributed to the adjustment of mouse C.

  6. Diagnosis of spontaneous Clostridium spiroforme iota enterotoxemia in a barrier rabbit breeding colony.

    PubMed

    Yonushonis, W P; Roy, M J; Carman, R J; Sims, R E

    1987-02-01

    Five New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a rigid barrier rabbit breeding colony developed acute diarrhea 1 week after weaning. Both Clostridium spiroforme and an iota-toxin were isolated from cecal and colon contents of all five rabbits. When pure isolates of C. spiroforme were administered to two normal healthy rabbits, the rabbits developed identical disease and shed both the organism and the iota-toxin. Results of this study suggested that C. spiroforme is an important enteric pathogen of weanling rabbits and the etiology of this diarrhea complex can be rapidly confirmed using four diagnostic criteria.

  7. Atheroprotective effects of Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. in New Zealand rabbits fed with cholesterol-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Lorena Neris; Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida Dos Reis; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Budel, Jane Manfron; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Acco, Alexandra; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto; Gasparotto, Arquimedes

    2016-07-01

    Although Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. is used in Brazilian folk medicine in the treatment of atherosclerosis and circulatory disorders, no study evaluating these effects has been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible hypolipemiant and antiatherogenic activity of the ethanol soluble fraction obtained from C. carthagenensis (ES-CC) in an experimental atherosclerosis model using New Zealand (NZ) rabbits undergoing cholesterol-rich diet (CRD). Dyslipidemia and atherogenesis were induced by administration of standard commercial diet increased of 1% cholesterol (CRD) for 8 weeks. ES-CC was orally administered at doses of 10, 30 and 100mg/kg, once daily for four weeks, starting from the 4th week of CRD diet. Body weight measurements were weekly carried out from the beginning of experiments for 8 weeks. Serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and their fractions (LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C) were measured at the beginning of experiments and at weeks four and eight. After euthanasia of rabbits, aorta segments (aortic arc, thoracic, abdominal and iliac segments) were macroscopically and microscopically evaluated and the intima and media layers of the arteries were measured. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of ES-CC and its influence on the functioning of hepatic antioxidant enzymes were also determined. CRD induced dyslipidemia and major structural changes in the aortic wall. In addition, an increase in lipid peroxidation and a reduction of hepatic glutathione and serum nitrite levels were observed. Treatment with ES-CC was able to prevent the increase in TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C levels and triglycerides and promoted an increase in HDL-C levels in NZ rabbits. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and modulation of the catalase and superoxide dismutase function. Moreover, the intima and media layers of the arterial segments were significantly reduced by ES-CC treatment. This study

  8. Inhalation Anthrax (Ames aerosol) in Naive and Vaccinated New Zealand Rabbits: Characterizing the Spread of Bacteria from Lung Deposition to Bacteremia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-28

    York City anthrax investigation working group. (2003). Isolated case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax, New York City , 2001. Emerg. Infect...ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 28 June 2012 doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00087 Inhalational anthrax(Ames aerosol) in naïve and vaccinated New ...Inhalation Antrax (Ames aerosol) In Naive and Vaccinated New Zealand Rabbits: Characterizing The Spread Of Bacteria From Lung Deposition To Bacteremia

  9. Exciting (and modulating) very-long-period seismic signals on White Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberg, Jurgen; Jolly, Art

    2014-05-01

    Very-long-period seismic signals (VLP) on volcanoes can be used to fill the gap between classic seismology and deformation studies. In this contribution we reiterate the principal processing steps to retrieve from a velocity seismogram 3D ground displacement with tiny amplitudes far beyond the resolution of GPS. As a case study we use several seismic and infrasonic signals of volcanic events from White Island, New Zealand. We apply particle motion analysis and deformation modelling tools to the resulting displacement signals and exam the potential link between ground displacement and the modulation of harmonic tremor, in turn linked to a hydrothermal system. In this way we want to demonstrate the full potential of VLPs in monitoring and modelling of volcanic processes.

  10. Effects of incorporating agro-industrial by-products into diet of New Zealand rabbits: Case of rebus of date and apricot kernel meal

    PubMed Central

    Mennani, Achour; Arbouche, Rafik; Arbouche, Yasmine; Montaigne, Etienne; Arbouche, Fodil; Arbouche, Halima Saâdia

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating the by-products complex of date and apricot on the fattening performance of the New Zealand breed of rabbits, to reduce the economic costs of the food formula. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 young New Zealand rabbits aged 35 days were divided into four equal groups each containing 72 animals and into sub-groups of 6 rabbits per cage, depending on the rate of substitution of corn by date rebus and of soybean meal by apricot kernel meal (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%). Results: The change in weight from day 35 to 77 and the average daily gain are not significantly different, regardless of the diet. The pH and water content are proportional to the substitution rates (6.4-6.6% and 66.5-68.8%). Meat protein levels increased significantly, in particular for the 10% and 30% groups (+8.1% and 6%) while the fat and mineral content levels decreased significantly, in particular for the 30% group displaying −16% and −17%, respectively. Incorporation of dates and apricot kernel meal into the ration of rabbits reduces the cost of the kilogram of food produced of −9%, with an opportunity cost of 165 Algerian dinars (DZD). Conclusion: The date rebus/apricot kernel meal complex can be used as an alternative to the corn/soybean meal complex at substitution rates of up to 30% without adverse effects on growth rates, feed contribution, or slaughter yield. It improves the chemical composition of the meat and reduces the cost price of the quintal of feed produced. PMID:29391686

  11. Effects of incorporating agro-industrial by-products into diet of New Zealand rabbits: Case of rebus of date and apricot kernel meal.

    PubMed

    Mennani, Achour; Arbouche, Rafik; Arbouche, Yasmine; Montaigne, Etienne; Arbouche, Fodil; Arbouche, Halima Saâdia

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating the by-products complex of date and apricot on the fattening performance of the New Zealand breed of rabbits, to reduce the economic costs of the food formula. A total of 288 young New Zealand rabbits aged 35 days were divided into four equal groups each containing 72 animals and into sub-groups of 6 rabbits per cage, depending on the rate of substitution of corn by date rebus and of soybean meal by apricot kernel meal (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%). The change in weight from day 35 to 77 and the average daily gain are not significantly different, regardless of the diet. The pH and water content are proportional to the substitution rates (6.4-6.6% and 66.5-68.8%). Meat protein levels increased significantly, in particular for the 10% and 30% groups (+8.1% and 6%) while the fat and mineral content levels decreased significantly, in particular for the 30% group displaying -16% and -17%, respectively. Incorporation of dates and apricot kernel meal into the ration of rabbits reduces the cost of the kilogram of food produced of -9%, with an opportunity cost of 165 Algerian dinars (DZD). The date rebus/apricot kernel meal complex can be used as an alternative to the corn/soybean meal complex at substitution rates of up to 30% without adverse effects on growth rates, feed contribution, or slaughter yield. It improves the chemical composition of the meat and reduces the cost price of the quintal of feed produced.

  12. Ground-based and airborne measurements of volcanic gas emissions at White Island in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirpitz, Jan-Lukas; Poehler, Denis; Bobrowski, Nicole; Christenson, Bruce; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative understanding of volcanic gas emissions has twofold relevance for nature and society: 1) Variation in gas emission and/or in emitted gas ratios are tracers of the dynamic processes in the volcano interior indicating its activity. 2) Volcanic degassing plays an important role for the Earth's climate, for local sometimes even regional air quality and atmospheric chemistry. In autumn 2015, a campaign to White Island Volcano in New Zealand was organized to perform ground-based as well as airborne in-situ and remote sensing gas measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and bromine monoxide (BrO). For all three gases the ratios and total emission rates were determined in different plume types and ages. An overview over the data will be presented with focus on the two most notable outcomes: 1) The first determination of the BrO/SO2 ratio in the White Island plume and a minimum estimate of the volcano's bromine emission rate; two of many parameters, which are important to assess the impact of volcanic degassing on the atmospheric halogen chemistry. 2) In-situ SO2 data was very successfully recorded with the PITSA, a prototype of a portable and cost-effective optical instrument. It is based on the principle of non-dispersive UV absorption spectroscopy and features different advantages over the customary electrochemical sensors, including a sub second response time, negligible cross sensitivities to other gases, and inherent calibration. The campaign data demonstrates the capabilities and limitations of the PITSA and shows, that it can be well applied as substitute for conventional electrochemical systems.

  13. Using volcanic tremor for eruption forecasting at White Island volcano (Whakaari), New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardot, Lauriane; Jolly, Arthur D.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Fournier, Nicolas; Sherburn, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Eruption forecasting is a challenging task because of the inherent complexity of volcanic systems. Despite remarkable efforts to develop complex models in order to explain volcanic processes prior to eruptions, the material Failure Forecast Method (FFM) is one of the very few techniques that can provide a forecast time for an eruption. However, the method requires testing and automation before being used as a real-time eruption forecasting tool at a volcano. We developed an automatic algorithm to issue forecasts from volcanic tremor increase episodes recorded by Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) at one station and optimised this algorithm for the period August 2011-January 2014 which comprises the recent unrest period at White Island volcano (Whakaari), New Zealand. A detailed residual analysis was paramount to select the most appropriate model explaining the RSAM time evolutions. In a hindsight simulation, four out of the five small eruptions reported during this period occurred within a failure window forecast by our optimised algorithm and the probability of an eruption on a day within a failure window was 0.21, which is 37 times higher than the probability of having an eruption on any day during the same period (0.0057). Moreover, the forecasts were issued prior to the eruptions by a few hours which is important from an emergency management point of view. Whereas the RSAM time evolutions preceding these four eruptions have a similar goodness-of-fit with the FFM, their spectral characteristics are different. The duration-amplitude distributions of the precursory tremor episodes support the hypothesis that several processes were likely occurring prior to these eruptions. We propose that slow rock failure and fluid flow processes are plausible candidates for the tremor source of these episodes. This hindsight exercise can be useful for future real-time implementation of the FFM at White Island. A similar methodology could also be tested at other

  14. Crater Lake Controls on Volcano Stability: Insights From White Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamling, Ian J.

    2017-11-01

    Many volcanoes around the world host summit crater lakes but their influence on the overall stability of the edifice remains poorly understood. Here I use satellite radar data acquired by TerraSAR-X from early 2015 to July 2017 over White Island, New Zealand, to investigate the interaction of the crater lake and deformation of the surrounding edifice. An eruption in April 2016 was preceded by a period of uplift within the crater floor and drop in the lake level. Modeling of the uplift indicates a shallow source located at ˜100 m depth in the vicinity of the crater lake, likely coinciding with the shallow hydrothermal system. In addition to the drop in the lake level, stress changes induced by the inflation suggest that the pressurization of the shallow hydrothermal system helped promote failure along the edge of the crater lake which collapsed during the eruption. After the eruption, and almost complete removal of the crater lake, large areas of the crater wall and lake edge began moving downslope at rates approaching 400 mm/yr. The coincidence between the rapid increase in the displacement rates and removal of the crater lake suggests that the lake provides a physical control on the stability of the surrounding edifice.

  15. High resolution distributed time-to-digital converter (TDC) in a White Rabbit network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weibin; Gong, Guanghua; Du, Qiang; Li, Hongming; Li, Jianmin

    2014-02-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project consists of a complex detector array with over 6000 detector nodes spreading over 1.2 km2 areas. The arrival times of shower particles are captured by time-to-digital converters (TDCs) in the detectors' frontend electronics, the arrival direction of the high energy cosmic ray are then to be reconstructed from the space-time information of all detector nodes. To guarantee the angular resolution of 0.5°, a time synchronization of 500 ps (RMS) accuracy and 100 ps precision must be achieved among all TDC nodes. A technology enhancing Gigabit Ethernet, called the White Rabbit (WR), has shown the capability of delivering sub-nanosecond accuracy and picoseconds precision of synchronization over the standard data packet transfer. In this paper we demonstrate a distributed TDC prototype system combining the FPGA based TDC and the WR technology. With the time synchronization and data transfer services from a compact WR node, separate FPGA-TDC nodes can be combined to provide uniform time measurement information for correlated events. The design detail and test performance will be described in the paper.

  16. Eyeblink conditioning in the developing rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin L.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2011-01-01

    Eyeblink classical conditioning in pre-weanling rabbits was examined in the present study. Using a custom lightweight headpiece and restrainer, New Zealand white littermates were trained once daily in 400 ms delay eyeblink classical conditioning from postnatal days (PD) 17–21 or PD 24–28. These ages were chosen because eyeblink conditioning emerges gradually over PD 17–24 in rats (Stanton, Freeman, & Skelton, 1992), another altricial species with neurodevelopmental features similar to those of rabbits. Consistent with well-established findings in rats, rabbits trained from PD 24–28 showed greater conditioning relative to littermates trained from PD 17–21. Both age groups displayed poor retention of eyeblink conditioning at retraining one month after acquisition. These findings are the first to demonstrate eyeblink conditioning in the developing rabbit. With further characterization of optimal conditioning parameters, this preparation may have applications to neurodevelopmental disease models as well as research exploring the ontogeny of memory. PMID:21953433

  17. Effects of Postmortem Freezing on Passive Properties of Rabbit Extensor Digtorum Longus Muscle Tendon Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-14

    AD-A266 429 INSTITUTE REPORT NO. 483 Effects of Postmortem Freezing on Passive Properties of Rabbit Extensor Digtorum Longus Muscle Tendon Complex D...Extensor Digtorum Longus Muscle Tendon Complex -- Paul H. Leitschuh, Tammy J. Doherty, Dean C. Taylor, Daniel E. Brooks, John B. Ryan This document has...ABSTRACT The tensile properties of the extensor digitorum longus muscle tendon unit (EDL MTU) were studied in 16 white male New Zealand rabbits in both

  18. Effects of adjuvants for human use in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-prone (New Zealand black/New Zealand white) F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Favoino, E; Favia, E I; Digiglio, L; Racanelli, V; Shoenfeld, Y; Perosa, F

    2014-01-01

    The safety of four different adjuvants was assessed in lupus-prone New Zealand black/New Zealand white (BW)F1 mice. Four groups of mice were injected intraperitoneally with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), squalene (SQU) or aluminium hydroxide (ALU). An additional group received plain phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (UNT group). Mice were primed at week 9 and boosted every other week up to week 15. Proteinuria became detectable at weeks 17 (IFA group), 24 (CFA group), 28 (SQU and ALU groups) and 32 (UNT group). Different mean values were obtained among the groups from weeks 17 to 21 [week 17: one-way analysis of variance (anova) P = 0·016; weeks 18 and 19: P = 0·048; weeks 20 and 21: P = 0·013] being higher in the IFA group than the others [Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) post-test P < 0·05]. No differences in anti-DNA antibody levels were observed among groups. Anti-RNP/Sm antibody developed at week 19 in only one CFA-treated mouse. Mean mouse weight at week 18 was lower in the ALU group than the IFA (Tukey's HSD post-test P = 0·04), CFA (P = 0·01) and SQU (P < 0·0001) groups, while the mean weight in the SQU group was higher than in the IFA (P = 0·009), CFA (P = 0·013) and UNT (P = 0·005) groups. The ALU group weight decreased by almost half between weeks 29 and 31, indicating some toxic effect of ALU in the late post-immunization period. Thus, SQU was the least toxic adjuvant as it did not (i) accelerate proteinuria onset compared to IFA; (ii) induce toxicity compared to ALU or (iii) elicit anti-RNP/Sm autoantibody, as occurred in the CFA group. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  19. Seasonal Habitat Distribution Of Swamp Rabbits, White-Tailed Deer, and Small Mammals in Old Growth and Managed Bottomland Hardwood Forests

    Winston P. Smith; Patrick A. Zollner

    2001-01-01

    We studied swamp rabbits, white-tailed deer, and small mammals in an old-growth and adjacent second-growth and young-growth bottomland hardwood forest stands in southern Arkansas, August 1991 – February 1993. Based on average home range size and degree of overlap, minimum and maximum density estimates of swamp rabbits were 31 per km2 (no overlap)...

  20. Digestive utilization of ozone-exposed forage by rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    A mixture of common Southern Piedmont (USA) grassland species (Lolium arundinacea, Paspalum dilatatum, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens) was exposed to ozone [ambient (non-filtered; NF) and twice-ambient (2X) concentrations] and fed to individually caged New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus c...

  1. Acute dermal toxicity of guanidine hydrochloride in rabbits. Report for 18 May-1 August 1984

    SciT

    Hiatt, G.F.; Sanso, S.K.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    The acute dermal toxicity of guanidine hydrochloride was evaluated in five male and five female New Zealand White rabbits. Guanidine hydrochloride (2 g/kg) was applied topically to the clipped dorsal skin surface for 24 hours. No compound-related deaths or clinical signs were observed; however, guanidine hydrochloride did produce dermal irritation, necrosis, and eschar formation under conditions of the study.

  2. Human Handling Promotes Compliant Behavior in Adult Laboratory Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli. PMID:21333162

  3. Effect of heat and enzymatic treatments on human IgE and rabbit IgG sensitivity to white bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Bousfiha, Amal; Lotfi, Aarab

    2013-08-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the population of Fez and Casablanca in Morocco to dry white beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) and to investigate the effect of food processing (heat and/or enzymatic hydrolysis by pepsin) on this sensitivity. Work was based on a bank consisting of 146 sera from patients with atopic hypersensitivity in order to evaluate specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels to native and processed white bean proteins by ELISA. Under the same conditions, we assessed the immunoreactivity of rabbit IgG obtained by immunization with native white bean proteins.Evaluation of specific IgE to the white bean proteins showed that 51% of children and 39% of adults had positive values. The heat treatment and pepsin hydrolysis of dry bean proteins showed a reduction of 68% of IgE binding recognition in more than 65% of all patients. After heating, all patients indicated a reduction greater than 36%. With rabbit IgG, we observed a decrease by 25% of binding under heat treatment while enzymatic digestion reduced IgG recognition by 46.6%.These findings suggest that epitopes recognized by IgE in the studied population were conformational sites whereas those recognized by rabbit IgG were probably sequential. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the Moroccan population was very sensitive to white beans and this sensitivity could be reduced after heat treatment or enzymatic hydrolysis.

  4. Seismic source models for very-long period seismic signals on White Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwani-Brown, Elliot; Neuberg, Jurgen; Jolly, Art

    2015-04-01

    Very-long-period seismic signals (VLP) from White Island have a duration of only a few tens of seconds and a waveform that indicates an elastic (or viscoelastic) interaction of a source region with the surrounding medium; unlike VLP signals on some other volcanoes that indicate a step function recorded in the near field of the seismic source, White Island VLPs exhibit a Ricker waveform. We explore a set of isotropic, seismic source models based on the interaction between magma and water/brine in direct contact. Seismic amplitude measurements are taken into account to estimate the volume changes at depth that can produce the observed displacement at the surface. Furthermore, the influence of different fluid types are explored.

  5. Functional correlates of central white matter maturation in perinatal period in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Jiang, Rugang; Derrick, Matthew; Luo, Kehuan; Tan, Sidhartha

    2014-11-01

    Anisotropy indices derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are being increasingly used as biomarkers of central WM structural maturation, myelination and even functional development. Our hypothesis was that the rate of functional changes in central WM tracts directly reflects rate of changes in structural development as determined by DTI indices. We examined structural and functional development of four major central WM tracts with different maturational trajectories, including internal capsule (IC), corpus callosum (CC), fimbria hippocampi (FH) and anterior commissure (AC). Rabbits were chosen due to perinatal brain development being similar to humans, and four time points were studied: P1, P11, P18 and adults. Imaging parameters of structural maturation included fractional anisotropy (FA), mean and directional diffusivities derived from DTI, and T2 relaxation time. Axonal composition and degree of myelination were confirmed on electron microscopy. To assess functional maturation, conduction velocity was measured in myelinated and non-myelinated fibers by electrophysiological recordings of compound action potential in perfused brain slices. Diffusion indices and T2 relaxation time in rabbits followed a sigmoid curve during development similar to that for humans, with active changes even at premyelination stage. The shape of the developmental curve was different between the fiber tracts, with later onset but steeper rapid phase of development in IC and FH than in CC. The structural development was not directly related to myelination or to functional development. Functional properties in projection (IC) and limbic tracts (FH) matured earlier than in associative and commissural tracts (CC and AC). The rapid phase of changes in diffusion anisotropy and T2 relaxation time coincided with the development of functional responses and myelination in IC and FH between the second and third weeks of postnatal development in rabbits. In these two tracts, MRI indices could

  6. Repair of bone defect by nano-modified white mineral trioxide aggregates in rabbit: A histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Orangi, Jafar; Tanideh, Nader; Asatourian, Armen; Janghorban, Kamal; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-09-01

    Many researchers have tried to enhance materials functions in different aspects of science using nano-modification method, and in many cases the results have been encouraging. To evaluate the histopathological responses of the micro-/nano-size cement-type biomaterials derived from calcium silicate-based composition with addition of nano tricalcium aluminate (3CaO.Al2O3) on bone healing response. Ninety mature male rabbits were anesthetized and a bone defect was created in the right mandible. The rabbits were divided into three groups, which were in turn subdivided into five subgroups with six animals each based on the defect filled by: white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), Nano-WMTA, WMTA without 3CaO.Al2O3, Nano-WMTA with 2% Nano-3CaO.Al2O3, and empty as control. Twenty, forty and sixty days postoperatively the animals were sacrificed and the right mandibles were removed for histopathological evaluations. Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc comparisons based on the LSMeans procedure was used for data analysis. All the experimental materials provoked a moderate to severe inflammatory reaction, which significantly differed from the control group (p< 0.05). Statistical analysis of bone formation and bone regeneration data showed significant differences between groups at 40- and 60- day intervals in all groups. Absence of 3CaO.Al2O3 leads to more inflammation and foreign body reaction than other groups in all time intervals. Both powder nano-modification and addition of 2% Nano-3CaO.Al2O3 to calcium silicate-based cement enhanced the favorable tissue response and osteogenesis properties of WMTA based materials.

  7. Application Of A Potentiometric Electronic Tongue For The Determination Of Free SO2 And Other Analytical Parameters In White Wines From New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mednova, Olga; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kilmartin, Paul; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present study deals with a potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system applied for the simultaneous determination of several chemical parameters for white wines produced in New Zealand. Methods in use for wine quality control are often expensive and require considerable time and skilled operation. The ET approach usually offers a simple and fast measurement protocol and allows automation for on-line analysis under industrial conditions. The ET device developed in this research is capable of quantifying the free and total SO2 content, total acids and some polyphenolic compounds in white wines with acceptable analytical errors.

  8. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    PubMed

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  9. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  11. [Preliminary study of rabbit experiment modality for evaluating cardiac fatigue].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaobo; Luo, Linmei; Liu, Leichu; Xiao, Shouzhong; Deng, Suyuan; Xiang, Lingli; Zhang, Cong

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of rabbit experiment modality incorporating a new indicator for evaluating cardiac function changes, providing a basis for subsequent study of cardiac fatigue. Using only biochemical indicators, such as troponins, is difficult to make a distinction between exercise-induced cardiac fatigue (EICF) and exercise-induced cardiac damage (EICD). Therefore, some new indicators are needed to evaluate cardiac fatigue synthetically. In our study, we used New Zealand white rabbits to conduct a multi-step swimming experiments with load. We made the rabbits reach an exhaustive state to evaluate whether the amplitude ratio of the first to second heart sound (S1/S2) and heart rate (HR) during the exhaustive exercise would be decreased and whether they would be able to recover after the exhaustive exercise for 24 hours. During the first phase of swimming, S1/S2 and HR were increased, and then decreased at exhaustive state. They were recovered after the exhaustive exercise for 24 hours. Overloading led to deaths of three rabbis, and new phenomena from overloading and related to this kind of death were observed. The experiments proved that Multi-steps swimming experiments with loads by using New Zealand white rabbit is useful for studying cardiac fatigue and premonition of sudden cardiac death.

  12. Potential use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) stover treated with white-rot fungi as rabbit feed.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ederson; Pinheiro, Victor; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Cone, John W; Marques, Guilhermina; Silva, Valéria; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    Lignin inhibitory effects within the cell wall structure constitute a serious drawback in maximizing the utilization of fibrous feedstuffs in animal feeding. Therefore treatments that promote efficient delignification of these materials must be applied. This study evaluated the potential of white-rot fungi to upgrade the nutritive value of cowpea stover for rabbit feeding. There was an increase in the crude protein content of all substrates as a result of fungi treatments, reaching a net gain of 13% for Pleurotus citrinopileatus incubation. Overall, net losses of dry and organic matter occurred during fungi treatments. Although the fiber content remained identical, higher consumption of cell wall contents was measured for P. citrinopileatus incubation (between 40 and 45%). The incubation period did not influence lignin degradation for any of the fungi treatments. Differences within the fungal degradation mechanisms indicate that P. citrinopileatus treatment was most effective, enhancing in vitro organic matter digestibility by around 30% compared with the control. Treatment of cowpea stover with P. citrinopileatus led to an efficient delignification process which resulted in higher in vitro organic matter digestibility, showing its potential in the nutritional valorization of this feedstuff. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC)-enriched fat grafting: experiments using White rabbits and an automated cell processing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Hihara, Masakatsu; Lai, Fangyuan; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    The grafting of fat mixed with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is being increasingly applied to compensate for the disadvantages of previous fat grafting methods. Devices that automatically isolate fat stem cells also have recently been developed. ASCs were isolated from the inguinal region of White rabbits using Icellator ® , and the number of cells and their viability were measured. The cell count per fat graft (mL) was adjusted to the following concentrations and subcutaneously transplanted into the back: Control group, Fat + PBS; Fat + ASCs (×0.5) group, 1.6 × 10 5 cells/mL; and Fat + ASCs (×1) group, 3.2 × 10 5 cells/mL. Grafted fat weight was measured after 8 weeks, and histological, immunohistological, and specifically stained sections were prepared. Fat absorption was reduced in Fat + ASCs (×0.5) and Fat + ASCs (×1) groups. The number of blood vessels was higher in Fat + ASCs (×1) than in the control group, and blood vessel areas were higher in Fat + ASCs (×0.5) and Fat + ASCs (×1) groups than in the control group. The usefulness of the automated cell processing apparatus, Icellator ® , was confirmed, and the results obtained suggest that grafted ASCs promote the vascularization and engraftment of fat grafts.

  14. Local Irritation Toxicity Study of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran 70 (Trade Name) and Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    MSC DTICELECTE MAMMALIN TOXICOLOGY BRANCH 2 7 EB l DIVISION OF ToXIcoLoGY December, 1988 Toxicology Seris- 244 LETTERMAN ARMY INSTITUTE OF RESEARCH ...endorsement or approval of the use of such items. In conducting the research described in this report, the investigation adhered to the "Guide for the Care...Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council. This material has been reviewed by Letterman Army Institute of Research and there is no objection

  15. Rabbits' eye globe sonographic biometry.

    PubMed

    Toni, Maria Carolina; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Gava, Fábio Nelson; Camacho, Aparecido Antônio; Laus, José Luiz; Canola, Júlio Carlos

    2010-11-01

    To measure intraocular structures in New Zealand White breed rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) using A-mode and B-mode ultrasound with a 20 MHz transducer. In this study, the eyes of 15 rabbits were evaluated for determination of intraocular measurements using an ophthalmic ultrasound unit able to operate in both A and B-modes. The distances from the cornea to the anterior capsule of the lens (D1), from the anterior capsule of the lens to the posterior capsule of the lens (D2), from the posterior capsule of the lens to the retina (D3) and the complete length of the eye, which corresponds to the distance from the cornea to the retina (D4) were taken. The mean values obtained were 2.70 mm (± 0.22 mm) for D1, 7.32 mm (± 0.40 mm) for D2, 7.10 mm (± 0.45 mm) for D3 and 17.12 mm (± 0.41 mm) for D4. Statistical analyses using the Student's t-test showed that there were no differences between the eyes. The study was feasible without the need of pharmacological restraint and yielded normal mean values for ocular sonographic biometry in rabbits. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Effect of hypothyroidism on the purinergic responses of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, M K; Bagcivan, I; Sarac, B; Kilicarslan, H; Yildirim, S; Kaya, T

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have reported evidence of hormonal abnormalities in 25-35% of impotent men. Hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 6% of impotent men. In the present study, we examined purinergic relaxation responses in hypothyroidism in an experimental rabbit model and compared them with controls to evaluate the possible involvement of the purinergic pathway. The study comprised 20 male New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into two equal groups. We tested the effects of ATP, alpha beta ATP, and adenosine precontracted with phenylephrine on the isolated corpus cavernosum preparations from control and hypothyroid rabbits. We also evaluated the effects of ATP, alpha beta ATP, and adenosine on the cGMP levels in the isolated corpus cavernosum preparations from control and hypothyroid rabbits. T3, T4, and testosterone levels were significantly lower in hypothyroid rabbits. ATP, alpha beta ATP, carbachol, and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced frequency-dependent relaxation responses in the isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum strips precontracted with phenylephrine reduced significantly (P<0.05). Adenosine-induced relaxation responses did not change significantly in hypothyroid rabbits. Reduction of relaxation response in hypothyroid rabbits corpus cavernosum can depend on a decreased release of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrergic nerves and endothelium.

  17. Adverse effects of the anabolic steroid, boldenone undecylenate, on reproductive functions of male rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Samah S; El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M

    2012-01-01

    Summary This study was conducted to evaluate the adverse effects of the anabolic steroid, boldenone undecylenate (BOL) on reproductive functions of male rabbits. Thirty white New Zealand mature male rabbits were divided into three groups (10 rabbits each). Group A rabbits served as a control group. Group B rabbits received 4.4 mg/kg body weight (bwt) BOL 5% oily solution. Group C rabbits received 8.8 mg/kg bwt BOL. Rabbits were injected intramuscularly twice weekly for two months. BOL had no significant effect on the bwt and bwt gain. Testes and epididymis weights were decreased significantly in the BOL-treated groups. BOL caused significant reduction in serum testosterone level, seminal volume, sperm motility, and sperm count. No abnormalities were detected in the sperm morphology of the BOL-treated groups. Histopathological alterations in the testes and epididymis were marked in the group C rabbits. These results indicate that administration of BOL exerts a significant harmful effect on the reproductive functions of male rabbits. PMID:22583130

  18. Adverse effects of the anabolic steroid, boldenone undecylenate, on reproductive functions of male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Oda, Samah S; El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the adverse effects of the anabolic steroid, boldenone undecylenate (BOL) on reproductive functions of male rabbits. Thirty white New Zealand mature male rabbits were divided into three groups (10 rabbits each). Group A rabbits served as a control group. Group B rabbits received 4.4 mg/kg body weight (bwt) BOL 5% oily solution. Group C rabbits received 8.8 mg/kg bwt BOL. Rabbits were injected intramuscularly twice weekly for two months. BOL had no significant effect on the bwt and bwt gain. Testes and epididymis weights were decreased significantly in the BOL-treated groups. BOL caused significant reduction in serum testosterone level, seminal volume, sperm motility, and sperm count. No abnormalities were detected in the sperm morphology of the BOL-treated groups. Histopathological alterations in the testes and epididymis were marked in the group C rabbits. These results indicate that administration of BOL exerts a significant harmful effect on the reproductive functions of male rabbits. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  19. Pulmonary vascular disease in a rabbit a high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Donald; Williams, David; Rios-Datenz, Jaime; Gosney, John

    1990-03-01

    A male weanling rabbit of the New Zealand White strain, born and living at an altitude of 3800 m in La Paz, Bolivia, developed right ventricular hypertrophy. This was found to be associated with growth of vascular smooth muscle cells in the intima of pulmonary arterioles, and contrasted with muscularization of the walls of pulmonary arterioles, without extension into the intima, found in a healthy, high-altitude control rabbit of the same strain. A low-altitude control showed no such muscularization. It is concluded that alveolar hypoxia, acting directly or through an intermediate agent, is a growth factor for vascular smooth muscle cells in pulmonary arterioles. This is the first report of pulmonary vascular disease due to high altitude in rabbits.

  20. Variable interpretation of ultrasonograms may contribute to variation in the reported incidence of white matter damage between newborn intensive care units in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D L; Bloomfield, F H; Teele, R L; Harding, J E

    2006-01-01

    Background The incidence of cerebral white matter damage reported to the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) varies between neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Hypothesis Differences in the capture, storage, and interpretation of the cerebral ultrasound scans could account for some of this variation. Methods A total of 255 infants of birth weight <1500 g and gestation <32 weeks born between 1997 and 2002 and drawn equally from each of the six NICUs in New Zealand were randomly selected from the ANZNN database. Half had early cerebral ultrasound scans previously reported to ANZNN as normal, and half had scans reported as abnormal. The original scans were copied, anonymised, and independently read by a panel of three experts using a standardised method of reviewing and reporting. Results There was considerable variation between NICUs in methods of image capture, quality, and completeness of the scans. There was only moderate agreement between the reviewers' reports and the original reports to the ANZNN (κ 0.45–0.51) and between the reviewers (κ 0.54–0.64). The reviewers reported three to six times more white matter damage than had been reported to the ANZNN. Conclusion Some of the reported variation in white matter damage between NICUs may be due to differences in capture and interpretation of cerebral ultrasound scans. PMID:16159954

  1. Effect of simvastatin versus low level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone regeneration in rabbit's tibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheith, Mostafa E.; Khairy, Maggie A.

    2014-02-01

    Simvastatin is a cholesterol lowering drug which proved effective on promoting bone healing. Recently low level laser therapy (LLLT) proved its effect as a biostimulator promoting bone regeneration. This study aims to compare the effect of both Simvastatin versus low level laser on bone healing in surgically created bone defects in rabbit's tibia. Material and methods: The study included 12 New Zealand white rabbits. Three successive 3mm defects were created in rabbits tibia first defect was left as control, second defect was filled with Simvastatin while the third defect was acted on with Low Level Laser (optical fiber 320micrometer). Rabbits were sacrificed after 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks intervals. Histopathology was conducted on the three defects Results: The histopathologic studies showed that the bony defects treated with the Low Level Laser showed superior healing patterns and bone regeneration than those treated with Simvastatin. While the control defect showed the least healing pattern.

  2. [Pathological changes of the blood vessels in rabbit femoral head with glucocorticoid-induced necrosis].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-ming; Wang, Hai-bin; Zhou, Ming-qian; Yao, Xin-sheng; Ma, Li; Wang, Xiao-ning

    2006-06-01

    To observe the pathological changes in the blood vessels in rabbit femoral head with glucocorticoid-induced necrosis and investigate the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, namely group A. which was injected with horse serum and prednisone and group B as the control group. Chinese ink was injected into the femoral cavity of the rabbits to observe the blood vessels in the femoral head under optical microscope and the femoral head was examined histopathologically. Compared with the normal control group, the rabbits in group A had significantly decreased number of perfused vessels, which was featured by defective perfusion, osteocytie pyknosis or necrosis, increase of empty ostoocyte lacunae and fat cells, decrease of hematopoietic tissue, and blood vessel occlusion. Vascular occlusion and vasculitis due to glucocorticoid treatment may cause avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

  3. Sarcoptic mange infestation in rabbits in an organized farm at Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Arul Prakash, M; Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Tensingh Gnanaraj, P; Ramesh Saravanakumar, V

    2017-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei are burrowing mites which causes major constraints in rabbit production. Eighty-eight rabbits were examined for mange infestation at University Research Farm, Tamil Nadu. Overall incidence of mange infestation in rabbit was 23.6 %. On microscopical examination, the mite was identified as Sacoptes scabiei var cuniculi. Among the breeds, Soviet Chinchilla were found to be infested more (57.14 %) followed by New Zealand White (28.57 %) and White Giant (28.57 %). Among the age groups, adults (33.33 %) were heavily infested than the grower (21.88 %) whereas, suckling had no infestation of mange. Among the sex, males (21.95 %) were heavily infested than the females (14.89 %). Lesions were mostly found on the edges of ear, nose, face and legs and characterized by loss of hair, thickening of the skin, irregular dried dirty encrusted scabs with erythema and disfigurement of face and ear.

  4. High spatial variation in population size and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with white clover in New Zealand pasture soils.

    PubMed

    Wakelin, Steven; Tillard, Guyléne; van Ham, Robert; Ballard, Ross; Farquharson, Elizabeth; Gerard, Emily; Geurts, Rene; Brown, Matthew; Ridgway, Hayley; O'Callaghan, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation through the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is important for sustainable pastoral production. In New Zealand, the most widespread and valuable symbiosis occurs between white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (Rlt). As variation in the population size (determined by most probable number assays; MPN) and effectiveness of N-fixation (symbiotic potential; SP) of Rlt in soils may affect white clover performance, the extent in variation in these properties was examined at three different spatial scales: (1) From 26 sites across New Zealand, (2) at farm-wide scale, and (3) within single fields. Overall, Rlt populations ranged from 95 to >1 x 108 per g soil, with variation similar at the three spatial scales assessed. For almost all samples, there was no relationship between rhizobia population size and ability of the population to fix N during legume symbiosis (SP). When compared with the commercial inoculant strain, the SP of soils ranged between 14 to 143% efficacy. The N-fixing ability of rhizobia populations varied more between samples collected from within a single hill country field (0.8 ha) than between 26 samples collected from diverse locations across New Zealand. Correlations between SP and calcium and aluminium content were found in all sites, except within a dairy farm field. Given the general lack of association between SP and MPN, and high spatial variability of SP at single field scale, provision of advice for treating legume seed with rhizobia based on field-average MPN counts needs to be carefully considered.

  5. High spatial variation in population size and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with white clover in New Zealand pasture soils

    PubMed Central

    Tillard, Guyléne; van Ham, Robert; Ballard, Ross; Farquharson, Elizabeth; Gerard, Emily; Geurts, Rene; Brown, Matthew; Ridgway, Hayley; O’Callaghan, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation through the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is important for sustainable pastoral production. In New Zealand, the most widespread and valuable symbiosis occurs between white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (Rlt). As variation in the population size (determined by most probable number assays; MPN) and effectiveness of N-fixation (symbiotic potential; SP) of Rlt in soils may affect white clover performance, the extent in variation in these properties was examined at three different spatial scales: (1) From 26 sites across New Zealand, (2) at farm-wide scale, and (3) within single fields. Overall, Rlt populations ranged from 95 to >1 x 108 per g soil, with variation similar at the three spatial scales assessed. For almost all samples, there was no relationship between rhizobia population size and ability of the population to fix N during legume symbiosis (SP). When compared with the commercial inoculant strain, the SP of soils ranged between 14 to 143% efficacy. The N-fixing ability of rhizobia populations varied more between samples collected from within a single hill country field (0.8 ha) than between 26 samples collected from diverse locations across New Zealand. Correlations between SP and calcium and aluminium content were found in all sites, except within a dairy farm field. Given the general lack of association between SP and MPN, and high spatial variability of SP at single field scale, provision of advice for treating legume seed with rhizobia based on field-average MPN counts needs to be carefully considered. PMID:29489845

  6. Inhalational anthrax (Ames aerosol) in naïve and vaccinated New Zealand rabbits: characterizing the spread of bacteria from lung deposition to bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Gutting, Bradford W.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Channel, Stephen R.; Gearhart, Jeffery M.; Andrews, George A.; Berger, Alan E.; Mackie, Ryan S.; Watson, Brent J.; Taft, Sarah C.; Overheim, Katie A.; Sherwood, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to better understand inhalational anthrax in relevant animal models. This understanding could aid risk assessment, help define therapeutic windows, and provide a better understanding of disease. The aim here was to characterize and quantify bacterial deposition and dissemination in rabbits following exposure to single high aerosol dose (> 100 LD50) of Bacillus anthracis (Ames) spores immediately following exposure through 36 h. The primary goal of collecting the data was to support investigators in developing computational models of inhalational anthrax disease. Rabbits were vaccinated prior to exposure with the human vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) or were sham-vaccinated, and were then exposed in pairs (one sham and one AVA) so disease kinetics could be characterized in equally-dosed hosts where one group is fully protected and is able to clear the infection (AVA-vaccinated), while the other is susceptible to disease, in which case the bacteria are able to escape containment and replicate uncontrolled (sham-vaccinated rabbits). Between 4–5% of the presented aerosol dose was retained in the lung of sham- and AVA-vaccinated rabbits as measured by dilution plate analysis of homogenized lung tissue or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. After 6 and 36 h, >80% and >96%, respectively, of the deposited spores were no longer detected in BAL, with no detectable difference between sham- or AVA-vaccinated rabbits. Thereafter, differences between the two groups became noticeable. In sham-vaccinated rabbits the bacteria were detected in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 12 h post-exposure and in the circulation at 24 h, a time point which was also associated with dramatic increases in vegetative CFU in the lung tissue of some animals. In all sham-vaccinated rabbits, bacteria increased in both TBLN and blood through 36 h at which point in time some rabbits succumbed to disease. In contrast, AVA-vaccinated rabbits showed small numbers of CFU in

  7. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.

  8. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of coniine to rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A

    1993-07-01

    Conium maculatum (poison hemlock, CM) is teratogenic in several domestic species, presumably due to its piperidine alkaloids, including coniine, which has been verified to be teratogenic in cattle. Coniine/CM teratogenicity culminates in production of arthrogryposis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine-induced teratogenicity in two laboratory animal species, Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits. Pregnant rats were given coniine (25 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 16-18. Pregnant rabbits were given coniine (40 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 20-24. Rats were killed on day 19 and rabbits on day 29. Fetuses were immediately removed, weighed, and examined for external abnormalities. Alternate fetuses were either stained for skeletal examinations with alizarin red-S or fixed in Bouin's solution for visceral examination. Symptoms of maternal intoxication due to coniine administration were observed in both the rat and the rabbit, and higher doses were uniformly lethal. Rabbits treated with coniine appeared to lose more weight and eat less than controls, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Fetal weights were significantly lower in coniine-exposed rat and rabbit fetuses indicating fetotoxicity. The only statistically significant treatment-related visceral or skeletal malformation was a reduction of cranial ossification of rabbit fetuses, probably related to maternal toxicity. Coniine-exposed rabbit litters tended to be affected by arthrogryposis (no bony deformities noted on skeletal exam) more than controls (2/6 vs. 0/9).

  9. Fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbit knees. A comparison of Kirschner wires, fibrin sealant, and polydioxanone pins.

    PubMed

    Plaga, B R; Royster, R M; Donigian, A M; Wright, G B; Caskey, P M

    1992-03-01

    We compared fibrin sealant, polydioxanone (PDS) pins and Kirschner wires in the fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbit knees. Standardised osteochondral fractures of the right medial femoral condyle were made in 56 adult New Zealand white rabbits. There were equal groups of control knees, and those which had Kirschner-wire, fibrin-sealant or PDS-pin fixation. No external immobilisation was used. One animal from each group was killed at two, three and four weeks. The remaining rabbits were killed at six weeks. A fracture which healed with less than 1 mm of displacement was considered a success. There was successful healing in 29% of the control group, in all of the Kirschner-wire group, in 50% of the fibrin-sealant group, and in 86% of the PDS-pin group. The use of PDS pins appears to be a reliable alternative to the use of metal in the fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbits.

  10. Intrinsic connectivity of neural networks in the awake rabbit.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Matthew P; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Disterhoft, John F; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The way in which the brain is functionally connected into different networks has emerged as an important research topic in order to understand normal neural processing and signaling. Since some experimental manipulations are difficult or unethical to perform in humans, animal models are better suited to investigate this topic. Rabbits are a species that can undergo MRI scanning in an awake and conscious state with minimal preparation and habituation. In this study, we characterized the intrinsic functional networks of the resting New Zealand White rabbit brain using BOLD fMRI data. Group independent component analysis revealed seven networks similar to those previously found in humans, non-human primates and/or rodents including the hippocampus, default mode, cerebellum, thalamus, and visual, somatosensory, and parietal cortices. For the first time, the intrinsic functional networks of the resting rabbit brain have been elucidated demonstrating the rabbit's applicability as a translational animal model. Without the confounding effects of anesthetics or sedatives, future experiments may employ rabbits to understand changes in neural connectivity and brain functioning as a result of experimental manipulation (e.g., temporary or permanent network disruption, learning-related changes, and drug administration). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety of Microbubbles and Transcranial Ultrasound in Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culp, William C.; Brown, Aliza T.; Hennings, Leah; Lowery, John; Culp, Benjamin C.; Erdem, Eren; Roberson, Paula; Matsunaga, Terry O.

    2007-05-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the safety of large doses of microbubbles and ultrasound administered to the head of rabbits as if they were receiving acute stroke therapy of a similar nature. Materials and Methods: Female New Zealand White rabbits were used, N=24, in three groups 1] n=4 control (no treatment), 2] n=10 bubble control (ultrasound plus aspirin), and 3] n=10 target group (ultrasound plus aspirin plus MRX-815 microbubbles). Group 3 was infused with IV bubbles over 1 hour at 0.16cc/kg. Ultrasound was delivered to the dehaired side of the head during bubble infusion and for 1 additional hour at 0.8 W/cm2 20% pulsed wave. Rabbits survived for 22 to 24 hours, were imaged with computerized tomography and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging including contrast studies, and sacrificed. Tetrazolium (TTC) and Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) sections were made for pathological examination. Results: All 24 animals showed absence of bleeding, endothelial damage, EKG abnormalities, stroke, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, or other acute abnormalities. CT and MRI showed no bleeding or signs of stroke, but two animals had mild hydrocephalus. The EKGs showed normal variation in QTc. Rabbit behavior was normal in all. Minimal chronic inflammation unrelated to the study was seen in 5. Two animals were excluded because of protocol violations and replaced during the study. Conclusion: The administered dose of microbubbles and ultrasound demonstrated no detrimental effects on the healthy rabbit animal model.

  12. Evaluation of objects and food for environmental enrichment of NZW rabbits.

    PubMed

    Harris, L D; Custer, L B; Soranaka, E T; Burge, J R; Ruble, G R

    2001-01-01

    The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals states that both structural and social environments should be considered when addressing the husbandry needs of laboratory animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental enrichment strategies that could potentially enhance the well-being of rabbits. Male and female 6-week old New Zealand White rabbits were divided into three groups: food-enriched (Bunny Stix, Bunny Blocks, or celery), non-food enriched (Jingle Ball, Kong toy, or Nylabone), and not enriched. Animals were given a particular enrichment for 1 h daily for 15 days. Home cages were fitted with specially designed plexiglass doors, which allowed the animals' interactions with the objects to be videotaped. The amount of time the animal interacted with each object and the total activity during the 1-h taped session were recorded for each rabbit. Rabbits were weighed weekly. Rabbits spent significantly more time interacting with the Bunny Stix than any other food item or non-food object. In addition, total activity time was significantly greater for all rabbits enriched with food versus any of the non-food items. Weight gains after 15 days did not differ significantly, but there was a trend towards increased weight gains in food-enriched rabbits. In this study, food was a stronger, more sustained enrichment device than were non-food objects.

  13. Effects of Khaya senegalensis leaves on performance, carcass traits, hemtological and biochemical parameters in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Wareth, A. A. A.; Hammad, Seddik; Ahmed, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing farmers today is to ensure adequate integration of natural resources into animal feeds. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Khaya senegalensis (KS) leaves on the performance of growing male rabbits, carcass traits and biochemical as well as hematological parameters. Thirty New Zealand White male growing rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits per group). Group I (control) received standard rabbit diet. Rabbits in group II and group III were fed standard rabbit diet supplemented with 35 % and 65 % KS leaves, respectively. All rabbits were fed daily for 25 days. The performance parameters and carcass criteria, including daily body weight gain, final body weight, and the percentage of dressing, were increased in rabbits fed 35 % KS when compared to the control group. Kidney and liver weight ratios increased significantly in group II but dropped in group III. Furthermore, liver enzymes - alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and kidney function parameters - urea, and creatinine - increased in both group II (significant P<0.05) and in group III (significant P<0.01) when compared to the control group. Moreover, KS leaves induced a significant increase (P<0.05) in the total white blood cell count, the percentage of granulocytes and the platelet count; whereas, the percentage of lymphocytes, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were not statistically significantly changed. This study demonstrates that the performance parameters and carcass traits are improved by the replacement of rabbit's diet with KS leaves. However, KS leaves may adversely affect liver and kidney function in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, further studies are required to elucidate the maximum tolerable and toxic, as well as lethal doses, and to isolate the pharmacologically active components from KS leaves. PMID

  14. Evaluation of low-level laser therapy in rabbit oral mucosa after soft tissue graft application: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kara, Cankat; Demir, Turgut; Ozbek, Elvan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the histopathological effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on healing of the oral mucosa after soft tissue graft operations. The alterations at the end of healing in normal and LLLT-applied oral mucosa were studied in two healthy adult New Zealand white rabbits by taking specimens for light microscopic inspection. There was no adverse event reported in the study and no post-operative complications, such as swelling, bleeding, or edema, were observed in the rabbits. Complete wound healing was faster in the LLLT-applied rabbit. Compared to the normal rabbit oral mucosa, thickening of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis) was found in the epithelia of the rabbits. A significant increase in the epithelial thickness was found in the samples of rabbits, suggesting increased scar tissue following the wound repair. Additionally, many mitotic figures were present in the epithelia of the LLLT-applied rabbit, indicating epithelial cell hyperplasia. Long and irregular connective tissue protrusions projecting into the undersurface of the epithelium and mononuclear cell infiltrations were noted in the rabbits. The results suggest that LLLT used for soft tissue operations provides better and faster wound healing and that LLLT enhances epithelization.

  15. Age dependency of base modification in rabbit liver DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, O.; Fuji, I.; Yoshida, T.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Age-related modifications of DNA bases have been observed in the liver of the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a lagomorph with a median life span in captivity of 5-7 yr. The ages of the animals studied ranged from 6 wk to 9 yr. After the DNA had been extracted from the liver cell nuclei and hydrolyzed with acid, the bases were analyzed by column chromatography with Cellulofine gels (GC-15-m). Two peaks in the chromatogram, which eluted before the four DNA bases, contained modified bases. Those materials, which were obtained in relatively large amounts from old animals, were highly fluorescent, and were shown to be crosslinked base products by mass spectrometry. The yield of crosslinked products versus rabbit age (greater than 0.5 yr) can be fitted by an exponential function (correlation coefficient: 0.76 +/- 0.09).

  16. Species differences in methanol and formic acid pharmacokinetics in mice, rabbits and primates

    SciT

    Sweeting, J. Nicole; Siu, Michelle; McCallum, Gordon P.

    2010-08-15

    Methanol (MeOH) is metabolized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase in humans, but by catalase in rodents, with species variations in the pharmacokinetics of its formic acid (FA) metabolite. The teratogenic potential of MeOH in humans is unknown, and its teratogenicity in rodents may not accurately reflect human developmental risk due to differential species metabolism, as for some other teratogens. To determine if human MeOH metabolism might be better reflected in rabbits than rodents, the plasma pharmacokinetics of MeOH and FA were compared in male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys over time (24, 48 and 6 h, respectively)more » following a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 2 g/kg MeOH or its saline vehicle. Following the high dose, MeOH exhibited saturated elimination kinetics in all 3 species, with similar peak concentrations and a 2.5-fold higher clearance in mice than rabbits. FA accumulation within 6 h in primates was 5-fold and 43-fold higher than in rabbits and mice respectively, with accumulation being 10-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Over 48 h, FA accumulation was nearly 5-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Low-dose MeOH in mice and rabbits resulted in similarly saturated MeOH elimination in both species, but with approximately 2-fold higher clearance rates in mice. FA accumulation was 3.8-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Rabbits more closely than mice reflected primates for in vivo MeOH metabolism, and particularly FA accumulation, suggesting that developmental studies in rabbits may be useful for assessing potential human teratological risk.« less

  17. Delayed and Aberrant Presentation of VX2 Carcinoma in a Rabbit Model of Hepatic Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Sarah A; Fink, Michael K; Upendran, Anandhi; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Livingston, Robert S; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Lattimer, Jimmy C; Kannan, Raghuraman

    2015-01-01

    A socially-housed New Zealand white rabbit presented with a large subcutaneous mass on the ventral thorax approximately 11 mo after the intrahepatic delivery of a suspension of VX2 carcinoma cells to induce hepatocellular carcinoma as part of a nanoparticle study. The mass and closely associated axillary lymph node were removed en bloc. Immunohistochemical staining identified the mass as an undifferentiated carcinoma. The rabbit demonstrated no appreciable pathology at the study end point at 16 mo after VX2 inoculation. An additional rabbit from the same VX2 injection cohort was found at necropsy to have an unanticipated intraabdominal mass, also identified as an undifferentiated carcinoma. This case report summarizes the molecular analysis of both tumors through a novel PCR assay, which identified the delayed and aberrant onset of VX2 carcinoma in an extended timeframe not previously reported. PMID:26473347

  18. Development of microbial spoilage and lipid and protein oxidation in rabbit meat.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Sazili, A Q; Aghwan, Z A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Abu Bakar, F; Sarah, S A

    2015-10-01

    This experiment aimed to determine microbial spoilage and lipid and protein oxidation during aerobic refrigerated (4°C) storage of rabbit meat. Forty male New Zealand white rabbits were slaughtered according to the Halal slaughter procedure. The hind limbs were used for microbial analysis while the Longissimus lumborum m. was used for determination of lipid and protein oxidation. Bacterial counts generally increased with aging time and the limit for fresh meat (10(8)cfu/g) was reached at d 7 postmortem. Significant differences in malondialdehyde content were observed after 3d of storage. The thiol concentration significantly decreased with increase in aging time. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain and troponin T significantly reduced with increased refrigerated storage while actin remained relatively stable. This study thus proposes protein oxidation as a potential deteriorative change in refrigerated rabbit meat along with microbial spoilage and lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Histopathological Investigation of Red and Blue Light Emitting Diode on Treating Skin Wounds in Japanese Big-Ear White Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanfeng; Han, Yunlin; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Yuhuan; Yang, Weiling; Qin, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of different wavelengths of light emitting diode (LED) light tend to vary from each other. Research into use of photobiomodulation for treatment of skin wounds and the underlying mechanisms has been largely lacking. We explored the histopathological basis of the therapeutic effect of photobiomodulation and the relation between duration of exposure and photobiomodulation effect of different wavelengths of LED in a Japanese big-ear white rabbit skin-wound model. Skin wound model was established in 16 rabbits (three wounds per rabbit: one served as control, the other two wounds were irradiated by red and blue LED lights, respectively). Rabbits were then divided into 2 equal groups based on the duration of exposure to LED lights (15 and 30 min/exposure). The number of wounds that showed healing and the percentage of healed wound area were recorded. Histopathological examination and skin expression levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelial marker (CD31), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki67) and macrophagocyte (CD68) infiltration, and the proliferation of skin collagen fibers was assessed. On days 16 and 17 of irradiation, the healing rates in red (15 min and 30 min) and blue (15 min and 30 min) groups were 50%, 37.5%, 25% and 37.5%, respectively, while the healing rate in the control group was 12.5%. The percentage healed area in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups. Collagen fiber and skin thickness were significantly increased in both red light groups; expression of EGF, FGF, CD31 and Ki67 in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups; the expression of FGF in red (30 min) group was not significantly different from that in the blue light and control groups. The effect of blue light on wound healing was poorer than that of red light. Red light appeared to hasten wound healing by promoting fibrous tissue, epidermal and endothelial cell

  20. Vapor-phase cristobalite as a durable indicator of magmatic pore structure and halogen degassing: an example from White Island volcano (New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ian Schipper, C.; Mandon, Céline; Maksimenko, Anton; Castro, Jonathan M.; Conway, Chris E.; Hauer, Peter; Kirilova, Martina; Kilgour, Geoff

    2017-10-01

    Vesicles in volcanic rocks are physical records of magmatic degassing; however, the interpretation of their textures is complicated by resorption, coalescence, and collapse. We discuss the textural significance of vesicle-hosted vapor-phase cristobalite (high-T, low-P SiO2 polymorph), and its utility as a complement to textural assessments of magmatic degassing, using a representative dacite bomb erupted from White Island volcano (New Zealand) in 1999. Imaging in 2D (SEM) and 3D (CT) shows the bomb to have 56% bulk porosity, almost all of which is connected ( 99%) and devoid of SiO2 phases. The remaining ( 1%) of porosity is in isolated, sub-spherical vesicles that have corroded walls and contain small (< 30 μm across) prismatic vapor-phase cristobalite crystals (98.4 ± 0.4 wt.% SiO2 with diagnostic laser Raman spectra). Halogen degassing models show vapor-phase cristobalite to be indicative of closed-system chlorine and fluorine partitioning into H2O-rich fluid in isolated pores. At White Island, this occurred during shallow (< 100s of meters) ascent and extensive ( 50%) groundmass crystallization associated with slow cooling in a volcanic plug. Pristine textures in this White Island bomb demonstrate the link between pore isolation and vapor-phase cristobalite deposition. We suggest that because these crystals have higher preservation potential than the bubbles in which they form, they can serve as durable, qualitative textural indicators of halogen degassing and pre-quench bubble morphologies in slowly cooled volcanic rocks (e.g., lava flows and domes), even where emplacement mechanisms have overprinted original bubble textures.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) inoculation to rabbits by intranasal and oral routes results in subacute and/or persistent infection dissimilar to human disease.

    PubMed

    Rajčáni, Julius; Szenthe, Kalman; Durmanová, Vladimira; Tóth, Agnes; Asványi, Balazs; Pitlik, Ervin; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Szathmary, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We report the infection of New Zealand white rabbits with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV prepared in B95-8 (producer) cells was inoculated to rabbits by combined intranasal and oral routes. Blood and white blood cell (WBC) samples were taken before infection, then on days 8, 28 and 98 post-infection (p.i.). Administration of either 3 × 10(8) (group A, 11 rabbits) or 1 × 10(9) (group B, 10 rabbits) EBV DNA copies per animal induced subacute and/or persistent infection. The IgG antibodies in plasma were detected by ELISA as well as by immunoblot (IB). The IB bands showed mainly antibodies to the BZRF1/Zta transactivation polypeptide (69.2%), the p54 early protein (53.4%) and to the p23 capsid protein (35.8%). No anti-EBNA1 antibody was detected throughout. Viral DNA could be detected by PCR in WBCs and/or spleen of 7 out of 21 infected rabbits (30%), while 60-80% of them showed serologic response. The transiently present EBV DNA was accompanied by LMP1 antigen. Rabbits developed persistent EBV infection in the absence of EBNA1 antibodies and by the lack of typical infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome. The absence of EBNA1 antibody may reflect the lack of EBNA1 in B cells of EBV-inoculated rabbits. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. The effects of magnesium sulphate and EDTA in the hypercholesterolaemic rabbit.

    PubMed

    Evans, D A; Tariq, M; Sujata, B; McCann, G; Sobki, S

    2001-12-01

    Numerous clinical reports suggest the beneficial effects of chelation therapy for the treatment of atherosclerosis. However, the results of these studies are inconclusive and controversial. The purpose of this present study was to examine the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of chelation liquid (CHL) in experimental atherosclerosis. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 45 days. In the prophylactic phase of the study subcutaneous 300 mg EDTA + 500 mg magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) injections (five rabbits) and isotonic saline (five rabbits) were given to test and control groups, respectively, along with cholesterol rich diet. The CHL treatment ameliorated the rise of serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride concentrations, lowered serum calcium concentrations and reduced the aortic atheroma. In the therapeutic phase of the experiment the cholesterol diet was stopped and the remaining 10 animals were returned to normal diet. Five of these rabbits were given CHL injections and other five animals were given isotonic saline injections for 121 days. Although the level of cholesterol and triglyceride were not significantly different in the two groups, the serum calcium concentration and the percentage of the area of flate aortic specimen occupied by atheroma were significantly lower in the CHL treated rabbits as compared to controls. It is concluded that CHL injections have a definite prophylactic effect on atherogenesis in the cholesterol-fed rabbit, and may have some therapeutic value in the regression phase. Further confirmatory studies are suggested.

  3. White cell count in the normal range and short-term and long-term mortality: international comparisons of electronic health record cohorts in England and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Thornley, Simon; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Denaxas, Spiros; Jackson, Rod; Hemingway, Harry

    2017-02-17

    Electronic health records offer the opportunity to discover new clinical implications for established blood tests, but international comparisons have been lacking. We tested the association of total white cell count (WBC) with all-cause mortality in England and New Zealand. Primary care practices in England (ClinicAl research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records (CALIBER)) and New Zealand (PREDICT). Analysis of linked electronic health record data sets: CALIBER (primary care, hospitalisation, mortality and acute coronary syndrome registry) and PREDICT (cardiovascular risk assessments in primary care, hospitalisations, mortality, dispensed medication and laboratory results). People aged 30-75 years with no prior cardiovascular disease (CALIBER: N=686 475, 92.0% white; PREDICT: N=194 513, 53.5% European, 14.7% Pacific, 13.4% Maori), followed until death, transfer out of practice (in CALIBER) or study end. HRs for mortality were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, ethnicity and total:high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio. We found 'J'-shaped associations between WBC and mortality; the second quintile was associated with lowest risk in both cohorts. High WBC within the reference range (8.65-10.05×10 9 /L) was associated with significantly increased mortality compared to the middle quintile (6.25-7.25×10 9 /L); adjusted HR 1.51 (95% CI 1.43 to 1.59) in CALIBER and 1.33 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.65) in PREDICT. WBC outside the reference range was associated with even greater mortality. The association was stronger over the first 6 months of follow-up, but similar across ethnic groups. Clinically recorded WBC within the range considered 'normal' is associated with mortality in ethnically different populations from two countries, particularly within the first 6 months. Large-scale international comparisons of electronic health record cohorts might yield new insights from widely

  4. Localisation of Lactate Transporters in Rat and Rabbit Placentae

    PubMed Central

    Picut, Catherine A.; Charlap, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) isoforms 1 and 4, which mediate the plasmalemmal transport of l-lactic and pyruvic acids, has been identified in the placentae of rats and rabbits at different ages of gestation. Groups of three pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits were sacrificed on gestation days (GD) 11, 14, 18, or 20 and on GD 13, 18, or 28, respectively. Placentae were removed and processed for immunohistochemical detection of MCT1 and MCT4. In the rat, staining for MCT1 was associated with lakes and blood vessels containing enucleated red blood cells (maternal vessels) while staining for MCT4 was associated with vessels containing nucleated red blood cells (embryofoetal vessels). In the rabbit, staining for MCT1 was associated with blood vessels containing nucleated red blood cells while staining for MCT4 was associated with vessels containing enucleated red blood cells. Strength of staining for MCT1 decreased during gestation in both species, but that for MCT4 was stronger than that for MCT1 and was consistent between gestation days. The results imply an opposite polarity of MCT1 and MCT4 across the trophoblast between rat and rabbit. PMID:27843454

  5. Systematic Characterization and Comparative Analysis of the Rabbit Immunoglobulin Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Lavinder, Jason J.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Reddy, Sai T.; Wine, Yariv; Georgiou, George

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits have been used extensively as a model system for the elucidation of the mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification and for the production of antibodies. We employed Next Generation Sequencing to analyze Ig germline V and J gene usage, CDR3 length and amino acid composition, and gene conversion frequencies within the functional (transcribed) IgG repertoire of the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Several previously unannotated rabbit heavy chain variable (VH) and light chain variable (VL) germline elements were deduced bioinformatically using multidimensional scaling and k-means clustering methods. We estimated the gene conversion frequency in the rabbit at 23% of IgG sequences with a mean gene conversion tract length of 59±36 bp. Sequencing and gene conversion analysis of the chicken, human, and mouse repertoires revealed that gene conversion occurs much more extensively in the chicken (frequency 70%, tract length 79±57 bp), was observed to a small, yet statistically significant extent in humans, but was virtually absent in mice. PMID:24978027

  6. A rabbit model of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Panda, Aruna; Tatarov, Ivan; Masek, Billie Jo; Hardick, Justin; Crusan, Annabelle; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen; Yang, Samuel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Lipsky, Michael M; McLeod, Charles G; Levine, Myron M; Rothman, Richard E; Gaydos, Charlotte A; DeTolla, Louis J

    2014-09-01

    Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. In this study, we focused on the development of an animal model of bacteremia induced by non-typhoidal Salmonella. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with a human isolate of non-typhoidal Salmonella strain CVD J73 via the intra-peritoneal route. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and at euthanasia from infected rabbits. Additionally, tissue samples from the heart, lungs, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were obtained at euthanasia. All experimentally infected rabbits displayed clinical signs of disease (fever, dehydration, weight loss and lethargy). Tissues collected at necropsy from the animals exhibited histopathological changes indicative of bacteremia. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteria were detected in the blood and tissue samples of infected rabbits by microbiological culture and real-time PCR assays. The development of this animal model of bacteremia could prove to be a useful tool for studying how non-typhoidal Salmonella infections disseminate and spread in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Reona; Tanimoto, Yoshimasa; Kishimoto, Miori; Shibata, Hideshi

    2016-05-03

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1-3 parietal and 1-3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1-4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2-7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits.

  8. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice reduces atherosclerotic lesions in diet-induced Hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ishola, Afeez Adekunle; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2017-07-07

    Atherosclerosis is the most common disease of large and medium-sized arteries linked to oxidative stress, dyslipidemia as well as chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit juice on the aorta of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits, to detect an accumulation of fatty streak and evaluate the percentage of atherosclerotic lesion accrued. Thirty-five healthy male adults New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups. Four groups were fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL of BA fruit juice per kg of rabbit daily (atherogenic groups), while the other three groups were fed commercial rabbit pellet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mL of juice per kg of rabbit daily (normocholesterolemic groups) for 90 days. The thoracic and abdominal aorta between the heart origin and bifurcation into iliac arteries of all the rabbits were carefully removed and analyzed accordingly. The supplementation of the high-cholesterol diet of hypercholesterolemic rabbits with only 0.5 mL BA/kg rabbit per day significantly (p < 0.001) improved aortic lipid profile, attenuated aortic fatty streak development and reduced intima thickening. Higher BA doses used (1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg rabbit per day) also significantly (p < 0.001) decreased further the development of aortic fatty streaks, reduced the thickening of the tunica intima layer and preserved endothelial healing following arterial injury. Therefore, BA fruit is a potential novel functional food with effective anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic activities.

  9. Effect of diets containing whole white lupin seeds on rabbit doe milk yield and milk fatty acid composition as well as the growth and health of their litters.

    PubMed

    Volek, Z; Marounek, M; Volková, L; Kudrnová, E

    2014-05-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of white lupin seed (WLS) on the milk composition and yield of rabbit does as well as the performance of their litters was studied. Two lactation diets having identical digestible protein (DP):DE ratio and two weaning diets having identical DP:DE ratio were formulated. The first lactation diet (SL) contained soybean meal (SBM; 13.0%) and sunflower meal (5.0%) as the main CP sources, whereas the second lactation diet (LL) was based on WLS (25.0%). As a result, the LL diet had a greater ether extract (EE) content than did the SL diet. The first weaning diet (SW) included SBM (7.0%) as the main CP source, whereas the second weaning diet (LW) diet was based on WLS (12.0%). No additional fat was added to any of the diets. A total of 32 (16 per treatment) Hyplus PS 19 does (4,225 ± 607 g BW, at the second parturition) were fed 1 of the 2 lactation diets. The litters were standardized to 9 kits (564 ± 81 g BW) on the day of birth and were fed 1 of the 2 weaning diets from d 17 to 69 of age. At d 30 of age (weaning), 66 rabbits on each weaning diet (689 ± 71 g BW; 3 per cage) were used to evaluate performance. Feed intake and doe BW were not affected by the dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be higher between d 1 and 30 of lactation in does fed the LL diet (P = 0.094), a finding that is related to the higher dietary EE content and intake in the LL diet. When expressed per kilogram of metabolic weight, milk output (P < 0.05) and fat output (P < 0.05) were greater in these does. Improved G:F (P < 0.05) between d 1 and 21 of lactation and greater ADG (P = 0.072) and milk efficiency (P < 0.05) of litters was observed in does fed the LL diet. The milk of does fed the LL diet contained less linoleic acid (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (C 20:4n-6; P < 0.05) and more oleic acid (P < 0.05), α-linolenic acid (P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenic acid (P < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the total PUFA n-3:C 20:4n-6 ratio (P < 0.05). The

  10. Nonstimulated rabbit phonation model: Cricothyroid approximation.

    PubMed

    Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Chang, Siyuan; Luo, Haoxiang; Valenzuela, Carla V; Rousseau, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    To describe a nonstimulated in vivo rabbit phonation model using an Isshiki type IV thyroplasty and uninterrupted humidified glottal airflow to produce sustained audible phonation. Prospective animal study. Six New Zealand white breeder rabbits underwent a surgical procedure involving an Isshiki type IV thyroplasty and continuous airflow delivered to the glottis. Phonatory parameters were examined using high-speed laryngeal imaging and acoustic and aerodynamic analysis. Following the procedure, airflow was discontinued, and sutures remained in place to maintain the phonatory glottal configuration for microimaging using a 9.4 Tesla imaging system. High-speed laryngeal imaging revealed sustained vocal fold oscillation throughout the experimental procedure. Analysis of acoustic signals revealed a mean vocal intensity of 61 dB and fundamental frequency of 590 Hz. Aerodynamic analysis revealed a mean airflow rate of 85.91 mL/s and subglottal pressure of 9 cm H2 O. Following the procedure, microimaging revealed that the in vivo phonatory glottal configuration was maintained, providing consistency between the experimental and postexperimental laryngeal geometry. The latter provides a significant milestone that is necessary for geometric reconstruction and to allow for validation of computational simulations against the in vivo rabbit preparation. We demonstrate a nonstimulated in vivo phonation preparation using an Isshiki type IV thyroplasty and continuous humidified glottal airflow in a rabbit animal model. This preparation elicits sustained vocal fold vibration and phonatory measures that are consistent with our laboratory's prior work using direct neuromuscular stimulation for evoked phonation. N/A. Laryngoscope, 126:1589-1594, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Rabbit Trochlear Model of Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    To, Nhat; Curtiss, Shane; Neu, Corey P; Salgado, Christopher J; Jamali, Amir A

    2011-01-01

    Allografting and autografting of osteochondral tissues is a promising strategy to treat articular cartilage lesions in damaged joints. We developed a new model of fresh osteochondral allografting using the entire rabbit trochlea. The objective of the current study was to demonstrate that this model would achieve reproducible graft–host healing and maintain normal articular cartilage histologic, immunolocalization, and biochemical characteristics after transplantation under diverse storage and transplantation conditions. New Zealand white (n = 8) and Dutch belted (n = 8) rabbits underwent a 2-stage transplantation operation using osteochondral grafts that had been stored for 2 or 4 wk. Trochlear grafts harvested from the left knee were transplanted to the right knee as either autografts or allografts. Grafts were fixed with 22-gauge steel wire or 3-0 nylon suture. Rabbits were euthanized for evaluation at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 wk after transplantation. All grafts that remained in vivo for at least 4 wk demonstrated 100% interface healing by microCT. Trabecular bridging was present at the host–graft interface starting at 2 wk after transplantation, with no significant difference in cartilage histology between the various groups. The combined histology scores indicated minimal evidence of osteoarthritis. Immunostaining revealed that superficial zone protein was localized at the surface of all transplants. The rabbit trochlear model met our criteria for a successful model in regard to the ease of the procedure, low rate of surgical complications, relatively large articular cartilage surface area, and amount of host–graft bone interface available for analysis. PMID:22330350

  12. Three Variations in Rabbit Angiographic Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Culp, William C.; Woods, Sean D.; Brown, Aliza T.; Lowery, John D.; Hennings, Leah J.; Skinner, Robert D.; Borrelli, Michael J.; Roberson, Paula K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop angiographic models of embolic stroke in the rabbit using pre-formed clot or microspheres to model clinical situations ranging from transient ischemic events to severe ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods New Zealand White rabbits (N=151) received angiographic access to the internal carotid artery (ICA) from a femoral approach. Variations of emboli type and quantity of emboli were tested by injection into the ICA. These included fresh clots (1.0-mm length, 3–6 h), larger aged clots (4.0-mm length, 3 days), and 2 or 3 insoluble microspheres (700–900 μm). Neurological assessment scores (NAS) were based on motor, sensory, balance, and reflex measures. Rabbits were euthanized at 4, 7, or 24 hours after embolization, and infarct volume was measured as a percent of total brain volume using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). Results Infarct volume percent at 24 hours after stroke was lower for rabbits embolized with fresh clot (0.45% ± 0.14%), compared with aged clot (3.52% ± 1.31%) and insoluble microspheres (3.39% ± 1.04%). Overall NAS (including posterior vessel occlusions) were positively correlated to infarct volume percent measurements in the fresh clot (r=0.50), aged clot (r=0.65) and microsphere (r=0.62) models (p<0.001). Conclusion The three basic angiographic stroke models may be similar to human transient ischemic attacks (TIA) (fresh clot), major strokes that can be thrombolysed (aged clot), or major strokes with insoluble emboli such as atheromata (microspheres). Model selection can be tailored to specific research needs. PMID:23142182

  13. In vivo investigation of tissue-engineered periosteum for the repair of allogeneic critical size bone defects in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Zhao, Junli; Yu, Jiajia; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Hu, Shuhua

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of tissue-engineered periosteum (TEP) in repairing allogenic bone defects in the long term. TEP was biofabricated with osteoinduced rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). A total of 24 critical sized defects were created bilaterally in radii of 12 New Zealand White rabbits. TEP/SIS was implanted into the defect site. Bone defect repair was evaluated with radiographic and histological examination at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Bone defects were structurally reconstructed in the TEP group with mature cortical bone and medullary canals, however this was not observed in the SIS group at 12 weeks. The TEP approach can effectively restore allogenic critical sized defects, and achieve maturity of long-bone structure in 12 weeks in rabbit models.

  14. [Application research of DEI technique based on synchrotron X-ray source in imaging rabbit eyeball in vitro].

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong-xia; Huang, Zhi-feng; Wang, Zhen-chang; Liu, Zhao-hui; Li, Yong; Zhu, Pei-ping

    2010-03-23

    To study the application of DEI technique in imaging the small structures of rabbit eyeball. DEI technique was used to image the eyeball of New Zealand white rabbit in vitro. The experiments were performed using beamline 4W1A at the topography station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). DEI image showed clearly the fine structures of the rabbit eyeball, such as the transparent cornea, the sclera, the ciliaris, and the ciliary body. DEI is a new X-ray imaging modality which achieves high contrast and spatial resolution. It also showed obvious effect of edge enhancement. DEI has good potential in observing the micro-structures of eyeballs and other small organs.

  15. High-dose recombinant endotoxin neutralizing protein improves survival in rabbits, with Escherichia coli sepsis.

    PubMed

    Saladino, R A; Stack, A M; Thompson, C; Sattler, F; Novitsky, T J; Siber, G R; Fleisher, G R

    1996-07-01

    To assess the benefit of a recombinant endotoxin neutralizing protein from Limulus polyphemus in treating Gram-negative bacterial sepsis in rabbits. Prospective, blinded, controlled, laboratory trial. Animal research laboratory. New Zealand White rabbits. We established a rabbit model of Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia, with high mortality rate, despite treatment with gentamicin and ceftriaxone. Twenty-five pairs of male New Zealand White rabbits were challenged intraperitoneally with E. coli O18ac K1 in 5% porcine mucin (mean 7 x 10(1) colony-forming units). All animals were treated with intravenous gentamicin (2.5 mg/kg) and ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg), and with either intravenous endotoxin neutralizing protein (50 mg/kg) or saline 1 hr after E. coli challenge. All animals were bacteremic 1 hr after challenge (mean 3.6 x 10(5) colony-forming units/mL). Animals in both groups developed tachycardia, hypotension, and acidosis (NS). Geometric mean serum endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) concentrations were significantly ( p < .001) higher 1 hr after challenge compared with baseline prechallenge concentrations in both groups. From 1 to 2 hrs after challenge, endotoxin concentrations increased 2.5-fold in control animals (95% confidence interval = 13.1 to 32.9 endotoxin units/mL, p = .024), whereas endotoxin concentrations increased only 1.2-fold in endotoxin neutralizing protein-treated animals (95% confidence interval = 20.4 to 23.6 endotoxin units/mL, NS). TNF concentrations increased significantly (p < .001) in both groups from 1 to 2 hrs after challenge. Eighteen (72%) of 25 endotoxin neutralizing protein-treated animals vs. 11 (44%) of 25 controls survived 24 hrs (p = .032). Treatment with endotoxin neutralizing protein had the following effects: a) the increase in serum endotoxin was blunted, but not TNF concentrations measured 1 hr after antibiotic treatment; and b) survival in rabbits with E. Coli sepsis was improved.

  16. Repair of articular cartilage defects by tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with adipose-derived stem cells and acellular cartilaginous matrix in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z J; An, R Z; Zhao, J Y; Zhang, Q; Yang, J; Wang, J B; Wen, G Y; Yuan, X H; Qi, X W; Li, S J; Ye, X C

    2014-06-18

    After injury, inflammation, or degeneration, articular cartilage has limited self-repair ability. We aimed to explore the feasibility of repair of articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineered cartilage constructed by acellular cartilage matrices (ACMs) seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). The ADSCs were isolated from 3-month-old New Zealand albino rabbit by using collagenase and cultured and amplified in vitro. Fresh cartilage isolated from adult New Zealand albino rabbit were freeze-dried for 12 h and treated with Triton X-100, DNase, and RNase to obtain ACMs. ADSCs were seeded in the acellular cartilaginous matrix at 2x10(7)/mL, and cultured in chondrogenic differentiation medium for 2 weeks to construct tissue-engineered cartilage. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into A, B, and C groups. Engineered cartilage was transplanted into cartilage defect position of rabbits in group A, group B obtained ACMs, and group C did not receive any transplants. The rabbits were sacrificed in week 12. The restored tissue was evaluated using macroscopy, histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the tissue-engineered cartilage group (group A), articular cartilage defects of the rabbits were filled with chondrocyte-like tissue with smooth surface. Immunohistochemistry showed type II-collagen expression and Alcian blue staining was positive. TEM showed chondrocytes in the recesses, with plenty of secretary matrix particles. In the scaffold group (group B), the defect was filled with fibrous tissue. No repaired tissue was found in the blank group (group C). Tissue-engineered cartilage using ACM seeded with ADSCs can help repair articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

  17. Melatonin potentiates tear secretion induced by diadenosine tetraphosphate in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Charles H V; Peral, Assumpta; Pintor, Jesús

    2006-12-15

    Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A, 0.03 nmol) applied topically to the cornea of New Zealand white rabbits, evoked an increase in tear secretion of 9.7 +/- 2.60% (N=7). Melatonin (1 nmol) had no significant effect. Application of Ap(4)A in combination with melatonin, evoked a significantly greater increase in tear secretion of 34.2 +/- 5.8% (N=11). This potentiating effect of melatonin was blocked by pretreating the cornea with a topical application of the melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole (240 nmol). Melatonin combined with Ap(4)A may be useful for treating dry eye conditions.

  18. Pathophysiology of fat embolism: a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Blankstein, Michael; Byrick, Robert J; Richards, Robin R; Mullen, J Brendan; Zdero, Rad; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of fat embolism on rabbit physiology. After anesthetic administration, both femoral condyles of the right knee only of 23 New Zealand white rabbits were exposed through a medial parapatellar approach to the knee. In the pulmonary fat embolism group (n = 15), the femoral canal was drilled in a retrograde fashion and then reamed and pressurized with a 1- to 1.5-mL cement injection. In the no-pressurization group (n = 4), after reaming, no cement was injected. In the control group (n = 4), the knee incision was immediately closed. Animals were then observed for 5 hours. Hemodynamics and blood gases were recorded at standard intervals. Postmortem, the lungs were removed en bloc and fixed for histologic assessment and quantitative histomorphometry. Four intraoperative deaths occurred in the pulmonary fat embolism group immediately after pressurization and may have been associated with hypotension and cardiac arrest. In the pulmonary fat embolism group, pulmonary artery pressure increased, and both mean arterial pressure and PaO2 decreased after pressurization. Approximately 2% of lung volume was occupied by intravascular fat and there were no signs of perivascular inflammation. Control and no-pressurization animals remained stable throughout the experiment. This model simulates pulmonary fat embolism after long-bone fractures. Despite cardiorespiratory dysfunction, there was no evidence of fat initiating pulmonary inflammation based on histologic data within the timeframe of the investigation.

  19. Effect of chocolate and Propolfenol on rabbit spermatogenesis and sperm quality following bacterial lipopolysaccharide treatment.

    PubMed

    Collodel, Giulia; Moretti, Elena; Del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Biagi, Marco; Cardinali, Raffaella; Mazzi, Lucia; Brecchia, Gabriele; Maranesi, Margherita; Manca, Daniela; Castellini, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of chocolate and propolis-enriched diets on rabbit spermatogenesis, sperm motility, and ultrastructure following bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups. The LPS-Propolfenol(®) group received propolis (500 mg/kg/day) in their diet for 15 days, while the LPS-chocolate group was fed 70% cacao chocolate (1 g/1 kg/day) for the same period. Following the diet treatments, rabbits in the LPS-Propolfenol(®) and LPS-chocolate groups, and an LPS group received a single intraperitoneal dose of 50 μg/kg LPS, and the control group received only saline. Kinematic sperm traits were evaluated with a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) system, and ultrastructural characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Testicular and epididymal tissues were observed by light microscopy and TEM and multiplex real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect and quantify toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene expression. The values of the analyzed semen parameters of rabbits treated with LPS-Propolfenol(®) and LPS-chocolate did not show any variations compared with the control group, but they were lower in rabbits treated only with LPS. Alterations observed in the testicular tissue of LPS treated-rabbits were not detected in specimens from the LPS-chocolate and LPS-Propolfenol(®) groups, which showed normal spermatogenesis. The TLR-4 mRNA expression was similar in controls, in LPS treated, and in LPS-chocolate groups, but it was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased in LPS-Propolfenol(®) rabbits. In conclusion, a chocolate and propolis-enriched diet showed a protective effect on the spermatogenetic process of buck rabbits following LPS treatment.

  20. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice ameliorates altered hematological and biochemical biomarkers in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ibrahim, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor linked to the alteration of blood hematology and clinical chemistry associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit. We hypothesized that the oral administration of BA fruit juice could ameliorate the alteration in the hematological and biochemical biomarkers of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of BA juice on the hematological and biochemical biomarkers in normo- and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty-five healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups for 90days of diet intervention. Four atherogenic groups were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. The other three normal groups were fed a commercial rabbit pellet diet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. Baseline and final blood samples after 90days of repeated administration BA juice were analyzed for hematological parameters while serum, aortic and hepatic lysates were analyzed for lipid profiles and other biochemical biomarkers. The alteration of the hemopoietic system, physiological changes in serum and tissues lipid profiles and other biochemicals resulting from the consumption of a high-cholesterol diet were significantly (P<.05) ameliorated by the administration of BA juice. Improvements of the biomarkers in rabbits were dose-dependent, markedly enhanced at the highest dose of juice (1.5mL/kg/day). The results suggest potential health benefits of the antioxidant-rich BA fruit juice against hypercholesterolemia-associated hematological and biochemical alterations in the rabbit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of chronic exposure to cold environment on thyroid gland function in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, S; Elgazzar, A

    2014-07-01

    Chronic exposure to cold can affect the thyroid gland. However, the effect on thyroid gland perfusion images and the ratio between thyroid hormones secretion were not addressed in any previous study. The present study investigates the effects of chronic cold exposure on thyroid gland function using radionuclide tracer and thyroid hormones secretion concentration. New Zealand white rabbits weighing approximately 1.8-2 kg were kept in a cold room (4°C) for 7 weeks. Thyroid scintigraphy was performed for cold exposed rabbits and a control rabbit group. Each rabbit was injected with 115 MBq (3.1 mCi) technetium-99m pertechnetate (99mTc pertechnetate). Studies were performed using Gamma camera equipped with a low energy, high resolution, pinhole collimator interfaced with a computer. Static images were acquired 20 min after administration of the radiotracer. Rabbits chronically exposed to cold had less body weights than control. Thyroid gland uptake is higher in rabbits chronically exposed to cold than controls using radionuclide perfusion study. The increase was proportional to the time period, so the increase after 7 weeks was greater than 5 weeks. There is also an increase in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and a decrease in free thyroxine (FT4) values. Our results indicate that thyroid gland uptake is higher in rabbits chronically exposed to cold than control and the increase was proportional to the duration. The decrease in rabbit body weights may be related to the increase in metabolism due to the increase of thyroid hormones. Chronic cold exposure also increased the conversion of T4 to T3, which is more potent in thermogenic effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The rabbit costal cartilage reconstructive surgical model.

    PubMed

    Badran, Karam W; Waki, Curt; Hamamoto, Ashley; Manz, Ryan; Wong, Brian J F

    2014-02-01

    Rib grafts in facial plastic surgery are becoming more frequently used. Small animal models, although not ideal may be used to emulate costal cartilage-based procedures. A surgical characterization of this tissue will assist future research in the selection of appropriate costal segments, based on quantitative and qualitative properties. The objective of this study is to assess the surgical anatomy of the rabbit costal margin and evaluate costal cartilage for use in either in vivo or ex vivo studies and to examine reconstructive procedures. Detailed thoracic dissections of 21 New Zealand white rabbits were performed post-mortem. Costal cartilage of true, false, and floating ribs were harvested. The length, thickness, and width at proximal, medial, and distal locations of the cartilage, with perichondrium intact were measured. Further qualitative observation and digital images of curvature, flexibility, and segmental cross-sectional shape were recorded. The main outcome measure(s) is to characterize, describe, and assess the consistency of dimensions, location, and shape of costal cartilage. In this study, 12 to 13 ribs encase the thoracic cavity. Cartilage from true ribs has an average length, width, and depth of 23.75 ± 0.662, 3.02 ± 0.025, and 2.18 ± 0.018 mm, respectively. The cartilage from false ribs has an average length, width, and depth of 41.97 ± 1.48, 2.00 ± 0.07, 1.19 ± 0.03 mm, and that of floating ribs are 7.66 ± 0.29, 1.98 ± 0.04, and 0.96 ± 0.03 mm. Rib 8 is found to be the longest costal cartilage (49.10 ± 0.64 mm), with the widest and thickest at ribs 1 (3.91 ± 0.08 mm) and 6 (2.41 ± 0.11 mm), respectively. Cross-sectional segments reveal the distal cartilage to maintain an hourglass shape that broadens to become circular and eventually ovoid at the costochondral junction. The New Zealand white rabbit is a practical source of costal cartilage that is of sufficient size and

  3. Variability of passive gas emissions, seismicity, and deformation during crater lake growth at White Island Volcano, New Zealand, 2002-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Hurst, T.; Scott, B.; Sherburn, S.; Christenson, B. W.; Britten, K.; Cole-Baker, J.; Mullan, B.

    2008-01-01

    We report on 4 years of airborne measurements of CO2, SO2, and H2S emission rates during a quiescent period at White Island volcano, New Zealand, beginning in 2003. During this time a significant crater lake emerged, allowing scrubbing processes to be investigated. CO2 emissions varied from a baseline of 250 to >2000 t d-1 and demonstrated clear annual cycling that was consistent with numbers of earthquake detections and annual changes in sea level. The annual variability was found to be most likely related to increases in the strain on the volcano during sea level highs, temporarily causing fractures to reduce in size in the upper conduit. SO2 emissions varied from 0 to >400 t d-1 and were clearly affected by scrubbing processes within the first year of lake development. Scrubbing caused increases of SO42- and Cl- in lake waters, and the ratio of carbon to total sulphur suggested that elemental sulphur deposition was also significant in the lake during the first year. Careful measurements of the lake level and chemistry allowed estimates of the rate of H2O(g) and HCl(g) input into the lake and suggested that the molar abundances of major gas species (H2O, CO2, SO2, and HCl) during this quiescent phase were similar to fumarolic ratios observed between earlier eruptive periods. The volume of magma estimated from CO2 emissions (0.015-0.04 km3) was validated by Cl- increases in the lake, suggesting that the gas and magma are transported from deep to shallow depths as a closed system and likely become open in the upper conduit region. The absence of surface deformation further leads to a necessity of magma convection to supply and remove magma from the degassing depths. Two models of convection configurations are discussed.

  4. Variability of passive gas emissions, seismicity, and deformation during crater lake growth at White Island Volcano, New Zealand, 2002-2006

    Werner, C.; Hurst, T.; Scott, B.; Sherburn, S.; Christenson, B.W.; Britten, K.; Cole-Baker, J.; Mullan, B.

    2008-01-01

    We report on 4 years of airborne measurements of CO2, SO2, and H2S emission rates during a quiescent period at White Island volcano, New Zealand, beginning in 2003. During this time a significant crater lake emerged, allowing scrubbig processes to be investigated. CO2 emissions varied from a baseline of 250 to >2000 t d-1 and demonstrated clear annual cycling that was consistent with numbers of earthquake detections and annual changes in sea level. The annual variability was found to be most likely related to increases in the strain on the volcano during sea level highs, temporarily causing fractures to reduce in size in the upper conduit. SO2 emissions varied from 0 to >400 t d-1 and were clearly affected by scrubbing processes within the first year of take development. Scrubbing caused increases of SO42- and Cl- in lake waters, and the ratio of carbon to total sulphur suggested that elemental sulphur deposition was also significant in the lake during the first year. Careful measurements of the lake level and chemistry allowed estimates of the rate of H2O(g) and HCl(g) input into the lake and suggested that the molar abundances of major gas species (H2O, CO2, SO2, and HCl) during this quiescent phase were similar to fumarolic ratios observed between earlier eruptive periods. The volume of magma estimated from CO2 emissions (0.0 15-0.04 km3) was validated by Cl- increases in the lake, suggesting that the gas and magma are transported from deep to shallow depths as a closed system and likely become open in the upper conduit region. The absence of surface deformation further leads to a necessity of magma convection to supply and remove magma from the degassing depths. Two models of convection configurations are discussed. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Changes in Blood Constituents of Rabbits Subjected to Transportation under Hot, Humid Tropical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Sazili, A Q; Aghwan, Z A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Fatimah, A B

    2013-06-01

    Unlike Europe (particularly, Italy and Spain), where a number of studies have been conducted on the stressful effects of transport on rabbit welfare, few studies have been conducted on transportation of rabbits under hot, humid tropical conditions experienced in countries like Malaysia. We studied the effects of transportation in hot humid tropical conditions of Malaysia on physiometabolic changes in New Zealand white rabbits. Eighty experimental animals were divided into two groups of 40 bucks each and transported for either 3 or 1 h. Transportation caused a significant upsurge of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase activities (p<0.001) though did not significantly affect lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (p = 0.0706). Both transportation periods caused elevation in plasma glucose levels, lactic acidosis and dehydration as evidenced through elevated packed cell volume and plasma protein concentration. It was concluded that regardless of the duration, transport of rabbits under hot humid tropical conditions, resulted in heat distress since the rabbits showed hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia, lactacidemia, lymphocytopenia, dehydration and increase in blood enzyme activities.

  6. Histotripsy and metastasis: Assessment in a renal VX-2 rabbit tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styn, Nicholas R.; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.; Roberts, William W.

    2012-10-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive, pulsed ultrasound technology where controlled cavitation is used to homogenize targeted tissue. We sought to assess the possibility that histotripsy may increase metastatic spread of tumor by quantifying the number of lung metastasis apparent after histotripsy treatment of aggressive renal VX-2 tumor compared to nontreated controls. VX-2 tumor was implanted in the left kidneys of 28 New Zealand White rabbits. Twenty rabbits were treated with histotripsy (day 13 after implantation) while 8 served as controls. All rabbits underwent left nephrectomy (day 14) and then were euthanized (day 19). This study was powered to detect a doubling in metastatic rate. Homogenized tumor was seen in all treated nephrectomy specimens. Whole-mount, coronal lung sections were viewed to calculate number and density of metastases. Viable tumor was present in all 28 lungs examined. Histology confirmed fractionation of tumor in all treatment rabbits. There was not a statistical difference in total lung metastases (88.7 vs. 72.5; p=0.29) or metastatic density (8.9 vs. 7.0 mets/cm2; p=0.22) between treated and control rabbits. Further investigation is planned to validate these results in the VX-2 model and to assess metastatic rates in less aggressive tumors treated with histotripsy.

  7. [Effect of vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor receptor for treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-ming; Zhou, Ming-qian; Gao, Ji-min

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) on avascular necrosis of the femoral head in rabbits. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was induced in 26 New Zealand white rabbits by injections of horse serum and prednisolone. The rabbits were then divided into VEGF/TNFR treatment group, VEGF treatment group, and untreated model group, with another 4 normal rabbits as the normal control group. In the two treatment groups, the therapeutic agents were injected percutaneously into the femoral head. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine the concentration of TNF-alpha in rabbit serum followed by pathological examination of the changes in the bone tissues, bone marrow hematopoietic tissue and the blood vessels in the femoral head. Compared with the model group, the rabbits with both VEGF and TNFR treatment showed decreased serum concentration of TNF-alpha with obvious new vessel formation, decreased empty bone lacunae in the femoral head and hematopoietic tissue proliferation in the bone marrow cavity. Percutaneous injection of VEGF and TNFR into the femoral head can significantly enhance bone tissue angiogenesis and ameliorate osteonecrosis in rabbits with experimental femoral head necrosis.

  8. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  9. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  10. Nitrite therapy prevents chlorine gas toxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Honavar, Jaideep; Doran, Stephen; Ricart, Karina; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P

    2017-04-05

    Chlorine (Cl 2 ) gas exposure and toxicity remains a concern in military and industrial sectors. While post-Cl 2 exposure damage to the lungs and other tissues has been documented and major underlying mechanisms elucidated, no targeted therapeutics that are effective when administered post-exposure, and which are amenable to mass-casualty scenarios have been developed. Our recent studies show nitrite administered by intramuscular (IM) injection post-Cl 2 exposure is effective in preventing acute lung injury and improving survival in rodent models. Our goal in this study was to develop a rabbit model of Cl 2 toxicity and test whether nitrite affords protection in a non-rodent model. Exposure of New Zealand White rabbits to Cl 2 gas (600ppm, 45min) caused significant increases in protein and neutrophil accumulation in the airways and ∼35% mortality over 18h. Nitrite administered 30min post Cl 2 exposure by a single IM injection, at 1mg/kg or 10mg/kg, prevented indices of acute lung injury at 6h by up to 50%. Moreover, all rabbits that received nitrite survived over the study period. These data provide further rationale for developing nitrite as post-exposure therapeutic to mitigate against Cl 2 gas exposure injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrite therapy prevents chlorine gas toxicity in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Honavar, Jaideep; Doran, Stephen; Ricart, Karina; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P.

    2017-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl2) gas exposure and toxicity remains a concern in military and industrial sectors. While post-Cl2 exposure damage to the lungs and other tissues has been documented and major underlying mechanisms elucidated, no targeted therapeutics that are effective when administered post-exposure, and which are amenable to mass-casualty scenarios have been developed. Our recent studies show nitrite administered by intramuscular (IM) injection post-Cl2 exposure is effective in preventing acute lung injury and improving survival in rodent models. Our goal in this study was to develop a rabbit model of Cl2 toxicity and test whether nitrite affords protection in a non-rodent model. Exposure of New Zealand White rabbits to Cl2 gas (600ppm, 45min) caused significant increases in protein and neutrophil accumulation in the airways and ~35% mortality over 18h. Nitrite administered 30min post Cl2 exposure by a single IM injection, at 1mg/Kg or 10mg/Kg, prevented indices of acute lung injury at 6h by up to 50%. Moreover, all rabbits that received nitrite survived over the study period. These data provide further rationale for developing nitrite as post-exposure therapeutic to mitigate against Cl2 gas exposure injury. PMID:28237808

  12. Changes of blood biochemistry in the rabbit animal model in atherosclerosis research; a time- or stress-effect

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research and especially as animal models in atherosclerosis studies. Blood biochemistry is used to monitor progression of disease, before final evaluation including pathology of arteries and organs. The aim of the present study was to assess the consistency of the biochemical profile of New Zealand White rabbits on standard diet from 3 to 6 months of age, during which they are often used experimentally. Methods and results Eight conventional male 3-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were used. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months later. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol concentrations, and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase activities and malondialdehyde were measured. Statistically significant time-related changes were observed in glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol, which were not correlated with aortic lesions at 6 months of age. Similarly, hepatic enzyme activity had significant time-related changes, without a corresponding liver pathology. Conclusions Age progression and stress due to single housing may be the underlying reasons for these biochemistry changes. These early changes, indicative of metabolic alterations, should be taken into account even in short-term lipid/atherosclerosis studies, where age and standard diet are not expected to have an effect on the control group of a study. PMID:21838924

  13. Suppression of Rabbit VX‐2 Subcutaneous Tumor Growth by Gadolinium Neutron Capture Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko; Pechoux, Cécile Le; Kobayashi, Tooru; Kanda, Keiji

    1993-01-01

    VX‐2 tumors growing in hind legs of New Zealand White rabbits (n=4) were exposed to thermal neutrons for 40 min (2.1 × 1012 neutrons cm−2) while one of two hind leg tumors of each rabbit was infused continuously with meglumine gadopentetate through a branch of the left femoral artery. The contralateral (uninfused) tumors served as controls. Although no differential distribution of gadolinium was achieved between the tumor and its adjacent normal tissue, the gadolinium concentration in the infused tumor was approximately 5–6 fold higher than that in the contralateral tumor. Growth of gadolinium‐infused tumors was significantly inhibited compared to that of control tumors (P<0.05) between the 16th and 23rd days after treatment. PMID:8407547

  14. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Ten Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Synthetic and Bio-Based Jet Fuels with Petroleum JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    paraffinic kerosene (IPK), Sasol gas to liquid (GTL)-1 and GTL-2, Shell GTL and Syntroleum S-8 (synthetic JP-8). Four fuels were renewable bio-based fuels...5976) and GTL-2 (POSF 5977);  Shell GTL (POSF 5172, Shell Global, The Hague, The Netherlands); and  Syntroleum S-8 (synthetic JP-8, POSF 4734...from natural gas. The remaining two SPK fuels, Shell GTL (POSF 5172, Shell Global, The Hague, The Netherlands) and Syntroleum S-8 (synthetic JP-8

  15. A multidisciplinary approach to quantify the permeability of the Whakaari/White Island volcanic hydrothermal system (Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Michael J.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Farquharson, Jamie I.; Ashworth, James; Mayer, Klaus; Letham-Brake, Mark; Reuschlé, Thierry; Gilg, H. Albert; Scheu, Bettina; Lavallée, Yan; Siratovich, Paul; Cole, Jim; Jolly, Arthur D.; Baud, Patrick; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-02-01

    Our multidisciplinary study aims to better understand the permeability of active volcanic hydrothermal systems, a vital prerequisite for modelling and understanding their behaviour and evolution. Whakaari/White Island volcano (an active stratovolcano at the north-eastern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand) hosts a highly reactive hydrothermal system and represents an ideal natural laboratory to undertake such a study. We first gained an appreciation of the different lithologies at Whakaari and (where possible) their lateral and vertical extent through reconnaissance by land, sea, and air. The main crater, filled with tephra deposits, is shielded by a volcanic amphitheatre comprising interbedded lavas, lava breccias, and tuffs. We deployed field techniques to measure the permeability and density/porosity of (1) > 100 hand-sized sample blocks and (2) layered unlithified deposits in eight purpose-dug trenches. Our field measurements were then groundtruthed using traditional laboratory techniques on almost 150 samples. Our measurements highlight that the porosity of the materials at Whakaari varies from ∼ 0.01 to ∼ 0.7 and permeability varies by eight orders of magnitude (from ∼ 10-19 to ∼ 10-11 m2). The wide range in physical and hydraulic properties is the result of the numerous lithologies and their varied microstructures and alteration intensities, as exposed by a combination of macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy) observations, quantitative mineralogical studies (X-ray powder diffraction), and mercury porosimetry. An understanding of the spatial distribution of lithology and alteration style/intensity is therefore important to decipher fluid flow within the Whakaari volcanic hydrothermal system. We align our field observations and porosity/permeability measurements to construct a schematic cross section of Whakaari that highlights the salient findings of our study. Taken together, the alteration typical of a volcanic

  16. Rabbit electroretinograms evoked by 632.8nm laser flash stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zai-Fu; Chen, Hong-Xia; Wang, Jia-Rui; Guan, Bo-Lin; Yu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Jing-Geng

    2012-12-01

    The flash electroretinography is a standard electrophysiological method and widely employed in basic research and ophthalmology clinics, of which the stimulus is usually white flash from dome stimulator. However, little is known about the electroretinograms (ERGs) evoked by monochromatic laser flash stimuli. The goal of this research effort is to quantify the ERGs of dark-adapted New Zealand rabbits elicited by He-Ne laser flash with wavelength 632.8 nm. The flash field was a Maxwellian viewing disc with angular subtense of 8.5°, 13.3° or 20.2°. The stimulus duration was 12 ms, 22 ms, 70 ms or 220 ms. The laser flash power incident on the cornea varied from 2.2 nW through 22 mW. Under the condition of 20 ms stimulus duration and 20.2° flash field, the ERG of New Zealand rabbit was compared with that of Chinchilla gray rabbit. Results showed that for the ERG b-wave, with the increase of laser energy, the amplitude first increased, then met a trough and finally increased again, the implicit time decreased first and then met a platform. While for the ERG a-wave, the amplitude increased and the implicit time decreased monotonically. Longer stimulus duration led to lower b-wave amplitude under equal flash power level. The flash field size showed limited effect on the ERG, especially on the low energy end. As compared with the pigmented rabbit, the albino rabbit was more sensitive and the threshold energy for b-wave excitation was about 10 times lower.

  17. Histologic Evaluation of Micronized AlloDerm After Injection Laryngoplasty in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Michael S; Janus, Jeff; Voss, Steve; San Marina, Serban; Chen, Tiffany; Garcia, Joaquin; Ekbom, Dale

    2017-05-01

    Micronized AlloDerm is a commonly used injectable material for injection laryngoplasty; however, the histologic response to laryngeal implantation and resorption rate over time have not been elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo response of micronized AlloDerm over time after laryngeal implantation using a rabbit model. Animal model. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve was sectioned in five New Zealand White rabbits to create a vocal cord paralysis. Two weeks later, injection laryngoplasty was performed with 100 μL of micronized AlloDerm. Animals were sacrificed 4 (two rabbits) and 12 (three rabbits) weeks after injection. Histologic sections were stained and evaluated by a single pathologist. Volume estimates were made by assuming the implant took an ellipsoid shape using dimensions calculated from histologic slides. In all cases, histological analysis revealed a lymphocytic inflammatory response infiltrating the peripheral margins of injection. After 4 weeks, the volume of injected material remaining in two rabbits was 404 and 278 mm 3 (average 341 mm 3 ). After 12 weeks, the volume of injected material remaining in three rabbits was 0, 61, and 124 mm 3 (average 62 mm 3 ), an 82% difference in volume of material between animals sacrificed at 4 weeks versus 12 weeks. Injection laryngoplasty using micronized AlloDerm induces a lymphocytic inflammatory response after injection in a rabbit model. Though a significant amount of material remains after 4 weeks, by 12 weeks the majority has been reabsorbed. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E166-E169, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Relationship between rabbit transferrin electrophoretic patterns and plasma iron concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, P; Arana, A; Amorena, B

    1987-01-01

    Rabbit transferrin (Tf) was studied electrophoretically using 1141 blood samples from individuals belonging to seven populations (Spanish Common, Spanish Giant, Butterfly, Lyoné de Bourgogne, New Zealand White, Californian and New Zealand White X Californian hybrids). No Tf polymorphism was found by starch gel electrophoresis, but six patterns, differing in the presence and/or intensity of three bands ('a', anodic; 'b', intermediate; and 'c', cathodic) were observed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. No genetic model could explain these patterns, since they reflect differences in plasma Tf iron content. The electrophoretic test allowed a direct observation of the relative in vivo levels of the different Tf molecular species; saturated (band 'a', Fe2Tf); semi-saturated (band 'b', Fe1Tf); and without iron (band 'c' Fe0Tf, apotransferrin). The degree of iron saturation of Tf varied among individuals and throughout the individual's life. Specifically, in pregnant females, Fe2Tf and Fe1Tf are generally observed, except in late pregnancy (from day 25 to parturition), when mainly apotransferrin is observed. Significantly, within 24 h post-partum, high levels of Fe2Tf are reached in the female's serum.

  19. Autogenous cultured growth plate chondrocyte transplantation in the treatment of physeal injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, R; Bohosiewicz, J; Gap, A; Bursig, H; Wysocka, A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study on New Zealand's white rabbits was to investigate the transplantation of autogenous growth plate cells in order to treat the injured growth plate. They were assessed in terms of measurements of radiological tibial varus and histological characteristics. An experimental model of plate growth medial partial resection of the tibia in 14 New Zealand white rabbits was created. During this surgical procedure the plate growth cells were collected and cultured. While the second surgery was being performed, the autologous cultured growth plate cells were grafted at the right tibia, whereas the left tibia was used as a control group. Histological examinations showed that the grafted right tibia presented the regular shape of the plate growth with hypertrophic maturation, chondrocyte columniation and endochondral calcification. Radiological study shows that the mean tibial deformity at the left angle was 20.29° (6.25 to 33) and 7.21° (5 to 10) in the right angle. This study has demonstrated that grafting of autogenous cultured growth plate cells into a defect of the medial aspect of the proximal tibial physis can prevent bone bridge formation, growth arrest and the development of varus deformity. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:310-16. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  20. Psoroptes cuniculi induced oxidative imbalance in rabbits and its alleviation by using vitamins A, D3, E, and H as adjunctive remedial.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker Kumar; Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Mahesh Chandra; Swarup, Devendra; Kumar, Mritunjay; Tiwary, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    The oxidant/antioxidant balance of rabbits naturally infected with Psoroptes cuniculi and treated with ivermectin +/- vitamins A, D(3), E, and H supplementation was investigated. Two groups of seven mixed ♂ and ♀, 6-to-8 month-old New Zealand White rabbits, diagnosed Psoroptes mites-positive by skin scraping examination and seven clinically healthy control rabbits were examined. Blood samples were obtained on day 0 and at 28 days post-therapy to determine oxidative stress indices. On day 0, the levels of lipid peroxides were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) in the Psoroptes-infected rabbits compared with the healthy controls while those of reduced glutathione and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.01). Vitamin supplementation of the ivermectin-treated rabbits revealed both faster clinical (14 days) and parasitological (10 days) recovery. It was concluded that significant alteration of oxidant/antioxidant balance is a factor in the pathogenesis of P. cuniculi infestation of rabbits, and recovery can be enhanced by combining ivermectin treatment with vitamin A, D(3,) E, and H supplementation.

  1. Influence of unilateral tooth loss in the temporomandibular joint and masseter muscle of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Im, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Lim, Sung-Chul; Ha, Jung-Min

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the masticatory system in patients with missing teeth. The influence of tooth loss on the masticatory system was analyzed with the use of bone scintigraphy ((99m)Tc-MDP) and histochemistry. Eight white rabbits (New Zealand, 12 weeks old) were used. The rabbits were divided into 2 groups: 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Teeth were extracted unilaterally in each rabbit under general anesthesia. Six and 12 weeks after extraction, scintigraphy was conducted, and the rabbits were killed and their masseter muscles removed for histochemical analysis. The results of bone metabolism (relative ratio) measured by bone scintigraphy were 48.27% at extraction sites and 51.73% at nonextraction sites at 6 weeks and 39.96% at extraction sites and 60.04% at nonextraction sites at 12 weeks. There was a significant difference at 12 weeks (P < .05). Tissue calcium contents and osteoclast counts showed different results between the extraction and nonextraction sites, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The bone metabolism of temporomandibular joints and histochemical aspects of masticatory muscles may be associated with occlusal alterations following tooth loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid nitrogen-treated autogenous dentin as bone substitute: an experimental study in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Atiya, Basim K; Shanmuhasuntharam, Palasuntharam; Huat, Siar; Abdulrazzak, Shurooq; Oon, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Different forms of dentin, including untreated, undemineralized, demineralized, boiled, or mixed with other materials, have been evaluated for efficacy as bone substitutes. However, the effects of application of liquid nitrogen-treated dentin for bone grafting remain unknown. The objective of this study was to chronologically evaluate bone healing following grafting with liquid nitrogen-treated dentin in a rabbit model. Autogenous dentin treated with liquid nitrogen at -196°C for 20 minutes was used. In 16 New Zealand White rabbits, a bone defect (5 mm in diameter) was created in each femur and randomly grafted with either autogenous dentin (experimental group) or autogenous bone grafts (positive control). In another four rabbits (negative control), a similar defect in each femur was left empty. The rabbits were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Explants of grafted sites were harvested for histologic and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 and 4 weeks in both the experimental and positive control groups, accelerated formation of new bone was observed, which was undergoing remodeling at 8 and 12 weeks. The mean new bone score was higher in the experimental than in the negative control groups, but this was not statistically significant. The present results demonstrated that liquid nitrogen-treated autogenous dentin has both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties and therefore has potential as a bone substitute.

  3. Tracheal replacement in rabbits with a new composite silicone-metallic prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Dodge-Khatami, Ali; Niessen, Hans W M; Koole, Leo H; Klein, Marloes G; van Gulik, Thomas M; de Mol, Bas A J M

    2003-09-01

    A new composite silicone-metallic prosthesis was tested, studying the potential for respiratory epithelial covering over the biocompatible inner lining, in a rabbit survival model. Seven New Zealand White rabbits underwent near-total excision of their trachea and implantation of a sterile prosthesis. After 2 months, they were sacrificed and the prostheses were retrieved. Specimens were fixed and histologically examined for tissue reaction around the prosthesis, at the anastomotic lines, and particularly for the presence or absence of epithelialization of the inner lumen over the biocompatible surface. All rabbits survived the operation. At 2 months, the outer layer of the prosthesis was consistently covered with fibrosis and neutrophils. The inner layer showed necrotic cells and scant re-epithelialization over the biocompatible lining, up to 5 mm beyond the anastomosis, with no evidence of organized respiratory epithelium in the middle sections. The new prosthesis is a viable temporary solution for airway replacement in rabbits. Granulation tissue was not observed at the anastomosis, and re-epithelialization did occur, but failed to achieve full-length luminal covering. The potential for granulation tissue does not yet make this an ideal long-term solution. Improvements in prosthesis design or biocompatibility are required, and need to be re-evaluated before applicability for chronic use.

  4. Atelocollagen Enhances the Healing of Rotator Cuff Tendon in Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong-Sam; Lee, Jun-Keun; Yoo, Ji-Chul; Woo, Sang-Hun; Kim, Ga-Ram; Kim, Ju-Won; Choi, Nam-Yong; Kim, Yongdeok; Song, Hyun-Seok

    2017-07-01

    Failure of rotator cuff healing is a common complication despite the rapid development of surgical repair techniques for the torn rotator cuff. To verify the effect of atelocollagen on tendon-to-bone healing in the rabbit supraspinatus tendon compared with conventional cuff repair. Controlled laboratory study. A tear of the supraspinatus tendon was created and repaired in 46 New Zealand White rabbits. They were then randomly allocated into 2 groups (23 rabbits per group; 15 for histological and 8 for biomechanical test). In the experimental group, patch-type atelocollagen was implanted between bone and tendon during repair; in the control group, the torn tendon was repaired without atelocollagen. Each opposite shoulder served as a sham (tendon was exposed only). Histological evaluation was performed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Biomechanical tensile strength was tested 12 weeks after surgery. Histological evaluation scores of the experimental group (4.0 ± 1.0) were significantly superior to those of the control group (7.7 ± 2.7) at 12 weeks ( P = .005). The load to failure was significantly higher in the experimental group (51.4 ± 3.9 N) than in the control group (36.4 ± 5.9 N) ( P = .001). Histological and biomechanical studies demonstrated better results in the experimental group using atelocollagen in a rabbit model of the supraspinatus tendon tear. Atelocollagen patch could be used in the cuff repair site to enhance healing.

  5. [The rule of lymphatic formation in rabbit VX2 supraglottic carcinoma model with lymph node metastasis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pin; Ji, Wenyue; Zhang, Xiangbo

    2012-02-01

    Establishment of transplanted model of VX2 supraglottic carcinoma in rabbits and investigation the rule of lymphatic vessels formation. After establishment of VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits, the carcinoma tissues were transplanted into the operculum laryngis submucosa in sixty New-Zealand white rabbits to establish transplanted tumor model. Vascular endothelial growth factor-3 (VEGFR-3) label staining was performed to observe lymphatic vessels. Number density, volume density of lymphatics periphery region of carcinoma, normal region and centre region were measured using computer image analysis system. There was no lymphatic vessels in carcinomatous centre region,but the lymphatic vessels number density, volume density in periphery region was much more than normal region. Their cavities were dilated. The discrepancy had statistical significance (P<0.01). The rule of lymphatic formation in rabbit VX2 supraglottic carcinoma model mimesis rule of lymphatic formation anthropo- supraglottic carcinoma. Lymphatic multiplication and dilation at periphery region of carcinoma is associated with lymph node metastasis. Evaluation of it at periphery region of carcinoma may be useful in predicting lymph node metastasis in patients with supraglottic carcinoma. This conclusion provides theoretical basis for utility of the anti-tumor medicines which inhibit lymphatic formation in animal model.

  6. Exercise training improves cardiac function in infarcted rabbits: involvement of autophagic function and fatty acid utilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Yi; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Lee, Bai-Chin; Lin, Hung-Ju; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Hui-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2010-04-01

    To explore whether exercise can improve cardiac function in a post-myocardial infarction (MI) rabbit model and to determine contributing factors in the left ventricle (LV). Adult male New Zealand White rabbits (2.5-3 kg) underwent MI by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. For 8 weeks after surgery, sham-operated, and post-MI rabbits were housed under sedentary conditions or assigned to a 4-week treadmill exercise protocol at a speed of 1.0 km/h for 30 min 5 days per week, then sacrificed. The non-infarcted region of the LV was harvested for further analysis. MI decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation in the LV. Exercise improved the cardiac function of MI rabbits. Left ventricular LC3II/LC3I (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3) in the MI group was 2.1-fold higher than that of the sham group, exercise significantly decreased LC3II/LC3I in the MI group. MI down-regulated the expression of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP), and exercise up-regulated h-FABP. In addition, LVEF had a significantly positive correlation with h-FABP and a negative correlation with LC3II/LC3I. Exercise induced change in autophagic function and fatty acid utilization may contribute to the improvement in ventricular function in the infarcted heart.

  7. Kefiran reduces atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masashi; Ishii, Itsuko; Inoue, Chika; Akisato, Yoshie; Watanabe, Kenta; Hosoyama, Saori; Toida, Toshihiko; Ariyoshi, Noritaka; Kitada, Mitsukazu

    2010-09-30

    Kefiran is an exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, and has been proposed to have many health-promoting properties. We investigated the antiatherogenic effect of kefiran on rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet without (control group, n = 7) or with kefiran (kefiran group, n = 8) for eight weeks. The aorta was analyzed by histochemistry and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified. Lipids and sugars in serum were measured. Foam cell formation of RAW264.7 by βVLDL derived from both groups of rabbits was also investigated. Cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids levels of serum and lipoprotein fractions were not significantly different between these groups. Atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta in the kefiran group were statistically lower than those of the control group, with marked differences in the abdominal aorta. T-lymphocytes were not detectable in the aorta of the kefiran group. Cholesterol contents in stools were almost identical in both groups. Cholesterol content in the liver of the kefiran group was statistically lower than in the control group. Galactose content of βVLDL derived from the kefiran group was higher, and the lipid peroxidation level was much lower than in the control group. RAW264.7 macrophages treated with βVLDL from the kefiran group showed a more spherical shape and accumulated statistically lower cholesterol than macrophages treated with βVLDL from the control group. Orally derived kefiran is absorbed in the blood. Kefiran prevents the onset and development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions.

  8. [Effects of black and red rice on the formation of aortic plaques and blood lipids in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Ling, W; Ma, J; Mei, J

    2000-05-30

    In order to observe the antiatherosclerotic effects of black and red rice and to find out their mechanism, 24 New Zealand male white rabbits (average body weight 1.91 kg) were divided randomly into three groups (white rice, black rice and red rice groups). The rabbits were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet (cholesterol 5 g/kg, lard 35 g/kg) containing 300 g/kg white, black and red rice powder respectively. The rabbits were sacrificed 10 weeks later. The aorta was dissected and stained in 0.5% oilred-isopropanol solution. The plaque area and total area of aorta were measured by an automatic image analyzer. Serum lipids were determined by an automatic analyzer. The results showed that the plaque area (% of total surface) in the black and red rice groups was significantly lower than that in the white rice group (P < 0.05). Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, ApoB and ApoAI/ApoB were not significantly different among the three groups (P > 0.05). However, the concentrations of HDL-C and ApoAI were significantly higher in the black and red rice groups than those in the white groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the black and red rice groups. It is concluded that black and red rice might be effective in reducing atherosclerotic plaques on the aorta of rabbits fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. The effectiveness of black and red rice against atherosclerosis might be related to the high level of serum HDL-C and ApoAI.

  9. Morbidity and mortality associated with creation of elastase-induced saccular aneurysms in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Debra A; Ding, Yong Hong; Dai, Daying; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Danielson, Mark A; Cloft, Harry J; Kallmes, David F

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose Elastase-induced aneurysms in rabbits have been proposed as a useful preclinical tool for device development. The object of this study is to report rates of morbidity and mortality associated with creation and embolization of the elastase-induced rabbit aneurysm, and to assess the impact of operator experience on these rates. Methods Elastase-induced model aneurysms were created in New Zealand White rabbits (n=700). One neuroradiologist/investigator, naïve to the aneurysm creation procedure at the outset of the experiments, performed all surgeries. All morbidity and deaths related to aneurysm creation (n=700) and embolization procedures (n=529) were categorized into acute and chronic deaths. Data were analyzed with single regression analysis and ANOVA. To assess the impact of increasing operator experience, the number of animals was broken into 50 animal increments. Results There were 121 (17%) deaths among 700 subjects. Among 700 aneurysm creation procedures, 59 deaths (8.4%) were noted. Among 529 aneurysm embolization procedures, 43 deaths (8.1%) were noted. Nineteen additional deaths (2.7% of 700 subjects) were unrelated to procedures. Simple regression indicated mortality associated with procedures diminished with increasing operator experience (R2=0.38; p=0.0180) and that for each 50 rabbit increment mortality is reduced on average by 0.6 percent. Conclusions Mortality rates of approximately 8% are associated with both experimental aneurysm creation and with embolization in the rabbit, elastase-induced aneurysm model. Increasing operator experience is inversely correlated with mortality and the age of the rabbit is positively associated with morbidity. PMID:19001536

  10. Effects of local gene transfer of VEGF on neointima formation after balloon injury in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Dulak, Jozef; Schwarzacher, Severin P; Zwick, Ralf H; Alber, Hannes; Millonig, Gunda; Weiss, Caecilia; Hügel, Heike; Frick, Matthias; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Pachinger, Otmar; Weidinger, Franz

    2006-01-01

    Enhancement of the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are suggested to prevent restenosis after angioplasty. Accordingly, we tested whether the local delivery of l-arginine (l-Arg), a substrate for NO generation and the VEGF gene, alone or in combination, can influence neointima formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Balloon injury of the iliac arteries was performed in 24 New Zealand White rabbits fed a 1% cholesterol diet for 3 weeks followed by a local infusion of: (1) pSG5VEGF165 plasmid alone (1000 μg); (2) pSG5VEGF165 (1000 μg) with l-Arg (800 mg); (3) l-Arg (800 mg) alone; and (4) l-Arg (800 mg) with naked pSVβ-gal plasmid (1000 μg). The animals were kept on the hypercholesterolemic diets for a further 28 days, when vessels were taken for morphometric analysis and immunocytochemistry. Endogenous rabbit VEGF concentration in the plasma increased significantly at 7 days after injury (17.06 ± 1.57 vs 23.01 ± 1.9 pg/ml; p < 0.02) and remained elevated for up to 28 days (28.46 ± 5.24; p < 0.01). Injured arteries exhibited strong immunocytochemical staining for rabbit VEGF. Rabbits that received a VEGF gene transfer revealed more prominent neointima formation, whereas treatment with l-Arg was associated with significantly less intimal thickness (p < 0.05). Local transfer of the VEGF gene does not inhibit neointima formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Our results suggest that VEGF gene therapy applied locally in atherosclerotic arteries may not be beneficial. PMID:16444857

  11. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Si, Xiuhua April; Kim, JongWon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E.; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. PMID:27145450

  12. A rabbit model of fatal hypothyroidism mimicking "myxedema coma" established by microscopic total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yosuke; Fujita, Masanori; Ono, Sachiko; Ogata, Sho; Tachibana, Shoichi; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-06-30

    Myxedema coma (MC) is a life-threatening endocrine crisis caused by severe hypothyroidism. However, validated diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines for MC have not been established owing to its rarity. Therefore, a valid animal model is required to investigate the pathologic and therapeutic aspects of MC. The aim of the present study was to establish an animal model of MC induced by total thyroidectomy. We utilized 14 male New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized via intramuscular ketamine and xylazine administration. A total of 7 rabbits were completely thyroidectomized under a surgical microscope (thyroidectomized group) and the remainder underwent sham operations (control group). The animals in both groups were monitored without thyroid hormone replacement for 15 weeks. Pulse rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein immediately prior to the thyroidectomy and 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. The thyroidectomized rabbits showed a marked reduction of serum thyroxine levels at 4 weeks after the surgical procedure vs. controls (0.50±0.10 vs. 3.32±0.68 μg/dL, p<0.001). Additionally, thyroidectomized rabbits exhibited several signs of hypothyroidism such as hypothermia, systolic hypotension, bradycardia, and low voltage on ECGs, compared with controls. Of the 7 rabbits with severe hypothyroidism, 6 died from 4 to 14 weeks after the thyroidectomy possibly owing to heart failure, because histopathologic examinations revealed a myxedema heart. In summary, we have established a rabbit model of fatal hypothyroidism mimicking MC, which may facilitate pathophysiological and molecular investigations of MC and evaluations of new therapeutic interventions.

  13. A novel method for blood volume estimation using trivalent chromium in rabbit models.

    PubMed

    Baby, Prathap Moothamadathil; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar, Rajesh; Jacob, Sanu S; Rawat, Dinesh; Binu, V S; Karun, Kalesh M

    2014-05-01

    Blood volume measurement though important in management of critically ill-patients is not routinely estimated in clinical practice owing to labour intensive, intricate and time consuming nature of existing methods. The aim was to compare blood volume estimations using trivalent chromium [(51)Cr(III)] and standard Evans blue dye (EBD) method in New Zealand white rabbit models and establish correction-factor (CF). Blood volume estimation in 33 rabbits was carried out using EBD method and concentration determined using spectrophotometric assay followed by blood volume estimation using direct injection of (51)Cr(III). Twenty out of 33 rabbits were used to find CF by dividing blood volume estimation using EBD with blood volume estimation using (51)Cr(III). CF is validated in 13 rabbits by multiplying it with blood volume estimation values obtained using (51)Cr(III). The mean circulating blood volume of 33 rabbits using EBD was 142.02 ± 22.77 ml or 65.76 ± 9.31 ml/kg and using (51)Cr(III) was estimated to be 195.66 ± 47.30 ml or 89.81 ± 17.88 ml/kg. The CF was found to be 0.77. The mean blood volume of 13 rabbits measured using EBD was 139.54 ± 27.19 ml or 66.33 ± 8.26 ml/kg and using (51)Cr(III) with CF was 152.73 ± 46.25 ml or 71.87 ± 13.81 ml/kg (P = 0.11). The estimation of blood volume using (51)Cr(III) was comparable to standard EBD method using CF. With further research in this direction, we envisage human blood volume estimation using (51)Cr(III) to find its application in acute clinical settings.

  14. Calcium aluminate coated and uncoated free form fabricated CoCr implants: a comparative study in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, A; Jarmar, T; Hermansson, L; Emanuelsson, L; Taylor, A; Taylor, M; Engqvist, H; Thomsen, P

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the integration in bone of uncoated free form fabricated cobalt chromium (CoCr) implants to the same implant with a calcium aluminate coating. The implants of cylindrical design with a pyramidal surface structure were press-fit into the limbs of New Zealand white rabbits. After 6 weeks, the rabbits were sacrificed, and samples were retrieved and embedded. Ground sections were subjected to histological analysis and histomorphometry. The section counter part was used for preparing an electron transparent transmission electron microscopy sample by focused ion beam milling. Calcium aluminate dip coating provided a significantly greater degree of bone contact than that of the native CoCr. The gibbsite hydrate formed in the hardening reaction of the calcium aluminate was found to be the exclusive crystalline phase material in direct contact with bone. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Damage to the photoreceptor cells of the rabbit retina from 56Fe ions: effect of age at exposure, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G. R.; Lett, J. T.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Optic and proximate tissues of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits at ages (approximately 3.5 years) near the middle of their median lifespan (5-7 years) were given 0.5-3.5 Gy of 465 MeV u-1 56Fe ions in the Bragg plateau region of energy deposition at a linear energy transfer (LET infinity) of 220 +/- 31 keV micrometer-1. Dose-dependent losses of retinal photoreceptor cells (rods) occurred until 1-2 years after irradiation, the period of this interim report. Similar cumulative losses of photoreceptor cells were seen during the period 1-2 years post-irradiation for rabbits given comparable exposures when young (6-9 weeks old). Since losses of photoreceptor cells at early times had not been determined previously, the current experiment, which was designed to simulate the responses of mature astronauts, redressed that deficiency.

  16. Semen Quality and Sperm Function Loss by Hypercholesterolemic Diet Was Recovered by Addition of Olive Oil to Diet in Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Aida A.; Funes, Abi K.; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, María E.; Monclus, María A.; Simón, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2013-01-01

    Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality. PMID:23326331

  17. Evaluation of clinical and paraclinical effects of intraosseous vs intravenous administration of propofol on general anesthesia in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri-Khameneh, Ramin; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to compare the intraosseous (IO) and intravenous (IV) effects of propofol on selected blood parameters and physiological variables during general anesthesia in rabbits. Thirty New Zealand White rabbits were studied. Six rabbits received IV propofol (group 1) and another 6 rabbits, were injected propofol intraosseously (Group 2) for 30 minutes (experimental groups). Rabbits of the third and fourth groups received IV and IO normal saline at the same volume given to the experimental groups, respectively. In the fifth group IO cannulation was performed but neither propofol nor normal saline were administered. Blood profiles were assayed before induction and after recovery of anesthesia. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, saturation of peripheral oxygen and mean arterial blood pressure were recorded. Heart rate increased significantly 1 to 5 minutes after induction of anesthesia in experimental groups (P < 0.05). Although mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly from baseline, values remained above 60 mm Hg (P < 0.05). Respiratory rate decreased significantly in experimental groups, but remained higher in group 2 (P < 0.05). The lymphocyte count decreased significantly in group 1 (P < 0.05). The concentration of alkaline phosphatase in all rabbits, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the first group and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the third group increased significantly (P < 0.05). Total bilirubin decreased significantly in group 2 (P < 0.05). All measured values remained within normal limits. Based on the least significant physiological, hematological and biochemical effects, the IO injection of propofol appears to be safe and suitable method of anesthesia in rabbits with limited vascular access. PMID:25653755

  18. Evaluation of clinical and paraclinical effects of intraosseous vs intravenous administration of propofol on general anesthesia in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri-Khameneh, Ramin; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to compare the intraosseous (IO) and intravenous (IV) effects of propofol on selected blood parameters and physiological variables during general anesthesia in rabbits. Thirty New Zealand White rabbits were studied. Six rabbits received IV propofol (group 1) and another 6 rabbits, were injected propofol intraosseously (Group 2) for 30 minutes (experimental groups). Rabbits of the third and fourth groups received IV and IO normal saline at the same volume given to the experimental groups, respectively. In the fifth group IO cannulation was performed but neither propofol nor normal saline were administered. Blood profiles were assayed before induction and after recovery of anesthesia. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, saturation of peripheral oxygen and mean arterial blood pressure were recorded. Heart rate increased significantly 1 to 5 minutes after induction of anesthesia in experimental groups (P < 0.05). Although mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly from baseline, values remained above 60 mm Hg (P < 0.05). Respiratory rate decreased significantly in experimental groups, but remained higher in group 2 (P < 0.05). The lymphocyte count decreased significantly in group 1 (P < 0.05). The concentration of alkaline phosphatase in all rabbits, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the first group and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the third group increased significantly (P < 0.05). Total bilirubin decreased significantly in group 2 (P < 0.05). All measured values remained within normal limits. Based on the least significant physiological, hematological and biochemical effects, the IO injection of propofol appears to be safe and suitable method of anesthesia in rabbits with limited vascular access.

  19. Diphenyl diselenide decreases serum levels of total cholesterol and tissue oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    de Bem, Andreza Fabro; Portella, Rafael de Lima; Colpo, Elisângela; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Frediane, Andressa; Taube, Paulo Sergio; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Farina, Marcelo; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista

    2009-07-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia and oxidative stress are well-known risk factors in coronary artery diseases. Diphenyl diselenide is a synthetic organoselenium compound that has been shown to have in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated whether diphenyl diselenide could reduce the hypercholesterolaemia and diminish the tissue oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Twenty-four New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Each group was fed a different diet as follows: Control group--regular chow; Cholesterol group--1% cholesterol-enriched diet; diphenyl diselenide group--regular diet supplemented with 10 ppm diphenyl diselenide; and Chol/diphenyl diselenide group--the same cholesterol-rich supplemented with 10 ppm diphenyl diselenide. After 45 days of treatment, the rabbits were killed and the blood, liver, and brain were used for laboratory analysis. The results showed that the serum levels of total cholesterol were markedly increased in cholesterol-fed rabbits and the consumption of diphenyl diselenide decreased these levels approximately twofold in Chol/diphenyl diselenide rabbits (P < 0.05). The intake of diphenyl diselenide by hypercholesterolaemic rabbits diminished the serum and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as well as the production of reactive oxygen species in the blood and brain (P < 0.05) when compared to the cholesterol group. In addition, diphenyl diselenide supplementation increased hepatic and cerebral delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase activity and hepatic non-protein thiol groups levels despite hypercholesterolaemia (P < 0.05). In summary, the results showed that diphenyl diselenide reduced the hypercholesterolaemia and the oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

  20. Evaluation of the rabbit liver by direct portography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography: anatomical variations of the portal system and hepatic volume quantification.

    PubMed

    Páramo, María; García-Barquin, Paula; Santa María, Eva; Madrid, José Miguel; Caballeros, Meylin; Benito, Alberto; Sangro, Bruno; Iñarrairaegui, Mercedes; Bilbao, José Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed at: (1) describing the incidence of anatomic variations of the portal system in the rabbit using direct portography; and (2) estimating the liver volume and caudate lobe volume by using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in the same animal model. Forty-six New Zealand white rabbits were included. All of them underwent direct portography and unenhanced CECT. Conventional liver rabbit portal system anatomy (type 1) consisted of the bifurcation of the main portal vein (MPV) into the right portal vein (RPV) and left portal vein (LPV), which subsequently divided into medial left portal vein and lateral left portal vein. Trifurcation of the LPV was considered type 2. The LPV that divides into four smaller branches was classified as type 3. Other configurations of the portal system, including particular cases of MPV branching, were grouped as type 4. Liver lobes were manually segmented. The incidence of each type of portal system anatomy was: type 1, 67.4%; type 2, 15.2%; type 3, 13.0%); and type 4, 4.3%. The mean volume of the caudate lobe was 19.1 ml ± 5.7 ml and of the cranial lobes it was 66.7 ml ± 13.7 ml, and the total liver volume was 85.7 ml ± 16.7 ml. In New Zealand white rabbits, type 1 is the prevalent type of portal system, liver volume is about 86 ml, and the caudate and cranial lobes are separated. This information could be important when planning experimental rabbit liver procedures.

  1. Organic Selenium, Probiotics, and Prebiotics Effects on Growth, Blood Biochemistry, and Carcass Traits of Growing Rabbits During Summer and Winter Seasons.

    PubMed

    Ayyat, Mohamed S; Al-Sagheer, Adham A; Abd El-Latif, Khaled M; Khalil, Bakry A

    2018-03-07

    The effect of organic selenium, prebiotics, or probiotics on productive performances, blood biochemistry, and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits was studied throughout summer and winter seasons. In an 8-week feeding trial, a total of 100 New Zealand White rabbits were randomly distributed to 10 groups. Two seasons (winter and summer) and five diets fortified with 0 (control), 0.03 mg selenium, 3 g Bio-Mos®, 1 g Bactocell® (1 × 10 10  CFU) or 3 g yeast/kg diet were used in 2 × 5 factorial design. Results indicated that growth performance, feed intake (FI), and blood components (red blood cells [RBCs], serum total protein [TP], globulin [GLOB], albumin [ALB]) decreased significantly in rabbits reared during summer than in those during winter. In contrast, white blood cells, urea-N, creatinine, alanine transaminase [ALT], and aspartate transaminase [AST] increased significantly in summer. However, growth performance indices, FI, blood hemoglobin, RBCs, TP, ALB, and GLOB increased significantly in rabbits when fed the tested feed additives. The respiration rate, rectal temperature, and heart rate of the animals were significantly decreased with all feed additives. Adjusted weight of carcass, liver, kidney fat, and carcass cuts were not affected by feed additives. Final margin and margin efficiency increased in rabbit fed diets supplemented with feed additives than those fed the basal diet without any supplementation. Results of the current study concluded that a supplementation of rabbit diets with organic selenium, probiotics, and prebiotics can promote rabbit performance during mild weather and also alleviate the adverse impact of heat stress during summer season.

  2. Sinus Microanatomy and Microbiota in a Rabbit Model of Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Mackey, Calvin; Van Der Pol, William J.; Skinner, Daniel; Morrow, Casey D.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Rowe, Steven M.; Swords, William E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Rabbits are useful for preclinical studies of sinusitis because of similar physiologic features to humans. The objective of this study is to develop a rabbit model of sinusitis that permits assessment of microanatomy and sampling for evaluating shifts in the sinus microbiota during the development of sinusitis and to test how the mucociliary clearance (MCC) defect might lead to dysbiosis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Methods: Generation of CRS was accomplished with an insertion of a sterile sponge into the left middle meatus of New Zealand white rabbits (n = 9) for 2 weeks. After sponge removal, 4 rabbits were observed for another 10 weeks and evaluated for CRS using endoscopy, microCT, visualization of the functional micro-anatomy by micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), and histopathological analysis of the sinus mucosa. Samples were taken from the left middle meatus and submitted for microbiome analysis. Results: CT demonstrated opacification of all left sinuses at 2 weeks in all rabbits (n = 9), which persisted in animals followed for another 12 weeks (n = 4). Histology at week 2 showed mostly neutrophils. On week 14, significant infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes was noted with increased submucosal glands compared to controls (p = 0.02). Functional microanatomy at 2 weeks showed diminished periciliary layer (PCL) depth (p < 0.0001) and mucus transport (p = 0.0044) compared to controls despite a thick mucus layer. By 12 weeks, the thickened mucus layer was resolved but PCL depletion persisted in addition to decreased ciliary beat frequency (CBF; p < 0.0001). The mucin fermenting microbes (Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales) dominated on week 2 and there was a significant shift to potential pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Burkholderia) by week 14 compared to both controls and the acute phase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We anticipate this reproducible model will provide a means for identifying underlying mechanisms of airway-surface liquid

  3. Carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T

    2013-03-01

    Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and

  4. Healthy rabbits are susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus infection and infected cells proliferate in immunosuppressed animals.

    PubMed

    Khan, Gulfaraz; Ahmed, Waqar; Philip, Pretty S; Ali, Mahmoud H; Adem, Abdu

    2015-02-18

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus implicated in the pathogenesis of several human malignancies. However, due to the lack of a suitable animal model, a number of fundamental questions pertaining to the biology of EBV remain poorly understood. Here, we explore the potential of rabbits as a model for EBV infection and investigate the impact of immunosuppression on viral proliferation and gene expression. Six healthy New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated intravenously with EBV and blood samples collected prior to infection and for 7 weeks post-infection. Three weeks after the last blood collection, animals were immunosuppressed with daily intramuscular injections of cyclosporin A at doses of 20 mg/kg for 15 days and blood collected twice a week from each rabbit. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and tissues from all major organs were collected for subsequent analysis. Following intravenous inoculation, all 6 rabbits seroconverted with raised IgG and IgM titres to EBV, but viral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could only be detected intermittently. Following immunosuppression however, EBV DNA could be readily detected in PBMCs from all 4 rabbits that survived the treatment. Quantitative PCR indicated an increase in EBV viral load in PBMCs as the duration of immunosuppression increased. At autopsy, splenomegaly was seen in 3/4 rabbits, but spleens from all 4 rabbit were EBV PCR positive. EBER-in situ hybridization and immunoshistochemistry revealed the presence of a large number of EBER-positive and LMP-1 positive lymphoblasts in the spleens of 3/4 rabbits. To a lesser extent, EBER-positive cells were also seen in the portal tract regions of the liver of these rabbits. Western blotting indicated that EBNA-1 and EBNA-2 were also expressed in the liver and spleen of infected animals. EBV can infect healthy rabbits and the infected cells proliferate when the animals are immunocompromised. The infected cells expressed several EBV

  5. Rabbit analgesia.

    PubMed

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Repair of rabbit cartilage defect based on the fusion of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells and Nano-HA/PLLA composite material.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weimin; Guo, Daiqi; Peng, Liangquan; Chen, Yun Fang; Cui, Jiaming; Xiong, Jianyi; Lu, Wei; Duan, Li; Chen, Kang; Zeng, Yanjun; Wang, Daping

    2017-02-01

    Objective To assess the effect of the fusion of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) and Nano-hydroxyapatite/poly (l-lactic acid) (Nano-HA/PLLA) in repairing the rabbit knee joint with full-thickness cartilage defect. Method The rBMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the third generation of rBMSCs was co-cultured with the Nano-HA/PLLA to construct the tissue-engineered cartilage (TEC). Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were selected and randomly divided into three groups, namely, TEC group, Nano-HA/PLLA group, and control group. A cartilage defect model with the diameter of 4.5 mm and depth of 5 mm was constructed on the articular surface of medial malleolus of rabbit femur. General observation, histological observation, and Wakitani's histological scoring were conducted in the 12th and 24th week postoperatively. Results The results of TEC group indicated that new cartilage tissue was formed on the defect site and subchondral bone achieved physiological integration basically. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses indicated the generation of massive extracellular matrix. In contrast, limited regeneration and reconstruction of cartilage was achieved in the Nano-HA/PLLA group and control group, with a significant difference from the TEC group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the effect of cartilage repair was positively correlated with time. Conclusion The porous Nano-HA/PLLA combined with BMSCs promoted the repair of weight-bearing bone of adult rabbit's knee joint with cartilage defect.

  7. [Effects of intra-arterial infusion of 3-bromopyruvate on metastases and survival benefit of hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiong-ying; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Huang, Jin-hua; Luo, Rong-guang; Miao, Bi-jian; Wang, Yan

    2013-10-22

    To evaluate the metastasis and survival of an intra-arterial infusion of 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits. VX2 tumor was implanted in left lateral lobe of liver of 18 white New Zealand rabbits. The animals were randomized into 3 groups (n = 6 each) and underwent an intra-arterial infusion of phosphate-buffered saline or 3-BrPA via hepatic artery at 14 days post-implantation. At 28 days post-implantation, 3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed. The abdomen of these rabbits was opened and inspected for metastases. Then the survival of the remaining rabbits was observed. At 28 days post-implantation, in PBS group, there were intrahepatic metastasis and abdominal cavity dissemination (n = 3), renal metastases (n = 2) and lung metastases (n = 2); in early 3-BrPA infusion group, intrahepatic metastasis (n = 2), abdominal cavity dissemination (n = 1) and lung metastases (n = 1); in late 3-BrPA infusion group, intrahepatic metastasis (n = 1) and lung metastases (n = 1). The survival of the remaining animals was observed. Rabbits in early 3-BrPA infusion group survived significantly longer than those in PBS group [(27 ± 5) vs (17 ± 3) days, P = 0.041]; rabbits in late 3-BrPA infusion group [(42 ± 6) days] survived significantly longer than those in early 3-BrPA infusion group (P = 0.007). An intra-arterial infusion of 3-BrPA could reduce metastasis and prolong survival in rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumor. The earlier the infusion, the better the outcome.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of rabbit nasal airflows for the development of hybrid CFD/PBPK models.

    PubMed

    Corley, R A; Minard, K R; Kabilan, S; Einstein, D R; Kuprat, A P; Harkema, J R; Kimbell, J S; Gargas, M L; Kinzell, John H

    2009-05-01

    The percentages of total airflows over the nasal respiratory and olfactory epithelium of female rabbits were calculated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of steady-state inhalation. These airflow calculations, along with nasal airway geometry determinations, are critical parameters for hybrid CFD/physiologically based pharmacokinetic models that describe the nasal dosimetry of water-soluble or reactive gases and vapors in rabbits. CFD simulations were based upon three-dimensional computational meshes derived from magnetic resonance images of three adult female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. In the anterior portion of the nose, the maxillary turbinates of rabbits are considerably more complex than comparable regions in rats, mice, monkeys, or humans. This leads to a greater surface area to volume ratio in this region and thus the potential for increased extraction of water soluble or reactive gases and vapors in the anterior portion of the nose compared to many other species. Although there was considerable interanimal variability in the fine structures of the nasal turbinates and airflows in the anterior portions of the nose, there was remarkable consistency between rabbits in the percentage of total inspired airflows that reached the ethmoid turbinate region (approximately 50%) that is presumably lined with olfactory epithelium. These latter results (airflows reaching the ethmoid turbinate region) were higher than previous published estimates for the male F344 rat (19%) and human (7%). These differences in regional airflows can have significant implications in interspecies extrapolations of nasal dosimetry.

  9. Does platelet-rich plasma have a favorable effect in the early stages of steroid-associated femoral head osteonecrosis in a rabbit model?

    PubMed

    Karakaplan, Mustafa; Gülabi, Deniz; Topgül, Haldun; Elmalı, Nurzat

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on femoral head osteonecrosis and compare it with bone marrow injection and core decompression. A total of 30 healthy, adult, male New Zealand white rabbits (mean weight 2.25±0.15 kg; range 2.0 to 2.5 kg) were used in the study. To create experimental osteonecrosis in all rabbits, 40 mg/kg methylprednisolone acetate was applied intramuscularly. Rabbits were randomly allocated into three groups with 10 rabbits in each: drilling group, PRP group, and bone marrow group. The non-drilled hips of the drilling group were identified as the control group. Rate of necrotic bone was lower in the PRP group compared to other groups. Highest rate of necrotic bone was detected in the control group. New bone formation rate was higher in the PRP group compared to other groups. Lowest new bone formation rate was determined in the control group. Inflammatory reaction rate was higher in the PRP group compared to other groups. Platelet-rich plasma injection may play a positive role in the treatment of steroid-associated osteonecrosis in a rabbit model.

  10. Quercetin supplemented diet improves follicular development, oocyte quality, and reduces ovarian apoptosis in rabbits during summer heat stress.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Epikmen, Erkmen Tuğrul; Uçan, Uğur; Boyacioğlu, Murat; İpek, Emrah; Akosy, Melih

    2017-07-01

    The present study was designed to test the modulatory effect of dietary quercetin on follicle population, apoptosis, in vitro maturation rate and quality of oocytes in heat stressed female rabbits. A total of thirty-four New Zealand White heat stress (HS) exposed female rabbits were either fed with quercetin supplemented diet (QU-HS) or non-supplemented (HS) diet. Firstly, laparotomy was performed for oocyte retrieval and then, oocyte grading and COCs dimensional assessments were conducted. The A and B-grade oocytes were submitted for in vitro maturation. Thereafter, the ovaries were collected from rabbits and were processed for follicular population estimation and granulosa cells apoptosis. The results showed that follicle number, retrieved oocytes and A-grade oocytes were higher in QU-HS, comparatively. A significant difference was observed in A-grade oocytes dimensions between QU-HS and HS treatment groups. The oocyte maturation rate was same across the groups. The quercetin supplementation significantly improved primordial and antral stage follicles. A greater number of apoptotic cells were observed in primary and antral follicles in the HS group. In conclusion, the quercetin provision improves the follicular development, minimize granulosa cells apoptosis, and maintain the oocyte competence in HS rabbits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Willy W.; Uddin, Muhammad J.; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R.; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A.; Bowen, Richard A.; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-01-01

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections. PMID:26184326

  12. Effects of boldenone undecylenate on growth performance, maintenance behaviour, reproductive hormones and carcass traits of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H H; Badawi, M E; El-Tarabany, M S; Rania, M

    2016-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the effect of boldenone undecylenate (BOL) on growth performance, maintenance behaviour, reproductive hormones and carcass traits of male rabbits. Sixty apparently healthy New Zealand White male rabbits, 5 weeks of age, were allotted to 3 equal groups. Each group was subdivided into 5 replicates, where the first group is control. The second group (B1) comprised rabbits that received 2 intramuscular injections of BOL (5 mg/kg) with 3 week intervals (9 and 12 weeks of age), while the third group (B2) included rabbits that received 3 intramuscular injections of BOL (5 mg/kg) with 2 week intervals (8, 10 and 12 weeks of age). The end of the trial was after 4 weeks from the last injection (16 weeks of age). The results revealed that the treated groups had a significant increase in total body weight, daily gain and feed efficiency, with a significant decrease in feed conversion ratio (FCR). Ingestive, locomotion and grooming behaviors were significantly higher in treated groups. Lateral pasture and exploratory behaviors were significantly higher in the control group. Administration of BOL resulted in a significant increase in dressing % and a significant decrease in testes %. Groups treated with BOL had a significantly (P<0.05) decreased serum testosterone level, simultaneously with a significantly increased estradiol level. The results indicate that BOL improves performance and carcass traits. Furthermore, there are hormonal-behavioral correlations through enhancement of ingestive and locomotion behaviors of treated animals.

  13. Activation by Phoneutria nigriventer (armed spider) venom of tissue kallikrein-kininogen-kinin system in rabbit skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, R A; Antunes, E; Brain, S D; de Nucci, G

    1993-06-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms by which venom from Phoneutria nigriventer spider induces increases in vascular permeability in rabbit skin. 2. Local oedema formation, in response to intradermally-injected agents, was measured in male New Zealand white rabbits as the local accumulation of i.v. injected 125I-labelled human serum albumin into skin sites. 3. Phoneutria nigriventer venom (10-30 micrograms/site) increased vascular permeability, which was inhibited by trasylol (10 micrograms/site) and the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists D-Arg,[Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]-BK (3 nmol/site) and Hoe 140 (0.3 nmol/site). In addition, the oedema induced by the venom was potentiated by the kinase II inhibitor, captopril (1 nmol/site). The lipoxygenase inhibitor, BWA4C (10 nmol/site) and the PAF antagonist, WEB 2086 (100 nmol/site) had no effect on the venom-induced increase in vascular permeability. 4. Incubation of rabbit plasma with Phoneutria nigriventer venom in vitro did not cause bradykinin formation. Further, the plasma kallikrein inhibitor, soybean trypsin inhibitor (10 micrograms/site), had no effect on the venom-induced increase in vascular permeability in rabbit skin. 5. These results indicate that the oedema produced by Phoneutria nigriventer venom is dependent on the activation of the tissue kallikrein-kinin system.

  14. Activation by Phoneutria nigriventer (armed spider) venom of tissue kallikrein-kininogen-kinin system in rabbit skin in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, R. A.; Antunes, E.; Brain, S. D.; de Nucci, G.

    1993-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms by which venom from Phoneutria nigriventer spider induces increases in vascular permeability in rabbit skin. 2. Local oedema formation, in response to intradermally-injected agents, was measured in male New Zealand white rabbits as the local accumulation of i.v. injected 125I-labelled human serum albumin into skin sites. 3. Phoneutria nigriventer venom (10-30 micrograms/site) increased vascular permeability, which was inhibited by trasylol (10 micrograms/site) and the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists D-Arg,[Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]-BK (3 nmol/site) and Hoe 140 (0.3 nmol/site). In addition, the oedema induced by the venom was potentiated by the kinase II inhibitor, captopril (1 nmol/site). The lipoxygenase inhibitor, BWA4C (10 nmol/site) and the PAF antagonist, WEB 2086 (100 nmol/site) had no effect on the venom-induced increase in vascular permeability. 4. Incubation of rabbit plasma with Phoneutria nigriventer venom in vitro did not cause bradykinin formation. Further, the plasma kallikrein inhibitor, soybean trypsin inhibitor (10 micrograms/site), had no effect on the venom-induced increase in vascular permeability in rabbit skin. 5. These results indicate that the oedema produced by Phoneutria nigriventer venom is dependent on the activation of the tissue kallikrein-kinin system. PMID:8395291

  15. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition enhances endothelial repair and improves endothelial function in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben J; Shrestha, Sudichhya; Ong, Kwok L; Johns, Douglas; Hou, Liming; Barter, Philip J; Rye, Kerry-Anne

    2015-03-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) can potentially protect against atherosclerosis by multiple mechanisms, including enhancement of endothelial repair and improvement of endothelial function. This study asks if increasing HDL levels by inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity with the anacetrapib analog, des-fluoro-anacetrapib, enhances endothelial repair and improves endothelial function in New Zealand White rabbits with balloon injury of the abdominal aorta. New Zealand White rabbits received chow or chow supplemented with 0.07% or 0.14% (wt/wt) des-fluoro-anacetrapib for 8 weeks. Endothelial denudation of the abdominal aorta was carried out after 2 weeks. The animals were euthanized 6 weeks postinjury. Treatment with 0.07% and 0.14% des-fluoro-anacetrapib reduced cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity by 81±4.9% and 92±12%, increased plasma apolipoprotein A-I levels by 1.4±0.1-fold and 1.5±0.1-fold, increased plasma HDL-cholesterol levels by 1.8±0.2-fold and 1.9±0.1-fold, reduced intimal hyperplasia by 37±11% and 51±10%, and inhibited vascular cell proliferation by 25±6.1% and 35±6.7%, respectively. Re-endothelialization of the injured aorta increased from 43±6.7% (control) to 69±6.6% and 76±7.7% in the 0.07% and 0.14% des-fluoro-anacetrapib-treated animals, respectively. Aortic ring relaxation and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production in response to acetylcholine were also improved. Incubation of HDLs from the des-fluoro-anacetrapib-treated animals with human coronary artery endothelial cells increased cell proliferation and migration relative to control. These effects were abolished by knockdown of scavenger receptor-B1 and PDZ domain-containing protein 1 and by pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt. Increasing HDL levels by inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein reduces intimal thickening and regenerates functional endothelium in damaged New Zealand White rabbit aortas

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from rabbits exhibit some characteristics of naïve pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Osteil, Pierre; Tapponnier, Yann; Markossian, Suzy; Godet, Murielle; Schmaltz-Panneau, Barbara; Jouneau, Luc; Cabau, Cédric; Joly, Thierry; Blachère, Thierry; Gócza, Elen; Bernat, Agnieszka; Yerle, Martine; Acloque, Hervé; Hidot, Sullivan; Bosze, Zsuzsanna; Duranthon, Véronique; Savatier, Pierre; Afanassieff, Marielle

    2013-01-01

    Summary Not much is known about the molecular and functional features of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in rabbits. To address this, we derived and characterized 2 types of rabbit PSCs from the same breed of New Zealand White rabbits: 4 lines of embryonic stem cells (rbESCs), and 3 lines of induced PSCs (rbiPSCs) that were obtained by reprogramming adult skin fibroblasts. All cell lines required fibroblast growth factor 2 for their growth and proliferation. All rbESC lines showed molecular and functional properties typically associated with primed pluripotency. The cell cycle of rbESCs had a prolonged G1 phase and a DNA damage checkpoint before entry into the S phase, which are the 2 features typically associated with the somatic cell cycle. In contrast, the rbiPSC lines exhibited some characteristics of naïve pluripotency, including resistance to single-cell dissociation by trypsin, robust activity of the distal enhancer of the mouse Oct4 gene, and expression of naïve pluripotency-specific genes, as defined in rodents. According to gene expression profiles, rbiPSCs were closer to the rabbit inner cell mass (ICM) than rbESCs. Furthermore, rbiPSCs were capable of colonizing the ICM after aggregation with morulas. Therefore, we propose that rbiPSCs self-renew in an intermediate state between naïve and primed pluripotency, which represents a key step toward the generation of bona fide naïve PSC lines in rabbits. PMID:23789112

  17. Rabbit aortic aneurysm model with enlarging diameter capable of better mimicking human aortic aneurysm disease.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yonghua; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Yahua; Yu, Zepeng; Han, Xinwei; Ren, Jianzhuang

    2018-01-01

    The self-healing phenomenon can be found in the elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) model, and an enlarging AAA model was successfully induced by coarctation. Unfortunately, aortic coarctation in these enlarging models is generally not found in human AAA disease. This study aimed to create an experiment model of enlarging AAA in rabbits to better mimic human aortic aneurysm disease. Eighty-four male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups: two aneurysm groups (A and B) and a SHAM group. Aneurysm group rabbits underwent extrinsic aortic stenosis below the right renal artery and received a 10-minute incubation of 60 μl elastase (1 unit/μl). Absorbable suture was used in Group A and nonabsorbable cotton thread was used in Group B. A sham operation was performed in the SHAM group. Aortic diameter was measured after 1, 3, 7, and 15 weeks; thereafter animals were sacrificed for histopathological, immunohistochemical and quantitative studies. Two rabbits died at 29 and 48 days, respectively, after operation in Group B. All aneurysms formed and enlarged progressively by 3 weeks in the Aneurysm groups. However, diameter enlargement in Group A was significantly lower than that in Group B at 7 weeks. Aneurysm groups developed intimal hyperplasia; intima-media thickness (IMT) increased significantly by week 7, and aortic media thickness and intima-media ratio (IMR) increased significantly by week 15. Marked destruction of elastin fibers and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) occurred 1 week later and increased progressively thereafter. Intimal hyperplasia and SMCs content in Group A increased significantly by week 15 compared with Group B. Aneurysm groups exhibited strong expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and RAM11 by week 1, and decreased progressively thereafter. In conclusion, this novel rabbit AAA model enlarges progressively without coarctation and is capable of better mimicking human aortic aneurysm disease.

  18. Noninvasive assessment of myocardial mechanics of the left ventricle in rabbits using velocity vector imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Pu, Da-Rong; Tian, Lei-Qi; Tong, Hai; Liu, Hong-Yu; Tang, Yan; Zhou, Qi-Chang

    2015-05-28

    Our study aimed to investigate the feasibility of velocity vector imaging (VVI) to analyze left ventricular (LV) myocardial mechanics in rabbits at basal state. The animals used in this study were 30 New Zealand white rabbits. All rabbits underwent routine echocardiography under VVI-mode at basal state. The 2-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography images acquired included parasternal left long-axis views and short-axis views at the level of LV mitral valve, papillary muscles, and apex. Images were analyzed by VVI software. At basal state, longitudinal LV velocity decreased from the basal to the apical segment (P<0.05). In the short axis direction, the highest peak myocardial velocity was found between the anterior septum and anterior wall for each segment at the same level; the peak strains and strain rates (SR) were the highest in the anterior and lateral wall compared to other segments (all P<0.05). During systole, LV base rotated in a clockwise direction and LV apex rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, while during diastole, both LV base and apex rotated in the direction opposite to systole. The rotation angle, rotation velocity and unwinding velocity in the apical segment were greater than the basal segment (P<0.05). VVI is a reliable tool for evaluating LV myocardial mechanics in rabbits at basal state, and the LV long-axis short-axis and torsional motions reflect the normal regular patterns. Our study lays the foundation for future experimental approaches in rabbit models and for other applications related to the study of human myocardial mechanics.

  19. Biocompatibility of intravitreal injection of human mesenchymal stem cells in immunocompetent rabbits.

    PubMed

    Labrador Velandia, Sonia; Di Lauro, Salvatore; Alonso-Alonso, Maria Luz; Tabera Bartolomé, Soraya; Srivastava, Girish Kumar; Pastor, José Carlos; Fernandez-Bueno, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and biocompatibility of intravitreal injection of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in immunocompetent pigmented rabbits. Thirty-two pigmented rabbits (24 females, 8 males; Chinchilla-New Zealand White) were divided into 8 groups of 4 animals. Commercially prepared human MSCs were injected (0.05 ml) into the post-lens vitreous of the right eyes. Groups 1 and 4 received isotonic medium (Ringer lactate-based), groups 2, 5, 7, and 8 received a low dose of 15 × 10 6 cells/ml. Groups 3 and 6 received a high dose of 30 × 10 6 cells/ml. Clinical signs were evaluated and scored before MSCs injection and weekly for 2 or 6 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 2 or 6 weeks after injection. Eyes, liver, spleen, and gonads were assessed by histology and by fluorescent in situ hybridization to evaluate survival and extraocular migration of MSCs. There were no relevant clinical findings between control and MSC-injected rabbit eyes at any time point. There were also no relevant histological findings between control and MSC-injected rabbits related to ocular, liver, spleen, or gonad tissues modifications. MSCs survived intravitreally for at least 2 weeks after injection. Extraocular migration of MSCs was not detected. MSCs are safe and well-tolerated when administered intravitreally at a dose of 15 × 10 6 cells/ml in pigmented rabbits. These findings enable future research to explore the intravitreal use of commercially prepared allogenic human MSCs in clinical trials of retinal diseases.

  20. Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum decreases atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic experimental rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Piper sarmentosum (P.s) has flavonoid component in its leaves which has antioxidative effect. To date, its effect on atherosclerosis has not been studied histologically. Aim The study aimed to investigate the effect of P.s on atherosclerotic changes in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods Forty two male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into seven groups. C - control group fed normal rabbit chow, CH - cholesterol diet (1% cholesterol), W1 - 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg), W2 - 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (125 mg/kg), W3 - 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (250 mg/kg), W4 - 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (500 mg/kg) and Smv - 1% cholesterol supplemented with simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All rabbits were treated for 10 weeks. Following 10 weeks of supplementation, the animals were sacrificed and the aortic tissue was taken for histological study. Results Rabbits fed only with high cholesterol diet 1% cholesterol (CH) showed focal fatty streak lesions compared to the C group and 1% cholesterol supplemented with simvistatin drug (Smv) group. Atherosclerotic lesions in the 1% cholesterol group supplemented with P.s (500 mg/kg) i.e. W4 group showed significant reduction (30 ± 6.0%, p < 0.05) in fatty streak compared to the high cholesterol group (85.6 ± 4.1%) under Sudan IV stain. The atherosclerotic lesions under transmission electron microscope showed reduction in foam cells in the treatment groups compared to the CH groups. Conclusion Administration of P.s extract has protective effect against atheroscleros PMID:20433693

  1. A rabbit model of implant-related osteomyelitis inoculated with biofilm after open femoral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Yun-Fei; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Nan; Qin, Cheng-He; Hu, Yan-Jun; Yu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Currently, animal models used in research on implant-associated osteomyelitis primarily use intramedullary fixation and initial inoculum of planktonic bacterial cells. However, these techniques have certain limitations, including lack of rotational stability and instable inoculation. To improve these models, the present study aimed to establish a novel rabbit model of implant-associated osteomyelitis using biofilm as the initial inoculum following plate fixation of the femoral fracture. A total of 24 New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into two equal groups. Osteotomy was performed at the right femoral shaft using a wire saw following fixation with a 5-hole stainless steel plate. The plates were not colonized with bacteria in group 1, but colonized with a biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus (American Type Culture Collection, 25923) in group 2. All the rabbits were sacrificed after 21 days for clinical, X-ray, micro-computed tomography and histological assessments of the severity of osteomyelitis. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used for biofilm assessment. In group 2, pus formation, periosteal reaction, cortical destruction and absorption were observed in all the rabbits and biofilm formation was observed on all the plates. However, no pus formation was observed except for a slight inflammatory response and all the plates appeared clean without infection in group 1. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant regarding histologic scores and semi-quantification of the bacteria on the plates (P<0.001). In the present study, a novel rabbit model of infection following internal plate fixation of open fracture was successfully established, providing a novel tool for the study of implant-associated osteomyelitis. PMID:29201204

  2. The comparative safety of genipin versus UVA-riboflavin crosslinking of rabbit corneas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjing; Tang, Yun; Qiao, Jing; Li, Haili; Rong, Bei; Yang, Songlin; Wu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate, after 24 h, the safety of genipin or ultraviolet A (UVA)-riboflavin crosslinking of keratocytes and endothelial cells. Methods Fifteen New Zealand white rabbits were selected and divided into a PBS group (five rabbits), a 0.2% genipin crosslinking (GP-CXL) group (five rabbits), and a UVA-riboflavin crosslinking (UVA-CXL) group (five rabbits). In the GP-CXL and PBS groups, 0.2% genipin or PBS was applied to the corneal surface of the right eyes. In the UVA-CXL group, a clinical crosslinking procedure was used. Before and after surgery, the operated eyes of each group were characterized with confocal microscopy, and the corneal buttons were excised for endothelium staining and electron microscopy. Results The corneal endothelial cell density of the GP-CXL, UVA-CLX, and PBS groups changed. There was a statistically significant difference in thickness and changes in corneal endothelial cell density between the UVA-CXL group and the PBS group (p<0.05), and between the UVA-CXL group and the GP-CXL group (p<0.05), but no statistically significant difference between the GP-CXL group and the PBS group. Confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that there was keratocyte apoptosis in the anterior and middle stroma and endothelial cell damage in the UVA-CXL group. In the GP-CXL group, only active keratocytes were found and minimal endothelial cell damage. Conclusions Treatment of rabbit corneas with 0.2% genipin showed minimal toxicity toward keratocytes and endothelial cells. Genipin is safer than UVA-CXL for crosslinking of thin corneas. PMID:28761323

  3. Effect of adrenaline on the response of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in rabbits in vivo.

    PubMed

    Odje, O E; Ramsey, J M

    1996-06-01

    1. A 6 hr time-course response of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate was studied in rabbits following adrenaline administration. 2. Eight female New Zealand white rabbits weighing about 3.6 Kg each were injected intra-peritoneally with a total of 0.97 mg/kg of adrenaline (0.56 mg/kg at time 0 min and 0.41 mg/kg at time 0.5 hr), and the venous level of red blood cell (RBC) 2,3-DPG was monitored at 0 hr, 1 hr, 3 hr, and 6 hr, respectively. As controls, the level of 2,3-DPG was also monitored in these rabbits weeks prior to the experiment. 3. A significant (p < 0.05) rise in the mean level of 2.3-DPG (mumol.ml-1 RBC) was reached 3 hr after the initial injection of adrenaline, and the level returned to the preexposure level by the end of 6 hr. 4. It is speculated that adrenaline may be one of the contributors that increases the level of 2,3-DPG during the resting period following exhaustive exercise because this catecholamine has been reported to increase following this type of hypoxia.

  4. Effects of silibinin hemisuccinate on the intraocular pressure in normotensive rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haider M; Abdulrazzaq, Munaf H; Hussain, Saad A

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of silibinin hemisuccinate on the normal intraocular pressure (IOP) in rabbits. This study took place in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad during the period from January to June 2005. Twenty-five New Zealand white rabbits weighing 1.5-2.5 kg were used in this study. The effects of corneal instillation of various concentrations of silibinin hemisuccinate (0.5%, 0.75% and 1%) dissolved in arachis oil, on the normal intraocular pressure in rabbits were evaluated using indentation tonometry; in addition to the possible modulation of normal IOP-recovery time after intravenous infusion of 20% sodium chloride solution. The results showed that within 30 minutes of application, silibinin in various concentrations significantly reduces IOP in comparison to baseline values (p<0.05), with greater reduction being achieved with 0.75%. The effect of IOP reduction lasts 2-3 hours and proportionate to the concentration used. Moreover, remarkable delay in IOP recovery was observed after instillation of silibinin compared with the vehicle treated (arachis oil) animals, indicating interference with aqueous humor formation. The results obtained in this study provide experimental evidences for the effectiveness of silibinin in the reduction of IOP and possible modulation of its regulatory mechanisms.

  5. External heating of stents by radio waves Pilot studies in rabbit aorta

    SciT

    Levitt, Adam B.; Robinson, Keith; Chronos, Nicolas A.F.

    Purpose: This experiment was designed to assess the feasibility of radio frequency energy delivered by a prototype radio frequency generator inductive heating device (REVAX) positioned external to the body, for transient heating of stents after arterial implant. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one New Zealand White rabbits underwent stenting of their infrarenal aorta. Nine rabbits were stented and immediately placed in the REVAX for external stent heating with internal temperature probes in place. Twelve rabbits were stented and 3 days later either heated or placed in the generator as a sham for 20 min. The animals were terminated 28 days later. Results:more » The REVAX was able to heat the aortic stents in a controlled fashion; in Phase II experiments, the stent temperature was raised to 42 deg. C for 20 min. In Phase I mild necrosis was noted at the stent struts. In Phase II, necrosis and mineralization of the media was seen at the stent struts, and evidence of neointimal suppression was observed. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that external heating of stents in a blood vessel in a live animal via radio frequency energy is feasible. Further studies will be needed to assess whether any specific heating regimen might inhibit fibrocellular neointimal hyperplasia.« less

  6. Knee joint transplantation combined with surgical angiogenesis in rabbits – a new experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Thomas; Giusti, Guilherme; Friedrich, Patricia F.; Willems, Wouter; Bishop, Allen T.; Giessler, Goetz A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose We have previously described a means to maintain bone allotransplant viability, without long-term immune modulation, replacing allogenic bone vasculature with autogenous vessels. A rabbit model for whole knee joint transplantation was developed and tested using the same methodology, initially as an autotransplant. Materials/Methods Eight New Zealand White rabbit knee joints were elevated on a popliteal vessel pedicle to evaluate limb viability in a non-survival study. Ten additional joints were elevated and replaced orthotopically in a fashion identical to allotransplantation, obviating only microsurgical repairs and immunosuppression. A superficial inferior epigastric facial (SIEF) flap and a saphenous arteriovenous (AV) bundle were introduced into the femur and tibia respectively, generating a neoangiogenic bone circulation. In allogenic transplantation, this step maintains viability after cessation of immunosuppression. Sixteen weeks later, x-rays, microangiography, histology, histomorphometry and biomechanical analysis were performed. Results Limb viability was preserved in the initial 8 animals. Both soft tissue and bone healing occurred in 10 orthotopic transplants. Surgical angiogenesis from the SIEF flap and AV bundle was always present. Bone and joint viability was maintained, with demonstrable new bone formation. Bone strength was less than the opposite side. Arthrosis and joint contractures were frequent. Conclusion We have developed a rabbit knee joint model and evaluation methods suitable for subsequent studies of whole joint allotransplantation. PMID:22113889

  7. Comparison of IR thermography and thermocouple measurement of heat loss from rabbit pinna.

    PubMed

    Mohler, F S; Heath, J E

    1988-02-01

    The temperature of the pinnae of male New Zealand White rabbits was measured by use of infrared thermography. At ambient temperatures of 15, 20, and 25 degrees C, the average pinna temperatures were 23.0, 28.7, and 36.2 degrees C, respectively. From these temperatures, average heat loss from the total pinna surface area was calculated to be 2.8, 3.3, and 4.4 W, respectively. Preoptic temperature changes also affect the vasomotor state of the rabbit. At an ambient temperature of 20 degrees C, cooling the preoptic area of the rabbit by approximately 1 degree C resulted in an average pinna temperature of 26.5 degrees C and a heat loss of 2.4 W. Heating the preoptic area by approximately 1 degree C resulted in an average pinna temperature of 33.5 degrees C and a heat loss of 5.4 W. Finally, pinna temperatures were measured by use of a thermocouple and infrared thermography simultaneously. When the pinnae were vasodilated, the thermocouple measurements were consistently higher than the pinna surface temperatures measured thermographically. When the pinnae were vasoconstricted, the thermocouple measurements were consistently lower than the pinna surface temperatures measured thermographically. The discrepancy between the two methods of measurement is discussed.

  8. Evaluation of active and passive transport processes in corneas extracted from preserved rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Soumyajit; Hingorani, Tushar; Srirangam, Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    In vitro transcorneal permeability studies are an important screening tool in drug development. The objective of this research is to examine the feasibility of using corneas isolated from preserved rabbit eyes as a model for permeability evaluation. Eyes from male New Zealand White rabbits were used immediately or were stored overnight in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS) over wet ice. Integrity of isolated corneas was evaluated by measuring the TEER and by determining the permeability of paracellular and transcellular markers. Active transport was assessed by measuring transcorneal permeability of selected amino acids. Esterase activity was estimated using p-nitrophenyl assay. In all cases, corneas from freshly enucleated eyes were compared to those isolated from the day-old preserved eyes. Transcellular and paracellular passive diffusion was not affected by the storage medium and observed to be similar in the fresh and preserved eye models. However, amino acid transporters demonstrated lower functional activity in corneas excised from eyes preserved in PBS. Moreover, preserved eyes displayed almost 1.5-fold lower esterase activity in the corneal tissue. Thus, corneas isolated from day-old eyes, preserved in HBSS, closely mimics freshly excised rabbit corneas in terms of both active and passive transport characteristics but possesses slightly reduced enzymatic activity. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  9. Monitoring fractional anisotropy in developing rabbit brain using MR diffusion tensor imaging at 3T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, Jo-Chi; Yang, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Chia-Chi; Chen, Po-Chou

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factional anisotropy (FA) in various regions of developing rabbit brain using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR DTI) at 3 T. A whole-body clinical MR imaging (MRI) scanner with a 15-channel high resolution knee coil was used. An echo-planar-imaging (EPI)-DTI pulse sequence was performed. Five 5 week-old New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits underwent MRI once per week for 24 weeks. After scanning, FA maps were obtained. ROIs (regions of interests) in the frontal lobe, parietal & temporal lobe, and occipital lobe were measured. FA changes with time were evaluated with a linear regression analysis. The results show that the FA values in all lobes of the brain increased linearly with age. The ranking of FA values was FA(frontal lobe) < FA(parietal & temporal lobe) > FA(occipital lobe). There was significant difference (p < 0.05) among these lobes. FA values are associated with the nerve development and brain functions. The FA change rate could be a biomarker to monitor the brain development. Understanding the FA values of various lobes during development could provide helpful information to diagnosis the abnormal syndrome earlier and have a better treatment and prognosis. This study established a brain MR-DTI protocol for rabbits to investigate the brain anatomy during development using clinical MRI. This technique can be further applied to the pre-clinical diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and follow-up of brain lesions.

  10. EFFECT OF USE OF BONE-MARROW CENTRIFUGATE ON MUSCLE INJURY TREATMENT: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Daniel Ferreira Fernandes; Guarniero, Roberto; Vaz, Carlos Eduardo Sanches; de Santana, Paulo José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bone-marrow centrifugate on the healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. Methods: This experimental study involved use of fifteen adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Each animal received a transverse lesion in the middle of the right tibialis anterior muscle, to which an absorbable collagen sponge, soaked in a centrifugate of bone marrow aspirate from the ipsilateral iliac bone, was added. The left hind limb was used as a control and underwent the same injury, but in this case only the absorbable collagen sponge. Thirty days later, the animals were sacrificed to study the muscle healing. These muscle areas were subjected to histological analysis with histomorphometry, with the aim of measuring the number of muscle cells per square micrometer undergoing regeneration and the proportion of resultant fibrosis. Results: The centrifugation method used in this study resulted in an average concentration of nucleated cells greater than the number of these cells in original aspirates, without causing significant cell destruction. Addition of the bone marrow centrifugate did not result in any significant increase in the number of muscle cells undergoing regeneration, in relation to the control group. There was also no significant difference in the proportion of resultant fibrosis, compared with the control group. Conclusion: Administration of the bone marrow centrifugate used in this study did not favor healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. PMID:27047832

  11. Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effect of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on tissue lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage was tested in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbit model. After hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding a high cholesterol (0.5%) diet (HCD) for 4 weeks, then HCD supplemented with 1% or 5% Spirulina (SP1 or SP5, respectively) was provided for an additional 8 weeks. Spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the increased lipid peroxidation level in HCD-fed rabbits, and levels recovered to control values. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were significantly improved in the liver and red blood cells of rabbits fed SP1. Furthermore, SP5 induced antioxidant enzyme activity by 3.1-fold for glutathione, 2.5-fold for glutathione peroxidase, 2.7-fold for glutathione reductase, and 2.3-fold for glutathione S-transferase in liver, compared to the HCD group. DNA damage in lymphocytes was significantly reduced in both the SP1 and SP5 groups, based on the comet assay. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with Spirulina may be useful to protect the cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage.

  12. Dalcetrapib and anacetrapib differently impact HDL structure and function in rabbits and monkeys[S

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Mathieu R.; Rhainds, David; Charpentier, Daniel; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Mélanie; Brand, Geneviève; Chaput, Evelyne; Perez, Anne; Niesor, Eric J.; Rhéaume, Eric; Maugeais, Cyrille; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) increases HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. However, the circulating CETP level varies and the impact of its inhibition in species with high CETP levels on HDL structure and function remains poorly characterized. This study investigated the effects of dalcetrapib and anacetrapib, the two CETP inhibitors (CETPis) currently being tested in large clinical outcome trials, on HDL particle subclass distribution and cholesterol efflux capacity of serum in rabbits and monkeys. New Zealand White rabbits and vervet monkeys received dalcetrapib and anacetrapib. In rabbits, CETPis increased HDL-C, raised small and large α-migrating HDL, and increased ABCA1-induced cholesterol efflux. In vervet monkeys, although anacetrapib produced similar results, dalcetrapib caused opposite effects because the LDL-C level was increased by 42% and HDL-C decreased by 48% (P < 0.01). The levels of α- and preβ-HDL were reduced by 16% (P < 0.001) and 69% (P < 0.01), resulting in a decrease of the serum cholesterol efflux capacity. CETPis modulate the plasma levels of mature and small HDL in vivo and consequently the cholesterol efflux capacity. The opposite effects of dalcetrapib in different species indicate that its impact on HDL metabolism could vary greatly according to the metabolic environment. PMID:28515138

  13. Structural and vascular response of normal and obstructed rabbit whole bladders to distension.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Chichester, Paul; Kogan, Barry A; Levin, Robert M

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the structural and morphologic effect of distension after partial outlet obstruction in rabbits. Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were separated into two groups: control (sham) and partial outlet obstruction (3 weeks). Three rabbits from each group were distended to 5%, 25%, 50%, 100%, and 125% of capacity. Each bladder was fixed at the volume in buffered formalin for 6 to 8 hours. Sections of dorsal and ventral bladder were blocked, and cross sections were evaluated. Quantitative morphometry was performed, and CD31 immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the vascularity. Partial outlet obstruction resulted in increased bladder weight and capacity and increased thickness of the mucosa, submucosa, detrusor, and serosa. In the control bladder, the greatest thinning was seen between 5% and 25% capacity, and in the obstructed group, the greatest thinning occurred between 25% and 50%. The level of vascular collapse was significantly greater for the control bladders than for the obstructed bladders at all levels of distension. Finally, the obstructed bladders showed a significantly greater level of vascularity in the submucosa than the control bladders. Normal bladder distension resulted in significant morphologic changes when the bladder was distended to 25% of capacity but changed relatively little between 25% and 125%. However, distension of the obstructed bladder resulted in significant morphologic changes when the bladder was distended from 25% to 50% of capacity but changed relatively little between 50% and 125%.

  14. Effects of zinc-deficient diets on the cardiovascular system in rabbits

    SciT

    Carter, J.W.; Koo, S.I.

    1986-03-05

    The authors used male New Zealand white rabbits to study the effects of zinc-deficient diets on the cardiovascular system. These 10 week-old rabbits were fed semi-purified diets containing either 50 ppm or less than 1 ppm zinc for 12 weeks. Serum samples were analyzed at 3,6,9 and 12 weeks. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly. At necropsy the liver and heart were removed and weighed. Then the heart was perfused at 100 mm Hg with 10% buffered formalin via the ascending aorta. Coronary arteries were block-dissected and processed for light microscopy. Food consumption and body weights were notmore » significantly altered throughout the study. Relative heart weights were not different; however, the relative liver weight of the zinc-deficient group was elevated by 11%. Neither total serum cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol were changed at any time. After 6 weeks treatment, serum zinc levels were depressed by 29% in the zinc-deficient group; no changes were observed for serum copper or calcium. Morphometric analysis of coronary arteries revealed a decreased combined thickness of the tunica intima and tunica media and a decreased area per unit length in the left coronary circumflex arteries of zinc-deficient rabbits. Significant changes reported here are probably related to possible alterations in lipoproteins metabolism and will be investigated in future studies.« less

  15. The effects of intrathecal nicergoline and nimodipine in cerebral vasospasm: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ilker; Onal, Mehmet Bulent; Civelek, Erdinc; Kircelli, Atilla; Ongoru, Onder; Ugurel, Sahin; Erdogan, Ersin; Gonul, Engin

    2011-01-01

    the aim of this study was to assess and to compare the ability of intrathecal nicergoline and nimodipine in prevention of cerebral vasospasm in a rabbit model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). twenty male New Zealand white rabbits were allocated into four groups randomly. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced by injecting autologous blood into the cisterna magna. The treatment groups were as follows: (1) control [no SAH (n = 5)], (2) SAH only (n = 5), (3) SAH plus nimodipine (n = 5), and (4) SAH plus nicergoline (n = 5). there was a statistically significant difference between the mean basilar artery cross-sectional areas and the mean arterial wall thickness measurements of the control and SAH-only groups (p < 0.05). Basilar artery vessel diameter and luminal section areas in group 3 were significantly higher than in group 2 (p < 0.05). Basilar artery vessel diameter and basilar artery luminal section areas in group 4 were significantly higher than in group 2 (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between basilar artery vessel diameter and basilar artery luminal section areas in group 3 and group 4. these findings demonstrate that intrathecal nicergoline has a vasodilatatory effect in an experimental model of SAH in rabbits but not more than that of nimodipine.

  16. Late skin damage in rabbits and monkeys after exposure to particulate radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergtold, D. S.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.; Su, C. M.

    Skin biopsies were taken from the central regions of the ears of New Zealand white rabbits following localized exposure of one ear of each rabbit to 530 MeV/amu Ar or 365 MeV/amu Ne ions. The unirradiated ears served as controls. Biopsies were taken also from the chests and inner thighs of rhesus monkeys after whole-body exposure to 32 MeV protons and from unirradiated control animals. The linear energy transfers (LET∞'s) for the radiations were 90 +/- 5, 35 +/- 3, and ~1.2 keV/μm, respectively. In the rabbit studies, explants were removed with a 2 mm diameter dermal punch at post-irradiation times up to five years after exposure. Similar volumes of monkey tissue were taken from skin samples excised surgically 16-18 years following proton irradiation. Fibroblast cultures were initiated from the explants and were propagated in vitro until terminal senescence (cessation of cell division) occurred. Cultures from irradiated tissue exhibited decreases in doubling potential that were dependent on radiation dose and LET∞ and seemed to reflect damage to stem cell populations. The implications of these results for astronauts exposed to heavy ions and/or protons in space include possible manifestations of residual effects in the skin many years after exposure (e.g. unsatisfactory responses to trauma or surgery).

  17. Influence of gas stunning and halal slaughter (no stunning) on rabbits welfare indicators and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Sazili, A Q; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Abu Bakar, F; Sabow, A B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of gas stunning which has not been conducted until now in comparison with slaughter without stunning on the welfare and meat quality of rabbits. Eighty male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stunning using 61.4% CO2, 20.3% oxygen and 18.3 % nitrogen (GS). Analysis of the sticking blood revealed that both slaughter procedures caused a substantial increase in the levels of catecholamines, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, lactic acidemia and an increase in enzyme activities. The ultimate pH of the Longissimus lumborum muscle did not differ between treatments. GS exhibited higher lightness and cooking loss, and lower glycogen and MFI than HS. This indicates that both GS and HS can be significant stressors although the amount of stress may be below the threshold to negatively affect rabbit meat quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasound guided double injection of blood into cisterna magna: a rabbit model for treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongchao; Zhu, Youzhi; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zixuan; Lian, Juan; Luo, Fucheng; Deng, Xuefei; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2016-02-06

    Double injection of blood into cisterna magna using a rabbit model results in cerebral vasospasm. An unacceptably high mortality rate tends to limit the application of model. Ultrasound guided puncture can provide real-time imaging guidance for operation. The aim of this paper is to establish a safe and effective rabbit model of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage with the assistance of ultrasound medical imaging. A total of 160 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of 40 each: (1) manual control group, (2) manual model group, (3) ultrasound guided control group, and (4) ultrasound guided model group. The subarachnoid hemorrhage was intentionally caused by double injection of blood into their cisterna magna. Then, basilar artery diameters were measured using magnetic resonance angiography before modeling and 5 days after modeling. The depth of needle entering into cisterna magna was determined during the process of ultrasound guided puncture. The mortality rates in manual control group and model group were 15 and 23 %, respectively. No rabbits were sacrificed in those two ultrasound guided groups. We found that the mortality rate in ultrasound guided groups decreased significantly compared to manual groups. Compared with diameters before modeling, the basilar artery diameters after modeling were significantly lower in manual and ultrasound guided model groups. The vasospasm aggravated and the proportion of severe vasospasms was greater in ultrasound guided model group than that of manual group. In manual model group, no vasospasm was found in 8 % of rabbits. The ultrasound guided double injection of blood into cisterna magna is a safe and effective rabbit model for treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

  19. The induction of hyperthermia in rabbit liver by means of duplex stainless steel thermoseeds.

    PubMed

    Park, Byeong Ho; Koo, Bong Sig; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Moon Kon

    2002-01-01

    To determine the heating characteristics of needle-shaped duplex stainless steel thermoseeds, and to evaluate their effectiveness in the induction of hyperthermia in rabbit liver. Thermoseeds of the two different shapes, L-shaped for single doses of hyperthermia and I-shaped for in-vitro study and repeated hyperthermic induction, were prepared. For the in-vitro study, an I-shaped thermoseed 0.23 mm in diameter and 25 mm long was placed inside a plastic tube filled with water. Heat was applied for 30 minutes within an induction magnetic field, and during this time changes in temperature were recorded using three thermocouples. For the in-vivo study, fifteen New Zealand white rabbits were divided into five equal groups. An I-shaped or L-shaped thermoseed was inserted in each rabbit's liver, and then placed within the center of the magnetic induction coil during a 30-minute period of hyperthermia. The rabbits in the first group were sacrificed immediately after hyperthermia was induced once, while those in the other groups were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively, also after one induction. The remaining three rabbits were sacrificed 4 days after three consecutive daily treatment sessions. The resected segments of liver were subsequently evaluated histopathologically for the extent of coagulation necrosis caused by heating of the thermoseed. The in-vitro study demonstrated that the temperature in the thermoseed, which was 25.9 degrees C before heating and 54.8 degrees C after heating, rose rapidly at first but progressively less rapidly as time elapsed. Light microscopic examination of the rabbits' livers revealed coagulation necrosis and infiltration by inflammatory cells around the insertion site of the thermoseed. The maximum diameter of coagulation necrosis was 2.81+/-1.68 mm, and this occurred in the rabbits that were sacrificed 7 days after heat induction. Needle-shaped duplex stainless steel thermoseeds show temperature-dependent-type heating

  20. The Induction of Hyperthermia in Rabbit Liver by means of Duplex Stainless Steel Thermoseeds

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bong Sig; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Moon Kon

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine the heating characteristics of needle-shaped duplex stainless steel thermoseeds, and to evaluate their effectiveness in the induction of hyperthermia in rabbit liver. Materials and Methods Thermoseeds of the two different shapes, L-shaped for single doses of hyperthermia and I-shaped for in-vitro study and repeated hyperthermic induction, were prepared. For the in-vitro study, an I-shaped thermoseed 0.23 mm in diameter and 25 mm long was placed inside a plastic tube filled with water. Heat was applied for 30 minutes within an induction magnetic field, and during this time changes in temperature were recorded using three thermocouples. For the in-vivo study, fifteen New Zealand white rabbits were divided into five equal groups. An I-shaped or L-shaped thermoseed was inserted in each rabbit's liver, and then placed within the center of the magnetic induction coil during a 30-minute period of hyperthermia. The rabbits in the first group were sacrificed immediately after hyperthermia was induced once, while those in the other groups were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively, also after one induction. The remaining three rabbits were sacrificed 4 days after three consecutive daily treatment sessions. The resected segments of liver were subsequently evaluated histopathologically for the extent of coagulation necrosis caused by heating of the thermoseed. Results The in-vitro study demonstrated that the temperature in the thermoseed, which was 25.9℃ before heating and 54.8℃ after heating, rose rapidly at first but progressively less rapidly as time elapsed. Light microscopic examination of the rabbits' livers revealed coagulation necrosis and infiltration by inflammatory cells around the insertion site of the thermoseed. The maximum diameter of coagulation necrosis was 2.81 ± 1.68 mm, and this occurred in the rabbits that were sacrificed 7 days after heat induction. Conclusion Needle-shaped duplex stainless steel thermoseeds show

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography post-column derivatization with fluorescence detection to study the influence of ambroxol on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine levels in rabbit eustachian tube washings.

    PubMed

    Kitsos, M; Gandini, C; Massolini, G; De Lorenzi, E; Caccialanza, G

    1991-08-16

    In this work an appropriate high-performance liquid chromatography method was set up to guarantee specificity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy in analyzing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in rabbit eustachian tube washings, as well as to determine its varying levels after administration of ambroxol chloride. The procedure is based on a post-column derivatization with fluorescence detection using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene which exhibits increased fluorescence in a lipid environment. DPPC was chromatographed on a Hypersil C18. The mobile phase for the isocratic elution consisted of 40 mmol/l choline chloride in methanol-tetrahydrofuran (97:3). Ambroxol was given to a group of New Zealand white rabbits at a dose of 30 mg/kg. A second group receiving vehicle only acted as controls.

  2. One-step repair for cartilage defects in a rabbit model: a technique combining the perforated decalcified cortical-cancellous bone matrix scaffold with microfracture.

    PubMed

    Dai, Linghui; He, Zhenming; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Yuan, Lan; Qiang, Ming; Zhu, Jingxian; Shao, Zhenxing; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang

    2014-03-01

    Cartilage repair still presents a challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. A more effective, simpler procedure that can produce hyaline-like cartilage is needed for articular cartilage repair. A technique combining microfracture with a biomaterial scaffold of perforated decalcified cortical-cancellous bone matrix (DCCBM; composed of cortical and cancellous parts) would create a 1-step procedure for hyaline-like cartilage repair. Controlled laboratory study. For the in vitro portion of this study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from bone marrow aspirates of New Zealand White rabbits. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal microscopy, and 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue assay were used to assess the attachment, proliferation, and cartilage matrix production of MSCs grown on a DCCBM scaffold. For the in vivo experiment, full-thickness defects were produced in the articular cartilage of the trochlear groove of 45 New Zealand White rabbits, and the rabbits were then assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: perforated DCCBM combined with microfracture (DCCBM+M group), perforated DCCBM alone (DCCBM group), and microfracture alone (M group). Five rabbits in each group were sacrificed at 6, 12, or 24 weeks after the operation, and the repair tissues were analyzed by histological examination, assessment of matrix staining, SEM, and nanoindentation of biomechanical properties. The DCCBM+M group showed hyaline-like articular cartilage repair, and the repair tissues appeared to have better matrix staining and revealed biomechanical properties close to those of the normal cartilage. Compared with the DCCBM+M group, there was unsatisfactory repair tissues with less matrix staining in the DCCBM group and no matrix staining in the M group, as well as poor integration with normal cartilage and poor biomechanical properties. The DCCBM scaffold is suitable for MSC growth and hyaline-like cartilage repair induction when combined with microfracture. Microfracture

  3. Dark shadow of the long white cloud: Neighborhood safety is associated with self-rated health and cortisol during pregnancy in Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Zaneta M

    2017-12-01

    Auckland, Aotearoa /New Zealand is a culturally and ethnically diverse city. Despite popular global conceptions regarding its utopian nature, the lived experience for many individuals in Auckland attests to the substantial social, economic, and health inequalities that exist there. In particular, rapidly rising home prices constrain housing decisions and force individuals to live in less desirable neighborhoods, with potential impacts on individual health. One of the pathways through which adverse neighborhood conditions could impact health is through alterations in the functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis, which regulates the physiological stress response. This paper evaluates the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety, self-rated health, and cortisol, an end product of HPA-axis activation, among women in late pregnancy. Pregnant women living in neighborhoods where they were concerned about safety of their property had poorer self-rated health and elevated morning cortisol, even after adjusting for maternal age, material deprivation, and ethnicity. However, fear of personal safety was unrelated to self-rated health and cortisol. These results suggest that maternal health in pregnancy is sensitive to perceptions regarding neighborhood safety. Such findings are important since higher cortisol levels in pregnancy could not only influence maternal health, but also the health and development of women's children.

  4. Contrast-enhanced CT with a High-Affinity Cationic Contrast Agent for Imaging ex Vivo Bovine, Intact ex Vivo Rabbit, and in Vivo Rabbit Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rachel C.; Bansal, Prashant N.; Entezari, Vahid; Lusic, Hrvoje; Nazarian, Rosalynn M.; Snyder, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the affinity of a cationic computed tomography (CT) contrast agent (CA4+) and that of an anionic contrast agent (ioxaglate) to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in ex vivo cartilage tissue explants and to characterize the in vivo diffusion kinetics of CA4+ and ioxaglate in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods: All in vivo procedures were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. The affinities of ioxaglate and CA4+ to GAGs in cartilage (six bovine osteochondral plugs) were quantified by means of a modified binding assay using micro-CT after plug equilibration in serial dilutions of each agent. The contrast agents were administered intraarticularly to the knee joints of five New Zealand white rabbits to determine the in vivo diffusion kinetics and cartilage tissue imaging capabilities. Kinetics of diffusion into the femoral groove cartilage and relative contrast agent uptake into bovine plugs were characterized by means of nonlinear mixed-effects models. Diffusion time constants (τ) were compared by using a Student t test. Results: The uptake of CA4+ in cartilage was consistently over 100% of the reservoir concentration, whereas it was only 59% for ioxaglate. In vivo, the contrast material–enhanced cartilage reached a steady CT attenuation for both CA4+ and ioxaglate, with τ values of 13.8 and 6.5 minutes, respectively (P = .04). The cartilage was easily distinguishable from the surrounding tissues for CA4+ (12 mg of iodine per milliliter); comparatively, the anionic contrast agent provided less favorable imaging results, even when a higher concentration was used (80 mg of iodine per milliliter). Conclusion: The affinity of the cationic contrast agent CA4+ to GAGs enables high-quality imaging and segmentation of ex vivo bovine and rabbit cartilage, as well as in vivo rabbit cartilage. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12112246/-/DC1 PMID:23192774

  5. Suppression of atherosclerotic changes in cholesterol-fed rabbits treated with an oral inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (EC 3.4.24.11).

    PubMed

    Kugiyama, K; Sugiyama, S; Matsumura, T; Ohta, Y; Doi, H; Yasue, H

    1996-08-01

    Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), widely distributed in the body, hydrolyzes and inactivates a number of endogenous vasoactive peptides, some of which could alter various functions of cells present in the arterial wall. Recently NEP has been found to exist in the vascular endothelium. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of chronic NEP inhibition by daily administration of UK79300 (candoxatril), an orally active NEP inhibitor (NEPI), on the development of atherosclerotic changes in high-cholesterol-fed rabbits. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed for 8 weeks as follows: normal rabbit diet (Normal, n = 15), 1.5% cholesterol diet (Cholesterol, n = 15), or 1.5% cholesterol diet containing NEPI (20 mg.kg-1.d-1) (Cholesterol+NEPI, n = 15). At the end of the dietary period, NEPI treatment was found to suppress the surface area of the aorta covered by plaques (% surface area: Cholesterol, 59 +/- 6 versus Cholesterol+NEPI, 36 +/- 7, P < .01) and decreased contents of cholesterol and cholesterol esters in the aortas. NEPI also reduced plasma total cholesterol by 27% of Cholesterol rabbits (1781 +/- 130 mg/dL). The endothelial function, estimated by the endothelium-dependent relaxation of the isolated aortas in response to acetylcholine, was preserved in Cholesterol+NEPI rabbits compared with that in Cholesterol rabbits. NEP enzymatic activities in plasma and the particulate fraction of the homogenates from the aortas in Cholesterol rabbits were both increased, 3.1- and 3.9-fold, respectively, above those in Normal rabbits, but the activities in Cholesterol+NEPI rabbits were significantly lower than those in Cholesterol rabbits. UK73967, an active form of UK79300, or phosphoramidon partly reversed the atherosclerotic impairment of relaxation of the isolated thoracic aortic rings from Cholesterol rabbits in response to exogenous additions of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and substance P, which are NEP substrates known to exist endogenously in the vascular

  6. Guaifenesin alone or in combination with ketamine or sodium pentobarbital as an anesthetic in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, M E; McCabe, K; Walker, R L

    1987-01-01

    Guaifenesin was administered alone and in combination with ketamine or sodium pentobarbital to adult New Zealand white rabbits. A solution of 5% guaifenesin in 5% dextrose given intravenously at a dosage of 200 mg/kg, abolished the pedal, palpebral and corneal reflexes for up to 15 minutes with little influence on cardiopulmonary function. Guaifenesin (200 mg/kg, intravenously) and ketamine (50 mg/kg, intramuscularly) produced effective and safe surgical anesthesia for over 30 minutes. This combination mildly depressed respiratory rate but heart rate and arterial blood pressure were not significantly affected. Guaifenesin (200 mg/kg, intravenously) was combined with sodium pentobarbital (20 mg/kg, intravenously) to produce surgical anesthesia for a period of more than 30 minutes. This combination depressed respiratory rate, produced a tachycardia and decreased arterial blood pressure. PMID:3651894

  7. The effects of hydrolyzed sorghum on growth performance and meat quality of rabbits

    The effect of sorghum hydrolyzed by Trametes maxima CU1 and Pycnoporus sanguineus CS2 was evaluated on growth performance parameters and rabbit meat quality. A total of 24 unsexed New Zealand rabbits, weaned at 20 d of age, were allocated in two treatments: T1 (non-hydrolyzed sorghum) and T2 (hydr...

  8. Effects of Moringa oleifera leaves as a substitute for alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Zhang, Y; Ding, M; Xi, Q; Liu, G; Li, Y; Liu, D; Chen, X

    2018-02-01

    This contribution reports the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOLs) meal on the growth performances, nutrient digestibility, carcass trait, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters of growing New Zealand white rabbits. The MOL was substituted for alfalfa meal at levels of 0, 10%, 20% and 30% to obtain respective diets MOL0, MOL10, MOL20 and MOL30. Each treatment was replicated five times with 10 rabbits per replicate. Results showed the average daily weight gain (ADWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of rabbits fed MOL20 diet were significantly better (p < 0.05) than those of other three dietary groups. Liver and spleen index of rabbits fed MOL20 and MOL30 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the groups fed with lower M. oleifera leaves (MOL0, MOL10). The meat drip loss of rabbits fed with diet MOL10 was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of rabbits fed other diets. All rabbits fed MOL dietary groups had lower (p < 0.05) shear force of longissimus dorsi than the group without M. oleifera leaves. No significant differences were found in the digestibility of crude fibre (CF), crude fat (EE), ash, crude protein (CP) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) among the dietary groups. Moringa oleifera leaves also have a significant impact on serum albumin (ALB), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triiodothyroxine (T 3 ) and tetraiodothyroxine (T 4 ) values and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum and liver. The results indicated that M. oleifera leaves could be developed as a good feed source, and it not only could substitute for alfalfa meal well but also has a significant effect on growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant and biochemical parameters of rabbits. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. New Zealand

    2017-12-08

    This image taken from the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument of New Zealand was collected on January 9, 2015 when the phytoplankton were blooming — particularly to the east of the islands and along the Chatham Rise. Derived from the Greek words phyto (plant) and plankton (made to wander or drift), phytoplankton are microscopic organisms that live in watery environments, both salty and fresh. Credit: NASA/Goddard/NPP NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. Repair of full-thickness cartilage defects with cells of different origin in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Yu, Changlong

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repaired tissues formed in full-thickness cartilage defects in a rabbit model implanted with 4 types of chondrogenic cells, including chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and fibroblasts from rabbit, and human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) stem cells. Chondrocytes, MSCs, and fibroblasts were isolated from 6-week-old New Zealand rabbits; hUCB stem cells were isolated from the umbilical cord blood of newborn children. These 4 types of cells were cultured in vitro and embedded in polylactic acid (PLA) matrices. Full-thickness defects were produced in the femoral trochlear grooves of both knees in 36 adult New Zealand White rabbits. Cell/PLA composites were transplanted into cartilage defects. A total of 5 groups were formed according to implanted cell type: Group A, chondrocytes; Group B, MSCs; Group C, fibroblasts; Group D, hUCB stem cells; and Group E, no cells (control group). Repaired tissues were evaluated grossly, histologically, and immunohistochemically at 6 weeks and 12 weeks after implantation. In Groups A and B, defects were repaired with hyaline-like cartilage. In Group C, defects were repaired with fibrous tissue. In Group D, defects were repaired primarily with fibrous tissue and scattered chondrocytes; in some specimens, defects were repaired with a thin layer of hyaline-like cartilage at 12 weeks. In Group E, defects were repaired with fibrous tissue. Histologic scores in Groups A and B were significantly higher than those in Groups C, D, and E at 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation. Full-thickness cartilage defects treated with chondrocyte or MSC transplantation were repaired with hyaline-like cartilage tissue, and repair was significantly better than in tissues treated with fibroblasts and hUCB stem cells, as well as in the control group. Repaired tissues treated with MSCs appeared to have better cell arrangement, subchondral bone remodeling, and integration with surrounding cartilage than did

  11. The efficacy of avermectins (ivermectin, doramectin and abamectin) as treatments for infestation with the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis on rabbits in Korea.

    PubMed

    Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Kim, Young Ha; Yoo, Mi Sun; Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Jung, Suk Chan; Kang, Seung Won

    2013-12-06

    The efficacy of a single subcutaneous injection of an avermectin (ivermectin, doramectin, or abamectin) as a treatment for infestation with nymphal and adult Haemaphysalis longicornis was evaluated in 24 New Zealand White rabbits. Two days after artificial infestation with nymphs or adult ticks, the rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatment groups (to be treated with ivermectin, doramectin, and abamectin) and a control group. The animals in the treatment groups were injected with commercial injectable formulations of each avermectins at a dose of 200 μg/kg live weight. The results showed that on rabbits treated with these avermectins, nymphs and female ticks had significantly reduced weight, nymphs had reduced moulting success rates, and females had inhibited ovary development. Among the treatments, doramectin was most effective in reducing the weight of nymphs (weight was reduced by 80%) and females (by 97.3%); ivermectin was most effective in reducing the moulting success rate in nymphs (by 55%); and both doramectin and abamectin were effective in inhibiting the development of female ticks' ovaries (by 46%). Data from this investigation show that avermectins are suitable for the control of H. longicornis on rabbits in Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of olive leaves (whether or not fortified with sodium selenate) in rabbit feeding: Effect on performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and estimated indexes of fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Simona; Machado Duarte, Joana Margarida; Castellini, Cesare; D'Amato, Roberto; Regni, Luca; Proietti, Primo; Businelli, Daniela; Cotozzolo, Elisa; Rodrigues, Miguel; Dal Bosco, Alessandro

    2018-09-01

    Sixty New Zealand White weaned rabbits were divided into three groups and subjected to different dietary treatments: a standard diet for the control (C), a standard feed supplemented with 10% of plain olive leaves (OL) and a standard feed supplemented with 10% of selenium-fortified olive leaves (100 mg/L of foliar spray sodium selenate solution; SeOL). The productive performance was recorded at the time of slaughter (after 35 days); the carcass and meat traits were determined and estimated indexes of fatty acid metabolism were calculated. No significant differences were found on the rabbit productive performance and the physical-chemical characteristics of the meat. Both group of rabbits on the enriched diet showed leaner and thinner carcasses and a higher meat concentration of oleic acid. The estimated index of Δ5 + Δ6-desaturase, starting from n-6 fatty acids, was lower in both groups supplemented with leaves. The use of selenium-fortified olive leaves, positively affected the lipid oxidative stability of rabbit meat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adverse Impact of Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia on Cardiovascular Tissue Homeostasis in a Rabbit Model: Time-Dependent Changes in Cardiac Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kertész, Attila; Bombicz, Mariann; Priksz, Daniel; Balla, Jozsef; Balla, Gyorgy; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Varga, Balazs; Haines, David D.; Tosaki, Arpad; Juhasz, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates a hypothesis that diet-related hypercholesterolemia increases oxidative stress-related burden to cardiovascular tissue, resulting in progressively increased mortality, along with deterioration of electrophysiological and enzymatic function in rabbit myocardium. New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups, defined as follows: GROUP I, cholesterol-free rabbit chow for 12 weeks; GROUP II, cholesterol-free chow, 40 weeks; GROUP III, chow supplemented with 2% cholesterol, 12 weeks; GROUP IV, chow supplemented with 2% cholesterol, 40 weeks. At the 12 and 40 weeks time points, animals in each of the aforementioned cohorts were subjected to echocardiographic measurements, followed by sacrifice. Significant deterioration in major outcome variables measured in the present study were observed only in animals maintained for 40 weeks on 2% cholesterol-supplemented chow, with much lesser adverse effects noted in animals fed high cholesterol diets for only 12 weeks. It was observed that rabbits receiving high cholesterol diets for 40 weeks exhibited significantly increased mortality, worsened ejection fraction and general deterioration of cardiac functions, along with increased atherosclerotic plaque formation and infarct size. Additionally, myocardium of GROUP IV animals was observed to contain lower levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and cytochrome c oxidase III (COX III) protein relative to the controls. PMID:24048247

  14. Effects of adenosine monophosphate used in combination with L-arginine on female rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue.

    PubMed

    Stücker, Olivier; Pons, Catherine; Neuzillet, Yann; Laemmel, Elisabeth; Lebret, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    Sexual dysfunction is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. However, to date, no satisfactory oral treatment is yet available. The aim of this study was to study the effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) alone or its combination with L-Arginine on the relaxation of the female rabbit corpus cavernosum. Cylinder strips from the corporal body of the excised clitoris from female New Zealand White rabbits were incubated in Krebs solution. Phenylephrine (PE) precontraction was achieved, then the drugs AMP and L-Arginine were administered either independently or in sequential combinations to the strips under precontracted conditions. Contraction percentages were compared. When precontraction was induced by PE 8 μM or 20 μM, AMP was shown to induce relaxation up to 25% in a dose-dependent manner. The relaxation induced by L-Arginine reached 15.6% at 5.10(-4) M vs. 16.5% at AMP 5.10(-4) M under the same experimental conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine strongly inhibited the relaxing effect provoked by AMP, suggesting that the action mechanism of this nucleotide is related to the NO pathway. The combination of L-Arginine at 5.10(-4) M with AMP at different doses ranging from 5.10(-4) M to 10(-3) M significantly amplified the relaxing response up to 40.7% and 58%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that AMP induces a relaxing effect on the female rabbit corpora. They also show that L-Arginine and AMP can potentiate each other and that a synergistic effect can be obtained by their combined use. Because only slight differences exist between both sexes in response to NO donors and/or nucleotide purines or in their use together, it is very likely that close biochemical mechanisms, although not to the same degree and not quite similar, are involved in the engorgement of the penis and the clitoris of New Zealand White rabbits. Stücker O, Pons C, Neuzillet Y, Laemmel E, and Lebret T. Original research-sexual medicine: Effects of

  15. Delayed early passive motion is harmless to shoulder rotator cuff healing in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shurong; Li, Hong; Tao, Hongyue; Li, Hongyun; Cho, Samson; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Jiwu; Chen, Shiyi; Li, Yunxia

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative passive motion is the most widely accepted rehabilitation protocol after rotator cuff repair; however, a rotator cuff retear remains a frequent surgical complication. Clinical outcomes indicate that early passive motion is harmless to rotator cuff healing, but no laboratory evidence supports this proposition. (1) Immediate postoperative immobilization improves rotator cuff healing in rabbits. (2) Early passive motion after short-term immobilization does not harm rotator cuff healing in rabbits. Controlled laboratory study. An injury to the supraspinatus tendon was created and repaired in 90 New Zealand White rabbits, after which they were randomly separated into 3 groups: (1) nonimmobilization (NI; n = 30), (2) continuous immobilization (IM; n = 30), and (3) immobilization with early passive motion (IP; n = 30). At 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively, 5 rabbits from each group were sacrificed for histological evaluation, biomechanical testing, and magnetic resonance imaging. The histological study demonstrated better postoperative healing in the IM and IP groups, with clusters of chondrocytes accumulated at the tendon-bone junction. Magnetic resonance imaging illustrated that the tendon-bone junction was intact in the IM and IP groups. The magnetic resonance quantification analysis showed that the signal-to-noise quotient (SNQ) of the NI group was not significantly higher than that of the immobilization groups at 3 weeks (P = .232) or 6 weeks (P = .117), but it was significantly different at 12 weeks (NI vs IM, P = .006; NI vs IP, P = .009). At 12 weeks, the failure load was significantly higher in the IM and IP groups than in the NI group (NI vs IM, P = .002; NI vs IP, P = .002), but no difference was found between the IM and IP groups (P = .599). Immediate postoperative immobilization led to better tendon-bone healing than immediate postoperative mobilization, and under immobilization, early passive motion was harmless to tendon-bone healing in this

  16. Capsular bag opacification after experimental implantation of a new accommodating intraocular lens in rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Werner, Liliana; Pandey, Suresh K; Izak, Andrea M; Vargas, Luis G; Trivedi, Rupal H; Apple, David J; Mamalis, Nick

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the development of capsular bag opacification in rabbit eyes after implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL) designed to minimize contact between the anterior capsule and the IOL and ensure expansion of the capsular bag. David J. Apple, MD Laboratories for Ophthalmic Devices Research, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Ten New Zealand white rabbits had a study IOL (new accommodating silicone IOL [Synchrony, Visiogen, Inc.]) implanted in 1 eye and a control IOL (1-piece plate silicone IOL with large fixation holes) implanted in the other eye. Intraocular lens position, anterior capsule opacification (ACO), and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) were qualitatively assessed using slitlamp retroillumination photographs of the dilated eyes. Anterior capsule opacification and PCO were graded on a 0 to 4 scale after the eyes were enucleated (Miyake-Apple posterior and anterior views after excision of the cornea and iris). The eyes were also evaluated histopathologically. The rate of ACO and PCO was significantly higher in the control group. Fibrosis and ACO were almost absent in the study group; the control group exhibited extensive capsulorhexis contraction, including capsulorhexis occlusion. Postoperative IOL dislocation into the anterior chamber and pupillary block syndrome were observed in some eyes in the study group. The special design features associated with the study IOL appeared to help prevent PCO. Complications in the study group were probably caused by the increased posterior vitreous pressure in rabbit eyes compared to human eyes and the relatively large size of the study IOL relative to the anterior segment of rabbit eyes.

  17. Modulation of Inflammatory and Profibrotic Signaling in a Rabbit Model of Acute Phonotrauma Using Triamcinolone

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Joseph E.; Suehiro, Atsushi; Branski, Ryan C.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Rousseau, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypothesis that prophylactic triamcinolone modulates acute vocal fold inflammatory and profibrotic signaling during acute phonotrauma. Study Design In vivo rabbit phonation model. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Forty New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (no intervention), no treatment (30 minutes of raised intensity phonation), sham treatment (bilateral intralaryngeal triamcinolone acetonide injection at 0 μg/25 μL followed by 30 minutes of raised intensity phonation), or steroid treatment (bilateral intralaryngeal triamcinolone acetonide injection at 400 μg/25 μL followed by 30 minutes of raised intensity phonation). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to investigate gene expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)–1β, and transforming growth factor (TGF)–β1. Results Results revealed a significant main effect for COX-2 (P = .002). Post hoc testing revealed that rabbits receiving no treatment (15.10) had higher COX-2 gene expression than control (5.90; P <.001). There were no significant differences in COX-2 expression between treatment groups. Results revealed a significant main effect for IL-1β (P < .001). Post hoc testing revealed that rabbits receiving no treatment (14.70) had higher IL-1β gene expression than control (6.30) (P = .001). There were no significant differences in IL-1β gene expression between treatment groups. There were no significant differences in TGF-β1 gene expression (P = .525) between treatment and control groups. Conclusion Given conflicting evidence, further studies are necessary to investigate vocal fold steroid injections prior to and following the induction of phonotrauma. Prophylactic administration of triamcinolone immediately prior to acute phonotrauma resulted in no significant changes in COX-2, IL-1β, and TGF-β1 gene transcript levels. PMID:22399283

  18. Acute Lung Injury and Persistent Small Airway Disease in a Rabbit Model of Chlorine Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F.; Humphrey, David M.; Powell, Karen S.; Roberts, Andrew M.; Hoyle, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbits were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24 h after exposure to 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min to study acute effects or up to 7 days after exposure to 400 ppm for 8 min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24 h after inhalation of 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400 ppm chlorine for 8 min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure-volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7 days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. PMID:27913141

  19. Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation.

    PubMed

    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F; Humphrey, David M; Powell, Karen S; Roberts, Andrew M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2017-01-15

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbits were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24h after exposure to 800ppm chlorine for 4min to study acute effects or up to 7days after exposure to 400ppm for 8min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24h after inhalation of 800ppm chlorine for 4min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400ppm chlorine for 8min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure-volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling atherosclerosis by proteomics: Molecular changes in the ascending aortas of cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingshu; Jüllig, Mia; Middleditch, Martin J; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-09-01

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is commonly used as a model to study the vascular effects of hypercholesterolemia and resulting atherosclerotic lesions. Here we undertook a proteomic case-control investigation of ascending aortas from male New Zealand White rabbits after 10 weeks on a high-cholesterol (2% w/w) diet (HCD, n = 5) or control diet (n = 5), in order to determine the changes in response to the HCD. Histology confirmed intimal thickening in the HCD group consistent with atherosclerosis, and LC-MS/MS analysis of individually-obtained ascending aortic extracts labelled with isobaric (iTRAQ) tags enabled the identification and quantitation of 453 unique proteins above the 1% false discovery rate threshold. Of 67 proteins showing significant differences in relative abundance (p < 0.05), 62 were elevated and five decreased in ascending aortas from HCD-fed rabbits compared to controls. Six proteins were selected for validation using Multiple Reaction Monitoring, which confirmed the iTRAQ results. Many of the observed protein changes are consistent with known molecular perturbations in the ascending aorta that occur in response to hypercholesterolemia, e.g. elevation of tissue levels of apolipoproteins, extracellular matrix adhesion proteins, glycolytic enzymes, heat shock proteins and proteins involved in immune defense. We also made a number of novel observations, including a 15-fold elevation of glycoprotein (trans-membrane) nmb-like (Gpnmb) in response to HCD. Gpnmb has previously been linked to angiogenesis but not to atherosclerosis. This and additional novel observations merit further investigation as these perturbations may play important and as yet undiscovered roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in rabbits as well as humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of Neuropeptides and Cytokines in a Rabbit Model of Diabetic Neuroischemic Wound-Healing

    PubMed Central

    Nabzdyk, Leena Pradhan; Kuchibhotla, Sarada; Guthrie, Patrick; Chun, Maggie; Auster, Michael E; Nabzdyk, Christoph; Deso, Steven; Andersen, Nicholas; LoGerfo, Frank W.; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study is designed to understand the contribution of peripheral vascular disease and peripheral neuropathy to the wound-healing impairment associated with diabetes. Using a rabbit model of diabetic neuroischemic wound-healing we investigated rate of healing, leukocyte infiltration and expression of cytokines, Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6, and, neuropeptides, Substance P (SP) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY). Design of study Diabetes was induced in White New Zealand rabbits by administering alloxan while control rabbits received saline. Ten days later animals in both groups underwent surgery. One ear served as a sham and the other was made ischemic (ligation of central+rostral arteries), or neuroischemic (ischemia+ resection of central+rostral nerves). Four, 6mm punch biopsy wounds were created in both ears and wound-healing was followed for ten days using computerized planimetry. Results Non-diabetic sham and ischemic wounds healed significantly more rapidly than diabetic sham and ischemic wounds. Healing was slowest in neuroischemic wounds, irrespective of diabetic status. A high M1/M2 macrophage ratio and a high pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, both indicators of chronic-proinflammatory state, and low neuropeptide expression were seen in pre-injury diabetic skin. Post-injury, in diabetic wounds M1/M2 ratio remained high, the reactive increase in cytokine expression was low and neuropeptide expression was further decreased in neuroischemic wounds. Conclusion This rabbit model illustrates how a combination of a high M1/M2 ratio, a failure to mount post-injury cytokine response as well as a diminished neuropeptide expression contribute to wound-healing impairment in diabetes. The addition of neuropathy to ischemia leads to equivalently severe impaired wound-healing irrespective of diabetes status, suggesting that in the presence of ischemia, loss of neuropeptide function contributes to the impaired healing associated with diabetes. PMID:23755976

  2. Efficacy of a recombinant endotoxin neutralizing protein in rabbits with Escherichia coli sepsis.

    PubMed

    Saladino, R; Garcia, C; Thompson, C; Hammer, B; Parsonnet, J; Novitsky, T; Siber, G; Fleisher, G

    1994-02-01

    Gram-negative bacterial sepsis is associated with endotoxemia and a high mortality rate. In previous studies, we demonstrated the therapeutic benefit of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isolated from amebocytes of Limulus polyphemus, and of a recombinant version of this protein, termed endotoxin neutralizing protein (ENP), in rabbits challenged with purified lipopolysaccharides. To assess the benefit of ENP in treating a live bacterial infection, we established a rabbit model of Escherichia coli (E. coli) peritonitis and bacteremia with high mortality despite gentamicin treatment. Twenty-four pairs of New Zealand white rabbits were challenged intraperitoneally (IP) with E. coli O18ac K1 in 5% porcine mucin (mean bacteria per dose = 2.5 x 10(8)). The animals were treated with intravenous (i.v.) gentamicin (2.5 mg/kg), and with either ENP (5 mg/kg) or saline i.v. at 1 hr after E. coli challenge. All rabbits were bacteremic 1 hr after challenge (geometric mean 4.1 +/- 1.2 x 10(4) cfu/mL). Peak geometric mean serum endotoxin (2.62 v 10.54 EU/mL, P = .013) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (2540 v 6438 TNF units/mL, P = .046) concentrations were lower in ENP-treated animals as compared to control animals. Seven of 24 animals treated with ENP survived 24 hr compared with 4 of 24 controls (Kaplan-Meier analysis, P = .19). However, in the subgroup of 13 paired animals in whom bacteremia was eliminated by gentamicin treatment, 5 of 13 ENP-treated animals survived 24 hr, compared with 1 of 13 controls (Kaplan-Meier analysis, P = .032).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Stroke Location and Brain Function in an Embolic Rabbit Stroke Model

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Aliza T.; Skinner, Robert D.; Flores, Rene; Hennings, Leah; Borrelli, Michael J.; Lowery, John; Culp, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Current rabbit stroke models often depend on symptoms as endpoints for embolization and produce wide variation in location, size, and severity of strokes. To further refine our angiographic embolic stroke model we correlated localized infarctions to neurological deficits. Our goal is a rabbit model for long term studies of therapies after stroke. Materials and Methods New Zealand White rabbits (4–5 kg) (n=71) had selective internal carotid artery (ICA) angiography and a single clot was injected. At 24 hours neurological assessment scores (NAS) were measured on a 0=normal to 10=dead scale. Brains were removed and stained to identify stroke areas. All animals with single strokes, N=31, were analyzed by specific brain structure involvement and NAS values were correlated. Results Stroke incidence differed by location with cortex, subcortical, and basal ganglia regions highest. Distributions of middle cerebral artery (MCA) at 52% and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) at 29% were most commonly involved with largest stroke volumes in the ACA distribution. Brain stem and cerebellum strokes had disproportionately severe neurological deficits, scoring 2.25±1.0 vs. cortex (0.5±0.2), subcortical (1.3±0.4) and basal ganglia (0.5±0.3) all in the frontal or parietal regions on NAS (P≤0.02). Conclusions MCA and ACA distributions included 81% of strokes. These sites were relatively silent (potentially allowing longer term survival studies) while others in the posterior circulation produced disproportionately severe symptoms. Symptoms were not reliable indicators of stroke occurrence and other endpoints such as imaging may be required. These are important steps towards refinement of the rabbit stroke model. PMID:20417119

  4. Rotator cuff healing after continuous subacromial bupivacaine infusion: an in vivo rabbit study

    PubMed Central

    FRIEL, NICOLE A.; WANG, VINCENT M.; SLABAUGH, MARK A.; WANG, FANCHIA; CHUBINSKAYA, SUSAN; COLE, BRIAN J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous subacromial bupivacaine infusion on supraspinatus muscle and rotator cuff tendon healing via gross, biomechanical, and histologic analyses. Methods Thirty-three New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral supraspinatus transection and rotator cuff repair (RCR). Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1)RCR only, (2)RCR with continuous saline infusion for 48 hours, or (3)RCR with continuous 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine (1:200,000) infusion for 48 hours. Rabbits were sacrificed at either 2 (for histologic assessment) or 8 weeks post-operatively (for biomechanical and histologic assessment). Results Tensile testing showed significantly higher load to failure in intact tendons compared to repaired tendons (p<0.01); however, no statistical differences were detected among RCR only, RCR Saline, and RCR Bupivacaine groups. Histologically, the enthesis of repaired tendons showed increased cellularity and disorganized collagen fibers compared to intact tendons, with no differences between treatment groups. Muscle histology demonstrated scattered degenerative muscle fibers at 2 weeks in both RCR Saline and RCR Bupivacaine, but no degeneration was noted at 8 weeks. Conclusions The healing supraspinatus tendons exposed to bupivacaine infusion showed similar histologic and biomechanical characteristics compared to untreated and saline infused RCR groups. Muscle histology showed fiber damage at 2 weeks for both the saline and bupivacaine treated groups, with no apparent disruption at 8 weeks, suggesting a recovery process. Therefore, subacromial bupivacaine infusion in this rabbit rotator cuff model does not appear to impair muscle or tendon following acute injury and repair. Level Of Evidence Basic science study PMID:22818894

  5. Nonlinear Analyses of Elicited Modal, Raised, and Pressed Rabbit Phonation

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to use nonlinear dynamic analysis methods such as phase space portraits and correlation dimension (D2) as well as descriptive spectrographic analyses to characterize acoustic signals produced during evoked rabbit phonation. Methods Seventeen New Zealand white breeder rabbits were used to perform the study. A Grass S-88 stimulator (SA Instrumentation, Encinitas, CA) and constant current isolation unit (Grass Telefactor, model PSIU6; West Warwick, RI) were used to provide electrical stimulation to laryngeal musculature, and transglottal airflow rate and stimulation current (mA) were manipulated to elicit modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations. Central 1 second portions of the most stable portion of the acoustic waveform for modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations were edited, and then analyzed via phase space portraits, Poincaré sections, and the estimation of the correlation dimension (D2). In an attempt to limit the effects of the highly variable and nonstationary characteristics of some of the signals being analyzed, D2 analysis was also performed on the most stable central 200 ms portion of the acoustic waveform. Descriptive analysis of each phonation was also conducted using sound spectrograms. Results Results showed that the complexity of phonation and the subsequent acoustic waveform is increased as transglottal airflow rate and degree of glottal adduction is manipulated in the evoked rabbit phonation model. In particular, phonatory complexity, as quantified via correlation dimension analyses and demonstrated via spectrographic characteristics, increases from “modal” (i.e., phonation elicited at just above the phonation threshold pressure) to raised intensity (phonation elicited by increasing transglottal airflow rate) to pressed (phonation elicited by increasing the stimulation current delivered to the larynx). Variations in a single dynamic dimension (airflow rate or adductory force

  6. Contribution of Antibody Hydrodynamic Size to Vitreal Clearance Revealed through Rabbit Studies Using a Species-Matched Fab.

    PubMed

    Shatz, Whitney; Hass, Philip E; Mathieu, Mary; Kim, Hok Seon; Leach, Kim; Zhou, Michelle; Crawford, Yongping; Shen, Amy; Wang, Kathryn; Chang, Debby P; Maia, Mauricio; Crowell, Susan R; Dickmann, Leslie; Scheer, Justin M; Kelley, Robert F

    2016-09-06

    We have developed a tool Fab fragment of a rabbit monoclonal antibody that is useful for early evaluation in rabbit models of technologies for long acting delivery (LAD) of proteins to the eye. Using this Fab we show that vitreal clearance can be slowed through increased hydrodynamic size. Fab (G10rabFab) and Fab' (G10rabFab') fragments of a rabbit monoclonal antibody (G10rabIgG) were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and purified using antigen-based affinity chromatography. G10rabFab retains antigen-binding upon thermal stress (37 °C) for 8 weeks in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and can be detected in rabbit tissues using an antigen-based ELISA. Hydrodynamic radius, measured using quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), was increased through site-specific modification of the G10rabFab' free cysteine with linear methoxy-polyethylene glycol(PEG)-maleimide of 20000 or 40000 molecular weight. Pharmacokinetic studies upon intravitreal dosing in New Zealand white rabbits were conducted on the G10rabFab and PEGylated G10rabFab'. Results of single and multidose pharmacokinetic experiments yield reproducible results and a vitreal half-life for G10rabFab of 3.2 days. Clearance from the eye is slowed through increased hydrodynamic size, with vitreal half-life showing a linear dependence on hydrodynamic radius (RH). A linear dependence of vitreal half-life on RH suggests that molecule diffusivity makes an important contribution to vitreal clearance. A method for prediction of vitreal half-life from RH measurements is proposed.

  7. Comparison of time to loss of consciousness and maintenance of anesthesia following intraosseous and intravenous administration of propofol in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri-Khameneh, Ramin; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram

    2012-07-01

    To compare time to loss of consciousness (LOC) and effective maintenance of anesthesia following intraosseous (IO) and IV administration of propofol in rabbits. Evaluation study. 24 New Zealand White rabbits. Rabbits were selected to receive IO (n = 6) or IV (6) bolus administration of 1% propofol (12.5 mg/kg [5.67 mg/lb]) only or an identical bolus of propofol IO (6) or IV (6) followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI; 1 mg/kg/min [0.45 mg/lb/min]) by the same route for 30 minutes. Physiologic variables were monitored at predetermined time points; time to LOC and durations of anesthesia and recovery were recorded. Following IO and IV bolus administration, mean time to LOC was 11.50 and 7.83 seconds, respectively; changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (as measured by pulse oximetry), and mean arterial blood pressure values were evident, but findings did not differ between groups. For the IO- and IV-CRI groups, propofol-associated changes in heart rate, oxygen saturation, and mean arterial blood pressure values were similar, and although mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly from baseline, values remained > 60 mm Hg; respiratory rate decreased significantly during CRI in both groups, but remained higher in the IO-CRI group. Anesthesia and recovery time did not differ between the IO- and IV-CRI groups. In all evaluated aspects of anesthesia, IO administration of propofol was as effective as IV administration in rabbits. Results suggested that total IO anesthesia can be performed in rabbits with limited vascular access.

  8. Unique regulation of Na-glutamine cotransporter SN2/SNAT5 in rabbit intestinal crypt cells during chronic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Soudamani; Arthur, Subha; Sundaram, Uma

    2018-03-01

    The only Na-nutrient cotransporter described in mammalian small intestinal crypt cells is SN2/SNAT5, which facilitates glutamine uptake. In a rabbit model of chronic intestinal inflammation, SN2 stimulation is secondary to an increase in affinity of the cotransporter for glutamine. However, the immune regulation of SN2 in the crypt cells during chronic intestinal inflammation is unknown. We sought to determine the mechanism of regulation of Na-nutrient cotransporter SN2 by arachidonic acid metabolites in crypt cells. The small intestines of New Zealand white male rabbits were inflamed via inoculation with Eimeria magna oocytes. After 2-week incubation, control and inflamed rabbits were subjected to intramuscular injections of arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (ATK), piroxicam and MK886 for 48 hrs. After injections, the rabbits were euthanized and crypt cells from small intestines were harvested and used. Treatment of rabbits with ATK prevented the release of AA and reversed stimulation of SN2. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) with piroxicam did not affect stimulation of SN2. However, inhibition of lipoxygenase (LOX) with MK886, thus reducing leukotriene formation during chronic enteritis, reversed the stimulation of SN2. Kinetic studies showed that the mechanism of restoration of SN2 by ATK or MK886 was secondary to the restoration of the affinity of the cotransporter for glutamine. For all treatment conditions, Western blot analysis revealed no change in SN2 protein levels. COX inhibition proved ineffective at reversing the stimulation of SN2. Thus, this study provides evidence that SN2 stimulation in crypt cells is mediated by the leukotriene pathway during chronic intestinal inflammation. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  9. New Zealand Defense into 2035 -- Future 35 Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    language and grammar used is therefore designed to meet United States requirements, rather than those expected in New Zealand. The change of spelling...accessed 15 March 2012). 3New Zealand Government, Ministry of Defence, Defence White Paper 2010, November 2010, http://nzdf.mil.nz/downloads/ pdf ...public-docs/2010/ defence_white_paper_2010. pdf (accessed 15 March 2012), 16. 2 world, and the wider Search and Rescue Zone exponentially increases

  10. Magnesium alloy covered stent for treatment of a lateral aneurysm model in rabbit common carotid artery: An in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wu; Wang, Yong-Li; Chen, Mo; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yong-Dong; Li, Ming-Hua; Yuan, Guang-Yin

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium alloy covered stents have rarely been used in the common carotid artery (CCA). We evaluated the long-term efficacy of magnesium alloy covered stents in a lateral aneurysm model in rabbit CCA. Magnesium alloy covered stents (group A, n = 7) or Willis covered stents (group B, n = 5) were inserted in 12 New Zealand White rabbits and they were followed up for 12 months. The long-term feasibility for aneurysm occlusion was studied through angiograms; the changes in vessel area and lumen area were assessed with IVUS. Complete aneurysmal occlusion was achieved in all aneurysms. Angiography showed that the diameter of the stented CCA in group A at 6 and 12 months was significantly greater than the diameter immediately after stent placement. On intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination, the mean lumen area of the stented CCA in group A was significantly greater at 6 and 12 months than that immediately after stent placement; the mean lumen area was also significantly greater in group A than in group B at the same time points. The magnesium alloy covered stents proved to be an effective approach for occlusion of lateral aneurysm in the rabbit CCA; it provides distinct advantages that are comparable to that obtained with the Willis covered stent.

  11. Prevention of Adverse Electrical and Mechanical Remodeling with Bi-Ventricular Pacing in a Rabbit Model of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Samir; Mathier, Michael A.; Mehdi, Haider; Gursoy, Erdal; Liu, Tong; Choi, Bum-Rak; Salama, Guy; London, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Background: Biventricular (BIV) pacing can improve cardiac function in heart failure (HF). Objective: To investigate the mechanisms of benefit of BIV pacing using a rabbit model of myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated (C), MI with no pacing (MI), MI with right ventricular pacing (MI+RV), and MI with BIV pacing (MI+BIV), and underwent serial electrocardiograms and echocardiograms. At 4 weeks, hearts were excised and tissue was extracted from various areas of the left ventricle (LV). Results: Four weeks after coronary ligation, BIV pacing prevented systolic and diastolic dilation of the LV as well as the reduction in its fractional shortening, restored the QRS width and the rate-dependent QT intervals to their baseline values, and prevented the decline of the ether-a-go-go (erg) protein levels. This prevention of remodeling was not documented in the MI+RV groups. Conclusions: In this rabbit model of BIV pacing and MI, we demonstrate prevention of adverse mechanical and electrical remodeling of the heart. These changes may underlie some of the benefits seen with BIV pacing in HF patients with more severe LV dysfunction. PMID:18180026

  12. Comparison of Selamectin and Imidacloprid plus Permethrin in Eliminating Leporacarus gibbus Infestation in Laboratory Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Birke, Leslie L; Molina, Patricia E; Baker, David G; Leonard, Stuart T; Marrero, Luis J; Johnson, Merlin; Simkin, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A shipment of New Zealand white rabbits was infested with Leporacarus gibbus, a rabbit fur mite. This study compared the effectiveness of selamectin with that of imidocloprid plus permethrin in eliminating the mite infestation. Rabbits were divided into 2 groups, and either selamectin or imidocloprid plus permethrin was applied topically. Visual and microscopic examinations were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, and 27 for 5 sites (the left and right gluteal areas, neck, ventral tail, and abdomen). Mean percentage effectiveness for each treatment was calculated for each time point. Positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of visual examination were determined relative to microscopic assessment. In addition, location prevalence for the mites was determined. Both treatments were 100% effective by day 13, but selamectin was 100% effective by day 3. The positive predictive value of visual examination was 96%, its negative predictive value was 86%, sensitivity was 75%, and specificity was 98%. Parasite burden was most prevalent on the right and left gluteal areas. We conclude that although both imidocloprid plus permethrin and selamectin were effective against L. gibbus, treatment with selamectin more rapidly eliminated the infestation. PMID:19930824

  13. Effect of HMME-PDT with different parameters in rabbit ear model: a possible way for hypertrophic scarring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hong; Gu, Ying; Zeng, Jing; Li, Shao-ran; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Ying; Shi, Dong-wen; Zhang, Lu-yong

    2007-11-01

    Background and Objective: Hypertrophic scar is a pathological scar that grows aberrantly by excessive deposition of collagens in the dermis. It is known that photodynamic therapy (PDT) contributes to a variety of diseases, however, the use of inhibiting scar formation has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of HMME-PDT (Photodynamic therapy induced by Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether) with different parameters on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ear. Materials and Methods: After the placement of 7-mm diameter dermal wounds on each ear, the acute model of dermal hypertrophic scar in the New Zealand white rabbits was established. Scar wounds were randomly separated into 2 groups: the experimental group received HMME-PDT with different parameters, and the control group received no special treatment. Specimens were harvested from scar wounds on postoperative day 28. Scar and hypertrophic index (HI) were observed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: Compared with the control group, scar formation was inhibited by HMME-PDT in the experimental group with parameters as follows: photosensitizer dose 10mg/kg, power density 20mw/cm2, fluence 5J/cm2, meanwhile, HI was decreased significantly. Conclusion: HMME-PDT may play a role in inhibiting hypertrophic scarring in rabbit ear. The biological effect is determined by the dose of photosensitizer, interval between the injection of photosensitizer and irradiation, power density and energy fluence.

  14. In Vivo High-Frequency Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography of Choroidal Melanoma in Rabbits: Imaging Features and Histopathologic Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shin J.; Zhang, Qing; Patel, Samirkumar R.; Berezovsky, Damian; Yang, Hua; Wang, Yanggan; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the utility of in vivo imaging of rabbit model of choroidal melanoma utilizing high-frequency contrast-enhanced ultrasound (HF-CE-US) with 2-or 3-dimensional modes, and to correlate the sonographic findings with histopathologic characteristics. Methods Five New Zealand white rabbits which were immunosuppressed with daily cyclosporin A were inoculated into their right eyes with aliquots of 1.5×106 / 50 µL of 92.1 human uveal melanoma cells cultured in RPMI. At week 4, the tumor-bearing eyes were imaged using high-frequency ultrasound with microbubble contrast agent to determine the 2-dimensional tumor size and relative blood volume and by 3-dimensional mode to determine tumor volume. Histologic tumor burden was quantified in enucleated eyes by ImageJ software, and microvascular density (MVD) was determined by counting vascular channels in PAS without hematoxylin sections. Results Utilizing HF-CE-US, melanomas were visualized as relatively hyperechoic regions in the images. The correlation coefficients of sonographic size or volume compared with histologic area were 0.72 and 0.70, respectively. The sonographic tumor relative blood volume correlated with the histologic tumor vascularity (R2=0.92, P=0.04) Conclusions There is a positive correlation between in vivo sonographic tumor volume/size and histologic tumor size in our rabbit choroidal melanoma model. HF-CE-US corresponds to microvascular density and blood volume. PMID:23645822

  15. Autogenous bone particle/titanium fiber composites for bone regeneration in a rabbit radius critical-size defect model.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huanxin; Ji, Ye; Tian, Qi; Wang, Xintao; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Yicai; Xu, Jun; Wang, Nanxiang; Yan, Jinglong

    2017-11-01

    To explore the effects of autogenous bone particle/titanium fiber composites on repairing segmental bone defects in rabbits. A model of bilateral radial bone defect was established in 36 New Zealand white rabbits which were randomly divided into 3 groups according to filling materials used for bilaterally defect treatment: in group C, 9 animal bone defect areas were prepared into simple bilateral radius bone defect (empty sham) as the control group; 27 rabbits were used in groups ABP and ABP-Ti. In group ABP, left defects were simply implanted with autogenous bone particles; meanwhile, group ABP-Ti animals had right defects implanted with autogenous bone particle/titanium fiber composites. Animals were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively, after operation. Micro-CT showed that group C could not complete bone regeneration. Bone volume to tissue volume values in group ABP-Ti were better than group ABP. From histology and histomorphometry Groups ABP and ABP-Ti achieved bone repair, the bone formation of group ABP-Ti was better. The mechanical strength of group ABP-Ti was superior to that of other groups. These results confirmed the effectiveness of autologous bone particle/titanium fiber composites for promoting bone regeneration and mechanical strength.

  16. Evaluation of polyethylene glycol/polylactic acid films in the prevention of adhesions in the rabbit adhesion formation and reformation sidewall models.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, K; Cohn, D; Hotovely, A; Pines, E; Diamond, M P; diZerega, G

    1998-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of bioresorbable films consisting of various polyethylene glycol 6000 and polylactic acid block copolymers on the formation and reformation of adhesions in rabbit models of adhesion development between the sidewall to the adjacent cecum and bowel. The composition of the different polymers was expressed by the number of monomeric units in the block, namely, ethylene oxide (EO) and lactic acid (LA), respectively. Studies of the efficacy of EO/LA films were conducted in rabbit sidewall adhesion formation studies in the presence and absence of blood and in rabbit adhesion reformation studies. REPEL (Life Medical Sciences, Edison, NJ), a film of EO/LA ratio 3.0 manufactured under commercial conditions, was also tested in these animal models. University-based laboratory. New Zealand white rabbits. Placement of films of various EO/LA ratios at the site of injury to the parietal peritoneum. Adhesion formation and reformation. Films of various EO/LA ratios, Seprafilm (Genzyme, Cambridge, MA) and Interceed (Johnson and Johnson Medical, Arlington, TX) placed over an area of excised sidewall at the time of initial injury were highly efficacious in the prevention of adhesion formation. A film of EO/LA ratio 3.7, in contrast with Interceed, was also shown to maintain maximal efficacy in the reduction of adhesion formation in the presence of blood. Further, a film of EO/LA ratio 3.0 produced under commercial conditions, REPEL, was highly efficacious in reducing adhesion development in the rabbit models of adhesion and reformation. These studies suggest that bioresorbable EO/LA films reduced adhesion development in rabbit models of adhesion formation and reformation.

  17. Intralaryngeal neuroanatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve of the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Stephen; McNicholas, Walter T; O'Regan, Ronan G; Nolan, Philip

    2003-01-01

    We undertook this study to determine the detailed neuroanatomy of the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in the rabbit to facilitate future neurophysiological recordings from identified branches of this nerve. The whole larynx was isolated post mortem in 17 adult New Zealand White rabbits and prepared using a modified Sihler's technique, which stains axons and renders other tissues transparent so that nerve branches can be seen in whole mount preparations. Of the 34 hemi-laryngeal preparations processed, 28 stained well and these were dissected and used to characterize the neuroanatomy of the RLN. In most cases (23/28) the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) was supplied by a single branch arising from the RLN, though in five PCA specimens there were two or three separate branches to the PCA. The interarytenoid muscle (IA) was supplied by two parallel filaments arising from the main trunk of the RLN rostral to the branch(es) to the PCA. The lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (LCA) commonly received innervation from two fine twigs branching from the RLN main trunk and travelling laterally towards the LCA. The remaining fibres of the RLN innervated the thyroarytenoid muscle (TA) and comprised two distinct branches, one supplying the pars vocalis and the other branching extensively to supply the remainder of the TA. No communicating anastomosis between the RLN and superior laryngeal nerve within the larynx was found. Our results suggest it is feasible to make electrophysiological recordings from identified terminal branches of the RLN supplying laryngeal adductor muscles separate from the branch or branches to the PCA. However, the very small size of the motor nerves to the IA and LCA suggests that it would be very difficult to record selectively from the nerve supply to individual laryngeal adductor muscles. PMID:12739619

  18. Detection and Circulation of a Novel Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mahar, Jackie E.; Read, Andrew J.; Gu, Xingnian; Urakova, Nadya; Mourant, Roslyn; Piper, Melissa; Haboury, Stéphanie; Holmes, Edward C.; Strive, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    The highly virulent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been widely used in Australia and New Zealand since the mid-1990s to control wild rabbits, an invasive vertebrate pest in these countries. In January 2014, an exotic RHDV was detected in Australia, and 8 additional outbreaks were reported in both domestic and wild rabbits in the 15 months following its detection. Full-length genomic analysis revealed that this virus is a recombinant containing an RHDVa capsid gene and nonstructural genes most closely related to nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Nationwide monitoring efforts need to be expanded to assess if the increasing number of different RHDV variants circulating in the Australian environment will affect biological control of rabbits. At the same time, updated vaccines and vaccination protocols are urgently needed to protect pet and farmed rabbits from these novel rabbit caliciviruses. PMID:29260677

  19. Allografts with autogenous platelet-rich plasma for tibial defect reconstruction: a rabbit study.

    PubMed

    Nather, Aziz; Wong, Keng Lin; David, Vikram; Pereira, Barry P

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of autogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for fresh-frozen allografts in tibial defect reconstruction in rabbits. 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent tibial defect reconstruction with autografts (n=12), allografts without PRP (n=12), or allografts with PRP (n=12) and were observed for 12, 16, and 24 weeks (4 for each period). Tibias of the remaining 4 rabbits were used as donor allografts, and the remaining allografts were procured from recipient rabbits. A 1.5- cm cortical segment of the tibia was osteotomised, and then fixed with a 9-hole mini-compression plate and 2 cerclage wires. Allografts were stripped off the periosteum and soft tissues and medullary contents, and then stored in a freezer at -80 ºC. All allografts were deep frozen for at least 4 weeks before transplantation. 7 ml of whole blood was drawn to prepare 1 ml of PRP. The PRP was then mixed with 1.0 ml of human thrombin to form a platelet gel. The PRP gel was then packed into the medullary canal of the allograft and applied on the cortical surface before tibial defect reconstruction. Rabbits were sacrificed at 12, 16, and 24 weeks. The specimens were assessed for bone union at host-graft junctions and for bone resorption, new bone formation, callus encasement, and viable osteocyte counts. There were 4 specimens in each group at each observation period. Osteoid bridging the gap at host-graft junctions was noted in all specimens in the autograft and allograft-with-PRP groups at week 12 and in the allograft-without-PRP group at week 24. Bone union in allografts without PRP was delayed. All indices for biological incorporation (resorption index, new bone formation index, callus encasement index, and viable osteocyte count) were significantly greater in the autograft than allograft-without-PRP groups, except for the resorption index at week 24, whereas the differences were not significant between the autograft and allograft-with-PRP groups. The differences between the 2

  20. Ultrasonographic analysis versus histopathologic evaluation of carotid advanced atherosclerotic stenosis in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Mehrad, Hossein; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Ghanaati, Hossein; Shahbazfar, Amir-Ali; Salehnia, Mojdeh

    2012-08-01

    Advanced carotid atherosclerosis with severe stenosis (>70%) is a major clinical risk factor for ischemic stroke. Our ability to test new protocols for the treatment of atherosclerotic stenosis in humans is limited for obvious ethical reasons; therefore, a suitable animal model is required. The aim of this study was to generate an easily reproducible and inexpensive experimental rabbit carotid model of advanced atherosclerosis with morphological similarities to the human disease and the subsequent assessment of the reliability of B-mode ultrasound technology in the study of lumen area stenosis in this model. Briefly, New Zealand white rabbits underwent primary perivascular cold injury at the right common carotid artery followed by a 1.5% cholesterol-rich diet injury for eight weeks. All of the rabbits' arteries were imaged by B-mode ultrasound weekly, after which the rabbits were sacrificed, and their vessels were processed for histopathology. Ultrasound longitudinal view images from three cardiac cycles were processed by a new computerized analyzing method based on dynamic programming and maximum gradient algorithm for measurement of instantaneous changes in arterial wall thickness and lumen diameter in sequential ultrasound images. Histopathology results showed progressive changes, from the lipid-laden cells and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in neointimal layer, up to the fibro-lipid plaque formation, resulting in vessel wall thickening, remodeling and lumen stenosis. The B-mode ultrasound images and the histologic measurements showed an increase in the mean wall thickness and the lumen area stenosis within eight weeks. Quantitative and morphometric analysis of the mean wall thickness and the lumen area stenosis percentage showed a significant correlation between the B-mode ultrasound and the histological measurements at each time point (R = 0.989 and R = 0.995, p < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, we successfully produced advanced atherosclerosis in

  1. Successful Microbubble Sonothrombolysis without Tissue Plasminogen Activator in a Rabbit Model of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Culp, William C.; Flores, Rene; Brown, Aliza T.; Lowery, John D.; Roberson, Paula K.; Hennings, Leah J.; Woods, Sean D.; Hatton, Jeff H.; Culp, Benjamin C.; Skinner, Robert D.; Borrelli, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Microbubbles (MB) combined with ultrasound (US) have been shown to lyse clots without tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) both in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated sonothrombolysis with three types of MB using a rabbit embolic stroke model. Methods New Zealand White rabbits (n=74) received internal carotid angiographic embolization of single 3 day-old cylindrical clots (0.6×4.0-mm). Groups included: 1) control (n=11) embolized without treatment, 2) tPA (n=20), 3) tPA+US (n=10), 4) Perflutren Lipid MB+US (n=16), 5) albumin 3µm MB+US (n=8), and 6) tagged albumin 3µm MB+US (n=9). Treatment began 1 hour post-embolization. Ultrasound was pulsed-wave (1 MHz; 0.8 W/cm2) for 1 hour; rabbits with tPA received intravenous tPA (0.9 mg/kg) over 1 hour. Lipid MB dose was intravenous (0.16 mg/kg) over 30 minutes. Dosage of 3µm MB was 5×109 MB intravenously alone or tagged with eptifibatide and fibrin antibody over 30 minutes. Rabbits were euthanized at 24 hours. Infarct volume was determined using vital stains on brain sections. Hemorrhage was evaluated on H&E sections. Results Infarct volume percent was lower for rabbits treated with Lipid MB+US (1.0%±0.6%; P=0.013), 3µm MB+US (0.7%±0.9%; P=0.018), and tagged 3µm MB+US (0.8%±0.8%; P=0.019) compared with controls (3.5%±0.8%). The three MB types collectively had lower infarct volumes (P=0.0043) than controls. Infarct volume averaged 2.2%±0.6% and 1.7%±0.8% for rabbits treated with tPA alone and tPA+US, respectively (P=NS). Conclusions Sonothrombolysis without tPA using these MB is effective in decreasing infarct volumes. Study of human application and further MB technique development are justified. PMID:21700942

  2. The junction between hyaline cartilage and engineered cartilage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Komura, Makoto; Komura, Hiroko; Otani, Yushi; Kanamori, Yutaka; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Tsuyoshi, Takato; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Tracheoplasty using costal cartilage grafts to enlarge the tracheal lumen was performed to treat congenital tracheal stenosis. Fibrotic granulomatous tissue was observed at the edge of grafted costal cartilage. We investigated the junction between the native hyaline cartilage and the engineered cartilage plates that were generated by auricular chondrocytes for fabricating the airway. Controlled, prospecive study. In group 1, costal cartilage from New Zealand white rabbits was collected and implanted into a space created in the cervical trachea. In group 2, chondrocytes from auricular cartilages were seeded on absorbable scaffolds. These constructs were implanted in the subcutaneous space. Engineered cartilage plates were then implanted into the trachea after 3 weeks of implantation of the constructs. The grafts in group 1 and 2 were retrieved after 4 weeks. In group 1, histological studies of the junction between the native hyaline cartilage and the implanted costal cartilage demonstrated chondrogenic tissue in four anastomoses sides out of the 10 examined. In group 2, the junction between the native trachea and the engineered cartilage showed neocartilage tissue in nine anastomoses sides out of 10. Engineered cartilage may be beneficial for engineered airways, based on the findings of the junction between the native and engineered grafts. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Late effects from particulate radiations in primate and rabbit tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Bergtold, D. S.; Lee, A. C.; Pickering, J. E.

    Optic tissues in groups of New Zealand white rabbits were irradiated locally at different stages throughout the median life span of the species with a single dose (9 Gy) of 425 MeV/amu Ne ions (LET∞~30 keV/μm) and then inspected routinely for the progression of radiation cataracts. The level of early cataracts was found to be highest in the youngest group of animals irradiated (8 weeks old) but both the onset of late cataracts and loss of vision occurred earlier when animals were irradiated during the second half of the median life span. This age response can have serious implications in terms of space radiation hazards to man. Rhesus monkeys that had been subjected to whole-body skin irradiation (2.8 and 5.6 Gy) by 32 MeV protons (range in tissue ~ 1 cm) some twenty years previously were analysed for radiation damage by the propagation of skin fibroblasts in primary cultures. Such propagation from skin biopsies in MEM-α medium (serial cultivation) or in supplemented Ham's F-10 medium (cultivation without dilution) revealed late damage in the stem (precursor) cells of the skins of the animals. The proton fluxes employed in this experiment are representative of those occurring in major solar flares.

  4. Effect of tracheal occlusion on peripheric pulmonary vessel muscularization in a fetal rabbit model for congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Roubliova, Xenia I; Verbeken, Eric K; Wu, Jun; Vaast, Pascal; Jani, Jacques; Deprest, Jan A

    2004-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects on peripheric pulmonary vessel muscularization by tracheal occlusion (TO) performed at different gestational ages in fetal rabbits with surgically induced diaphragmatic hernia. In 23 New Zealand white does, both ovarian end fetuses underwent surgical creation of diaphragmatic hernia at 23 days of gestation (pseudoglandular phase). At 26, 27, or 28 days 1 fetus underwent TO, the contralateral one underwent a sham operation for a total of 46 fetuses. At 30 days (alveolar phase), fetuses were harvested together with 1 nonoperated internal control. Lungs were processed for vascular morphometry. Proportionate medial thickness and muscularization of intra-acinar vessels were evaluated. Late TO (day 28; saccular phase) normalizes the lung-to-body weight ratio and causes significant medial thinning in vessels up to 35 microm diameter. Tracheal occlusion decreases muscularization of intra-acinar pulmonary vessels in a gestational age-dependent fashion, with maximal effect when TO is performed at 28 days.

  5. The bile sequestrant cholestyramine increases survival in a rabbit model of brodifacoum poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lindeblad, Matthew; Lyubimov, Alexander; van Breemen, Richard; Gierszal, Kamil; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Feinstein, Douglas L

    2018-06-12

    Patients exposed to long acting anticoagulant rodenticides (LAARs) are typically administered large amounts of oral vitamin K1 (VK1) to counteract life-threatening anti-coagulant effects. While VK1 treatment effectively prevents mortality, additional methods are needed to reduce the long duration of VK1 treatment which can last for months at high expense. We developed a model of brodifacoum (BDF) poisoning, one of the most potent LAARs, in adult male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. The LD50 for oral BDF was determined to be 192 μg/kg, similar to that calculated for adult rats. However, in contrast to rats, NZW rabbits exhibited severe internal hemorrhage including in the brain, symptoms which mimic what occurs in cases of human poisoning. Similar to warfarin, BDF and other LAARs undergo enterohepatic recirculation which contributes to their long half-lives. We therefore tested effects of cholestyramine (CSA), an FDA-approved bile sequestrant, on BDF-induced mortality. When given daily (0.67 gm/kg, oral) starting the day of BDF administration, CSA reduced mortality from 67% to 11%. At the same CSA prevented the increase in clotting time, and reduced the decrease in core body temperature due to BDF. Given its excellent safety record and that it is approved for children older than 6 years, these findings suggest CSA could be considered as an adjunct to VK1 for treatment of LAAR poisoning.

  6. Inertial cavitation dose produced ex vivo in rabbit ear arteries with optison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Juan; Brayman, Andrew; Matula, Thomas

    2004-05-01

    Ultrasound-induced inertial cavitation (IC) effects were studied ex vivo in rabbit ear arteries with the addition of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). Ears were removed from New Zealand white rabbits immediately after being euthanized under a protocol approved by the University of Washington IACUC. The auricular arteries were perfused with varying concentration of UCA (Optison) in saline and exposed to 1.155-MHz pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with constant PRF (10 Hz), pulse length (20 cycles), and total treatment time (20 s). Experiments were performed for variable peak negative acoustic pressure (P-) (from 0.19 to 3.31 Mpa) and Optison volume concentration (0% [saline only], 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1%). Cavitation activity was quantified by IC Dose (cumulated root-mean-squared [rms] broadband noise amplitude in a particular band in the frequency domain). The results showed that (1) IC activity was induced much more easily with the addition of Optison, even at low volume concentration, such as 0.1%. (2) IC dose increased significantly with the increasing acoustic pressure and Optison concentration. (3) Higher concentrations of Optison decreased the IC threshold. [Work supported by NIH 8RO1 EB00350-2.

  7. Modification of thermoregulatory responses in rabbits reared at elevated environmental temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, K E; Ferguson, A V; Veale, W L

    1980-01-01

    1. Pregnant New Zealand white rabbits were kept from 14 days pre-partum at an environmental temperature of 33 degrees C, and their offspring were reared at this temperature. 2. In response to a 4 hr cold exposure, animals (aged 90-180 days) raised in this way showed significant drops in colonic temperature (-2.7 +/- 0.5 degrees C) while control animals reared at 20 degrees C did not (+0.05 +/- 0.1 degrees C). 3. A reduced, monophasic endotoxin fever was observed in animals reared at 33 degrees C, while a normal biphasic fever was seen in rabbits originally reared at 20 degrees C and subsequently acclimated to 33 degrees C. 4. A greatly reduced temperature response to intravenous infusion of noradrenaline was also found in animals raised at 33 degrees C. 5. It is proposed that thermal afferent input during early life may play an important role in the development of the thermoregulatory system. PMID:7431230

  8. Ramipril retards development of aortic valve stenosis in a rabbit model: mechanistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Doan Tm; Stafford, Irene; Sverdlov, Aaron L; Qi, Weier; Wuttke, Ronald D; Zhang, Yuan; Kelly, Darren J; Weedon, Helen; Smith, Malcolm D; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Horowitz, John D

    2011-02-01

    Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To date, no therapeutic modality has been shown to be effective in retarding AVS progression. We evaluated the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with ramipril on disease progression in a recently developed rabbit model of AVS. The effects of 8 weeks of treatment with either vitamin D₂ at 25,000 IU for 4 days a week alone or in combination with ramipril (0.5 mg·kg⁻¹) on aortic valve structure and function were examined in New Zealand white rabbits. Echocardiographic aortic valve backscatter (AV(BS)) and aortic valve:outflow tract flow velocity ratio were utilized to quantify changes in valve structure and function. Treatment with ramipril significantly reduced AV(BS) and improved aortic valve :outflow tract flow velocity ratio. The intravalvular content of the pro-oxidant thioredoxin-interacting protein was decreased significantly with ramipril treatment. Endothelial function, as measured by asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations and vascular responses to ACh, was improved significantly with ramipril treatment. Ramipril retards the development of AVS, reduces valvular thioredoxin-interacting protein accumulation and limits endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. These findings provide important insights into the mechanisms of AVS development and an impetus for future human studies of AVS retardation using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. The Effect of Dry Eye Disease on Scar Formation in Rabbit Glaucoma Filtration Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hong; Zhu, Yingting; Zhang, Yingying; Jia, Yu; Li, Yiqing; Ge, Jian; Zhuo, Yehong

    2017-01-01

    The success rate of glaucoma filtration surgery is closely related to conjunctival inflammation, and the main mechanism of dry eye disease (DED) is inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DED on bleb scar formation after rabbit glaucoma filtration surgery. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control and DED groups. A DED model was induced by twice-daily topical administration of 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC) drops for three weeks. Ocular examinations were performed to verify the DED model. Surgical effects were assessed, and histologic assessments were performed on the 28th postoperative day. Higher fluorescein staining scores, lower basal tear secretion levels and goblet cell counts, and increased interleukin 1β (IL-1β) levels were observed in the DED group. The DED eyes displayed significantly higher intraocular pressure (IOP)% on the 14th postoperative day; a smaller bleb area on days 14, 21 and 28; and a shorter bleb survival time. Moreover, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels were significantly increased in the DED group. These results demonstrate that DED promotes filtering bleb scar formation and shortens bleb survival time; these effects may be mediated via IL-1β. PMID:28555041

  10. Improved microsurgical creation of venous pouch arterial bifurcation aneurysms in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sherif, C; Marbacher, S; Erhardt, S; Fandino, J

    2011-01-01

    The choice of the experimental aneurysm model is essential for valid embolization-device evaluations. So far, the use of the rabbit venous pouch arterial bifurcation aneurysm model has been limited by demanding microsurgery, low aneurysm patency rates, and high mortality. This study aimed to facilitate microsurgery and to reduce mortality by optimized peri-/postoperative management. Aneurysms were created in 16 New Zealand white rabbits under general intravenous anesthesia. Using modified microsurgical techniques, we sutured a jugular vein pouch into a bifurcation created between both CCAs. Aggressive anticoagulation (intraoperative intravenous: 1000-IU heparin, 10-mg acetylsalicylic acid/kg; postoperative subcutaneous: 14 days, 250-IU/kg /day heparin) and prolonged postoperative anesthesia (fentanyl patches: 12.5 μg/h for 72 hours) were applied. Angiographic characteristics of created experimental aneurysms were assessed. The reduced number of interrupted sutures and aggressive anticoagulation caused no intra-/postoperative bleeding, resulting in 0% mortality. Four weeks postoperation, angiography showed patency in 14 of 16 aneurysms (87.5%) and Ohshima type B bifurcation geometry. Mean values of parent-artery diameters (2.3 mm), aneurysm lengths (7.9 mm), and neck widths (4.1 mm) resulted in a mean 1.9 aspect ratio. Compared with historical controls, the use of modified microsurgical techniques, aggressive anticoagulation, and anesthesia resulted in higher aneurysm patency rates and lower mortality rates in the venous pouch arterial bifurcation aneurysm model. Gross morphologic features of these aneurysms were similar to those of most human intracranial aneurysms.

  11. Postangioplasty restenosis followed with magnetic resonance imaging in an atherosclerotic rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Hänni, Mari; Leppänen, Olli; Smedby, Orjan

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives. Testing a quantitative, noninvasive method to assess postangioplasty vessel wall changes in an animal model. Material and Methods. Six New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to atherosclerotic injury, including cholesterol-enriched diet, deendothelialization, and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the distal part of abdominal aorta (four weeks after deendothelialization). The animals were examined with a 1.5T MRI scanner at three times as follows: baseline (six weeks after diet start and two days after PTA) and four weeks and 10 weeks after-PTA. Inflow angiosequence (M2DI) and proton-density-weighted sequence (PDW) were performed to examine the aorta with axial slices. To identify the inner and outer vessel wall boundaries, a dynamic contour algorithm (Gradient Vector Flow Snakes) was applied to the images, followed by calculation of the vessel wall dimensions. The results were compared with histopathological analysis. Results. The wall thickness in the lesion was significantly higher than in the control region at 4 and 10 weeks, reflecting induction of experimentally created after-angioplasty lesion. At baseline, no significant difference between the two regions was present. Conclusions. It is possible to follow the development of vessel wall changes after-PTA with MRI in this rabbit model.

  12. Postangioplasty Restenosis Followed with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Atherosclerotic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Hänni, Mari; Leppänen, Olli; Smedby, Örjan

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives. Testing a quantitative, noninvasive method to assess postangioplasty vessel wall changes in an animal model. Material and Methods. Six New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to atherosclerotic injury, including cholesterol-enriched diet, deendothelialization, and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the distal part of abdominal aorta (four weeks after deendothelialization). The animals were examined with a 1.5T MRI scanner at three times as follows: baseline (six weeks after diet start and two days after PTA) and four weeks and 10 weeks after-PTA. Inflow angiosequence (M2DI) and proton-density-weighted sequence (PDW) were performed to examine the aorta with axial slices. To identify the inner and outer vessel wall boundaries, a dynamic contour algorithm (Gradient Vector Flow Snakes) was applied to the images, followed by calculation of the vessel wall dimensions. The results were compared with histopathological analysis. Results. The wall thickness in the lesion was significantly higher than in the control region at 4 and 10 weeks, reflecting induction of experimentally created after-angioplasty lesion. At baseline, no significant difference between the two regions was present. Conclusions. It is possible to follow the development of vessel wall changes after-PTA with MRI in this rabbit model. PMID:23316216

  13. Calcium channel blockers inhibit endogenous pyrogen fever in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Stitt, J T; Shimada, S G

    1991-09-01

    We have previously shown that febrile responses in both rats and rabbits are elicited by the intravenous injection of a semipurified endogenous pyrogen (EP) prepared from human monocytes. We are now presenting evidence that these febrile responses are mediated via activation of Ca2+ channels by EP. The febrile responses of male New Zealand White rabbits and Sprague-Dawley rats to a standard dose of EP were determined at their respective thermoneutral ambient temperatures. The animals were then treated with Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil (7.5 mg/kg iv) 30-60 min before the EP challenge. In every case the febrile response to EP was markedly attenuated after verapamil pretreatment, while administration of verapamil by itself had no detectable effect on body temperature. Another Ca2+ channel blocker, nifedipine (5 mg/kg iv), was shown to possess antipyretic activity in rats also. To localize where in the fever pathway these Ca2+ channel blockers were acting, we investigated the effect of verapamil at the same dose on fevers that were produced by microinjection of prostaglandin E (PGE) directly into the brain. These PGE fevers were unaffected by verapamil pretreatment, indicating that the antipyretic action of Ca2+ channel blockers occurs before the formation of PGE in response to EP stimulation. The most likely locus of action is the activation of the enzyme phospholipase A2, which regulates the production of arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids in the prostanoid cascade.

  14. Ex vivo relaxation effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Bo-Ram; Huang, Yi-Ran; Park, Jong-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on the rabbit penile corpus cavernosum (PCC) was evaluated in the present study. Penises obtained from healthy male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) were precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µmol l(-1)) and then treated with various concentrations of Cuscuta chinensis extract (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg ml(-1)). The change in penile tension was recorded, and cyclic nucleotides in the PCC were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The interaction between Cuscuta chinensis and sildenafil was also evaluated. The result indicated that the PCC relaxation induced by Cuscuta chinensis extract was concentration-dependent. Pre-treatment with an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (Nω nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, L-NAME), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ), or a protein kinase A inhibitor (KT 5720) did not completely inhibit the relaxation. Incubation of penile cavernous tissue with the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the PCC. Moreover, the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly enhanced sildenafil-induced PCC relaxation. In conclusion, the Cuscuta chinensis extract exerts a relaxing effect on penile cavernous tissue in part by activating the NO-cGMP pathway, and it may improve erectile dysfunction (ED), which does not completely respond to sildenafil citrate.

  15. Ex vivo relaxation effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on rabbit corpus cavernosum

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Bo-Ram; Huang, Yi-Ran; Park, Jong-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on the rabbit penile corpus cavernosum (PCC) was evaluated in the present study. Penises obtained from healthy male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5–3.0 kg) were precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µmol l−1) and then treated with various concentrations of Cuscuta chinensis extract (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg ml−1). The change in penile tension was recorded, and cyclic nucleotides in the PCC were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The interaction between Cuscuta chinensis and sildenafil was also evaluated. The result indicated that the PCC relaxation induced by Cuscuta chinensis extract was concentration-dependent. Pre-treatment with an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (Nω nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, L-NAME), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ), or a protein kinase A inhibitor (KT 5720) did not completely inhibit the relaxation. Incubation of penile cavernous tissue with the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the PCC. Moreover, the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly enhanced sildenafil-induced PCC relaxation. In conclusion, the Cuscuta chinensis extract exerts a relaxing effect on penile cavernous tissue in part by activating the NO-cGMP pathway, and it may improve erectile dysfunction (ED), which does not completely respond to sildenafil citrate. PMID:23147465

  16. Combination of fluvastatin and losartan relieves atherosclerosis and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-pei; Dong, Qiu-li; Zhang, Xu-hong; Zhang, Yue-hui; Zhu, Li; Li, Shu-ying; Liu, Zhong-zhi; Xu, Hui; Wang, Nan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Chun-xi; Liu, Xian-xi; Dong, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the combination of fluvastatin and losartan synergistically relieve atherosclerosis and plaque inflammation induced by a high-cholesterol diet in rabbits. Methods: Atherosclerosis was induced with a high-cholesterol diet for 3 months in 36 New Zealand white rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into model group, fluvastatin (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) group, losartan (25 mg·kg-1·d-1) group, and fluvastatin plus losartan group. After the 16-week treatments, the blood samples the animals were collected, and the thoracic aortas were examined immunohistochemically. The mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured using RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: Compared to the treatment with losartan or fluvastatin alone, the combined treatment did not produce higher efficacy in reduction of blood cholesterol level. However, the combination did synergistically decrease the intimal and media thickness of thoracic aortas with significantly reduced macrophage infiltration and MCP-1 expression in the plaques. Conclusion: The combined treatment with losartan and fluvastatin significantly inhibited atherosclerotic progress and reduced inflammation associated with atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:21909126

  17. Osteogenic capability of autologous rabbit adipose-derived stromal cells in repairing calvarial defects.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shao-Wen; Lin, Zhong-Qin; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dong-Quan; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Chen, Qing-Yu; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Peng, Lei; Lv, Chuan-Zhu

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo osteogenic capability of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). ASCs were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits and determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, von Kossa staining and alizarin red staining. Some specific markers of osteogenic differentiation, including ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN) were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In vivo, demineralized bone matrix (DBM)-ASCs composites were implanted into the rabbit calvarial defects created at each side of the longitudinal midline. After 6 weeks, histologic properties of the transplants were analyzed. ASCs were successfully induced into osteogenesis. ALP staining, von Kossa staining and alizarin red staining showed positive results. The expressions of ALP, OCN and OPN were detected in ASCs after cultivation in osteogenic medium. Extensive new bone was observed in the defects transplanted with DBM-ASCs composites. ASCs have the potential to differentiate into osteogenic lineage and DBM-ASCs constructs are a promising method for regeneration in bone defects.

  18. Ocular damage effects from 1338-nm pulsed laser radiation in a rabbit eye model

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Luguang; Wang, Jiarui; Jing, Xiaomin; Chen, Hongxia; Yang, Zaifu

    2017-01-01

    The ocular damage effects induced by transitional near-infrared (NIR) lasers have been investigated for years. However, no retinal damage thresholds are determined in a wide interval between 0.65 ms and 80 ms, and a definite relationship between corneal damage threshold and spot size cannot be drawn from existing data points. In this paper, the in-vivo corneal damage thresholds (ED50s) were determined in New Zealand white rabbits for a single 5 ms pulse at the wavelength of 1338 nm for spot sizes from 0.28 mm to 3.55 mm. Meanwhile, the retinal damage threshold for this laser was determined in chinchilla grey rabbits under the condition that the beam was collimated, and the incident corneal spot diameter was 5.0 mm. The corneal ED50s given in terms of the corneal radiant exposure for spot diameters of 0.28, 0.94, 1.91, and 3.55 mm were 70.3, 35.6, 29.6 and 30.3 J/cm2, respectively. The retinal ED50 given in terms of total intraocular energy (TIE) was 0.904 J. The most sensitive ocular tissue to this laser changed from the cornea to retina with the increase of spot size. PMID:28663903

  19. Correlation of plasma and peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration with hemodynamic recovery after intralipid infusion in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Hoggett, Kerry

    2009-02-01

    Drug sequestration to an expanded plasma lipid phase has been proposed as a potential mechanism of action for lipid emulsions in lipophilic cardiotoxin overdose. The authors set out to document plasma and peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration after resuscitation with lipid emulsion in a rabbit model of clomipramine-induced hypotension. Twenty sedated mechanically ventilated New Zealand White rabbits were allocated to receive either 12 mL/kg 20% Intralipid or 12 mL/kg saline solution, following clomipramine infusion to 50% baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP). Hemodynamic parameters and serum clomipramine concentration were determined to 59 minutes. Peritoneal dialysis with 20% Intralipid or saline solution was evaluated for clomipramine concentration. Mean arterial pressure was greater in lipid-treated animals as assessed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (F[1,14] = 6.84; p = 0.020). Lipid infusion was associated with elevated plasma clomipramine concentration and reduced initial volume of distribution (Vd; 5.7 [+/-1.6] L/kg lipid vs. 15.9 [+/-7.2] L/kg saline; p = 0.0001). Peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration was greater in lipid-treated animals (366.2 [+/-186.2] microg/L lipid vs. 37.7 [+/-13.8] microg/L saline; p = 0.002). Amelioration of clomipramine-induced hypotension with lipid infusion is associated with reduced initial Vd and elevated plasma clomipramine concentration consistent with intravascular drug-lipid sequestration. Concomitant peritoneal dialysis with lipid emulsion enhances clomipramine extraction.

  20. Modification of pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin following oral administration of curcumin in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Pavithra, B. H.; Jayakumar, K.

    2009-01-01

    Investigation was carried out in adult New Zealand white rabbits to study the influence of curcumin pre-treatment on pharmacokinetic disposition of norfloxacin following single oral administration. Sixteen rabbits were divided into two groups of eight each consisting of either sex. Animals in group-I were administered norfloxacin (100 mg/kg body weight p.o), while animals in group-II received similar dose of norfloxacin after pre-treatment with curcumin (60 mg/kg body weight per day, 3 days, p.o). Blood samples were drawn from the marginal ear vein into heparin-coated vials at 0 (zero time), 5, 10, 15, 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h post-treatment. Plasma norfloxacin concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentration-time profile of norfloxacin was adequately described by a one-compartment open model. The pharmacokinetic data revealed that curcumin-treated animals had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher area under the plasma concentration-time curve and area under the first moment of plasma drug concentration-time curve. Prior treatment of curcumin significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased elimination half-life and volume of distribution of norfloxacin. Further treatment with curcumin reduced loading and maintenance doses by 26% and 24% respectively. PMID:19934593

  1. RABBIT POX

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Harry S. N.

    1935-01-01

    The epidemiological significance of age, race, sex, genetic constitution and physiological status were studied by means of a differential analysis of the mortality data derived from a devastating epidemic of rabbit pox and, with the exception of sex, were found to be factors of the utmost importance in the determination of susceptibility. Young animals were more susceptible than adults and although the most susceptible age varied with the epidemic phase, it corresponded in general with the period of weaning. The influence of physiological status was further indicated by the increased susceptibility incident to lactation. Racial variations in susceptibility were obscured by age factors in young animals, but were of profound importance in the adult population and formed the most significant feature of the analysis. A high degree of conformity was found in the susceptibility of racially related breeds, and this similarity in behavior increased with the proximity of relationship. Moreover, a study of the hybrids obtained from the crossing of pure breeds showed that two separable groups of hereditary factors were concerned in the determination of breed susceptibility, one group consisting of essential racial characters, the other of constitutional factors incorporated in the stock by chance association, and that the final expression of susceptibility or resistance was the result of their combined interaction. PMID:19870417

  2. A potential mechanism for the impairment of nitric oxide formation caused by prolonged oral exposure to arsenate in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jingbo; Horiguchi, Satomi; Sun, Yang; Nikaido, Masatoshi; Shimojo, Nobuhiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sun, Guifan; Waalkes, Michael P; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2003-07-01

    We have recently found evidence for impairment of nitric oxide (NO) formation and induction of oxidative stress in residents of an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia, China. To investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for these phenomena, a subchronic animal experiment was conducted using male New Zealand White rabbits. After 18 weeks of continuous exposure of rabbits to 5 mg/l of arsenate in drinking water, a significant decrease in systemic NO production occurred, as shown by significantly reduced plasma NO metabolites levels (76% of control) and a tendency towards decreased serum cGMP levels (81.4% of control). On the other hand, increased oxidative stress, as shown by significantly increased urinary hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (120% of control), was observed in arsenate-exposed rabbits. In additional experiments measuring aortic tension, the addition of either the calcium ionophore A23187 or acethylcholine (ACh) induced a transient vasoconstriction of aortic rings prepared from arsenate-exposed rabbits, but not in those prepared from control animals. This calcium-dependent contractility action observed in aorta rings from arsenate-exposed rabbits was markedly attenuated by the superoxide (O2(.-)) scavenging enzyme Cu, Zn-SOD, as well as diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which are inhibitors for nitric oxide synthase (NOS). However, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or the xanthine oxidase blocker allopurinol had no effect on this vasoconstriction. These results suggest that arsenate-mediated reduction of systemic NO may be associated with the enzymatic uncoupling reaction of NOS with a subsequent enhancement of reactive oxygen species such as O2(.-), an endothelium-derived vasoconstricting factor. Furthermore, hepatic levels of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor for NOS, were markedly reduced in arsenate-exposed rabbits to 62% of control, while no significant

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: Experimental animal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. Methods A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. Results There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Bashkaran, Karuppannan; Zunaina, Embong; Bakiah, Shaharuddin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Sirajudeen, Kns; Naik, Venkatesh

    2011-10-09

    Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous humour (p = 0.117, p = 0

  5. Effect of turmeric on the viability, ovarian folliculogenesis, fecundity, ovarian hormones and response to luteinizing hormone of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, A V; Kadasi, A; Stochmalova, A; Balazi, A; Földesiová, M; Makovicky, P; Chrenek, P; Harrath, A H

    2018-06-01

    The present study investigated whether dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) can improve rabbit reproduction, ovarian function, growth, or viability. Female New Zealand White rabbits were either fed a standard diet (n=15) or a diet enriched with 5 g (group E1) or 20 g (group E2) turmeric powder per 100 kg feed mixture (n=16 or 15, respectively). After 295 days, weight gain, conception and kindling rates, pup and mother viability, ovarian macro- and micro-morphometric indices, release of leptin in response to the addition LH, and the release of progesterone, testosterone and leptin by isolated ovarian fragments were analyzed. Dietary turmeric failed to affect ovarian length and weight but did increase the number of primary follicles (E2: 32.5% greater than control group), as well as the diameter of primary (E1: +19.4%, E2: +21.1%), secondary (E2: +41.4%), and tertiary (E1: +97.1%, E2: +205.1%) follicles. Turmeric also increased the number of liveborn (E1: +21.0%) and weaned (E1: +25.0%) pups and decreased the number of stillborn pups (E2: -87.5%) but did not affect weight gain, conception, or kindling rate. Furthermore, dietary turmeric decreased doe mortality during the first reproductive cycle (13.3% in control; 0% in E1; and 6.7% in E2) but not during the second cycle. In vitro, the ovaries of the turmeric-treated rabbits released more progesterone (E1: +85.7%, E2: +90.0%) and less testosterone (E2: -87.0%) and leptin (E2: -29.0%) than the ovaries of control rabbits. Moreover, LH decreased the leptin output of control rabbits but increased that of experimental rabbits. Therefore, it is likely that dietary turmeric improves pup viability and that it could promote rabbit fecundity by either (1) promoting the production of primary ovarian follicles or (2) stimulating the growth of follicles at all stages of folliculogenesis.

  6. Identification and Comparison of the Polar Phospholipids in Normal and Dry Eye Rabbit Tears by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Bryan M.; Cole, Richard B.; Jacob, Jean T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To identify and compare the phosphorylated lipids in normal and dry eye rabbit tears using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Methods MALDI-TOF MS studies were performed on tear samples from normal and dry eyes of female New Zealand White rabbits. Experimental dry eye was induced by complete removal of the main and accessory lacrimal glands and nictitating membranes. A solid ionic crystal MALDI matrix of paranitroaniline and butyric acid was used to enhance the mass spectral responses of the phospholipids. In addition, a novel lipid isolation, preconcentration, and clean-up method using pipettes containing immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) medium was used. Results The polar phospholipids present in the normal and dry eye rabbit tears showed both similarities and differences. Species related to platelet-activating factor (PAF) and/or lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and sphingomyelin (SM) were found in both the normal and dry eye rabbit tears. However, the number of types and the concentrations of SM molecules were markedly greater in the dry eye tears than in the normal tears. In addition, phosphatidylserine (PS) species that were readily detectable in dry eye tears were not found in normal tears. Conclusions The combination of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and the solid ionic crystal matrix for MALDI enabled the detection and study of phosphorylated lipids in the tears. Specific differences between phospholipid levels in normal and dry eye tears were observable with this methodology. The appearance of various SM species only in the dry eye tears may provide markers for this disease state in the future. PMID:16877399

  7. A new simplified volume-loaded heterotopic rabbit heart transplant model with improved techniques and a standard operating procedure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Pan, Xu-Dong; Li, Bing; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Wang, Long-Fei; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    The classic non-working (NW) heterotopic heart transplant (HTX) model in rodents had been widely used for researches related to immunology, graft rejection, evaluation of immunosuppressive therapies and organ preservation. But unloaded models are considered not suitable for some researches. Accordingly, We have constructed a volume-loaded (VL) model by a new and simple technique. Thirty male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, group NW with 14 rabbits and group VL with 16 rabbits, which served as donors and recipients. We created a large and nonrestrictive shunt to provide left heart a sufficient preload. The donor superior vena cave and ascending aorta (AO) were anastomosed to the recipient abdominal aorta (AAO) and inferior vena cava (IVC), respectively. No animals suffered from paralysis, pneumonia and lethal bleeding. Recipients' mortality and morbidity were 6.7% (1/15) and 13.3% (2/15), respectively. The cold ischemia time in group VL is slight longer than that in group NW. The maximal aortic velocity (MAV) of donor heart was approximately equivalent to half that of native heart in group VL. Moreover, the similar result was achieved in the parameter of late diastolic mitral inflow velocity between donor heart and native heart in group VL. The echocardiography (ECHO) showed a bidirectional flow in donor SVC of VL model, inflow during diastole and outflow during systole. PET-CT imaging showed the standard uptake value (SUV) of allograft was equal to that of native heart in both groups on the postoperative day 3. We have developed a new VL model in rabbits, which imitates a native heart hemodynamically while only requiring a minor additional procedure. Surgical technique is simple compared with currently used HTX models. We also developed a standard operating procedure that significantly improved graft and recipient survival rate. This study may be useful for investigations in transplantation in which a working model is required.

  8. The influence of systemically administered oxytocin on the implant-bone interface area: an experimental study in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Am; Park, Sang-Hun

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of systemically administered oxytocin (OT) on the implant-bone interface by using histomorphometric analysis and the removal torque test. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 10 adult, New Zealand white, female rabbits were used in this experiment. We placed 2 implants (CSM; CSM Implant, Daegu, South Korea) in each distal femoral metaphysis on both the right and left sides; the implants on both sides were placed 10 mm apart. In each rabbit, 1 implant was prepared for histomorphometric analysis and the other 3 were prepared for the removal torque test (RT). The animals received intramuscular injections of either saline (control group; 0.15 M NaCl) or OT (experimental group; 200 µg/rabbit). The injections were initiated on Day 3 following the implant surgery and were continued for 4 subsequent weeks; the injections were administered twice per day (at a 12-h interval), for 2 days per week. RESULTS While no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (P=.787), the control group had stronger removal torque values. The serum OT concentration (ELISA value) was higher in the OT-treated group, although no statistically significant difference was found. Further, the histomorphometric parameter (bone-toimplant contact [BIC], inter-thread bone, and peri-implant bone) values were higher in the experimental group, but the differences were not significant. CONCLUSION We postulate that OT supplementation via intramuscular injection weakly contributes to the bone response at the implant-bone interface in rabbits. Therefore, higher concentrations or more frequent administration of OT may be required for a greater bone response to the implant. Further studies analyzing these aspects are needed. PMID:25551011

  9. Prevention of bacterial colonization of contact lenses with covalently attached selenium and effects on the rabbit cornea.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Steven M; Spallholz, Julian E; Grimson, Mark J; Dubielzig, Richard R; Gray, Tracy; Reid, Ted W

    2006-08-01

    Although silicone hydrogel materials have produced many corneal health benefits to patients wearing contact lenses, bacteria that cause acute red eye or corneal ulcers are still a concern. A coating that inhibits bacterial colonization while not adversely affecting the cornea should improve the safety of contact lens wear. A covalent selenium (Se) coating on contact lenses was evaluated for safety using rabbits and prevention of bacterial colonization of the contact lenses in vitro. Contact lenses coated with Se were worn on an extended-wear schedule for up to 2 months by 10 New Zealand White rabbits. Corneal health was evaluated with slit-lamp biomicroscopy, pachymetry, electron microscopy, and histology. Lenses worn by the rabbits were analyzed for protein and lipid deposits. In addition, the ability of Se to block bacterial colonization was tested in vitro by incubating lenses in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa broth followed by scanning electron microscopy of the contact lens surface. The covalent Se coating decreased bacterial colonization in vitro while not adversely affecting the corneal health of rabbits in vivo. The Se coating produced no noticeable negative effects as observed with slit-lamp biomicroscopy, pachymetry, electron microscopy, and histology. The Se coating did not affect protein or lipid deposition on the contact lenses. The data from this pilot study suggest that a Se coating on contact lenses might reduce acute red eye and bacterial ulceration because of an inhibition of bacterial colonization. In addition, our safety tests suggest that this positive effect can be produced without an adverse effect on corneal health.

  10. Isolation and characterization of the progenitor cells from the blastema tissue formed at experimentally-created rabbit ear hole.

    PubMed

    Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Bordbar, Sima

    2013-02-01

    Objective(s) : Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  11. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  12. A Rabbit Model for Assessment of Volatile Metabolite Changes Observed from Skin: a Pressure Ulcer Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Schivo, Michael; Aksenov, Alexander A; Pasamontes, Alberto; Cumeras, Raquel; Weisker, Sandra; Oberbauer, Anita M; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-01-01

    Human skin presents a large, easily accessible matrix that is potentially useful for diagnostic applications based on whole body metabolite changes – some of which will be volatile and detected using minimally invasive tools. Unfortunately, identifying skin biomarkers that can be reliably linked to a particular condition is challenging due to a large variability of genetics, dietary intake, environmental exposures within human populations. This leads to a paucity of clinically validated volatile skin biomarker compounds. Animal models present a very convenient and attractive way to circumvent many of the variability issues. The rabbit (Leporidae) is a potentially logistically useful model to study the skin metabolome, but very limited knowledge of its skin metabolites exists. Here we present the first comprehensive assessment of the volatile fraction of rabbit skin metabolites using polydimethylsiloxane sorbent patch sampling in conjunction with gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A collection of compounds that are secreted from rabbit skin was documented, and predominantly acyclic long-chain alkyls and alcohols were detected. We then utilized this animal model to study differences between intact skin and skin with early pressure ulcers, as the latter are a major problem in intensive care units. Four New Zealand female white rabbits underwent ulcer formation on one ear with the other ear as a control. Early-stage ulcers were created with neodymium magnets. Histologic analysis showed acute heterophilic dermatitis, edema, and micro-hemorrhage on the ulcerated ears with normal findings on the control ears. The metabolomic analysis revealed subtle but noticeable differences, with several compounds associated with the oxidative stress-related degradation of lipids found to be present in greater abundances in ulcerated ears. The metabolomic findings correlate with histologic evidence of early-stage ulcers. We postulate that the Leporidae model recapitulated

  13. Efficacies of Ceftobiprole Medocaril and Comparators in a Rabbit Model of Osteomyelitis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li-Yan; Calhoun, Jason H.; Thomas, Jacob K.; Shapiro, Stuart; Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and distribution into bone tissue of ceftobiprole in uninfected New Zealand White rabbits were determined after subcutaneous administration of the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril. Serum exposure (maximum concentration of the drug in serum, trough concentration, area under the concentration-time curve) to ceftobiprole at 20 and 80 mg/kg was dose proportional, and there was no accumulation of ceftobiprole following repeated (every 6 h [q6h]) injections of the antibiotic. Ceftobiprole titers in the tibial matrix and marrow were 3.2 ± 1.3 μg/g and 11.2 ± 6.5 μg/g, respectively, in uninfected animals treated with 20 mg/kg of the antibiotic and 13.4 ± 7.3 μg/g and 66.3 ± 43.2 μg/g, respectively, in uninfected animals treated with 80 mg/kg of the antibiotic. No differences in ceftobiprole titers were observed between right and left tibiae for either bone matrix or marrow. The efficacies of 4 weeks of treatment with ceftobiprole (40 mg/kg administered subcutaneously [s.c.] q6h), vancomycin (30 mg/kg administered s.c. q12h), or linezolid (60 mg/kg administered orally q8h) were compared, using a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus tibial osteomyelitis. After treatment with ceftobiprole, the bacterial titers in all infected left tibiae from evaluable rabbits were below the level of detection, whereas only 73% of infected left tibiae from vancomycin- or linezolid-treated animals had bacterial titers below the level of detection; the mean titers of ceftobiprole were 3 to 5 times higher in infected left tibiae than in uninfected right tibiae. These results indicate that ceftobiprole provided effective parenteral treatment of osteomyelitis in this rabbit model. PMID:18332175

  14. Efficacies of ceftobiprole medocaril and comparators in a rabbit model of osteomyelitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li-Yan; Calhoun, Jason H; Thomas, Jacob K; Shapiro, Stuart; Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne

    2008-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics and distribution into bone tissue of ceftobiprole in uninfected New Zealand White rabbits were determined after subcutaneous administration of the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril. Serum exposure (maximum concentration of the drug in serum, trough concentration, area under the concentration-time curve) to ceftobiprole at 20 and 80 mg/kg was dose proportional, and there was no accumulation of ceftobiprole following repeated (every 6 h [q6h]) injections of the antibiotic. Ceftobiprole titers in the tibial matrix and marrow were 3.2 +/- 1.3 microg/g and 11.2 +/- 6.5 microg/g, respectively, in uninfected animals treated with 20 mg/kg of the antibiotic and 13.4 +/- 7.3 microg/g and 66.3 +/- 43.2 microg/g, respectively, in uninfected animals treated with 80 mg/kg of the antibiotic. No differences in ceftobiprole titers were observed between right and left tibiae for either bone matrix or marrow. The efficacies of 4 weeks of treatment with ceftobiprole (40 mg/kg administered subcutaneously [s.c.] q6h), vancomycin (30 mg/kg administered s.c. q12h), or linezolid (60 mg/kg administered orally q8h) were compared, using a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus tibial osteomyelitis. After treatment with ceftobiprole, the bacterial titers in all infected left tibiae from evaluable rabbits were below the level of detection, whereas only 73% of infected left tibiae from vancomycin- or linezolid-treated animals had bacterial titers below the level of detection; the mean titers of ceftobiprole were 3 to 5 times higher in infected left tibiae than in uninfected right tibiae. These results indicate that ceftobiprole provided effective parenteral treatment of osteomyelitis in this rabbit model.

  15. Investigation of the effects of local glutathione and chitosan administration on incisional oral mucosal wound healing in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Ciğdem; Güleç Peker, Emine Gülçeri; Acartürk, Füsun; Kılıçaslan, Seda M Sarı; Çoşkun Cevher, Şule

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of local glutathione (GSH) and chitosan applications on the oxidant events and histological changes that occur, during healing processes in rabbits with incisional intraoral mucosal wounds. For this purpose, discs containing glutathione and chitosan (1:1) were prepared and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. New Zealand white rabbits were used in in vivo studies. A standard incision was applied to the oral mucosa of rabbits. The rabbits were divided into four groups, being: an untreated incisional group (n=6), a group treated with discs containing GSH+chitosan (n=6), a group treated with discs containing solely chitosan (n=5) and a group treated with discs containing solely GSH (n=5). The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione and nitric oxide (NOx) in the oral wound tissues were measured on the fifth day after the injury. Histological changes in the wound tissues were also investigated. The tissue MDA levels in the group treated with the disc containing GSH+chitosan were found to be lower than those in the other groups. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tissue GSH and NOx levels between the group treated with the disc comprising GSH+chitosan and the control group that had untreated incision wounds. According to the histological findings, wound healing in the group treated with the disc containing solely chitosan was found to be better than in the other groups. The results of the experiments showed that the local application to the intraoral incision wounds of chitosan+GSH, and chitosan alone, can be effective in the wound healing processes of soft tissues and dental implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to a high-fat diet alters leptin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Prior, Larissa J; Eikelis, Nina; Armitage, James A; Davern, Pamela J; Burke, Sandra L; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Barzel, Benjamin; Head, Geoffrey A

    2010-04-01

    The activation of the sympathetic nervous system through the central actions of the adipokine leptin has been suggested as a major mechanism by which obesity contributes to the development of hypertension. However, direct evidence for elevated sympathetic activity in obesity has been limited to muscle. The present study examined the renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiovascular effects of a high-fat diet (HFD), as well as the changes in the sensitivity to intracerebroventricular leptin. New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13.5% HFD for 4 weeks showed modest weight gain but a 2- to 3-fold greater accumulation of visceral fat compared with control rabbits. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma norepinephrine concentration increased by 8%, 26%, and 87%, respectively (P<0.05), after 3 weeks of HFD. Renal sympathetic nerve activity was 48% higher (P<0.05) in HFD compared with control diet rabbits and was correlated to plasma leptin (r=0.87; P<0.01). Intracerebroventricular leptin administration (5 to 100 microg) increased mean arterial pressure similarly in both groups, but renal sympathetic nerve activity increased more in HFD-fed rabbits. By contrast, intracerebroventricular leptin produced less neurons expressing c-Fos in HFD compared with control rabbits in regions important for appetite and sympathetic actions of leptin (arcuate: -54%, paraventricular: -69%, and dorsomedial hypothalamus: -65%). These results suggest that visceral fat accumulation through consumption of a HFD leads to marked sympathetic activation, which is related to increased responsiveness to central sympathoexcitatory effects of leptin. The paradoxical reduction in hypothalamic neuronal activation by leptin suggests a marked "selective leptin resistance" in these animals.

  17. Stimulation of bone formation by dietary boron in an orthopedically expanded suture in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Tancan; Ustdal, Ayca; Sonmez, Mehmet Fatih; Ozturk, Figen

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of dietary boron on bone regeneration in rabbits in response to expansion of the midpalatal suture during different retention periods. Twenty-eight 12-week-old New Zealand white male rabbits were separated into four equal groups: group 1 (B+10) and group 2 (B-10) had retention periods of 10 days with or without boron intake, respectively. Group 3 (B+20, with boron) and group 4 (B-20, without boron) were retained for 20 days. All groups had a 5-day expansion period. For both B+ groups, boron was prepared in distilled water and given to the rabbits during their (1) nursery phase (40 days), (2) expansion phase, and (3) retention period at a dosage of 3 mg/kg daily by oral gavage. Bone regeneration in the midpalatal suture was evaluated by a bone histomorphometric method, and the mineralized area (Md.Ar), fibrosis area (Fb.Ar), mineralized area/fibrosis area (Md.Ar/Fb.Ar), bone area (B.Ar) and osteoblast number (N.Ob) parameters were evaluated. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between groups for all investigated measurements. Md.Ar (P < .01), Md.Ar/Fb.Ar (P < .001), B.Ar (P < .01), and N.Ob (P < .01) parameters were increased and Fb.Ar (P < .01) was decreased in groups B+10 and B+20. No significant differences were observed during an additional 10-day retention period in all groups (P < .05). Boron has a positive effect on the early phase of bone regeneration of the midpalatal suture in response to expansion and may be beneficial in routine maxillary expansion procedures.

  18. A rabbit vocal fold laser scarring model for testing lamina propria tissue engineering therapies

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Ted; Du, Mindy; Xu, Chet C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To develop a vocal fold scarring model using an ablative laser in the rabbit as a platform for testing bioengineered therapies for missing or damaged lamina propria. Study Design Prospective controlled animal study. Methods An optimal laser energy level was first determined by assessing the depths of vocal fold injury created by a Holmium:YAG laser at various energy levels on fresh cadaveric rabbit larynges. The selected energy level was then used to create controlled unilateral injuries in vocal folds of New Zealand white rabbits, with the contralateral folds serving as uninjured controls. After 4 weeks, the larynges were harvested and subjected to excised-larynx phonation with high-speed imaging and immunohistochemical staining for collagen types I and III, elastin, and hyaluronic acid (HA) with quantitative histological analysis. Results 1.8 joules produced full-thickness injury of the lamina propria without extensive muscle injury. After 4 weeks, the injured vocal folds vibrated with reduced amplitude (P = 0.036) in excised-larynx phonation compared to normal vocal folds. The injured vocal folds contained a higher relative density of collagen type I (P = 0.004), higher elastin (P = 0.022), and lower HA (P = 0.030) compared to normal controls. Collagen type III was unchanged. Conclusions With its potential for higher precision of injury, this laser vocal fold scarring model may serve as an alternative to scarring produced by cold instruments for studying the effects of vocal fold lamina propria bioengineered therapies. Level of Evidence N/A. PMID:24715695

  19. Embryo-fetal development studies with the dietary supplement vinpocetine in the rat and rabbit.

    PubMed

    Catlin, Natasha; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Mylchreest, Eve; Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Cunny, Helen; Foster, Paul; Sutherland, Vicki; McIntyre, Barry

    2018-06-01

    Dietary supplement and natural product use is increasing within the United States, resulting in growing concern for exposure in vulnerable populations, including young adults and women of child-bearing potential. Vinpocetine is a semisynthetic derivative of the Vinca minor extract, vincamine. Human exposure to vinpocetine occurs through its use as a dietary supplement for its purported nootropic and neuroprotective effects. To investigate the effects of vinpocetine on embryo-fetal development, groups of 25 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and 8 pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were orally administered 0, 5, 20, or 60 mg vinpocetine/kg and 0, 25, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg daily from gestational day (GD) 6-20 and GD 7-28, respectively. Pregnant rats dosed with vinpocetine demonstrated dose-dependent increases in postimplantation loss, higher frequency of early and total resorptions, lower fetal body weights, and fewer live fetuses following administration of 60 mg/kg, in the absence of maternal toxicity. Additionally, the rat fetuses displayed dose-dependent increases in the incidences of ventricular septum defects and full supernumerary thoracolumbar ribs. Similarly, albeit at higher doses than the rats, pregnant rabbits administered vinpocetine displayed an increase in postimplantation loss and fewer live fetuses (300 mg/kg), in addition to significantly lower fetal body weights (≥75 mg/kg). In conclusion, vinpocetine exposure resulted in similar effects on embryo-fetal development in the rat and rabbit. The species differences in sensitivity and magnitude of response is likely attributable to a species difference in metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest a potential hazard for pregnant women who may be taking vinpocetine. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Newly designed "pieced" stent in a rabbit model of benign esophageal stricture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Shang, Liang; Liu, Ji-Yong; Qin, Cheng-Yong

    2015-07-28

    To investigate a newly designed stent and its dilatation effect in a rabbit model of benign esophageal stricture. Thirty-four New Zealand white rabbits underwent a corrosive injury in the middle esophagus for esophageal stricture formation. Thirty rabbits with a successful formation of esophageal strictures were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group (n = 15) was implanted with a conventional stent, and the study group (n = 15) was implanted with a detachable "pieced" stent. The study stent (30 mm in length, 10 mm in diameter) was composed of three covered metallic pieces connected by surgical suture lines. The stent was collapsed by pulling the suture lines out of the mesh. Two weeks after stricture formation, endoscopic placement of a conventional stent or the new stent was performed. Endoscopic extraction was carried out four weeks later. The extraction rate, ease of extraction, migration, complications, and survival were evaluated. Stent migration occurred in 3/15 (20%) animals in the control group and 2/15 (13%) animals in the study group; the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. At the end of four weeks, the remaining stents were successfully extracted with the endoscope in 100% (11/11) of the animals in the study group, and 60% (6/10) of the animals in the control group; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the mean number of follow-up days between the control and study groups (25.33 vs 25.85). Minor bleeding was reported in five cases in the study group and four in the control group. There were no severe complications directly associated with stent implantation or extraction in either of the two groups. In this experimental protocol of benign esophageal strictures, the novel "pieced" stent demonstrated a superior removal rate with a similar migration rate compared to a conventional stent.

  1. Triclosan loaded ureteral stents decrease proteus mirabilis 296 infection in a rabbit urinary tract infection model.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, Peter A; Chew, Ben H; Knudsen, Bodo E; Dejong, Kathy; Rowe, Elaine; Reid, Gregor; Denstedt, John D

    2006-06-01

    Infection and encrustation remain major limitations of ureteral stent use and to our knowledge no device has completely overcome these obstacles to date. Triclosan is a biocide currently used in a plethora of consumer and medical products that has recently been loaded into a ureteral stent. Using a rabbit model of UTI we examined the effects of triclosan impregnated stent segments on the growth and survival of Proteus mirabilis, a uropathogen commonly associated with device related UTI and encrustation. A total of 48 male New Zealand White rabbits were instilled transurethrally with 1 x 10(6) P. mirabilis 296. A stent curl from a triclosan eluting, Percuflex Plus or Optima ureteral stent was placed intravesically. Urine was cultured on days 1, 3 and 7. On day 7 the stents were assessed for encrustation and viable organisms, while the bladders were scored for the degree of inflammation. Throughout the study urine isolated from the triclosan group contained significantly fewer viable organisms than controls with 7 of 13 animals completely clearing the infection by day 7. Similarly 9 of 13 triclosan eluting stents showed no viable organisms upon recovery and the remaining 4 showed significantly fewer organisms than controls. Urine and stents in all controls were positive for P. mirabilis at all time points. Although there was no significant difference in encrustation among the groups, bladders harvested from the triclosan group demonstrated significantly less inflammation. Triclosan eluting stents greatly decreased P. mirabilis growth and survival in a rabbit UTI model compared to controls. These stents may prove useful for decreasing device related P. mirabilis UTIs.

  2. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ji; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chao; Mondal, Shubhro; Ping, Kaike; Chen, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM), on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model) and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM), uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM) of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM. PMID:28303160

  3. Chest wall restriction limits high airway pressure-induced lung injury in young rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, L A; Peevy, K J; Moise, A A; Parker, J C

    1989-05-01

    High peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) during mechanical ventilation can induce lung injury. In the present study we compare the respective roles of high tidal volume with high PIP in intact immature rabbits to determine whether the increase in capillary permeability is the result of overdistension of the lung or direct pressure effects. New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to one of three protocols, which produced different degrees of inspiratory volume limitation: intact closed-chest animals (CC), closed-chest animals with a full-body plaster cast (C), and isolated excised lungs (IL). The intact animals were ventilated at 15, 30, or 45 cmH2O PIP for 1 h, and the lungs of the CC and C groups were placed in an isolated lung perfusion system. Microvascular permeability was evaluated using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). Base-line Kfc for isolated lungs before ventilation was 0.33 +/- 0.31 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100g-1 and was not different from the Kfc in the CC group ventilated with 15 cmH2O PIP. Kfc increased by 850% after ventilation with only 15 cmH2O PIP in the unrestricted IL group, and in the CC group Kfc increased by 31% after 30 cmH2O PIP and 430% after 45 cmH2O PIP. Inspiratory volume limitation by the plaster cast in the C group prevented any significant increase in Kfc at the PIP values used. These data indicate that volume distension of the lung rather than high PIP per se produces microvascular damage in the immature rabbit lung.

  4. The effects of the stem cell on ciliary regeneration of injured rabbit sinonasal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kavuzlu, Ali; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Karagöz, Tuğba; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Tatar, İlkan; Bayır, Ömer; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-08-01

    Defects in mucosal healing after sinonasal surgery cause infection, scar formation causing obstruction, relapse of the disease within a shorter period and revision surgery. The present study aimed to create a functional ciliated epithelium using a stem cell and stem cell sheet of adipose tissue origin and to show such regeneration ultra-structurally on experimentally injured rabbit nasal epithelium. This was an experimental animal study and basic research. A total of 18 white New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. The medial wall of the maxillary sinus of the subjects was peeled off bilaterally. No additional procedure was applied to the subjects in Group 1. In Group 2, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell was implanted on the wound edges of the subjects. In Group 3, a stem cell sheet of three layers was laid onto the defect area. All subjects were killed after 3 weeks. The presence of the stem cell stained with bromo-deoxyuridine was assessed with a light microscope, whereas cilia density, ciliated orientation and cilia structure were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Ciliary densities in Group 2 and Group 3 were statistically superior compared to the control group (p < 0.001, p = 0.007). Cilia morphology in Group 2 and Group 3 was also better than the control group (p < 0.01, p = 0.048). Ciliary orientation in Group 2 was scored highest (p < 0.01). The ratio of BrDu-stained cells was observed to be 27% in Group 3 and 8% in Group 2. Sub-epithelial recovery was observed to be better in Group 3. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell increased the healing of the injured maxillary sinus mucosa of the rabbits in terms of cilia presence, density and morphology regardless of the implementation technique. Level of evidence NA.

  5. A study of the variability in the febrile responses of rabbits to endogenous pyrogen.

    PubMed

    Stitt, J T

    1985-10-01

    The range of body temperature increases elicited by a standard dose of endogenous pyrogen (0.5 ml/kg iv) was examined in a population of 26 male New Zealand White rabbits. Although the mean maximum increase in rectal temperature was 0.88 +/- 0.06 degree C (SE), individual responses varied from 0.4 degree to 1.5 degree C. Three representative animals that responded to the standard dose of pyrogen with small, intermediate, and large febrile responses were selected and challenged with the same dose of pyrogen on eight separate occasions, and the variability of these responses was examined. There was little variability within the characteristic responses of any particular animal to the repeated challenges. The variability of the febrile responses elicited by both intravenous and intracerebroventricular administration of the same pyrogen was examined and compared using another group of 11 rabbits. The variability in response to the intravenous route was similar to that found in the larger population, whereas the variation in response to the intracerebroventricular route was smaller, and all 11 animals had fevers that were greater than 1 degrees C. It is concluded that the variability of the febrile responses of rabbits to intravenous pyrogen was due to differences between individual sensitivities of animals to the intravenously administered pyrogen. This difference in sensitivity may be due to a difference in the amount of pyrogen that reaches the putative receptor sites, or to a difference in the density or effectiveness of receptor sites in translating the pyrogenic stimulus into a fever response.

  6. Comparison of lung protective ventilation strategies in a rabbit model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Rotta, A T; Gunnarsson, B; Fuhrman, B P; Hernan, L J; Steinhorn, D M

    2001-11-01

    To determine the impact of different protective and nonprotective mechanical ventilation strategies on the degree of pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage, and hemodynamic stability in a saline lavage model of acute lung injury. A prospective, randomized, controlled, in vivo animal laboratory study. Animal research facility of a health sciences university. Forty-six New Zealand White rabbits. Mature rabbits were instrumented with a tracheostomy and vascular catheters. Lavage-injured rabbits were randomized to receive conventional ventilation with either a) low peak end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, PEEP of 2 cm H2O); b) high PEEP (tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, PEEP of 10 cm H2O); c) low tidal volume with PEEP above Pflex (open lung strategy, tidal volume of 6 mL/kg, PEEP set 2 cm H2O > Pflex); or d) high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Animals were ventilated for 4 hrs. Lung lavage fluid and tissue samples were obtained immediately after animals were killed. Lung lavage fluid was assayed for measurements of total protein, elastase activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and malondialdehyde. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for measurements of myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde. The need for inotropic support was recorded. Animals that received a lung protective strategy (open lung or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation) exhibited more favorable oxygenation and lung mechanics compared with the low PEEP and high PEEP groups. Animals ventilated by a lung protective strategy also showed attenuation of inflammation (reduced tracheal fluid protein, tracheal fluid elastase, tracheal fluid tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and pulmonary leukostasis). Animals treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation had attenuated oxidative injury to the lung and greater hemodynamic stability compared with the other experimental groups. Both lung protective strategies were associated with improved oxygenation, attenuated inflammation, and

  7. Cyclosporine-induced changes in drug metabolizing enzymes in hyperlipemic rabbit kidneys could explain its toxicity.

    PubMed

    Elbarbry, Fawzy; Ragheb, Ahmed; Attia, Ahmed; Chibbar, Rajni; Marfleet, Travis; Shoker, Ahmed

    2010-11-01

    This study investigates the mechanism of cyclosporine A (CsA)-mediated nephrotoxicity by examining the hypothesis that CsA toxicity is mediated through its effect on the kidney drug metabolizing enzymes in a hyperlipemic rabbit model. Twenty-four female New Zealand white rabbits divided into four groups. Group 1 received regular diet. Group 2 received 1% cholesterol diet. Group 3 received CsA (25 mg/kg, orally once daily) and group 4 received 1% cholesterol diet and CsA (25 mg/kg, orally once daily). Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in kidney microsomes was assessed by measuring p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and the protein carbonyl. Effect of CsA and hyperlipidemia on the antioxidant proteins were also assessed using standard techniques. CsA but not the high-cholesterol diet induced significant elevation in MDA, protein carbonyl and CYP2E1 activities in the kidney. The addition of cholesterol to CsA normalized ROS markers without affecting the CsA-enhanced CYP2E1 activity. Alone, CsA caused characteristic tubular injury, whereas the addition of high-cholesterol diet to CsA nearly abolished the tubular damage. CsA-enhanced rabbit kidney ROS and CYP2E1 activities. Hyperlipidemia attenuates CsA tubular injury, most probably due to normalization of renal ROS, but not CYP2E1 activity.

  8. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Budak, Bilgehan; Budak, Gürer G; Oztürk, Göknur Güler; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Apan, Alpaslan; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-06-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF), electromagnetic fields (EMF), transmitted from the common sources like power stations, electric transmission lines, communication and radio-television signal transmission units. The present study aimed to assess the effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF of 5.068 and 10.182 kV/m electric fields, which refer to the lower and upper intensity limits beyond which hazardous effects can be observed, on the auditory functions of rabbits via Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE) recordings. The study was performed on 20 healthy adult female New Zealand White rabbits randomly divided into two groups and applied 50 Hz ELF-EMF with either 5.068 kV/m (Group 1) or 10.182 kV/m (Group 2) of electric field for 3h/day during 14 days. DPOAE responses recorded on the 0th day before exposure (B-EMF) and on the 6th (A-EMF-6th) and 14th (A-EMF-14th) days after exposure (AE). Mean stimulus intensity and emission amplitudes at 1.0-8.0 kHz were analyzed. In Group 2 rabbits, on 6th and 14th days, the DPOAE amplitudes were observed as increased at 1.5-4.0 kHz (at 2.0 and 4.0 kHz significantly) than B-EMF values. At 6.0 kHz, A-EMF-14th amplitudes were significantly lower than A-EMF values. These results suggest that ELF EMFs might affect hearing functions by frequency dependent manner. Higher ELF EMFs exposure caused increase of cochlear activity. Ototoxic effect of 10.182 kV/m ELF EMFs may begin at the basal turn of the cochlea by reducing DPOAEs at high frequencies.

  9. Biphasic modulation of atherosclerosis induced by graded dietary copper supplementation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit

    PubMed Central

    LAMB, DAVID J; AVADES, TONY Y; FERNS, GORDON AA

    2001-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about how copper status may affect the biochemical and cellular processes associated with atherogenesis. We have investigated the effects of graded dietary copper supplementation on processes likely to contribute to atherogenesis, using the cholesterol-fed New Zealand White rabbit model. Rabbits (n = 40) were fed a 0.25–1% cholesterol diet deficient in copper. Animals received either 0, 1, 3 or 20 mg copper/day and were killed after 13 weeks. Plasma cholesterol levels were similar in each dietary group. Aortic concentrations of copper were higher in the 20 mg copper/day animals compared to those receiving 0 mg copper/day (3.70 ± 0.78 vs. 1.33 ± 0.46 µg/g wet tissue; P < 0.05). Aortic superoxide dismutase activity was higher in animals receiving 20 mg copper/day (323 ± 21 IU/mg tissue) compared to the other groups (187 ± 21; 239 ± 53; 201 ± 33 IU/mg tissue) (P > 0.05). En face staining of aortae with oil red O showed that both high copper supplementation (20 mg/day) (67.1 ± 5.5%) and a deficient diet (0 mg/day) (63.1 ± 4.8%) was associated with significantly larger lesions (P < 0.05) compared to moderately supplemented animals (1 mg/day and 3 mg/day) (51.3 ± 6.3 and 42.8 ± 7.9%). These data indicate that in the cholesterol-fed rabbit, there is an optimal dietary copper intake and that dietary copper deficiency or excess are associated with an increased susceptibility to aortic atherosclerosis. Many Western diets contain insufficient copper and these findings indicate that a moderate dietary copper content may confer a degree of cardiac protection to the human population. PMID:11703538

  10. A Chitosan-Based Sinus Sealant for Reduction of Adhesion Formation in Rabbit and Sheep Models

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Jennifer G.; Steinke, John W.; Das, Subinoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Chronic sinusitis is the most prevalent chronic disease in the United States in adults aged 18 to 44 years, with approximately 250,000 operations performed annually. Although often successful, sinus surgery fails in greater than 15% of patients. Adhesion formation is a common complication and cause for subsequent revision surgery. Here, the authors evaluate a sprayable chitosan/starch-based sinus sealant and demonstrate its ability to reduce adhesion formation both in vitro and in 2 animal models. Study Design Randomized, controlled, animal trials. Setting Academic medical center (fibroblast experiments) and animal laboratories (sheep and rabbit studies). Subjects and Methods This sinus sealant was applied to human cultured fibroblasts obtained from surgically removed polyps to examine its ability to inhibit fibroblast migration and proliferation. The sinus sealant was applied to New Zealand White rabbits (n = 20) in an established cecal-sidewall abrasion model and to sheep (n = 10) in a sinus surgical adhesion model to examine its ability to reduce adhesion formation. Results This sinus sealant inhibited migration and proliferation of human cultured fibroblasts and reduced the total adhesion score from 4.9 to 0.3 for a total reduction of 94% (95th percentile confidence interval [CI], 78%, 100%; P < .001) in a well-established rabbit cecal-sidewall model commonly used for adhesion testing. Moreover, this sealant reduced adhesion formation from 80% to 10% for a total reduction of 70% (95th percentile CI, 57%, 93%; P = .003) in a sheep sinus adhesion surgical model. Conclusion This chitosan-based sealant demonstrates promise for reducing adhesion formation in sinus surgery. PMID:22492298

  11. Comparison of synthetic glues and 10-0 nylon in rabbit lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soon Young; Kim, Man Soo; Oh, Su Ja; Chung, Sung Kun

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate changes in mean keratometry and to compare wound repair with corneal lamellar grafts in rabbit eyes using human synthetic tissue adhesives and 10-0 nylon. Corneal grafts were made using a 6.0-mm-diameter trephine and blades in the eyes of 15 New Zealand white rabbits. Human fibrin tissue adhesive (Tisseel) was used in group 1, human fibrin tissue adhesive (Beriplast P) was used in group 2, polyethylene glycol adhesive (Coseal) was used in group 3, and 8 bite sutures with 10-0 nylon were used in group 4 (control) for lamellar keratoplasty. Four bite sutures were made with 10-0 nylon in groups 1, 2, and 3. Slit-lamp microscopy and keratometry were performed at 3 days and 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the surgery. Histopathologic and electromicroscopic examinations were performed 4 weeks after the surgery. No inflammation or corneal toxicity was seen in groups 1 and 2. Histologically, a few inflammatory cells were seen in groups 3 and 4. Groups 1, 2, and 3 showed no statistically significant changes in mean keratometry at 4 weeks postoperatively compared with preoperative mean keratometry (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = 0.178, 0.208, and 0.889, respectively). The control group showed significant changes in mean keratometry at 4 weeks postoperatively (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = 0.018). Human fibrin tissue adhesives were well tolerated in rabbit eyes, with no apparent corneal toxicity. Polyethylene glycol adhesive showed more inflammation and insufficient wound repair compared with human fibrin tissue adhesives. Therefore, human fibrin tissue adhesives can be used as an alternative to sutures in lamellar keratoplasty.

  12. Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion Decreases Infarct Volume in a Rabbit Ischemic Stroke Model

    PubMed Central

    Culp, William C.; Woods, Sean D.; Skinner, Robert D.; Brown, Aliza T.; Lowery, John D.; Johnson, Jennifer L. H.; Unger, Evan C.; Hennings, Leah J.; Borrelli, Michael J.; Roberson, Paula K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy of dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe), a nano droplet emulsion with significant oxygen transport potential, in decreasing infarct volume using an insoluble emboli rabbit stroke model. Methods New Zealand White rabbits (n=64; 5.1±0.50 kg) received angiography and embolic spheres in the internal carotid artery occluding branches. Rabbits were randomly assigned to groups in 4-hour and 7-hour studies. Four-hour groups included: control (n=7, embolized without treatment) or DDFPe treatment 30-min before stroke (n=7), or at stroke onset (n=8), 30-min after stroke (n=5), 1-hour after stroke (n=7), 2-hours after stroke (n=5), or 3-hours after stroke (n=6). Seven-hour groups included control (n=6), DDFPe at 1-hour after stroke (n=8), and DDFPe at 6-hours after stroke (n=5). DDFPe dose was 2% w/v (weight/volume) intravenous injection, 0.6 mL/kg, and repeated every 90 minutes as time allowed. Following euthanasia infarct volume was determined using vital stains on brain sections. Results At 4-hours, median percent infarct volume decreased for all DDFPe treatment times (pre-treatment=0.30%, p=0.004; onset=0.20%, p=0.004; 30-min=0.35%, p=0.009, 1-hour=0.30%, p=0.01, 2-hours=0.40%, p=0.009, 3-hours=0.25%, p=0.003) compared with controls (3.20%). At 7-hours, median percent infarct volume decreased with treatment at 1-hour (0.25%, p=0.007) but not for 6-hours (1.4%, p=0.49) compared with controls (2.2%). Conclusions Intravenous DDFPe in an animal model decreases infarct volumes and protects brain tissue from ischemia justifying further investigation. PMID:22079515

  13. The Role of (99m)Tc-Annexin V Apoptosis Scintigraphy in Visualizing Early Stage Glucocorticoid-Induced Femoral Head Osteonecrosis in the Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Yu; Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Rui; Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Lei; Bai, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    To validate the ability of (99m)Tc-Annexin V to visualize early stage of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis by comparing with (99m)Tc-MDP bone scanning. Femoral head necrosis was induced in adult New Zealand white rabbits by intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone. (99m)Tc-Annexin scintigraphy and (99m)Tc-MDP scans were performed before and 5, 6, and 8 weeks after methylprednisolone administration. Rabbits were sacrificed at various time points and conducted for TUNEL and H&E staining. All methylprednisolone treated animals developed femoral head necrosis; at 8 weeks postinjection, destruction of bone structure was evident in H&E staining, and apoptosis was confirmed by the TUNEL assay. This was matched by (99m)Tc-Annexin V images, which showed a significant increase in signal over baseline. Serial (99m)Tc-Annexin V scans revealed that increased (99m)Tc-Annexin V uptake could be observed in 5 weeks. In contrast, there was no effect on (99m)Tc-MDP signal until 8 weeks. The TUNEL assay revealed that bone cell apoptosis occurred at 5 weeks. (99m)Tc-Annexin V is superior to (99m)Tc-MDP for the early detection of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis in the rabbit and may be a better strategy for the early detection of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis in patients.

  14. Ocular Blood Flow in Rabbits under Deep Anesthesia: A Real-Time Measurement Technique and Its Application in Characterizing Retinal Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Mehwish Saba; Tang, Tong Boon; Chen, Hui Cheng

    2018-04-09

    In this study, we reported a new technique based on laser speckle flowgraphy to record the ocular blood flow in rabbits under deep anesthesia, and proposed parameters to characterize retinal ischemia. We applied the proposed technique to study the correlation of blood flow between the eyes of normal non-anesthetized animals, and to characterize the occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA). We established a correlation in blood flow between the eyes of non-anesthetized animals, and derived two new parameters, namely, the laterality index and vascular perfusion estimate (VPE). Our experimental results from 16 eyes (of 13 New Zealand white rabbits) showed a reduction in ocular blood flow with a significant decrease in the VPE after the occlusion of the ECA (p < 0.001). A low/minimal effect on blood flow was observed with the occlusion of the ICA. In conclusion, we demonstrated a means for the real-time measurement of the ocular blood flow in rabbits under deep anesthesia by using laser speckle flowgraphy and the VPE as an indicator of successful occlusion. The proposed technique might be applicable in quantifying the efficacy of new drugs and interventions for the treatment of retinal ischemia.

  15. Development of standard operating procedures to obtain longitudinal vaginal specimens from nulliparous rabbits as part of HIV vaccine mucosal immunogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Gómez Román, Victor Raúl; Vinner, Lasse; Grevstad, Berit; Hansen, Jesper Juhl; Wegmann, Frank; Spetz, Anna-Lena; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2010-12-15

    The New Zealand white rabbit model (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is widely used to test whether HIV vaccine candidates elicit systemic antibody responses; however, its use in mucosal immunology has not been fully exploited due to the difficulty in collecting mucosal specimens longitudinally and reproducibly. Here we describe feasible and non-feasible methods to collect vaginal and nasal specimens from nulliparous rabbits. Non-feasible methods were those resulting in poor reproducibility and considerable animal twitching during sampling, whereas feasible methods resulted in no animal twitching and potential for sampling reproducibility. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) were implemented to collect vaginal swabs yielding total IgA titres ranging from 12,500 to 312,500. Intranasal immunisation with a naked DNA vaccine encoding HIV gp140 elicited HIV envelope-specific IgA detectable in nasal but not in vaginal secretions. Our methods provide an alternative to reliably assess pre- and post-vaccination mucosal antibody titres longitudinally in rabbits as part of mucosal HIV vaccine immunogenicity studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 on corneal surface ultrastructure and nerve regeneration of rabbit eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyan; Peng, Yanli; Pan, Shuling; Li, Li

    2014-01-13

    To explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on corneal surface ultrastructure and nerve regeneration in rabbit models after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Forty-two healthy New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups, the IGF-1 group and the control group, and LASIK surgery was performed. The corneal surface ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy, and the nerve regeneration was evaluated by counting the newly regenerated nerves at 1 d, 1 w, 2 w, 1 m, 3 m and 6 m after surgery. Dry eye parameters, including the Schirmer I test and tear break-up time, were examined at all time points. The examination of corneal ultrastructure showed that the number of corneal epithelial microvilli in the IGF-1 group was significantly higher than that in the normal saline (NS) group except in the second postoperative week (p<0.05). The observation of corneal nerve regeneration showed that the number of regenerated nerve fibers in the IGF-1 group was higher than the control group at all time points (p<0.05). The parameters of dry eye were significantly higher in the IGF-1 group compared to the control group at all time points except at 1d and 6m after LASIK. IGF-1 can effectively accelerate the early repair of corneal surface ultrastructure and nerve regeneration after LASIK and relieve dry eye symptoms in rabbit eyes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PET/MRI of Hypoxic Atherosclerosis Using 64Cu-ATSM in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xingyu; Laforest, Richard; Elvington, Andrew; Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Zheng, Jie; Voller, Tom; Abendschein, Dana R; Lapi, Suzanne E; Woodard, Pamela K

    2016-12-01

    The macrophage-rich core of advanced human atheroma has been demonstrated to be hypoxic, which may have implications in plaque stability. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of the hypoxia PET imaging agent 64 Cu-ATSM to detect hypoxia in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis imaged on a simultaneous PET/MR scanner, using MR for both attenuation correction and depiction of lesion location. New Zealand White rabbits fed a Western diet for 4-6 wk underwent endothelial denudation of the right femoral artery by air desiccation to induce an atherosclerotic-like lesion and underwent a sham operation on the left femoral artery. Four and 8 wk after injury, a 0- to 60-min dynamic whole-body PET/MR examination was performed after injection of approximately 111 MBq of 64 Cu-ATSM. After 24 h, a 0- to 75-min dynamic PET/MR examination after injection of approximately 111 MBq of 18 F-FDG was performed. The rabbits were euthanized, and the injured femoral artery (IF) and sham-operated femoral artery (SF) were collected for immunohistochemistry assessment of hypoxic macrophages (hypoxia marker pimonidazole, macrophage marker RAM-11, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α subunit [HIF-1α]). Regions of interest of IF, SF, and background muscle (BM) were drawn on fused PET/MR images, and IF-to-BM and SF-to-BM SUV ratios were compared using the Student t test. Elevated uptake of 64 Cu-ATSM was found in the rabbits' IF compared with the SF. 64 Cu-ATSM imaging demonstrated IF-to-SF SUV mean ratios (±SD) of 1.75 ± 0.21 and 2.30 ± 0.26 at 4 and 8 wk after injury, respectively. 18 F-FDG imaging demonstrated IF-to-SF SUV mean ratios of 1.84 ± 0.12 at 8 wk after injury. IF-to-BM SUV mean ratios were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than SF-to-BM SUV mean ratios both 4 and 8 wk after injury for 64 Cu-ATSM and 8 wk after injury for 18 F-FDG (P < 0.05). Pimonidazole immunohistochemistry at 8 wk colocalized to RAM-11 and HIF-1α. The results show that hypoxia is present in this

  18. Tibolone inhibits aortic atherosclerotic lesionformation in oophorectomized cholesterol-fed rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; Sanjuán, Alex; Ascaso, Carles; Colodrón, Marta; Blümel, Juan Enrique; Casals, Elena; Ordi, Jaume; Vanrell, Juan Antonio

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tibolone is a synthetic steroid effective for the treatment of climacteric symptoms and osteoporosis. Long term treatment with tibolone is associated with a significant decrease in cholesterol levels due to a parallel decrease in high-density lipoprotein. However, the effect of these changes on atherogenesis is not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of tibolone therapy on aorta atherogenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were fed cholesterol-rich feed and studied for four months. The rabbits underwent laparotomy and were randomly assigned to four groups. Twenty-four rabbits underwent bilateral ovariectomy; of these, eight received tibolone (group T), eight received estradiol valerate (group E), eight received placebo after sterilization (group C), and eight were sham operated (group S). RESULTS: After receiving the cholesterol-rich diet, total levels of cholesterol increased in group C from 3.17±0.72 mmol/L to 35.36±9.01 mmol/L, in group S from 2.88±0.9 mmol/L to 28.76±9.442 mmol/L, in group E from 1.69±0.44 mmol/L to 1.69±0.44 mmol/L and in group T from 2.03±0.22 mmol/L to 26.33±13.45 mmol/L (no significant differences were observed among the groups at the end of the study). At four months, the cholesterol- rich diet caused atherosclerotic lesions in both treated and untreated rabbits, affecting 30.47±12.2%, 24.51±16.1%, 17.91±10.19% and 10.21±6.8% of the aortic surface for groups C, S, E and T, respectively (P<0.01 for treated groups). CONCLUSION: The principal result from this study was that treatment with tibolone in cholesterol-fed ovariectomized rabbits reduces aortic atherosclerotic lesion formation and that this reduction is not related to plasma lipid levels. PMID:19644583

  19. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

  20. Development of an Optimal Diaphragmatic Hernia Rabbit Model for Pediatric Thoracoscopic Training

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Merino, Eva M.; Usón-Casaús, Jesús M.; Zaragoza-Bayle, Concepción; Rivera-Barreno, Ramón; Rodríguez-Alarcón, Carlos A.; Palme, Rupert; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to standarize the procedure needed to reproduce a similar surgical scene which a pediatric surgeon would face on repairing a Bochdalek hernia in newborns and to define the optimal time period for hernia development that achieve a realistic surgical scenario with minimimal animal suffering. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits weighing 3–3.5 kg were divided into four groups depending on the time frame since hernia creation to thoracoscopic repair: 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 30 days. Bochdalek trigono was identified and procedures for hernia creation and thoracoscopic repair were standarized. Blood was collected for hematology (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin and hematocrit), biochemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase) and gas analysis (arterial blood pH, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of carbón dioxide, oxygen saturation and bicarbonate) at baseline and before the surgial repairment. Glucocorticoid metabolites concentration in faeces was measured. Thoracoscopy video recordings were evaluated by six pediatric surgeons and rated from 0 to 10 according to similarities with congenital diaphragmatic hernia in newborn and with its thoracoscopic approach. Statistical methods included the analysis of variance, and comparisons between groups were followed by a post-hoc Tukey’s test. Fourty -eight h showed to be the optimal time frame to obtain a diaphragmatic hernia similar to newborn scenario from a surgical point of view with minimal stress for the animals. PMID:24521868

  1. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

    This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

    The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National

  2. Comparison of a Novel Oxysterol Molecule and rhBMP2 Fusion Rates in a Rabbit Posterolateral Lumbar Spine Model

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Trevor P.; Phan, Kevin H.; Tian, Haijun; Suzuki, Akinobu; Montgomery, Scott R.; Johnson, Jared S.; Atti, Elisa; Tetratis, Sotirios; Pereira, Renata C.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Daubs, Michael D.; Stappenbeck, Frank; Parhami, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Background Context The non-union rate following lumbar spinal fusion is as high as 25%. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP2) has been used as a biological adjunct to promote bony fusion. However, recently there have been concerns about BMP2. Oxysterol 133 (Oxy133) has been shown to promote excellent fusion rates in rodent lumbar spine models and offers a potential alternative to rhBMP2. Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the fusion rate of rhBMP2 and Oxy133 in a randomized controlled trial using a posterolateral lumbar rabbit spinal fusion model. Study Design This was a randomized control animal study. Methods Twenty-four male adult white New Zealand rabbits (3–3.5kg) underwent bilateral posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion at L4–L5. Rabbits were divided into 4 groups: control (A), 30 µg rhBMP2 (B), 20 mg Oxy133 (C), and 60 mg Oxy133 (D). At 4 weeks, fusion was evaluated by fluoroscopy, and at 8 weeks the rabbits were sacrificed and fusion was evaluated radiographically, by manual palpation, and with microCT. Dr. Parhami is a founder and Dr. Stappenbeck is the Director of Chemistry at MAX BioPharma, which has licensed the rights to Oxy133 from UCLA, both have financial interests in the technology presented here. UCLA holds equity in MAX BioPharma. All other authors have no conflicts of interest. Studies reported here were supported in part by the NIH/NIAMS grant RO1AR059794 and in part by MAX BioPharma that purchased the rabbits and provided Oxy133. Results Fusion rates by radiographic analysis at 8 weeks were: group A 40.0%, group B 91.7%, group C 91.7%, and group D 100%. Evaluation of fusion masses by manual palpation of excised spines after sacrifice showed the following fusion rates: group A 0%, group B 83.3%, group C 83.3%, and group D 90%. MicroCT scanning confirmed these findings. Conclusions These findings in a rabbit model demonstrate that both 20 mg dose and 60 mg dose Oxy133 promote fusion that is equivalent to fusion induced by 30 µg

  3. Quantitative T2 mapping evaluation for articular cartilage lesions in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-mao; Du, Xiang-ke; Huo, Tian-long; Li, Xu-bin; Quan, Guang-nan; Li, Tian-ran; Cheng, Jin; Zhang, Wei-tao

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative T2 mapping has been a widely used method for the evaluation of pathological cartilage properties, and the histological assessment system of osteoarthritis in the rabbit has been published recently. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of quantitative T2 mapping evaluation for articular cartilage lesions of a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) osteoarthritis. Twenty New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were divided into ACLT surgical group and sham operated group equally. The anterior cruciate ligaments of the rabbits in ACLT group were transected, while the joints were closed intactly in sham operated group. Magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were performed on 3.0T MR unit at week 0, week 6, and week 12. T2 values were computed on GE ADW4.3 workstation. All rabbits were killed at week 13, and left knees were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Semiquantitative histological grading was obtained according to the osteoarthritis cartilage histopathology assessment system. Computerized image analysis was performed to quantitate the immunostained collagen type II. The average MR T2 value of whole left knee cartilage in ACLT surgical group ((29.05±12.01) ms) was significantly higher than that in sham operated group ((24.52±7.97) ms) (P=0.024) at week 6. The average T2 value increased to (32.18±12.79) ms in ACLT group at week 12, but remained near the baseline level ((27.66±8.08) ms) in the sham operated group (P=0.03). The cartilage lesion level of left knee in ACLT group was significantly increased at week 6 (P=0.005) and week 12 (P<0.001). T2 values had positive correlation with histological grading scores, but inverse correlation with optical densities (OD) of type II collagen. This study demonstrated the reliability and practicability of quantitative T2 mapping for the cartilage injury of rabbit ACLT osteoarthritis model.

  4. Acute Dermal Irritation Study In New Zealand White Rabbits: Four Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) Alternative Jet Fuels Compared With Petroleum-Derived JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-19

    Biofuels AB; the original formula (SB ATJ SPK (old)) and the current version (SB ATJ SPK (new)) were both tested. A score of moderately irritating, as...10021 with additives). The remaining two ATJ SPK fuels were produced by Swedish Biofuels AB (Stockholm); the original formula (SB ATJ SPK (old), POSF...original formula , SB ATJ SPK (old) (POSF 5668 (alone); 10234 with additives) was provided for testing in 2010. The aromatic content of this fuel consists

  5. Characterization of the pH and Temperature in the Rabbit, Pig, and Monkey Eye: Key Parameters for the Development of Long-Acting Delivery Ocular Strategies.

    PubMed

    Lorget, Florence; Parenteau, Audrey; Carrier, Michel; Lambert, Daniel; Gueorguieva, Ana; Schuetz, Chris; Bantseev, Vlad; Thackaberry, Evan

    2016-09-06

    Many long-acting delivery strategies for ocular indications rely on pH- and/or temperature-driven release of the therapeutic agent and degradation of the drug carrier. Yet, these physiological parameters are poorly characterized in ocular animal models. These strategies aim at reducing the frequency of dosing, which is of particular interest for the treatment of chronic disorders affecting the posterior segment of the eye, such as macular degeneration that warrants monthly or every other month intravitreal injections. We used anesthetized white New Zealand rabbits, Yucatan mini pigs, and cynomolgus monkeys to characterize pH and temperature in several vitreous locations and the central aqueous location. We also established post mortem pH changes in the vitreous. Our data showed regional and species differences, which need to be factored into strategies for developing biodegradable long-acting delivery systems.

  6. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and muscle amino-acid profile of different rabbits breeds and their crosses.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Abd-Elhamid, Tamer; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Meat production efficiency can be enhanced by crossbreeding to capture heterosis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of rabbit genotype on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acids profile. A total of 504 weaned rabbits from nine genotypes of full factorial crossing of New Zealand White (NZW), Californian (CA) and Rex (RX) were used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were assessed for meat quality and amino acids profile. There were no differences between groups at weaning and 6weeks, but by 10weeks differences were significant (P<0.001) and the numerically heaviest groups were CA×RX and RX×NZW (1970g, P<0.001) with to some extent better amino acids profile. In conclusion, RX growth performance was improved by crossing CA sire with RX dam and RX sire with NZW dam and to have dual purpose breed with better growth performance without hazard on carcass and meat quality. CA×RX and RX×NZW had the heaviest body weight at 10weeks of age and highest body weight gain during the whole finishing period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo testing of porous Ti-25Nb alloy serving as a femoral stem prosthesis in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xiaojun; Yang, Hailin; Xu, Jian; Li, Xiaosheng; Liao, Qiande; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the performance of Ti-25Nb alloys with various porosities as femoral stem prostheses in a rabbit model, thus providing basic experimental evidence for the development of porous prostheses. The porous Ti-25Nb alloy prostheses were designed according to the morphology of the medullary cavity. These prostheses were placed into the femoral medullary cavities in 36 New Zealand white rabbits. Postoperative X-ray films, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the implant interface, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the implant surface, pulling-out test and general observations were conducted. The specimens showed good biocompatibility; there was no obvious bone absorption in porous Ti-25Nb specimens with different porosities at different time points observed using X-ray films. Under SEM examination, calcium deposits were observed inside the pores and in the interface between bone and prostheses. The EDS analysis demonstrated that calcium deposits were present on the surface of the prostheses at the eight-week point postoperatively. The pulling-out test showed good bonding strength between bone and implant; after pulling out, the surface and inside the pores of the prostheses all presented bone mass. Porous Ti-25Nb alloy implants presents good biocompatibility as well as providing a biological fixation between the bone and implant. A porosity of 70% is more advantageous to the newborn bone ingrowth, combined with achieving a more solid bone-implant interface. PMID:27602063

  8. Wound healing of osteotomy defects prepared with piezo or conventional surgical instruments: a pilot study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Mattheos, Nikos; Sun, Yan; Liu, Xi Ling; Yip Chui, Ying; Lang, Niklaus Peter

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the wound-healing process following osteotomies performed with either conventional rotary burs or piezoelectric surgery in a rabbit model. Two types of osteotomy window defects of the nasal cavities were prepared on the nasal bone of 16 adult New Zealand white rabbits with either a conventional rotary bur or piezo surgery. The defects were covered with a resorbable membrane. Four animals were killed at 1, 2, 3, and 5 weeks after the surgical procedure, respectively. Histological and morphometric evaluations were performed to assess the volumetric density of various tissue components: the blood clot, vascularized structures, provisional matrix, osteoid, mineralized bone, bone debris, residual tissue, and old bone. Significantly more bone debris was found at 1 week in the conventionally-prepared defects compared to the piezo surgically-prepared defects. At 2 and 3 weeks, a newly-formed hard tissue bridge, mainly composed of woven bone, was seen; however, no statistically-significant differences were observed. At 5 weeks, the defects were completely filled with newly-formed bone. The defects prepared by piezo surgery showed a significantly decreased proportion of bone debris at 1 week, compared to conventional rotary bur defect. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. The Effects of Hypertonic Dextrose Injection on Connective Tissue and Nerve Conduction through the Rabbit Carpal Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Schmelzer, James D.; Low, Phillip A.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of hypertonic dextrose injection on the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in a rabbit model. We hypothesized that dextrose injection would induce proliferation of the SSCT, hinder median nerve conduction, and alter SSCT mechanical properties similar to what is observed in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Design Randomized, controlled prospective study. Setting Not applicable. Participants New Zealand white rabbits (N=28) weighing 4.0 to 4.5kg. Intervention One fore paw was randomly injected with 0.1ml of 10% dextrose solution. The contralateral paw was injected with a similar amount of 0.9% saline solution as a control. Animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks after injection. Main Outcome Measures Animals were evaluated by electrophysiology (EP), mechanical testing, and histology. EP was evaluated by distal motor latency and amplitude. Shear force was evaluated when the middle digit flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was pulled out from the carpal tunnel. The ultimate tensile load and the energy absorption were also measured. Tissue for histology was evaluated qualitatively. Results EP demonstrated significant prolongation of distal motor latency. The energy absorption and stiffness were also significantly increased in the dextrose group. Histologically, the dextrose group showed thickening of the collagen bundles and vascular proliferation within the SSCT compared to the saline group. Conclusions These results are consistent with the findings in CTS patients and suggest that hypertonic dextrose injection has the potential to create a novel animal model in which to study the evolution of CTS. PMID:19236989

  10. Cysticercosis in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Owiny, J R

    2001-03-01

    There are no data on the current incidence of Taenia pisiformis in laboratory rabbits. Two cases of cysticercosis most likely due to T. pisiformis in laboratory rabbits (intermediate host) are presented. Both rabbits had no contact with dogs (final host); their caretakers did not work with dogs, and these caretakers changed into facility scrubs and wore gloves when working with the rabbits. Rabbit 1 may have been infected after being fed hay at our facility. In light of the life cycle of the parasite and the history of rabbit 2, it potentially could have been infected prior to arrival at our facility. There have been only three cases of tapeworm cysts in rabbits in our facility (average daily census, 250) during the last 10 years (incidence, < 1%). This report indicates that although cysticercosis is rare in laboratory rabbits, one should always be aware of such incidental findings. Although it may not produce overt illness in the rabbit, hepatic migration could adversely affect the outcome of some experimental procedures

  11. Astronomy in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Although New Zealand is a young country, astronomy played a significant role in its early exploration and discovery during the three voyages of Cook from 1769. In the later 19th century several expeditions came to New Zealand to observe the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 and New Zealand's rich history of prominent amateur astronomers dates from this time. The Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand (founded in 1920) has catered for the amateur community. Professional astronomy however had a slow start in New Zealand. The Carter Observatory was founded in 1941. But it was not until astronomy was taken up by New Zealand's universities, notably by the University of Canterbury from 1963, that a firm basis for research in astronomy and astrophysics was established. Mt John University Observatory with its four optical telescopes (largest 1.8 m) is operated by the University of Canterbury and is the main base for observational astronomy in the country. However four other New Zealand universities also have an interest in astronomical research at the present time. There is also considerable involvement in large international projects such as MOA, SALT, AMOR, IceCube and possibly SKA.

  12. The effects of coadministration of dietary copper and zinc supplements on atherosclerosis, antioxidant enzymes and indices of lipid peroxidation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M; Bahijri, Suhad M; Lamb, David J; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been shown that dietary copper can modulate the extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits. The metabolism of copper and zinc are closely related, and it has been hypothesized that the balance of dietary copper to zinc may be important in determining coronary risk. Hence, we have investigated the interaction between dietary copper and zinc in atherogenesis in the New Zealand White rabbit. Juvenile male rabbits were randomly allocated to eight groups. Four groups were fed a normal chow diet with zinc (0.5%, w/w), copper (0.2%, w/w), copper plus zinc or neither in their drinking water for 12 weeks. Four other groups were fed a diet containing 0.25–1% (w/w) cholesterol plus zinc, copper, both or neither. Serum cholesterol of individual animals was maintained at approximately 20 mmol/l. Integrated plasma cholesterol levels were similar for all groups receiving cholesterol and significantly higher than those in the chow-fed groups (P < 0.001). Aortic copper concentrations were higher in the animals receiving cholesterol diets with copper compared to rabbits receiving normal chow and copper (P < 0.001). Aortic zinc content was significantly higher in cholesterol-fed rabbits supplemented with zinc alone or with copper than in those fed cholesterol alone (P < 0.001). Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations were significantly higher in groups receiving cholesterol, irrespective of their trace element supplementation (P < 0.001). However, trace element supplementation increased the level significantly (P < 0.05). Trace element supplements did not appear to affect erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in the cholesterol-fed animals; however, zinc supplementation was associated with a significant increase in the enzyme in chow-fed animals (P < 0.05). The activity of the enzyme per mg of protein in aortic tissue was higher in animals receiving copper in the presence of cholesterol (P < 0.05) but not significantly so in its absence

  13. Cytochrome P450 3A expression and activity in the rabbit lacrimal gland: glucocorticoid modulation and the impact on androgen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Attar, Mayssa; Ling, Kah-Hiing John; Tang-Liu, Diane D-S; Neamati, Nouri; Lee, Vincent H L

    2005-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) is an enzyme of paramount importance to drug metabolism. The expression and activity of CYP3A, an enzyme responsible for active androgen clearance, was investigated in the rabbit lacrimal gland. Analysis of CYP3A expression and activity was performed on lacrimal gland tissues obtained from naïve untreated and treated New Zealand White rabbits. For 5 days, treated rabbits received daily administration of vehicle or 0.1% or 1.0% dexamethasone, in the lower cul-de-sac of each eye. Changes in mRNA expression were monitored by real-time RT-PCR. Protein expression was confirmed by Western blot. Functional activity was measured by monitoring the metabolism of CYP3A probe substrates-namely, 7-benzyloxyquinoline (BQ) and [3H]testosterone. Cytochrome P450 heme protein was detected at a concentration of 44.6 picomoles/mg protein, along with its redox partner NADPH reductase and specifically CYP3A6 in the naïve rabbit lacrimal gland. Genes encoding CYP3A6, in addition to the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were expressed in the untreated tissue. BQ dealkylation was measured in the naïve rabbit lacrimal gland at a rate of 14 +/- 7 picomoles/mg protein per minute. Changes in CYP3A6, P-gp, and androgen receptor mRNA expression levels were detected after dexamethasone treatment. In addition, dexamethasone treatment resulted in significant increases in BQ dealkylation and CYP3A6-mediated [3H]testosterone metabolism. Concomitant increases in CYP3A6-mediated hydroxylated testosterone metabolites were observed in the treated rabbits. Furthermore, ketoconazole, all-trans retinoic acid, and cyclosporine inhibited CYP3A6 mediated [3H]testosterone 6beta hydroxylation in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 ranging from 3.73 to 435 microM. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the expression and activity of CYP3A6 in the rabbit lacrimal gland. In addition, this pathway was shown to be subject to modulation by a commonly

  14. Comparison of a modified mid-coronal sectioning technique and Wilson's technique when conducting eye and brain examinations in rabbit teratology studies.

    PubMed

    Ziejewski, Mary K; Solomon, Howard M; Rendemonti, Joyce; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2015-02-01

    There are two methods used when examining fetal rabbit eyes and brain in teratology studies. One method employs prior fixation before serial sectioning (Wilson's technique) and the other uses fresh tissue (mid-coronal sectioning). We modified the mid-coronal sectioning technique to include removal of eyes and brain for closer examination and to increase the number of structures that can be evaluated and compared it to the Wilson's technique. We found that external examination of the head, in conjunction with either sectioning method, is equally sensitive in identifying developmental defects. We evaluated 40,401 New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch-Belted (DB) rabbit fetuses for external head alterations, of which 28,538 fetuses were further examined for eye and brain alterations using the modified mid-coronal sectioning method (16,675 fetuses) or Wilson's technique (11,863 fetuses). The fetuses were from vehicle control or drug-treated pregnant rabbits in embryo-fetal development studies conducted to meet international regulatory requirements for the development of new drugs. Both methods detected the more common alterations (microphthalmia and dilated lateral cerebral ventricles) and other less common findings (changes in size and/or shape of eye and brain structures). While both methods are equally sensitive at detecting common and rare developmental defects, the modified mid-coronal sectioning technique eliminates the use of chemicals and concomitant fixation artifacts that occur with the Wilson's technique and allows for examination of 100% intact fetuses thereby increasing potential for detecting eye and brain alterations as these findings occur infrequently in rabbits. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sulforaphane, a Natural Isothiocyanate Compound, Improves Cardiac Function and Remodeling by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Rabbit Model of Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tongliang; Zhu, Decai; Chen, Duoxue; Zhang, Qiaoyun; Dong, Huifang; Wu, Wenwu; Lu, Huihe; Wu, Guangfu

    2018-03-12

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sulforaphane (SFN), a natural isothiocyanate compound, in a rabbit ascending aortic cerclage model of chronic heart failure (CHF). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty New Zealand White rabbits were divided into the sham operation group (n=10), the CHF group (n=10), and the CHF + SFN group (n=10) treated with subcutaneous SFN (0.5 mg/kg) for five days per week for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, echocardiography and biometric analysis were performed, followed by the examination of the rabbit hearts. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot were used to detect levels of inflammatory cytokines, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS In the CHF group, compared with the sham operation group, there was an increase in the heart weight to body weight ratio (HW/BW), the left ventricular weight to body weight ratio (LVW/BW), the left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD), the left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD), plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels, the cardiac collagen volume fraction (CVF), apoptotic index, expression levels of collagen I, collagen III, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the myocardial tissue, and a decrease in the left ventricular shortening fraction (LVFS) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and cardiac superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These changes were corrected in the SFN-treated group. CONCLUSIONS In a rabbit model of CHF, treatment with SFN improved cardiac function and remodeling by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

  16. Treatment Results of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Combined with Riboflavin and 440 Nm Blue Light for Bacterial Corneal Ulcer in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shufang; Zhang, Cuiying; Zhang, Shaoru; Xu, Yanyun; Mu, Guoying

    2017-10-01

    To study the treatment effect of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) combined with 440 nm blue light and riboflavin on bacterial corneal ulcer using animal experiments. A total of 21 New Zealand white rabbits that developed Staphylococcus aureus corneal ulcer were randomly divided into three groups. Seven rabbits were used as blank control groups; seven rabbits were treated with CXL combined with riboflavin and 440 nm blue light; and seven rabbits were treated with CXL combined with riboflavin and 370 nm ultraviolet A light. Necrotic tissues or secretions from the ulcer surface, eye secretions, conjunctival hyperemia, hypopyon, corneal infiltration, and pathological changes of the cornea were all observed. The 1st, 3th, and 7th day after CXL treatment, a statistically significant difference was found among the inflammation scores of the three groups. The scores of 440 and 370 groups decreased gradually, significantly lower than that of the control group. Bacterial cultures of 440 and 370 groups turned to be negative while that of the control group remained positive. After 1 day of CXL treatment, pathology pictures of the three groups all showed loss of corneal epithelia with many inflammatory cells in deep stroma. After 7 days of CXL treatment, abscess formed in almost all corneal area in the control group, while in 440 and 370 groups, multilayer healing of corneal epithelia, neovascularization, and many inflammatory cells within ulcers and proliferation of a small amount of fibroblast were seen. CXL combined with riboflavin and 440 nm blue light is effective in treating S. aureus corneal ulcer.

  17. Assessment of tricalcium phosphate/collagen (TCP/collagene)nanocomposite scaffold compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healing of segmental femur bone defect in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Mahmoud; Jahandideh, Alireza; Abedi, Gholamreza; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2018-03-01

    Bone regeneration is an important objective in clinical practice and has been used for different applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanocomposite tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/collagen scaffolds combined with hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone healing in surgery of femoral defects in rabbits. In this study, 45 mature male New Zealand white rabbits between 6 and 8 months old and weighting between 3 and 3.5 kg were examined. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Surgical procedures were performed after intramuscular injection of Ketamine 10% (ketamine hydrochloride, 50 mg/kg) and Rompun 5% (xylazine, 5 mg/kg). Then an approximately 6 mm diameter-5 mm cylinder bone defect was created in the femur of one of the hind limbs. After inducing the surgical wound, all rabbits were coloured and randomly divided into three experimental groups of 15 animals each. Group 1 received pure medical nanocomposite TCP/collagen granules, group 2 received hydroxyapatite, and third group was a control group which received no treatment. Histopathological evaluation was performed on days 15, 30, and 45 after surgery. On days 15, 30, and 45 after surgery, the quantity and the velocity of stages of bone formation at the healing site in nanocomposite TCP/collagen group were better than HA and control groups and the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone at the healing site in nanocomposite TCP/collagen group were better than onward compared with HA and control groups. In conclusion, it seems that TCP/collagen nanocomposite has a significant role in the reconstruction of bone defects and can be used as scaffold in bone fractures.

  18. Metabolic and reproductive status are not improved from 11 to 25 day post-partum in non-weaned primiparous rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, R M; Sakr, O G; Arias-Alvarez, M; Velasco, B; Lorenzo, P L; Rebollar, P G

    2012-03-01

    The aim of present work was to analyze the body reserves and ovarian features of lactating primiparous rabbit does under extensive reproductive management (artificial insemination (AI) at 25 days post-partum (dpp)) compared with the common insemination rhythm at 11 dpp. A total of 48 primiparous Californian×New Zealand White rabbit does suckling 8 kits were used to assess liveweight, estimated body composition, serum metabolic and endocrine parameters (oestradiol and progesterone concentrations) and ovarian features like follicle population and atresia rate, and oocyte maturation. Rabbit does were randomly allocated in two experimental groups: (a) lactating does euthanized at early post-partum period (11 dpp) according to a semi-intensive rhythm (n=24), and (b) lactating does euthanized at later post-partum period (25 dpp) according to a more extensive rhythm (n=24). Liveweight, body energy content, lipid depots and serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations decreased from parturition to post-partum period (P<0.05). In addition, serum protein and glucose concentrations increased in the post-partum period (P<0.05). Similar oestradiol and progesterone levels were found in rhythms as well as similar follicle population and nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation rates measured as metaphase II and cortical granule migration, respectively in both post-partum times. However, the number of preovulatory follicles on the ovarian surface was lower (P<0.05) and the atresia rate tended to be higher with a lower percentage of healthy follicles (P<0.1) in ovaries from females of extensive group. In conclusion, the body reserves, serum metabolic parameters and oocyte quality of primiparous non-weaned rabbits does at the late post-partum time (25 days) were not improved. Thus this reproductive management did not present any advantages compared to earlier post-partum (11 days) reproductive rhythm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Survivin gene therapy via lentivirus vector on the course of intervertebral disc degeneration in an in vivo rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yue, Bin; Lin, Yazhou; Ma, Xuexiao; Zhang, Guoqing; Chen, Bohua

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to use gene therapy to attenuate or reverse the degenerative process within the intervertabral disc. The effect of survivin gene therapy via lentiviral vector transfection on the course of intervertebral disc degeneration was investigated in the current study in an in vivo rabbit model. A total of 15 skeletally mature female New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Punctured blank control group (group A, n=5), punctured empty vector control group (group B, n=5) and the treatment group (group C, n=5). Computed tomography‑guided puncture was performed at the L3‑L4 and L4‑L5 discs, in accordance with a previously validated rabbit annulotomy model for intervertebral disc degeneration. After 3 weeks, a lentiviral vector (LV) carrying survivin was injected into the nucleus pulposus. The results demonstrated that through magnetic resonance imaging, histology, gene expression, protein content and apoptosis analyses, group A and B were observed to exhibit disc degeneration, which increased over time, and no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P>0.05). However, there was reduced disc degeneration in group C compared with the punctured control groups, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Overall, the results of the present study demonstrated that injection of the LV carrying survivin into punctured rabbit intervertebral discs acted to delay changes associated with the degeneration of the discs. Although data from animal models should be extrapolated to the human condition with caution, the present study suggests potential for the use of gene therapy to decelerate disc degeneration.

  20. Carprofen neither reduces postoperative facial expression scores in rabbits treated with buprenorphine nor alters long term bone formation after maxillary sinus grafting.

    PubMed

    Hedenqvist, Patricia; Trbakovic, Amela; Thor, Andreas; Ley, Cecilia; Ekman, Stina; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2016-08-01

    In connection with bilateral maxillary sinus augmentation, the acute effects of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen on facial expressions and long-term effects on bone formation were evaluated in 18 male New Zealand White rabbits. A 10×10mm bone window was drilled in the maxilla, the sinus membrane elevated and a titanium mini-implant inserted. One of two test materials was randomly inserted unilaterally and bovine bone chips (control) on the contralateral side in the created space. Rabbits were randomly allocated to receive buprenorphine plus carprofen (n=9) or buprenorphine plus saline (n=9) postoperatively. Buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously every 6h for 3days in a tapered dose (0.05-0.01mg/kg) and carprofen (5mg/kg) or saline administered subcutaneously 1h before, and daily for 4days postoperatively. To assess pain, clinical examination, body weight recording and scoring of facial expressions from photos taken before, and 6-13h after surgery were performed. Twelve weeks after surgery the rabbits were euthanized and sections of maxillary bones and sinuses were analysed with histomorphometry and by qualitative histology. Carprofen had no effect on mean facial expression scores, which increased from 0.0 to 3.6 (carprofen) and 4.3 (saline), of a maximum of 8.0. Neither did carprofen have an effect on bone formation or implant incorporation, whereas the test materials had. In conclusion, treatment with 5mg/kg carprofen once daily for 5days did not reduce facial expression scores after maxillary sinus augmentation in buprenorphine treated rabbits and did not affect long term bone formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi, Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in one side. The animals were sacrificed after different postoperative time intervals. The femoral condyles and neomeniscus were subjected to histological analysis. Histograms were used to measure the degradation and absorption of the prosthesis, the growth of meniscal tissue in the prosthesis and the degree of degradation of the femoral condyle joint cartilage. Results: The data obtained showed that tissue growth histologically resembling a normal meniscus occurred, with gradual absorption of the prosthesis, and the percentages of chondrocytes on the control side and prosthesis side. Conclusion: Tissue growth into the prosthesis pores that histologically resembled the normal rabbit meniscus was observed. The joint cartilage of the femoral condyles on the prosthesis side presented greater numbers of chondrocytes in all its layers. PMID:27022549

  2. Intravitreal memantine retinal toxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Moreno Páramo, D; Reyna Vielma, S; Rodríguez Reyes, A; Hernández Ayuso, I; Quiroz Mercado, H

    2016-02-01

    To histologically evaluate whether the intravitreal application of memantine produces retinal toxicity in rabbits. A cross-sectional design, experimental, descriptive study was performed on 16 eyes of 16 New Zealand rabbits of 3 kg, divided in 4 groups of 4 rabbits. A dose of 70 ng/ml of intravitreal memantine was administered in Group A, a dose of 150 ng/ml in Group B, a dose of 400 ng/ml in Group C, and Group D received 1 ml of balanced salt solution. The injected eye of half of each group was enucleated 15 days after the injection, and the rest within 30 days after injection. Following enucleation, each eye was placed in 10% formaldehyde. Histopathological analysis was performed on all enucleated eyes. The animals were treated according to the guidelines of the Association for Research on Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO). Groups A, B and D did not show any histopathological changes after their enucleation at 15 and 30 days. Group C showed changes in the photoreceptor layer after enucleation at 15 and 30 days. In our study, it was observed that memantine concentrations at 70 ng/ml and 150 ng/ml are safe when administered intravitreally; however, doses of 400 ng/ml produced retinal structural changes. This research should continue to assess its clinical usefulness. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone for sedation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Minh; Poumeyrol, Séverine; Pignon, Charly; Le Teuff, Gwenaël; Zilberstein, Luca

    2015-03-07

    Alfaxalone is a neuroactive steroid derivative of pregnanedione that was recently reintroduced to the market for use as an induction agent in small animal anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine an intramuscular alfaxalone dose for safe immobilisation. Ten healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used to evaluate a single intramuscular injection of alfaxalone. The design of the study was a three-way, complete block, cross-over trial to compare the effect of alfaxalone at three doses (4, 6 and 8 mg). The mean duration of the effect for the 4, 6 and 8 mg/kg doses was, respectively, 36.9 (95% CI (31.6 to 42.3)), 51.8 (46.4 to 57.2) and 58.4 (52.8 to 63.9) minutes. The loss of the righting reflex was achieved after 3.1 (2.5 to 3.8), 2.4 (1.7 to 3.1) and 2.3 (1.6 to 2.9) minutes, respectively. The mean duration of the effect for the 6 and 8 mg doses was significantly higher than for the 4 mg dose (with estimated differences of 14.8 95% CI (8.8 to 20.8) minutes and 21.4 (15.3 to 27.6) minutes, respectively). No significant dose effect was observed before the loss of the righting reflex (P=0.14). Ear pinching and limb withdrawal were elicited in all groups at every dose. Doses of 4 or 6 mg/kg could be recommended; higher doses do not provide clinical benefits and can be associated with anaesthetic complication. British Veterinary Association.

  4. New Zealand Southern Alps

    2001-06-20

    This anaglyph from the MISR instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft shows the rugged Southern Alps extending some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand South Island. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  5. Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation

    SciT

    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F.; Humphrey, Da

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbitsmore » were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24 h after exposure to 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min to study acute effects or up to 7 days after exposure to 400 ppm for 8 min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24 h after inhalation of 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400 ppm chlorine for 8 min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure–volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7 days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. - Highlights: • A novel rabbit model of chlorine-induced lung disease was

  6. Ceramic-polylactide composite material used in a model of healing of osseous defects in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Myciński, Paweł; Zarzecka, Joanna; Skórska-Stania, Agnieszka; Jelonek, Agnieszka; Okoń, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Maria

    The growing demand for various kinds of bone regeneration material has in turn increased the desire to find materials with optimal physical, chemical, and biological properties. The objective of the present study was to identify the proportions of ceramic and polylactide components in a bone substitute material prepared in collaboration with the Crystal Chemistry of Drugs Team of the Faculty of Chemistry at the Jagiellonian University, which would be optimal for bone regeneration processes. Another goal was to provide a histological analysis of the influence of a ceramic-polylactide composite on the healing of osseous defects in rabbits. The study was performed on laboratory animals (18 New Zealand White rabbits). The following study groups were formed: - group A (study group, 9 animals) - in this group we performed a histological analysis of healing with a ceramic-polylactide composite based on an 80/20 mix of hydroxyapatite and polylactide; - group B (study group, 9 animals) - in this group we performed a histological analysis of healing with a ceramic-polylactide composite with a reduced amount of hydroxyapatite compared to the previous group, i.e. in a ratio of 61/39; - group K (control, 18 animals) - the control group comprised self-healing, standardised osseous defects prepared in the calvarial bone of the rabbits on the contralateral side. In the assessment of histological samples, we were also able to eliminate individual influences that might have led to differentiation in wound healing. The material used in the histological analysis took the form of rabbit bone tissue samples, containing both defects, with margins of around 0.5 cm, taken 1, 3, and 6 months after the experiment. The osseous defects from groups A and B filled with ceramic-polylactide material healed with less inflammatory infiltration than was the case with control group K. They were also characterised by faster regression, and no resorption or osteonecrosis, which allowed for better

  7. The effects of L-carnitine on spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tetik, O; Yagdi, T; Islamoglu, F; Calkavur, T; Posacioglu, H; Atay, Y; Ayik, F; Canpolat, L; Yuksel, M

    2002-02-01

    Paraplegia after distal aortic aneurysm repair remains a persistent clinical problem. We hypothesized that the tolerance of the spinal cord to an ischemic period could be improved with hypothermic Ringer's Lactate containing L-Carnitine. Twenty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were used as spinal cord ischemia models. We separated rabbits into four equal groups and clamped each animal's abdominal aorta distal to the left renal artery. We occluded the aortas above the iliac bifurcation for 30 minutes. In group I, the infrarenal aorta was clamped without infusing any solution. In group II, Ringer's Lactate solution was infused at + 25degrees C for 3 minutes at a rate of 5 ml/min into the isolated aortic segments immediately after cross-clamping and the last 3 minutes of ischemia. In group III, Ringer's Lactate solution at +3 degrees C was given in the same method as that of group II. In group IV, Ringer's Lactate solution at +3 degrees C plus 100 mg/kg of L-carnitine was infused using the same technique. We assessed the neurological status of the hind limbs 24 and 48 hours after operation according to Tarlov's criteria. All animals were sacrificed and spinal cords were harvested for histological analyses. The neurological status in groups III and IV was significantly superior to that of groups I and II. All the animals in group I had complete hind-limb paraplegia. Complete hind-limb paraplegia occurred in 5 rabbits in group II. Two of the 7 animals in group III had spastic paraplegia, and none at all in group IV. Histological analysis of the cross-clamped segments of the rabbits with paraplegia in group I, II and III revealed changes consistent with ischemic injury, while findings were normal for the normal animals in group III and IV. In this model, the infusion of hypothermic Ringer's Lactate contained L-carnitine provided sufficient spinal cord protection against ischemia. Clinically, this may be a useful adjunct for prevention of paraplegia during surgery of the

  8. A rabbit model of progressive chronic right ventricular pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Roldan Ramos, Sara; Pieles, Guido; Hui, Wei; Slorach, Cameron; Redington, Andrew N; Friedberg, Mark K

    2018-04-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure from increased pressure loading is a frequent consequence of acquired and congenital heart diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in their pathophysiology are still unclear, and few data exist on RV pressure-loading models and early versus late effects on RV and left ventricular responses. We characterized a rabbit model of chronic RV pressure overload and early-late effects on biventricular function. Twenty-one New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups: (i) sham, (ii) pulmonary artery (PA) banding (PAB) for 3 weeks (PAB3W) and (iii) PAB for 6 weeks (PAB6W). Progressive RV pressure overload was created by serial band inflation using an adjustable device. Molecular, echocardiographic and haemodynamic studies were performed. RV pressure overload was achieved with clinical manifestations of RV failure. Heart and liver weights were significantly higher after PAB. PAB-induced echocardiographic ventricular remodelling increased wall thickness and stress and ventricular dilation. Cardiac output (ml/min) (sham 172.4 ± 42.86 vs PAB3W 103.1 ± 23.14 vs PAB6W 144 ± 60.9, P = 0.0027) and systolic and diastolic functions decreased; with increased RV end-systolic and end-diastolic pressures (mmHg) (sham 1.6 ± 0.66 vs PAB3W 3.9 ± 1.8 vs PAB6W 5.2 ± 2.2, P = 0.0103), despite increased contractility [end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (mmHg/ml), sham 3.76 ± 1.76 vs PAB3W 12.21 ± 3.44 vs PAB6W 19.4 ± 6.88, P < 0.0001]. Functional parameters further worsened after PAB6W versus PAB3W. LV contractility increased in both the PAB groups, despite worsening of other invasive measures of systolic and diastolic functions. We describe a novel, unique model of chronic RV pressure overload leading to early biventricular dysfunction and fibrosis with further progression at 6 weeks. These findings can aid in guiding management.

  9. Topical Application of a Silicone Gel Sheet with Verapamil Microparticles in a Rabbit Model of Hypertrophic Scar.

    PubMed

    Rha, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Tae-Jung; Yoo, Gyeol; Rhie, Jong Won; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Il-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The authors developed a novel treatment based on the topical application of a silicone gel sheet containing verapamil microparticles. The ability of these silicone gel sheets to inhibit hypertrophic scar in a rabbit ear wound model was examined. Ten New Zealand White rabbits with a total of 80 wounds in both ears were used in this study. The rabbits were divided into five groups (control; silicone gel sheet; and silicone gel sheet plus 0.25, 2.5, and 25 mg of verapamil per gram). Histopathologic findings were quantified. The mean scar elevation index, fibroblast counts, and capillary counts differed significantly among the five groups (p < 0.05). The median scar elevation index was significantly lower in the silicone gel sheet plus 2.5 mg of verapamil per gram group than in the silicone gel sheet group (1.2 versus 2.2). The median number of fibroblasts was significantly lower in the silicone gel sheet plus 0.25 mg of verapamil per gram group than in the silicone gel sheet group (172.5 versus 243). In the median number of capillary lumina, there was no significant difference between the silicone gel sheet group and the silicone gel sheet plus 0.25, 2.5, and 25 mg of verapamil per gram groups (28.5, 18, 20, and 18, respectively). Topical application of a silicone gel sheet with verapamil microparticles may be a novel, effective treatment method for hypertrophic scar, but its safety and efficacy in humans must be tested in clinical trials.

  10. Cultivation and phenotypic characterization of rabbit epithelial cells expanded ex vivo from fresh and cryopreserved limbal and oral mucosal explants.

    PubMed

    Promprasit, Daranee; Bumroongkit, Kanokkan; Tocharus, Chainarong; Mevatee, Umnat; Tananuvat, Napaporn

    2015-03-01

    To compare the morphology of cultured rabbit epithelial sheets and the expression of stem cells with differentiated cell markers of cultivated epithelial cells from fresh and cryopreserved limbal and oral mucosal biopsies. Six New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of three, from which limbal and oral mucosal biopsies were taken. Harvested tissues from each rabbit were brought to immediate cultivation, while another set of tissues was cryopreserved. Cultivation was performed by the explant culture technique using human amniotic membrane as a culture substrate, co-culturing with 3T3 fibroblasts and using the air-lifting method. Cells were cultured for three weeks; then cultured epithelial sheets were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined for expression patterns of p63, keratin 3 (K3) and connexin 43 (Cx43). Cryopreservation was carried out using the vitrification method. Tissues were preserved in liquid nitrogen using 25% dimethyl sulfoxide combined with 25% propylene glycol in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum. After two months, the tissues were warmed, cultured and stained using the same processes as for fresh tissue cultures. Cultivation of fresh limbal and fresh oral mucosal tissues showed epithelial stratification, with two to five cell layers. Immunohistochemical staining showed p63-positive cells in basal and intermediate cell layers. K3 staining was observed in cells in the suprabasal layer, while expression of Cx43 was scattered throughout all layers of the epithelia. All culture sheets expressed p63, K3 and Cx43 with the exception of one sheet from the oral mucosal culture that was p63-negative. Cultured epithelial sheets from cryopreserved tissues showed results similar to those from fresh tissue culture. This study found that cells in cultivated fresh limbal and oral mucosal tissues had similar morphology to cells in cultivated cryopreserved limbal and oral mucosal tissues, both containing a

  11. Cartilage repair using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheet and MSCs-loaded bilayer PLGA scaffold in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yiying; Du, Yi; Li, Weixu; Dai, Xuesong; Zhao, Tengfei; Yan, Weiqi

    2014-06-01

    The integration of regenerated cartilage with surrounding native cartilage is a major challenge for the success of cartilage tissue-engineering strategies. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether incorporation of the power of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheet to MSCs-loaded bilayer poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds can improve the integration and repair of cartilage defects in a rabbit model. Rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs were cultured and formed cell sheet. Full-thickness cylindrical osteochondral defects (4 mm in diameter, 3 mm in depth) were created in the patellar groove of 18 New Zealand white rabbits and the osteochondral defects were treated with PLGA scaffold (n = 6), PLGA/MSCs (n = 6) or MSC sheet-encapsulated PLGA/MSCs (n = 6). After 6 and 12 weeks, the integration and tissue response were evaluated histologically. The MSC sheet-encapsulated PLGA/MCSs group showed significantly more amounts of hyaline cartilage and higher histological scores than PLGA/MSCs group and PLGA group (P < 0.05). In addition, the MSC sheet-encapsulated PLGA/MCSs group showed the best integration between the repaired cartilage and surrounding normal cartilage and subchondral bone compared to other two groups. The novel method of incorporation of MSC sheet to PLGA/MCSs could enhance the ability of cartilage regeneration and integration between repair cartilage and the surrounding cartilage. Transplantation of autologous MSC sheet combined with traditional strategies or cartilage debris might provide therapeutic opportunities for improving cartilage regeneration and integration in humans.

  12. Effect of vacuum-assisted closure combined with open bone grafting to promote rabbit bone graft vascularization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chao; Zhang, Taogen; Ren, Bin; Deng, Zhouming; Cai, Lin; Lei, Jun; Ping, Ansong

    2015-04-27

    Patients with composite bone non-union and soft tissue defects are difficult to treat. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) combined with open bone grafting is one of the most effective treatments at present. The aim of the present study was to preliminarily investigate the effect and mechanism of VAC combined with open bone grafting to promote rabbit bone graft vascularization, and to propose a theoretical basis for clinical work. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. Allogeneic bones were grafted and banded with the proximal femur with a suture. The experimental group had VAC whereas the control group had normal wound closure. The bone vascularization rate was compared based on X-ray imaging, fluorescent bone labeling (labeled tetracycline hydrochloride and calcein), calcium content in the callus, and expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in bone allografts by Western blot analysis at the 4th, 8th, and 12th week after surgery. At the 4th, 8th, and 12th week after surgery, the results of the tests demonstrated that the callus was larger, contained more calcium (p<0.05), and expressed FGF-2 at higher levels (p<0.05) in the experimental group than in the control group. Fluorescent bone labeling showed the distance between the two fluorescent ribbons was significantly shorter in the control group than in the experimental group at the 8th and 12th week after surgery. VAC combined with open bone grafting promoted rabbit bone graft vascularization.

  13. Repair of articular cartilage defects in the knee with autologous iliac crest cartilage in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lizhong; Zhang, Jiying; Leng, Huijie; Guo, Qinwei; Hu, Yuelin

    2015-04-01

    To demonstrate that iliac crest cartilage may be used to repair articular cartilage defects in the knees of rabbits. Full-thickness cartilage defects were created in the medial femoral condyle on both knees of 36 New Zealand white rabbits. The 72 defects were randomly assigned to be repaired with ipsilateral iliac crest cartilage (Group I), osteochondral tissues removed at defect creation (Group II), or no treatment (negative control, Group III). Animals were killed at 6, 12, and 24 weeks post-operatively. The repaired tissues were harvested for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological studies (haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining), and mechanical testing. At 6 weeks, the iliac crest cartilage graft was not yet well integrated with the surrounding articular cartilage, but at 12 weeks, the graft deep zone had partial ossification. By 24 weeks, the hyaline cartilage-like tissue was completely integrated with the surrounding articular cartilage. Osteochondral autografts showed more rapid healing than Group I at 6 weeks and complete healing at 12 weeks. Untreated defects were concave or partly filled with fibrous tissue throughout the study. MRI showed that Group I had slower integration with surrounding normal cartilage compared with Group II. The mechanical properties of Group I were significantly lower than those of Group II at 12 weeks, but this difference was not significant at 24 weeks. Iliac crest cartilage autografts were able to repair knee cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage and showed comparable results with osteochondral autografts in the rabbit model.

  14. Acceleration of tendon-bone healing of anterior cruciate ligament graft using intermittent negative pressure in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengming; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ling, Ming; Wang, Wei; Chang, Yanhai; Yang, Guang; Dong, Xianghui; Wu, Shixun; Wu, Xueyuan; Yang, Bo; Chen, Ming

    2017-04-18

    The purpose of this study was to test effects of negative pressure on tendon-bone healing after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in rabbits. Hind legs of 24 New Zealand White rabbits were randomly selected as negative pressure group and the contralateral hind legs as control. Reconstruction of the ACL was done. Joints of the negative pressure side were placed with drainage tubes connecting the micro-negative pressure aspirator. Control side was placed with ordinary drainage tubes. Drainage tubes on both sides were removed at the same time 5 days after operation. After 6 weeks, joint fluid was drawn to detect the expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); at the same time, femur-ligament-tibia complex was obtained to determine tendon graft tension and to observe the histomorphology, blood vessels of the tendon-bone interface, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The maximum load breakage of tendon graft was significantly greater in the negative pressure group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Histological studies of the tendon-bone interface found that there was more new bone formation containing chondroid cells and aligned connective tissue in the negative pressure group than in the control group. Expression of VEGF was higher in the negative pressure group than in the control group (P < 0.01). Content of IL-1β and TNF-α in synovial fluid is lower in the negative pressure group than in the control group (P < 0.01). Intermittent negative pressure plays an active role in tendon-bone healing and creeping substitution of ACL reconstruction in the rabbits.

  15. A light and scanning electron microscopic evaluation of electro-discharge-compacted porous titanium implants in rabbit tibia.

    PubMed

    Drummond, J F; Dominici, J T; Sammon, P J; Okazaki, K; Geissler, R; Lifland, M I; Anderson, S A; Renshaw, W

    1995-01-01

    This study used light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) histomorphometric methods to quantitate the rate of osseointegration of totally porous titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) implants prepared by a novel fabrication technique--electrodischarge compaction (EDC). EDC was used to fuse 150-250-micrometer spherical titanium alloy beads into 4 X 6 mm cylindrical implants through application of a 300-microsecond pulse of high-voltage/high-current density. Two sterilized implants were surgically placed into each tibia of 20 New Zealand white rabbits and left in situ for periods corresponding to 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. At each time point, 4 rabbits were humanely killed, and the implants with surrounding bone were removed, fixed, and sectioned for light and SEM studies. The degree of osseointegration was quantitated by means of a True Grid Digitizing Pad and Jandel Scan Version 3.9 software on an IBM PS/2 computer. The total pore area occupied by bone was divided by the total pore area available for bone ingrowth, and a Bone Ingrowth Factor (BIF) was calculated as a percent. The light microscopic results showed BIFs of 4% at week 2, 47% at week 4, 62% at week 8, 84% at week 12, and greater than 90% at week 24. The SEM results showed BIFs of 5% at week 2, 34% at week 4, 69% at week 8, 75% at week 12, and in excess of 90% at week 24. The results of this study show that EDC implants are biocompatible and support rapid osseointegration in the rabbit tibia and suggest that, after additional studies, they may be suitable for use as dental implants in humans.

  16. Increased penile expression of transforming growth factor and elevated systemic oxidative stress in rabbits with chronic partial bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lin, W-Y; Chang, P-J; Lin, Y-P; Wu, S-B; Chen, C-S; Levin, R M; Wei, Y-H

    2012-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to support the direct link between obstructive bladder dysfunction and erectile dysfunction (ED). However, there have been few pathophysiological studies to determine the relationship between lower urinary tract syndrome (LUTS) and ED. As the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) that induces the synthesis of collagen in the penile tissues is critical for the development of ED, the first aim of this study was to investigate the expression of TGF-β1 in the penis from male rabbits with chronic partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO). Besides, it has been suggested that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathophysiological mechanism of ED. Thus, the second aim of this study was to further investigate whether the urinary or serum oxidative stress markers are involved in chronic PBOO-induced penile dysfunction. A total of 16 male New Zealand White rabbits were separated equally into four groups: a control group and PBOO groups obstructed for 2, 4 and 8 weeks respectively. Using the RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, a progressive increase of TGF-β1 in penis was found at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after obstruction. Moreover, the biomarkers for oxidative stress or oxidative damage were significantly detected in the penis of rabbits after PBOO, which include the enhancement of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine and plasma, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), as well as reduction of glutathione (GSH). On the basis of our results, the increase of TGF-β1 and elevated systemic oxidative stress may play key roles to contribute to penile dysfunction after chronic PBOO. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  17. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for dissolution of clots in a rabbit model of embolic stroke.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Alison; Huang, Yuexi; Waspe, Adam C; Ganguly, Milan; Goertz, David E; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that only 2-6% of patients receive thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke suggesting that alternative therapies are necessary. In this study, we investigate the potential for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to initiate thrombolysis in an embolic model of stroke. Iron-loaded blood clots were injected into the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of New Zealand White rabbits, through the internal carotid artery and blockages were confirmed by angiography. MRI was used to localize the iron-loaded clot and target the HIFU beam for treatment. HIFU pulses (1.5 MHz, 1 ms bursts, 1 Hz pulse repetition frequency, 20 s duration) were applied to initiate thrombolysis. Repeat angiograms and histology were used to assess reperfusion and vessel damage. Using 275 W of acoustic power, there was no evidence of reperfusion in post-treatment angiograms of 3 rabbits tested. In a separate group of animals, 415 W of acoustic power was applied and reperfusion was observed in 2 of the 4 (50%) animals treated. In the last group of animals, acoustic power was further increased to 550 W, which led to the reperfusion in 5 of 7 (∼70%) animals tested. Histological analysis confirmed that the sonicated vessels remained intact after HIFU treatment. Hemorrhage was detected outside of the sonication site, likely due to the proximity of the target vessel with the base of the rabbit skull. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using HIFU, as a stand-alone method, to cause effective thrombolysis without immediate damage to the targeted vessels. HIFU, combined with imaging modalities used to identify and assess stroke patients, could dramatically reduce the time to achieve flow restoration in patients thereby significantly increasing the number of patients which benefit from thrombolysis treatments.

  18. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for Dissolution of Clots in a Rabbit Model of Embolic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Alison; Huang, Yuexi; Waspe, Adam C.; Ganguly, Milan; Goertz, David E.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that only 2–6% of patients receive thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke suggesting that alternative therapies are necessary. In this study, we investigate the potential for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to initiate thrombolysis in an embolic model of stroke. Iron-loaded blood clots were injected into the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of New Zealand White rabbits, through the internal carotid artery and blockages were confirmed by angiography. MRI was used to localize the iron-loaded clot and target the HIFU beam for treatment. HIFU pulses (1.5 MHz, 1 ms bursts, 1 Hz pulse repetition frequency, 20 s duration) were applied to initiate thrombolysis. Repeat angiograms and histology were used to assess reperfusion and vessel damage. Using 275 W of acoustic power, there was no evidence of reperfusion in post-treatment angiograms of 3 rabbits tested. In a separate group of animals, 415 W of acoustic power was applied and reperfusion was observed in 2 of the 4 (50%) animals treated. In the last group of animals, acoustic power was further increased to 550 W, which led to the reperfusion in 5 of 7 (∼70%) animals tested. Histological analysis confirmed thatthe sonicated vessels remained intact after HIFU treatment. Hemorrhage was detected outside of the sonication site, likely due to the proximity of the target vessel with the base of the rabbit skull. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using HIFU, as a stand-alone method, to cause effective thrombolysis without immediate damage to the targeted vessels. HIFU, combined with imaging modalities used to identify and assess stroke patients, could dramatically reduce the time to achieve flow restoration in patients thereby significantly increasing the number of patients which benefit from thrombolysis treatments. PMID:22870315

  19. The influence of a single and chronic administration of venlafaxine on tramadol pharmacokinetics in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Szkutnik-Fiedler, Danuta; Grabowski, Tomasz; Balcerkiewicz, Monika; Michalak, Michał; Pilipczuk, Irina; Wyrowski, Łukasz; Urjasz, Hanna; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2017-06-01

    The combined use of tramadol with selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors e.g. venlafaxine may be associated with serotonin syndrome. No previous studies exist examining the influence of a weak CYP2D6 inhibitor venlafaxine on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single and chronic administration of venlafaxine on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol using a rabbit model. Adult New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes (n=21) were used. Animals received 100mg of tramadol per os (one slow release tablet) and 75mg of venlafaxine (one prolonged release capsule), and were divided into four groups: control group - a single dose of tramadol alone, 1day group - a single dose of tramadol and venlafaxine, 7 and 14days groups - seven and fourteen days administration of venlafaxine once daily plus a single dose of tramadol on the last day of the study. Venlafaxine administration over a period of 7 and 14days resulted in faster elimination of tramadol compared to the control group: significantly higher values of k el , and lower values of t 1/2kel and MRT for the 7 and 14days group were observed. Although no differences in bioavailability of tramadol were obtained. Using a rabbit model, there is no evidence that the combined administration of tramadol and venlafaxine may increase the plasma exposure of tramadol and therefore increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhalation of honey reduces airway inflammation and histopathological changes in a rabbit model of ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey is widely used in folk medicine to treat cough, fever, and inflammation. In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. The ability of honey to act either as a rescuing agent in alleviating asthma-related symptoms or as a preventive agent to preclude the occurrence of asthma was also assessed. Methods Forty New Zealand white rabbits were sensitized twice with mixture of OVA and aluminium hydroxide on days 1 and 14. Honey treatments were given from day 23 to day 25 at two different doses (25% (v/v) and 50% (v/v) of honey diluted in sterile phosphate buffer saline. In the aerosolised honey as a rescue agent group, animals were euthanized on day 28; for the preventive group, animals were further exposed to aerosolised OVA for 3 days starting from day 28 and euthanized on day 31. The effects of honey on inflammatory cell response, airway inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia were assessed for each animal. Results Histopathological analyses revealed that aerosolised honey resulted in structural changes of the epithelium, mucosa, and submucosal regions of the airway that caused by the induction with OVA. Treatment with aerosolised honey has reduced the number of airway inflammatory cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inhibited the goblet cell hyperplasia. Conclusion In this study, aerosolised honey was used to effectively treat and manage asthma in rabbits, and it could prove to be a promising treatment for asthma in humans. Future studies with a larger sample size and studies at the gene expression level are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which aerosolised honey reduces asthma symptoms. PMID:24886260

  1. Identifying Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque in Rabbits Using DMSA-USPIO Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Investigate the Effect of Atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongye; Wu, Weiheng; Gong, Lei; Li, Yong; Zhang, Qingdui; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is the primary cause of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular syndromes. Early and non-invasive detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VP) would be significant in preventing some aspects of these syndromes. As a new contrast agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) modified ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) was synthesized and used to identify VP and rupture plaque by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Atherosclerosis was induced in male New Zealand White rabbits by feeding a high cholesterol diet (n = 30). Group A with atherosclerosis plaque (n = 10) were controls. VP was established in groups B (n = 10) and C (n = 10) using balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. Adenovirus-carrying p53 genes were injected into the aortic segments rich in plaques after 8 weeks. Group C was treated with atorvastatin for 8 weeks. Sixteen weeks later, all rabbits underwent pharmacological triggering, and imaging were taken daily for 5 d after DMSA-USPIO infusion. At the first day and before being killed, serum MMP-9, sCD40L, and other lipid indicators were measured. Results DMSA-USPIO particles accumulated in VP and rupture plaques. Rupture plaques appeared as areas of hyper-intensity on DMSA-USPIO enhanced MRI, especially T2*-weighted sequences, with a signal strength peaking at 96 h. The group given atorvastatin showed few DMSA-USPIO particles and had lower levels of serum indicators. MMP-9 and sCD40L levels in group B were significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (P <0.05). Conclusion After successfully establishing a VP model in rabbits, DMSA-USPIO was used to enhance MRI for clear identification of plaque inflammation and rupture. Rupture plaques were detectable in this way probably due to an activating inflammatory process. Atorvastatin reduced the inflammatory response and stabilizing VP possibly by decreasing MMP-9 and sCD40L levels. PMID:25973795

  2. Inhalation of honey reduces airway inflammation and histopathological changes in a rabbit model of ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Kamaruzaman, Nurfatin Asyikhin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Kaur, Gurjeet; Yahaya, Badrul

    2014-05-29

    Honey is widely used in folk medicine to treat cough, fever, and inflammation. In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. The ability of honey to act either as a rescuing agent in alleviating asthma-related symptoms or as a preventive agent to preclude the occurrence of asthma was also assessed. Forty New Zealand white rabbits were sensitized twice with mixture of OVA and aluminium hydroxide on days 1 and 14. Honey treatments were given from day 23 to day 25 at two different doses (25% (v/v) and 50% (v/v) of honey diluted in sterile phosphate buffer saline. In the aerosolised honey as a rescue agent group, animals were euthanized on day 28; for the preventive group, animals were further exposed to aerosolised OVA for 3 days starting from day 28 and euthanized on day 31. The effects of honey on inflammatory cell response, airway inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia were assessed for each animal. Histopathological analyses revealed that aerosolised honey resulted in structural changes of the epithelium, mucosa, and submucosal regions of the airway that caused by the induction with OVA. Treatment with aerosolised honey has reduced the number of airway inflammatory cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inhibited the goblet cell hyperplasia. In this study, aerosolised honey was used to effectively treat and manage asthma in rabbits, and it could prove to be a promising treatment for asthma in humans. Future studies with a larger sample size and studies at the gene expression level are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which aerosolised honey reduces asthma symptoms.

  3. Modelling Landscape-Level Numerical Responses of Predators to Prey: The Case of Cats and Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Jennyffer; Glen, Alistair S.; Pech, Roger P.

    2013-01-01

    Predator-prey systems can extend over large geographical areas but empirical modelling of predator-prey dynamics has been largely limited to localised scales. This is due partly to difficulties in estimating predator and prey abundances over large areas. Collection of data at suitably large scales has been a major problem in previous studies of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and their predators. This applies in Western Europe, where conserving rabbits and predators such as Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is important, and in other parts of the world where rabbits are an invasive species supporting populations of introduced, and sometimes native, predators. In pastoral regions of New Zealand, rabbits are the primary prey of feral cats (Felis catus) that threaten native fauna. We estimate the seasonal numerical response of cats to fluctuations in rabbit numbers in grassland–shrubland habitat across the Otago and Mackenzie regions of the South Island of New Zealand. We use spotlight counts over 1645 km of transects to estimate rabbit and cat abundances with a novel modelling approach that accounts simultaneously for environmental stochasticity, density dependence and varying detection probability. Our model suggests that cat abundance is related consistently to rabbit abundance in spring and summer, possibly through increased rabbit numbers improving the fecundity and juvenile survival of cats. Maintaining rabbits at low abundance should therefore suppress cat numbers, relieving predation pressure on native prey. Our approach provided estimates of the abundance of cats and rabbits over a large geographical area. This was made possible by repeated sampling within each season, which allows estimation of detection probabilities. A similar approach could be applied to predator-prey systems elsewhere, and could be adapted to any method of direct observation in which there is no double-counting of individuals. Reliable estimates of numerical responses are essential

  4. Effects of dietary calcium on atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus in rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Howard H T; Culley, Nathan C

    2006-06-23

    Vascular calcification is implicated in myocardial infarction, instability and rigidity of the aortic wall, and bioprosthetic failures. Although an increase in the calcium (Ca) content in atherogenic diets has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis in rabbits, whether Ca supplementation and deficiency can affect atherosclerosis-related aortic calcification remains unknown. New Zealand White male rabbit littermates were fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil. The Ca content of the diet, which normally contains 1%, was adjusted to 0.5 or 3%. Segments of thoracic aortas were dissected from rabbits for histological evaluations and Ca and Pi determinations. Rabbits with calcium supplementation were maintained for 4 months, whereas those with calcium deficiency were maintained for 2 1/2 months due to severe icterus beyond this stage. The ratios of intimal to medial areas and calcified to intimal areas were used to semi-quantify lesion accumulation and calcification, respectively. Icterus was estimated from the extent of yellowing of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes along with gross evidence of hepatic lipidosis and/or biliary obstructions. Statistical analysis of 16 matched littermates shows that Ca supplementation significantly decreased the lesions by 41% (p < 0.05) and markedly inhibited calcification by 62% (p < 0.05). Statistical analysis of 11 matched littermates shows that Ca deficiency significantly increased the lesions by 2.7-fold (p < 0.05) and that the diet caused a small but significant calcification not seen in the sibling groups with normal dietary Ca. Ca supplementation caused a significant 30% decrease in serum cholesterol (p < 0.05). Calcium deficiency increased serum cholesterol by 57% (p < 0.001). Serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in Ca deficient rabbits were 2-fold higher than those with high Ca diets. Ca supplementation decreased soluble Ca and Pi content in aortas, suggesting that this effect may

  5. Host responses to a strontium releasing high boron glass using a rabbit bilateral femoral defect model.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Kathleen; Pierlot, Caitlin; O'Shea, Helen; Beaudry, Diane; Chagnon, Madeleine; Assad, Michel; Boyd, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Borate glasses have shown promising potential as bioactive materials. With recent research demonstrating that glass properties may be modulated by appropriate compositional design. This may provide for indication specific material characteristics and controlled release of therapeutic inorganic ions (i.e., strontium); controlling such release is critical in order to harness the therapeutic potential. Within this sub-chronic pilot study, a rabbit long-bone model was utilized to explore the safety and efficacy of a high borate glass (LB102: 70B 2 O 3 -20SrO-6Na 2 O-4La 2 O 3 ) particulate (90 - 710 μm) for bone regeneration. Six bilateral full-thickness defects (Ø = 3.5 mm; L = 8 mm) were created in three white New Zealand rabbits. Longitudinal non-decalcified sections of each defect site were produced and stained with Goldner's Trichrome. Histopathological examination revealed that LB102 demonstrated osteoconductive and osseointegrative properties with greater new bone being formed within and surrounding LB102 particles, when compared to the sham control. The inflammatory cell infiltration was observed to be slightly higher in the control when compared to LB102 defect sites, while no significant difference in fibrosis and neovascularization was determined, indicating that healing was occurring in a normal fashion. These data further suggest the possible utility of high borate glasses with appropriate compositional design for medical applications, such as bone augmentation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1818-1827, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Enzyme-Sensitive MR Imaging Targeting Myeloperoxidase Identifies Active Inflammation in Experimental Rabbit Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, John A.; Chen, John W.; Chen, Yuanxin; Hamilton, Amanda M.; Rodriguez, Elisenda; Reynolds, Fred; Hegele, Robert A.; Rogers, Kem A.; Querol, Manel; Bogdanov, Alexei; Weissleder, Ralph; Rutt, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Inflammation undermines the stability of atherosclerotic plaques, rendering them susceptible to acute rupture, the cataclysmic event that underlies clinical expression of this disease. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a central inflammatory enzyme secreted by activated macrophages, and is involved in multiple stages of plaque destabilization and patient outcome. We report here that a unique functional in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) agent can visualize MPO activity in atherosclerotic plaques in a rabbit model. Methods and Results We performed MR imaging of the thoracic aorta of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits fed a cholesterol (n=11) or normal (n=4) diet up to 2 hours after injection of the MPO sensor bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd) (MPO(Gd)), the conventional agent, DTPA(Gd), or an MPO (Gd) analog, bis-tyr-DTPA(Gd), as controls. Delayed MPO(Gd) images (2 hour post injection) showed focal areas of increased contrast (>2-fold) in diseased wall, but not in normal wall (p=0.84), compared to both DTPA(Gd) (n=11; p<0.001) and bis-tyr-DTPA(Gd) (n=3; p<0.05). Biochemical assays confirmed that diseased wall possessed three-fold elevated MPO activity compared to normal wall (p<0.01). Areas detected by MPO(Gd) imaging co-localized and correlated with MPO-rich areas infiltrated by macrophages on histopathological evaluations (r=0.91, p<0.0001). While macrophages were the main source of MPO, not all macrophages secreted MPO, suggesting that distinct subpopulations contribute differently to atherogenesis and supporting our functional approach. Conclusions Our study represents a unique approach in the detection of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques by examining macrophage function and the activity of an effector enzyme, to noninvasively provide both anatomic and functional information in vivo. PMID:19652086

  7. Apixaban Inhibits Cerebral Microembolic Signals Derived from Carotid Arterial Thrombosis in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xueping; Wu, Weizhen; Chu, Lin; Gutstein, David E; Seiffert, Dietmar; Wang, Xinkang

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral microembolic signal (MES) is an independent predictor of stroke risk and prognosis. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of apixaban, as a representative of the novel oral anticoagulant class, on a rabbit model of cerebral MES. A clinical transcranial Doppler ultrasound instrument was used to assess MESs in the middle cerebral artery in a 30% FeCl3-induced carotid arterial thrombosis model in male New Zealand White rabbits. Ascending doses of apixaban were evaluated as monotherapy and in combination with aspirin on both arterial thrombosis and MES. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses were also evaluated. The effective dose for 50% inhibition (ED50) of thrombus formation for monotherapy was 0.04 mg/kg per hour apixaban, i.v. (0.03 μM plasma exposure) for the integrated blood flow, 0.13 mg/kg per hour apixaban (0.10 μM plasma exposure) for thrombus weight, and 0.03 mg/kg per hour apixaban (0.02 μM plasma exposure) for MES. Dual treatment with aspirin (5 mg/kg, PO) and apixaban (0.015 mg/kg per hour, i.v.) resulted in a significant reduction in cerebral MES (P < 0.05) compared with monotherapy with either agent. Pharmacokinetic analysis of apixaban and pharmacodynamic assays using activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) for apixaban- and arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation for aspirin were used to confirm the exposure-response relationships. In summary, our study demonstrates that apixaban in a concentration-dependent manner inhibits both arterial thrombosis and MES, suggesting a potential association between factor Xa (FXa) blockade and the reduction in MES in patients at risk of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Effects of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on the Survival of Rabbit Ear Composite Grafts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chae Min; Oh, Joo Hyun; Jeon, Yeo Reum; Kang, Eun Hye; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Composite grafts are frequently used for facial reconstruction. However, the unpredictability of the results and difficulties with large defects are disadvantages. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) express several cytokines, and increase the survival of random flaps and fat grafts owing to their angiogenic potential. This study investigated composite graft survival after ADSC injection. Circular chondrocutaneous composite tissues, 2 cm in diameter, from 15 New Zealand white rabbits were used. Thirty ears were randomly divided into 3 groups. In the experimental groups (1 and 2), ADSCs were subcutaneously injected 7 days and immediately before the operation, respectively. Similarly, phosphate-buffered saline was injected in the control group just before surgery in the same manner as in group 2. In all groups, chondrocutaneous composite tissue was elevated, rotated 90 degrees, and repaired in its original position. Skin flow was assessed using laser Doppler 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after surgery. At 1 and 12 days after surgery, the viable area was assessed using digital photography; the rabbits were euthanized, and immunohistochemical staining for CD31 was performed to assess neovascularization. The survival of composite grafts increased significantly with the injection of ADSCs (P<0.05). ADSC injection significantly improved neovascularization based on anti-CD31 immunohistochemical analysis and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P<0.05) in both group 1 and group 2 compared to the control group. No statistically significant differences in graft survival, anti-CD31 neovascularization, or microcirculation were found between groups 1 and 2. Treatment with ADSCs improved the composite graft survival, as confirmed by the survival area and histological evaluation. The differences according to the injection timing were not significant.

  9. Study of a novel three-dimensional scaffold to repair bone defect in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yushu; Bai, Bo; Zhang, Shujiang; Ye, Jing; Zhai, Haohan; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Linlin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2014-05-01

    Both decalcified bone matrix (DBM) and fibrin gel possess good biocompatibility, so they are used as scaffolds to culture bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The feasibility and efficacy of using compound material being made of decalcified bone matrix and fibrin gel as a three-dimensional scaffold for bone growth were investigated. BMSCs were isolated from the femur of rabbit, then seeded in prepared scaffolds after incubation for 28 days in vitro. In vivo: 30 New Zealand White Rabbits received bone defect in left radius and divided three treatment groups randomly: (1) BMSCs/decalcified bone matrix/fibrin glue as experimental group; (2) decalcified bone matrix/fibrin glue without cells as control group; (3) nothing was implanted into the bone defects as blank group. The observation period of specimens was 12 weeks, and were analyzed bone formation in terms of serum proteomics (2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS), hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, ALP staining, and Osteopontin immunofluorescence detection. The experimental group present in three peculiar kinds of proteins, whose Geninfo identifier (GI) number were 136466, 126722803, and 126723746, respectively, correspond to TTR protein, ALB protein, RBP4 protein, and the histological inspections were superior to the other group. The content of osteopontin in experimental group was significantly higher than control group (p <  0.05). The overall results indicated that a combined material being made of BMSCs/decalcified bone matrix/fibrin glue can result in successful bone formation and decalcified bone matrix/fibrin glue admixtures can be used as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biochemical basis of vocal fold mobilization after microflap surgery in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Joshua R; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Wu, Hongmei; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Rousseau, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    To investigate phonation-related extracellular matrix (ECM) changes in the vocal fold lamina propria after microflap surgery using an in vivo rabbit phonation model. Prospective animal study. Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate alterations in vocal fold ECM proinflammatory and profibrotic gene, and protein expression from a control group of animals receiving a microflap without phonation and a separate group of animals receiving experimentally induced phonation on postmicroflap days 0, 3, and 7. IHC demonstrated the highest concentration of CD45 in vocal folds on postoperative day 0. Staining for CD45 was absent by postoperative day 7, with no differences in CD45 staining between groups. Fibronectin gene expression increased significantly on postoperative day 3 in the control and experimentally induced phonation groups, with maximal staining of fibronectin around the microflap incision on postoperative day 7. No alterations in cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β, and transforming growth factor-β1 gene expression were observed between groups. Results of the present study revealed an acute inflammatory response in the vocal fold at the time of microflap (day 0) and up to 3 days post-microflap. By post-operative day 3, staining of CD45 positive cells decreased, with essentially no evidence of inflammation by post-operative day 7. With the end of the acute inflammatory response occurring around day 3, these data may provide support for mobilizing tissue after inflammation has subsided and the process of active tissue remodeling has ensued (days 3-7). N/A. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Allograft integration in a rabbit transgenic model for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bachy, M; Sherifi, I; Zadegan, F; Petite, H; Vialle, R; Hannouche, D

    2016-04-01

    Tissue engineering strategies include both cell-based and cell homing therapies. Ligamentous tissues are highly specialized and constitute vital components of the musculoskeletal system. Their damage causes significant morbidity and loss in function. The aim of this study is to analyze tendinous graft integration, cell repopulation and ligamentization by using GFP+/- allografts in GFP+/- transgenic New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Graft implantation was designed to closely mimic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair surgery. Allografts were implanted in 8 NZW rabbits and assessed at 5 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks through: (1) arthroCT imaging, (2) morphological analysis of the transplanted allograft, (3) histological analysis, (4) collagen type I immunochemistry, and (5) GFP cell tracking. Collagen remodeling was appreciated at 3 and 6 weeks. Graft repopulation with host cells, chondrocyte-like cells at the tendon-bone interface and graft corticalization in the bone tunnels were noticed at 3 weeks. By contrast we noticed a central necrosis aspect in the allografts intra-articularly at 6 weeks with a cell migration towards the graft edge near the synovium. Our study has served to gain a better understanding of tendinous allograft bone integration, ligamentization and allograft repopulation. We believe that both cell-based therapies and cell homing therapies are beneficial in ligament tissue engineering. Future studies may elucidate whether cell repopulation occurs with pre-differentiated or progenitor cells. We believe that both cell-based therapies and cell homing therapies are beneficial in ligament tissue engineering. Level V (animal study). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular diagnosis of Eimeria stiedae in hepatic tissue of experimentally infected rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Khaled M; Arafa, Waleed M; Mousa, Waheed M; Shokier, Khaled A M; Shany, Salama A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2016-10-01

    The early detection of Eimeria stiedae in the hepatic tissue of experimentally infected rabbits was investigated using molecular assay. Forty 6-week-old male New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups. Group A (30 animals) was infected with 2.5 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. stiedae per animal on Day 0 and Group B (10 animals) was used as the uninfected controls. Three animals from Group A and one from Group B were sacrificed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24 and 27 days post infection (PI). Gross and microscopic post-mortem findings were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the E. stiedae internal transcribed spacer 1 genomic region was conducted on blood, liver tissue, and feces from the Group A experimentally infected animals. Macroscopically, the liver showed irregular yellowish white nodules pathognomonic to E. stiedae infection beginning on Day 15 PI. Hepatomegaly and ascites were obvious from Day 21-24 PI. The presence of different E. stiedae schizonts and gametocytes in the histopathological sections of the biliary epithelium were evident on Day 15 PI. The E. stiedae PCR was first positive in liver tissues on Day 12 and in fecal samples on Day 18 PI, but the blood samples were negative. In conclusion, the PCR can be used for early diagnosis and control of E. stiedae schizonts before shedding of the oocysts in feces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implant-based three-dimensional superimposition of the growing mandible in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Parton, Andrew L; Duncan, Warwick J; Oliveira, Marcelo E; Key, Oscar; Farella, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    The reliable assessment of craniofacial morphological changes during growth requires invariant regions for image registration. As these regions have not yet been identified in three dimensions, intra-osseous implants are required as fiducial markers for the reliable assessment of three-dimensional (3D) mandibular growth changes. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model for the assessment of the 3D morphological changes of the mandible during growth, using implants as fiducial markers. Titanium implants were placed in the body of the mandible of six New Zealand White rabbits. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were taken 1-week following implant placement and after an additional 8-weeks of growth. Segmentations of CBCT images were exported into custom-made scripts, implant centroids were identified, implant stability during growth calculated, and the segmented mandibles were registered on the implant centroids. The buccal cortical bone of the body of the mandible was stable during growth and suitable for fiducial marker placement. Bilateral implants resulted in more accurate rigid registration of the growing rabbit mandible than only unilateral implants. 3D mandibular growth changes were visualised by means of semi-transparencies. This animal model appears to be feasible for the assessment of the 3D morphological changes occurring during mandibular growth. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that the implant superimposition method has been combined with 3D imaging to accurately reveal mandibular growth changes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Achieving an early pregnancy following allogeneic uterine transplantation in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Saso, Srdjan; Petts, Gemma; David, Anna L; Thum, Meen-Yau; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Vicente, Jose S; Marco-Jimenez, Francisco; Corless, David; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David; Lindsay, Iain; Del Priore, Giuseppe; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J Richard

    2015-02-01

    Uterine transplantation (UTx) has been proposed as a treatment option for women diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI). The goal of UTx remains achieving pregnancy and live birth of a healthy neonate following allogeneic UTx. Our aim was to assess whether fertility was possible following allogeneic uterine transplantation (UTx), when the recipient had demonstrated long-term survival and had been administered immunosuppression. Nine allogeneic UTx in New Zealand White rabbits were performed using a pre-determined protocol. Tacrolimus was the immunosuppressant selected. Embryos were transferred into both cornua of the sole living recipient via a mini-midline laparotomy. The pregnancy was monitored with regular reproductive profiles and serial trans-abdominal ultrasound to measure conceptus growth (gestation sac and crown rump length (CRL)). In the sole surviving doe a gestation sac was visualised on ultrasound from Day 9 (D9) after embryo transfer. Gestation sac diameter and CRL increased from D9 to D16 but by D18 the gestation sac had reduced in size. The fetus was no longer visible, suggesting fetal resorption had occurred. Subsequent scans on D22 and D25 did not demonstrate a gestation sac. Scheduled necropsy on D27 and histopathology confirmed evidence of a gravid uterus and presence of a gestational sac. A single episode of acute rejection occurred on D13. Pregnancy was achieved after rabbit allogeneic UTx but serial ultrasound suggested that fetal demise occurred prior to scheduled necropsy. The study represents only the third example of conception and pregnancy following an animal allogeneic UTx. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  16. Comparison between infrared and Raman spectroscopic analysis of maturing rabbit cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Mikael J; Saarakkala, Simo; Rieppo, Lassi; Helminen, Heikki J; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Isaksson, Hanna

    2011-06-01

    The molecular composition of the organic and inorganic matrices of bone undergoes alterations during maturation. The aim of this study was to compare Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and near-infrared (NIR) Raman microspectroscopy techniques for characterization of the composition of growing and developing bone from young to skeletally mature rabbits. Moreover, the specificity and differences of the techniques for determining bone composition were clarified. The humeri of female New Zealand White rabbits, with age range from young to skeletally mature animals (four age groups, n = 7 per group), were studied. Spectral peak areas, intensities, and ratios related to organic and inorganic matrices of bone were analyzed and compared between the age groups and between FT-IR and Raman microspectroscopic techniques. Specifically, the degree of mineralization, type-B carbonate substitution, crystallinity of hydroxyapatite (HA), mineral content, and collagen maturity were examined. Significant changes during maturation were observed in various compositional parameters with one or both techniques. Overall, the compositional parameters calculated from the Raman spectra correlated with analogous parameters calculated from the IR spectra. Collagen cross-linking (XLR), as determined through peak fitting and directly from the IR spectra, were highly correlated. The mineral/matrix ratio in the Raman spectra was evaluated with multiple different peaks representing the organic matrix. The results showed high correlation with each other. After comparison with the bone mineral density (BMD) values from micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging measurements and crystal size from XRD measurements, it is suggested that Raman microspectroscopy is more sensitive than FT-IR microspectroscopy for the inorganic matrix of the bone. In the literature, similar spectroscopic parameters obtained with FT-IR and NIR Raman microspectroscopic techniques are often compared. According to the present

  17. Gastroretentive behavior of orally administered radiolabeled tamarind seed formulations in rabbits validated by gamma scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Mahboubeh; Karimian, Hamed; Yeong, Chai Hong; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Khaing, Si Lay; Chung, Lip Yong; Mohamad Haron, Didi Erwandi B; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to formulate floating gastroretentive tablets containing metformin hydrochloric acid (HCl), using various grades of hydrogel such as tamarind powders and xanthan to overcome short gastric residence time of the conventional dosage forms. Different concentrations of the hydrogels were tested to determine the formulation that could provide a sustained release of 12 h. Eleven formulations with different ratios of tamarind seed powder/tamarind kernel powder (TKP):xanthan were prepared. The physical parameters were observed, and in vitro drug-release studies of the prepared formulations were carried out. Optimal formulation was assessed for physicochemical properties, thermal stability, and chemical interaction followed by in vivo gamma scintigraphy study. MKP3 formulation with a TKP:xanthan ratio of 3:2 was found to have 99.87% release over 12 h. Furthermore, in vivo gamma scintigraphy study was carried out for the optimized formulation in healthy New Zealand White rabbits, and the pharmacokinetic parameters of developed formulations were obtained. 153 Sm 2 O 3 was used to trace the profile of release in the gastrointestinal tract of the rabbits, and the drug release was analyzed. The time ( T max ) at which the maximum concentration of metformin HCl in the blood ( C max ) was observed, and it was extended four times for the gastroretentive formulation in comparison with the formulation without polymers. C max and the half-life were found to be within an acceptable range. It is therefore concluded that MKP3 is the optimal formulation for sustained release of metformin HCl over a period of 12 h as a result of its floating properties in the gastric region.

  18. Gastroretentive behavior of orally administered radiolabeled tamarind seed formulations in rabbits validated by gamma scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Mahboubeh; Karimian, Hamed; Yeong, Chai Hong; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Khaing, Si Lay; Chung, Lip Yong; Mohamad Haron, Didi Erwandi B; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to formulate floating gastroretentive tablets containing metformin hydrochloric acid (HCl), using various grades of hydrogel such as tamarind powders and xanthan to overcome short gastric residence time of the conventional dosage forms. Different concentrations of the hydrogels were tested to determine the formulation that could provide a sustained release of 12 h. Eleven formulations with different ratios of tamarind seed powder/tamarind kernel powder (TKP):xanthan were prepared. The physical parameters were observed, and in vitro drug-release studies of the prepared formulations were carried out. Optimal formulation was assessed for physicochemical properties, thermal stability, and chemical interaction followed by in vivo gamma scintigraphy study. MKP3 formulation with a TKP:xanthan ratio of 3:2 was found to have 99.87% release over 12 h. Furthermore, in vivo gamma scintigraphy study was carried out for the optimized formulation in healthy New Zealand White rabbits, and the pharmacokinetic parameters of developed formulations were obtained. 153Sm2O3 was used to trace the profile of release in the gastrointestinal tract of the rabbits, and the drug release was analyzed. The time (Tmax) at which the maximum concentration of metformin HCl in the blood (Cmax) was observed, and it was extended four times for the gastroretentive formulation in comparison with the formulation without polymers. Cmax and the half-life were found to be within an acceptable range. It is therefore concluded that MKP3 is the optimal formulation for sustained release of metformin HCl over a period of 12 h as a result of its floating properties in the gastric region. PMID:28031701

  19. Dietary antioxidants preserve endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Keaney, J F; Gaziano, J M; Xu, A; Frei, B; Curran-Celentano, J; Shwaery, G T; Loscalzo, J; Vita, J A

    1993-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that dietary therapy with lipid-soluble antioxidants may be beneficial for patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease but the potential mechanism(s) for these observations remain obscure. Abnormalities in endothelium-dependent control of vascular tone develop early in the course of atherosclerosis and may result from oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins. We examined the role of dietary antioxidants in preserving normal endothelial cell vasodilator function in cholesterol-fed rabbits with particular attention to possible effects on serum lipoproteins, low density lipoprotein oxidation, and atherogenesis. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed diets containing no additive (controls), 1% cholesterol (cholesterol group), or 1% cholesterol chow supplemented with either beta-carotene (0.6 g/kg of chow) or alpha-tocopherol (1000 international units/kg of chow) for a 28-day period. After dietary therapy, thoracic aortae were harvested for assay of vascular function and for pathologic examination and tissue antioxidant levels. Compared to controls, acetylcholine- and A23187-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations were significantly impaired in vessels from the cholesterol group (P < 0.001), whereas vessels from animals treated with beta-carotene or alpha-tocopherol demonstrated normal endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation. Preservation of endothelial function was associated with vascular incorporation of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene but was unrelated to plasma lipoprotein levels, smooth muscle cell function, or the extent of atherosclerosis. Increased low density lipoprotein resistance to ex vivo copper-mediated oxidation was observed only in the alpha-tocopherol group. Our results suggest that dietary antioxidants may benefit patients with atherosclerosis by preserving endothelial vasodilator function through a mechanism related to vascular tissue antioxidant content and not reflected by assay of low density

  20. In vivo two-photon imaging of retina in rabbits and rats.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Gopal Swamy; Wu, Yi-Kai; Bille, Josef F; Kim, Samuel; Mao, Xiao Wen; Gimbel, Howard V; Rauser, Michael E; Fan, Joseph T

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retina using near-infrared (NIR) two-photon scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. New Zealand white rabbits, albino rats, and brown Norway rats were used in this study. An autofluorescence image of the retina, including the retinal cells and its associated vasculatures was obtained by a real-time scan using the ophthalmoscope. Furthermore, the retinal vessels, nerve fiber layers and the non-pigmented retina were recorded with two-photon fluorescein angiography (FA); and the choroidal vasculatures were recorded using two-photon indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Two-photon ICGA was achieved by exciting a second singlet state at ∼398 nm. Simultaneous two-photon FA and two-photon ICGA were performed to characterize the retinal and choroidal vessels with a single injection. The minimum laser power threshold required to elicit two-photon fluorescence was determined. The two-photon ophthalmoscope could serve as a promising tool to detect and monitor the disease progression in animal models. Moreover, these high-resolution images of retinal and choroidal vessels can be acquired in a real-time scan with a single light source, requiring no additional filters for FA or ICGA. The combination of FA and ICGA using the two-photon ophthalmoscope will help researchers to characterize the retinal diseases in animal models, and also to classify the types (classic, occult or mixed) of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in macular degeneration. Furthermore, the prototype can be adapted to image the retina of rodents and rabbits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of rigid fixation on the growing neurocranium of immature rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sanus, Galip Zihni; Tanriverdi, Taner; Kacira, Tibet; Jackson, Ian T

    2007-03-01

    The improved intraoperative long-term skeletal stability achieved with rigid fixation techniques has led to their widespread popularity and application. However, experimental studies have revealed some drawbacks related to metallic implants and long-term results of clinical studies, especially in pediatric patients, has confirmed the results of experimental studies. Our aim in this experimental study using an infant rabbit model is to answer the following question: "Does short-term skeletal stability cause long-term growth inhibition?" Forty, 9-day-old New Zealand white albino rabbits were divided into four groups: 1) experimental, n=6: plated across the right coronal suture and two screws on each side of the left coronal suture; 2) re-operation, n=6: the same materials as group I were placed, and only the plate was removed at the end of 1 month; 3) sham, n=6: sham control with simulated surgery and two screws on each side of the left coronal suture; 4) control, n=2: no operation. The animals were killed 6 months after microplate application, and the skulls were evaluated both grossly and cephalometrically. Gross examination showed that the plates and the screws were covered by bony overgrowth and caused bony irregularity and regional bone degeneration. The parietal bones on the plated sides became striated and lost their concave shape. Cephalometric analysis demonstrated overt mastoid tip deviation toward, or shortening of cranionasal length on, the side with rigid fixation. We conclude from our study that rigid fixation during skeletal development causes growth retardation and should not be used in the growing child.

  2. Zoonoses of rabbits and rodents.

    PubMed

    Hill, William Allen; Brown, Julie Paige

    2011-09-01

    Millions of households in the US own rabbits or rodents, including hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils. Activities such as hunting and camping also involve human interactions with wild rabbits and rodents. In many environments, feral rabbits and rodents live in close proximity to humans, domesticated animals, and other wildlife. Education of rodent and rabbit owners and individuals with occupational or recreational exposures to these species is paramount to reduce the prevalence of zoonoses associated with rabbit and rodent exposure.

  3. Inclusive Academic Language Teaching in New Zealand: History and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Meeting the educational needs of a linguistically diverse population is a challenge for many countries. This is a particular challenge for New Zealand (NZ) which, until the 1980s, had a White Immigration Policy. The last 30 years have seen NZ become a full member of the Asia Pacific Region and move from being a mostly homogenous society to one of…

  4. Basic investigation of vascular interventional radiology (IR) using large rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Norihisa; Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta-Seko, Ayumi; Ohta, Shinichi; Tsuchiya, Keiko; Tanaka, Toyohiko; Kanasaki, Shuzo; Mukaisho, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of large rabbits for basic vascular interventional radiology (IR) experiments. We used 5 Akita large rabbits (Akita) and 5 Japanese white rabbits (JW). We conducted measurements of vessel diameters such as the aorta, and the iliac, renal, superior mesenteric, celiac, and proper hepatic arteries, and of the growth rates of VX2 liver tumors. There were significant differences between Akita and JW in the diameters of the thoracic aorta, lower abdominal aorta, and celiac artery. In other blood vessels, no significant differences were found. There was no difference in the growth rates of the VX2 tumors between Akita and JW. The possibility that Akita large rabbits could be utilized for vascular IR was demonstrated.

  5. Rabbit notochordal cells modulate the expression of inflammatory mediators by human annulus fibrosus cells cocultured with activated macrophage-like THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Han; Moon, Hong Joo; Lee, Jin Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kwon, Taek Hyun; Park, Youn Kwan

    2012-10-15

    We evaluated the influence of rabbit notochordal cells on the expression of inflammatory mediators by human annulus fibrosus (AF) cells cocultured with macrophage-like cells. To identify the protective effect of rabbit notochordal cells on AF during in vitro inflammation. Discogenic pain, which is an important cause of intractable lower back pain, is associated with macrophage-mediated inflammation in the AF. Although rabbit notochordal cells prevent intervertebral disc degeneration, their effects on human AF inflammation remain unknown. Human AF pellets were cocultured for 48 hours with notochordal cell clusters from adult New Zealand White rabbits and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated human macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Conditioned media (CM) from the cocultures were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of inflammatory mediators in the AF pellets was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The levels of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the AF pellets cocultured with notochordal cells and macrophages (hAF[rNC-M]) were significantly lower than those in the AF pellets cultured with macrophages alone (hAF[M]) (P < 0.05). The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 proteins in the CM of hAF(rNC-M) were significantly lower than those in the CM of hAF(M) (P < 0.05). Coculturing with notochordal cells significantly decreased the levels of mRNA for IL-6, IL-8, and iNOS in the macrophage-exposed AF pellets (P < 0.05). After 1 ng/mL IL-1β stimulation, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA and the level of IL-8 protein production were significantly decreased in the AF pellets with notochordal cells compared with naïve AF pellets (P < 0.05). In an in vitro coculture system, rabbit notochordal cells reduced the levels of main inflammatory mediators and gene expression in the human AF during inflammation. Therefore, rabbit notochordal cells may constitute an important protective tool

  6. Validation of a time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy apparatus in a rabbit atherosclerosis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qiyin; Jo, Javier A.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Dorafshar, Amir; Reil, Todd; Qiao, Jian-Hua; Fishbein, Michael C.; Freischlag, Julie A.; Marcu, Laura

    2004-07-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (tr-LIFS) has been studied as a potential tool for in vivo diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions. This study is to evaluate the potential of a compact fiber-optics based tr-LIFS instrument developed in our laboratory for in vivo analysis of atherosclerotic plaque composition. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy studies were performed in vivo on fifteen New Zealand White rabbits (atherosclerotic: N=8, control: N=7). Time-resolved fluorescence spectra were acquired (range: 360-600 nm, increment: 5 nm, total acquisition time: 65 s) from normal aorta wall and lesions in the abdominal aorta. Data were analyzed in terms of fluorescence emission spectra and wavelength specific lifetimes. Following trichrome staining, tissue specimens were analyzed histopathologically in terms of intima/media thickness and biochemical composition (collagen, elastin, foam cells, and etc). Based on intimal thickness, the lesions were divided into thin and thick lesions. Each group was further separated into two categories: collagen rich lesions and foam cell rich lesions based on their biochemical composition. The obtained spectral and time domain fluorescence signatures were subsequently correlated to the histopathological findings. The results have shown that time-domain fluorescence spectral features can be used in vivo to separate atherosclerotic lesions from normal aorta wall as well discrimination within certain types of lesions.

  7. Scapular insertion of the rabbit latissimus dorsi muscle: gross anatomy and fibre-type composition.

    PubMed

    Barron, D J; Etherington, P J; Winlove, C P; Pepper, J R

    2001-01-01

    This paper defines the characteristics and significance of the scapular insertion of the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) of the rabbit. In a study of the New Zealand White species (n = 10) the scapular insertion was found to be a consistent anatomical feature of the LDM that made up 12.3% (+/-2.3) of the total muscle weight. The fibres arise from the medial aspect of the body of the LDM and run in a caudocranial direction to be inserted into a broad, thin tendon beneath the scapula ridge. This is morphologically different from the scapular component of the human LDM which is a well-recognized but inconsistent feature and consists of no more than a small leash of fibres running around the lower pole of the scapula. The scapular insertion was deeper red in colour than the body of the muscle and fibre-typing demonstrated a mean slow-fibre composition of 49% (+/-2.6) compared to 16% (+/-1.7) for the body of the muscle (p < 0.01). Mapping of the fibre types throughout the remainder of the LDM confirmed that the body of the muscle was of fast phenotype but with significantly more slow fibres in the superomedial segment of the muscle than elsewhere. This region of the muscle contributes mainly to the scapular insertion and it is proposed that this part of the muscle takes on a predominantly postural role in stabilising the scapula during movement of the forelimb.

  8. Osteochondral Repair Using Porous Three-dimensional Nanocomposite Scaffolds in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Żylińska, Beata; Stodolak-Zych, Ewa; Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Szponder, Tomasz; Silmanowicz, Piotr; Łańcut, Mirosław; Jarosz, Łukasz; Różański, Paweł; Polkowska, Izabela

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of a novel nanocomposite biomaterial consisting of poly-L/D-lactide, and hydroxyapatite bioceramics, enriched with sodium alginate in articular cartilage defect treatment. The biomaterial was prepared using the method of solvent casting and particle leaching. The study was conducted on 20 New Zealand White rabbits. Experimental osteochondral defects were created in the femoral trochlear grooves and filled with biomaterials. In control groups, the defects were left to spontaneously heal. The quality of newly-formed tissue was evaluated on the basis of macroscopic and histological assessment. Additionally the level of osteogenic and cartilage degradation markers were measured. The majority of the defects from the treatment group were covered with tissue similar in structure and colour to healthy cartilage, whereas in the control group, tissue was uneven, and not integrated into the surrounding cartilage. The results obtained validate the choice of biomaterial used in this study as well as the method of its application. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Pulmonary microvascular dysfunction and pathological changes induced by blast injury in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si Yu; Han, Geng Fen; Kang, Jian Yi; Zhang, Liang Chao; Wang, Ai Min; Wang, Jian Min

    2016-09-01

    Vascular leakage has been proven to play a critical role in the incidence and development of explosive pulmonary barotrauma. Quantitatively investigated in the present study was the severity of vascular leakage in a gradient blast injury series, as well as ultrastructural evidence relating to pulmonary vascular leakage. One hundred adult male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups according to distance from the detonator (10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, and sham control). Value of pulmonary vascular leakage was monitored by a radioactive 125I-albumin labeling method. Pathological changes caused by the blast wave were examined under light and electron microscopes. Transcapillary escape rate of 125I-albumin and residual radioactivity in both lungs increased significantly at the distances of 10 cm, 15 cm, and 20 cm, suggesting increased severity of vascular leakage in these groups. Ultrastructural observation showed swelling of pulmonary capillary endothelial cells and widened gap between endothelial cells in the 10-cm and 15-cm groups. Primary blast wave can result in pulmonary capillary blood leakage. Blast wave can cause swelling of pulmonary capillary endothelial cells and widened gap between endothelial cells, which may be responsible for pulmonary vascular leakage.

  10. Acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) but not basic FGF induces sleep and fever in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Knefati, M; Somogyi, C; Kapás, L; Bourcier, T; Krueger, J M

    1995-07-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and basic FGF belong to a growth factor family. Interleukin-1, another member of that family, is involved in sleep regulation. FGFs and interleukin-1 share structural and functional features. We therefore determined whether acidic FGF and basic FGF were somnogenic. Male New Zealand White rabbits were provided with electroencephalographic (EEG) electrodes, a brain thermistor, and a lateral intracerebroventricular (icv) cannula. The animals were injected icv with isotonic NaCl (control) and on separate days with one of three doses of acidic or basic FGF (0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 micrograms) or with heat-treated acidic FGF (1.0 micrograms). The EEG, brain temperature, and motor activity were recorded for 23 h. The biological activity of basic FGF was determined in vitro by its ability to induce DNA synthesis in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Acidic FGF induced prolonged dose-related increases in non-rapid eye movement sleep beginning in the 1st postinjection h and continuing for 12-23 h after the treatment. Acidic FGF also induced fevers of approximately 1 degree C after the 1.0 micrograms dose. Both activities of acidic FGF were lost after heat treatment. In contrast, basic FGF lacked somnogenic and pyrogenic activity, although it did induce DNA synthesis. Current results suggest that acidic FGF is part of the complex cytokine network in brain involved in sleep regulation.

  11. Effect of local administration of simvastatin on postorthodontic relapse in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    AlSwafeeri, Hani; ElKenany, Walid; Mowafy, Mohamed; Karam, Sahar

    2018-06-01

    Posttreatment relapse is a major challenging clinical issue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of local administration of simvastatin on posttreatment relapse. Orthodontic tooth movement was induced in 10 white New Zealand rabbits. After 21 days of active tooth movement, the orthodontic appliances were removed, and the experimental teeth were allowed to relapse for 21 days. During the relapse phase, 1 mandibular quadrant received local simvastatin administration, and the other received the control vehicle solution on a weekly basis. Three-dimensional models of the experimental teeth were created to allow the measurement of experimental tooth movement and posttreatment relapse. The animals were killed at the end of the relapse phase for histomorphometric analysis of alveolar bone remodeling. The mean relapse percentages were 75.83% in the quadrant receiving the control vehicle solution and 62.01% in the quadrant receiving simvastatin. Neither the relapse magnitude nor the relapse percentage showed a significant difference between the 2 quadrants. Histomorphometric analyses showed that local simvastatin administration yielded a significant reduction in the area of active bone-resorptive lacunae and a significant increase in newly formed bone area. Although local administration of simvastatin aids in bone remodeling associated with posttreatment relapse by reducing the area of active bone resorption and upregulating bone formation, it did not significantly minimize posttreatment relapse. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of in situ freezing on rabbit patellar tendon. A histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, B. K.; Fujisaki, K.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Cell necrosis has been well documented as one of the many changes that occur in autogenous tendon when it is used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. The purpose of this experiment was to isolate cell necrosis as a variable and study its effect on the patellar tendon. To accomplish this, both knees of 25 New Zealand White rabbits were operated on. In one knee, a 5-mm wide band of patellar tendon was subjected to two rapid freeze-thaw cycles, while the other knee underwent sham surgery. Histologic evaluation showed a zone of necrosis at 2 and 4 weeks with cellular repopulation complete at 8 weeks. patellar tendon cross-sectional area was 0.118 cm2 at 8 weeks for the frozen specimens compared to 0.102 cm2 for the sham-operated controls. This difference was significant at the P = 0.025 level. Mechanical testing at 4 and 8 weeks revealed no significant changes in tendon length, maximum load, or stiffness. The collagen content was also unchanged at both 4 and 8 weeks.

  13. Healing of rabbit calvarial critical-sized defects using autogenous bone grafts and fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Olli-Pekka; Korpi, Riikka; Haapea, Marianne; Korpi, Jarkko; Ylikontiola, Leena P; Kallio-Pulkkinen, Soili; Serlo, Willy S; Lehenkari, Petri; Sándor, George K

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate ossification of cranial bone defects comparing the healing of a single piece of autogenous calvarial bone representing a bone flap as in cranioplasty compared to particulated bone slurry with and without fibrin glue to represent bone collected during cranioplasty. These defect-filling materials were then compared to empty control cranial defects. Ten White New Zealand adult male rabbits had bilateral critical-sized calvarial defects which were left either unfilled as control defects or filled with a single full-thickness piece of autogenous bone, particulated bone, or particulated bone combined with fibrin glue. The defects were left to heal for 6 weeks postoperatively before termination. CT scans of the calvarial specimens were performed. Histomorphometric assessment of hematoxylin-eosin- and Masson trichrome-stained specimens was used to analyze the proportion of new bone and fibrous tissue in the calvarial defects. There was a statistically significant difference in both bone and soft tissue present in all the autogenous bone-grafted defect sites compared to the empty negative control defects. These findings were supported by CT scan findings. While fibrin glue combined with the particulated bone seemed to delay ossification, the healing was more complete compared to empty control non-grafted defects. Autogenous bone grafts in various forms such as solid bone flaps or particulated bone treated with fibrin glue were associated with bone healing which was superior to the empty control defects.

  14. Osteochondral Repair Using Porous Three-dimensional Nanocomposite Scaffolds in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    ŻYLIŃSKA, BEATA; STODOLAK-ZYCH, EWA; SOBCZYŃSKA-RAK, ALEKSANDRA; SZPONDER, TOMASZ; SILMANOWICZ, PIOTR; ŁAŃCUT, MIROSŁAW; JAROSZ, ŁUKASZ; RÓŻAŃSKI, PAWEŁ; POLKOWSKA, IZABELA

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the utility of a novel nanocomposite biomaterial consisting of poly-L/D-lactide, and hydroxyapatite bioceramics, enriched with sodium alginate in articular cartilage defect treatment. Materials and Methods: The biomaterial was prepared using the method of solvent casting and particle leaching. The study was conducted on 20 New Zealand White rabbits. Experimental osteochondral defects were created in the femoral trochlear grooves and filled with biomaterials. In control groups, the defects were left to spontaneously heal. The quality of newly-formed tissue was evaluated on the basis of macroscopic and histological assessment. Additionally the level of osteogenic and cartilage degradation markers were measured. Results: The majority of the defects from the treatment group were covered with tissue similar in structure and colour to healthy cartilage, whereas in the control group, tissue was uneven, and not integrated into the surrounding cartilage. Conclusion: The results obtained validate the choice of biomaterial used in this study as well as the method of its application. PMID:28882956

  15. Anterior segment parameters of rabbits with rotating Scheimpflug camera.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Harun; Türkcü, Fatih M; Ari, Şeyhmus; Çinar, Yasin; Cingü, Abdullah K; Şahin, Muhammed; Şahin, Alparslan; Özkurt, Zeynep; Çaça, İhsan

    2015-05-01

    Rabbit is one of the most commonly used experimental animals for corneal studies due to similarity of size to human cornea and ease of manipulation. In this study, we assessed anterior segment parameters of the healthy rabbit eyes with Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). Six-month-old, approximately 2.5-3 kg weighted, 30 female New Zealand rabbits were used in the study. Right eye of the each rabbit was imaged with Pentacam HR under intramuscular ketamine hydrochloride (Ketalar; Eczacibasi, Turkey) anesthesia (50 mg/kg). After the imaging, the rabbits with blinking errors, which results in low-quality images, were excluded from the study. Keratometric readings, central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and anterior and posterior elevation values, and lens density were noted. In this study, the flattest and the steepest keratometric values were found as 43.34 ± 1.86, 42.7 ± 2.0, and 43.9 ± 1.9 diopters, respectively. The mean CCT and ACD of rabbits were found as 388 ± 39 μm and 2.08 ± 0.16 mm, respectively. Mean of the anterior and posterior elevation at thinnest point was found as 1.29 ± 4.28 and 3.91 ± 6.17 μm, respectively. Keratometric readings and anterior and posterior elevation values of rabbits were similar to human; however, corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth (ACD) values were lower than humans. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Histological comparison of autograft, allograft-DBM, xenograft, and synthetic grafts in a trabecular bone defect: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Vasilis T; Papachristou, Dionysios J; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Saridis, Alkis; Scopa, Chrisoula D; Megas, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    Different types of bone-graft substitutes have been developed and are on the market worldwide to eliminate the drawbacks of autogenous grafting. This experimental animal study was undertaken to evaluate the different histological properties of various bone graft substitutes utilized in this hospital. Ninety New Zealand white rabbits were divided into six groups of 15 animals. Under general anesthesia, a 4.5 mm-wide hole was drilled into both the lateral femoral condyles of each rabbit, for a total of 180 condyles for analysis. The bone defects were filled with various grafts, these being 1) autograft, 2) DBM crunch allograft (Grafton), 3) bovine cancellous bone xenograft (Lubboc), 4) calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite substitute (Ceraform), 5) calcium sulfate substitute (Osteoset), and 6) no filling (control). The animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months after implantation and tissue samples from the implanted areas were processed for histological evaluation. A histological grading scale was designed to determine the different histological parameters of bone healing. The highest histological grades were achieved with the use of cancellous bone autograft. Bovine xenograft (Lubboc) was the second best in the histological scale grading. The other substitutes (Grafton, Ceraform, Osteoset) had similar scores but were inferior to both allograft and xenograft. Bovine xenograft showed better biological response than the other bone graft substitutes; however, more clinical studies are necessary to determine its overall effectiveness.

  17. Quantitative US Elastography Can Be Used to Quantify Mechanical and Histologic Tendon Healing in a Rabbit Model of Achilles Tendon Transection.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sasho, Takahisa; Fukawa, Taisuke; Akatsu, Yorikazu; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kenji; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To determine the time-dependent change in strain ratios (SRs) at the healing site of an Achilles tendon rupture in a rabbit model of tendon transection and to assess the correlation between SRs and the mechanical and histologic properties of the healing tissue. Materials and Methods Experimental methods were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. The Achilles tendons of 24 New Zealand white rabbits (48 limbs) were surgically transected. The SRs of Achilles tendons were calculated by using compression-based quantitative ultrasonographic elastography measurements obtained 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after transection. After in vivo elastography, the left Achilles tendon was harvested for mechanical testing of ultimate load, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and linear stiffness, and the right tendons were harvested for tissue histologic analysis with the Bonar scale. Time-dependent changes in SRs, mechanical parameters, and Bonar scale scores were evaluated by using repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlation between SRs and each measured variable was evaluated by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results Mean SRs and Bonar scale values decreased as a function of time after transection, whereas mechanical parameters increased (P < .001). SR correlated with ultimate stress (ρ = 0.68, P <.001,) elastic modulus (ρ = 0.74, P <.001), and the Bonar scale (ρ = 0.87, P <.001). Conclusion Quantitative elastography could be a useful method with which to evaluate mechanical and histologic properties of the healing tendon. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  18. The effect of nonablative laser energy on joint capsular properties. An in vitro histologic and biochemical study using a rabbit model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, K.; Thabit, G. 3rd; Vailas, A. C.; Bogdanske, J. J.; Cooley, A. J.; Markel, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser energy at nonablative levels on joint capsular histologic and biochemical properties in an in vitro rabbit model. The medial and lateral portions of the femoropatellar joint capsule from both stifles of 12 mature New Zealand White rabbits were used. Specimens were divided into three treatment groups (5 watts, 10 watts, and 15 watt) and one control group using a randomized block design. Specimens were placed in a 37 degrees bath of lactated Ringer's solution and laser energy was applied using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser in four transverse passes across the tissue at a velocity of 2 mm/sec with the handpiece set 1.5 mm from the synovial surface. Histologic analysis revealed thermal alteration of collagen (fusion) and fibroblasts (pyknosis) at all energy densities, with higher laser energy causing significantly greater morphologic changes over a larger area (P < 0.05). Application of laser energy did not significantly alter the biochemical parameters evaluated, including type I collagen content and nonreducible crosslinks (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that nonablative laser energy caused significant thermal damage to the joint capsular tissue in an energy-dependent fashion, but type I collagen content and nonreducible crosslinks (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that nonablative laser energy caused significant thermal damage to the joint capsular tissue in an energy-dependent fashion, but type I Collagen content and nonreducible corsslinks were not significantly altered.

  19. Detection and characterization of early plaque formations by Raman probe spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography: an in vivo study on a rabbit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthäus, Christian; Dochow, Sebastian; Egodage, Kokila D.; Romeike, Bernd F.; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Intravascular imaging techniques provide detailed specification about plaque appearance and morphology, but cannot deliver information about the biochemical composition of atherosclerotic plaques. As the biochemical composition is related to the plaque type, important aspects such as the risk of a plaque rupture and treatment are still difficult to assess. Currently, various spectroscopic techniques are tested for potential applications for the chemical analysis of plaque depositions. Here, we employ Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the characterization of plaques on rabbits in vivo. Experiments were carried out on New Zealand white rabbits treated with a fat- and cholesterol-enriched diet, using a Raman probe setup with a 785-nm multimode laser as an excitation source. Subsequently, OCT images were acquired with a swept source at 1305±55 nm at 22.6 mW. Raman spectra were recorded from normal regions and regions with early plaque formations. The probe positioning was monitored by x-ray angiography. The spectral information identified plaque depositions consisting of lipids, with triglycerides as the major component. Afterward, OCT images of the spectroscopically investigated areas were obtained. The spectral information correlates well with the observed intravascular morphology and is in good agreement with histology. Raman spectroscopy can provide detailed biochemical specification of atherosclerotic plaques.

  20. Micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis of the effects of platelet-rich fibrin on bone regeneration in the rabbit calvarium.

    PubMed

    Acar, Ahmet Hüseyin; Yolcu, Ümit; Gül, Mehmet; Keleş, Ali; Erdem, Necip Fazıl; Altundag Kahraman, Sevil

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on bone regeneration when used alone or in combination with hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP). In this study, 20 New Zealand white rabbits were used and four calvarial defects were prepared in each animal. PRF, Straumann(®) Bone Ceramic (SBC), or PRF+SBC was applied to the defects; one defect was left untreated as a control. Ten rabbits were sacrificed at week 4 (T1) and 10 at week 8 (T2). After micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning, the samples were sent for histological and histomorphometric analysis to evaluate and compare the volume and area of regenerated bone. Histomorphometric and micro-CT analysis showed that both PRF and SBC significantly increased bone regeneration at T1 and T2 (P<0.01). When PRF was used in combination with HA/βTCP, a further significant increase in new bone formation was observed at T1 and T2 compared with that when PRF or SBC was used alone (P<0.01). PRF has a positive effect on bone formation when used alone and in combination with HA/βTCP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Histomorphological analyse of accelerating the fibrocartilage layer repair of patella-patellar tendon junction in rabbits by low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baoliang; Lü, Hongbin; Hu, Jianzhong; Xu, Daqi; Zhou, Jingyong; Wang, Ye

    2013-08-01

    To analyse the effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation (LIPUS) on accelerating the fibrocartilage layer repair of patella-patellar tendon junction. A total of 60 mature female New Zealand white rabbits undergoing standard partial patellectomy were divided into 2 groups randomly. The control group was given comfort treatment and the treatment group was given LIPUS treatment starting from day 3 to the end of week 6 postoperatively. The scheduled time points of animal euthanization would be at week 6, week 12 and week 18 postoperatively. The patella-patellar tendon (PPT) complex would be harvested and cut into sections after decalcification for H&E staining, Safranine o/fast green staining. The thickness and gray value of fibrocartilage layer were analyzed by SANO Microscope Partner image analyzer. At week 6, week 12 and week 18 postoperatively, the fibrocartilage layer in the treatment group was significantly thicker than that in the control group (P<0.01), and the gray value of fibrocartilage layer was significantly smaller than that in the control group (P<0.01). LIPUS helps to accelerate the fibrocartilage layer repair of patella-patellar tendon junction in rabbit models.

  2. Assessment of apoptosis and MMP-1, MMP-3 and TIMP-2 expression in tibial hyaline cartilage after viable medial meniscus transplantation in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Zwierzchowski, Tomasz J; Stasikowska-Kanicka, Olga; Danilewicz, Marian; Fabiś, Jarosław

    2012-12-20

    The porpuse of this animal study was to assess chondrocyte apoptosis and MMP-1, MMP-3 and TIMP-2 expression in rabbit tibial cartilage 6 months after viable medial meniscal autografts and allografts. Twenty white male New Zealand rabbits were chosen for the study. The medial meniscus was excised from 14 animals and stored under tissue culture conditions for 2 weeks, following which t of them were implantated as autografts and 7 as allografts. The control group consisted of 6 animals which underwent arthtrotomy. When the animals were eutanized, the tibial cartilage was used for immunohisochemical examination. Apoptosis (TUNEL method) and MMP-1, MMP-3 and TIMP-2 expression were estimated semiquantatively. An increased level of chodrocyte apoptosis in the tibail cartilage was observed after both kinds of transplants (p < 0.05), allografts (1.43 ±0.98) and autografts (0.86 ±0.69); no statistical diferences existed between them. An increased level of metalloproteinases and TIMP-2 expression was obreved only after allografts with statistical differences among the allograft group, the autograft group nad the control group (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the meniscal graft does not protect the hyaline cartilage against excessive apoptosis. The results of experimantal studies on humans indicate the need to device a method of apoptosis inhibition in the hyaline cartilage to improve long-term results of meniscal transplantation.

  3. Assessment of a polyelectrolyte multilayer film coating loaded with BMP-2 on titanium and PEEK implants in the rabbit femoral condyle

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, R.; Pignot-Paintrand, I.; Lavaud, J.; Decambron, A.; Bourgeois, E.; Josserand, V.; Logeart-Avramoglou, D.; Viguier, E.; Picart, C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of titanium implants (Ti-6Al-4V, noted here TA6V) and poly(etheretherketone) PEEK implants induced by a BMP-2-delivering surface coating made of polyelectrolyte multilayer films. The in vitro bioactivity of the polyelectrolyte film-coated implants was assessed using the alkaline phosphatase assay. BMP-2-coated TA6V and PEEK implants with a total dose of 9.3 µg of BMP-2 were inserted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand white rabbits and compared to uncoated implants. Rabbits were sacrificed 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. Histomorphometric analyses on TA6V and PEEK implants and microcomputed tomography on PEEK implants revealed that the bone-to-implant contact and bone area around the implants were significantly lower for the BMP-2-coated implants than for the bare implants. This was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging. This difference was more pronounced at 4 weeks in comparison to the 8-week time point. However, bone growth inside the hexagonal upper hollow cavity of the screws was higher in the case of the BMP-2 coated implants. Overall, this study shows that a high dose of BMP-2 leads to localized and temporary bone impairment, and that the dose of BMP-2 delivered at the surface of an implant needs to be carefully optimized. PMID:26965394

  4. Protective effect of pulp oil extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on blood lipids, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status in healthy rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Yuon, Lau Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids). The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP) or kernel oil (NK) of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC). Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise), thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels) with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil.

  5. Protective Effect of Pulp Oil Extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on Blood Lipids, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Status in Healthy Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Cheng Yuon, Lau

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids). The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP) or kernel oil (NK) of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC). Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise), thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels) with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil. PMID:22685623

  6. Development of rabbit embryos during a 96-h period of in vitro culture after superovulatory treatment under conditions of elevated ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H; Dooley, M P; Hopkins, S M; Anderson, L L; Yibchok-anun, S; Hsu, W H

    1999-08-16

    The effects of elevated ambient temperature on the response to exogenous gonadotropins were evaluated in female New Zealand White rabbits exposed to 33+/-1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) and 10-30% relative humidity (8 h/day) during a 5-day period. Does were treated with pFSH (0.3 mg/0.3 ml Standard Armour) twice daily during three consecutive days with a minimum interval of 8 h between injections. Six hours after the last FSH injection all does were removed from the experimental chamber, given hCG (25 IU/kg) and paired overnight. Nineteen hours after pairing, embryos were flushed from the reproductive tracts, evaluated, and subjected to in vitro culture during a 96-h period. The ovulatory responses to exogenous gonadotropins and fertilization rates did not differ significantly under conditions of elevated ambient temperature, whereas fewer blastocysts and increased number of degenerate embryos were observed after culture. We conclude that although hyperthermia was induced during exposure to elevated ambient temperature, it did not alter the ovulatory responses to gonadotropin treatment and plasma concentrations of FSH and LH compared with does in a thermoneutral environment. Exposure of donor rabbits to elevated ambient temperature before mating, however, increased embryonic degeneration.

  7. [Reconstruction of maxillary sinus superior wall fractures with calcium phosphate cement/recombinant human bonemorphogenetic protein 7 compound implanted material in rabbit].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qunhui; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Haoliang; Gong, Huicheng; Lin, Ying

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the osteogenetic character and repairing maxillary sinus superior wall fractures capability of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) before and after combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetie protein-7(rhBMP-7). A 10 mmX5 mm bone defect in the maxillary sinus superior wall was induced by surgery in all 24 New Zealand white rabbits. These 24 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The defects were repaired with CPC group (n = 12) and CPC/rhBMP-7 group (n = 12). The osteogenesis of bone defect was monitored by gro'ss observation, histological examination, observation under scanning electron microscope and measurement of ALP activity at 6 and 12 weeks after the implantation. In group CPC,new bone was found to form slowly and little by little. In group CPC/rhBMP-7, however, new bone was observed to form early and massively. The ALP activity in group CPC showed significant statistical difference with that of group CPC/rhBMP-7 (P < 0.05). The CPC/rhBMP-7 composite has osteoconductibility and osteoinductibility, comparing the use of CPC/rhBMP-7 with CPC for the repair of orbital fracture, the former show obvious advantage repairing ability in maxillary sinus superior wall defect.

  8. Activation of tissue kallikrein-kininogen-kinin system in rabbit skin by a fraction isolated from Phoneutria nigriventer (armed spider) venom.

    PubMed

    Antunes, E; Marangoni, R A; Giglio, J R; Brain, S D; de Nucci, G

    1993-11-01

    Phoneutria nigriventer venom was fractionated by gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography from which 16 fractions (I-XVI) were obtained and assayed in rabbit skin in order to identify those responsible for the increased vascular permeability observed with the whole venom. The fractions, and control mediators (tissue kallikrein, bradykinin and histamine) were intradermally injected in male New Zealand white rabbits. Local oedema formation was measured as the local accumulation of i.v. injected 125I-human serum albumin into skin sites. Fraction XIII was the only fraction assayed which significantly induced oedema formation. Fraction XIII-induced oedema was greatly reduced by either the protease inhibitor aprotinin or the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist D-Arg,[Hyp3,Thi5,8D-Phe7]-Bk, whereas the plasma kallikrein inhibitor soybean trypsin inhibitor failed to significantly affect this oedematogenic response. The kininase II inhibitor captopril markedly potentiated fraction XIII-induced oedema. Our results indicate that the increased vascular permeability induced by fraction XIII is due to local generation of kinins in response to tissue (but not plasma) kallikrein-kinin system activation.

  9. Immunization with a Recombinant, Pseudomonas fluorescens-Expressed, Mutant Form of Bacillus anthracis-Derived Protective Antigen Protects Rabbits from Anthrax Infection.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew D; Wilder, Julie A; Mega, William M; Hutt, Julie A; Kuehl, Philip J; Valderas, Michelle W; Chew, Lawrence L; Liang, Bertrand C; Squires, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA), one of the components of the anthrax toxin, is the major component of human anthrax vaccine (Biothrax). Human anthrax vaccines approved in the United States and Europe consist of an alum-adsorbed or precipitated (respectively) supernatant material derived from cultures of toxigenic, non-encapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Approved vaccination schedules in humans with either of these vaccines requires several booster shots and occasionally causes adverse injection site reactions. Mutant derivatives of the protective antigen that will not form the anthrax toxins have been described. We have cloned and expressed both mutant (PA SNKE167-ΔFF-315-E308D) and native PA molecules recombinantly and purified them. In this study, both the mutant and native PA molecules, formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), elicited high titers of anthrax toxin neutralizing anti-PA antibodies in New Zealand White rabbits. Both mutant and native PA vaccine preparations protected rabbits from lethal, aerosolized, B. anthracis spore challenge subsequent to two immunizations at doses of less than 1 μg.

  10. Bone regeneration with a combination of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel, platelet-rich growth factor, and mesenchymal stem cells: a histologic study in rabbit calvaria.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Hossein; Khojasteh, Arash; Kiani, Mohammad Taghi; Khoshzaban, Ahad; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Bashtar, Maryam; Dashti, Seyedeh Ghazaleh

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to assess NanoBone as a carrier construct for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich growth factor (PRGF). In the calvarial bone of 8 mature New Zealand White male rabbits, four 8-mm defects were created. Each defect received one of the following treatments: Group 1, 0.2 mg Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) granule + 2 mL culture medium; Group 2, 0.2 mg Nano-HA + 1 mL autologous PRGF + 2 mL acellular culture medium; Group 3, 0.2 mg Nano-HA + 2 mL culture medium containing 100,000 autogenous MSCs; Group 4, 0.2 mg Nano-HA + 2 mL culture medium containing 100,000 autogenous MSCs + 1 mL autologous PRGF. Histomorphometric analysis at 6 and 12 weeks demonstrated significantly higher bone formation in group 4 (29.45% and 44.55%, respectively) (P < .05). Bone formation in groups 1, 2, and 3 were as follows: 11.35% and 32.53%, 29.10% and 39.74%, and 25.82% and 39.11%, respectively. NanoBone with MSCs and PRGF seems to be an effective combination for bone regeneration in a rabbit calvaria model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical field-strength MRI of amyloid plaques induced by low-level cholesterol feeding in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanxin; Bernas, Lisa; Kitzler, Hagen H.; Rogers, Kem A.; Hegele, Robert A.; Rutt, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Two significant barriers have limited the development of effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease. First, for many cases the aetiology is unknown and likely multi-factorial. Among these factors, hypercholesterolemia is a known risk predictor and has been linked to the formation of β-amyloid plaques, a pathological hallmark this disease. Second, standardized diagnostic tools are unable to definitively diagnose this disease prior to death; hence new diagnostic tools are urgently needed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using high field-strength scanners has shown promise for direct visualization of β-amyloid plaques, allowing in vivo longitudinal tracking of disease progression in mouse models. Here, we present a new rabbit model for studying the relationship between cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease development and new tools for direct visualization of β-amyloid plaques using clinical field-strength MRI. New Zealand white rabbits were fed either a low-level (0.125–0.25% w/w) cholesterol diet (n = 5) or normal chow (n = 4) for 27 months. High-resolution (66 × 66 × 100 µm3; scan time = 96 min) ex vivo MRI of brains was performed using a 3-Tesla (T) MR scanner interfaced with customized gradient and radiofrequency coils. β-Amyloid-42 immunostaining and Prussian blue iron staining were performed on brain sections and MR and histological images were manually registered. MRI revealed distinct signal voids throughout the brains of cholesterol-fed rabbits, whereas minimal voids were seen in control rabbit brains. These voids corresponded directly to small clusters of extracellular β-amyloid-positive plaques, which were consistently identified as iron-loaded (the presumed source of MR contrast). Plaques were typically located in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, striatum, hypothalamus and thalamus. Quantitative analysis of the number of histologically positive β-amyloid plaques (P < 0.0001) and MR-positive signal voids (P < 0.05) found in cholesterol

  12. Therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast growth factor 10 in a rabbit model of dry eye.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Mingming; Du, Ergang; Zhang, Zhengwei; Jiang, Kelimu; Gu, Qing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) in the promotion of healing, survival and expression of mucin in corneal epithelial cells in a rabbit dry eye model. A total of 12 healthy female New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into three groups. The lacrimal glands were injected with saline either alone (normal control group) or with concanavalin A (Con A), with either topical phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS; PBS control group) or 25 µg/ml FGF10 (FGF10 treatment group). Lacrimal gland inflammation, tear function, corneal epithelial cell integrity, cell apoptosis and mucin expression were subsequently assessed. Lacrimal gland tissue biopsies were performed in conjunction with histology and electron microscopy observations. Tear meniscus height (TMH) and tear meniscus area (TMA) were measured using Fourier domain‑optical coherence tomography. Tear membrane break‑up time (TBUT) was also assessed and corneal fluorescein staining was performed. The percentages of apoptotic corneal and conjunctival (Cj) epithelial cells (ECs) were counted using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The mRNA expression levels of Muc1 were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. The TMH and TMA values of the PBS and treatment groups were found to be significantly reduced, compared with those of the normal control group 3 days after Con A injection. However, the TMH and TMA of the FGF10 treatment group were higher, compared with those of the PBS group 3 and 7 days after treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the FGF10 treatment group exhibited prolonged TBUT, reduced corneal fluorescein staining and repaired epithelial cell ultrastructure7 days after treatment. The percentages of apoptotic corneal‑ and Cj‑ECs in the FGF10 treatment group were significantly reduced, compared with those in the PBS group. FGF10

  13. A rabbit model of cerebral microembolic signals for translational research: preclinical validation for aspirin and clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Kurowski, S; Wu, W; Desai, K; Chu, L; Gutstein, D E; Seiffert, D; Wang, X

    2016-09-01

    Essentials Microembolic signal (MES) is an independent predictor of stroke risk in patients. A rabbit model of cerebral microembolic signals was established. Therapeutic efficacy was demonstrated for aspirin and clopidogrel on microembolic signals. Potential translational value of this preclinical model of MES was demonstrated. Objectives Cerebral microembolic signals (MESs) detected by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound constitute an independent predictor of stroke risk and prognosis. The aim of this study was to develop a novel preclinical model of MESs to facilitate translational research. Methods A clinical TCD ultrasound machine was used to detect MESs in the cerebral circulation of New Zealand White rabbits. Technical feasibility was assessed for the measurement of MESs in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by TCD. FeCl3 -induced carotid arterial thrombosis was optimized for the generation of endogenous microemboli. Ascending doses of two antithrombotic agents (aspirin and clopidogrel) were evaluated individually and in combination for their effects on both arterial thrombosis and MESs in a 30% FeCl3 -induced carotid arterial thrombosis model, along with ex vivo functional assays. Results Dose-dependent FeCl3 -induced arterial thrombosis studies showed that 30% FeCl3 resulted in the most consistent and reproducible MESs in the MCA (3.3 ± 0.7 MESs h(-1) ). Ascending-dose studies showed that the effective doses for 50% inhibition (ED50 ) of thrombus formation, based on integrated blood flow and thrombus weight, respectively, were 3.1 mg kg(-1) and 4.2 mg kg(-1) orally for aspirin, and 0.3 mg kg(-1) and 0.28 mg kg(-1) orally for clopidogrel. The ED50 values for MES incidence were 12.7 mg kg(-1) orally for aspirin, and 0.25 mg kg(-1) orally for clopidogrel. Dual treatment with aspirin (5 mg kg(-1) ) and clopidogel (0.3 mg kg(-1) ) resulted in significant reductions in cerebral MESs (P < 0.05) as compared with monotherapy with either agent. Conclusions Our study

  14. Effect of zoledronic acid in an L6-L7 rabbit spine fusion model.

    PubMed

    Bransford, Rick; Goergens, Elisabeth; Briody, Julie; Amanat, Negin; Cree, Andrew; Little, David

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that zoledronic acid administration can increase mineral content and strength in distraction osteogenesis. Of the few studies that have examined the use of bisphosphonates in spinal arthrodesis, none have assessed the effect of single dose treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of enhancing spinal fusion rate using single dose zoledronic acid (ZA) to increase fusion-mass size and mineral density. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits underwent an L6-L7 intertransverse process fusion. The L6-L7 model is more challenging than the more commonly used level of L5-L6. Animals were randomly allocated to one of three groups, one received iliac crest bone graft alone, one group received iliac crest bone graft with locally administered zoledronic acid, 20 microg, and one group received iliac crest bone graft with a single dose of systemically administered zoledronic acid, 0.1 mg/kg. ZA doses were administered at the time of surgery. Twenty-four rabbits were culled at 6 weeks and 24 rabbits were culled at 12 weeks. Success of spinal fusion was determined by manual palpation. Specimens were evaluated radiographically, underwent quantitative computerised tomography analysis and were tested biomechanically in flexion and extension. In the six-week group, only five of the 24 spines fused with no noticeable trend with respect to treatment. In the 12-week group there was a trend toward increased fusion in the systemically administered ZA group (63%) versus the other two groups (25%) but was not statistically significant (p = 0.15). Radiographically, the local ZA treatment group showed a delay in remodelling with the presence of unremodelled bone chips. The 12-week systemic ZA group exhibited an 86% increase in BMC, a 31% increase in vBMD and a 41% increase in the volume of the fusion-mass (p < 0.05). The 12-week local ZA group also showed significant increases in BMC (69%), vBMD (31%) and total fusion-mass volume (29%) (p

  15. Bi-layered collagen nano-structured membrane prototype collagen matrix 10826® for soft tissue regeneration in rabbits: an in vivo ultra-structural study of the early healing phase.

    PubMed

    De Santis, D; Menchini Fabris, G B; Lotti, J; Palumbo, C; Ferretti, M; Castellani, R; Lotti, T; Zanotti, G; Gelpi, F; Covani, C; Nocini, P F

    Collagen Matrix (CM) 10826 is a nanostructured bi-layered collagen membrane obtained from type I and III porcine collagen, which in vitro has shown to have the potential to be a substitute and/or stimulant for soft oral tissue regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo potential and safety of this membrane for soft tissue regeneration in the early stage of wound healing. Two soft tissue wounds (test and control) were created on the back skin of 5 rabbits (female New Zealand White Rabbits specific pathogen free). All wounds were protected by a special poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) healing camera. On each rabbit on the test side CM-10826 was used, while on the control side conventional treatment (an autologous pedicle graft) was performed. The healing process was observed clinically after 2 and 6 days, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was performed after this period. After 7 days, animals were sacrificed and specimens were analyzed with light optic microscopy (LM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). These in vivo trials on rabbits confirmed that CM-10826 is well tolerated, without signs of histological inflammatory reaction and proved to be able to accelerate the spontaneous repair of the skin defect taken as the control. The light-optic and ultra-microscopy of serial biopsies showed that the new matrix is biocompatible and is able to function as a scaffold inducing soft tissue regeneration. In conclusion this study demonstrates that CM-10826 promote early soft tissue regeneration and suggests it is a potential constituent for human autologous keratinocytes seeded derma bioequivalent. It protects the wound from injuries and bacterial contamination accelerating healing process. As a clinical relevance, we consider that the quality of life of patients will be improved avoiding the use of major autologous grafts, reducing the hospitalization time and morbidity.

  16. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan attenuates bioprosthetic valve leaflet calcification in a rabbit intravascular implant model.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong Ju; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Park, Han Ki; Park, Young Hwan

    2016-12-01

    There is evidence that angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) could reduce structural valve deterioration. However, the anticalcification effect on the bioprosthetic heart valve (BHV) has not been investigated. Thus, we investigated the effects of losartan (an ARB) on calcification of implanted bovine pericardial tissue in a rabbit intravascular implant model. A total of 16 male New Zealand White rabbits (20 weeks old, 2.98-3.34 kg) were used in this study. Commercially available BHV leaflet of bovine pericardium was trimmed to the shape of a 3-mm triangle and implanted to both external jugular veins of the rabbit. The ARB group (n = 8) was given 25 mg/kg of powdered losartan daily until 6 weeks after surgery by direct administration in the buccal pouch of the animals. The control group (n = 8) was given 5 ml of normal saline by the same method. After 6 weeks, quantitative calcium determination, histological evaluation and western blot analysis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were performed to investigate the mechanisms of the anticalcification effect of losartan. No deaths or complications such as infection or haematoma were recorded during the experiment. All animals were euthanized on the planned date. The calcium measurement level in the ARB group (2.28 ± 0.65 mg/g) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.68 ± 1.00 mg/g) (P = 0.0092). Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that BMP-2-positive reactions were significantly attenuated in the ARB group. Western blot analysis showed that losartan suppressed the expression of IL-6, osteopontin and BMP-2. Our results indicate that losartan significantly attenuates postimplant degenerative calcification of a bovine pericardial bioprosthesis in a rabbit intravascular implant model. Further studies are required to assess the effects of ARBs on BHV tissue in orthotopic implantations using a large animal model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  17. The relative effect of surface strontium chemistry and super-hydrophilicity on the early osseointegration of moderately rough titanium surface in the rabbit femur.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Suh, Jo-Young

    2013-06-01

    It is unclear whether surface bioactive chemistry or hydrophilicity plays a more dominant role in the osseointegration of micro-structured titanium implants having the same surface topography at the micrometer and submicrometer scales. To understand their comparative effect on enhancing the early osseointegration of micro-rough-surfaced implants, this study compared the bone healing-promoting effect of surface strontium (Sr) chemistry that has been shown in numerous studies to super-hydrophilicity in the early osseointegration of moderately rough-surfaced clinical oral implants (SLA(®) implant) in rabbit cancellous bone. Hydrothermal treatment was performed to incorporate Sr ions into the surface of clinical SLA implants (SLA/Sr implant). The surface characteristics were evaluated by using field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical profilometry. Twenty screw implants (10 control and 10 experimental) were placed in the femoral condyles of 10 New Zealand White rabbits. The early osseointegration of the SLA/Sr implant was compared with a chemically modified super-hydrophilic SLA implant (SLActive(®) implant) by histomorphometric and resonance frequency analysis after 2 weeks of implantation. The SLA/Sr and SLActive implants exhibited an identical surface topography and average R(a) values at the micron and submicron scales. The SLA/Sr implant displayed a high amount of surface Sr content (15.6 at.%). There was no significant difference in the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values between the two groups. However, histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly higher bone-to-implant contact percentage in the SLA/Sr implants compared with the SLActive implants in rabbit cancellous bone (P < 0.01). The results indicate that the surface Sr chemistry surpasses the effect of super-hydrophilicity in promoting the early bone apposition of moderately rough Ti surface in cancellous bone. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Efficacy and Immunogenicity of Single-Dose AdVAV Intranasal Anthrax Vaccine Compared to Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed in an Aerosolized Spore Rabbit Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H.; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Stark, Gregory V.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 107, 1.5 × 109, or 3.5 × 1010 viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 1010 viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  20. Vitamin D(2) supplementation induces the development of aortic stenosis in rabbits: interactions with endothelial function and thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Doan T M; Stafford, Irene; Kelly, Darren J; Sverdlov, Aaron L; Wuttke, Ronald D; Weedon, Helen; Nightingale, Angus K; Rosenkranz, Anke C; Smith, Malcolm D; Chirkov, Yuliy Y; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Horowitz, John D

    2008-08-20

    Understanding of the pathophysiology of aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and finding potentially effective treatments are impeded by the lack of suitable AVS animal models. A previous study demonstrated the development of AVS in rabbits with vitamin D(2) and cholesterol supplementation without any hemodynamic changes in the cholesterol supplemented group alone. The current study aimed to determine whether AVS develops in an animal model with vitamin D(2) supplementation alone, and to explore pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this process. The effects of 8 weeks' treatment with vitamin D(2) alone (n=8) at 25,000 IU/4 days weekly on aortic valve structure and function were examined in male New Zealand white rabbits. Echocardiographic aortic valve backscatter (AV(BS)), transvalvular velocity, and transvalvular pressure gradient were utilized to quantitate changes in valve structure and function. Valvular histology/immunochemistry and function were examined after 8 weeks. Changes in valves were compared with those in endothelial function and in valvular measurement of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a marker/mediator of reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress. Vitamin D(2) treated rabbits developed AVS with increased AV(BS) (17.6+/-1.4 dB vs 6.7+/-0.8 dB, P<0.0001), increased transvalvular velocity and transvalvular pressure gradient (both P<0.01 via 2-way ANOVA) compared to the control group. There was associated valve calcification, lipid deposition and macrophage infiltration. Endothelial function was markedly impaired, and intravalvular TXNIP concentration increased. In this model, vitamin D(2) induces the development of AVS with histological features similar to those of early AVS in humans and associated endothelial dysfunction/redox stress. AVS development may result from the loss of nitric oxide suppression of TXNIP expression.

  1. Exposure to a high-fat diet during development alters leptin and ghrelin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Prior, Larissa J; Davern, Pamela J; Burke, Sandra L; Lim, Kyungjoon; Armitage, James A; Head, Geoffrey A

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to maternal obesity or a maternal diet rich in fat during development may have adverse outcomes in offspring, such as the development of obesity and hypertension. The present study examined the effect of a maternal high-fat diet (m-HFD) on offspring blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, responses to stress, and sensitivity to central administration of leptin and ghrelin. Offspring of New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13% HFD were slightly heavier than offspring from mothers fed a 4% maternal normal fat diet (P<0.05) but had 64% greater fat pad mass (P=0.015). Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity at 4 months of age were 7%, 7%, and 24% greater, respectively (P<0.001), in m-HFD compared with maternal normal fat diet rabbits, and the renal sympathetic nerve activity response to airjet stress was enhanced in the m-HFD group. m-HFD offspring had markedly elevated pressor and renal sympathetic nerve activity responses to intracerebroventricular leptin (5-100 µg) and enhanced sympathetic responses to intracerebroventricular ghrelin (1-5 nmol). In contrast, there was resistance to the anorexic effects of intracerebroventricular leptin and less neuronal activation as detected by Fos immunohistochemistry in the arcuate (-57%; P<0.001) and paraventricular (-37%; P<0.05) nuclei of the hypothalamus in m-HFD offspring compared with maternal normal fat diet rabbits. We conclude that offspring from mothers consuming an HFD exhibit an adverse cardiovascular profile in adulthood because of altered central hypothalamic sensitivity to leptin and ghrelin.

  2. Immunological correlates for protection against intranasal challenge of Bacillus anthracis spores conferred by a protective antigen-based vaccine in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Shay; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim; Marcus, Hadar; Pass, Avi; Rothschild, Nili; Altboum, Zeev

    2006-01-01

    Correlates between immunological parameters and protection against Bacillus anthracis infection in animals vaccinated with protective antigen (PA)-based vaccines could provide surrogate markers to evaluate the putative protective efficiency of immunization in humans. In previous studies we demonstrated that neutralizing antibody levels serve as correlates for protection in guinea pigs (S. Reuveny et al., Infect. Immun. 69:2888-2893, 2001; H. Marcus et al., Infect. Immun. 72:3471-3477, 2004). In this study we evaluated similar correlates for protection by active and passive immunization of New Zealand White rabbits. Full immunization and partial immunization were achieved by single and multiple injections of standard and diluted doses of a PA-based vaccine. Passive immunization was carried out by injection of immune sera from rabbits vaccinated with PA-based vaccine prior to challenge with B. anthracis spores. Immunized rabbits were challenged by intranasal spore instillation with one of two virulent strains (strains Vollum and ATCC 6605). The immune competence was estimated by measuring the level of total anti-PA antibodies, the neutralizing antibody titers, and the conferred protective immunity. The results indicate that total anti-PA antibody titers greater than 1 x 10(5) conferred protection, whereas lower titers (between 10(4) and 10(5)) provided partial protection but failed to predict protection. Neutralizing antibody titers between 500 and 800 provided partial protection, while titers higher than 1,000 conferred protection. In conclusion, this study emphasizes that regardless of the immunization regimen or the time of challenge, neutralizing antibody titers are better predictors of protection than total anti-PA titers.

  3. New Zealand Glaciers

    2017-03-09

    New