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Sample records for zebra mussel invasion

  1. Molecular ecology of zebra mussel invasions.

    PubMed

    May, Gemma E; Gelembiuk, Gregory W; Panov, Vadim E; Orlova, Marina I; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The invasion of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, into North American waters has resulted in profound ecological disturbances and large monetary losses. This study examined the invasion history and patterns of genetic diversity among endemic and invading populations of zebra mussels using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Patterns of haplotype frequency indicate that all invasive populations of zebra mussels from North America and Europe originated from the Ponto-Caspian Sea region. The distribution of haplotypes was consistent with invasive populations arising from the Black Sea drainage, but could not exclude the possibility of an origin from the Caspian Sea drainage. Similar haplotype frequencies among North American populations of D. polymorpha suggest colonization by a single founding population. There was no evidence of invasive populations arising from tectonic lakes in Turkey, while lakes in Greece and Macedonia contained only Dreissena stankovici. Populations in Turkey might be members of a sibling species complex of D. polymorpha. Ponto-Caspian derived populations of D. polymorpha (theta = 0.0011) and Dreissena bugensis (one haplotype) exhibited low levels of genetic diversity at the COI gene, perhaps as a result of repeated population bottlenecks. In contrast, geographically isolated tectonic lake populations exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (theta = 0.0032 to 0.0134). It is possible that the fluctuating environment of the Ponto-Caspian basin facilitated the colonizing habit of invasive populations of D. polymorpha and D. bugensis. Our findings were concordant with the general trend of destructive freshwater invaders in the Great Lakes arising from the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin.

  2. Invasion of the Zebra Mussels: A Mock Trial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judy A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about the important topic of invasive species, specifically Zebra Mussels. Students role-play different characters in a real-life situation: the trial of the Zebra Mussel for unlawful disruption of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Students will also learn about jurisprudential inquiry by examining the trial process. This…

  3. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan; Yen Le, T T; Bij de Vaate, Abraham; van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2015-08-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting the spread of aquatic invaders: insight from 200 years of invasion by zebra mussels.

    PubMed

    Karatayev, Alexander Y; Burlakova, Lyubov E; Mastitsky, Sergey E; Padilla, Dianna K

    2015-03-01

    Understanding factors controlling the introduction and spread of species is crucial to improving the management of both natural populations and introduced species. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is considered the most aggressive freshwater invader in the Northern Hemisphere, and is a convenient model system for invasion biology, offering one of the best aquatic examples for examining the invasion process. We used data on 553 of the 1040 glacial lakes in the Republic of Belarus that were examined for the presence of zebra mussels. We used these data to build, test, and construct modified models to predict the spread of this invader, including selection of important parameters that could limit the spread of this invader. In spite of 200 years of continuous invasion, by 1996, zebra mussels were found in only 16.8% of all lakes studied. Of those lakes without zebra mussels in 1996, 66% were predicted to be susceptible to invasion by zebra mussels in the future, and 33% were predicted to be immune to successful invasion due to their water chemistry. Eighty lakes free of zebra mussels in 1996 were reexamined from 1997 to 2008. Of these, zebra mussels successfully invaded an additional 31 lakes, all of which were classified initially as suitable for zebra mussels; none of the lakes previously classified as unsuitable were invaded. We used the Random Forests classification algorithm with 16 environmental variables to determine the most important factors that differed between invaded lakes and those lakes suitable for invasion that have not yet been invaded. Distance to the nearest infested lakes was found to be the most important variable, followed by the lake area, color, average depth, and concentration of chloride, magnesium, and bicarbonate. This study provides a useful approach for predicting the spread of an invader across a landscape with variable habitat suitability that can be applied to a variety of species and systems.

  5. Book review: Biology and management of invasive quagga and zebra mussels in the western United States

    Benson, Amy J.

    2017-01-01

    Water is a precious and limited commodity in the western United States and its conveyance is extremely important. Therefore, it is critical to do as much as possible to prevent the spread of two species of dreissenid mussels, both non-native and highly invasive aquatic species already well-established in the eastern half of the United States. This book addresses the occurrences of the two dreissenid mussels in the West, the quagga mussel and the zebra mussel, that are both known to negatively impact water delivery systems and natural ecosystems. It is edited by two researchers whom have extensive experience working with the mussels in the West and is composed of 34 chapters, or articles, written by a variety of experts.Book information: Biology and Management of Invasive Quagga and Zebra Mussels in the Western United States. Edited by Wai Hing Wong and Shawn L. Gerstenberger. Boca Raton (Florida): CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group). $149.95. xx + 545 p.; ill.; index. ISBN: 978-1-4665-9561-3. [Compact Disc included.] 2015.

  6. New Concerns Emerge as Zebra Mussel Spreads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Martha L., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on the Zebra Mussel invasion of North American inland waterways. Discusses United States Army Corps of Engineers operations that may facilitate or be affected by the spread of Zebra Mussels, the threat to native clams, chemical and mechanical control methods, natural solutions, and ongoing research. (MCO)

  7. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  8. Canal construction destroys the barrier between major European invasion lineages of the zebra mussel.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jakob C; Hidde, Dennis; Seitz, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas 1771, has become the protagonist of a spectacular freshwater invasion in North America due to its large economic and biological impact. Several genetic studies on American populations have failed to detect any large-scale geographical patterns. In western Europe, where D. polymorpha has been a classical invader from the Pontocaspian since the early 19th century, the situation is strikingly different. Here, we show with genetic markers that two major western European invasion lineages with lowered genetic variability within and among populations can be discriminated. These two invasion lineages correspond with two separate navigable waterways to western Europe. We found a rapid and asymmetrical genetic interchange of the two invasion lines after the construction of the Main-Danube canal in 1992, which interconnected the two waterways across the main watershed. PMID:12061957

  9. Invasive zebra mussels (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) survive gut passage of migratory fish species: implications for dispersal

    Gatlin, Michael R.; Shoup, Daniel E.; Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction and spread of invasive species is of great concern to natural resource managers in the United States. To effectively control the spread of these species, managers must be aware of the multitude of dispersal methods used by the organisms. We investigated the potential for survival through the gut of a migrating fish (blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus) as a dispersal mechanism for two invasive bivalves: zebra mussel (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea). Blue catfish (N = 62) were sampled over several months from Sooner Lake, Oklahoma, transported to a laboratory and held in individual tanks for 48 h. All fecal material was collected and inspected for live mussels. Survival was significantly related to water temperature in the lake at the time of collection, with no mussels surviving above 21.1 C°, whereas 12 % of zebra mussels (N = 939) and 39 % of Asian clams (N = 408) consumed in cooler water survived gut passage. This research demonstrates the potential for blue catfish to serve as a dispersal vector for invasive bivalves at low water temperatures.

  10. Making the Best of a Pest: The Potential for Using Invasive Zebra Mussel ( Dreissena Polymorpha) Biomass as a Supplement to Commercial Chicken Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlan, Claire; Rose, Paul; Aldridge, David C.

    2014-11-01

    Invasive non-native species frequently occur in very high densities. When such invaders present an economic or ecological nuisance, this biomass is typically removed and landfill is the most common destination, which is undesirable from both an economic and ecological perspective. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, has invaded large parts of Europe and North America, and is routinely removed from raw water systems where it creates a biofouling nuisance. We investigated the suitability of dried, whole zebra mussels as a supplement to poultry feed, thus providing a more attractive end-use than disposal to landfill. Measurable outcomes were nutrient and energy composition analyses of the feeds and production parameters of the birds over a 14 day period. Zebra mussels were a palatable feed supplement for chickens. The mussel meal contained high levels of calcium (344.9 g kg-1), essential for egg shell formation, which was absorbed and retained easily by the birds. Compared with standard feed, a mussel-supplemented diet caused no significant effects on production parameters such as egg weight and feed conversion ratio during the study period. However, protein and energy levels in the zebra mussel feed were much lower than expected from the literature. In order for zebra mussels to be a viable long-term feed supplement for poultry, flesh would need to be separated from the shells in an economically viable way. If zebra mussels were to be used with the shells remaining, it seems that the resultant mussel meal would be more suitable as a calcium supplement.

  11. Making the best of a pest: the potential for using invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) biomass as a supplement to commercial chicken feed.

    PubMed

    McLaughlan, Claire; Rose, Paul; Aldridge, David C

    2014-11-01

    Invasive non-native species frequently occur in very high densities. When such invaders present an economic or ecological nuisance, this biomass is typically removed and landfill is the most common destination, which is undesirable from both an economic and ecological perspective. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, has invaded large parts of Europe and North America, and is routinely removed from raw water systems where it creates a biofouling nuisance. We investigated the suitability of dried, whole zebra mussels as a supplement to poultry feed, thus providing a more attractive end-use than disposal to landfill. Measurable outcomes were nutrient and energy composition analyses of the feeds and production parameters of the birds over a 14 day period. Zebra mussels were a palatable feed supplement for chickens. The mussel meal contained high levels of calcium (344.9 g kg(-1)), essential for egg shell formation, which was absorbed and retained easily by the birds. Compared with standard feed, a mussel-supplemented diet caused no significant effects on production parameters such as egg weight and feed conversion ratio during the study period. However, protein and energy levels in the zebra mussel feed were much lower than expected from the literature. In order for zebra mussels to be a viable long-term feed supplement for poultry, flesh would need to be separated from the shells in an economically viable way. If zebra mussels were to be used with the shells remaining, it seems that the resultant mussel meal would be more suitable as a calcium supplement.

  12. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    SciT

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  13. Quagga and zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts. In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

  14. Competitive Replacement of Invasive Congeners May Relax Impact on Native Species: Interactions among Zebra, Quagga, and Native Unionid Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Tulumello, Brianne L.; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Griffith, Traci A.; Scott, Mariah W.; Crail, Todd; Zanatta, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011–2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade. PMID:25490103

  15. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: Interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels

    Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Tulumello, Brianne L.; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Griffith, Traci A.; Scott, Mariah W.; Crail, Todd D.; Zanatta, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011–2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  16. Prevention of zebra mussel infestation and dispersal during aquaculture operations

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowska, H.

    1996-01-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an exotic invasive species, poses a major threat to North American fish management programs and the aquaculture industry. Fish hatcheries may become infected with zebra mussels from a variety of sources, including the water supply, fish shipments, boats, and equipment. The hatcheries could then serve as agents for the overland dispersal of zebra mussels into stocked waters and to other fish hatcheries. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aquaculture chemicals for use in controlling zebra mussels in fish hatcheries and preventing dispersal of veligers during fish transport. Chemicals were evaluated for use in fish transport and as disinfectants for ponds and equipment. Standardized static toxicity tests were conducted with representative species of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes and with larval (3-d-old veligers), early juvenile (settling larvae), and adult zebra mussels. Chemical concentrations and exposure durations were based on recommended treatment levels for fish, eggs, and ponds. Recommended treatment levels were also exceeded, if necessary, to establish lethal levels for zebra mussels of different developmental stages. Our results indicate that some chemicals currently in use in hatcheries may be effective for controlling zebra mussels in various operations. Chloride salts were the safest and most effective therapeutants tested for use in fish transport. The toxicity of chloride salts to fish varied among species and with temperature; only one treatment regime (sodium chloride at 10,000 mg/L) was safe to all fish species that we tested, but it was only effective on veliger and settler stages of the zebra mussel. Effective disinfectants were benzalkonium chloride for use on equipment and rotenone for use in ponds after fish are harvested. The regulatory status of the identified chemicals is discussed as well as several nonchemical control alternatives.

  17. Zebra Mussel Chemical Control Guide, Version 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    delivery systems, including potable water treatment, agriculture, industry, power generation, and fire protection. Since this invasive organism’s...delivery systems, including potable water treatment, agriculture, industry, power generation, and fire protection (Mackie and Claudi 2010). Zebra mussels...generators, pipes, valves, sensing equipment (level, flow, and pressure) and fire protection (Mackie and Claudi 2010; Prescott et al. 2014). Other USACE

  18. Population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) during the initial invasion of the Upper Mississippi River, USA

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hightower, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document and model the population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), USA, for five consecutive years (1992-1996) following their initial discovery in September 1991. Artificial substrates (concrete blocks, 0.49 m2 surface area) were deployed on or around the first of May at two sites within each of two habitat types (main channel border and contiguous backwater). Blocks were removed monthly (30 ?? 10 d) from the end of May to the end of October to obtain density and growth information. Some blocks deployed in May 1995 were retrieved in April 1996 to obtain information about overwinter growth and survival. The annual density of zebra mussels in Pool 8 of the UMR increased from 3.5/m2 in 1992 to 14,956/m 2 in 1996. The average May-October growth rate of newly recruited individuals, based on a von Bertalanffy growth model fitted to monthly shell-length composition data, was 0.11 mm/d. Model estimates of the average survival rate varied from 21 to 100% per month. Estimated recruitment varied substantially among months, with highest levels occurring in September-October of 1994 and 1996, and in July of 1995. Recruitment and density in both habitat types increased by two orders of magnitude in 1996. Follow-up studies will be necessary to assess the long-term stability of zebra mussel populations in the UMR; this study provides the critical baseline information needed for those future comparisons. ?? Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Malacological Society of London 2006.

  19. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel)

    Hoy, M.S.; Kelly, K.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations.

  20. A Probability Co-Kriging Model to Account for Reporting Bias and Recognize Areas at High Risk for Zebra Mussels and Eurasian Watermilfoil Invasions in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Kanankege, Kaushi S. T.; Alkhamis, Moh A.; Phelps, Nicholas B. D.; Perez, Andres M.

    2018-01-01

    Zebra mussels (ZMs) (Dreissena polymorpha) and Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM) (Myriophyllum spicatum) are aggressive aquatic invasive species posing a conservation burden on Minnesota. Recognizing areas at high risk for invasion is a prerequisite for the implementation of risk-based prevention and mitigation management strategies. The early detection of invasion has been challenging, due in part to the imperfect observation process of invasions including the absence of a surveillance program, reliance on public reporting, and limited resource availability, which results in reporting bias. To predict the areas at high risk for invasions, while accounting for underreporting, we combined network analysis and probability co-kriging to estimate the risk of ZM and EWM invasions. We used network analysis to generate a waterbody-specific variable representing boater traffic, a known high risk activity for human-mediated transportation of invasive species. In addition, co-kriging was used to estimate the probability of species introduction, using waterbody-specific variables. A co-kriging model containing distance to the nearest ZM infested location, boater traffic, and road access was used to recognize the areas at high risk for ZM invasions (AUC = 0.78). The EWM co-kriging model included distance to the nearest EWM infested location, boater traffic, and connectivity to infested waterbodies (AUC = 0.76). Results suggested that, by 2015, nearly 20% of the waterbodies in Minnesota were at high risk of ZM (12.45%) or EWM (12.43%) invasions, whereas only 125/18,411 (0.67%) and 304/18,411 (1.65%) are currently infested, respectively. Prediction methods presented here can support decisions related to solving the problems of imperfect detection, which subsequently improve the early detection of biological invasions. PMID:29354638

  1. Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Love, Joy; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1993-01-01

    In laboratory studies, we quantified predation rates and handling time of crayfish (Orconectes virilis) on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhhynchus mykiss) eggs. In single prey species tests, crayfish ate zebra mussels at similar rates as they ate rainbow trout eggs. When both prey were present, crayfish preferred rainbow trout eggs. Handling time of mussels was about twice that of rainbow trout eggs, and energetic content of mussels was lower. Therefore, net benefit for foraging on rainbow trout eggs was about three times that of foraging on zebra mussels.

  2. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  3. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  4. Spatio-temporal spawning and larval dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in a North Texas Reservoir: implications for invasions in the southern United States

    Churchill, Christopher John

    2013-01-01

    Zebra mussels were first observed in Texas in 2009 in a reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas-Oklahoma border. In 2012, an established population was found in a near-by reservoir, Ray Roberts Lake, and in June 2013, settled mussels were detected in a third north Texas reservoir, Lake Lewisville. An established population was detected in Belton Lake in September 2013. With the exception of Louisiana, these occurrences in Texas mark the current southern extent of the range of this species in the United States. Previous studies indicate that zebra mussel populations could be affected by environmental conditions, especially increased temperatures and extreme droughts, which are characteristic of surface waters of the southern and southwestern United States. Data collected during the first three years (2010–12) of a long-term monitoring program were analyzed to determine if spatio-temporal zebra mussel spawning and larval dynamics were related to physicochemical water properties in Lake Texoma. Reproductive output of the local population was significantly related to water temperature and lake elevation. Estimated mean date of first spawn in Lake Texoma was approximately 1.5 months earlier and peak veliger densities were observed two months earlier than in Lake Erie. Annual maximum veliger density declined significantly during the study period (p < 0.0001). A population crash occurred as a result of thermal stress and variability of lake elevation. In summer 2011, water temperatures peaked at 34.3°C and lake elevation declined to the lowest level recorded during the previous 18 years, which resulted in desiccation of substantial numbers of settled mussels in littoral zones. Veliger spatial distributions were associated with physicochemical stratification characteristics. Veligers were observed in the deepest oxygenated water after lake stratification, which occurred in late spring. Results of this study indicate environmental conditions can influence variability of

  5. Using Massive Parallel Sequencing for the Development, Validation, and Application of Population Genetics Markers in the Invasive Bivalve Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas, 1771) is one of the most invasive species of freshwater bivalves, due to a combination of biological and anthropogenic factors. Once this species has been introduced to a new area, individuals form dense aggregations that are very difficult to remove, leading to many adverse socioeconomic and ecological consequences. In this study, we identified, tested, and validated a new set of polymorphic microsatellite loci (also known as SSRs, Single Sequence Repeats) using a Massive Parallel Sequencing (MPS) platform. After several pruning steps, 93 SSRs could potentially be amplified. Out of these SSRs, 14 were polymorphic, producing a polymorphic yield of 15.05%. These 14 polymorphic microsatellites were fully validated in a first approximation of the genetic population structure of D. polymorpha in the Iberian Peninsula. Based on this polymorphic yield, we propose a criterion for establishing the number of SSRs that require validation in similar species, depending on the final use of the markers. These results could be used to optimize MPS approaches in the development of microsatellites as genetic markers, which would reduce the cost of this process. PMID:25780924

  6. Control Strategies for Zebra Mussel Infestations at Public Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    detailed examina- tion of hard -to-reach surfaces or specific components (such as fire protection systems or intake pipes for sensor devices) should...trash racks. Trash racks could become partially clogged with zebra mussels, shells , and other debris. Flow through the openings would be reduced, and... shells to the top of the lock wall. These are now used by Ontario Hydro for removing zebra mussels. At most facilities, the culvert is totally dewatered

  7. USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

    Churchill, Christopher J.; Baldys, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in

  8. Chemical regulation of spawning in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Ram, Jeffrey L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that spawning in bivalves is chemically regulated, both by environmental chemical cues and by internal chemical mediators. In a model proposed for zebra mussels, chemicals from phytoplankton initially trigger spawning, and chemicals associated with gametes provide further stimulus for spawning. The response to environmental chemicals is internally mediated by a pathway utilizing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, a neurotransmitter), which acts directly on both male and female gonads. The role of serotonin and most other aspects of the model have been tested only on bivalves other than zebra mussels. The effect of serotonin on zebra mussel spawning was tested. Serotonin (10-5 and 10-3 M) injected into ripe males induced spawning, but injection of serotonin into females did not. Gametes were not released by 10-6 serotonin; in most cases, serotonin injection did not release gametes from immature recipients. Serotonin injection provides a reliable means for identifying ripe male zebra mussels and for obtaining zebra mussel sperm without the need for dissection.

  9. Organochlorine and trace element contamination in wintering and migrating diving ducks in the southern Great Lakes, USA, since the zebra mussel invasion

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the potential for increased trophic transfer of contaminants by zebra mussels (Dreissena sp.) to higher trophic levels, we collected four species of waterfowl (n = 65 ducks) from four locations in Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and Lake Michigan, USA, between 1991 and 1993 for organochlorine contaminant and trace element analyses. Geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were 1.35 and 0.15 I?g/g wet weight in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) carcasses and were below known effect levels. Total PCBs in 80% of carcasses, however, were above the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's threshold of 3.0 I?g/g lipid weight for consumption of poultry. With the exception of selenium, trace elements were also at background or no-effect levels. Selenium concentrations in livers of 95% of lesser scaup, 90% of bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), and 72% of common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) were in the elevated (>10 I?g/g dry wt) or potentially harmful range (>33 I?g/g dry wt). The effects of these high selenium concentrations are unknown but should be investigated further based on reproductive effects observed in field and laboratory studies of dabbling ducks and because lesser scaup populations are declining. Concentrations of total PCBs in dreissenid mussels in western Lake Erie were 10 times higher than in the upper Mississippi River but were similar to concentrations in other industrialized rivers in Europe and the United States. Metal concentrations were similar to other industrialized sites where zebra mussels have been sampled.

  10. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciT

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  11. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport

    Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

  12. Assessing the potential for fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): Insight from bioenergetics models

    Eggleton, M.A.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Rates of annual food consumption and biomass were modeled for several fish species across representative rivers and lakes in eastern North America. Results were combined to assess the relative potential of fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Predicted annual food consumption by fishes in southern waters was over 100% greater than that in northern systems because of warmer annual water temperatures and presumed increases in metabolic demand. Although generally increasing with latitude, biomasses of several key zebra mussel fish predators did not change significantly across latitudes. Biomasses of some less abundant fish predators did increase significantly with latitude, but increases were not of the magnitude to offset predicted decreases in food consumption. Our results generally support the premise that fishes in rivers and lakes of the southern United States (U.S.) have inherently greater potential to impact zebra mussels by predation. Our simulations may provide a partial explanation of why zebra mussel invasions have not been as rapid and widespread in southern U.S. waters compared to the Great Lakes region. ?? Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  13. Review of techniques to prevent introduction of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during native mussel (Unionoidea) conservation activities

    Cope, W.G.; Newton, T.J.; Gatenby, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the declines in diversity and abundance of native freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea), and the potential decimation of populations of native mussels resulting from the rapid spread of the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, management options to eliminate or reduce the threat of the zebra mussel are needed. Relocating native mussels to refugia (artificial and natural) has been proposed to mitigate the threat of zebra mussels to native species. Relocation of native mussels to refugia such as fish hatchery facilities or natural habitats within their historic range. Which are unlikely to be infested by zebra mussels, necessitates that protocols be developed to prevent the inadvertent introduction of zebra mussels. Several recent studies have developed Such protocols, and have assessed their effectiveness on the health and survival of native mussels during subsequent relocation to various refugia. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and evaluate the current protocols and to develop a set of procedures that resource managers and researchers should consider before conducting conservation activities in zebra mussel infested waters. We found that the existing protocols have many common points of concern, such as facility modification and suitability, zebra mussel risk assessment and management procedures, and health and disease management procedures. These conservation protocols may have broad applicability to other situations and locations. A summary and evaluation of the information in these main areas, along with recommended guidelines, are presented in this article.

  14. The effect of zebra mussel consumption on growth of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.

    1996-01-01

    We examined food habits and scale annuli of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie to determine whether increasing predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) had affected growth of freshwater drum. The volume of zebra mussels in drum guts was greater in older fish. Growth of age classes 3–4, which consumed few zebra mussels, was greater in the most productive year for zebra mussels, July 1990–August 1991, than in three prior years. The total lengths of 5-year-old drum changed little. The mean total length of 6-year-old females has declined since the zebra mussel invaded Lake Erie, even through mussels comprised more than two-thirds of gut samples in these fish. These studies suggest that zebra mussels may not benefit freshwater drum when serving as a staple in the diet. PDF

  15. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciT

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-10-15

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P.more » fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.« less

  16. Habitat shift in invading species: Zebra and quagga mussel population characteristics on shallow soft substrates

    Berkman, P.A.; Garton, D.W.; Haltuch, M.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Febo, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Unexpected habitat innovations among invading species are illustrated by the expansion of dreissenid mussels across sedimentary environments in shallow water unlike the hard substrates where they are conventionally known. In this note, records of population characteristics of invading zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels from 1994 through 1998 are reported from shallow (less than 20 m) sedimentary habitats in western Lake Erie. Haphazard SCUBA collections of these invading species indicated that combined densities of zebra and quagga mussels ranged from 0 to 32,500 individuals per square meter between 1994 and 1998, with D. polymorpha comprising 75-100% of the assemblages. These mixed mussel populations, which were attached by byssal threads to each other and underlying sand-grain sediments, had size-frequency distributions that were typical of colonizing populations on hard substrates. Moreover, the presence of two mussel cohorts within the 1994 samples indicated that these species began expanding onto soft substrates not later than 1992, within 4 years of their initial invasion in western Lake Erie. Such historical data provide baselines for interpreting adaptive innovations, ecological interactions and habitat shifts among the two invading dreissenid mussel species in North America.

  17. Effects of shell morphology on mechanics of zebra and quagga mussel locomotion

    S. M. Peyer; J. C. Hermanson; C. E. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Although zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) initially colonized shallow habitats within the North American Great Lakes, quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) are becoming dominant in both shallow- and deep-water habitats. Shell morphology differs among zebra, shallow quagga and deep quagga mussels but functional consequences of...

  18. Evaluation of several chemical disinfectants for removing zebra mussels from unionid mussels

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of chemical treatments for killing veliger and juvenile stages of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha attached to unionid mussels. Static toxicity tests were conducted on eight unionid mussel species with common aquaculture chemicals (benzalkonium chloride, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride). The concentration and duration of each chemical treatment tested had previously been found to kill zebra mussel veligers and juveniles. Several species (e.g., Elliptio dilatata, Lampsilis cardium, and Lasmigona complanata) incurred less than 10% mortality in chloride salt treatments, while in other species (e.g., Obliquaria reflexa and Leptodea fragilis) mortality varied greatly among treatment regimes. Treatments with benzalkonium chloride, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide were less than 90% effective on juvenile stages of zebra mussels and, therefore, were ruled out after preliminary trials. Limited application of specific chemical treatments may be feasible for more tolerant species; however, effective disinfection of unionid shells will require the use of chemical treatment followed by a quarantine period to completely remove zebra mussel larvae and juveniles.

  19. Zebra mussel beds: an effective feeding ground for Ponto-Caspian gobies or suitable shelter for their prey?

    PubMed

    Kobak, Jarosław; Poznańska, Małgorzata; Jermacz, Łukasz; Kakareko, Tomasz; Prądzynski, Daniel; Łodygowska, Małgorzata; Montowska, Karolina; Bącela-Spychalska, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of the Ponto-Caspian invasive zebra mussel ( Dreissena polymorpha ) constitute a suitable habitat for macroinvertebrates, considerably increasing their abundance and providing effective antipredator protection. Thus, the overall effect of a mussel bed on particular predator species may vary from positive to negative, depending on both prey density increase and predator ability to prey in a structurally complex habitat. Alien Ponto-Caspian goby fish are likely to be facilitated when introduced into new areas by zebra mussels, provided that they are capable of utilizing mussel beds as habitat and feeding grounds. We ran laboratory experiments to find which prey (chironomid larvae) densities (from ca. 500 to 2,000 individuals m -2 ) in a mussel bed make it a more beneficial feeding ground for the racer goby Babka gymnotrachelus (RG) and western tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris (WTG) compared to sandy and stone substrata (containing the basic prey density of 500 ind. m -2 ). Moreover, we checked how food availability affects habitat selection by fish. Mussel beds became more suitable for fish than alternative mineral substrata when food abundance was at least two times higher (1,000 vs. 500 ind. m -2 ), regardless of fish size and species. WTG was associated with mussel beds regardless of its size and prey density, whereas RG switched to this habitat when it became a better feeding ground than alternative substrata. Larger RG exhibited a stronger affinity for mussels than small individuals. WTG fed more efficiently from a mussel bed at high food abundances than RG. A literature review has shown that increasing chironomid density, which in our study was sufficient to make a mussel habitat an attractive feeding ground for the gobies, is commonly observed in mussel beds in the field. Therefore, we conclude that zebra mussels may positively affect the alien goby species and are likely to facilitate their establishment in novel areas, contributing to an

  20. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  1. Do zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) alter lake water chemistry in a way that favours Microcystis growth?

    PubMed

    Bykova, Olga; Laursen, Andrew; Bostan, Vadim; Bautista, Joseph; McCarthy, Lynda

    2006-12-01

    This study examined possible relationships between the presence of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and Microcystis spp. abundance. Experiments were conducted in 12 microcosms designed to mimic shallow lake ecosystems. Fresh, aerated water with phytoplankton (pseudokirchneriella spp. and Microcystis spp.) was pumped into each microcosm daily to ensure zebra mussels were exposed to oxygen and food. Microcosms containing zebra mussels experienced significantly higher fluxes of nitrate (p=0.019) and lower fluxes of ortho-phosphate (p=0.047) into sediments. In a second experiment, water column nutrient concentrations were compared in microcosms with and without live zebra mussels. Consistent with results of the previous experiment, microcosms with zebra mussels had significantly less nitrate (p=0.023) and organic nitrogen (p=0.003) in the water column, while ammonium (p=0.074), phosphate (p=0.491), and dissolved organic carbon (p=0.820) in the water column were not different between microcosms with or without zebra mussels. Microcosms with zebra mussels also experienced a reduction in green algae (pseudokirchneriella) (p<0.001) and an increase in abundance of Microcystis (p<0.001) relative to microcosms without zebra mussels. In an experiment without zebra mussels, nutrient ratios (N/P) were manipulated to determine potential links between N/P and relative abundance of each phytoplankton. Manipulation of N/P was intended to mimic differences observed in microcosms with and without zebra mussels in the previous experiment. Low N/P (mimicking microcosms with zebra mussels) was related to an increase in Microcystis (p<0.001) and Microcystis/Pseudokirchneriella biovolume (p<0.001). It is this shift in N/P, and possibly some level of selective feeding, that is believed to have driven changes in the relative abundance of Microcystis. In lakes invaded by zebra mussels, alterations in the processing of nitrogen and phosphorus could contribute to the re-emergence of

  2. Lesser scaup forage on zebra mussels at Cook nuclear plant, Michigan

    Mitchell, C.A.; Carlson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen of 21 Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) entrained while foraging at the water intake structures of Cook Nuclear Plant, Bridgman, Michigan had consumed zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). The average number of zebra mussels in the upper gastrointestinal tract was 260; maximum number was 987. Migrating Lesser Scaup found this new food source during the first winter following settlement of zebra mussels on the water intake structures of the power plant.

  3. Bioaccumulation of pathogenic bacteria and amoeba by zebra mussels and their presence in watercourses.

    PubMed

    Mosteo, R; Goñi, P; Miguel, N; Abadías, J; Valero, P; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha (the zebra mussel) has been invading freshwater bodies in Europe since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Filter-feeding organisms can accumulate and concentrate both chemical and biological contaminants in their tissues. Therefore, zebra mussels are recognized as indicators of freshwater quality. In this work, the capacity of the zebra mussel to accumulate human pathogenic bacteria and protozoa has been evaluated and the sanitary risk associated with their presence in surface water has also been assessed. The results show a good correlation between the pathogenic bacteria concentration in zebra mussels and in watercourses. Zebra mussels could therefore be used as an indicator of biological contamination. The bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Salmonella spp.) and parasites (Cryptosporidium oocysts and free-living amoebae) detected in these mussels reflect a potential sanitary risk in water.

  4. Mitigation of unionid mortality caused by zebra mussel infestation: cleaning of unionids

    Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    Exotic zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha have infested and caused mortality of native unionids in the Great Lakes since 1986; no other such parasitism of native unionids occurs in North America. Survival of unionids threatened by zebra mussel infestation was tested by suspending uncleaned and cleaned unionids in nearshore waters of western Lake Erie. Survival was determined, and newly settled zebra mussels were removed from clean unionids at eight intervals that ranged from 21 d to 77 d between 5 July 1990 and 3 July 1991. After 1 year, survival rates of uncleaned and cleaned unionids were 0% and 42%, respectively. Of the 10 species examined, only indivduals from 3 species (Amblema plicata plicata, Fusconaia flava, and Quadrula quadrula) survived 1 year. These species have relatively thick shells, which may have contributed to their survival. Removal of newly settled zebra mussels may be important to unionid survival because 98% of the zebra mussels removed after the initial cleaning were small mussels (<10 mm long) that could rapidly grow and cover unionids. At present, we do not know how zebra mussels cause mortality of unionids, but the removal of zebra mussels from unionids is the only method known that successfully reduces unionid mortality in waters colonized by zebra mussels.

  5. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    French, John R. P.; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  6. Longitudinal patterns in abundance of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the upper Mississippi River

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hayden, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    We assessed the abundance of zebra mussels in the upper Mississippi River during 1995, four years after they were first found in the river. Samplers were deployed from May 30 to October 19, 1995, at 19 lock and dam facilities in the upper Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Muscatine, Iowa. Zebra mussels were found at every lock and dam except the two sites farthest upstream (Minneapolis). Generally, densities of zebra mussels were greatest at sites 161 km and farther downstream of the Minneapolis area. The greatest mean mussel density was 11,432/m(2) at Fulton, Illinois.

  7. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  8. Occurrence of zebra mussels in near-shore areas of western Lake Erie

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels, (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  9. Modelling the Risk Posed by the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha: Italy as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosso, Luciano; De Conno, Carmelina; Russo, Danilo

    2017-08-01

    We generated a risk map to forecast the potential effects of the spreading of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha across the Italian territory. We assessed the invader's potential impact on rivers, lakes, watersheds and dams at a fine-grained scale and detected those more at risk that should be targeted with appropriate monitoring. We developed a MaxEnt model and employed weighted overlay analyses to detect the species' potential distribution and generate risk maps for Italy. D. polymorpha has a greater probability of occurring at low to medium altitudes in areas characterised by fluviatile deposits of major streams. Northern and central Italy appear more at risk. Some hydroelectric power dams are at high risk, while most dams for irrigation, drinkable water reservoirs and other dam types are at medium to low risk. The lakes and rivers reaches (representing likely expansion pathways) at medium-high or high risk mostly occur in northern and central Italy. We highlight the importance of modelling potential invasions on a country scale to achieve the sufficient resolution needed to develop appropriate monitoring plans and prevent the invader's harmful effects. Further high-resolution risk maps are needed for other regions partly or not yet colonised by the zebra mussel.

  10. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A - a biopesticide for the control of zebra and quagga mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae).

    PubMed

    Molloy, Daniel P; Mayer, Denise A; Gaylo, Michael J; Morse, John T; Presti, Kathleen T; Sawyko, Paul M; Karatayev, Alexander Y; Burlakova, Lyubov E; Laruelle, Franck; Nishikawa, Kimi C; Griffin, Barbara H

    2013-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are the "poster children" of high-impact aquatic invasive species. In an effort to develop an effective and environmentally acceptable method to control their fouling of raw-water conduits, we have investigated the potential use of bacteria and their natural metabolic products as selective biological control agents. An outcome of this effort was the discovery of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A - an environmental isolate that kills these dreissenid mussels by intoxication (i.e., not infection). In the present paper, we use molecular methods to reconfirm that CL145A is a strain of the species P. fluorescens, and provide a phylogenetic analysis of the strain in relation to other Pseudomonas spp. We also provide evidence that the natural product lethal to dreissenids is associated with the cell wall of P. fluorescens CL145A, is a heat-labile secondary metabolite, and has degradable toxicity within 24 h when applied to water. CL145A appears to be an unusual strain of P. fluorescens since it was the only one among the ten strains tested to cause high mussel mortality. Pipe trials conducted under once-through conditions indicated: (1) P. fluorescens CL145A cells were efficacious against both zebra and quagga mussels, with high mortalities achieved against both species, and (2) as long as the total quantity of bacterial cells applied during the entire treatment period was the same, similar mussel mortality could be achieved in treatments lasting 1.5-12.0 h, with longer treatment durations achieving lower mortalities. The efficacy data presented herein, in combination with prior demonstration of its low risk of non-target impact, indicate that P. fluorescens CL145A cells have significant promise as an effective and environmentally safe control agent against these invasive mussels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of temperature and aerial exposure on the BOD of waste zebra mussels removed from navigational locks.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, D W; Payne, B S

    2001-08-01

    This laboratory study evaluated the effects of temperature and aerial exposure on BOD5 (5-day BOD) of waste zebra mussels of the type generated by maintenance operations on dams and navigational locks. The term waste zebra mussels includes the mussels and their associated debris with the latter including sediment, feces, pseudofeces and other small aquatic organisms. The BOD5 of waste zebra mussel was evaluated after aerial exposure of 3 and 10 days at temperatures of 5, 10, and 20 degrees C. The mean BOD5 values for waste zebra mussels in this study ranged from 18,500 to 30,600 mg O2/l. Factorial ANOVA analysis revealed that both temperature and aerial exposure had a negative effect on waste zebra mussel BOD5 (P<0.05) but there was no significant interaction effect (P = 0.119). Multiple regression analysis predicted that for the range of treatment conditions used in this study each 1 degrees C increase in temperature reduced the waste zebra mussel BOD5 by 284mg O2/l or 0.93% of the maximum mean BOD5. Each I day increase in aerial exposure reduced waste zebra mussel BOD5 by 987 mg O2/l or 3.22% of the maximum mean BOD5. Aerial exposure of waste zebra mussels substantially reduces waste BOD5.

  12. How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America?

    French, John R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Literature on mollusk-eating fishes was reviewed to determine the potential for different species of fish to control zebra mussels in eastern North America. At least six species are potential predators of zebra mussels because they possess (1) both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth or (2) lower pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads located on the dorsal roof for crushing mollusk shells. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and two centrarchids, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), possess both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth and are likely to consume more zebra mussels than fishes with only lower pharyngeal teeth. Only two catostomid species, copper and river redhorses (Moxostoma hubbsi and M. carinatum), have chewing pads that enable them to crush mollusks. The exotic omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio), possessing lower teeth and a chewing pad, may prey on zebra mussels when aquatic insect larvae, its preferred food, become rare. Managing populations of drum, sunfishes and redhorses to reduce exploitation of large individuals and improve their habitats are suggested as means to intensify biological control of zebra mussels in eastern North America. Other Eurasian molluscivores, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) should not be introduced into North America because research has shown repeatedly that an introduced biological controller usually does not forage for unwanted pests or reside only in preferred habitats of pests. Drum, sunfishes and redhorses should be preferred over these exotics as biological controllers of zebra mussels in North America because these native fishes will likely occupy newly established habitats of zebra mussels.

  13. A food web modeling analysis of a Midwestern, USA eutrophic lake dominated by non-native Common Carp and Zebra Mussels

    Colvin, Michael E.; Pierce, Clay; Stewart, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Food web modeling is recognized as fundamental to understanding the complexities of aquatic systems. Ecopath is the most common mass-balance model used to represent food webs and quantify trophic interactions among groups. We constructed annual Ecopath models for four consecutive years during the first half-decade of a zebra mussel invasion in shallow, eutrophic Clear Lake, Iowa, USA, to evaluate changes in relative biomass and total system consumption among food web groups, evaluate food web impacts of non-native common carp and zebra mussels on food web groups, and to interpret food web impacts in light of on-going lake restoration. Total living biomass increased each year of the study; the majority of the increase due to a doubling in planktonic blue green algae, but several other taxa also increased including a more than two-order of magnitude increase in zebra mussels. Common carp accounted for the largest percentage of total fish biomass throughout the study even with on-going harvest. Chironomids, common carp, and zebra mussels were the top-three ranking consumer groups. Non-native common carp and zebra mussels accounted for an average of 42% of the total system consumption. Despite the relatively high biomass densities of common carp and zebra mussel, food web impacts was minimal due to excessive benthic and primary production in this eutrophic system. Consumption occurring via benthic pathways dominated system consumption in Clear Lake throughout our study, supporting the argument that benthic food webs are significant in shallow, eutrophic lake ecosystems and must be considered if ecosystem-level understanding is to be obtained.

  14. Seasonal effects of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on sediment denitrification rates in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River

    Bruesewitz, Denise A.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Bernot, Melody J.; Richardson, William B.; Strauss, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have altered the structure of invaded ecosystems and exhibit characteristics that suggest they may influence ecosystem processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling. We measured denitrification rates seasonally on sediments underlying zebra mussel beds collected from the impounded zone of Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River. Denitrification assays were amended with nutrients to characterize variation in nutrient limitation of denitrification in the presence or absence of zebra mussels. Denitrification rates at zebra mussel sites were high relative to sites without zebra mussels in February 2004 (repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA), p = 0.005), potentially because of high NO3-N variability from nitrification of high NH4+ zebra mussel waste. Denitrification rates were highest in June 2003 (RM ANOVA, p 3-N concentrations during the study (linear regression, R2 = 0.72, p p ≤ 0.01). Examining how zebra mussels influence denitrification rates will aid in developing a more complete understanding of the impact of zebra mussels and more effective management strategies of eutrophic waters.

  15. Use of on-site refugia to protect unionid populations from zebra mussel-induced mortality

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Black, M. Glen; Allen, Jeffrey D.

    2000-01-01

    Protecting unionid populations as zebra mussels spread into inland waterways has relied mainly on relocating at-risk animals into aquaculture facilities. While such relocations are the only viable management technique for some populations, facility availability is limited, leaving many unionids facing extirpation. Another management strategy is in-situ protection either by enhancing natural refugia or by creating managed refugia. We have reviewed all reports of natural refugia and found that refugia for unionids can be found in many areas. There are many habitats where zebra mussel colonization has been limited, or of a temporary nature. Within zebra mussel infested areas, unionid communities continue to survive in some shallow water sites such as estuaries, deltas, and lake-connected wetlands. Managed refugia can be created in areas where natural refugia do not exist. We present a case study on recent efforts to create refugia in an area with rapidly expanding zebra mussel populations. Preliminary analysis of unionid body condition indicates that removal of encrusted zebra mussels only once a year can improve unionid condition factors and decrease mortality. Natural and managed refugia can provide an additional conservation management option in some areas.

  16. A cost-benefit analysis of preventative management for zebra and quagga mussels in the Colorado-Big Thompson System

    Thomas, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Zebra and quagga mussels are fresh water invaders that have the potential to cause severe ecological and economic damage. It is estimated that mussels cause $1 billion dollars per year in damages to water infrastructure and industries in the United States (Pimentel et al., 2004). Following their introduction to the Great Lakes in the late 1980s, mussels spread rapidly throughout the Mississippi River Basin and the Eastern U.S. The mussel invasion in the West is young. Mussels were first identified in Nevada in 2007, and have since been identified in California, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Texas. Western water systems are very different from those found in the East. The rapid spread of mussels through the eastern system was facilitated by connected and navigable waterways. Western water systems are less connected and are characterized by man-made reservoirs and canals. The main vector of spread for mussels in the West is overland on recreational boats (Bossenbroek et al., 2001). In response to the invasion, many western water managers have implemented preventative management programs to slow the overland spread of mussels on recreational boats. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Wildlife (CDOW) has implemented a mandatory boat inspection program that requires all trailered boats to be inspected before launching in any Colorado water body. The objective of this study is to analyze the costs and benefits of the CDOW boat inspection program in Colorado, and to identify variables that affect the net benefits of preventative management. Predicting the potential economic benefits of slowing the spread of mussels requires integrating information about mussel dispersal potential with estimates of control costs (Keller et al., 2009). Uncertainty surrounding the probabilities of establishment, the timing of invasions, and the damage costs associated with an invasion make a simulation model an excellent tool for addressing "what if" scenarios and shedding light on the

  17. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xueying; Zhang, Xiufeng; Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM), quagga mussels alone (QM), or an equal number of both species (ZQ) reduced total phosphorus (TP) and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3-) levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment.

  18. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM), quagga mussels alone (QM), or an equal number of both species (ZQ) reduced total phosphorus (TP) and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3-) levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment. PMID:28005940

  19. Body size-dependent Cd accumulation in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha from different routes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Li; Evans, Douglas; Kraemer, Lisa; Zhong, Huan

    2017-02-01

    Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.( 111 Cd spiked algae+ 113 Cd spiked river water) or B.( 111 Cd spiked sediments+ 113 Cd spiked river water). After exposure, 111 Cd or 113 Cd levels in mussel tissue were found to be negatively correlated with tissue weight, while Cd allometry coefficients (b values) were dependent on Cd exposure routes: -0.664 for algae, -0.241 for sediments and -0.379 for river water, compared to -0.582 in un-exposed mussels. By comparing different Cd exposure routes, we found that size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation from algae or river water could be more responsible for the overall size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels, and the relative importance of the two sources was dependent on mussel size ranges: Cadmium obtained from algae (algae-Cd) was more important in size-dependent Cd accumulation in smaller mussels (tissue dry weight < 5 mg), while river water-Cd became more important in larger individuals (tissue dry weight > 5 mg). In contrast, sediment-Cd contributed only a small amount to Cd accumulation in zebra mussels and may have little effect on size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation. Our results suggest that size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels could be largely affected by exposure routes, which should be considered when trying to interpret Cd biomonitoring data of zebra mussels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to test substrates

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.; Weber, Kerry L.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 days after exposure, zebra mussels were sorted into live and dead, and enumerated. Mean survival of zebra mussels in control treatments exceeded 95 percent. Mean survival of zebra mussels in the Lake Carlos WWC SDP-treated groups ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 percent and when compared at the same exposure duration, no difference was detected in survival between the 50 and 100 milligrams per liter (mg/L) treatment groups. Similarly, mean survival of zebra mussels in the Shawano Lake WWC SDP-treated groups ranged from 2.0 to 12.6 percent and when compared at the same exposure duration, no difference was detected in survival between the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups. Mean survival of zebra mussels in the Lake Carlos BI trial SDP-treated groups did not differ (p = 0.93) and was 18.1 and 18.0 percent in the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups, respectively. Mean survival of zebra mussels in the Shawano Lake BI trial SDP-treated groups differed (p < 0.01) and was 2.9 and 0.9 percent in the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups, respectively. Survival of zebra mussels assigned to the SDP-treated groups in the Lake Carlos WWC trial (12-hour exposure duration) differed from the survival of zebra mussels assigned to the SDP-treated groups in the Lake Carlos BI trial; however, after modification of the BI application technique, no difference (p = 0.22) was detected between the survival of zebra mussel in the Shawano Lake WWC (12-hour exposure duration) and BI trials.

  1. Identification of larvae: The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussel (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Black, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    There are presently four freshwater bivalves in the United States that produce larvae or veligers commonly found in the water column: two forms of Asian clams and two species of dreissenids. Portions of the geographic range of three of these bivalves, one species of Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), and quagga mussels (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), overlap, causing problems with larval identification. To determine which characteristics can be used to separate larval forms, adult Asian clams, quaggas, and zebra mussels were brought into the laboratory and induced to spawn, and the resulting larvae were reared. Hybrids between quaggas and zebra mussels were also produced, but not reared to maturity. Characteristics allowing for the most rapid and accurate separation of larvae were hinge length, shell length/height, shell shape, shell size, and the presence or absence of a foot and velum. These characteristics were observed in laboratory-reared larvae of known parentage and field-caught larvae of unknown parentage. In most cases, larvae of the Asian clam can be readily separated from those produced by either type of dreissenid on the basis of shell size and presence of a foot. Separating the gametes and embryos of the two types of dreissenids is not possible, but after shell formation, most of the larval stages can be distinguished. Hinge length, shell length/height, and the similarity in size of the shell valves can be used to separate straight-hinged, umbonal, pediveliger, and plantigrade larvae. Quagga × zebra mussel hybrids show characteristics of both parents and are difficult to identify.

  2. Zebra Mussel Antifouling Activity of the Marine Natural Product Aaptamine and Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Diers, Jeffrey A.; Bowling, John J.; Duke, Stephen O.; Wahyuono, Subagus; Kelly, Michelle; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Several aaptamine derivatives were selected as potential zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) antifoulants because of the noteworthy absence of fouling observed on Aaptos sponges. Sponges of the genus Aaptos collected in Manado, Indonesia consistently produce aaptamine-type alkaloids. To date, aaptamine and its derivatives have not been carefully evaluated for their antifoulant properties. Structure–activity relationship studies were conducted using several aaptamine derivatives in a zebra mussel antifouling assay. From these data, three analogs have shown significant antifouling activity against zebra mussel attachment. Aaptamine, isoaaptamine, and the demethylated aaptamine compounds used in the zebra mussel assay produced EC50 values of 24.2, 11.6, and 18.6 μM, respectively. In addition, neither aaptamine nor isoaaptamine produced a phytotoxic response (as high as 300 μM) toward a nontarget organism, Lemna pausicostata, in a 7-day exposure. The use of these aaptamine derivatives from Aaptos sp. as potential environmentally benign antifouling alternatives to metal-based paints and preservatives is significant, not only as a possible control of fouling organisms, but also to highlight the ecological importance of these and similar biochemical defenses. PMID:16718618

  3. Nutrient Recycling Impacts by Zebra Mussels in Harper’s Ferry Slough, Upper Mississippi River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    ing pro duc tiv ity in the slough (also see Caraco et al. (1997)). In Harper’s Ferry Slough and other aquatic sys tems, the mag ni tude of ze bra mus...the Upper Mississippi River with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha),” Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 4385-4390. ERDC WQTN-PD-07 December 2000 11 Caraco , N

  4. Comparative biology of zebra mussels in Europe and North America: an overview

    Mackie, Gerald L.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Since the discovery of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in the Great Lakes in 1988 comparisons have been made with mussel populations in Europe and the former Soviet Union. These comparisons include: Population dynamics, growth and mortality rates, ecological tolerances and requirements, dispersal rates and patterns, and ecological impacts. North American studies, mostly on the zebra mussel and a few on a second introduced species, the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis, have revealed some similarities and some differences. To date it appears that North American populations of zebra mussels are similar to European populations in their basic biological characteristics, population growth and mortality rates, and dispersal mechanisms and rates. Relative to European populations differences have been demonstrated for: (1) individual growth rates; (2) life spans; (3) calcium and pH tolerances and requirements; (4) potential distribution limits; and (5) population densities of veligers and adults. In addition, studies on the occurrence of the two dreissenid species in the Great Lakes are showing differences in their modes of life, depth distributions, and growth rates. As both species spread throughout North America, comparisons between species and waterbodies will enhance our ability to more effectively control these troublesome species.

  5. Comparative morphology of zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel sperm: Light and electron microscopy

    Walker, G.K.; Black, M.G.; Edwards, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Adult zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels were induced to release large quantities of live spermatozoa by the administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Sperm were photographed alive using phase-contrast microscopy and were fixed subsequently with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide for eventual examination by transmission or scanning electron microscopy. The sperm of both genera are of the ect-aquasperm type. Their overall dimensions and shape allow for easy discrimination at the light and scanning electron microscopy level. Transmission electron microscopy of the cells reveals a barrel-shaped nucleus in zebra mussel sperm and an elongated nucleus in quagga mussel sperm. In both species, an acrosome is cradled in a nuclear fossa. The ultrastructure of the acrosome and axial body, however, is distinctive for each species. The structures of the midpiece are shown, including a unique mitochondrial "skirt" that includes densely packed parallel cristae and extends in a narrow sheet from the mitochondria.

  6. Great Lakes clams find refuge from zebra mussels in restored, lake-connected marsh (Ohio)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, more than 95 percent of the freshwater clams once found in Lake Erie have died due to the exotic zebara mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Zebra mussels attach themselves to native clams in large numbers, impeding the ability of the clams to eat and burrow. However, in 1996, we discovered a population of native clams in Metzger Marsh in western Lake Erie (about 50 miles [80 km] east of Toledo) that were thriving despite the longtime presence of zebra mussel in surrounding waters. At that time, Metzger Marsh was undergoing extensive restoration, including construction of a dike to replace the eroded barrier beach and of a water-control structure to maintain hydrologic connections with the lake (Wilcox and Whillans 1999). The restoration plan called for a drawdown of water levels to promote plant growth from the seedbank -- a process that would also destroy most of the clam population. State and federal resource managers recommended removing as many clams as possible to a site that was isolated from zebra mussels, and then returning them to the marsh after it was restored. We removed about 7,000 native clams in 1996 and moved them back to Metzger Marsh in 1999.

  7. Factorial microarray analysis of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha: Dreissenidae, Bivalvia) adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been well known for its expertise in attaching to substances under the water. Studies in past decades on this underwater adhesion focused on the adhesive protein isolated from the byssogenesis apparatus of the zebra mussel. However, the mechanism of the initiation, maintenance, and determination of the attachment process remains largely unknown. Results In this study, we used a zebra mussel cDNA microarray previously developed in our lab and a factorial analysis to identify the genes that were involved in response to the changes of four factors: temperature (Factor A), current velocity (Factor B), dissolved oxygen (Factor C), and byssogenesis status (Factor D). Twenty probes in the microarray were found to be modified by one of the factors. The transcription products of four selected genes, DPFP-BG20_A01, EGP-BG97/192_B06, EGP-BG13_G05, and NH-BG17_C09 were unique to the zebra mussel foot based on the results of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profiles of these four genes under the attachment and non-attachment were also confirmed by qRT-PCR and the result is accordant to that from microarray assay. The in situ hybridization with the RNA probes of two identified genes DPFP-BG20_A01 and EGP-BG97/192_B06 indicated that both of them were expressed by a type of exocrine gland cell located in the middle part of the zebra mussel foot. Conclusions The results of this study suggested that the changes of D. polymorpha byssogenesis status and the environmental factors can dramatically affect the expression profiles of the genes unique to the foot. It turns out that the factorial design and analysis of the microarray experiment is a reliable method to identify the influence of multiple factors on the expression profiles of the probesets in the microarray; therein it provides a powerful tool to reveal the mechanism of zebra mussel underwater attachment. PMID:20509938

  8. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) limit food for larval fish (Pimephales promelas) in turbulent systems: A bioenergetics analysis

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a factorial experiment, in outdoor mesocosms, on the effects of zebra mussels and water column mixing (i.e., turbulence) on the diet, growth, and survival of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Significant (P < 0.05) larval mortality occurred by the end of the experiment with the highest mortality (90%) occurring in the presence of both turbulence and zebra mussels, whereas mortality was 37% in treatment with turbulence and 17% and 18% in the zebra mussels treatment, and the control, respectively. The size of individual fish was significantly different among treatments at the end of the experiment and was inversely related to survival. Levels of trophic resources (i.e., phyto and zooplankton) varied among treatments and were treatment specific. Turbulent mixing facilitated removal of phytoplankton by zebra mussels by making the entire water column of the tanks available to these benthic filter feeders. Early in the experiment (Day = 0 to 14) the physical process of turbulent mixing likely caused a reduction in standing stocks of zooplankton. The interactive effect of turbulence and mussels reduced copepod and rotifer stocks, through physical processes and through filtration by zebra mussels, relative to the turbulence treatment. The reductions in the number of total zooplankton in the turbulent mixing mesocosms and the further reduction of rotifer and copepod in the turbulence and mussels treatment coincided with a period of increased reliance of larval fathead minnows on these prey. Estimates of consumption from bioenergetics modeling and measured prey standing stocks indicated caloric resources of suitable prey in turbulence treatments during the early weeks of the experiment were insufficient to prevent starvation. Early mortality in the turbulence and mussels treatment likely released surviving fish from intense intraspecific competition and resulted in higher individual growth rates. A combination of high abundance of zebra mussels in an

  9. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) limit food for larval fish (Pimephales promelas) in turbulent systems: a bioenergetics analysis

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a factorial experiment, in outdoor mesocosms, on the effects of zebra mussels and water column mixing (i.e., turbulence) on the diet, growth, and survival of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Significant (P < 0.05) larval mortality occurred by the end of the experiment with the highest mortality (90%) occurring in the presence of both turbulence and zebra mussels, whereas mortality was 37% in treatment with turbulence and 17% and 18% in the zebra mussels treatment, and the control, respectively. The size of individual fish was significantly different among treatments at the end of the experiment and was inversely related to survival. Levels of trophic resources (i.e., phyto and zooplankton) varied among treatments and were treatment specific. Turbulent mixing facilitated removal of phytoplankton by zebra mussels by making the entire water column of the tanks available to these benthic filter feeders. Early in the experiment (Day = 0 to 14) the physical process of turbulent mixing likely caused a reduction in standing stocks of zooplankton. The interactive effect of turbulence and mussels reduced copepod and rotifer stocks, through physical processes and through filtration by zebra mussels, relative to the turbulence treatment. The reductions in the number of total zooplankton in the turbulent mixing mesocosms and the further reduction of rotifer and copepod in the turbulence and mussels treatment coincided with a period of increased reliance of larval fathead minnows on these prey. Estimates of consumption from bioenergetics modeling and measured prey standing stocks indicated caloric resources of suitable prey in turbulence treatments during the early weeks of the experiment were insufficient to prevent starvation. Early mortality in the turbulence and mussels treatment likely released surviving fish from intense intraspecific competition and resulted in higher individual growth rates. A combination of high abundance of zebra mussels in an

  10. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    French, John R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  11. Use of alternating and pulsed direct current electrified fields for zebra mussel control

    Luoma, James A.; Dean, Jan C.; Severson, Todd J.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Barbour, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Alternatives to chemicals for controlling dreissenid mussels are desirable for environmental compatibility, but few alternatives exist. Previous studies have evaluated the use of electrified fields for stunning and/or killing planktonic life stages of dreissenid mussels, however, the available literature on the use of electrified fields to control adult dreissenid mussels is limited. We evaluated the effects of sinusoidal alternating current (AC) and 20% duty cycle square-wave pulsed direct current (PDC) exposure on the survival of adult zebra mussels at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 22 °C. Peak voltage gradients of ~ 17 and 30 Vp/cm in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively, were continuously applied for 24, 48, or 72 h. Peak power densities ranged from 77,999 to 107,199 µW/cm3 in the AC exposures and 245,320 to 313,945 µW/cm3 in the PDC exposures. The peak dose ranged from 6,739 to 27,298 Joules/cm3 and 21,306 to 80,941 Joules/cm3 in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively. The applied power ranged from 16.6 to 68.9 kWh in the AC exposures and from 22.2 to 86.4 kWh in the PDC exposures. Mortality ranged from 2.7 to 92.7% in the AC exposed groups and from 24.0 to 98.7% in PDC exposed groups. Mortality increased with corresponding increases in water temperature and exposure duration, and we observed more zebra mussel mortality in the PDC exposures. Exposures conducted with AC required less of a peak dose (Joules/cm3) but more applied power (kWh) to achieve the same level of adult zebra mussel mortality as corresponding PDC exposures. The results demonstrate that 20% duty cycle square-wave PDC requires less energy than sinusoidal AC to inducing the same level of adult zebra mussel mortality.

  12. Zebra mussel effects on benthic invertebrates: physical or biotic?

    Botts, P. Silver; Patterson, Benjamin A.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    In soft sediments, Dreissena spp. create firm substrate in the form of aggregates of living mussels (druses) that roll free on the sediments. Druses provide physical structure which increases habitat heterogeneity, and the mussels increase benthic organic matter through the production of pseudofeces and feces. Descriptive and experimental studies were used to determine: 1) whether the density of benthic invertebrates in soft sediments increased in the presence of druses, and 2) whether the invertebrate assemblage responded to the physical structure provided by a druse or to some biotic effect associated with the presence of living mussels. In core samples collected biweekly during summer in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania, amphipods, chironomids, oligochaetes, turbellarians, and hydrozoans were significantly more abundant in sand with druses than in bare sand. When mesh bags containing either a living druse, non-living druse, or no druse were incubated in the bay for 33 d, we found that chironomids were significantly more abundant in treatments with living druses than with non-living druses, and in treatments with non-living druses than with no druse; turbellarians, amphipods, and hydrozoans were significantly more abundant in treatments with living or non-living druses than with no druse; oligochaetes showed no significant differences among treatments. This study demonstrates that most taxa of benthic invertebrates in soft substrate respond specifically to the physical structure associated with aggregates of mussel shells, but further study is needed to examine chironomid responses to some biotic effect dependent on the presence of living mussels.

  13. Copper in indigenous and transplanted zebra mussels in relation to changing water concentrations and body weight

    SciT

    Mersch, J.; Wagner, P.; Pihan, J.C.

    Zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, were collected monthly from a copper-contaminated reservoir over a period of nearly 3 years. Copper concentrations in the organisms showed marked fluctuations reflecting changes in the water contamination. Bioconcentration patterns were influenced by the specific capacity of this sentinel organism to biologically integrate the continuously evolving water pollution; the sampling pattern, which inevitably introduced a certain subjectivity into monitoring results; and weight changes in the animals within the yearly cycle. Consequently, the successive monthly indications obtained with the zebra mussels provided a current biological assessment of a complex dynamic contamination situation. In a second experiment, cagedmore » mussels from three different populations were transferred for 3 months into the reservoir and sampled on six occasions. Mortality rates, attachment capacity, and a condition index revealed no substantial fitness disturbances in the transplanted organisms. Differences in dry weight throughout the experiment were attributable to the initial characteristics of each population. The influence of body mass on monitoring results was eliminated by replacing copper concentrations ({micro}g/g dry weight) with copper burdens ({micro}g/specimen). In terms of copper burdens, the three transplanted populations exhibited very similar metal patterns. Moderate quantitative differences between introduced and indigenous populations were interpreted as the result of physiological adaptation of the indigenous mussels to their contaminated environment. This study showed that the transfer technique with D. polymorpha is a useful tool for active biomonitoring programs.« less

  14. An assessment of total and leachable contaminants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from Lake Erie

    SciT

    Doherty, F.G.; Evans, D.W.; Neuhauser, E.F.

    Samples of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, from populations infesting two power generating stations on Lake Erie were subjected to tests assessing the potential for leaching of metals and other (inorganic and organic) contaminants from mussel waste destined for disposal in conventional landfills. These tests revealed that mussels collected from Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke Thermal Generating Station and Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's Dunkirk Steam Station did not release hazardous materials in excess of limits set forth in Canadian and U.S. regulations, respectively. A variety of metals and inorganic materials leached from Nanticoke mussels at levels significantly lower than the registration limits formore » those analytes. Detectable levels of chloroform (0.080 mg/liter) and barium (3.3 mg/liter) leached from Dunkirk mussels at > 30-fold lower levels than U.S. regulatory action limits for those materials. Whole body analyses revealed a lack of detectable levels of herbicides and pesticides in either population with a variety of metals and inorganic constituents in all samples from both populations. The physiological condition of Dunkirk mussels appeared to be consistent with that of other Lake Erie populations based on percentage water and total fat content of soft tissues.« less

  15. An assessment of total and leachable contaminants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Doherty, F G; Evans, D W; Neuhauser, E F

    1993-06-01

    Samples of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, from populations infesting two power generating stations on Lake Erie were subjected to tests assessing the potential for leaching of metals and other (inorganic and organic) contaminants from mussel waste destined for disposal in conventional landfills. These tests revealed that mussels collected from Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke Thermal Generating Station and Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's Dunkirk Steam Station did not release hazardous materials in excess of limits set forth in Canadian and U.S. regulations, respectively. A variety of metals and inorganic materials leached from Nanticoke mussels at levels significantly lower than the registration limits for those analytes. Detectable levels of chloroform (0.080 mg/liter) and barium (3.3 mg/liter) leached from Dunkirk mussels at > 30-fold lower levels than U.S. regulatory action limits for those materials. Whole body analyses revealed a lack of detectable levels of herbicides and pesticides in either population with a variety of metals and inorganic constituents in all samples from both populations. The physiological condition of Dunkirk mussels appeared to be consistent with that of other Lake Erie populations based on percentage water and total fat content of soft tissues.

  16. Bioassessment of mercury, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in the upper Mississippi river with Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Cope, W. Gregory; Bartsch, Michelle; Rada, Ronald G.; Balogh, Steven J.; Rupprecht, John E.; Young, R. David; Johnson, D. Kent

    1999-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were sampled from artificial substrates deployed from May 30 to October 19, 1995, at 19 locks and dams from Minneapolis, MN, to Muscatine, IA. Analyses of composite tissue samples of zebra mussels (10−20-mm length) revealed accumulation of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during a 143-d exposure period. Concentrations of total Hg ranged from 2.6 to 6.1 ng/g wet weight and methylmercury (CH3Hg) from 1.0 to 3.3 ng/g wet weight. About 50% (range 30−70%) of the mean total Hg in zebra mussels was CH3Hg. Cadmium ranged from 76 to 213 ng/g wet weight. Concentrations of total PCBs (Aroclor 1254) in zebra mussels varied longitudinally (range 1000−7330 ng/g lipid weight), but the composition of PCB congeners (total of 21 measured) was similar throughout the river. Chlordane and dieldrin were the only two pesticides detected of the 15 analyzed. Zebra mussels are sentinels of contaminant bioavailability in the Upper Mississippi River and may be an important link in the trophic transfer of contaminants in the river because of their increasing importance in the diets of certain fish and waterfowl.

  17. Lessons from a transplantation of zebra mussels into a small urban river: An integrated ecotoxicological assessment.

    PubMed

    Bourgeault, A; Gourlay-Francé, C; Vincent-Hubert, F; Palais, F; Geffard, A; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Pain-Devin, S; Tusseau-Vuillemin, M-H

    2010-10-01

    It is often difficult to evaluate the level of contamination in small urban rivers because pollution is mainly diffuse, with low levels of numerous substances. The use of a coupled approach using both chemical and biological measurements may provide an integrated evaluation of the impact of micro-pollution on the river. Zebra mussels were transplanted along a metal and organic pollution gradient in spring 2008. For two months, mussels and water samples were collected from two sites every two weeks and analyzed for metal and PAH content as well as water physicochemical parameters. Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) were also used to assess levels of labile metals. Exposure of mussels to contaminants and potential impact were evaluated using physiological indices and various biomarkers including condition index (CI), defense mechanisms (glutathione-S-transferase: GST), digestive enzymes (amylase and cellulase) and genotoxicity (micronucleus test: MN and comet assay: CA). For most contaminants, the water contamination was significantly higher downstream. Bioaccumulation in zebra mussels was related to water contamination in the framework of the biodynamic model, which allowed us to take into account the biological dilution that was caused by the growth of soft tissue downstream. Thus, metal influxes were on average two times higher downstream than upstream in particular for Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd. Significant differences in condition index were observed (final CI was 0.42 ± 0.03 downstream and 0.31 ± 0.03 upstream) reflecting a better food availability downstream. Moreover a significant decrease of GST activity and digestive enzymes activity in the cristalline style was observed downstream. Interpreting this decrease requires considering not only micro-pollution but also the trophic status related to the water's physicochemistry. The MN test and the CA on gill cells highlighted genotoxicity in mussels transplanted downstream compared to upstream. © 2010 Wiley

  18. Involvement of Apoptosis in Host-Parasite Interactions in the Zebra Mussel

    PubMed Central

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Brulé, Nelly; Sohm, Bénédicte; Devin, Simon; Giambérini, Laure

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp) can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism. PMID:23785455

  19. Bibliography of Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels) and Dreissena rostriformis Bugensis (QUAGGA mussels): 1989 to 2011

    Schloesser, Don W.; Schmuckal, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels invaded and colonized waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes during the late 1980s. Their colonization and resulting impact have been characterized as one of the most important ecological changes in freshwater systems in North America. The need for information on dreissenid mussels has grown during the past 2 decades, which has prompted the compilation of this bibliography. Two previous bibliographies of dreissenid mussels indicate average publication rates were 6 publications/year between 1771 and 1964 (1,180 in 194 y) and 30 publications/year between 1964 and 1993 (885 in 30 y). In the current bibliography, the average rate of publication doubled during the past 23 y (1989 to 2011) to 66 publications/year based on a total of 1,502 publications. These rates may be biased by increased numbers of researchers and journals over time but, at a minimum, these rates indicate continued interest and concern by humans about the impact of dreissenid mussels on water availability and the expanding range of dreissenids throughout the world. The current bibliography has a 94% efficiency rate for subject and 100% efficiency for title search criteria when compared with references in published studies of dreissenid mussels in 2011. In addition to publications, we included 206 student theses and 225 chapters in 26 books including 6 books devoted solely to dreissenid mussels. A vast majority of student theses were about dreissenid mussels in North America, especially in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The 6 books devoted to dreissenid mussels contained a variety of chapters that described biology, impact, control, and ecology of dreissenid mussels in both Europe (published in 1992 and 2010) and North America (1993, 1994, 1997, and 2000). In addition, there is a 7th book devoted solely to dreissenid mussels that is near completion.

  20. Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

  1. In situ growth of juvenile zebra mussels in a regulated stream

    French, John R. P.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Allen, Jeffery D.; Black, M. Glen

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the in situ growth of juvenile zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in a reach of the Huron River (southeast Michigan) below a dam with a control gate that regulates water levels. Growth was significantly different among sample dates over a five-month-long monitoring season. Mean growth of mussels generally decreased from 0.093 mm/day just above the dam to 0.067 mm/day 4 km downstream, then increased to 0.091 mm/day at end of the 17-km-long study area. Significant differences among sites were most numerous in August during a severe drought when discharges fell substantially. Growth was positively correlated with discharges (R2 = 0.94, p a levels in the study area, however, was weak (R2 = 0.69, p < 0.1). Our study suggests that discharge may be one controlling factor for dreissenid populations in small streams.

  2. Effects of zebra mussels on food webs: Interactions with juvenile bluegill and water residence time

    Richardson, W.B.; Bartsch, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated how water residence time mediated the impact of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus on experimental food webs established in 1100-1 outdoor mesocosms. Water residence time was manipulated as a surrogate for seston resupply - a critical variable affecting growth and survival of suspension-feeding invertebrates. We used a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design with eight treatment combinations (3 replicates/treatment) including the presence or absence of Dreissena (2000 per m2), juvenile bluegill (40 per mesocosm), and short (1100 1 per d) or long (220 1 per d) water residence time. Measures of seston concentration (chlorophyll a, turbidity and suspended solids) were greater in the short- compared to long water-residence mesocosms, but intermediate in short water-residence mesocosms containing Dreissena. Abundance of rotifers (Keratella and Polyarthra) was reduced in Dreissena mesocosms and elevated in short residence time mesocosms. Cladocera abundance, in general, was unaffected by the presence of Dreissena; densities were higher in short-residence time mesocosms, and reduced in the presence of Lepomis. The growth of juvenile Lepomis were unaffected by Dreissena because of abundant benthic food. The final total mass of Dreissena was significantly greater in short- than long-residence mesocosms. Impacts of Dreissena on planktonic food webs may not only depend on the density of zebra mussels but also on the residence time of the surrounding water and the resupply of seston. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  3. The Effects of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the Foraging Success of Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Axel; Mörtl, Martin; Eckmann, Reiner

    2004-07-01

    Complex habitat structures can influence the foraging success of fish. Competition for food between fish species can therefore depend on the competitors' abilities to cope with structural complexity. In laboratory experiments, we comparatively assessed effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) on the foraging success of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.)). In single-species and mixed-species experiments, the fish were fed caddisfly larvae (Tinodes waeneri (L.)) over complex (mussel-covered stones) and less-complex (bare stones) substrates. With intraspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe decreased significantly when the complex substrate was used. With interspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe did not change with substrate complexity, but perch clearly out-competed ruffe on both substrates. Zebra mussel beds provide a refuge for macrozoobenthos against predation by ruffe and probably also by perch. (

  4. The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), a new pest in North America: reproductive mechanisms as possible targets of control strategies

    Ram, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Peter; Croll, Roger P.; Nichols, Susan J.; Wall, Darcie

    1992-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has spread rapidly in temperate fresh waters of North America since its introduction into the Great Lakes in 1985 or 1986. It attaches to hard substrates, forming layers, occluding water intakes, encrusting and killing native mussels, filtering algae in competition with other planktivores, and possibly interfering with fish spawning. It reproduces prolifically, suggesting that an approach to its control may be by controlling its reproduction. Previous literature suggests that spawning in bivalves is regulated by both environmental and internal chemical cues. A suggested sequence is that phytoplankton chemicals initially trigger spawning; chemicals associated with gametes provide a species-specific pheromonal positive feedback for spawning; and the response to environmental chemicals is mediated internally by serotonin (5-HT). The role of 5-HT in zebra mussels is under investigation. Both males and females can be induced to spawn by either injection or external application of 5-HT. The response can also be activated by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin, an agonist at 5-HT1A receptors. HPLC analysis has detected 5-HT as the major biogenic amine in both male and female gonads. 5-HT immunocytochemistry demonstrates nerves containing serotonergic fibers innervating gonads of both males and females, with prominent varicosities surrounding the follicles in both sexes. A role of 5-HT in mediating spawning responses in zebra mussels is thus strongly supported. These studies have shown that reproductive behavior of zebra mussels can be modified by outside chemicals, a property that may be exploited for purposes of control.

  5. Genotoxic effects induced by the exposure to an environmental mixture of illicit drugs to the zebra mussel.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Binelli, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Despite the growing interest on the presence of illicit drugs in freshwater ecosystems, just recently the attention has been focused on their potential toxicity towards non-target aquatic species. However, these studies largely neglected the effects induced by exposure to complex mixtures of illicit drugs, which could be different compared to those caused by single psychoactive molecules. This study was aimed at investigating the genetic damage induced by a 14-day exposure to a realistic mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in surface waters worldwide (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, morphine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The mixture caused a significant increase of DNA fragmentation and triggered the apoptotic process and micronuclei formation in zebra mussel hemocytes, pointing out its potential genotoxicity towards this bivalve species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Procedures for conducting underwater searches for invasive mussels (Dreissena sp.)

    Adams, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were first detected in the Great Lakes in 1988. They were likely transported as larvae or young adults inside the ballast tanks of large ocean-going ships originating from Europe. Since their introduction, they have spread throughout the Eastern, Midwestern, and Southern United States. In 2007, Quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) were found in the Western United States in Lake Mead, Nevada; part of the Lower Colorado River Basin. State and Federal managers are concerned that the mussels (hereafter referred to as dreissenid mussels or mussels) will continue to spread to the Columbia River Basin and have a major impact on the region?s ecosystem, water delivery infrastructure, hydroelectric projects, and the economy. The transport and use of recreational watercraft throughout the Western United States could easily result in spreading mussels to the Columbia River Basin. The number of recreational watercraft using Lake Mead can range from 350 to 3,500 a day (Bryan Moore, National Park Service, oral commun., June 21, 2008). Because recreational watercrafts are readily moved around and mussels may survive for a period of time when they are out of the water, there is a high potential to spread mussels from Lake Mead to other waterways in the Western United States. Efforts are being made to prevent the spread of mussels; however, there is great concern that these efforts will not be 100 percent successful. When prevention efforts fail, early detection of mussels may provide an opportunity to implement rapid response management actions to minimize the impact. Control and eradication efforts are more likely to be successful if they are implemented when the density of mussels is low and the area of infestation is small. Once the population grows and becomes established, the mussels are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to control. Although chemicals may be used to kill the mussels, the chemicals that are currently

  7. Exposure of zebra mussels to extracorporeal shock waves demonstrates formation of new mineralized tissue inside and outside the focus zone.

    PubMed

    Sternecker, Katharina; Geist, Juergen; Beggel, Sebastian; Dietz-Laursonn, Kristin; de la Fuente, Matias; Frank, Hans-Georg; Furia, John P; Milz, Stefan; Schmitz, Christoph

    2018-04-03

    The success rate of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for fracture nonunions in human medicine (i.e., radiographic union at six months after ESWT) is only approximately 75%. Detailed knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms that induce bio-calcification after ESWT is limited. We analyzed the biological response within mineralized tissue of a new invertebrate model organism, the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha , after exposure with extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs). Mussels were exposed to ESWs with positive energy density of 0.4 mJ/mm 2 (A) or were sham exposed (B). Detection of newly calcified tissue was performed by exposing the mussels to fluorescent markers. Two weeks later, the A-mussels showed a higher mean fluorescence signal intensity within the shell zone than the B-mussels (p<0.05). Acoustic measurements revealed that the increased mean fluorescence signal intensity within the shell of the A-mussels was independent of the size and position of the focal point of the ESWs. These data demonstrate that induction of bio-calcification after ESWT may not be restricted to the region of direct energy transfer of ESWs into calcified tissue. The results of the present study are of relevance for better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that induce formation of new mineralized tissue after ESWT. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Efficacy of spray –Dried Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A (Zequanox®), for controlling Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within Lake Minnetonka, MN enclosures

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of whole water column and subsurface applications of the biopesticide Zequanox®, a commercially prepared spray-dried powder formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A), were evaluated for controlling zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within 27-m2 enclosures in Lake Minnetonka (Deephaven, Minnesota). Five treatments consisting of (1) two whole water column Zequanox applications, (2) two subsurface Zequanox applications, and (3) an untreated control were completed on each of three independent treatment days during September 2014. The two types of samplers used in the study were (1) type 1 samplers, which were custom built multi-plate samplers (wood, perforated aluminum, and tile substrates) that were placed into Robinson’s Bay in June of 2013 to allow for natural colonization by zebra mussels, and (2) type 2 samplers, which consisted of zebra mussels adhering to perforated aluminum trays that were placed into mesh containment bags. One day prior to treatment, three individual samplers of each type were distributed to test enclosures and exposed to a randomly assigned treatment. Sampling to determine the zebra mussel biomass adhering to type 1 samplers and the survival assessments for zebra mussels contained in type 2 samplers were completed ~40 days after exposure. The zebra mussel biomass adhering to type 1 samplers and the survival of zebra mussels contained in type 2 samplers were significantly less in groups treated with the highest Zequanox concentrations and in groups that received whole water column applications than comparable groups treated with lower Zequanox concentrations and subsurface applications. However, standardization of biomass and survival results to the amount of Zequanox applied showed that the lower concentrations and subsurface applications were more cost efficient, with respect to product used, at reducing zebra mussel biomass and for inducing zebra mussel mortality. Although the subsurface application methods

  9. Underwater cleaning techniqued used for removal of zebra mussels at the FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant

    SciT

    Hobbs, B.; Kahabka, J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of a mechanical brush cleaning technology recently used to remove biofouling from the Circulating Water (CW) System at New York Power Authority`s James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. The FitzPatrick plant had previously used chemical molluscicide to treat zebra mussels in the CW system. Full system treatment was performed in 1992 with limited forebay/screenwell treatment in 1993. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) decided to conduct a mechanical cleaning of the intake system in 1994. Specific project objectives included: (1) Achieve a level of surface cleaniness greater than 98%; (2) Remove 100% of debris, bothmore » existing sediment and debris generated as a result of cleaning; (3) Inspect all surfaces and components, identifying any problem areas; (4) Complete the task in a time frame within the 1994-95 refueling outage schedule window, and; (5) Determine if underwater mechanical cleaning is a cost-effective zebra mussel control method suitable for future application at FitzPatrick. A pre-cleaning inspection, including underwater video photography, was conducted of each area. Cleaning was accomplished using diver-controlled, multi-brush equipment included the electro-hydraulic powered Submersible Cleaning and Maintenance Platform (SCAMP), and several designs of hand-held machines. The brushes swept all zebra mussels off surfaces, restoring concrete and metal substrates to their original condition. Sensitive areas including pump housings, standpipes, sensor piping and chlorine injection tubing, were cleaned without degradation. Submersible vortex vacuum pumps were used to remove debris from the cavity. More than 46,000 ft{sup 2} of surface area was cleaned and over 460 cubic yards of dewatered debris were removed. As each area was completed, a post-clean inspection with photos and video was performed.« less

  10. Realistic mixture of illicit drugs impaired the oxidative status of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Zuccato, Ettore; Binelli, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Illicit drugs are considered to be emerging aquatic pollutants since they are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems in the high ng L(-1) to low μg L(-1) range concentrations. Although the environmental occurrence of the most common psychoactive compounds is well known, recently some investigations showed their potential toxicity toward non-target aquatic organisms. However, to date, these studies completely neglected that organisms in the real environment are exposed to a complex mixture, which could lead to dissimilar adverse effects. The present study investigated the oxidative alterations of the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha induced by a 14-d exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in the aquatic environment, namely cocaine (50 ng L(-1)), benzoylecgonine (300 ng L(-1)), amphetamine (300 ng L(-1)), morphine (100 ng L(-1)) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (50 ng L(-1)). The total oxidant status (TOS) was measured to investigate the increase in the reactive oxygen species' levels, while the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase were measured to note the eventual imbalances between pro-oxidant and antioxidant molecules. In addition, oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Significant time-dependent increases of all the antioxidant activities were induced by the mixture. Moreover, the illicit drug mixture significantly increased the levels of carbonylated proteins and caused a slight variation in lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that a mixture of illicit drugs at realistic environmental concentrations can impair the oxidative status of the zebra mussel, posing a serious hazard to the health status of this bivalve species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential sensitivity to cadmium of immunomarkers measured in hemocyte subpopulations of zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Evariste, Lauris; Rioult, Damien; Brousseau, Pauline; Geffard, Alain; David, Elise; Auffret, Michel; Fournier, Michel; Betoulle, Stéphane

    2017-03-01

    Increasing discharge of industrial wastes into the environment results in pollution transfer towards hydrosystems. These activities release heavy metals such as cadmium, known as persistent pollutant that is accumulated by molluscs and exercise immunotoxicological effects. Among molluscs, the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha constitutes a suitable support for freshwater ecotoxicological studies. In molluscs, homeostasis maintain is ensured in part by hemocytes that are composed of several cell populations involved in multiple physiological processes such as cell-mediated immune response or metal metabolism. Thus, hemocytes constitute a target of concern to study adverse effects of heavy metals. The objectives of this work were to determine whether immune-related endpoints assessed were of different sensitivity to cadmium and whether hemocyte functionalities were differentially affected depending on hemocyte subpopulation considered. Hemocytes were exposed ex vivo to concentrations of cadmium ranging from 10 -6 M to 10 -3 M for 21h prior flow cytometric analysis of cellular markers. Measured parameters (viability, phagocytosis, oxidative activity, lysosomal content) decreased in a dose-dependent manner with sensitivity differences depending on endpoint and cell type considered. Our results indicated that phagocytosis related endpoints were the most sensitive studied mechanisms to cadmium compared to other markers with EC 50 of 3.71±0.53×10 -4 M for phagocytic activity and 2.79±0.19×10 -4 M considering mean number of beads per phagocytic cell. Lysosomal content of granulocytes was less affected compared to other cell types, indicating lower sensitivity to cadmium. This suggests that granulocyte population is greatly involved in metal metabolism. Mitochondrial activity was reduced only in blast-like hemocytes that are considered to be cell precursors. Impairment of these cell functionalities may potentially compromise functions ensured by differentiated cells

  12. Heterozygosity and fitness: No strong association in Great Lakes populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena Polymorpha (Pallas)

    Lewis, K.M.; Feder, J.L.; Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A number of studies have found positive associations between allozyme heterozygosity and fitness surrogates (e.g., body size and growth rate) for marine molluscs. We investigated whether similar relationships exist for freshwater populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Only one significant correlation between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length was observed for a total of 22 D. polymorpha populations surveyed from midwestern U.S.A. lakes and streams, and the result was not significant on a table-wide basis. Meta-analysis revealed a significant common correlation coefficient (effect magnitude) between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length across all 22 sites (rc = 0.052, P = 0.019, 1557 df). However, the variance in shell length explained by multi-locus heterozygosity was small (rc2 = 0.0027), implying a weak causal relationship if any. Also, we saw no relationship between heterozygosity and growth rate in a one-year field enclosure experiment. A significant heterozygosity-shell length correlation previously reported for a zebra mussel population at Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie, Ohio, may have been the product of unique population dynamics, rather than natural selection. Similar demographic considerations may contribute to inconsistencies in heterozygosity-fitness correlations seen for other molluscs.

  13. Developmental plasticity of shell morphology of quagga mussels from shallow and deep-water habitats of the Great Lakes

    Suzanne Peyer; John C. Hermanson; Carol Eunmi Lee

    2010-01-01

    The invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has quickly colonized shallow-water habitats in the North American Great Lakes since the 1980s but the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) is becoming dominant in both shallow and deep-water habitats. While quagga mussel shell morphology differs between shallow and deep habitats, functional causes and consequences of such...

  14. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  15. Cumulative effects of ibuprofen and air emersion in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    André, C; Gagné, F

    2017-10-01

    Municipal effluents are major source of pharmaceutical products in the environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the toxicity of a largely used drug, ibuprofen (Ibu), in Dresseina polymorpha mussels and its impact on air survival time. The mussels were exposed to increasing concentration of Ibu (0, 1, 10 and 100μg/L) for 96 at 15°C and a sub-group of mussels was maintain in air for another 96h. Post-exposure mussels (Ibu and Ibu+Air) were analyzed for weight loss, total triglycerides, neutral lipids, lipid peroxidation (LPO), arachidonate-dependent cyclooxygenase (COX) and glutathione S-transferase activity. Lipid extracts of mussel tissues were also analyzed by 1 H-nuclear resonance spectroscopy. The data revealed that mussels exposed to Ibu had increased signs of lipid oxidation, neutral lipids and decreased triglycerides, LPO and GST activity. COX activity was significantly reduced by Ibu in keeping with mode of action of the drug. Following exposure to air, increased weight loss, neutral lipids (lipid degradation), were observed in mussels exposed to Ibu but no changes in COX activity were observed. Air stress limited the decrease in triglycerides and the increase in GST in mussels exposed to 100μg/L Ibu indicating decreased anti-oxidant response/phase II biotransformation and limited lipid metabolism. In conclusion, exposure to Ibu has some anti-inflammatory effects to mussels based on COX activity but resulted in increased oxidative damage and lipid catabolism. Exposure to air stress could enhance some of these responses and contribute to decreased resistance to air exposures. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Importance of Non-Native Prey, the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha, for the Declining Greater Scaup Aythya marila: A Case Study at a Key European Staging and Wintering Site.

    PubMed

    Marchowski, Dominik; Neubauer, Grzegorz; Ławicki, Łukasz; Woźniczka, Adam; Wysocki, Dariusz; Guentzel, Sebastian; Jarzemski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The European population of Greater Scaup Aythya marila has experienced an alarming, ~60% decline in numbers over the last two decades. The brackish lagoons of the Odra River Estuary (ORE) in the south-western Baltic Sea, represent an important area for the species during the non-breeding season in Europe. The lagoons regularly support over 20 000 Scaup, with peaks exceeding 100 000 (38%-70% of the population wintering in NW Europe and the highest number recorded in April 2011-105 700). In the ORE, Scaup feed almost exclusively on the non-native Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha. This mussel was present in the ORE already in the 19th century and continues to be superabundant. Using the results of 22 Scaup censuses (November to April 2002/2003 to 2013/2014) from the whole ORE (523 km2 of water), we show that Scaup flocks follow areas with the greatest area of occurrence and biomass of the Zebra Mussel, while areas with low mussel densities are ignored. The numbers of Scaup in the ORE are primarily related to the area of Zebra Mussel occurrence on the lagoon's bottom (km2) in a non-linear fashion. Zebra Mussels were absolutely prevalent (97% of biomass) in the digestive tracts of birds unintentionally by-caught in fishing nets (n = 32). We estimate that Scaup alone consume an average of 5 400 tons of Zebra Mussels annually, which represents 5.6% of the total resources of the mussel in the ORE. Our results provide a clear picture of the strong dependence of the declining, migratory duck species on the non-native mussel, its primary food in the ORE. Our findings are particularly important as they can form the basis for the conservation action plan aimed at saving the north-western European populations of Scaup.

  17. The Importance of Non-Native Prey, the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha, for the Declining Greater Scaup Aythya marila: A Case Study at a Key European Staging and Wintering Site

    PubMed Central

    Marchowski, Dominik; Neubauer, Grzegorz; Ławicki, Łukasz; Woźniczka, Adam; Wysocki, Dariusz; Guentzel, Sebastian; Jarzemski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The European population of Greater Scaup Aythya marila has experienced an alarming, ~60% decline in numbers over the last two decades. The brackish lagoons of the Odra River Estuary (ORE) in the south-western Baltic Sea, represent an important area for the species during the non-breeding season in Europe. The lagoons regularly support over 20 000 Scaup, with peaks exceeding 100 000 (38%–70% of the population wintering in NW Europe and the highest number recorded in April 2011–105 700). In the ORE, Scaup feed almost exclusively on the non-native Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha. This mussel was present in the ORE already in the 19th century and continues to be superabundant. Using the results of 22 Scaup censuses (November to April 2002/2003 to 2013/2014) from the whole ORE (523 km2 of water), we show that Scaup flocks follow areas with the greatest area of occurrence and biomass of the Zebra Mussel, while areas with low mussel densities are ignored. The numbers of Scaup in the ORE are primarily related to the area of Zebra Mussel occurrence on the lagoon’s bottom (km2) in a non-linear fashion. Zebra Mussels were absolutely prevalent (97% of biomass) in the digestive tracts of birds unintentionally by-caught in fishing nets (n = 32). We estimate that Scaup alone consume an average of 5 400 tons of Zebra Mussels annually, which represents 5.6% of the total resources of the mussel in the ORE. Our results provide a clear picture of the strong dependence of the declining, migratory duck species on the non-native mussel, its primary food in the ORE. Our findings are particularly important as they can form the basis for the conservation action plan aimed at saving the north-western European populations of Scaup. PMID:26709707

  18. Integrated use of biomarkers and bioaccumulation data in Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) for site-specific quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Binelli, A; Ricciardi, F; Riva, C; Provini, A

    2006-01-01

    One of the useful biological tools for environmental management is the measurement of biomarkers whose changes are related to the exposure to chemicals or environmental stress. Since these responses might vary with different contaminants or depending on the pollutant concentration reached in the organism, the support of bioaccumulation data is needed to prevent false conclusions. In this study, several persistent organic pollutants -- 23 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), six dichlorodiphenyltricholroethane (DDT) relatives, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlorpyrifos and its oxidized metabolite -- and some herbicides (lindane and the isomers alpha, beta, delta; terbutilazine; alachlor; metolachlor) were measured in the soft tissues of the freshwater mollusc Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) from 25 sampling sites in the Italian portions of the sub-alpine great lakes along with the measure of ethoxyresorufin dealkylation (EROD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The linkage between bioaccumulation and biomarker data allowed us to create site-specific environmental quality indexes towards man-made chemicals. This classification highlighted three different degrees of xenobiotic contamination of the Italian sub-alpine great lakes: a high water quality in Lake Lugano with negligible pollutant levels and no effects on enzyme activities, an homogeneous poor quality for Lakes Garda, Iseo and Como, and the presence of some xenobiotic point-sources in Lake Maggiore, whose ecological status could be jeopardized, also due to the heavy DDT contamination revealed since 1996.

  19. Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

    2013-04-01

    Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects

  20. Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Aaren S; Byers, James E

    2006-08-11

    Invasive species may precipitate evolutionary change in invaded communities. In southern New England (USA) the invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, preys on mussels (Mytlius edulis), but the crab has not yet invaded northern New England. We show that southern New England mussels express inducible shell thickening when exposed to waterborne cues from Hemigrapsus, whereas naïve northern mussel populations do not respond. Yet, both populations thicken their shells in response to a long-established crab, Carcinus maenas. Our findings are consistent with the rapid evolution of an inducible morphological response to Hemigrapsus within 15 years of its introduction.

  1. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to temperature elevation shows seasonal variation in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Jost, Jennifer A; Keshwani, Sarah S; Abou-Hanna, Jacob J

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change is affecting ectothermic species, and a variety of studies are needed on thermal tolerances, especially from cellular and physiological perspectives. This study utilized AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy levels, to examine the effects of high water temperatures on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) physiology. During heating, AMPK activity increased as water temperature increased to a point, and maximum AMPK activity was detected at high, but sublethal, water temperatures. This pattern varied with season, suggesting that cellular mechanisms of seasonal thermal acclimatization affect basic metabolic processes during sublethal heat stress. There was a greater seasonal variation in the water temperature at which maximum AMPK activity was measured than in lethal water temperature. Furthermore, baseline AMPK activity varied significantly across seasons, most likely reflecting altered metabolic states during times of growth and reproduction. In addition, when summer-collected mussels were lab-acclimated to winter and spring water temperatures, patterns of heat stress mirrored those of field-collected animals. These data suggest that water temperature is the main driver of the seasonal variation in physiology. This study concluded that AMPK activity, which reflects changes in energy supply and demand during heat stress, can serve as a sensitive and early indicator of temperature stress in mussels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of a refuge for native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Lake St. Clair

    McGoldrick, D.J.; Metcalfe-Smith, J. L.; Arts, M.T.; Schloesser, D.W.; Newton, T.J.; Mackie, G.L.; Monroe, E.M.; Biberhofer, J.; Johnson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair delta (??? 100??km2) provides an important refuge for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) wherein 22 of the ??? 35 historical species co-occur with invasive dreissenids. A total of 1875 live unionids representing 22 species were found during snorkeling surveys of 32 shallow (??? 1??m) sites throughout the delta. Richness and density of unionids and zebra mussel infestation rates varied among sites from 3 to 13 unionid species, 0.02 to 0.12 unionids/m2, and < 1 to 35 zebra mussels/unionid, respectively. Zebra mussel infestation of unionids in the delta appears to be mitigated by dominant offshore currents, which limit densities of zebra mussel veligers in nearshore compared to offshore waters (13,600 vs. 28,000/m3, respectively). Glycogen concentrations in the tissues of a common and widespread species in the delta (Lampsilis siliquoidea) suggest that zebra mussels may be adversely affecting physiological condition of unionids in a portion of the Lake St. Clair delta. Physiological condition and community structure of unionids within the delta may also be influenced by differences in food quantity and quality resulting from the uneven distribution of water flowing from the St. Clair River. The delta likely supports the largest living unionid community in the lower Great Lakes and includes several species that have been listed as Endangered or Threatened in Canada and/or the state of Michigan, making it an important refuge for the conservation of native unionids. Crown Copyright ?? 2009.

  3. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to native unionid mussels within field enclosures

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    Group 1 mussel survival did not differ between treatment groups (p > 0.05); however, a difference was detected (p < 0.01) in the survival of Group 2 mussels. The survival of Group 2 mussels did not differ (p > 0.23) between control and treated groups. A difference in Group 2 mussel survival was detected (p = 0.03; odds ratio [OR] = 0.290) between the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups (that is, the survival was highest in the 50-mg/L treatment group and lowest in the 100-mg/L treatment group), however, the biological significance of the difference is indeterminate.

  4. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples.

    PubMed

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Alcaraz, Carles; Vaate, Abraham Bij de; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2016-12-14

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebra and quagga mussels in environmental DNA samples. Our results show specific dreissenid DNA present in filtered water samples for which microscopic diagnostic identification for larvae failed. Monitoring a large number of locations for invasive dreissenid species based on a highly specific environmental DNA qPCR assay may prove to be an essential tool for management and control plans focused on prevention of establishment of dreissenid mussels in new locations.

  5. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Alcaraz, Carles; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebra and quagga mussels in environmental DNA samples. Our results show specific dreissenid DNA present in filtered water samples for which microscopic diagnostic identification for larvae failed. Monitoring a large number of locations for invasive dreissenid species based on a highly specific environmental DNA qPCR assay may prove to be an essential tool for management and control plans focused on prevention of establishment of dreissenid mussels in new locations. PMID:27966602

  6. Do invasive quagga mussels alter CO2 dynamics in the Laurentian Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Guo, Laodong

    2016-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes have experienced unprecedented ecological and environmental changes, especially after the introduction of invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). While impacts on ecological functions have been widely recognized, the response of carbon dynamics to invasive species remains largely unknown. We report new CO2 data showing significant increases in pCO2 (up to 800 μatm in Lake Michigan) and CO2 emission fluxes in most of the Great Lakes compared to those prior to or during the early stage of the colonization of invasive quagga mussels. The increased CO2 supersaturation is most prominent in Lakes Huron and Michigan, followed by Lakes Ontario and Erie, but no evident change was observed in Lake Superior. This trend mirrors the infestation extent of invasive quagga mussels in the Great Lakes and is consistent with the decline in primary production and increase in water clarity observed pre- and post-Dreissena introduction, revealing a close linkage between invasive species and carbon dynamics. The Great Lakes have become a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere, emitting >7.7 ± 1.0 Tg-C annually, which is higher than the organic carbon burial rate in global inland-seas and attesting to the significant role of the Laurentian Great Lakes in regional/global CO2 budget and cycling.

  7. Invasive species research to meet the needs of resource management and planning.

    PubMed

    Papeş, M; Sällström, M; Asplund, T R; Vander Zanden, M J

    2011-10-01

    As zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) continue to spread among inland lakes of the United States and Canada, there is growing interest from professionals, citizens, and other stakeholders to know which lakes are likely to be colonized by zebra mussels. Thus, we developed a classification of lake suitability for zebra mussels on the basis of measured or estimated concentrations of dissolved calcium in lake water and applied the classification to >11,500 lakes in Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The majority of lakes (58%) were classified as unsuitable (<10 mg/L Ca) for survival and reproduction of zebra mussels, 27% were identified as suitable (≥21 mg/L Ca), and 15% were classified as borderline suitable (≥10 and <21 mg/L Ca). Of the 77 inland lakes with confirmed zebra mussel records for which data on dissolved calcium were available, our method classified 74 as suitable and 3 as borderline suitable. To communicate this lake-specific suitability information and to help prioritize regional efforts to monitor and prevent the expansion of zebra mussels and other invasive species, we developed a web-based interface (available from http://www.aissmartprevention.wisc.edu/). Although we are still uncertain of how access to suitability information ultimately affects decision making, we believe this is a useful case study of building communication channels among researchers, practitioners, and the public. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Characterization of the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism in embryos and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and studies on its role in tolerance to single and mixture combinations of toxicants.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Navarro, Ana; Luckenbach, Till; Piña, Benjamin; Barata, Carlos

    2011-01-17

    The study of the cellular mechanisms of tolerance of organisms to pollution is a key issue in aquatic environmental risk assessment. Recent evidence indicates that multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanisms represent a general biological defense of many marine and freshwater organisms against environmental toxicants. In this work, toxicologically relevant xenobiotic efflux transporters were studied in early life stages of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Expression of a P-gp1 (ABCB1) transporter gene and its associated efflux activities during development were studied, using qRT-PCR and the fluorescent transporter substrates rhodamine B and calcein-AM combined with specific transporter inhibitors (chemosensitizers). Toxicity bioassays with the model P-gp1 chemotherapeutic drug vinblastine applied singly and in combination with different chemosensitizers were performed to elucidate the tolerance role of the P-gp1 efflux transporter. Results evidenced that the gene expression and associated efflux activities of ABC transporters were low or absent in eggs and increased significantly in 1-3d old trochophora and veliger larvae. Specific inhibitors of Pgp1 and/or MRP transport activities including cyclosporine A, MK571, verapamil and reversin 205 and the musk celestolide resulted in a concentration dependent inhibition of related transport activities in zebra mussel veliger larvae, with IC50 values in the lower micromolar range and similar to those reported for mammals, fish and mussels. Binary mixtures of the tested transporter inhibitors except celestolide with the anticancer drug and P-gp1 substrate vinblastine increased the toxicity of the former compound more than additively. These results indicate that MXR transporter activity is high in early life-stages of the zebra mussel and that may play an important role in the tolerance to environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlling populations of invasive pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) through citizen science and environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Laura; Dopico, Eduardo; Devlo-Delva, Floriaan; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-09-15

    Early detection of dangerous exotic species is crucial for stopping marine invasions. The New Zealand pygmy mussel Xenostrobus securis is a problematic species in coasts of temperate regions in the northern hemisphere. In this study we have controlled a population of this invader that recently expanded in a north Iberian estuary with both a participatory approach involving researchers and citizens, and employing a sensitive eDNA-based tool to monitor the population expansion in the estuary. Results demonstrate successful eradication of pygmy mussels in the outer part of the estuary with citizen science and the practical utility of eDNA for controlling biological invasions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in the Lake Michigan food web following dreissenid mussel invasions: A synthesis

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Fahnenstiel, Gary L.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Tsehaye, Iyob; Claramunt, Randall M.; Clark, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Using various available time series for Lake Michigan, we examined changes in the Lake Michigan food web following the dreissenid mussel invasions and identified those changes most likely attributable to these invasions, thereby providing a synthesis. Expansion of the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) population into deeper waters, which began around 2004, appeared to have a substantial predatory effect on both phytoplankton abundance and primary production, with annual primary production in offshore (> 50 m deep) waters being reduced by about 35% by 2007. Primary production likely decreased in nearshore waters as well, primarily due to predatory effects exerted by the quagga mussel expansion. The drastic decline inDiporeia abundance in Lake Michigan during the 1990s and 2000s has been attributed to dreissenid mussel effects, but the exact mechanism by which the mussels were negatively affecting Diporeia abundance remains unknown. In turn, decreased Diporeiaabundance was associated with reduced condition, growth, and/or energy density in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), and bloater (Coregonus hoyi). However, lake-wide biomass of salmonines, top predators in the food web, remained high during the 2000s, and consumption of alewives by salmonines actually increased between the 1980–1995 and 1996–2011 time periods. Moreover, abundance of the lake whitefish population, which supports Lake Michigan's most valuable commercial fishery, remained at historically high levels during the 2000s. Apparently, counterbalancing mechanisms operating within the complex Lake Michigan food web have enabled salmonines and lake whitefish to retain relatively high abundances despite reduced primary production.

  11. Ninespine Stickleback Abundance in Lake Michigan Increases After Dreissenid Mussel Invasion

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Gorman, Owen T.

    2010-01-01

    Based on data from our annual lakewide bottom trawl survey of Lake Michigan, we determined that density of ninespine sticklebacks Pungitius pungitius increased from an average of 0.234 kg/ha during 1973–1995 to an average of 1.318 kg/ha during 1996–2007. This greater-than-fivefold increase in density coincided with the dreissenid mussel invasion of Lake Michigan. Intervention analysis revealed that ninespine stickleback density in Lake Michigan significantly increased between the two time periods. In contrast, based on data from our annual bottom trawl survey of U.S. waters of Lake Superior, ninespine stickleback density decreased from an average of 0.133 kg/ha during 1978–1999 to an average of only 0.026 kg/ha during 2000–2007. This greater-than-fivefold density decrease, which was found to be significant via intervention analysis, coincided with population recovery for both lean and fat morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior. In contrast to Lake Michigan, dreissenid mussels have not invaded Lake Superior on a lakewide basis. Thus, a comparison of these two lakes indicated that the increase in ninespine stickleback abundance in Lake Michigan was most likely attributable to the dreissenid mussel invasion. In addition, based on our correlation analysis, alewives Alosa pseudoharengus did not have an adverse effect on ninespine stickleback abundance in Lake Michigan. Perhaps the recent increase in biomass of green algae Cladophora spp. associated with the dreissenid mussel invasion improved spawning habitat quality for ninespine sticklebacks and led to their stepwise abundance increase in Lake Michigan beginning in 1996

  12. The influence of suspended particles on the acute toxicity of 2-chloro-4-nitro-aniline, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol on the valve movement response of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Borcherding, J; Wolf, J

    2001-05-01

    The Dreissena-Monitor is a biological early warning system for the continuous monitoring of river water quality, based on the valve movements of two groups of 42 zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Laboratory experiments with Cd, PCP, and 2-chloro-4-nitro-aniline were conducted in combination with suspended particles (a mixture of stinging nettle powder, bentonite, and quartz powder). An increase of suspended particles up to a nominal concentration of 540 mg/L within 5 min did not evoke any reactions by the mussels significantly different from normal. The distribution between water and solids was analyzed for Cd and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, with the result that the former quickly adsorbed to the particles, whereas the latter did not bind to the particles at all. The behavior of the zebra mussels revealed that the detection of 2-chloro-4-nitro-aniline was not affected by the presence of suspended matter. In the cases of Cd and PCP, D. polymorpha was able to detect these substances when they were particle-associated at least as well or better as when they were dissolved in the water. The results are discussed with respect to the physiology of the organisms and the bioavailability of toxicants, as well as to the consequences these results may have under field conditions.

  13. A hybrid-hierarchical genome assembly strategy to sequence the invasive golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei

    PubMed Central

    Uliano-Silva, Marcela; Dondero, Francesco; Dan Otto, Thomas; Costa, Igor; Lima, Nicholas Costa Barroso; Americo, Juliana Alves; Mazzoni, Camila Junqueira; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Rebelo, Mauro de Freitas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background For more than 25 years, the golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, has aggressively invaded South American freshwaters, having travelled more than 5000 km upstream across 5 countries. Along the way, the golden mussel has outcompeted native species and economically harmed aquaculture, hydroelectric powers, and ship transit. We have sequenced the complete genome of the golden mussel to understand the molecular basis of its invasiveness and search for ways to control it. Findings We assembled the 1.6-Gb genome into 20 548 scaffolds with an N50 length of 312 Kb using a hybrid and hierarchical assembly strategy from short and long DNA reads and transcriptomes. A total of 60 717 coding genes were inferred from a customized transcriptome-trained AUGUSTUS run. We also compared predicted protein sets with those of complete molluscan genomes, revealing an exacerbation of protein-binding domains in L. fortunei. Conclusions We built one of the best bivalve genome assemblies available using a cost-effective approach using Illumina paired-end, mate-paired, and PacBio long reads. We expect that the continuous and careful annotation of L. fortunei’s genome will contribute to the investigation of bivalve genetics, evolution, and invasiveness, as well as to the development of biotechnological tools for aquatic pest control. PMID:29267857

  14. A hybrid-hierarchical genome assembly strategy to sequence the invasive golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei.

    PubMed

    Uliano-Silva, Marcela; Dondero, Francesco; Dan Otto, Thomas; Costa, Igor; Lima, Nicholas Costa Barroso; Americo, Juliana Alves; Mazzoni, Camila Junqueira; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Rebelo, Mauro de Freitas

    2018-02-01

    For more than 25 years, the golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, has aggressively invaded South American freshwaters, having travelled more than 5000 km upstream across 5 countries. Along the way, the golden mussel has outcompeted native species and economically harmed aquaculture, hydroelectric powers, and ship transit. We have sequenced the complete genome of the golden mussel to understand the molecular basis of its invasiveness and search for ways to control it. We assembled the 1.6-Gb genome into 20 548 scaffolds with an N50 length of 312 Kb using a hybrid and hierarchical assembly strategy from short and long DNA reads and transcriptomes. A total of 60 717 coding genes were inferred from a customized transcriptome-trained AUGUSTUS run. We also compared predicted protein sets with those of complete molluscan genomes, revealing an exacerbation of protein-binding domains in L. fortunei. We built one of the best bivalve genome assemblies available using a cost-effective approach using Illumina paired-end, mate-paired, and PacBio long reads. We expect that the continuous and careful annotation of L. fortunei's genome will contribute to the investigation of bivalve genetics, evolution, and invasiveness, as well as to the development of biotechnological tools for aquatic pest control.

  15. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds

    Newton, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K.I.; Thiel, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

  16. Effects of the pharmaceuticals gemfibrozil and diclofenac on biomarker expression in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and their comparison with standardised toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Brian; Schmidt, Wiebke; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Hernan, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals, including the lipid regulator gemfibrozil and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been identified in waste water treatment plant effluents and receiving waters throughout the western world. The acute and chronic toxicity of these compounds was assessed for three freshwater species (Daphnia magna, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Lemna minor) using standardised toxicity tests with toxicity found in the non-environmentally relevant mid mg L(-1) concentration range. For the acute endpoints (IC(50) and EC(50)) gemfibrozil showed higher toxicity ranging from 29 to 59 mg L(-1) (diclofenac 47-67 mg L(-1)), while diclofenac was more toxic for the chronic D. magna 21 d endpoints ranging from 10 to 56 mg L(-1) (gemfibrozil 32-100 mg L(-1)). These results were compared with the expression of several biomarkers in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) 24 and 96 h after exposure by injection to concentrations of 21 and 21,000 μg L(-1) corresponding to nominal concentrations of 1 and 1000 μg L(-1). Exposure to gemfibrozil and diclofenac at both concentrations significantly increased the level of lipid peroxidation, a biomarker of damage. At the elevated nominal concentration of 1000 μg L(-1) the biomarkers of defence glutathione transferase and metallothionein were significantly elevated for gemfibrozil and diclofenac respectively, as was DNA damage after 96 h exposure to gemfibrozil. No evidence of endocrine disruption was observed using the alkali-labile phosphate technique. Results from this suite of biomarkers indicate these compounds can cause significant stress at environmentally relevant concentrations acting primarily through oxidation pathways with significant destabilization of the lysosomal membrane and that biomarker expression is a more sensitive endpoint than standardised toxicity tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extirpation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) following the invasion of dreissenid mussels in an interconnecting river of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Schloesser, Don W.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Kovalak, William P.; Longton, Gary D.; Smithee, Rick D.

    2006-01-01

    Previous (1992-1994) surveys for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) along main channels of the Detroit River showed that unionids had been extirpated from all but four sites in the upper reaches of the river due to impacts of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis). These four sites were surveyed again in 1998 using the same sampling method (timed-random searches) to determine if they may serve as ''refugia'' where unionids and dreissenids co-exist. Two additional sites were sampled using additional methods (excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches) for comparison with unpublished data collected in 1987 and 1990. A total of four individuals of four species (Actinonaias ligamentina, Cyclonaias tuberculata, Lasmigona complanata and Pleurobema sintoxia) were found by timed-random searches at four sites in 1998 compared to 720 individuals of 24 species in 1992 and 39 individuals of 13 species in 1994. Excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches at the two additional sites yielded only one live specimen of Ptychobranchus fasciolaris compared to 288 individuals of 18 species in 1987 and 1990. Results of this study suggest that remaining densities of unionids in channels of the Detroit River are too low to support viable reproducing populations of any species. Therefore, we conclude that unionids have been extirpated from main channels of the Detroit River due to dreissenid infestation. As the Detroit River was one of the first water bodies in North America to be invaded by dreissenids, it is likely that unionids will also be extirpated from many other rivers and lakes across eastern North America over the next few decades. Resource agencies should be encouraged to implement active management programs to protect remaining unionid populations from zebra mussels.

  18. Concentrations of 17 elements in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis), and in perch intestinal parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the subalpine lake Mondsee, Austria

    SciT

    Sures, B.; Steiner, W.; Rydlo, M.

    1999-11-01

    Concentrations of the elements Al, Ag, Ba, ca, Cd, Co, Cr, cu, Fe, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl, and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii (Mueller); in its host, Perca fluviatilis (L.), and in the soft tissue of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). All animals were collected from the same sampling site in a subalpine lake, Mondsee, in Austria. Most of the elements were found at significantly higher concentrations in the acanthocephalan than in different tissues (muscle, liver, and intestinal wall) of its perch host. Only Co was concentratedmore » in the liver of perch to a level that was significantly higher than that found in the parasite. Most of the analyzed elements were also present at significantly higher concentrations in A. lucii than in D. polymorpha. Barium and Cr were the only elements recorded at higher concentrations in the mussel compared with the acanthocephalan. Thus, when comparing the accumulation of elements, the acanthocephalans appear to be even more suitable than the zebra mussels in terms of their use in the detection of metal contamination within aquatic biotopes. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the concentrations of several elements within the parasites decreased with increasing infrapopulation. Furthermore, the levels of some elements in the perch liver were negatively correlated with the weight of A. lucii in the intestine. Thus, it emerged that not only is there competition for elements between acanthocephalans inside the gut but there is also competition for these elements between the host and the parasites. The elevated element concentrations demonstrated here in the parasitic worm A. lucii provide support for further investigations of these common helminthes and of their accumulation properties.« less

  19. The role of habitat-selection in restricting invasive blue mussel advancement to protect native populations in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, N.; Saarman, N. P.; Pogson, G.

    2013-12-01

    Introduced species contribute to decline of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Introduced species threaten native species by increasing competition for space and resources, changing their habitat, and disrupting species interactions. Protecting native species is crucial to preserving ecosystem services (i.e. medicinal, agricultural, ecological, and cultural benefits) for future generations. In marine communities, the number of invasive species is dramatically increasing every year, further magnifying the negative impact on native species. This research determines if habitat-specific selection can protect native species from their invasive relatives, and could allow targeted habitat restoration for native species to maintain high levels of biodiversity. Blue mussels provide an ideal system for studying the impact of an invasive species (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on native mussels (M. trossulus), because M. galloprovincialis is marked as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species. Hybridization between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus occurs wherever their distributions overlap (i.e. Japan, Puget Sound, and central California). In central California, hybrids form in a broad variety of habitats ever since M. galloprovincialis was introduced about 100 years ago. The current level of threat posed to native mussels in central California is unknown. When population growth rate of an invasive species is higher than the native within a hybrid zone, the invader's genes become more prominent in the hybrids than the native species' genes. This uneven mix of genes and decrease of pure native mussels threatens to drive M. trossulus to extinction. Therefore, it is important to research which environment fosters highest success of pure native species. We conducted a field experiment in San Francisco Bay where mussels were reared in different habitats. We then collected samples and extracted DNA from each treatment, and genotyped them by a next-generation sequencing

  20. Rapid molecular detection of invasive species in ballast and harbor water by integrating environmental DNA and light transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Egan, Scott P; Grey, Erin; Olds, Brett; Feder, Jeffery L; Ruggiero, Steven T; Tanner, Carol E; Lodge, David M

    2015-04-07

    Invasive species introduced via the ballast water of commercial ships cause enormous environmental and economic damage worldwide. Accurate monitoring for these often microscopic and morphologically indistinguishable species is challenging but critical for mitigating damages. We apply eDNA sampling, which involves the filtering and subsequent DNA extraction of microscopic bits of tissue suspended in water, to ballast and harbor water sampled during a commercial ship's 1400 km voyage through the North American Great Lakes. Using a lab-based gel electrophoresis assay and a rapid, field-ready light transmission spectroscopy (LTS) assay, we test for the presence of two invasive species: quagga (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra (D. polymorpha) mussels. Furthermore, we spiked a set of uninfested ballast and harbor samples with zebra mussel tissue to further test each assay's detection capabilities. In unmanipulated samples, zebra mussel was not detected, while quagga mussel was detected in all samples at a rate of 85% for the gel assay and 100% for the LTS assay. In the spiked experimental samples, both assays detected zebra mussel in 94% of spiked samples and 0% of negative controls. Overall, these results demonstrate that eDNA sampling is effective for monitoring ballast-mediated invasions and that LTS has the potential for rapid, field-based detection.

  1. Zebra Mussel Chemical Control Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    References 80 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 82 BULAB6009 82 Chemical Name and Formulations 82 Mode of Action 82 Application Strategies 82 Timing of Application...organisms once they are bound to anionic substances (Dobbs et al. 1995). b. Aromatic hydrocarbons . Compounds such as BULAB® 6009 and MEXEL 432™ also...Pallas): A new mollusc in the Great Lakes," Can. J. FishAquat. Sei. 46, 1587-1591. Heitanen, E. (1997). "Toxicity testing of Endod, a natural

  2. Byssus Structure and Protein Composition in the Highly Invasive Fouling Mussel Limnoperna fortunei

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiguo; Xia, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yiyong; Gao, Yangchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2018-01-01

    Biofouling mediated by byssus adhesion in invasive bivalves has become a global environmental problem in aquatic ecosystems, resulting in negative ecological and economic consequences. Previous studies suggested that mechanisms responsible for byssus adhesion largely vary among bivalves, but it is poorly understood in freshwater species. Understanding of byssus structure and protein composition is the prerequisite for revealing these mechanisms. Here, we used multiple methods, including scanning electron microscope, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, transcriptome sequencing, real-time quantitative PCR, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, to investigate structure, and protein composition of byssus in the highly invasive freshwater mussel Limnoperna fortunei. The results indicated that the structure characteristics of adhesive plaque, proximal and distal threads were conducive to byssus adhesion, contributing to the high biofouling capacity of this species. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-α-alanine (Dopa) is a major post-transnationally modification in L. fortunei byssus. We identified 16 representative foot proteins with typical repetitive motifs and conserved domains by integrating transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. In these proteins, Lfbp-1, Lffp-2, and Lfbp-3 were specially located in foot tissue and highly expressed in the rapid byssus formation period, suggesting the involvement of these foot proteins in byssus production and adhesion. Multiple metal irons, including Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Al3+, and Fe3+, were abundant in both foot tissue and byssal thread. The heavy metals in these irons may be directly accumulated by L. fortunei from surrounding environments. Nevertheless, some metal ions (e.g., Ca2+) corresponded well with amino acid preferences of L. fortunei foot proteins, suggesting functional roles of these metal ions by interacting with foot proteins in byssus adhesion. Overall, this study provides structural and molecular bases of

  3. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  4. Flow cytometric monitoring of bacterioplankton phenotypic diversity predicts high population-specific feeding rates by invasive dreissenid mussels.

    PubMed

    Props, Ruben; Schmidt, Marian L; Heyse, Jasmine; Vanderploeg, Henry A; Boon, Nico; Denef, Vincent J

    2018-02-01

    Species invasion is an important disturbance to ecosystems worldwide, yet knowledge about the impacts of invasive species on bacterial communities remains sparse. Using a novel approach, we simultaneously detected phenotypic and derived taxonomic change in a natural bacterioplankton community when subjected to feeding pressure by quagga mussels, a widespread aquatic invasive species. We detected a significant decrease in diversity within 1 h of feeding and a total diversity loss of 11.6 ± 4.1% after 3 h. This loss of microbial diversity was caused by the selective removal of high nucleic acid populations (29 ± 5% after 3 h). We were able to track the community diversity at high temporal resolution by calculating phenotypic diversity estimates from flow cytometry (FCM) data of minute amounts of sample. Through parallel FCM and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis of environments spanning a broad diversity range, we showed that the two approaches resulted in highly correlated diversity measures and captured the same seasonal and lake-specific patterns in community composition. Based on our results, we predict that selective feeding by invasive dreissenid mussels directly impacts the microbial component of the carbon cycle, as it may drive bacterioplankton communities toward less diverse and potentially less productive states. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Gene Discovery through Transcriptome Sequencing for the Invasive Mussel Limnoperna fortunei

    PubMed Central

    Uliano-Silva, Marcela; Americo, Juliana Alves; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Dondero, Francesco; Prosdocimi, Francisco; de Freitas Rebelo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The success of the Asian bivalve Limnoperna fortunei as an invader in South America is related to its high acclimation capability. It can inhabit waters with a wide range of temperatures and salinity and handle long-term periods of air exposure. We describe the transcriptome of L. fortunei aiming to give a first insight into the phenotypic plasticity that allows non-native taxa to become established and widespread. We sequenced 95,219 reads from five main tissues of the mussel L. fortunei using Roche’s 454 and assembled them to form a set of 84,063 unigenes (contigs and singletons) representing partial or complete gene sequences. We annotated 24,816 unigenes using a BLAST sequence similarity search against a NCBI nr database. Unigenes were divided into 20 eggNOG functional categories and 292 KEGG metabolic pathways. From the total unigenes, 1,351 represented putative full-length genes of which 73.2% were functionally annotated. We described the first partial and complete gene sequences in order to start understanding bivalve invasiveness. An expansion of the hsp70 gene family, seen also in other bivalves, is present in L. fortunei and could be involved in its adaptation to extreme environments, e.g. during intertidal periods. The presence of toll-like receptors gives a first insight into an immune system that could be more complex than previously assumed and may be involved in the prevention of disease and extinction when population densities are high. Finally, the apparent lack of special adaptations to extremely low O2 levels is a target worth pursuing for the development of a molecular control approach. PMID:25047650

  6. Early invasion population structure of quagga mussel and associated benthic invertebrate community composition on soft sediment in a large reservoir

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Chandra, Sudeep; Caires, Andrea; Denton, Marianne; Rosen, Michael R.; Wong, Wai Hing; Teitjen, Todd; Turner, Kent; Roefer, Peggy; Holdren, G. Chris

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 an invasive dreissenid mussel species, Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel), was discovered in Lake Mead reservoir (AZ–NV). Within 2 years, adult populations have spread throughout the lake and are not only colonizing hard substrates, but also establishing in soft sediments at depths ranging from 1 to >100 m. Dreissena bugensis size class and population density distribution differs between basins; cluster analysis revealed 5 adult cohorts within Boulder Basin and Overton Arm but low densities and low cohort survival in the Las Vegas Basin. Regression analysis suggests depth and temperature are not primary controllers of D. bugensis density in Lake Mead, indicating other factors such as sediment type, food availability or other resource competition may be important. Monthly veliger tows showed at least 2 major spawning events per year, with continuous presence of veligers in the water column. Adult mussels have been found in spawn or post-spawn condition in soft sediments in shallow to deep waters (>80 m) indicating the potential for reproduction at multiple depths. Comparisons to a 1986 benthic survey suggest there have been shifts in nondreissenid macroinvertebrate composition; however, it is unclear if this is due to D. bugensis presence. Current distribution of nondreissenid macroinvertebrates is heterogeneous in all 3 basins, and their biodiversity decreased when D. bugensis density was 2500/m2 or greater.

  7. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  8. The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Brian; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2007-01-01

    Invasive species are increasingly becoming a policy priority. This has spurred researchers and managers to try to estimate the risk of invasion. Conceptually, invasions are dependent both on the receiving environment (invasibility) and on the ability to reach these new areas (propagule pressure). However, analyses of risk typically examine only one or the other. Here, we develop and apply a joint model of invasion risk that simultaneously incorporates invasibility and propagule pressure. We present arguments that the behaviour of these two elements of risk differs substantially—propagule pressure is a function of time, whereas invasibility is not—and therefore have different management implications. Further, we use the well-studied zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to contrast predictions made using the joint model to those made by separate invasibility and propagule pressure models. We show that predictions of invasion progress as well as of the long-term invasion pattern are strongly affected by using a joint model. PMID:17711834

  9. The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure.

    PubMed

    Leung, Brian; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2007-10-22

    Invasive species are increasingly becoming a policy priority. This has spurred researchers and managers to try to estimate the risk of invasion. Conceptually, invasions are dependent both on the receiving environment (invasibility) and on the ability to reach these new areas (propagule pressure). However, analyses of risk typically examine only one or the other. Here, we develop and apply a joint model of invasion risk that simultaneously incorporates invasibility and propagule pressure. We present arguments that the behaviour of these two elements of risk differs substantially--propagule pressure is a function of time, whereas invasibility is not--and therefore have different management implications. Further, we use the well-studied zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to contrast predictions made using the joint model to those made by separate invasibility and propagule pressure models. We show that predictions of invasion progress as well as of the long-term invasion pattern are strongly affected by using a joint model.

  10. Non-invasive method to obtain DNA from freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Henley, W.F.; Grobler, P.J.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether DNA could be isolated from tissues obtained by brush-swabbing the mantle, viscera and foot, mantle-clips and swabbed cells were obtained from eight Quadrula pustulosa (Lea, 1831). DNA yields from clips and swabbings were 447.0 and 975.3 ??g/??L, respectively. Furthermore, comparisons of sequences from the ND-1 mitochondrial gene region showed a 100% sequence agreement of DNA from cells obtained by clips and swabs. To determine the number of swabs needed to obtain adequate yields of DNA for analyses, the visceras and feet of 5 Q. pustulosa each were successively swabbed 2, 4 and 6 times. DNA yields from the 2, 4 and 6 swabbed mussel groups were 399.4, 833.8 and 852.6 ng/??L, respectively. ND-1 sequences from the lowest yield still provided 846-901 bp for the ND-1 region. Nevertheless, to ensure adequate DNA yield from cell samples obtained by swabbing, we recommend that 4 swab-strokes of the viscera and foot be obtained. The use of integumental swabbing for collection of cells for determination of genetic relationships among freshwater mussels is noninvasive, when compared with tissue collection by mantle-clipping. Therefore, its use is recommended for freshwater mussels, especially state-protected or federally listed mussel species.

  11. Temporal and basin-specific population trends of quagga mussels on soft sediment of a multi-basin reservoir

    Caldwell, Timothy J; Rosen, Michael R.; Chandra, Sudeep; Acharya, Kumud; Caires, Andrea M; Davis, Clinton J.; Thaw, Melissa; Webster, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive quagga (Dreissena bugnesis) and zebra (Dreissena ploymorpha) mussels have rapidly spread throughout North America. Understanding the relationships between environmental variables and quagga mussels during the early stages of invasion will help management strategies and allow researchers to predict patterns of future invasions. Quagga mussels were detected in Lake Mead, NV/AZ in 2007, we monitored early invasion dynamics in 3 basins (Boulder Basin, Las Vegas Bay, Overton Arm) bi-annually from 2008-2011. Mean quagga density increased over time during the first year of monitoring and stabilized for the subsequent two years at the whole-lake scale (8 to 132 individuals·m-2, geometric mean), in Boulder Basin (73 to 875 individuals·m-2), and in Overton Arm(2 to 126 individuals·m-2). In Las Vegas Bay, quagga mussel density was low (9 to 44 individuals·m-2), which was correlated with high sediment metal concentrations and warmer (> 30°C) water temperatures associated with that basin. Carbon content in the sediment increased with depth in Lake Mead and during some sampling periods quagga density was also positively correlated with depth, but more research is required to determine the significance of this interaction. Laboratory growth experiments suggested that food quantity may limit quagga growth in Boulder Basin, indicating an opportunity for population expansion in this basin if primary productivity were to increase, but was not the case in Overton Arm. Overall quagga mussel density in Lake Mead is highly variable and patchy, suggesting that temperature, sediment size, and sediment metal concentrations, and sediment carbon content all contribute to mussel distribution patterns. Quagga mussel density in the soft sediment of Lake Mead expanded during initial colonization, and began to stabilize approximately 3 years after the initial invasion.

  12. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  13. Dreissenid mussel research priorities workshop

    Sytsma, Mark; Phillips, Stephen; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dreissenid mussels have yet to be detected in the northwestern part of the United States and western Canada. Infestation of one of the jurisdictions within the mussel-free Pacific Northwest would likely have significant economic, soci­etal and environmental implications for the entire region. Understanding the biology and environmental tolerances of dreissenid mussels, and effectiveness of various man­agement strategies, is key to prevention.On November 4-5, 2015, the Aquatic Bioinvasion Research and Policy Institute and the Center for Lakes and Reservoirs at Portland State University, the US Geological Survey, and the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, convened a Dreissenid Mussel Research Priorities Workshop funded by the Great Northern Landscape Conservation Cooperative. The purpose of the workshop was to review dreissenid research priorities in the 2010 Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western U.S. Waters, reassess those priorities, incorporate new information and emerging trends, and develop priorities to strategically focus research efforts on zebra and quagga mussels in the Pacific Northwest and ensure that future research is focused on the highest priorities. It is important to note that there is some repetition among dreissenid research priority categories (e.g., prevention, detection, control, monitoring, and biology).Workshop participants with research experience in dreissenid mussel biology and management were identified by a literature review. State and federal agency managers were also invited to the workshop to ensure relevancy and practicality of the work­shop outcomes. A total of 28 experts (see sidebar) in mussel biology, ecology, and management attended the workshop.

  14. Sequence-Based Analysis of Thermal Adaptation and Protein Energy Landscapes in an Invasive Blue Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Saarman, Norah P; Kober, Kord M; Simison, W Brian; Pogson, Grant H

    2017-10-01

    Adaptive responses to thermal stress in poikilotherms plays an important role in determining competitive ability and species distributions. Amino acid substitutions that affect protein stability and modify the thermal optima of orthologous proteins may be particularly important in this context. Here, we examine a set of 2,770 protein-coding genes to determine if proteins in a highly invasive heat tolerant blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) contain signals of adaptive increases in protein stability relative to orthologs in a more cold tolerant M. trossulus. Such thermal adaptations might help to explain, mechanistically, the success with which the invasive marine mussel M. galloprovincialis has displaced native species in contact zones in the eastern (California) and western (Japan) Pacific. We tested for stabilizing amino acid substitutions in warm tolerant M. galloprovincialis relative to cold tolerant M. trossulus with a generalized linear model that compares in silico estimates of recent changes in protein stability among closely related congeners. Fixed substitutions in M. galloprovincialis were 3,180.0 calories per mol per substitution more stabilizing at genes with both elevated dN/dS ratios and transcriptional responses to heat stress, and 705.8 calories per mol per substitution more stabilizing across all 2,770 loci investigated. Amino acid substitutions concentrated in a small number of genes were more stabilizing in M. galloprovincialis compared with cold tolerant M. trossulus. We also tested for, but did not find, enrichment of a priori GO terms in genes with elevated dN/dS ratios in M. galloprovincialis. This might indicate that selection for thermodynamic stability is generic across all lineages, and suggests that the high change in estimated protein stability that we observed in M. galloprovincialis is driven by selection for extra stabilizing substitutions, rather than by higher incidence of selection in a greater number of genes in this lineage

  15. Relative importance of phosphorus, invasive mussels and climate for patterns in chlorophyll a and primary production in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Warner, David M.; Lesht, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    1. Lakes Michigan and Huron, which are undergoing oligotrophication after reduction of phosphorus loading, invasion by dreissenid mussels and variation in climate, provide an opportunity to conduct large-scale evaluation of the relative importance of these changes for lake productivity. We used remote sensing, field data and an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that showed statistical relationships with observed changes in chlorophyll a (chla) and primary production (PP). 2. Spring phosphorus (TP), annual mean chla and PP have all declined significantly in both lakes since the late 1990s. Additionally, monthly mean values of chla have decreased in many but not all months, indicating altered seasonal patterns. The most striking change has been the decrease in chla concentration during the spring bloom. 3. Mean chlorophyll a concentration was 17% higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Huron, and total production for 2008 in Lake Michigan (9.5 tg year 1 ) was 10% greater than in Lake Huron (7.8 tg year 1 ), even though Lake Michigan is slightly smaller (by 3%) than Lake Huron. Differences between the lakes in the early 1970s evidently persisted to 2008. 4. Invasive mussels influenced temporal trends in spring chla and annual primary production. However, TP had a greater effect on chla and primary production than did the mussels, and TP varied independently from them. Two climatic variables (precipitation and air temperature in the basins) influenced annual chla and annual PP, while the extent of ice cover influenced TP but not chla or primary production. Our results demonstrate that observed temporal patterns in chla and PP are the result of complex interactions of P, climate and invasive mussels.

  16. Changes in consumption by alewives and lake whitefish after dreissenid mussel invasions in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Pothoven, S.A.; Madenjian, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Growth of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis has declined since the arrival and spread of dreissenid mussels in Lakes Michigan and Huron. Alewives are the main forage for the salmonids in Lake Michigan, and lake whitefish are the most important commercial species in both lakes. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine consumption by the average individual fish before and after the dreissenid invasion and to provide insight into the invasion's effects on fish growth and food web dynamics. Alewives feed on both Zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates, and lake whitefish are benthivores. Annual consumption of zooplankton by an average alewife in Lake Michigan was 37% lower and consumption of benthic macroinvertebrates (amphipods Diporeia spp., opossum shrimp Mysis relicta, and Chironomidae) was 19% lower during the postinvasion period (1995-2005) than during the preinvasion period (1983-1994). Reduced consumption by alewives corresponded with reduced alewife growth. In Lakes Michigan and Huron, consumption of nonmollusk macroinvertebrates (Diporeia spp., opossum shrimp, Chironomidae) by the average lake whitefish was 46-96% lower and consumption of mollusks (mainly dreissenids and gastropods) was 2-5 times greater during the postinvasion period than during the preinvasion period. Even though total food consumption by lake whitefish did not differ between the two periods in Lake Huron or the Southern Management Unit in Lake Michigan, postinvasion weight at age was at least 38% lower than preinvasion weight at age. Under the current postinvasion diet regime, consumption by lake whitefish would have to increase by up to 122% to achieve preinvasion growth rates. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  17. Physiological response of invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) submitted to transport and experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, N I S; Andrade, J T M; Montresor, L C; Luz, D M R; Araújo, J M; Martinez, C B; Pinheiro, J; Vidigal, T H D A

    2017-03-01

    , the tolerance of L. fortunei specimens to the stressor tested herein can help us understand the invasive capacity of this mussel during the establishment process.

  18. Impact of multiple anthropogenic stressors on freshwater: how do glyphosate and the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei affect microbial communities and water quality?

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Haydée; Di Fiori, Eugenia; Sinistro, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Marina; Rodríguez, Patricia; Vinocur, Alicia; Cataldo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The study of the joint effect of multiple anthropogenic stressors is important because the emerging consequences are often unpredictable on the basis of knowledge of single effects. We explored the joint impact of glyphosate and the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei on freshwater phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and periphyton, and on the physical and chemical properties of the water. We manipulated both stressors simultaneously in a 25-day experiment using outdoor mesocosms; we assayed technical-grade glyphosate acid at four concentrations: 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg gly L(−1) under scenarios with and without mussels. The addition of the glyphosate significantly increased total phosphorus according to the concentration used; the high clearance rate of L. fortunei significantly decreased phytoplanktonic abundance leading to low values of turbidity. The mussel significantly stimulated the development of filamentous green algae (metaphyton). Interestingly, the combined effect revealed that L. fortunei accelerated the dissipation of glyphosate, which showed a 4-fold decrease in its half-life; this promoted the rapid bioavailability of glyphosate-derived phosphorus in the water. The interaction had a synergistic effect on soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations and was directly dependent on the concentration of glyphosate. A synergistic effect was also observed on bacterioplankton, water turbidity and metaphyton, thus inducing enhanced and rapid eutrophication. The ability of mussels to reduce glyphosate in water may be valued as positive, but our results allow us to predict that the invasion of Limnoperna fortunei in natural freshwater systems contaminated by glyphosate will accelerate the negative impact of the herbicide associated with eutrophication.

  19. Invasive Mussels Alter the Littoral Food Web of a Large Lake: Stable Isotopes Reveal Drastic Shifts in Sources and Flow of Energy

    PubMed Central

    Ozersky, Ted; Evans, David O.; Barton, David R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of archival (predreissenid) and recent (postdreissenid) samples of all common benthic taxa. This approach enabled us to determine the importance of benthic and sestonic carbon to the littoral food web before, and more than a decade after dreissenid establishment. Long term dreissenid presence was associated with a 32-fold increase in abundance, 6-fold increase in biomass, and 14-fold increase in secondary production of the littoral benthos. Dreissenids comprised a large portion of the post-invasion benthos, making up 13, 38, and 56% of total abundance, biomass, and secondary production, respectively. The predreissenid food web was supported primarily by benthic primary production, while sestonic material was relatively more important to the postdreissenid food web. The absolute importance of both sestonic material and benthic primary production to the littoral benthos increased considerably following dreissenid establishment. Our results show drastic alterations to food web structure and suggest that dreissenid mussels redirect energy and material from the water column to the littoral benthos both through biodeposition of sestonic material as well as stimulation of benthic primary production. PMID:23284673

  20. ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TESTING PIPE SYSTEM FOR AN INHIBITOR OF MUSSEL KILL

    SciT

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-06-04

    A comprehensive series of 16 laboratory experiments demonstrated that the presence of vinyl tubing within a recirculating pipe system was responsible for lowering zebra mussel kill following treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. All vinyl tubing was replaced in all testing units with silicone tubing, and high mussel kill (>95%) was then obtained.

  1. Strong effects of predation by fishes on an invasive macroinvertebrate in a large floodplain river

    Bartsch, M.R.; Bartsch, L.A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of fish predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River from 13 May to 5 October, 1998. Concrete-block samplers were deployed at 18 randomly chosen sites in the main-channel border, with 6 sites in the upper, middle, and lower segments of the pool. Two blocks, 1 of which was enclosed in a cage to exclude large predatory fishes, were deployed at each site. After 145 d, blocks were retrieved from 12 of the 18 sites, and zebra mussels were found on all blocks. Densities of zebra mussels were higher on caged blocks than uncaged blocks, and the magnitudes of the differences varied spatially. Mean mussel densities on uncaged blocks were reduced by 66%, 86%, and 20% compared to caged blocks in the upper, middle, and lower pool segments, respectively, over the 145-d interval. Mean daily instantaneous zebra mussel mortality rates from large predators ranged from 0.0016 to 0.0138. Similarly, biomass of zebra mussels was higher on caged than uncaged blocks. Mean mussel biomass on uncaged blocks was reduced by 64% pool-wide, relative to biomass on caged blocks. Zebra mussels were consumed by at least 6 fish taxa including redhorse stickers (Moxostoma spp.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), quillback carpsucker (Carpiodes cyprinus), flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Fish predation had an important moderating effect on zebra mussel demography in Pool 8.

  2. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in native South American Atlantic coast populations of smooth shelled mussels: hybridization with invasive European Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Trucco, María I; Wenne, Roman

    2018-02-22

    Throughout the world, harvesting of mussels Mytilus spp. is based on the exploitation of natural populations and aquaculture. Aquaculture activities include transfers of spat and live adult mussels between various geographic locations, which may result in large-scale changes in the world distribution of Mytilus taxa. Mytilus taxa are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish. In spite of much research on taxonomy, evolution and geographic distribution, the native Mytilus taxa of the Southern Hemisphere are poorly understood. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used to clarify the taxonomic status of populations of smooth shelled mussels from the Pacific coast of South America. In this paper, we used a set of SNPs to characterize, for the first time, populations of smooth shelled mussels Mytilus from the Atlantic coast of South America. Mytilus spp. samples were collected from eastern South America. Six reference samples from the Northern Hemisphere were used: Mytilus edulis from USA and Northern Ireland, Mytilus trossulus from Canada, and Mytilus galloprovincialis from Spain and Italy. Two other reference samples from the Southern Hemisphere were included: M. galloprovincialis from New Zealand and Mytilus chilensis from Chile. Fifty-five SNPs were successfully genotyped, of which 51 were polymorphic. Population genetic analyses using the STRUCTURE program revealed the clustering of eight populations from Argentina (Mytilus platensis) and the clustering of the sample from Ushuaia with M. chilensis from Chile. All individuals in the Puerto Madryn (Argentina) sample were identified as M. platensis × M. galloprovincialis F2 (88.89%) hybrids, except one that was classified as Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. No F1 hybrids were observed. We demonstrate that M. platensis (or Mytilus edulis platensis) and M. chilensis are distinct native taxa in South America, which indicates that the evolutionary histories of Mytilus taxa along the

  4. Early detection monitoring for larval dreissenid mussels: How much plankton sampling is enough?

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Bollens, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of quagga and zebra mussel (dreissenids) monitoring programs in the Pacific Northwest provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a regional invasive species detection effort early in its development. Recent studies suggest that the ecological and economic costs of a dreissenid infestation in the Pacific Northwest of the USA would be significant. Consequently, efforts are underway to monitor for the presence of dreissenids. However, assessments of whether these efforts provide for early detection are lacking. We use information collected from 2012 to 2014 to characterize the development of larval dreissenid monitoring programs in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in the context of introduction and establishment risk. We also estimate the effort needed for high-probability detection of rare planktonic taxa in four Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and assess whether the current level of effort provides for early detection. We found that the effort expended to monitor for dreissenid mussels increased substantially from 2012 to 2014, that efforts were distributed across risk categories ranging from high to very low, and that substantial gaps in our knowledge of both introduction and establishment risk exist. The estimated volume of filtered water required to fully census planktonic taxa or to provide high-probability detection of rare taxa was high for the four reservoirs examined. We conclude that the current level of effort expended does not provide for high-probability detection of larval dreissenids or other planktonic taxa when they are rare in these reservoirs. We discuss options to improve early detection capabilities.

  5. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  6. Mussel watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contamination of U.S. coastal areas may be decreasing as a result of environmental regulations that have banned or curtailed toxic chemicals, concludes a report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The report, “Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project,” presents results of analyzing chemical concentrations found in mussel and oyster tissues collected every year since 1986.These mollusks are collected once a year at more than 240 sites nationwide and analyzed for over 70 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, butyltins, and toxic trace elements such as copper, cadmium, and lead. The report states that from 1986 to 1993 there were many more decreases than increases in chemical concentrations in coastal regions. These decreasing trends were not unexpected; all of the monitored chlorinated hydrocarbons have been banned for use in the United States, and tributyltin has been banned as a biocide on recreational boats.

  7. Thiaminase activity in native freshwater mussels

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Sweet, Stephanie; Galbraith, Heather S.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2015-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the Great Lakes has been attributed to elevated levels of thiaminase I enzyme activity in invasive prey species; however, few studies have investigated thiaminase activity in native prey species. Some of the highest levels of thiaminase activity have been measured in invasive dreissenid mussels with little understanding of background levels contributed by native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae). In this study, thiaminase activity was measured in two freshwater mussel species, Elliptio complanata and Strophitus undulatus, from the Delaware and Susquehanna River drainage basins located in north eastern United States. Thiaminase activity was also measured in gravid and non-gravid S. undulatus. Average thiaminase activity differed significantly between species (7.2 and 42.4 μmol/g/min, for E. complanata and S. undulatus respectively) with no differences observed between drainage basins. Gravid S. undulatus had significantly lower thiaminase activity (28.0 μmol/g/min) than non-gravid mussels (42.4 μmol/g/min). Our results suggest that a suite of factors may regulate thiaminase activity in freshwater mussels and that native freshwater mussel thiaminase activity is within the range observed for invasive dreissenids. These results add to our understanding of the complexities in identifying the ecological conditions that set the stage for thiamine deficiency.

  8. IMPACT OF FIVE TREATMENT FACTORS ON MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciT

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-12-08

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify factors that affect mussel kill. Test results reported herein indicate that mussel kill should not be affected by: (1) air bubbles being carried by currents through power plant pipes; (2) pipe orientation (e.g., vertical or horizontal); (3) whether the bacterial cell concentration during a treatment is constant or slightly varying; (4) whether a treatment is between 3 hr and 12 hr in duration, given that the total quantity of bacteria being applied tomore » the pipe is a constant; and (5) whether the water temperature is between 13 C and 23 C.« less

  9. Evaluation of freshwater mussel relocation as a conservation and management strategy

    Cope, W. Gregory; Waller, Diane L.

    1995-01-01

    The relocation of unionacean mussels is commonly used as a conservation and management tool in large rivers and streams. Relocation has been used to recolonize areas where mussel populations have been eliminated by prior pollution events, to remove mussels from construction zones and to re-establish populations of endangered species. More recently, relocation has been used to protect native freshwater mussels from colonization by the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. We conducted a literature review of mussel relocations and evaluated their relative success as a conservation and management strategy. We found that 43% of all relocations were conducted because of construction projects that were forced to comply with the Endangered Species Act 1973 and that only 16% were monitored for five or more consecutive years. Most (43%) relocation projects were conducted from July to September, presumably a period when reproductive stress is relatively low for most species and the metabolic rate is sufficient for reburrowing in the substrate. The mortality of relocated mussels was unreported in 27% of projects; reported mortality varied widely among projects and species and was difficult to assess. The mean mortality of relocated mussels was 49% based on an average recovery rate of 43%. There is little guidance on the methods for relocation or for monitoring the subsequent long-term status of relocated mussels. Based on this evaluation, research is needed to develop criteria for selecting a suitable relocation site and to establish appropriate methods and guidelines for conducting relocation projects.

  10. Toward a global information system for invasive species

    Ricciardi, Anthony; Steiner, William W.M.; Mack, Richard N.; Simberloff, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    The growing frequency and impact of biological invasions worldwide threaten biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, resource availability, national economies, and human health (Ruesink et al. 1995, Simberloff 1996, Vitousek et al. 1997). Organisms are spreading into new regions at unprecedented rates. As a result, hundreds to thousands of nonindigenous species of invertebrates, vertebrates, plants, bacteria, and fungi have become established in all but the most remote areas of the planet (Vitousek et al. 1997). Recent examples are abundant and, in some cases, alarming. Cholera bacteria and toxic dinoflagellates have been discovered in the ballast waters of cargo ships (McCarthy and Khambaty 1994, Hallegraeff 1998). Asian tiger mosquitos—vectors of yellow fever and encephalitis—have spread to new continents in imported truck tires (Moore et al. 1988). Pasture and crop lands in Australia are being invaded by Parthenium, an aggressive Caribbean weed that causes severe allergic reactions in livestock and humans (Evans 1997). Rapid and widespread dieoffs of native freshwater mussels are occurring in the wake of the zebra mussel invasion in North America (Ricciardi et al. 1998). [[AQ4]Hardwood trees in American cities are being killed by Asian long-horned beetles introduced with wooden packing crates (Haack et al. 1997).

  11. North Texas Zebra Mussel Barrier Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Cornyn, John [R-TX

    2012-09-13

    Senate - 09/13/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3687, which became Public Law 112-237 on 12/28/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. North Texas Zebra Mussel Barrier Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hall, Ralph M. [R-TX-4

    2012-06-21

    Senate - 09/11/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3687, which became Public Law 112-237 on 12/28/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Mussel dynamics model: A hydroinformatics tool for analyzing the effects of different stressors on the dynamics of freshwater mussel communities

    Morales, Y.; Weber, L.J.; Mynett, A.E.; Newton, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    A model for simulating freshwater mussel population dynamics is presented. The model is a hydroinformatics tool that integrates principles from ecology, river hydraulics, fluid mechanics and sediment transport, and applies the individual-based modelling approach for simulating population dynamics. The general model layout, data requirements, and steps of the simulation process are discussed. As an illustration, simulation results from an application in a 10 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River are presented. The model was used to investigate the spatial distribution of mussels and the effects of food competition in native unionid mussel communities, and communities infested by Dreissena polymorpha, the zebra mussel. Simulation results were found to be realistic and coincided with data obtained from the literature. These results indicate that the model can be a useful tool for assessing the potential effects of different stressors on long-term population dynamics, and consequently, may improve the current understanding of cause and effect relationships in freshwater mussel communities. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  15. Invasive plant species: Inventory, mapping, and monitoring - A national strategy

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  16. An ounce of prevention or a pound of cure: bioeconomic risk analysis of invasive species.

    PubMed

    Leung, Brian; Lodge, David M; Finnoff, David; Shogren, Jason F; Lewis, Mark A; Lamberti, Gary

    2002-12-07

    Numbers of non-indigenous species--species introduced from elsewhere - are increasing rapidly worldwide, causing both environmental and economic damage. Rigorous quantitative risk-analysis frameworks, however, for invasive species are lacking. We need to evaluate the risks posed by invasive species and quantify the relative merits of different management strategies (e.g. allocation of resources between prevention and control). We present a quantitative bioeconomic modelling framework to analyse risks from non-indigenous species to economic activity and the environment. The model identifies the optimal allocation of resources to prevention versus control, acceptable invasion risks and consequences of invasion to optimal investments (e.g. labour and capital). We apply the model to zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), and show that society could benefit by spending up to US$324 000 year(-1) to prevent invasions into a single lake with a power plant. By contrast, the US Fish and Wildlife Service spent US$825 000 in 2001 to manage all aquatic invaders in all US lakes. Thus, greater investment in prevention is warranted.

  17. Threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M. Christopher; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Schrader, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The Meramec River Basin in east-central Missouri is an important stronghold for native freshwater mussels (Order: Unionoida) in the United States. Whereas the basin supports more than 40 mussel species, previous studies indicate that the abundance and distribution of most species are declining. Therefore, resource managers have identified the need to prioritize threats to native mussel populations in the basin and to design a mussel monitoring program. The objective of this study was to identify threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the basin. Affected habitat parameters considered as the main threats to mussel conservation included excess sedimentation, altered stream geomorphology and flow, effects on riparian vegetation and condition, impoundments, and invasive non-native species. Evaluating water-quality parameters for conserving mussels was a main focus of this study. Mussel toxicity data for chemical contaminants were compared to national water quality criteria (NWQC) and Missouri water quality standards (MWQS). However, NWQC and MWQS have not been developed for many chemical contaminants and some MWQS may not be protective of native mussel populations. Toxicity data indicated that mussels are sensitive to ammonia, copper, temperature, certain pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products; these compounds were identified as the priority water-quality parameters for mussel conservation in the basin. Measures to conserve mussel diversity in the basin include expanding the species and life stages of mussels and the list of chemical contaminants that have been assessed, establishing a long term mussel monitoring program that measures physical and chemical parameters of high priority, conducting landscape scale modeling to predict mussel distributions, determining sublethal effects of primary contaminants of concern, deriving risk-based guidance values for mussel conservation, and assessing the effects of wastewater

  18. Pathogens and diseases of freshwater mussels in the United States: Studies on bacterial transmission and depuration

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    Unionid mussels are recognized as important contributors to healthy aquatic ecosystems, as well as bioindicators of environmental perturbations. Because they are sedentary, filter feeding animals and require hosts (i.e., fishes) to transform embryonic glochidia, mussels are susceptible to direct adverse environmental parameters, and indirect parameters that restrict the timely presence of the host(s). Their numbers have declined in recent decades to a point that this fauna is regarded as one of the most imperiled in North America. The most significant threat to populations of native unionids in recent years has been the introduction and spread of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Many federal and state agencies, and private interests are now engaged in mussel conservation efforts, including collecting selected imperiled species from impacted rivers and lakes and propagating them at refuges for future population augmentations. One essential consideration with mussel propagation and their intensive culture at refugia is the prevention of pathogen introductions and control of diseases. Currently, there are few reports of etiological agents causing diseases among freshwater mussels; however, because of increased observations of mussel die-offs in conjunction with transfers of live animals between natural waters and refugia, disease problems can be anticipated to emerge. This review summarizes research to develop bacterial isolation techniques, study pathogen transmission between fish and mussels, identify causes of seasonal mussel die-offs, and develop non-destructive methods for pathogen detection. These efforts were done to develop disease preventative techniques for use by resource managers to avoid potential large-scale disease problems in restoration and population augmentation efforts among imperiled populations.

  19. Genetic structure provides insights into the geographic origins and temporal change in the invasive charru mussel (Sururu) in the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Linda J.; Fernandes, Flavio C.; Ferreira, Carlos E. L.

    2017-01-01

    In 2004, Mytella charruana (d'Orbigny, 1842) (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae) became established along the coast of the southeastern United States (SE-US). Using mitochondrial DNA sequencing (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I), we compared genetic variation throughout its native range in South America to its invasive range in the SE-US. Samples from the SE-US were collected in 2006 and 2010 enabling a temporal comparison to evaluate possible genetic changes of the invasive population. We addressed two questions. First, what are the potential source populations (or geographic regions) for the SE-US invasion? Second, how has genetic diversity changed between the two sampling periods within the SE-US? We identified a total of 72 haplotypes, 64 of which were isolated to geographic sites and only 8 were shared among sites. The highly structured native range provides insight into the origin of invasive populations where our results suggest that the introduced SE-US population originated from multiple source populations with the Panama region as the primary source. Additionally, our results indicate that genetic composition of the non-native populations was unchanged between the two sampling periods. Mytella charruana exhibit a significant pattern of genetic structure among natural populations, owing to biogeographic barriers that limit natural dispersal, and an ability to persist in novel habitats, owing to a suite of life-history characters that favor survival under variable conditions. Overall, this study explains why M. charruana may become an increasing threat to locations founded by anthropogenic transportation. PMID:28686694

  20. Freshwater mussels of Florida

    Williams, James D.; Butler, Robert S.; Warren, Gary L.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    An exhaustive guide to all aspects of the freshwater mussel fauna in Florida,Freshwater Mussels of Florida covers the ecology, biology, distribution, and conservation of the many species of bivalve mollusks in the Sunshine State. In the past three decades, researchers, the public, businesses that depend on wildlife, and policy makers have given more attention to the threatened natural diversity of the Southeast, including freshwater mussels. This compendium meets the increasingly urgent need to catalog this imperiled group of aquatic organisms in the United States.

  1. Impacts of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species on the Lake Erie ecosystem

    Austen, Madeline J.W.; Ciborowski, Jan J.H.; Corkum, Lynda D.; Johnson, Tim B.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Schloesser, Donald W.; George, Sandra E.

    2002-01-01

    Lake Erie is particularly vulnerable to the introduction and establishment of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species (NIS) populations. A minimum of 144 aquatic NIS have been recorded in the Lake Erie basin including several species [e.g., Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum); zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha); quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis); an amphipod (Echinogammarus ischnus); round goby (Neogobius melanostomus); and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)] that have had discernible impacts on the lake's ecology. NIS pose threats to the Lake Erie ecosystem for a variety of reasons including their ability to proliferate quickly, compete with native species, and transfer contaminants (e.g., PCBs) and disease through the food web. Six of the 14 beneficial use impairments listed in Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement are impaired in Lake Erie, in part as a result of the introduction of NIS. The Lake Erie Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) has adopted an ecosystem approach to restore beneficial use impairments in the lake. Furthermore, a research consortium, known as the Lake Erie Millennium Network, is working alongside the LaMP, to address research problems regarding NIS, the loss of habitat, and the role of contaminants in the Lake Erie ecosystem.

  2. Acute upper thermal limits of three aquatic invasive invertebrates: hot water treatment to prevent upstream transport of invasive species.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jessica; Moy, Philip; De Stasio, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Transport of aquatic invasive species (AIS) by boats traveling up rivers and streams is an important mechanism of secondary spread of AIS into watersheds. Because physical barriers to AIS movement also prevent navigation, alternate methods for preventing spread are necessary while allowing upstream navigation. One promising approach is to lift boats over physical barriers and then use hot water immersion to kill AIS attached to the hull, motor, or fishing gear. However, few data have been published on the acute upper thermal tolerance limits of potential invaders treated in this manner. To test the potential effectiveness of this approach for a planned boat lift on the Fox River of northeastern WI, USA, acute upper thermal limits were determined for three AIS, adult zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and spiny water fleas (Bythotrephes longimanus) from the local area employing temperatures from 32 to 54°C and immersion times from 1 to 20 min. Mortality was determined after immersion followed by a 20-min recovery period. Immersion at 43°C for at least 5 min was required to ensure 100% mortality for all three species, but due to variability in the response by Bythotrephes a 10 min immersion would be more reliable. Overall there were no significant differences between the three species in acute upper thermal limits. Heated water can be an efficient, environmentally sound, and cost effective method of controlling AIS potentially transferred by boats, and our results should have both specific and wide-ranging applications in the prevention of the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  3. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Kline, Donald W; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Caro, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage.

  4. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; de Oliveira Martins, Leonardo; Fujita, Yuko; Matsumoto, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-27

    Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of symbiosis in that nutritional adaptation to the deep sea proceeded from extracellular

  5. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  6. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Amanda D.; Kline, Donald W.; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Caro, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras’ primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra’s outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage. PMID:26799935

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of live freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Michael, Holliman F.; Davis, Denise; Bogan, Arthur E.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Levine, Jay F.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the soft tissues of live freshwater mussels, Eastern elliptio Elliptio complanata, via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), acquiring data with a widely available human whole-body MRI system. Anatomical features depicted in the profile images included the foot, stomach, intestine, anterior and posterior adductor muscles, and pericardial cavity. Noteworthy observations on soft tissue morphology included a concentration of lipids at the most posterior aspect of the foot, the presence of hemolymph-filled fissures in the posterior adductor muscle, the presence of a relatively large hemolymph-filled sinus adjacent to the posterior adductor muscle (at the ventral-anterior aspect), and segmentation of the intestine (a diagnostic description not reported previously in Unionidae). Relatively little is known about the basic biology and ecological physiology of freshwater mussels. Traditional approaches for studying anatomy and tissue processes, and for measuring sub-lethal physiological stress, are destructive or invasive. Our study, the first to evaluate freshwater mussel soft tissues by MRI, clarifies the body plan of unionid mussels and demonstrates the efficacy of this technology for in vivoevaluation of the structure, function, and integrity of mussel soft tissues.

  8. The Shell of the Invasive Bivalve Species Dreissena polymorpha: Biochemical, Elemental and Textural Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Cédric; Catherinet, Bastien; Plasseraud, Laurent; Alcaraz, Gérard; Bundeleva, Irina; Marin, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is a well-established invasive model organism. Although extensively used in environmental sciences, virtually nothing is known of the molecular process of its shell calcification. By describing the microstructure, geochemistry and biochemistry/proteomics of the shell, the present study aims at promoting this species as a model organism in biomineralization studies, in order to establish a bridge with ecotoxicology, while sketching evolutionary conclusions. The shell of D. polymorpha exhibits the classical crossed-lamellar/complex crossed lamellar combination found in several heterodont bivalves, in addition to an external thin layer, the characteristics of which differ from what was described in earlier publication. We show that the shell selectively concentrates some heavy metals, in particular uranium, which predisposes D. polymorpha to local bioremediation of this pollutant. We establish the biochemical signature of the shell matrix, demonstrating that it interacts with the in vitro precipitation of calcium carbonate and inhibits calcium carbonate crystal formation, but these two properties are not strongly expressed. This matrix, although overall weakly glycosylated, contains a set of putatively calcium-binding proteins and a set of acidic sulphated proteins. 2D-gels reveal more than fifty proteins, twenty of which we identify by MS-MS analysis. We tentatively link the shell protein profile of D. polymorpha and the peculiar recent evolution of this invasive species of Ponto-Caspian origin, which has spread all across Europe in the last three centuries. PMID:27213644

  9. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  10. Zebra: A striped network file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, John H.; Ousterhout, John K.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Zebra, a striped network file system, is presented. Zebra applies ideas from log-structured file system (LFS) and RAID research to network file systems, resulting in a network file system that has scalable performance, uses its servers efficiently even when its applications are using small files, and provides high availability. Zebra stripes file data across multiple servers, so that the file transfer rate is not limited by the performance of a single server. High availability is achieved by maintaining parity information for the file system. If a server fails its contents can be reconstructed using the contents of the remaining servers and the parity information. Zebra differs from existing striped file systems in the way it stripes file data: Zebra does not stripe on a per-file basis; instead it stripes the stream of bytes written by each client. Clients write to the servers in units called stripe fragments, which are analogous to segments in an LFS. Stripe fragments contain file blocks that were written recently, without regard to which file they belong. This method of striping has numerous advantages over per-file striping, including increased server efficiency, efficient parity computation, and elimination of parity update.

  11. In vivo exposure of Dreissena polymorpha mussels to the quinones menadione and lawsone: menadione is more toxic to mussels than lawsone.

    PubMed

    Osman, A M; Rotteveel, S; den Besten, P J; van Noort, P C M

    2004-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to assess whether the two quinones, menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) and lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), elicit differential toxicity in mussels as has been reported for higher organisms. Therefore, the effects of short-term (48 h) and long-term (20 days) exposure of the two quinones at concentrations of 0.56 and 1 mg l(-1) to zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, under laboratory conditions were studied. After the short-term exposure, the specific activities of the two-electron quinone oxidoreductase (DT-diaphorase) and the one-electron catalysing quinone reductases NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADH-cytochrome c reductase were determined in the gills and the rest of the soft tissues (soft mussel tissues minus the gills) of both treated and control mussels. At the higher concentrations of menadione and lawsone used, a significant reduction of the activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase in the gills and in the rest of the soft mussel tissues (by 33-34% and 31-43%, respectively) was observed. The activities of DT-diaphorase and NADH-cytochrome c reductase were not significantly affected. Interestingly, DT-diaphorase was observed in the gills, an organ requiring protection against antioxidants. Furthermore, a single-cell electrophoretic assay (comet assay) performed with gill cells to assess DNA damage by the quinones did not show any significant difference between the treated and the control organisms. This indicates that the formation of reactive species by the quinone metabolism in vivo in the mussels was possibly suppressed through the concerted action of DT-diaphorase and antioxidant enzymes. The results of in vitro experiments with gill extracts confirmed the protective role of DT-diaphorase. The rate of the two-electron quinone reduction was found to be five times that of the one-electron quinone reduction. The results of the long-term exposure unambiguously demonstrated that in mussels menadione, unlike in

  12. Toxicity of potassium chloride to veliger and byssal stage dreissenid mussels related to water quality

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Stockton-Fiti, Kelly A.; Claudi, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking appropriate chemical eradication and control protocols for infestations of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1769), and quagga mussels. D. rostiformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897) that have limited effect on non-target species. Applications of low concentrations of potassium salt (as potash) have shown promise for use where the infestation and treatment can be contained or isolated. To further our understanding of such applications and obtain data that could support a pesticide registration, we conducted studies of the acute and chronic toxicity of potassium chloride to dreissenid mussels in four different water sources from infested and non-infested locations (ground water from northern Idaho, surface water from the Snake River, Idaho, USA, surface water from Lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada, and surface water from the Colorado River, Arizona, USA). We found short term exposure of veligers (< 24 h) to concentrations of 960 mg/L KCl produced rapid mortality in water from three locations, but veligers tested in Colorado River water were resistant. We used probit models to compare the mortality responses, predicted median lethal times and 95% confidence intervals. In separate experiments, we explored the sensitivity of byssal stage mussels in chronic exposures (>29 d) at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/L KCl. Rapid mortality occurred within 10 d of exposure to concentrations of 200 mg/L KCl, regardless of water source. Kaplan-Meier estimates of mean survival of byssal mussels in 100 mg/L KCl prepared in surface water from Idaho and Lake Ontario were 4.9 or 6.9 d, respectively; however, mean survival of mussels tested in the Colorado River water was > 23 d. The sodium content of the Colorado River water was nearly three times that measured in waters from the other locations, and we hypothesized sodium concentrations may affect mussel survival. To test our hypothesis, we supplemented Snake River and Lake Ontario water with Na

  13. Experimental evidence that stripes do not cool zebras.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Pereszlényi, Ádám; Száz, Dénes; Barta, András; Jánosi, Imre M; Gerics, Balázs; Åkesson, Susanne

    2018-06-19

    There are as many as 18 theories for the possible functions of the stripes of zebras, one of which is to cool the animal. We performed field experiments and thermographic measurements to investigate whether thermoregulation might work for zebra-striped bodies. A zebra body was modelled by water-filled metal barrels covered with horse, cattle and zebra hides and with various black, white, grey and striped patterns. The barrels were installed in the open air for four months while their core temperature was measured continuously. Using thermography, the temperature distributions of the barrel surfaces were compared to those of living zebras. The sunlit zebra-striped barrels reproduced well the surface temperature characteristics of sunlit zebras. We found that there were no significant core temperature differences between the striped and grey barrels, even on many hot days, independent of the air temperature and wind speed. The average core temperature of the barrels increased as follows: white cattle, grey cattle, real zebra, artificial zebra, grey horse, black cattle. Consequently, we demonstrate that zebra-striped coats do not keep the body cooler than grey coats challenging the hypothesis of a thermoregulatory role of zebra stripes.

  14. Mussel micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Fenech, Michael

    2012-05-17

    The micronucleus (MN) assay is one of the most widely used genotoxicity biomarkers in aquatic organisms, providing an efficient measure of chromosomal DNA damage occurring as a result of either chromosome breakage or chromosome mis-segregation during mitosis. The MN assay is today applied in laboratory and field studies using hemocytes and gill cells from bivalves, mainly from the genera Mytilus. These represent 'sentinel' organisms because of their ability to survive under polluted conditions and to accumulate both organic and inorganic pollutants. Because the mussel MN assay also includes scoring of different cell types, including necrotic and apoptotic cells and other nuclear anomalies, it is in effect an MN cytome assay. The mussel MN cytome (MUMNcyt) assay protocol we describe here reports the recommended experimental design, sample size, cell preparation, cell fixation and staining methods. The protocol also includes criteria and photomicrographs for identifying different cell types and scoring criteria for micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear buds. The complete procedure requires approximately 10 h for each experimental point/sampling station (ten animals).

  15. The effect of UV-C exposure on larval survival of the dreissenid quagga mussel

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C) was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels.

  16. The Effect of UV-C Exposure on Larval Survival of the Dreissenid Quagga Mussel

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C) was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels. PMID:26186734

  17. Dynamics of zebra finch and mockingbird vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimenser, Aylin

    Along with humans, whales, and bats, three groups of birds which include songbirds (oscines) such as the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) are the only creatures known to learn sounds by imitation. Numerous similarities between human and songbird vocalizations exist and, recently, it has been shown that Zebra Finch in particular possesses a gene, FoxP2, known to be involved in human language. This thesis investigates song development in Zebra Finches, as well as the temporal dynamics of song in Mockingbirds. Zebra Finches have long been the system of choice for studying vocal development, ontogeny, and complexity in birdsong. Physicists find them intriguing because the spectrally complex vocalizations of the Zebra Finch can exhibit sudden transitions to chaotic dynamics, period doubling & mode-locking phenomena. Mockingbirds, by contrast, provide an ideal system to examine the richness of an avian repertoire, since these musically versatile songbirds typically know upwards of 200 songs. To analyse birdsong data, we have developed a novel clustering algorithm that can be applied to the bird's syllables, tracing their dynamics back to the earliest stages of vocal development. To characterize birdsong we have used Fourier techniques, based upon multitaper spectral analysis, to optimally work around the constraints imposed by (Heisenberg's) time-frequency uncertainty principle. Furthermore, estimates that provide optimal compromise between frequency and temporal resolution have beautiful connections with solutions to the Helmholtz wave equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. We have used this connection to provide firm foundation for certain heuristics used in the literature to compute associated spectral derivatives and supply a pedagogical account here in this thesis. They are of interest because spectral derivatives emphasize sudden changes in the dynamics of the underlying phenomenon, and often provide a nice way to visualize

  18. Comparison of Grazing Intensity & Diets of Native and Invasive Amphipods in Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan, J. P.; Francouer, S. N.

    2005-05-01

    Echinogammarus ischnus, an invasive amphipod originating from the Ponto Caspian Basin, was first discovered in the Detroit River in 1995 and has migrated through the lower Great Lakes displacing the native amphipod, Gammarus fasciatus. Both amphipods seek food and refuge by inhabiting substrata encrusted with zebra mussels and/or filamentous macro-algae. The filamentous green alga Cladophora, along with its epiphytic communities, are an important food source and refuge from predators and physical stresses. We examined the gut content of both amphipod species to determine their preferred food in their natural habitats, and conducted a laboratory experiment to determine each amphipod's grazing effects on algal biomass. Gut analysis was completed by taking grab samples from 4 study sites located along the western shore of Lake Erie every two weeks July through September, 2004. Amphipods were separated by species and preserved in 90% alcohol for later dissection. Algal taxa from amphipod guts were identified and enumerated using brightfield microscopy. In the lab experiment, algal biomass prior to and after two weeks of amphipod grazing was determined using ash-free dry mass and chlorophyll-a. Preliminary results indicate that E. ischnus and G. fasciatus exert approximately equal grazing pressure on the Great Lakes food web.

  19. Assessment of dreissenid biodeposits as a potential food resource for invasive Asian carp

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) are poised to invade the Laurentian Great Lakes. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have shifted nutrient pathways towards the benthos, partly through deposition of feces and rejected food particles called biodeposits. When biodeposit material was fed to bighead and silver carp, they fed on the material, but on average lost weight. Energy density between fed and unfed fish did not differ, but a few individual fish did gain weight on the biodeposits diet. Our results demonstrate that biodeposits might be considered a supplemental food for bigheaded carps.

  20. Zebras and Biting Flies: Quantitative Analysis of Reflected Light from Zebra Coats in Their Natural Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Britten, Kenneth H.; Thatcher, Timothy D.; Caro, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and comparative evidence suggests that the striped coats of zebras deter biting fly attack, but the mechanisms by which flies fail to target black-and-white mammals are still opaque. Two hypotheses have been proposed: stripes might serve either to defeat polarotaxis or to obscure the form of the animal. To test these hypotheses, we systematically photographed free-living plains zebras in Africa. We found that black and white stripes both have moderate polarization signatures with a similar angle, though the degree (magnitude) of polarization in white stripes is lower. When we modeled the visibility of these signals from different distances, we found that polarization differences between stripes are invisible to flies more than 10 m away because they are averaged out by the flies’ low visual resolution. At any distance, however, a positively polarotactic insect would have a distinct signal to guide its visual approach to a zebra because we found that polarization of light reflecting from zebras is higher than from surrounding dry grasses. We also found that the stripes themselves are visible to flies at somewhat greater distances (up to 20 m) than the polarization contrast between stripes. Together, these observations support hypotheses in which zebra stripes defeat visually guided orienting behavior in flies by a mechanism independent of polarotaxis. PMID:27223616

  1. Locally extensive meningoencephalitis caused by Miamiensis avidus (syn. Philasterides dicentrarchi) in a zebra shark.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ta; Lo, Chieh; Su, Chen-Yi; Kuo, Hsuan; Lin, Susanne Je-Han; Chang, Hui-Wei; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren

    2017-10-18

    Scuticociliatosis, caused by ciliated protozoa in the subclass Scuticociliatia of the phylum Ciliophora, can cause fatal disease in teleost fish species. However, information on scuticociliatosis in elasmobranchs is still scarce. In this report, we describe a case of locally extensive meningoencephalitis caused by Miamiensis avidus (syn. Philasterides dicentrarchi) in a 2 yr old captive zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. Granulocytic meningoencephalitis was observed through histological assessment. Inflammation was confined to the ventral aspect of the brain with a large number of ciliated protozoa, transforming into non-suppurative meningitis in the lateral aspect, and gradually vanished in the dorsal aspect. No histopathological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evidence of systemic dissemination of M. avidus was found. PCR targeting the gene coding the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) of M. avidus was performed on the brain, liver, and gill tissues, and only brain tissue yielded a positive result. The DNA sequences from amplicons of the protozoal SSUrRNA gene were completely matched to that of M. avidus. The distribution of protozoa in the current case was mainly located in the brain and suggests the possibility of a direct neural invasive pathway of M. avidus through the nasal cavity/ampullary system and/or a unique tissue tropism of M. avidus specific to the brain in zebra sharks. Further investigations on the pathogenesis of M. avidus in elasmobranchs, especially zebra sharks, are needed.

  2. Effects of oil and bioremediation on mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) growth in mudflats.

    PubMed

    Le Floch, S; Guyomarch, J; Merlin, F; Børseth, J F; Le Corre, P; Lee, K

    2003-10-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) were exposed to crude oil during a field experiment to evaluate two bioremediation strategies (nutrient addition and nutrient addition with tilling). The mussels were placed in 4 mesocosms: Control, Oil, Oil + Nutrients, and Oil + Nutrients + Tilled. Tilling appeared to be clearly detrimental to mussel growth. Additionally, this field experiment demonstrated that at temperatures below 5 degrees C, growth was reduced to rates undetectable by the laser diffraction method. The data on mussel shell length show that this technique does offer very sensitive and useful comparative measurements of physiological function. Measurement of shell growth has the advantage over other techniques in that it is non-invasive and non-destructive and thus may be used continuously without disturbing critical physiological and biochemical functions; however, bivalve physiology is strongly linked to environmental conditions, so it is important to include such measures (i.e. seawater temperature and turbidity) in the design of the biomonitoring program. Elevated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels reflected bioaccumulation in mussels from all the oiled mesocosms. This correlated with reduction in growth rate. Maximum reduction in growth was observed in mussels from the tilled mesocosm which contained the lowest phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene concentrations. The tilling caused an increase in suspended solids which inhibited filter feeding activity, and resulted in suppressed growth and slower intake of PAH-laden sediment.

  3. Mussel adhesion – essential footwork

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Robust adhesion to wet, salt-encrusted, corroded and slimy surfaces has been an essential adaptation in the life histories of sessile marine organisms for hundreds of millions of years, but it remains a major impasse for technology. Mussel adhesion has served as one of many model systems providing a fundamental understanding of what is required for attachment to wet surfaces. Most polymer engineers have focused on the use of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa), a peculiar but abundant catecholic amino acid in mussel adhesive proteins. The premise of this Review is that although Dopa does have the potential for diverse cohesive and adhesive interactions, these will be difficult to achieve in synthetic homologs without a deeper knowledge of mussel biology; that is, how, at different length and time scales, mussels regulate the reactivity of their adhesive proteins. To deposit adhesive proteins onto target surfaces, the mussel foot creates an insulated reaction chamber with extreme reaction conditions such as low pH, low ionic strength and high reducing poise. These conditions enable adhesive proteins to undergo controlled fluid–fluid phase separation, surface adsorption and spreading, microstructure formation and, finally, solidification. PMID:28202646

  4. Spatial variation in biofouling of a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) across the western basin of Lake Erie

    Larson, James H.; Evans, Mary; Richardson, William B.; Schaeffer, Jeff; Nelson, John

    2016-01-01

    Invasion of North American waters by nonnative Dreissena polymorpha and D. rostriformis bugensishas resulted in declines of the Unionidae family of native North American mussels. Dreissenid mussels biofoul unionid mussels in large numbers and interfere with unionid movement, their acquisition of food, and the native mussels' ability to open and close their shells. Initial expectations for the Great Lakes included extirpation of unionids where they co-occurred with dreissenids, but recently adult and juvenile unionids have been found alive in several apparent refugia. These unionid populations may persist due to reduced dreissenid biofouling in these areas, and/or due to processes that remove biofoulers. For example locations inaccessible to dreissenid veligers may reduce biofouling and habitats with soft substrates may allow unionids to burrow and thus remove dreissenids. We deployed caged unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) at 36 sites across the western basin of Lake Erie to assess spatial variation in biofouling and to identify other areas that might promote the persistence or recovery of native unionid mussels. Biofouling ranged from 0.03 – 26.33 g per mussel, reached a maximum in the immediate vicinity of the mouth of the Maumee River, and appeared to primarily consist of dreissenid mussels. A known mussel refugium in the vicinity of a power plant near the mouth of the Maumee actually exhibited very high biofouling rates, suggesting that low dreissenid colonization did not adequately explain unionid survival in this refugium. In contrast, the southern nearshore area of Lake Erie, near another refugium, had very low biofouling. A large stretch of the western basin appeared to have low biofouling rates and muddy substrates, raising the possibility that these open water areas could support remnant and returning populations of unionid mussels. Previous observations of unionid refugia and the occurrence of low biofouling rates in large areas of the western

  5. Effects of carbon dioxide on juveniles of the freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea [Unionidae])

    Waller, Diane L.; Bartsch, Michelle; Fredricks, Kim; Bartsch, Lynn; Schleis, Sue M.; Lee, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has shown promise as a tool to control movements of invasive Asian carp, but its effects on native freshwater biota have not been well studied. The authors evaluated lethal and sublethal responses of juvenile fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) mussels to CO2 at levels (43–269 mg/L, mean concentration) that bracket concentrations effective for deterring carp movement. The 28-d lethal concentration to 50% of the mussels was 87.0 mg/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.4–95.9) and at 16-d postexposure, 76.0 mg/L (95% CI 62.9–90.3). A proportional hazards regression model predicted that juveniles could not survive CO2 concentrations >160 mg/L for more than 2 wk or >100 mg/L CO2 for more than 30 d. Mean shell growth was significantly lower for mussels that survived CO2 treatments. Growth during the postexposure period did not differ among treatments, indicating recovery of the mussels. Also, CO2 caused shell pitting and erosion. Behavioral effects of CO2 included movement of mussels to the substrate surface and narcotization at the highest concentrations. Mussels in the 110 mg/L mean CO2treatment had the most movements in the first 3 d of exposure. If CO2 is infused continuously as a fish deterrent, concentrations <76 mg/L are recommended to prevent juvenile mussel mortality and shell damage. Mussels may survive and recover from brief exposure to higher concentrations.

  6. Spatial and temporal trends of freshwater mussel assemblages in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The Meramec River basin in east-central Missouri has one of the most diverse unionoid mussel faunas in the central United States with >40 species identified. Data were analyzed from historical surveys to test whether diversity and abundance of mussels in the Meramec River basin (Big, Bourbeuse, and Meramec rivers, representing >400 river miles) decreased between 1978 and 1997. We found that over 20y, species richness and diversity decreased significantly in the Bourbeuse and Meramec rivers but not in the Big River. Most species were found at fewer sites and in lower numbers in 1997 than in 1978. Federally endangered species and Missouri Species of Conservation Concern with the most severe temporal declines were Alasmidonta viridis, Arcidens confragosus, Elliptio crassidens, Epioblasma triquetra, Fusconaia ebena, Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis brittsi, and Simpsonaias ambigua. Averaged across all species, mussels were generally being extirpated from historical sampling sites more rapidly than colonization was occurring. An exception was one reach of the Meramec River between river miles 28.4 and 59.5, where mussel abundance and diversity were greater than in other reaches and where colonization of Margaritiferidae, Lampsilini, and Quadrulini exceeded extirpation. The exact reasons mussel diversity and abundance have remained robust in this 30- mile reach is uncertain, but the reach is associated with increased gradients, few long pools, and vertical rock faces, all of which are preferable for mussels. Complete loss of mussel communities at eight sites (16%) with relatively diverse historical assemblages was attributed to physical habitat changes including bank erosion, unstable substrate, and sedimentation. Mussel conservation efforts, including restoring and protecting riparian habitats, limiting the effects of in-stream sand and gravel mining, monitoring and controlling invasive species, and protecting water quality, may be warranted in the Meramec River basin.

  7. Environmental Assessment: Zebra Mussel Eradication from the Base Lake at Offutt Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-11

    water flow even in large diameter piping, increase sedimentation rates , and promote surface corrosion. Natural populations of 5,000 to 30,000...Body Weight (kg) Foraging Territory (ha) Food Ingestion Rate (kg dw/day) Food Ingestion Rate (kg ww/day) Water (L/day) Sediment / Soil Ingestion...Composition - based on diets for Missouri; Korschgen (1958) in USEPA (1993) Soil/ Sediment Ingestion Rate – Assumed 1% of dw ingestion rate ; USEPA (2000

  8. Cyanobacteria reduce quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) spawning and fertilization success

    Boegehold, Anna G.; Johnson, Nicholas; Ran, Jeffrey L.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2018-01-01

    Quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are highly fecund broadcast spawners invasive to freshwaters of North America and western Europe. We hypothesized that environmental cues from phytoplankton can trigger gamete release in quagga mussels. Nutritious algae may stimulate dreissenid spawning, but less palatable food, such as bloom-forming cyanobacteria, could be a hindrance. The objective of our study was to test whether exposure to cyanobacteria can inhibit quagga mussel spawning and fertilization. We assessed spawning in the presence of serotonin, a known spawning inducer, where adult quagga mussels placed in individual vials were exposed to 13 cyanobacteria cultures and purified algal toxin (microcystin-LR) with artificial lake water as the control. Fertilization success was evaluated by combining eggs with sperm in conjunction with cyanobacteria, and enumerating zygote formation marked by cellular cleavage. Several cyanobacterial strains reduced spawning and fertilization success, but microcystin-LR had no effect. Fertilization was more sensitive to cyanobacteria than gamete release. Only 1 culture, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, inhibited spawning, whereas 6 cultures consisting of Anabaena flos-aquae, Dolichospermum lemmermanii, Gloeotrichia echinulata, Lyngbya wollei, and 2 Microcystis aeruginosa isolates reduced fertilization rates by up to 44%. The effects of cyanobacteria on reproduction in invasive freshwater mussels in the wild have not yet been identified. However, our laboratory studies show that concentrations of cyanobacteria that are possible during bloom conditions probably limit reproduction. Reproductive consequences on wild populations may become more prevalent as cyanobacteria blooms occur earlier in the year, making overlap between blooms and mussel spawning more common. Describing the mechanism by which cyanobacteria inhibit spawning and fertilization could reveal novel control methods to limit reproduction of this invasive

  9. Mussel mimetic tissue adhesive for fetal membrane repair: initial in vivo investigation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kivelio, A; Dekoninck, P; Perrini, M; Brubaker, C E; Messersmith, P B; Mazza, E; Deprest, J; Zimmermann, R; Ehrbar, M; Ochsenbein-Koelble, N

    2013-12-01

    Iatrogenic preterm prelabour rupture of fetal membranes (iPPROM) remains the main complication after invasive interventions into the intrauterine cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing capability and tissue interaction of mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive (mussel glue) in comparison to fibrin glue on punctured fetal membranes in vivo. A mid-gestational rabbit model was used for testing the materials. The fetal sacs of pregnant rabbits at day 23 were randomly assigned into experimental groups: unoperated (negative control), unclosed puncture (positive control), commercially available fibrin glue (FG) with decellularized amnion scaffold (DAM), mussel glue (MG) with DAM, or mussel glue alone. Evaluation was done at term (30 days' gestation) assessing fetal survival, fetal membrane integrity and histology of the membranes. Fetal survival was not significantly lower in any of the treatment groups compared to the negative control. All plugging materials could be found at the end of the pregnancy and no adverse effects on the fetus or the pregnant does could be observed. Sac integrity was higher in all treatment groups compared to the positive control group but significant only in the FG+DAM group. Cellular infiltration could be seen in fibrin glue and DAM in contrast to mussel glue which was only tightly adhering to the surrounding tissue. These cells were mostly of mesenchymal phenotype staining positive for vimentin. CD68 positive macrophages were found clustered around all the plugging materials, but their numbers were only significantly increased for the mussel glue alone group compared to negative controls. Mussel glues performance in sealing fetal membranes in the rabbit model was comparable to that of fibrin glue. Taking into account its other favorable properties, it is a noteworthy candidate for a clinically applicable fetal membrane sealant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyanobacteria reduce quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) spawning and fertilization success

    Boegehold, Anna G; Johnson, Nicholas; Ran, Jeffrey L; Kashian, Donna R

    2018-01-01

    exposure to cyanobacteria can inhibit quagga mussel spawning and fertilization. We assessed spawning in the presence of serotonin, a known spawning inducer, where adult quagga mussels placed in individual vials were exposed to 13 cyanobacteria cultures and purified algal toxin (microcystin-LR) with artificial lake water as the control. Fertilization success was evaluated by combining eggs with sperm in conjunction with cyanobacteria, and enumerating zygote formation marked by cellular cleavage. Several cyanobacterial strains reduced spawning and fertilization success, but microcystin-LR had no effect. Fertilization was more sensitive to cyanobacteria than gamete release. Only 1 culture, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, inhibited spawning, whereas 6 cultures consisting of Anabaena flos-aquae, Dolichospermum lemmermanii, Gloeotrichia echinulata, Lyngbya wollei, and 2 Microcystis aeruginosa isolates reduced fertilization rates by up to 44%. The effects of cyanobacteria on reproduction in invasive freshwater mussels in the wild have not yet been identified. However, our laboratory studies show that concentrations of cyanobacteria that are possible during bloom conditions probably limit reproduction. Reproductive consequences on wild populations may become more prevalent as cyanobacteria blooms occur earlier in the year, making overlap between blooms and mussel spawning more common. Describing the mechanism by which cyanobacteria inhibit spawning and fertilization could reveal novel control methods to limit reproduction of this invasive species.

  11. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    David L. Strayer; John A. Downing; Wendell R. Haag; Timothy L. King; James B. Layzer; Teresa J. Newton; S. Jerrine Nichols

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial...

  12. Full genome sequences of zebra-borne equine herpesvirus type 1 isolated from zebra, onager and Thomson's gazelle.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqin; Izume, Satoko; Okada, Ayaka; Ohya, Kenji; Kimura, Takashi; Fukushi, Hideto

    2014-09-01

    A strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was isolated from zebra. This strain, called "zebra-borne EHV-1", was also isolated from an onager and a gazelle in zoological gardens in U.S.A. The full genome sequences of the 3 strains were determined. They shared 99% identities with each other, while they shared 98% and 95% identities with the horse derived EHV-1 and equine herpesvirus type 9, respectively. Sequence data indicated that the EHV-1 isolated from a polar bear in Germany is one of the zebra-borne EHV-1 and not a recombinant virus. These results indicated that zebra-borne EHV-1 is a subtype of EHV-1.

  13. Zebra: An advanced PWR lattice code

    SciT

    Cao, L.; Wu, H.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of an advanced PWR lattice code ZEBRA developed at NECP laboratory in Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.. The multi-group cross-section library is generated from the ENDF/B-VII library by NJOY and the 361-group SHEM structure is employed. The resonance calculation module is developed based on sub-group method. The transport solver is Auto-MOC code, which is a self-developed code based on the Method of Characteristic and the customization of AutoCAD software. The whole code is well organized in a modular software structure. Some numerical results during the validation of the code demonstrate that this code has a good precisionmore » and a high efficiency. (authors)« less

  14. Field study of mussel impact on turbulent structure in the internal boundary layer of a low energetic deep lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Liao, Q.; Bootsma, H. A.; Troy, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of invasive mussels on Great Lake aquatic ecosystem attracted wide attentions. Their strong ability on phytoplankton consumption and impact on nutrient and oxygen dynamics greatly change the behavior of benthic communities. The hydrodynamics in the internal boundary layer (IBL) at low energetic deep lakes is of great importance on food delivery. Meantime, the filtration activities of mussels provide feedback to turbulence structure in the IBL. This filed study was carried out at the 55 meters station in Lake Michigan using an in situ PIV system to measure high resolution turbulence immediately above the mussel bed. A HR acoustic profiler was used to measure three dimensional velocities within 1 meter above the bed. Quadrant-Hole analysis method was used to identify the organized structures of turbulent motion on contributing Reynolds shear stress. Sufficiently close to the mussels, turbulence sources were mostly contributed to flow-mussel interaction and mussel filtration, rather than shear production. Bed shear stress, friction velocity and bottom roughness were also investigated. Our results suggest measurement should be made in the IBL to accurate estimate the bed friction and erodability. A particle concentration depletion layer was observed within 7~8 centimeters above the mussel bed. Significant enhancement of turbulent mixing was found due to filtration activities, which tends to help food supply for benthic mussels in low energetic aquatic systems A sample PIV image superimposed with 2-D velocity map Vertical profiles of (a) fraction for each quadrant event (b) conditional averaged Reynolds shear stress for each quadrant event. Two dash lines represent z = 1.3 cm and 3.6 cm.

  15. Simulated mussel mortality thresholds as a function of mussel biomass and nutrient loading

    Bril, Jeremy S.; Langenfeld, Kathryn; Just, Craig L.; Spak, Scott N.; Newton, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    A freshwater “mussel mortality threshold” was explored as a function of porewater ammonium (NH4+) concentration, mussel biomass, and total nitrogen (N) utilizing a numerical model calibrated with data from mesocosms with and without mussels. A mortality threshold of 2 mg-N L−1 porewater NH4+ was selected based on a study that estimated 100% mortality of juvenile Lampsilis mussels exposed to 1.9 mg-N L−1NH4+ in equilibrium with 0.18 mg-N L−1 NH3. At the highest simulated mussel biomass (560 g m−2) and the lowest simulated influent water “food” concentration (0.1 mg-N L−1), the porewater NH4+ concentration after a 2,160 h timespan without mussels was 0.5 mg-N L−1 compared to 2.25 mg-N L−1 with mussels. Continuing these simulations while varying mussel biomass and N content yielded a mortality threshold contour that was essentially linear which contradicted the non-linear and non-monotonic relationship suggested by Strayer (2014). Our model suggests that mussels spatially focus nutrients from the overlying water to the sediments as evidenced by elevated porewater NH4+ in mesocosms with mussels. However, our previous work and the model utilized here show elevated concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in overlying waters as an indirect consequence of mussel activity. Even when the simulated overlying water food availability was quite low, the mortality threshold was reached at a mussel biomass of about 480 g m−2. At a food concentration of 10 mg-N L−1, the mortality threshold was reached at a biomass of about 250 g m−2. Our model suggests the mortality threshold for juvenile Lampsilis species could be exceeded at low mussel biomass if exposed for even a short time to the highly elevated total N loadings endemic to the agricultural Midwest.

  16. Non-intrusive torque measurement for rotating shafts using optical sensing of zebra-tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalá, D.; Bezziccheri, M.; Crabtree, C. J.; Paone, N.

    2018-06-01

    Non-intrusive, reliable and precise torque measurement is critical to dynamic performance monitoring, control and condition monitoring of rotating mechanical systems. This paper presents a novel, contactless torque measurement system consisting of two shaft-mounted zebra tapes and two optical sensors mounted on stationary rigid supports. Unlike conventional torque measurement methods, the proposed system does not require costly embedded sensors or shaft-mounted electronics. Moreover, its non-intrusive nature, adaptable design, simple installation and low cost make it suitable for a large variety of advanced engineering applications. Torque measurement is achieved by estimating the shaft twist angle through analysis of zebra tape pulse train time shifts. This paper presents and compares two signal processing methods for torque measurement: rising edge detection and cross-correlation. The performance of the proposed system has been proven experimentally under both static and variable conditions and both processing approaches show good agreement with reference measurements from an in-line, invasive torque transducer. Measurement uncertainty has been estimated according to the ISO GUM (Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement). Type A analysis of experimental data has provided an expanded uncertainty relative to the system full-scale torque of  ±0.30% and  ±0.86% for the rising edge and cross-correlation approaches, respectively. Statistical simulations performed by the Monte Carlo method have provided, in the worst case, an expanded uncertainty of  ±1.19%.

  17. Altered trophic pathway and parasitism in a native predator (Lepomis gibbosus) feeding on introduced prey (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Locke, Sean A; Bulté, Grégory; Marcogliese, David J; Forbes, Mark R

    2014-05-01

    Populations of invasive species tend to have fewer parasites in their introduced ranges than in their native ranges and are also thought to have fewer parasites than native prey. This 'release' from parasites has unstudied implications for native predators feeding on exotic prey. In particular, shifts from native to exotic prey should reduce levels of trophically transmitted parasites. We tested this hypothesis in native populations of pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) in Lake Opinicon, where fish stomach contents were studied intensively in the 1970s, prior to the appearance of exotic zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the mid-1990s. Zebra mussels were common in stomachs of present-day pumpkinseeds, and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen confirmed their importance in long-term diets. Because historical parasite data were not available in Lake Opinicon, we also surveyed stomach contents and parasites in pumpkinseed in both Lake Opinicon and an ecologically similar, neighboring lake where zebra mussels were absent. Stomach contents of pumpkinseed in the companion lake did not differ from those of pre-invasion fish from Lake Opinicon. The companion lake, therefore, served as a surrogate "pre-invasion" reference to assess effects of zebra mussel consumption on parasites in pumpkinseed. Trophically transmitted parasites were less species-rich and abundant in Lake Opinicon, where fish fed on zebra mussels, although factors other than zebra mussel consumption may contribute to these differences. Predation on zebra mussels has clearly contributed to a novel trophic coupling between littoral and pelagic food webs in Lake Opinicon.

  18. Veligers of the invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea in the Columbia River Basin: Broadscale distribution, abundance, and ecological associations

    Hassett, Whitney; Bollens, Stephen M.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Rollwagen-Bollens, Gretchen; Zimmerman, Julie; Emerson, Joshua E.

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea was introduced to North America in the 1930s and now inhabits most regions of the conterminous United States; however, the distribution and ecology of C. fluminea in the Columbia River Basin is poorly understood. During 2013 and 2014, 5 Columbia-Snake River reservoirs were sampled monthly from May through September, along with 23 additional lakes and reservoirs sampled once each summer. Associations among C. fluminea veligers, other components of the plankton, and environmental variables were analyzed using non-metric multidimensional scaling and canonical correspondence analysis. Corbicula fluminea veligers were found in high abundances in all mainstem Columbia-Snake River reservoirs, with an annual mean abundance of 71.2 individuals per cubic meter (inds./m3). Only 3 of 23 lakes and (non-mainstem) reservoirs contained C. fluminea, with abundances considerably lower (maximum = 21.2 inds./m3) than in the mainstem reservoirs. A diatom-dominated community preceded the spawning of C. fluminea in early summer at all sites. Corbicula fluminea veligers characterized the plankton community in late summer and were associated with cyanobacteria and high water temperatures. A third community, characterized by cyanobacteria, was apparent in non-mainstem sites in July and August. Our analyses describe the relationship of C. fluminea to the plankton community and environment, which contributes to our understanding of the possible effects of C. fluminea infestations and which waterbodies in the Columbia River Basin are at risk for infestation. Understanding the effects and environmental determinants of invasive mollusks will be increasingly important in the future with the possible arrival of zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) or quagga (D. bugensis) mussels to the region.

  19. Song Recognition in Zebra Finches: Are There Sensitive Periods for Song Memorization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Male zebra finches learn to sing songs that they hear between 25 and 65 days of age, the sensitive period for song learning. In this experiment, male and female zebra finches were exposed to zebra finch songs either before (n = 9) or during (n = 4) the sensitive period. Following song exposure, recognition memory for the songs was assessed with an…

  20. Fitness consequences of polymorphic inversions in the zebra finch genome.

    PubMed

    Knief, Ulrich; Hemmrich-Stanisak, Georg; Wittig, Michael; Franke, Andre; Griffith, Simon C; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2016-09-29

    Inversion polymorphisms constitute an evolutionary puzzle: they should increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic individuals but still they are widespread in some taxa. Some insect species have evolved mechanisms to reduce the cost of embryo mortality but humans have not. In birds, a detailed analysis is missing although intraspecific inversion polymorphisms are regarded as common. In Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), two polymorphic inversions are known cytogenetically and we set out to detect these two and potentially additional inversions using genomic tools and study their effects on embryo mortality and other fitness-related and morphological traits. Using whole-genome SNP data, we screened 948 wild zebra finches for polymorphic inversions and describe four large (12-63 Mb) intraspecific inversion polymorphisms with allele frequencies close to 50 %. Using additional data from 5229 birds and 9764 eggs from wild and three captive zebra finch populations, we show that only the largest inversions increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic males, with surprisingly small effect sizes. We test for a heterozygote advantage on other fitness components but find no evidence for heterosis for any of the inversions. Yet, we find strong additive effects on several morphological traits. The mechanism that has carried the derived inversion haplotypes to such high allele frequencies remains elusive. It appears that selection has effectively minimized the costs associated with inversions in zebra finches. The highly skewed distribution of recombination events towards the chromosome ends in zebra finches and other estrildid species may function to minimize crossovers in the inverted regions.

  1. Biotic resistance to invasion along an estuarine gradient

    PubMed Central

    Hovel, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Biotic resistance is the ability of native communities to repel the establishment of invasive species. Predation by native species may confer biotic resistance to communities, but the environmental context under which this form of biotic resistance occurs is not well understood. We evaluated several factors that influence the distribution of invasive Asian mussels (Musculista senhousia) in Mission Bay, a southern California estuary containing an extensive eelgrass (Zostera marina) habitat. Asian mussels exhibit a distinct spatial pattern of invasion, with extremely high densities towards the back of Mission Bay (up to 4,000 m−2) in contrast with near-complete absence at sites towards the front of the bay. We established that recruits arrived at sites where adult mussels were absent and found that dense eelgrass does not appear to preclude Asian mussel growth and survival. Mussel survival and growth were high in predator-exclusion plots throughout the bay, but mussel survival was low in the front of the bay when plots were open to predators. Additional experiments revealed that consumption by spiny lobsters (Panulirus interruptus) and a gastropod (Pteropurpura festiva) likely are the primary factors responsible for resistance to Asian mussel invasion. However, biotic resistance was dependent on location within the estuary (for both species) and also on the availability of a hard substratum (for P. festiva). Our findings indicate that biotic resistance in the form of predation may be conferred by higher order predators, but that the strength of resistance may strongly vary across estuarine gradients and depend on the nature of the locally available habitat. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-010-1700-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20602118

  2. FindZebra: a search engine for rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Cox, Ingemar J; Hansen, Lars Kai; Ingwersen, Peter; Winther, Ole

    2013-06-01

    The web has become a primary information resource about illnesses and treatments for both medical and non-medical users. Standard web search is by far the most common interface to this information. It is therefore of interest to find out how well web search engines work for diagnostic queries and what factors contribute to successes and failures. Among diseases, rare (or orphan) diseases represent an especially challenging and thus interesting class to diagnose as each is rare, diverse in symptoms and usually has scattered resources associated with it. We design an evaluation approach for web search engines for rare disease diagnosis which includes 56 real life diagnostic cases, performance measures, information resources and guidelines for customising Google Search to this task. In addition, we introduce FindZebra, a specialized (vertical) rare disease search engine. FindZebra is powered by open source search technology and uses curated freely available online medical information. FindZebra outperforms Google Search in both default set-up and customised to the resources used by FindZebra. We extend FindZebra with specialized functionalities exploiting medical ontological information and UMLS medical concepts to demonstrate different ways of displaying the retrieved results to medical experts. Our results indicate that a specialized search engine can improve the diagnostic quality without compromising the ease of use of the currently widely popular standard web search. The proposed evaluation approach can be valuable for future development and benchmarking. The FindZebra search engine is available at http://www.findzebra.com/. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Equine behavioral enrichment toys as tools for non-invasive recovery of viral and host DNA.

    PubMed

    Seeber, Peter A; Soilemetzidou, Sanatana E; East, Marion L; Walzer, Chris; Greenwood, Alex D

    2017-09-01

    Direct collection of samples from wildlife can be difficult and sometimes impossible. Non-invasive remote sampling for the purpose of DNA extraction is a potential tool for monitoring the presence of wildlife at the individual level, and for identifying the pathogens shed by wildlife. Equine herpesviruses (EHV) are common pathogens of equids that can be fatal if transmitted to other mammals. Transmission usually occurs by nasal aerosol discharge from virus-shedding individuals. The aim of this study was to validate a simple, non-invasive method to track EHV shedding in zebras and to establish an efficient protocol for genotyping individual zebras from environmental DNA (eDNA). A commercially available horse enrichment toy was deployed in captive Grévy's, mountain, and plains zebra enclosures and swabbed after 4-24 hr. Using eDNA extracted from these swabs four EHV strains (EHV-1, EHV-7, wild ass herpesvirus and zebra herpesvirus) were detected by PCR and confirmed by sequencing, and 12 of 16 zebras present in the enclosures were identified as having interacted with the enrichment toy by mitochondrial DNA amplification and sequencing. We conclude that, when direct sampling is difficult or prohibited, non-invasive sampling of eDNA can be a useful tool to determine the genetics of individuals or populations and for detecting pathogen shedding in captive wildlife. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Susceptibility of selected potato varieties to zebra chip potato disease

    Zebra chip (ZC), an emerging and serious disease of potato has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. The disease has recently been associated with a previously undescribed species of liberibacter tentatively named ...

  5. Zebra chip development during storage: cause for concern?

    Zebra chip disease is associated with infections by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), a bacterium spread by the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli. A major concern of the potato industry is the likelihood that Lso could cause asymptomatic infections prior to placement of tubers in col...

  6. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  7. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) California Sea Mussel and Bay Mussel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    FishesS and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) CALIFORNIA SEA MUSSEL AND BAY MUSSEL Cn Coastal Ecology Group *Fish and Wildlife Service Waterways...September 1988 Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) CALIFORNIA SEA MUSSEL...AND BAY MUSSEL by William N. Shaw Fred Telonicher Marine Laboratory Humboldt State University Trinidad, CA 95570 Thomas J. Hassler U.S. Fish anu

  8. Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    PubMed Central

    Marescaux, Jonathan; Van Doninck, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate species. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene (COI) is considered as the standard barcode for animals. We tested the use of this gene as an efficient DNA barcode and found that it allow rapid and accurate identification of adult Dreissena individuals. PMID:24453560

  9. Insights into deep-sea adaptations and host-symbiont interactions: A comparative transcriptome study on Bathymodiolus mussels and their coastal relatives.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Sun, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiaocheng; Sun, Yan; Sun, Song

    2017-10-01

    Mussels (Bivalve: Mytilidae) have adapted to various habitats, from fresh water to the deep sea. To understand their adaptive characteristics in different habitats, particularly in the bathymodiolin mussels in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis between deep-sea bathymodiolin mussels and their shallow-water relatives. A number of gene families related to stress responses were shared across all mussels, without specific or significantly expanded families in deep-sea species, indicating that all mussels are capable of adapting to diverse harsh environments, but that different members of the same gene family may be preferentially utilized by different species. One of the most extraordinary trait of bathymodiolin mussels is their endosymbiosis. Lineage-specific and positively selected TLRs and highly expressed C1QDC proteins were identified in the gills of the bathymodiolins, suggesting their possible functions in symbiont recognition. However, pattern recognition receptors of the bathymodiolins were globally reduced, facilitating the invasion and maintenance of the symbionts obtained by either endocytosis or phagocytosis. Additionally, various transporters were positively selected or more highly expressed in the deep-sea mussels, indicating a means by which necessary materials could be provided for the symbionts. Key genes supporting lysosomal activity were also positively selected or more highly expressed in the deep-sea mussels, suggesting that nutrition fixed by the symbionts can be absorbed in a "farming" way wherein the symbionts are digested by lysosomes. Regulation of key physiological processes including lysosome activity, apoptosis and immune reactions is needed to maintain a stable host-symbiont relationship, but the mechanisms are still unclear. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P.B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Waite, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications. PMID:22058660

  11. Sediment, land use, and freshwater mussels: Prospects and problems

    Brim-Box, J.; Mossa, J.

    1999-01-01

    The decline in freshwater mussel populations in many river basins throughout North America has been attributed, in part, to land-use modifications that cause changes in sediment regimes. However, the specific associations that mussels have with stream sediments are poorly understood, making it difficult to assess the impacts of changes in sedimentation rates on unionid mussels. Both bed and suspended materials, and concomitant changes in channel form associated with changes in sediment supply, may affect mussels in numerous ways at various stages in their life cycle. Considerable debate and uncertainty remains regarding the strength of associations between sediments and mussels, including whether increased sedimentation is a cause of recent mussel declines. It is important to be aware of appropriate procedures for sampling and analyzing fluvial sediments, and the nature of sediment sources, to adequately assess relationships between unionid mussels and fluvial sediments.

  12. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  13. Tributyltin Effects on Juvenile Mussel Growth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    of tributyltin ( TBT ) in two site~sjecific, flow- through bioassays with unfiltered seawater. Mean TBT concentrations were 70, 80 and 200 ng/l in Test...lave studied the PETS was evaluated over a 7-month period in effects of tributyltin ( TBT ) on mussel (Mtilus San Diego Bay using TBT leachates. A more...ME38 Z0B38 DN888 -749 11. TITILE (hkcAd S@=tyCnifibibol Tributyltin Effects on Juvenile Mussel Growth 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) M.H. Salazar, S.M. Salazar

  14. ZebraBeat: a flexible platform for the analysis of the cardiac rate in zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, Elisa; Zaccaria, Gian Maria; Hadhoud, Marwa; Rizzo, Giovanna; Ponzini, Raffaele; Morbiducci, Umberto; Santoro, Massimo Mattia

    2014-05-01

    Heartbeat measurement is important in assesssing cardiac function because variations in heart rhythm can be the cause as well as an effect of hidden pathological heart conditions. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as one of the most useful model organisms for cardiac research. Indeed, the zebrafish heart is easily accessible for optical analyses without conducting invasive procedures and shows anatomical similarity to the human heart. In this study, we present a non-invasive, simple, cost-effective process to quantify the heartbeat in embryonic zebrafish. To achieve reproducibility, high throughput and flexibility (i.e., adaptability to any existing confocal microscope system and with a user-friendly interface that can be easily used by researchers), we implemented this method within a software program. We show here that this platform, called ZebraBeat, can successfully detect heart rate variations in embryonic zebrafish at various developmental stages, and it can record cardiac rate fluctuations induced by factors such as temperature and genetic- and chemical-induced alterations. Applications of this methodology may include the screening of chemical libraries affecting heart rhythm and the identification of heart rhythm variations in mutants from large-scale forward genetic screens.

  15. Switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a zebra shark

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Christine L.; Coulton, Laura; Bone, Ren; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Thomas, Severine

    2017-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which embryos develop in the absence of fertilisation. Most commonly found in plants and invertebrate organisms, an increasing number of vertebrate species have recently been reported employing this reproductive strategy. Here we use DNA genotyping to report the first demonstration of an intra-individual switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a shark species, the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. A co-housed, sexually produced daughter zebra shark also commenced parthenogenetic reproduction at the onset of maturity without any prior mating. The demonstration of parthenogenesis in these two conspecific individuals with different sexual histories provides further support that elasmobranch fishes may flexibly adapt their reproductive strategy to environmental circumstances. PMID:28091617

  16. Switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a zebra shark.

    PubMed

    Dudgeon, Christine L; Coulton, Laura; Bone, Ren; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Thomas, Severine

    2017-01-16

    Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which embryos develop in the absence of fertilisation. Most commonly found in plants and invertebrate organisms, an increasing number of vertebrate species have recently been reported employing this reproductive strategy. Here we use DNA genotyping to report the first demonstration of an intra-individual switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a shark species, the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. A co-housed, sexually produced daughter zebra shark also commenced parthenogenetic reproduction at the onset of maturity without any prior mating. The demonstration of parthenogenesis in these two conspecific individuals with different sexual histories provides further support that elasmobranch fishes may flexibly adapt their reproductive strategy to environmental circumstances.

  17. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  18. Heart Rate Sensor for Freshwater Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, C. L.; Vial, D. P.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Lee, H. W.; Schroer, H. W.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested the cardiac activity of mollusks. First, it is important as a basic measure of the animal's metabolism. Further, activities such as feeding and burrowing affect heart rate, as do environmental factors such as water salinity, water temperature, exposure, and predation. We have developed a small, noninvasive sensor for measuring freshwater mussel heart rate. Its working principle is as follows. An infrared (IR) light-emitting diode is placed in contact with the mussel shell. Some of the IR penetrates through the shell, reflects off internal organs, and traverses back. A photodetector detects this IR, and electronics condition the signal. The heartbeat of the animal modulates the IR, allowing one to measure the heart rate. The technique is widely-used in finger heart-rate monitors in humans. The sensors do not have to be positioned above the heart and several locations on the mussel shell work well. The sensor is small (8 mm × 10 mm) and consumes less than 1 mA, and has a simple one-wire interface that allows for easy integration into data acquisition hardware. We present heart rate measurements for the common pocketbook (lampsilis cardium) freshwater mussel.

  19. Laterality of suckling behaviour in three zebra species.

    PubMed

    Pluháček, Jan; Olléová, Michaela; Bartošová, Jitka; Pluháčková, Jana; Bartoš, Luděk

    2013-01-01

    Although side preference while suckling is an easily characterised lateralised behaviour, few studies have been conducted. We observed laterality in suckling behaviour in three captive zebra species to test two hypotheses: laterality affected by the foal (motor laterality) and laterality affected by the mother. In total we observed 35 foals of Grevy's, plains, and mountain zebra in two zoos and recorded 5128 successful suckling bouts and 9095 unsuccessful suckling attempts. At the population level the only factor affecting side preference of suckling bouts and attempts was the identity of the individual foal. Ten foals showed individual preferences: seven foals preferred suckling from the left side of the mother, three preferred suckling from the right side of the mother. The individual preferences increased with increasing age of the foal. Only one foal was refused more often from the opposite side than the preferred side used for suckling whereas three other foals were refused from the preferred side. Foals that preferred suckling either from left or right side were refused by the mare more often than foals which showed non-preference. Thus lateral preferences in suckling behaviour of zebra foals seem to be in line with the motor laterality hypotheses.

  20. Heterospecific discrimination of Poecile vocalizations by zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Guillette, Lauren M; Hoeschele, Marisa; Hahn, Allison H; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2013-08-01

    Previous perceptual research with black-capped and mountain chickadees has demonstrated that the D note of the namesake chick-a-dee call controlled species-based discrimination compared to other note types in this call. In the current experiment, we sought to determine whether discrimination performance of the chickadees was controlled by stimulus-specific properties or due to learning through experience. To accomplish this, we tested zebra finches, a songbird species that is distantly related to chickadees, and also unfamiliar with black-capped and mountain chickadee vocalizations, on the same species-based discrimination on which black-capped and mountain chickadees were previously trained. We found that zebra finches learned the discrimination in the fewest number of trials with the D note, compared to other note types (i.e., the A, B, and C notes). In addition, we compared the current results to earlier work and found that zebra finches learned the discrimination in fewer trials compared to black-capped chickadees, and, across all species, males learned the discrimination in fewer trials than females. We discuss the roles that acoustic complexity and learning play in classification of the three species of songbirds tested. More generally, these results point to the benefits derived from testing members of each sex in species that vary in their natural history, vocal output, and phylogenetic relatedness as a means to uncover the mechanisms underlying acoustic communication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Freshwater mussel response to bedform movement: experimental stream studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozarek, J. L.; MacGregor, K. R.; Hornbach, D.; Hove, M.

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater mussels are intrinsically linked to near-bed sediment dynamics, but it remains unclear how mussels respond to changing sediment loads across spatial and temporal scales. The interactions between mussels and sediment transport are complex and often involve feedback loops. Mussels are filter feeders removing suspended particles from the water column and the physical presence of mussels can have significant impacts on the structure of riverbed habitat. We investigated the feedbacks between mussels, flow, and migrating bedforms during flood experiments in the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory Outdoor StreamLab (OSL) at the University of Minnesota. The OSL is a field-scale sand-bed meandering stream channel with independent control over sediment feed (recirculated) and water flow (diverted from the Mississippi River). Mussel location, orientation to flow, and protrusion from sediment was surveyed immediately before, after, and one and two days after each flood event. Flow fields, bed shear stress, bedform migration, and bar topography were measured during each flooding event with and without mussels present (density = 4/m2 and 8/m2) to quantify the influence of mussels on channel morphology and bedform migration. Mobile bedforms (up to 14 cm high) were present for all flood events with quasi-equilibrium, aggrading, and degrading bed conditions. Mussels moved little horizontally during all flood events, but were shown to move quickly to deeper water after the flood receded. However, mussels moved vertically, burrowing or being buried under mobile bedforms, during each flood event. The research presented here will focus on feedbacks between three mussel species with different shell sculptures, flow conditions, and migrating bedforms during flooding events. These results reveal how freshwater mussels respond to and affect flow and sediment transport during flood events that are difficult to observe in the field.

  2. Valve movement of three species of North American freshwater mussels exposed to elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Caleb T; Hannan, Kelly D; Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Suski, Cory D

    2017-06-01

    Freshwater mussels are at-risk taxa and may be exposed to high levels of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) because of the potential use of CO 2 to control the movement of invasive aquatic fish species. One potential behavioral response to a change in the partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2 ) may be altered valve movement. In this study, three species of mussels were fitted with modified sensors and exposed to two regimes of pCO 2 to define thresholds of impaired valve movement. The first experiment demonstrated that Pyganodon grandis were much more tolerant to rising pCO 2 relative to Lampsilis siliquoidea (acute closure at ∼200,000 μatm in comparison to ∼80,000 μatm). The second experiment consisted of monitoring mussels for 6 days and exposing them to elevated pCO 2 (∼70,000 μatm) over a 2-day period. During exposure to high pCO 2 , Lampsilis cardium were open for nearly the entire high pCO 2 period. Conversely, P. grandis were closed for most of the period following exposure to high pCO 2 . For L. siliquoidea, the number of closures decreased nearly 40-fold during high pCO 2 . The valve movement responses observed suggest species differences, and exposure to elevated pCO 2 requires a reactive response.

  3. Assessment of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena Polymorpha) Infestation Risk Using GIS for Water Basins in the North-West Bulgaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-22

    Rabisha and Ogosta. The species had established reproducing populations and adapted successfully to environmental conditions in these reservoirs. The...assessment. The habitat suitability ranges defined for each of the selected criteria were adapted from Cohen & Weinstein (1998a) (Table 4). Cohen & Weinstein...Reservoir Management 21 (4): 391-402. Golikov, A., & Y. Starobogatov, 1968. Zoogeographical characteristics of the gastropod mollusks of Black and

  4. Are Horses Like Zebras, or Vice Versa? Children's Sensitivity to the Asymmetries of Directional Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chestnut, Eleanor K.; Markman, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Adults exhibit strong preferences when framing symmetrical relations. Adults prefer, for example, "A zebra is like a horse" to "A horse is like a zebra," and "The bicycle is near the building" to "The building is near the bicycle." This is because directional syntax requires more typical or prominent items…

  5. LC-MS Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Tubers Showing Zebra Chip Symptoms

    A new potato disorder called zebra chip (ZC) has been identified in the United States and has been especially problematic in Texas where substantial economic losses have been incurred. Upon frying, ZC tubers develop a dark “zebra chip” pattern of discoloration. LC-MS analysis of symptomatic tubers...

  6. The use of positive reinforcement in training zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum).

    PubMed

    Marranzino, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) was used on 4 adult zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, housed at the Downtown Aquarium, Denver, to determine the ability of zebra sharks to become desensitized to various stimuli associated with veterinary procedures. One male and 3 female sharks were trained for 12 weeks. As a result of PRT, all 4 zebra sharks were desensitized to staying within a closed holding tank off of the main exhibit, the presence of multiple trainers in the closed holding tank, and tactile stimulation. One of the 4 zebra sharks was also successfully desensitized to the presence of a stretcher being brought into the holding tank. All of these procedures are common in veterinary examinations, and it is hoped that desensitization to these stimuli will reduce the stress associated with examinations. The training accomplished has allowed for easier maintenance of the zebra sharks by the aquarium staff and an improvement in the care of the sharks.

  7. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  8. Ocean acidification impacts mussel control on biomineralisation

    PubMed Central

    Fitzer, Susan C.; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Cusack, Maggie; Kamenos, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification is altering the oceanic carbonate saturation state and threatening the survival of marine calcifying organisms. Production of their calcium carbonate exoskeletons is dependent not only on the environmental seawater carbonate chemistry but also the ability to produce biominerals through proteins. We present shell growth and structural responses by the economically important marine calcifier Mytilus edulis to ocean acidification scenarios (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm pCO2). After six months of incubation at 750 µatm pCO2, reduced carbonic anhydrase protein activity and shell growth occurs in M. edulis. Beyond that, at 1000 µatm pCO2, biomineralisation continued but with compensated metabolism of proteins and increased calcite growth. Mussel growth occurs at a cost to the structural integrity of the shell due to structural disorientation of calcite crystals. This loss of structural integrity could impact mussel shell strength and reduce protection from predators and changing environments. PMID:25163895

  9. Ocean acidification impacts mussel control on biomineralisation.

    PubMed

    Fitzer, Susan C; Phoenix, Vernon R; Cusack, Maggie; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2014-08-28

    Ocean acidification is altering the oceanic carbonate saturation state and threatening the survival of marine calcifying organisms. Production of their calcium carbonate exoskeletons is dependent not only on the environmental seawater carbonate chemistry but also the ability to produce biominerals through proteins. We present shell growth and structural responses by the economically important marine calcifier Mytilus edulis to ocean acidification scenarios (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm pCO2). After six months of incubation at 750 µatm pCO2, reduced carbonic anhydrase protein activity and shell growth occurs in M. edulis. Beyond that, at 1000 µatm pCO2, biomineralisation continued but with compensated metabolism of proteins and increased calcite growth. Mussel growth occurs at a cost to the structural integrity of the shell due to structural disorientation of calcite crystals. This loss of structural integrity could impact mussel shell strength and reduce protection from predators and changing environments.

  10. Exploring sex differences in the adult zebra finch brain: In vivo diffusion tensor imaging and ex vivo super-resolution track density imaging.

    PubMed

    Hamaide, Julie; De Groof, Geert; Van Steenkiste, Gwendolyn; Jeurissen, Ben; Van Audekerke, Johan; Naeyaert, Maarten; Van Ruijssevelt, Lisbeth; Cornil, Charlotte; Sijbers, Jan; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2017-02-01

    Zebra finches are an excellent model to study the process of vocal learning, a complex socially-learned tool of communication that forms the basis of spoken human language. So far, structural investigation of the zebra finch brain has been performed ex vivo using invasive methods such as histology. These methods are highly specific, however, they strongly interfere with performing whole-brain analyses and exclude longitudinal studies aimed at establishing causal correlations between neuroplastic events and specific behavioral performances. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to implement an in vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) protocol sensitive enough to detect structural sex differences in the adult zebra finch brain. Voxel-wise comparison of male and female DTI parameter maps shows clear differences in several components of the song control system (i.e. Area X surroundings, the high vocal center (HVC) and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN)), which corroborate previous findings and are in line with the clear behavioral difference as only males sing. Furthermore, to obtain additional insights into the 3-dimensional organization of the zebra finch brain and clarify findings obtained by the in vivo study, ex vivo DTI data of the male and female brain were acquired as well, using a recently established super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) imaging strategy. Interestingly, the SRR-DTI approach led to a marked reduction in acquisition time without interfering with the (spatial and angular) resolution and SNR which enabled to acquire a data set characterized by a 78μm isotropic resolution including 90 diffusion gradient directions within 44h of scanning time. Based on the reconstructed SRR-DTI maps, whole brain probabilistic Track Density Imaging (TDI) was performed for the purpose of super resolved track density imaging, further pushing the resolution up to 40μm isotropic. The DTI and TDI maps realized atlas

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of Strongylus spp. in zebra.

    PubMed

    Els, H J; Malan, F S; Scialdo-Krecek, R C

    1983-12-01

    The external ultrastructure of the anterior and posterior extremities of the nematodes, Strongylus asini , Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus and Strongylus edentatus, was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fresh specimens of S. asini were collected from the caecum, ventral colon and vena portae of Equus burchelli and Equus zebra hartmannae ; S. vulgaris from the caecum, colon and arteria ileocolica of E. burchelli ; S. equinus from the ventral colon of E. z. hartmannae and S. edentatus from the caecum and ventral colon of both zebras , during surveys of parasites in zebras in the Etosha Game Reserve, South West Africa/Namibia, and the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. The worms were cleaned, fixed and mounted by standard methods and photographed in a JEOL JSM - 35C scanning electron microscope (SEM) operating at 12kV . The SEM showed the following differences: the tips of the external leaf-crowns varied and were fine and delicate in S. asini , coarse and broad in S. vulgaris and, in S. equinus and S. edentatus, closely adherent, separating into single elements for half their length. The excretory pores showed only slight variation, and the morphology of the copulatory bursae did not differ from those seen with light microscopy. The genital cones differed markedly: S. asini had a ventral triangular projection and laterally 2 finger-like projections: in S. vulgaris there were numerous bosses on the lateral and ventral aspects of the cone; in S. equinus 2 finger-like processes projected laterocaudally ; and in S. edentatus 2 pairs of papilla-like processes projected laterally on the ventral aspects, and a pair of rounded projections and a pair of hair-like structures adorned the dorsal aspects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Digital gene expression analysis of the zebra finch genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to understand patterns of adaptation and molecular evolution it is important to quantify both variation in gene expression and nucleotide sequence divergence. Gene expression profiling in non-model organisms has recently been facilitated by the advent of massively parallel sequencing technology. Here we investigate tissue specific gene expression patterns in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) with special emphasis on the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Results Almost 2 million 454-sequencing reads from cDNA of six different tissues were assembled and analysed. A total of 11,793 zebra finch transcripts were represented in this EST data, indicating a transcriptome coverage of about 65%. There was a positive correlation between the tissue specificity of gene expression and non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution ratio of genes, suggesting that genes with a specialised function are evolving at a higher rate (or with less constraint) than genes with a more general function. In line with this, there was also a negative correlation between overall expression levels and expression specificity of contigs. We found evidence for expression of 10 different genes related to the MHC. MHC genes showed relatively tissue specific expression levels and were in general primarily expressed in spleen. Several MHC genes, including MHC class I also showed expression in brain. Furthermore, for all genes with highest levels of expression in spleen there was an overrepresentation of several gene ontology terms related to immune function. Conclusions Our study highlights the usefulness of next-generation sequence data for quantifying gene expression in the genome as a whole as well as in specific candidate genes. Overall, the data show predicted patterns of gene expression profiles and molecular evolution in the zebra finch genome. Expression of MHC genes in particular, corresponds well with expression patterns in other vertebrates

  13. "Bird Song Metronomics": Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm.

    PubMed

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a "signal-derived pulse," or pulse(S), of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulse(S) significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulse(P)), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulses(S) that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulse(S) periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel

  14. Mussel byssus attachment weakened by ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; George, Matthew N.; Carrington, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials connect organisms to their environments. Their function depends on biological, chemical and environmental factors, both at the time of creation and throughout the life of the material. Shifts in the chemistry of the oceans driven by anthropogenic CO2 (termed ocean acidification) have profound implications for the function of critical materials formed under these altered conditions. Most ocean acidification studies have focused on one biomaterial (secreted calcium carbonate), frequently using a single assay (net rate of calcification) to quantify whether reductions in environmental pH alter how organisms create biomaterials. Here, we examine biological structures critical for the success of ecologically and economically important bivalve molluscs. One non-calcified material, the proteinaceous byssal threads that anchor mytilid mussels to hard substrates, exhibited reduced mechanical performance when secreted under elevated pCO2 conditions, whereas shell and tissue growth were unaffected. Threads made under high pCO2 (>1,200μatm) were weaker and less extensible owing to compromised attachment to the substratum. According to a mathematical model, this reduced byssal fibre performance, decreasing individual tenacity by 40%. In the face of ocean acidification, weakened attachment presents a potential challenge for suspension-culture mussel farms and for intertidal communities anchored by mussel beds.

  15. Annually recurring parthenogenesis in a zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D P; Baverstock, W; Al-Jaru, A; Hyland, K; Khazanehdari, K A

    2011-11-01

    A zebra shark, Stegostoma fasciatum, held in captivity at the Burj Al Arab aquarium, produced embryos and pups in the absence of a male. A total of 15 pups were produced from eggs laid within the aquarium over a period of four consecutive years commencing 2007. Parthenogenesis was confirmed through DNA analysis for three pups sampled during the first two consecutive egg cycles and is presumed to be the method of reproduction responsible thereafter. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Relationships between community structure of freshwater mussels and host fishes in a central Ohio watershed

    The diversity of freshwater mussel communities has declined over the past several decades within watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Host fishes play an important role in the life cycle of freshwater mussels because they serve as hosts for parasitic mussel larvae to ensure successful mussel ...

  17. North American freshwater mussels: natural history, ecology, and conservation

    Wendell R. Haag

    2012-01-01

    Interest in freshwater mussels is growing for two important reasons. First, freshwater mussels are among the most endangered organisms on Earth, and many species are already extinct or face imminent extinction. Their desperate conservation plight has gained intense interest from natural resource agencies, nongovernmental conservation organizations, academia, and...

  18. PIT tags increase effectiveness of freshwater mussel recaptures

    Kurth, J.; Loftin, C.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Rhymer, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Translocations are used increasingly to conserve populations of rare freshwater mussels. Recovery of translocated mussels is essential to accurate assessment of translocation success. We designed an experiment to evaluate the use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to mark and track individual freshwater mussels. We used eastern lampmussels (Lampsilis radiata radiata) as a surrogate for 2 rare mussel species. We assessed internal and external PIT-tag retention in the laboratory and field. Internal tag retention was high (75-100%), and tag rejection occurred primarily during the first 3 wk after tagging. A thin layer of nacre coated internal tags 3 to 4 mo after insertion, suggesting that long-term retention is likely. We released mussels with external PIT tags at 3 field study sites and recaptured them with a PIT pack (mobile interrogation unit) 8 to 10 mo and 21 to 23 mo after release. Numbers of recaptured mussels differed among study sites; however, we found more tagged mussels with the PIT-pack searches with visual confirmation (72-80%) than with visual searches alone (30-47%) at all sites. PIT tags offer improved recapture of translocated mussels and increased accuracy of posttranslocation monitoring. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  19. Variation in fecundity and other reproductive traits in freshwater mussels

    Wendell R. Haag; J. Leann Staton

    2003-01-01

    1. Life histories of the highly diverse and endangered North American freshwater mussel fauna are poorly known. We investigated reproductive traits of eight riverine mussel species in Alabama and Mississippi, U.S.A.: Amblema plicata, Elliptio arca, Fusconaia cerina, Lampsilis ornata, Obliquaria reflexa, Pleurobema decisum, Quadrula asperata and

  20. Evaluation of the mussel fishery in Wheeler Reservoir, Tennessee River

    Bowen, Zack H.; Malvestuto, S. P.; Davies, W. D.; Crance, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the freshwater mussel fishery on Wheeler Reservoir, a 27,155-hectare mainstream impoundment of the Tennessee River in Alabama. During July 1991 through June 1992, we used a roving creel survey to conduct 285 interviews over 57 weekdays and 12 weekend days. Total harvest during the 12-month survey period was estimated to be 570 metric tons, and included 15 mussel species. The most frequently harvested species were the washboard Megalonaias nervosa. Ohio pigtoe Pleurobema cordatum, and butterfly Ellipsaria lineolata. Harvest peaked in June at 290,414 mussels. Among collection techniques, total estimated effort was highest for divers (71,160 musseler-hours). The total estimated value of the 12-month mussel harvest (in terms of money paid to harvesters) from Wheeler Reservoir was US$2,119,921.

  1. Amygdala and socio-sexual behavior in male zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Ikebuchi, Maki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Neuroanatomical studies including pathway tracing and cytochemical characterizations have suggested that the avian nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA) might be homologous to a part of the mammalian medial amygdala. Recent behavioral observations in TnA-lesioned birds also reported deficits in the control of motivational aspects of behavior, advancing the concept of homology of the structure in the two classes of animals. To further examine the functional role of TnA, we used a highly social, monogamous song bird species, the zebra finch, for our experiments. Male birds received a focal lesion of TnA, and several aspects of socio-sexual behavior of these animals were compared with control bird behavior. We found that zebra finch males with TnA lesions were never chosen as sexual partners by a female in a triadic situation with another male because they showed less sexually motivated behavior. Because such sexually motivated behavior was shown in dyadic situations with a lesioned male and a female, however, and females in this situation also showed pair bonding behavior towards the lesioned males, TnA might be involved in other behaviors, not just sexual behavior towards females. Instead, it might play a role in the control of a variety of social encounters including male-female and male-male interactions. This research clearly indicates that TnA, by its involvement in the control of socio-sexual behavior, is functionally comparable with the mammalian medial amygdala. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Zebra pattern in decametric radio emission of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, M.; Rošker, S.; Rucker, H. O.; Brazhenko, A.; Zarka, P.; Litvinenko, G.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Melnik, V.; Franzuzenko, A. V.; Schiemel, J.

    2018-03-01

    We report the systematic analysis of zebra-like fine spectral structures in decametric frequency range of Jovian radio emission. Observations were performed by the large ground-based radio telescope URAN-2 during three observation campaigns between, Sep., 2012, and May, 2015. In total, 51 zebra pattern (ZP) events were detected. These rare fine radio features are observed in frequency range from 12.5 to 29.7 MHz as quasi-harmonically related bands of enhanced brightness. ZPs are strongly polarized radio emission with a duration from 20 s to 290 s and flux densities 105-106 Jy (normalized to 1 AU), that is, 1-2 orders lower than for Io-decametric radio emission (DAM). Occurrence of the events does not depend on the position of Io satellite but is strongly controlled by the Jovian central meridian longitude (CML). ZPs are mainly detected in two active sectors of Jovian CMLs: 100∘ to 160∘ for Northern sources (right-handed polarized) and 300∘ and 60∘ (via 360∘) for the Southern sources (left-handed). The frequency interval between neighboring stripes is from 0.26 to 1.5 MHz and in most cases this interval increases with frequency. We discussed the double plasma resonance with electrons or ions as a possible source of the ZPs. The performed analysis of the observations allows us to conclude that the observed ZPs are a new type of narrow band spectral structures in the Jovian DAM.

  3. Amyloidosis in a Captive Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Research Colony

    PubMed Central

    Shientag, Lisa J; Garlick, David S; Galati, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Five birds in a captive zebra finch research colony were diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis within a 7-mo period by means of postmortem Congo red staining and green birefringence under polarized light. The liver was the most frequently and usually the most seriously affected organ, followed by the spleen and then the kidney. All 5 birds had been clinically affected with various inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic conditions associated with amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in humans and animals. Immunohistochemistry using antisera against duck AA protein revealed that tissues from 2 of the 5 birds were positive for the presence of AA protein and systemic inflammation-associated amyloidosis. Although the development of AA amyloidosis has been associated with chronic inflammation, trauma, and various infectious and neoplastic diseases as well as possible genetic predispositions and stresses linked to overcrowding, the root causes for individual cases of AA amyloidosis are incompletely understood. As far as we know, this report is the first description of AA amyloidosis in captive, research zebra finches. PMID:27298248

  4. Evolutionary Analysis and Expression Profiling of Zebra Finch Immune Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ekblom, Robert; French, Lisa; Slate, Jon; Burke, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Genes of the immune system are generally considered to evolve rapidly due to host–parasite coevolution. They are therefore of great interest in evolutionary biology and molecular ecology. In this study, we manually annotated 144 avian immune genes from the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome and conducted evolutionary analyses of these by comparing them with their orthologs in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Genes classified as immune receptors showed elevated dN/dS ratios compared with other classes of immune genes. Immune genes in general also appear to be evolving more rapidly than other genes, as inferred from a higher dN/dS ratio compared with the rest of the genome. Furthermore, ten genes (of 27) for which sequence data were available from at least three bird species showed evidence of positive selection acting on specific codons. From transcriptome data of eight different tissues, we found evidence for expression of 106 of the studied immune genes, with primary expression of most of these in bursa, blood, and spleen. These immune-related genes showed a more tissue-specific expression pattern than other genes in the zebra finch genome. Several of the avian immune genes investigated here provide strong candidates for in-depth studies of molecular adaptation in birds. PMID:20884724

  5. Zebra finches are able to learn affixation-like patterns.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiani; Jansen, Naomi; ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Adding an affix to transform a word is common across the world languages, with the edges of words more likely to carry out such a function. However, detecting affixation patterns is also observed in learning tasks outside the domain of language, suggesting that the underlying mechanism from which affixation patterns have arisen may not be language or even human specific. We addressed whether a songbird, the zebra finch, is able to discriminate between, and generalize, affixation-like patterns. Zebra finches were trained and tested in a Go/Nogo paradigm to discriminate artificial song element sequences resembling prefixed and suffixed 'words.' The 'stems' of the 'words,' consisted of different combinations of a triplet of song elements, to which a fourth element was added as either a 'prefix' or a 'suffix.' After training, the birds were tested with novel stems, consisting of either rearranged familiar element types or novel element types. The birds were able to generalize the affixation patterns to novel stems with both familiar and novel element types. Hence, the discrimination resulting from the training was not based on memorization of individual stimuli, but on a shared property among Go or Nogo stimuli, i.e., affixation patterns. Remarkably, birds trained with suffixation as Go pattern showed clear evidence of using both prefix and suffix, while those trained with the prefix as the Go stimulus used primarily the prefix. This finding illustrates that an asymmetry in attending to different affixations is not restricted to human languages.

  6. Staged Z-pinch Experiments on Cobra and Zebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Anderson, A.; Banasek, J. T.; Byvank, T.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Dutra, E.; Glebov, V.; Greenly, J.; Hammer, D. A.; Potter, W. M.; Rocco, S. V.; Ross, M. P.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; Covington, A.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2017-10-01

    A Staged Z-pinch (SZP), configured as a pre-magnetized, high-Z (Ar, or Kr) annular liner imploding onto a low-Z (H, or D) target, was tested on the Cornell University, Cobra Facility and the University of Nevada, Reno, Zebra Facility; each characterized similarly by a nominal 1-MA current and 100-ns risetime while possessing different diagnostic packages. XUV-fast imaging reveals that the SZP implosion dynamics is similar on both machines and that it is more stable with an axial (Bz) magnetic field, a target, or both, than without. On Zebra, where neutron production is possible, reproducible thermonuclear (DD) yields were recorded at levels in excess of 109/shot. Flux compression in the SZP is also expected to produce magnetic field intensities of the order of kilo-Tesla. Thus, the DD reaction produced tritions should also yield secondary DT neutrons. Indeed, secondaries are measured above the noise threshold at levels approaching 106/shot. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.

  7. Colour preferences in nest-building zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D

    2013-10-01

    Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one colour to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular colours of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one colour of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material colour with their preferences for food of the same colours. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular colours of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one colour over the other colours. It appears, then, that a preference for one colour or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heavy metal contamination along the China coastline: A comprehensive study using Artificial Mussels and native mussels.

    PubMed

    Degger, Natalie; Chiu, Jill M Y; Po, Beverly H K; Tse, Anna C K; Zheng, Gene J; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xu, Di; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Wen-Hua; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2016-09-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out to assess metal contamination in five cities spanning from temperate to tropical environment along the coastal line of China with different hydrographical conditions. At each of the five cities, Artificial Mussels (AM) were deployed together with a native species of mussel at a control site and a polluted site. High levels of Cr, Cu and Hg were found in Qingdao, high level of Cd, Hg and Pb was found in Shanghai, and high level of Zn was found in Dalian. Furthermore, level of Cu contamination in all the five cities was consistently much higher than those reported in similar studies in other countries (e.g., Australia, Portugal, Scotland, Iceland, Korea, South Africa and Bangladesh). Levels of individual metal species in the AM showed a highly significant correlation with that in the native mussels (except for Zn in Mytilus edulis and Cd in Perna viridis), while no significant difference can be found between the regression relationships of metal in the AM and each of the two native mussel species. The results demonstrated that AM can provide a reliable time-integrated estimate of metal concentration in contrasting environments over large biogeographic areas and different hydrographic conditions, and overcome the shortcomings of monitoring metals in water, sediment and the use of biomonitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating Invasives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  10. Retrospective environmental biomonitoring - Mussel Watch expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, Bernd R.; Krause, Richard A.

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring bioavailable contaminants and determining baseline conditions in aquatic environments has become an important aspect of ecology and ecotoxicology. Since the mid-1970s and the initiation of the Mussel Watch program, this has been successfully accomplished with bivalve mollusks. These (mostly) sessile organisms reliably and proportionately record changes of a range of organic and inorganic pollutants occurring in the water, food or sediment. The great majority of studies have measured the concentration of pollutants in soft tissues and, to a much lesser extent, in whole shells or fractions thereof. Both approaches come with several drawbacks. Neither soft tissues nor whole shells can resolve temporal changes of the pollution history, except through the analysis of multiple specimens collected at different times. Soft tissues and shell fractions provide time-averaged data spanning months or years, and whole shells time-averaged data over the entire lifespan of the animal. Even with regular sampling of multiple specimens over long intervals of time, the resulting chronology may not faithfully resolve short-term changes of water quality. Compounding the problem, whole shell averages tend to be non-arithmetic and non-linear, because shell growth rate varies through seasons and lifetime, and different shell layers often vary ultrastructurally and can thus be chemically different from each other. Mussel Watch could greatly benefit from the potential of bivalve shells in providing high-resolution, temporally aligned archives of environmental variability. So far, only circa a dozen studies have demonstrated that the sclerochronological approach - i.e., combined growth pattern and high-resolution chemical analyses - can provide sub-seasonally to annually resolved time-series documenting the history of pollution over centuries and even millennia. On the other hand, the sclerochronological community has failed to fully appreciate that the formation of the shell and

  11. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25??C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45??C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25??C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447-615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179-289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7-38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15-35??C) and durations (15-60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  12. Influence of Cladophora-Quagga Mussel Assemblages on Nearshore Methylmercury Production in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Lepak, Ryan F; Krabbenhoft, David P; Ogorek, Jacob M; Tate, Michael T; Bootsma, Harvey A; Hurley, James P

    2015-07-07

    Recent spread of invasive mussels in Lake Michigan has altered primary productivity in the nearshore zone, resulting in proliferation of filamentous benthic green algae (Cladophora glomerata). In areas of dense Cladophora and quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) assemblages, as well as in regions where sloughed Cladophora accumulates, methylmercury (MeHg) production is enhanced. A shoreline transect from a river mouth through waters overlying Cladophora/quagga-rich zones showed that aqueous MeHg concentrations increased, despite river dilution. Cladophora, as primary producers, ranged from 0.6 to 7.5 ng g(-1) MeHg [4-47% of total mercury (Hg) as MeHg], and were higher than MeHg concentrations in offshore-collected seston. Concentrations of MeHg in decaying Cladophora accumulated onshore ranged from 2.6 to 18.0 ng g(-1) MeHg (18-41% as MeHg) and from 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1) MeHg (2-21% as MeHg) in deposits of recently sloughed and accumulated Cladophora in a nearshore topographical depression. Relative to offshore open waters, interstitial waters within decaying Cladophora from onshore and nearshore deposits were elevated in MeHg concentration, 1000- and 10-fold, respectively. Percent Hg as MeHg was also elevated (65-75% and 9-19%, respectively for onshore interstitial water and nearshore interstitial water, compared to 0.2-3.3% as MeHg for open water). Quagga mussels collected within growing Cladophora beds in the nearshore zone were significantly higher in MeHg than offshore counterparts. Our combined results suggest that recent changes in nearshore primary production contributes to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in Lake Michigan.

  13. What makes a healthy environment for native freshwater mussels?

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are sensitive to contamination of sediment that they inhabit and to the water that they filter, making the presence of live, adult mussels an excellent indicator of ecosystem health and stability. Freshwater mussels are relatively immobile, imbedded in the streambed with part of the shell sticking up into the water so that they can filter water to obtain oxygen and food. This lack of mobility makes them particularly vulnerable to water and sediment contamination, changes in sedimentation, or prolonged drought. Thus, ecosystem health and stability are critical for their reproduction and survival.

  14. Kin recognition and adjustment of reproductive effort in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Arct, Aneta; Rutkowska, Joanna; Martyka, Rafal; Drobniak, Szymon M; Cichon, Mariusz

    2010-12-23

    The differential allocation theory predicts that females should invest more in offspring produced with attractive partners, and a number of studies support this prediction in birds. Females have been shown to increase reproductive investment when mated to males showing elaborated sexual traits. However, mate attractiveness might also depend on the interaction between male and female genotypes. Accordingly, females should invest more in offspring sired by individuals that are genetically dissimilar or carry superior alleles. Here, we show in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that pairs of unfamiliar genetic brothers and sisters are less likely to reproduce in comparison with randomly mated pairs. Among the brother-sister pairs, those that attempted to breed laid smaller clutches and of lower total clutch mass. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that females adjust their reproductive effort in response to the genetic similarity of their partners. Importantly, these results imply a female ability to assess relatedness of a social mate without prior association.

  15. Kin recognition and adjustment of reproductive effort in zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Arct, Aneta; Rutkowska, Joanna; Martyka, Rafał; Drobniak, Szymon M.; Cichoń, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    The differential allocation theory predicts that females should invest more in offspring produced with attractive partners, and a number of studies support this prediction in birds. Females have been shown to increase reproductive investment when mated to males showing elaborated sexual traits. However, mate attractiveness might also depend on the interaction between male and female genotypes. Accordingly, females should invest more in offspring sired by individuals that are genetically dissimilar or carry superior alleles. Here, we show in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that pairs of unfamiliar genetic brothers and sisters are less likely to reproduce in comparison with randomly mated pairs. Among the brother–sister pairs, those that attempted to breed laid smaller clutches and of lower total clutch mass. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that females adjust their reproductive effort in response to the genetic similarity of their partners. Importantly, these results imply a female ability to assess relatedness of a social mate without prior association. PMID:20573618

  16. Transformation of temporal sequences in the zebra finch auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yoonseob; Lagoy, Ryan; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Gardner, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how temporally patterned stimuli are transformed as they propagate from primary to secondary zones in the thalamorecipient auditory pallium in zebra finches. Using a new class of synthetic click stimuli, we find a robust mapping from temporal sequences in the primary zone to distinct population vectors in secondary auditory areas. We tested whether songbirds could discriminate synthetic click sequences in an operant setup and found that a robust behavioral discrimination is present for click sequences composed of intervals ranging from 11 ms to 40 ms, but breaks down for stimuli composed of longer inter-click intervals. This work suggests that the analog of the songbird auditory cortex transforms temporal patterns to sequence-selective population responses or ‘spatial codes', and that these distinct population responses contribute to behavioral discrimination of temporally complex sounds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18205.001 PMID:27897971

  17. Ruinous resident: the hydroid Ectopleura crocea negatively affects suspended culture of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Fitridge, Isla; Keough, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Hydroids are major biofouling organisms in global aquaculture. Colonies of the hydroid Ectopleura crocea have recently established in Australian commercial mussel leases culturing Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study examined the impacts of E. crocea on mussel culture at two stages of the production cycle: spatfall and grow-out. Hydroids most commonly fouled the body, edge and dorsal regions of the mussel shell and cause a reduction in the length (4%) and weight (23%) of juvenile mussels. They also consumed mussel larvae in the field and in the laboratory. Prey numbers of many taxa, including mussel larvae, were consistent in natural hydroid diets regardless of the temporal variation in prey availability, implying some selectivity in hydroid feeding. In the laboratory, E. crocea consumed settling plantigrade mussel larvae more readily than trochophore or veliger larvae. Fouling by E. crocea is detrimental to mussel condition, and may affect the availability of wild mussel larvae in the commercial culture of M. galloprovincialis.

  18. Inhibition between invasives: a newly introduced predator moderates the impacts of a previously established invasive predator.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D; Guy, Travis; Buck, Julia C

    2008-01-01

    1. With continued globalization, species are being transported and introduced into novel habitats at an accelerating rate. Interactions between invasive species may provide important mechanisms that moderate their impacts on native species. 2. The European green crab Carcinus maenas is an aggressive predator that was introduced to the east coast of North America in the mid-1800 s and is capable of rapid consumption of bivalve prey. A newer invasive predator, the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus, was first discovered on the Atlantic coast in the 1980s, and now inhabits many of the same regions as C. maenas within the Gulf of Maine. Using a series of field and laboratory investigations, we examined the consequences of interactions between these predators. 3. Density patterns of these two species at different spatial scales are consistent with negative interactions. As a result of these interactions, C. maenas alters its diet to consume fewer mussels, its preferred prey, in the presence of H. sanguineus. Decreased mussel consumption in turn leads to lower growth rates for C. maenas, with potential detrimental effects on C. maenas populations. 4. Rather than an invasional meltdown, this study demonstrates that, within the Gulf of Maine, this new invasive predator can moderate the impacts of the older invasive predator.

  19. Lethal and sub-lethal responses of native freshwater mussels exposed to granular Bayluscide®, a sea lamprey larvicide

    Newton, Teresa; Boogaard, Michael A.; Gray, Brian R.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Schloesser, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) poses a substantial threat to fish communities in the Great Lakes. Efforts to control sea lamprey populations typically involve treating tributary streams with lampricides on a recurring cycle. The presence of a substantial population of larval sea lampreys in the aquatic corridor between Lakes Huron and Erie prompted managers to propose a treatment using the granular formulation of Bayluscide® that targets larval sea lampreys that reside in sediments. However, these treatments could cause adverse effects on native freshwater mussels—imperiled animals that also reside in sediments. We estimated the risk of mortality and sub-lethal effects among eight species of adult and sub-adult mussels exposed to Bayluscide® for durations up to 8 h to mimic field applications. Mortality was appreciable in some species, especially in sub-adults (range, 23–51%). The lethal and sub-lethal effects were positively associated with the duration of exposure in most species and life stage combinations. Estimates of the median time of exposure that resulted in lethal and sub-lethal effects suggest that sub-adults were often affected by Bayluscide® earlier than adults. Siphoning activity and burrowing position of mussels during exposure may have moderated the uptake of Bayluscide® and may have influenced lethal and sub-lethal responses. Given that the various species and life stages were differentially affected, it will be difficult to predict the effects of Bayluscide® treatments on mussels.

  20. Lethal and sublethal responses of native mussels (Unionidae: Lampsilis siliquoidea and L. higginsii) to elevated carbon dioxide

    Waller, Diane L.; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Jackson, Craig

    2018-01-01

    Levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) that have been proposed for aquatic invasive species (AIS) control [24 000 – 96 000 µatm partial pressure CO2 (PCO2); 1 atm = 101.325 kPa] were tested on juvenile mussels, the Fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and the U.S. federally endangered Higgins Eye (L. higginsii). A suite of responses (survival, growth, behavior, and gene expression) were measured after 28-d exposure and 14-d postexposure to CO2. The 28-d LC20 (lethal concentration to 20%) was lower for L. higginsii (31 800 µatm PCO2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 15 000 – 42 800 µatm) than for L. siliquoidea (58 200 µatm PCO2, 95% CI 45 200 – 68 100 µatm). Treatment-related reductions occurred in all measures of growth and condition. Expression of chitin synthase, key for shell formation, was down-regulated at 28-d exposure. Carbon dioxide caused narcotization and unburial of mussels, behaviors that could increase mortality by predation and displacement. We conclude that survival and growth of juvenile mussels could be reduced by continuous exposure to elevated CO2, but recovery may be possible in shorter duration exposure.

  1. Invasive Candidiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida . Unlike Candida ... mouth and throat (also called “thrush”) or vaginal “yeast infections,” invasive candidiasis is a serious infection that ...

  2. Environmental Impact Research Program. An Instruction Report on Freshwater Mussels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    34Greater Adaptability of Fresh-Water Mussels to Natural Rather Than to Artificial Displacement," The Nautilus Vol 86, pp 76-79. Isom, B. G. 1980...cotizing and Anaesthetizing Gastropods ," Malacologia 2: 231-238. van der Schalie, H. 1953. "Nembutal as a Relaxing Agent for Mollusks," The American...of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. Imlay, M. J. 1972. "Greater Adaptability of Freshwater Mussels to Natural Rather Than to Artificial Displacement

  3. Susceptibility and antibody response of the laboratory model zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) to West Nile Virus

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999 a number of passerine bird species have been found to play a role in the amplification of the virus. Arbovirus surveillance, observational studies and experimental studies have implicated passerine birds (songbirds, e.g., crows, American robins, house sparrows, and house finches) as significant reservoirs of WNV in North America, yet we lack a tractable passerine animal model for controlled studies of the virus. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) serves as a model system across a diversity of fields, and here we develop the zebra finch a songbird model for WNV. Like many natural hosts of WNV, we found that zebra finches developed sufficient viremia to serve as a competent host, yet in general resisted mortality from infection. In the Australian zebra finch (AZF) T. g. castanotis, we detected WNV in the majority of sampled tissues by 4 days post injection (dpi). However, WNV was not detected in tissues of sacrificed birds at 14 dpi, shortly after the development of detectable anti-WNV antibodies in the majority of birds indicating successful viral clearance. We compared susceptibility between the two zebra finch subspecies AZF and Timor zebra finch (TZF) T. g. guttata. Compared to AZF, WNV RNA was detected in a larger proportion of challenged TZF and molecular detection of virus in the serum of TZF was significantly higher than in AZF. Given the observed moderate host competence and disease susceptibility, we suggest that zebra finches are appropriate as models for the study of WNV and although underutilized in this respect, may be ideal models for the study of the many diseases carried and transmitted by songbirds.

  4. Zebra stripes in the Atacama Desert: Fossil evidence of overland flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Justine J.; Dietrich, William E.; Nishiizumi, Kuni; Chong, Guillermo; Amundson, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Some hillslopes in the hyperarid region of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile have surface clasts organized into distinct, contour-parallel bands separated by bare soil. We call the bands "zebra stripes" due to the contrast between the darkly varnished clasts and the light-colored, salt-rich soil. Gravel that comprises the zebra stripes is sorted such that the coarsest clasts are at the downslope front and fine progressively upslope. How and when the zebra stripes formed are perplexing questions, particularly in a region experiencing prolonged hyperaridity. Using GoogleEarth, satellite imagery, and field observations, we report the first quantitative and qualitative observations of zebra stripes in order to test hypotheses of the mechanisms and timing of their formation. We consider soil shrink-swell, seismic shaking, and overland flow as possible formation mechanisms, and find that overland flow is the most likely. Based on cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in surface clasts, salt deposition rates from the atmosphere, and content in the soils, we propose that the salt-rich soils began accumulating ~ 106 y ago and the zebra stripes formed 103-104 y at the latest. The zebra stripe pattern has been preserved due to the self-stabilization of the clasts within the stripes and the continued absence of life (which would disturb the surface, as seen at a wetter site to the south). We conclude that the occurrence of zebra stripes is diagnostic of a set of distinct characteristics of local and/or regional precipitation, soil, hillslope form, and bedrock type.

  5. Native Mussels Alter Nutrient Availability and Reduce Blue ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nutrient cycling is a key process that ties all organisms together. This is especially apparent in stream environments in which nutrients are taken up readily and cycled through the system in a downstream trajectory. Ecological stoichiometry predicts that biogeochemical cycles of different elements are interdependent because the organisms that drive these cycles require fixed ratios of nutrients. There is growing recognition that animals play an important role in biogeochemical cycling across ecosystems. In particular, dense aggregations of consumers can create biogeochemical hotspots in aquatic ecosystems via nutrient translocation. We predicted that filter-feeding freshwater mussels, which occur as speciose, high biomass aggregates, would create biogeochemical hotspots in streams by altering nutrient limitation and algal dynamics. In a field study, we manipulated nitrogen and phosphorus using nutrient-diffusing substrates in areas with high and low mussel abundance, recorded algal growth and community composition, and determined in situ mussel excretion stoichiometry at 18 sites in 3 rivers (Kiamichi, Little, and Mt. Fork rivers, southcentral U.S.). Our results indicate that mussels greatly influence ecosystem processes by modifying the nutrients that limit primary productivity. Sites without mussels were N-limited with ~26% higher abundances of N-fixing blue-green algae, while sites with high mussel densities were co-limited (N and P) and dominated by diatoms

  6. Characterization of host plant resistance to zebra chip disease from species-derived potato genotypes and the identification of new sources of zebra chip resistance

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), an uncultivable phloem-limited phytopathogenic bacterium, is known to be associated with Zebra Chip disease (ZC), which represents a major threat to potato production in the US and elsewhere. This pathogen is transmitted by the phloem-feeding potato psyl...

  7. Effects of temperature change on mussel, Mytilus.

    PubMed

    Zippay, Mackenzie L; Helmuth, Brian

    2012-09-01

    An increasing body of research has demonstrated the often idiosyncratic responses of organisms to climate-related factors, such as increases in air, sea and land surface temperatures, especially when coupled with non-climatic stressors. This argues that sweeping generalizations about the likely impacts of climate change on organisms and ecosystems are likely less valuable than process-based explorations that focus on key species and ecosystems. Mussels in the genus Mytilus have been studied for centuries, and much is known of their physiology and ecology. Like other intertidal organisms, these animals may serve as early indicators of climate change impacts. As structuring species, their survival has cascading impacts on many other species, making them ecologically important, in addition to their economic value as a food source. Here, we briefly review the categories of information available on the effects of temperature change on mussels within this genus. Although a considerable body of information exists about the genus in general, knowledge gaps still exist, specifically in our ability to predict how specific populations are likely to respond to the effects of multiple stressors, both climate and non-climate related, and how these changes are likely to result in ecosystem-level responses. Whereas this genus provides an excellent model for exploring the effects of climate change on natural and human-managed ecosystems, much work remains if we are to make predictions of likely impacts of environmental change on scales that are relevant to climate adaptation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  8. Assessing the Exposure and Relative Sensitivity of Native Freshwater Mussels to Environmental Stressors and Laboratory Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Expands the database for pesticide toxicity on native freshwater mussels. 2. Aids in determining any potential differences in toxic sensitivity of gravid female mussel attributed to age and laboratory holding times. 3. Aids in determining potential differences in juvenile ...

  9. How the zebra got its stripes: a problem with too many solutions

    PubMed Central

    Larison, Brenda; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Thomassen, Henri A.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Li, Elizabeth; Smith, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive significance of zebra stripes has thus far eluded understanding. Many explanations have been suggested, including social cohesion, thermoregulation, predation evasion and avoidance of biting flies. Identifying the associations between phenotypic and environmental factors is essential for testing these hypotheses and substantiating existing experimental evidence. Plains zebra striping pattern varies regionally, from heavy black and white striping over the entire body in some areas to reduced stripe coverage with thinner and lighter stripes in others. We examined how well 29 environmental variables predict the variation in stripe characteristics of plains zebra across their range in Africa. In contrast to recent findings, we found no evidence that striping may have evolved to escape predators or avoid biting flies. Instead, we found that temperature successfully predicts a substantial amount of the stripe pattern variation observed in plains zebra. As this association between striping and temperature may be indicative of multiple biological processes, we suggest that the selective agents driving zebra striping are probably multifarious and complex. PMID:26064590

  10. Zebra textures in carbonate rocks: Fractures produced by the force of crystallization during mineral replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Malcolm W.; Hood, Ashleigh v. S.

    2018-06-01

    Zebra textures are enigmatic banded fabrics that occur in many carbonate-hosted ore deposits, dolomite hydrocarbon reservoirs and carbonate successions globally. They consist of a variety of minerals and are characterised by parallel light and dark bands that occur at a millimetre- to centimetre-scale. Based on petrological evidence, there is general consensus that the dark bands formed by replacement of the carbonate host rock. Historically, more contention surrounds the origin of the light bands, but the dominant view is that these are mineral-filled cavities, which is supported by overwhelming textural evidence. Overall, the feature common to all versions of zebra textures is mineral replacement of the original carbonate host. We suggest that mineral replacement (and the force of crystallization) in association with open space generation is a viable mechanism for the development of zebra cavity systems. Dissolution and open space generation in either evaporites or carbonates adjacent to the site of replacement reactions is necessary to remove the confining pressure from the rock and to allow the development of fractures. The pressure of the growing replacement crystals within the carbonate pervasively splits the carbonate apart, producing thin strips of carbonate surrounded by open space. The fractures may then be subject to dissolution and are later filled by cements. Very regular stratabound zebra textures (as found in ore deposits like Cadjebut, Australia and San Vicente, Peru) may be related to stratabound dissolution (of evaporites or carbonates), whereas irregularly distributed zebra textures are more likely to be associated with irregular carbonate dissolution.

  11. The disassociation of visual and acoustic conspecific cues decreases discrimination by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dana L M; Hauber, Mark E

    2009-08-01

    Female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) use visual and acoustic traits for accurate recognition of male conspecifics. Evidence from video playbacks confirms that both sensory modalities are important for conspecific and species discrimination, but experimental evidence of the individual roles of these cue types affecting live conspecific recognition is limited. In a spatial paradigm to test discrimination, the authors used live male zebra finch stimuli of 2 color morphs, wild-type (conspecific) and white with a painted black beak (foreign), producing 1 of 2 vocalization types: songs and calls learned from zebra finch parents (conspecific) or cross-fostered songs and calls learned from Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata vars. domestica) foster parents (foreign). The authors found that female zebra finches consistently preferred males with conspecific visual and acoustic cues over males with foreign cues, but did not discriminate when the conspecific and foreign visual and acoustic cues were mismatched. These results indicate the importance of both visual and acoustic features for female zebra finches when discriminating between live conspecific males. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Proximate and fatty acid composition of zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) muscle and subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Louwrens C; Geldenhuys, Greta; Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè

    2016-08-01

    The meat from African game species is healthy, naturally produced and increasingly popular with consumers. Among these species, zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) are growing in number in South Africa, with the meat from surplus animals holding potential to contribute to food security and economic stability. Despite being consumed locally and globally, little information exists on the composition of zebra meat. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition of zebra meat as well as the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular (IMF) and subcutaneous (SCF) fat. Zebra longissimus lumborum muscle was shown to have a high mean protein content (22.29 g per 100 g) and low mean fat content (1.47 g per 100 g). High proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in the IMF (41.15%) and SCF (37.71%), mainly comprising α-linolenic (C18:3n-3) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acids. Furthermore, the IMF and SCF had favourable PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios (>0.4) and omega-6/omega-3 ratios (<4), indicating that both components are healthy lipid food sources. This study has shed new light on the nutritional value of zebra meat, which will not only be important for food product labelling, nutritional education and incorporation into food composition databases, but will also be indispensable for marketing and export purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The existence of microplastic in Asian green mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoironi, A.; Anggoro, S.; Sudarno

    2018-03-01

    Due to resistance of polymer as basic properties of plastic, several studies have been conducted to understand the fate of plastic debris in the marine environment. Degradation is the most important process to control distribution of plastic debris a long the marine environment until the existence of plastic in the food chain. The physical and chemical changes of plastic because of degradation process will lead to the release of polluted substances which eventually more toxic for the environment. Furthermore, when plastic degraded become a microplastic will lead to easy ingested by biotic such as mussell which commonly consumed by humans. The aim of this research was to investigate the concentration of microplastic adsorbed and ingested by mussels considering characteristic of sea water. About 30 samples have been collected from 3 different locations that is brackish water (31 ppb), high salinity (36 ppb) and low salinity (33 ppb) for measuring a number of microplastic in mussels on three different salinity. The result of microstructure analysis by microscope showed that mussel evaluated from the marine environment contaminated by microplastic with average size of 211.163 μm. In high salinity sea water, microplastic found in mussel was greater than low salinity and brackish water. The SEM/EDX analysis showed the presence of SIO2 0.14 % (w/w), Na2O 24.27 %(w/w) and Al2O3 0.27 % (w/w) in the microplastic obtained in the mussel indicating the components which are mostly found in the plastic industries. The amount of microplastic in mussell could be used as pollution indicator in the marine environmental by plastic waste.

  14. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25A?C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45A?C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25A?C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447a??615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179a??289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7a??38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15a??35A?C) and durations (15a??60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  15. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels to in situ refugia

    Cope, W.G.; Hove, M.C.; Waller, D.L.; Hornbach, D.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Cunningham, L.A.; Dunn, H.L.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery and survival of four species of unionid mussles [pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820); Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsii (I. Lea, 1857); and pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820)] that were experimentally relocated to in situ refugia in the St Croix River of Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. In 1996, 150 mussels of each of the first three species (450 total) were relocated to three 5 x 5 m study grids (Site A), one near Lakeland, Minnesota, which served as a source-site control, and two in the experimental refuge 48 km upstream, near Franconia, Minnesota. In a second relocation in 1997, L. Cardium was substituted for L. Higginsii and 150 mussels of this and each of the other two species (450 total), were relocated to two study grids (Site B). The source site control was near Sunrise, Minnesota and the experimental refuge was 14 km downstream near Almelund, Minnesota. Mussel recovery, survival and substratum characteristics were evaluated annually at Site A for 2 years and for 3 years at Site B. Mean annual recovery of all three species ranged from 90 to 100% at Site A, and from 34 to 70% at site B. The mean annual survival of recaptured mussels ranged from 85 to 100% at Site A, and from 88 to 100% at Site B. The textural characteristics of the substratum differed significantly between the control and the two refuge locations at the beginning of the study, but did not differ from this initial status among subsequent years at Site A. At Site B, there was a significant shift in textural characteristics from large to smaller fractions over the four years. The relatively high survival of mussels during this study demonstrates the importance of proper handling and transport protocols when relocating mussels and the selection of suitable relocation habitat with stable substratum. When established correctly, in situ refugia may be a viable tool for

  16. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels to in situ refugia

    Cope, W.G.; Hove, M.C.; Waller, D.L.; Hornbach, D.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Cunningham, L.A.; Dunn, H.L.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery and survival of four species of unionid mussles [pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820); Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsii (I. Lea, 1857); and pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820)] that were experimentally relocated to in situ refugia in the St Croix River of Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. In 1996, 150 mussels of each of the first three species (450 total) were relocated to three 5 ?? 5 m study grids (Site A), one near Lakeland, Minnesota, which served as a source-site control, and two in the experimental refuge 48 km upstream, near Franconia, Minnesota. In a second relocation in 1997, L. cardium was substituted for L. higginsii and 150 mussels of this and each of the other two species (450 total), were relocated to two study grids (Site B). The source site control was near Sunrise, Minnesota and the experimental refuge was 14 km downstream near Almelund, Minnesota. Mussel recovery, survival and substratum characteristics were evaluated annually at Site A for 2 years and for 3 years at Site B. Mean annual recovery of all three species ranged from 90 to 100% at Site A, and from 34 to 70% at site B. The mean annual survival of recaptured mussels ranged from 85 to 100% at Site A, and from 88 to 100% at Site B. The textural characteristics of the substratum differed significantly between the control and the two refuge locations at the beginning of the study, but did not differ from this initial status among subsequent years at Site A. At Site B, there was a significant shift in textural characteristics from large to smaller fractions over the four years. The relatively high survival of mussels during this study demonstrates the importance of proper handling and transport protocols when relocating mussels and the selection of suitable relocation habitat with stable substratum. When established correctly, in situ refugia may be a viable tool for

  17. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt.

    PubMed

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H

    2014-03-20

    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt.

  18. Appraisal of unimodal cues during agonistic interactions in Maylandia zebra

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ammar, Imen; Fernandez, Marie S.A.; Boyer, Nicolas; Attia, Joël; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, M. Clara P.; Beauchaud, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Communication is essential during social interactions including animal conflicts and it is often a complex process involving multiple sensory channels or modalities. To better understand how different modalities interact during communication, it is fundamental to study the behavioural responses to both the composite multimodal signal and each unimodal component with adequate experimental protocols. Here we test how an African cichlid, which communicates with multiple senses, responds to different sensory stimuli in a social relevant scenario. We tested Maylandia zebra males with isolated chemical (urine or holding water coming both from dominant males), visual (real opponent or video playback) and acoustic (agonistic sounds) cues during agonistic interactions. We showed that (1) these fish relied mostly on the visual modality, showing increased aggressiveness in response to the sight of a real contestant but no responses to urine or agonistic sounds presented separately, (2) video playback in our study did not appear appropriate to test the visual modality and needs more technical prospecting, (3) holding water provoked territorial behaviours and seems to be promising for the investigation into the role of the chemical channel in this species. Our findings suggest that unimodal signals are non-redundant but how different sensory modalities interplay during communication remains largely unknown in fish. PMID:28785523

  19. Drinking Songs: Alcohol Effects on Learned Song of Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Christopher R.; Owen, Devin C.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.; Mello, Claudio V.

    2014-01-01

    Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds’ ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors. PMID:25536524

  20. Neural correlates of nesting behavior in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Hall, Zachary J; Bertin, Marion; Bailey, Ida E; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D

    2014-05-01

    Nest building in birds involves a behavioral sequence (nest material collection and deposition in the nest) that offers a unique model for addressing how the brain sequences motor actions. In this study, we identified brain regions involved in nesting behavior in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We used Fos immunohistochemistry to quantify production of the immediate early gene protein product Fos (a molecular indicator of neuronal activity) in the brain correlated this expression with the variation in nesting behavior. Using this technique, we found that neural circuitry involved in motor sequencing, social behavior, reward and motivation were active during nesting. Within pairs of nesting birds, the number of times a male picked up or deposited nesting material and the amount of time a female spent in the nest explained the variation in Fos expression in the anterior motor pathway, social behavior network, and reward neural circuits. Identification of the brain regions that are involved in nesting enables us to begin studying the roles of motor sequencing, context, and reward in construction behavior at the neural level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural correlates of nesting behavior in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Zachary J.; Bertin, Marion; Bailey, Ida E.; Meddle, Simone L.; Healy, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Nest building in birds involves a behavioral sequence (nest material collection and deposition in the nest) that offers a unique model for addressing how the brain sequences motor actions. In this study, we identified brain regions involved in nesting behavior in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We used Fos immunohistochemistry to quantify production of the immediate early gene protein product Fos (a molecular indicator of neuronal activity) in the brain correlated this expression with the variation in nesting behavior. Using this technique, we found that neural circuitry involved in motor sequencing, social behavior, reward and motivation were active during nesting. Within pairs of nesting birds, the number of times a male picked up or deposited nesting material and the amount of time a female spent in the nest explained the variation in Fos expression in the anterior motor pathway, social behavior network, and reward neural circuits. Identification of the brain regions that are involved in nesting enables us to begin studying the roles of motor sequencing, context, and reward in construction behavior at the neural level. PMID:24508238

  2. Seasonal and species-specific patterns in abundance of freshwater mussel glochidia in stream drift

    Jacob J. Culp; Wendell R. Haag; D. Albrey Arrington; Thomas B. Kennedy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. We examined seasonal patterns of abundance of mussel larvae (glochidia) in stream drift in a diverse, large-stream mussel assemblage in the Sipsey River, Alabama, across 1 y. We used recently developed techniques for glochidial identification combined with information about mussel fecundity and benthic assemblages to evaluate how well observed glochidial...

  3. Role of ecological factors and reproductive strategies in structuring freshwater mussel communities

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    1998-01-01

    Freshwater mussel community composition within two drainage basins in Alabama, U.S.A., was better explained by patterns of variability in the fish community and the type of strategy used by mussels for infecting host-fishes than by patterns of variability in microhabitat. Mussel species richness increased in a downstream direction, and large-stream sites were...

  4. Pervasive hydrologic effects on freshwater mussels and riparian trees in southeastern floodplain ecosystems

    Andrew L. Rypel; Wendell R. Haag; Robert H. Findlay

    2009-01-01

    We present long-term growth trends for 13 freshwater mussel species from two unregulated rivers and one regulated river in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. We also collected baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) tree cores adjacent to mussel collection sites in one river and directly compared tree and mussel chronologies in this river. To extend our analysis...

  5. Zebra Crossing Spotter: Automatic Population of Spatial Databases for Increased Safety of Blind Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmetovic, Dragan; Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James M.; Mascetti, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a computer vision-based technique that mines existing spatial image databases for discovery of zebra crosswalks in urban settings. Knowing the location of crosswalks is critical for a blind person planning a trip that includes street crossing. By augmenting existing spatial databases (such as Google Maps or OpenStreetMap) with this information, a blind traveler may make more informed routing decisions, resulting in greater safety during independent travel. Our algorithm first searches for zebra crosswalks in satellite images; all candidates thus found are validated against spatially registered Google Street View images. This cascaded approach enables fast and reliable discovery and localization of zebra crosswalks in large image datasets. While fully automatic, our algorithm could also be complemented by a final crowdsourcing validation stage for increased accuracy. PMID:26824080

  6. Acoustic fine structure may encode biologically relevant information for zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Prior, Nora H; Smith, Edward; Lawson, Shelby; Ball, Gregory F; Dooling, Robert J

    2018-04-18

    The ability to discriminate changes in the fine structure of complex sounds is well developed in birds. However, the precise limit of this discrimination ability and how it is used in the context of natural communication remains unclear. Here we describe natural variability in acoustic fine structure of male and female zebra finch calls. Results from psychoacoustic experiments demonstrate that zebra finches are able to discriminate extremely small differences in fine structure, which are on the order of the variation in acoustic fine structure that is present in their vocal signals. Results from signal analysis methods also suggest that acoustic fine structure may carry information that distinguishes between biologically relevant categories including sex, call type and individual identity. Combined, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that zebra finches can encode biologically relevant information within the fine structure of their calls. This study provides a foundation for our understanding of how acoustic fine structure may be involved in animal communication.

  7. The perception of regularity in an isochronous stimulus in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan; ten Cate, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Perceiving temporal regularity in an auditory stimulus is considered one of the basic features of musicality. Here we examine whether zebra finches can detect regularity in an isochronous stimulus. Using a go/no go paradigm we show that zebra finches are able to distinguish between an isochronous and an irregular stimulus. However, when the tempo of the isochronous stimulus is changed, it is no longer treated as similar to the training stimulus. Training with three isochronous and three irregular stimuli did not result in improvement of the generalization. In contrast, humans, exposed to the same stimuli, readily generalized across tempo changes. Our results suggest that zebra finches distinguish the different stimuli by learning specific local temporal features of each individual stimulus rather than attending to the global structure of the stimuli, i.e., to the temporal regularity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seagrass beds as ocean acidification refuges for mussels? High resolution measurements of pCO2 and O2 in a Zostera marina and Mytilus edulis mosaic habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saderne, V.; Fietzek, P.; Aßmann, S.; Körtzinger, A.; Hiebenthal, C.

    2015-07-01

    It has been speculated that macrophytes beds might act as a refuge for calcifiers from ocean acidification. In the shallow nearshores of the western Kiel Bay (Baltic Sea), mussel and seagrass beds are interlacing, forming a mosaic habitat. Naturally, the diverse physiological activities of seagrasses and mussels are affected by seawater carbonate chemistry and they locally modify it in return. Calcification by shellfishes is sensitive to seawater acidity; therefore the photosynthetic activity of seagrasses in confined shallow waters creates favorable chemical conditions to calcification at daytime but turn the habitat less favorable or even corrosive to shells at night. In contrast, mussel respiration releases CO2, turning the environment more favorable for photosynthesis by adjacent seagrasses. At the end of summer, these dynamics are altered by the invasion of high pCO2/low O2 coming from the deep water of the Bay. However, it is in summer that mussel spats settle on the leaves of seagrasses until migrating to the permanent habitat where they will grow adult. These early life phases (larvae/spats) are considered as most sensitive with regard to seawater acidity. So far, the dynamics of CO2 have never been continuously measured during this key period of the year, mostly due to the technological limitations. In this project we used a combination of state-of-the-art technologies and discrete sampling to obtain high-resolution time-series of pCO2 and O2 at the interface between a seagrass and a mussel patch in Kiel Bay in August and September 2013. From these, we derive the entire carbonate chemistry using statistical models. We found the monthly average pCO2 more than 50 % (approx. 640 μatm for August and September) above atmospheric equilibrium right above the mussel patch together with large diel variations of pCO2 within 24 h: 887 ± 331 μatm in August and 742 ± 281 μatm in September (mean ± SD). We observed important daily corrosiveness for calcium

  9. ZebraZoom: an automated program for high-throughput behavioral analysis and categorization

    PubMed Central

    Mirat, Olivier; Sternberg, Jenna R.; Severi, Kristen E.; Wyart, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish larva stands out as an emergent model organism for translational studies involving gene or drug screening thanks to its size, genetics, and permeability. At the larval stage, locomotion occurs in short episodes punctuated by periods of rest. Although phenotyping behavior is a key component of large-scale screens, it has not yet been automated in this model system. We developed ZebraZoom, a program to automatically track larvae and identify maneuvers for many animals performing discrete movements. Our program detects each episodic movement and extracts large-scale statistics on motor patterns to produce a quantification of the locomotor repertoire. We used ZebraZoom to identify motor defects induced by a glycinergic receptor antagonist. The analysis of the blind mutant atoh7 revealed small locomotor defects associated with the mutation. Using multiclass supervised machine learning, ZebraZoom categorized all episodes of movement for each larva into one of three possible maneuvers: slow forward swim, routine turn, and escape. ZebraZoom reached 91% accuracy for categorization of stereotypical maneuvers that four independent experimenters unanimously identified. For all maneuvers in the data set, ZebraZoom agreed with four experimenters in 73.2–82.5% of cases. We modeled the series of maneuvers performed by larvae as Markov chains and observed that larvae often repeated the same maneuvers within a group. When analyzing subsequent maneuvers performed by different larvae, we found that larva–larva interactions occurred as series of escapes. Overall, ZebraZoom reached the level of precision found in manual analysis but accomplished tasks in a high-throughput format necessary for large screens. PMID:23781175

  10. Genetic management guidelines for captive propagation of freshwater mussels (unionoidea)

    Jones, J.W.; Hallerman, E.M.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although the greatest global diversity of freshwater mussels (???300 species) resides in the United States, the superfamily Unionoidea is also the most imperiled taxon of animals in the nation. Thirty-five species are considered extinct, 70 species are listed as endangered or threatened, and approximately 100 more are species of conservation concern. To prevent additional species losses, biologists have developed methods for propagating juvenile mussels for release into the wild to restore or augment populations. Since 1997, mussel propagation facilities in the United States have released over 1 million juveniles of more than a dozen imperiled species, and survival of these juveniles in the wild has been documented. With the expectation of continued growth of these programs, agencies and facilities involved with mussel propagation must seriously consider the genetic implications of releasing captive-reared progeny. We propose 10 guidelines to help maintain the genetic resources of cultured and wild populations. Preservation of genetic diversity will require robust genetic analysis of source populations to define conservation units for valid species, subspecies, and unique populations. Hatchery protocols must be implemented that minimize risks of artificial selection and other genetic hazards affecting adaptive traits of progeny subsequently released to the wild. We advocate a pragmatic, adaptive approach to species recovery that incorporates the principles of conservation genetics into breeding programs, and prioritizes the immediate demographic needs of critically endangered mussel species.

  11. How effective is intermittent chlorination to control adult mussel fouling in cooling water systems?

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Sanjeevi; Van der Velde, Gerard; Van der Gaag, Marinus; Jenner, Henk A

    2003-01-01

    Mussel control in cooling water systems is generally achieved by means of chlorination. Chlorine is applied continuously or intermittently, depending on cost and discharge criteria. In this paper, we examined whether mussels will be able to survive intermittent chlorination because of their ability to close their valves during periods of chlorination. Experiments were carried out using three common species of mussels: a freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, a brackish water mussel, Mytilopsis leucophaeata and a marine mussel, Mytilus edulis. The mussels were subjected to continuous or intermittent (4 h chlorination followed by 4 h no chlorination) chlorination at concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mg l(-1) and their responses (lethal and sublethal) were compared to those of control mussels. In addition, shell valve activity of mussels was monitored using a Mussel-monitor. Data clearly indicate that mussels shut their valves as soon as chlorine is detected in the environment and open only after chlorine dosing is stopped. However, under continuous chlorination mussels are constrained to keep the shell valves shut continuously. The mussels subjected to continuous chlorination at 1 mg l(-1) showed 100% mortality after 588 h (D. polymorpha), 966 h (Mytilus edulis) and 1104 h (Mytilopsis leucophaeata), while those subjected to intermittent chlorination at 1 mg l(-1) showed very little or no mortality during the same periods. Filtration rate, foot activity index and shell valve movement of D. polymorpha, Mytilopsis leucophaeata and Mytilus edulis decreased more than 90% at 1 mg l(-1) chlorine residual when compared to control. However, mussels subjected to intermittent chlorination showed a similar reduction (about 90%) in filtration rate, foot activity index and shell valve movement during chlorination and 3% during breaks in chlorination. The data indicate that intermittent chlorination between 1 and 3 mg l(-1) applied at 4 h on and 4 h off cycle is unlikely to

  12. Microplastic abundances in a mussel bed and ingestion by the ribbed marsh mussel Geukensia demissa.

    PubMed

    Khan, Matthew B; Prezant, Robert S

    2018-05-01

    Human activities have generated large quantities of microplastics that can be consumed by filter-feeding organisms as potential food sources. As a result, organisms may experience marked reductions in growth and/or health. To date there has been no investigations connecting microplastics (MPs) with the critically important ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa. Here we examined MP abundances within a bed of G. demissa in New Jersey. Results indicate that MP densities ranged between 11,000-50,000 pieces/m 2 . The abundance of larger MPs (5 mm ≥ 1 mm) did not vary among sampling sites while the smaller MPs (<1 mm) abundances did vary between sampling sites. These smaller MPs also accounted for 79% of MPs recovered from these sites. Based on the higher abundance of smaller MPs, we also investigated MP ingestion/rejection in a laboratory setting. These results confirmed that ribbed mussels can ingest MPs with negative consequences for the buoyancy of plastics rejected in feces and pseudofeces. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Mussel glue protein has an open conformation.

    PubMed

    Williams, T; Marumo, K; Waite, J H; Henkens, R W

    1989-03-01

    Both native glue protein from marine mussels and a synthetic nonhydroxylated analog were analyzed by far-uv CD under a variety of conditions. Analysis of the CD spectra using various models strongly suggest a primarily random coil structure for both forms of the protein, a fact also supported by the absence of spectral change for the glue protein upon dilution into 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. The nonhydroxylated analog, which consists of 20 repeats of the peptide sequence Ala-Lys-Pro-Ser-Tyr-Pro-Pro-Thr-Tyr-Lys, was further characterized by enzyme modification using mushroom tyrosinase. Enzymatic hydroxylation of tyrosines was found to be best fit by a model containing two rate constants, 5.6 (+/- 0.6) X 10(-3) and 7.2 (+/- 0.3) X 10(-2) min-1. At equilibrium, HPLC analysis of digests showed nearly 100% conversion of Tyr-9 and only 15 to 35% conversion of Tyr-5. The Chou and Fasman rules for predicting structure were applied to the repeat sequence listed above. The rules predict the absence of alpha helix and beta pleated sheets in the structure of this peptide. On the other hand, beta turns are predicted to be present with Tyr-5 being in the region of highest probability. These data suggest that the protein in solution has only a small amount of secondary structure.

  14. Optimization of thermal processing of canned mussels.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, M R; Salvadori, V O

    2011-10-01

    The design and optimization of thermal processing of solid-liquid food mixtures, such as canned mussels, requires the knowledge of the thermal history at the slowest heating point. In general, this point does not coincide with the geometrical center of the can, and the results show that it is located along the axial axis at a height that depends on the brine content. In this study, a mathematical model for the prediction of the temperature at this point was developed using the discrete transfer function approach. Transfer function coefficients were experimentally obtained, and prediction equations fitted to consider other can dimensions and sampling interval. This model was coupled with an optimization routine in order to search for different retort temperature profiles to maximize a quality index. Both constant retort temperature (CRT) and variable retort temperature (VRT; discrete step-wise and exponential) were considered. In the CRT process, the optimal retort temperature was always between 134 °C and 137 °C, and high values of thiamine retention were achieved. A significant improvement in surface quality index was obtained for optimal VRT profiles compared to optimal CRT. The optimization procedure shown in this study produces results that justify its utilization in the industry.

  15. Mussel remains from prehistoric salt works, clarke county, Alabama

    McGregor, S.W.; Dumas, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeological research at salt springs in Clarke County, AL (Tombigbee River drainage), documented bivalve mollusk exploitation by late prehistoric American Indians. A total of 582 valves representing 19 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) and an estuarine clam (Mactridae) from the Lower Salt Works Site (ca. A.D. 900-1550) and 41 valve fragments representing 6 mussel species from the Stimpson Site (ca. A.D. 1200-1550) were documented. The Lower Salt Works fauna was dominated numerically by Fusconaia ebena and Quadrula asperata, the dominant species reported during recent local surveys. The mussel species represented are known from medium to large streams in sand and gravel habitats and include four federally protected species and other species of conservation concern in Alabama. Results offer comparative data for other archaeological and ecological studies in the region.

  16. The ZEBRA electric vehicle battery: power and energy improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Roy C.; Haslam, Steven

    Vehicle trials with the first sodium/nickel chloride ZEBRA batteries indicated that the pulse power capability of the battery needed to be improved towards the end of the discharge. A research programme led to several design changes to improve the cell which, in combination, have improved the power of the battery to greater than 150 W kg -1 at 80% depth of discharge. Bench and vehicle tests have established the stability of the high power battery over several years of cycling. The gravimetric energy density of the first generation of cells was less than 100 Wh kg -1. Optimisation of the design has led to a cell with a specific energy of 120 Wh kg -1 or 86 Wh kg -1 for a 30 kWh battery. Recently, the cell chemistry has been altered to improve the useful capacity. The cell is assembled in the over-discharged state and during the first charge the following reactions occur: at 1.6 V: Al+4NaCl=NaAlCl 4+3Na; at 2.35 V: Fe+2NaCl=FeCl 2+2Na; at 2.58 V: Ni+2NaCl=NiCl 2+2 Na. The first reaction serves to prime the negative sodium electrode but occurs at too low a voltage to be of use in providing useful capacity. By minimising the aluminium content more NaCl is released for the main reactions to improve the capacity of the cell. This, and further composition optimisation, have resulted in cells with specific energies in excess of 140 Wh kg -1, which equates to battery energies>100 Wh kg -1. The present production battery, as installed in a Mercedes Benz A class electric vehicle, gives a driving range of 205 km (128 miles) in city and hill climbing. The cells with improved capacity will extend the practical driving range to beyond 240 km (150 miles).

  17. Developmental stress increases reproductive success in male zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Crino, Ondi L; Prather, Colin T; Driscoll, Stephanie C; Good, Jeffrey M; Breuner, Creagh W

    2014-11-22

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to stress during development can have sustained effects on animal phenotype and performance across life-history stages. For example, developmental stress has been shown to decrease the quality of sexually selected traits (e.g. bird song), and therefore is thought to decrease reproductive success. However, animals exposed to developmental stress may compensate for poor quality sexually selected traits by pursuing alternative reproductive tactics. Here, we examine the effects of developmental stress on adult male reproductive investment and success in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We tested the hypothesis that males exposed to developmental stress sire fewer offspring through extra-pair copulations (EPCs), but invest more in parental care. To test this hypothesis, we fed nestlings corticosterone (CORT; the dominant avian stress hormone) during the nestling period and measured their adult reproductive success using common garden breeding experiments. We found that nestlings reared by CORT-fed fathers received more parental care compared with nestlings reared by control fathers. Consequently, males fed CORT during development reared nestlings in better condition compared with control males. Contrary to the prediction that developmental stress decreases male reproductive success, we found that CORT-fed males also sired more offspring and were less likely to rear non-genetic offspring compared with control males, and thus had greater overall reproductive success. These data are the first to demonstrate that developmental stress can have a positive effect on fitness via changes in reproductive success and provide support for an adaptive role of developmental stress in shaping animal phenotype. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  19. Change in diel catchability of young-of-year yellow perch associated with establishment of dreissenid mussels

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Adams, Jean V.

    2009-01-01

    1. Non-native mussels have increased water clarity in many lakes and streams in North America and Europe. Diel variation in catchability of some fish species has been linked to visibility during survey trawls (used to measure escapement). 2. Water clarity increased in nearshore areas of western Lake Erie by the early 1990s, following passage of legislation in 1972 to improve water quality (e.g. reduce phosphorus loading) and the invasion of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena spp.) beginning in 1987. 3. We hypothesised that increased water clarity in Lake Erie resulted in decreased catchability of young-of-year (age-0) yellow perch (Perca flavescens Mitchill) during daylight compared to during night. We used a two-tiered modelling approach to test this hypothesis on the ratio (R) of catch per hour (CPH) during night to CPH during daylight in bottom trawl surveys conducted during 1961-2005. 4. First, we examined seven a priori models. The first model, the 'null' model, represented no change in R over time. Three more models tested whether the timing of the change in R was associated with passage of water quality legislation only, dreissenids only (two-period models) and both legislation and dreissenids (three-period models). Three additional models included a 3-year lag before the effects of legislation, dreissenids or both occurred. Secondly, all possible two- and three-period models with a minimum of 2 years per time period were explored a posteriori. The a posteriori procedure determined the temporal transitions to higher R that were best supported by the data, without regard to a priori hypotheses. 5. Night CPH was greater than daylight CPH in 3 of 11 years during 1961-72, in 10 of 15 years during 1973-87, and in 14 of 18 years during 1988-2005. During 1991-2005 night CPH exceeded daylight CPH in all years except one, and night CPH was more than twice daylight CPH in 10 years during this period. 6. The best a priori model had two periods, with a break between 1990 and

  20. [Invasive amebiasis].

    PubMed

    Dobi, S; Horváth, A; Szunyogh, I; Józsa, T; Antóny, A; Várnai, F; Abdul Latif, K

    1994-05-15

    There has only a small number of invasive amoebiasis cases occurred in Hungary up to now. Introducing two of our cases we would like to call attention on these cases coming mainly from tropical countries or having been just transiently there invasive amoebiasis should also be considered. Modern diagnostic imaging technics are of importance in differential diagnosis in showing antibodies against amoebas (!) because amoebas frequently cannot be directly shown from the patients in the invasive stage. Both ulcerous amoebic colitis and amoebic liver abscesses can be treated with drugs affecting amoebas in deep tissues (metronidazole, emetine, and its derivates, etc.).

  1. Seasonal variations of arsenic in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarić, Sanja; Pavičić-Hamer, Dijana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2004-10-01

    Total arsenic concentration in the edible part of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was evaluated seasonally in the coastal area of Rijeka Bay (North Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Sampling stations were located close to the City of Bakar with no industrial facilities (site 1), in the vicinity of the oil refinery and oil thermoelectric power plant (Urinj, site 2), and 4 miles away from the Plomin coal thermoelectric power plant (Brseč village, site 3). Additionally, the concentration of arsenic in the tail muscle of the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, collected in Rijeka Bay, was studied. During winter at sites 2 and 3, the total arsenic in the edible part of the mussels was 16.4 mg As/kg FW (FW=fresh weight) and 4.38 mg As/kg FW, respectively, and increased during springtime at site 2 (6.5 mg As/kg FW) compared to the rest of the year, when individual total arsenic concentration at all sites ranged from 1.7 to 3.7 mg As/kg FW. In the winter (sites 2 and 3) and springtime (site 2) there was no correlation between the length of the mussel shell and the arsenic concentration in the edible part of the mussels. In the other seasons, at sites 1, 2 and 3, there was a correlation between arsenic in the edible part of mussels and shell length in most cases (correlation coefficients r varied from 0.64 to 0.85; P <0.05 to P <0.01). Correlation between shell length (in the narrow range of shell lengths from 3.4 to 5.0 cm) and arsenic in the edible part of the mussels shows linearity with a high regression coefficient (r =0.914; P <0.001). The increase of arsenic in the mussels during winter and spring was suggested at least partially as a result of a low nutritional status, i.e. reduced weight of the mussels' edible part during winter. In addition, a linear relationship was found between body length and arsenic concentration in the tail muscle (mean 17.11±4.48 mg As/kg FW) of the Norway lobster.

  2. SPATIALLY AND SPECTRALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS OF A ZEBRA PATTERN IN A SOLAR DECIMETRIC RADIO BURST

    SciT

    Chen Bin; Bastian, T. S.; Gary, D. E.

    2011-07-20

    We present the first interferometric observation of a zebra-pattern radio burst with simultaneous high spectral ({approx}1 MHz) and high time (20 ms) resolution. The Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope Subsystem Testbed (FST) and the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA) were used in parallel to observe the X1.5 flare on 2006 December 14. By using OVSA to calibrate the FST, the source position of the zebra pattern can be located on the solar disk. With the help of multi-wavelength observations and a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation, the zebra source is explored in relation to the magnetic field configuration. New constraints are placed onmore » the source size and position as a function of frequency and time. We conclude that the zebra burst is consistent with a double-plasma resonance model in which the radio emission occurs in resonance layers where the upper-hybrid frequency is harmonically related to the electron cyclotron frequency in a coronal magnetic loop.« less

  3. Zebra: a web server for bioinformatic analysis of diverse protein families.

    PubMed

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Kirilin, Evgeny; Takhaveev, Vakil; Svedas, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    During evolution of proteins from a common ancestor, one functional property can be preserved while others can vary leading to functional diversity. A systematic study of the corresponding adaptive mutations provides a key to one of the most challenging problems of modern structural biology - understanding the impact of amino acid substitutions on protein function. The subfamily-specific positions (SSPs) are conserved within functional subfamilies but are different between them and, therefore, seem to be responsible for functional diversity in protein superfamilies. Consequently, a corresponding method to perform the bioinformatic analysis of sequence and structural data has to be implemented in the common laboratory practice to study the structure-function relationship in proteins and develop novel protein engineering strategies. This paper describes Zebra web server - a powerful remote platform that implements a novel bioinformatic analysis algorithm to study diverse protein families. It is the first application that provides specificity determinants at different levels of functional classification, therefore addressing complex functional diversity of large superfamilies. Statistical analysis is implemented to automatically select a set of highly significant SSPs to be used as hotspots for directed evolution or rational design experiments and analyzed studying the structure-function relationship. Zebra results are provided in two ways - (1) as a single all-in-one parsable text file and (2) as PyMol sessions with structural representation of SSPs. Zebra web server is available at http://biokinet.belozersky.msu.ru/zebra .

  4. Automatic detection of zebra crossings from mobile LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, B.; González-Jorge, H.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Arias, P.

    2015-07-01

    An algorithm for the automatic detection of zebra crossings from mobile LiDAR data is developed and tested to be applied for road management purposes. The algorithm consists of several subsequent processes starting with road segmentation by performing a curvature analysis for each laser cycle. Then, intensity images are created from the point cloud using rasterization techniques, in order to detect zebra crossing using the Standard Hough Transform and logical constrains. To optimize the results, image processing algorithms are applied to the intensity images from the point cloud. These algorithms include binarization to separate the painting area from the rest of the pavement, median filtering to avoid noisy points, and mathematical morphology to fill the gaps between the pixels in the border of white marks. Once the road marking is detected, its position is calculated. This information is valuable for inventorying purposes of road managers that use Geographic Information Systems. The performance of the algorithm has been evaluated over several mobile LiDAR strips accounting for a total of 30 zebra crossings. That test showed a completeness of 83%. Non-detected marks mainly come from painting deterioration of the zebra crossing or by occlusions in the point cloud produced by other vehicles on the road.

  5. Camdeboo-Mountain Zebra National Park Corridor: Opportunities for conservation and socio-economic development

    Matthew Norval

    2015-01-01

    The Wilderness Foundation, in partnership with South African National Parks has initiated a two year project in the Karoo; The Mountain Zebra-Camdeboo Corridor Project. Through either voluntary Contractual National Park or Protected Environment agreements, the project aims to work with, rather than displace, current conservation-compatible land-use practices such as...

  6. Song decrystallization in adult zebra finches does not require the song nucleus NIf.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arani; Mooney, Richard

    2009-08-01

    In adult male zebra finches, transecting the vocal nerve causes previously stable (i.e., crystallized) song to slowly degrade, presumably because of the resulting distortion in auditory feedback. How and where distorted feedback interacts with song motor networks to induce this process of song decrystallization remains unknown. The song premotor nucleus HVC is a potential site where auditory feedback signals could interact with song motor commands. Although the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf) appears to be the primary auditory input to HVC, NIf lesions made in adult zebra finches do not trigger song decrystallization. One possibility is that NIf lesions do not interfere with song maintenance, but do compromise the adult zebra finch's ability to express renewed vocal plasticity in response to feedback perturbations. To test this idea, we bilaterally lesioned NIf and then transected the vocal nerve in adult male zebra finches. We found that bilateral NIf lesions did not prevent nerve section-induced song decrystallization. To test the extent to which the NIf lesions disrupted auditory processing in the song system, we made in vivo extracellular recordings in HVC and a downstream anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in NIf-lesioned birds. We found strong and selective auditory responses to the playback of the birds' own song persisted in HVC and the AFP following NIf lesions. These findings suggest that auditory inputs to the song system other than NIf, such as the caudal mesopallium, could act as a source of auditory feedback signals to the song motor network.

  7. Nondestructive detection of zebra chip disease in potatoes using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 900 nm to 2600 nm was evaluated as the basis for a rapid, non-destructive method for the detection of Zebra Chip disease in potatoes and the measurement of sugar concentrations in affected tubers. Using stepwise regression in conjunction...

  8. Zebra Crossing: Walking in Two Continents Sharing and Celebrating Difference through Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    I use the metaphor "zebra crossing" in my reflective narrative to describe my plight and struggle as a non-white person growing up and working in Johannesburg, South Africa, during the apartheid era. This article considers and compares the notions of culture, diversity and identity as I now work in a tertiary institution in Melbourne,…

  9. Dissection and Downstream Analysis of Zebra Finch Embryos at Early Stages of Development

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jessica R.; Stanciauskas, Monika E.; Aralere, Tejas S.; Saha, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    The zebra finch (Taeniopygiaguttata) has become an increasingly important model organism in many areas of research including toxicology1,2, behavior3, and memory and learning4,5,6. As the only songbird with a sequenced genome, the zebra finch has great potential for use in developmental studies; however, the early stages of zebra finch development have not been well studied. Lack of research in zebra finch development can be attributed to the difficulty of dissecting the small egg and embryo. The following dissection method minimizes embryonic tissue damage, which allows for investigation of morphology and gene expression at all stages of embryonic development. This permits both bright field and fluorescence quality imaging of embryos, use in molecular procedures such as in situ hybridization (ISH), cell proliferation assays, and RNA extraction for quantitative assays such as quantitative real-time PCR (qtRT-PCR). This technique allows investigators to study early stages of development that were previously difficult to access. PMID:24999108

  10. Examining the role of tuber biochemistry in the development of zebra chip in stored potato tubers

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), associated with infection by the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is an emerging problem for potato growers in the United States, Mexico, and New Zealand. Although potato tubers exhibiting ZC symptoms will be rejected by processors, it remains possible...

  11. Variations in Zebra Chip disease expression and tuber biochemistry in response to vector density

    This study examined effects of the number of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso)-positive psyllids feeding on potatoes to Lso titers, zebra chip disease (ZC) symptom severity, and levels of amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolics in tubers harvested weeks later. Red La Soda and Russet Nor...

  12. Equid herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) isolates from zebras in Ontario, Canada, 1989 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Ana Rita; Carman, Susy; Shapiro, Jan; van Dreumel, Tony; Hazlett, Murray; Nagy, Éva

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and partially characterize 3 equid herpesviruses that were isolated postmortem from zebras in Ontario, Canada in 1989, 2002, and 2007. These 3 virus isolates were characterized by plaque morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and sequence analyses of the full length of the glycoprotein G (gG) gene (ORF70) and a portion of the DNA polymerase gene (ORF30). The isolates were also compared to 3 reference strains of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). Using rabbit kidney cells, the plaques for the isolates from the zebras were found to be much larger in size than the EHV-1 reference strains. The RFLP patterns of the zebra viruses differed among each other and from those of the EHV-1 reference strains. Real-time PCR and sequence analysis of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene determined that the herpesvirus isolates from the zebras contained a G at nucleotide 2254 and a corresponding N at amino acid position 752, which suggested that they could be neuropathogenic EHV-1 strains. However, subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the gG gene suggested that they were EHV-9 and not EHV-1.

  13. Transcription-dependent induction of G1 phase during the zebra fish midblastula transition.

    PubMed

    Zamir, E; Kam, Z; Yarden, A

    1997-02-01

    The early development of the zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryo is characterized by a series of rapid and synchronous cell cycles with no detectable transcription. This period is followed by the midblastula transition (MBT), during which the cell cycle gradually lengthens, cell synchrony is lost, and zygotic transcription is initially detected. In this work, we examined the changes in the pattern of the cell cycle during MBT in zebra fish and whether these changes are dependent on the initiation of zygotic transcription. To characterize the pattern of the early zebra fish cell cycles, the embryonic DNA content was determined by flow cytometric analysis. We found that G1 phase is below detection levels during the first 10 cleavages and can be initially detected at the onset of MBT. Inhibition of zygotic transcription, by microinjection of actinomycin D, abolished the appearance of G1 phase at MBT. Premature activation of zygotic transcription, by microinjection of nonspecific DNA, induced G1 phase before the onset of MBT, while coinjection of actinomycin D and nonspecific DNA abolished this early appearance of G1 phase. We therefore suggest that during the early development of the zebra fish embryo, G1 phase appears at the onset of MBT and that the activation of transcription at MBT is essential and sufficient for the G1-phase induction.

  14. ZENK expression following conspecific and heterospecific playback in the zebra finch auditory forebrain.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin N; Hahn, Allison H; Campbell, Kimberley A; McMillan, Neil; Congdon, Jenna V; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2017-07-28

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are sexually dimorphic songbirds, not only in appearance but also in vocal production: while males produce both calls and songs, females only produce calls. This dimorphism provides a means to contrast the auditory perception of vocalizations produced by songbird species of varying degrees of relatedness in a dimorphic species to that of a monomorphic species, species in which both males and females produce calls and songs (e.g., black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus). In the current study, we examined neuronal expression after playback of acoustically similar hetero- and conspecific calls produced by species of differing phylogenetic relatedness to our subject species, zebra finch. We measured the immediate early gene (IEG) ZENK in two auditory areas of the forebrain (caudomedial mesopallium, CMM, and caudomedial nidopallium, NCM). We found no significant differences in ZENK expression in either male or female zebra finches regardless of playback condition. We also discuss comparisons between our results and the results of a previous study conducted by Avey et al. [1] on black-capped chickadees that used similar stimulus types. These results are consistent with the previous study which also found no significant differences in expression following playback of calls produced by various heterospecific species and conspecifics [1]. Our results suggest that, similar to black-capped chickadees, IEG expression in zebra finch CMM and NCM is tied to the acoustic similarity of vocalizations and not the phylogenetic relatedness of the species producing the vocalizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of physiological and molecular processes associated with potato response to Zebra chip disease

    Transcriptional analyses were applied to identify molecular mechanisms associated with the response of leaf and root potato tissues to ‘Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) infection, causal agent of zebra chip disease (ZC). Lso infection affected several host processes including defense response-, ...

  16. Song Decrystallization in Adult Zebra Finches Does Not Require the Song Nucleus NIf

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Arani; Mooney, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In adult male zebra finches, transecting the vocal nerve causes previously stable (i.e., crystallized) song to slowly degrade, presumably because of the resulting distortion in auditory feedback. How and where distorted feedback interacts with song motor networks to induce this process of song decrystallization remains unknown. The song premotor nucleus HVC is a potential site where auditory feedback signals could interact with song motor commands. Although the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf) appears to be the primary auditory input to HVC, NIf lesions made in adult zebra finches do not trigger song decrystallization. One possibility is that NIf lesions do not interfere with song maintenance, but do compromise the adult zebra finch's ability to express renewed vocal plasticity in response to feedback perturbations. To test this idea, we bilaterally lesioned NIf and then transected the vocal nerve in adult male zebra finches. We found that bilateral NIf lesions did not prevent nerve section–induced song decrystallization. To test the extent to which the NIf lesions disrupted auditory processing in the song system, we made in vivo extracellular recordings in HVC and a downstream anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in NIf-lesioned birds. We found strong and selective auditory responses to the playback of the birds' own song persisted in HVC and the AFP following NIf lesions. These findings suggest that auditory inputs to the song system other than NIf, such as the caudal mesopallium, could act as a source of auditory feedback signals to the song motor network. PMID:19515953

  17. Non-destructive NIR detection of Zebra Chip disease in whole potatoes (abstract)

    Potatoes are the 4th biggest food crop worldwide and the leading vegetable crop in the U.S., accounting for 15 percent of vegetable sales. Over 50% of potatoes are consumed as processed products such as French fries and chips. Zebra Chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes that causes brown discoloration ...

  18. First report of zebra chip disease and Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum on potatoes in Idaho

    In September of 2011, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers in a packing facility in (Idaho Falls???) were observed with internal discolorations suggestive of the zebra chip disease (ZC). Symptoms were observed in 1-2% of tubers of Russet Burbank and Russet Norkotah and included brown spots and streak...

  19. Working towards developing potato tolerance of zebra chip disease: a food science perspective

    Potato zebra chip is a major threat to worldwide potato production and is caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), which is vectored by potato psyllids. Albeit control can be achieved by use of insecticides to limit psyllid populations and therefore Lso spread, the recent development ...

  20. Species coexistence and the superior ability of an invasive species to exploit a facilitation cascade habitat.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Irving, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Facilitation cascades generated by co-occurring foundation species can enhance the abundance and diversity of associated organisms. However, it remains poorly understood how differences among native and invasive species in their ability to exploit these positive interactions contribute to emergent patterns of community structure and biotic acceptance. On intertidal shorelines in New England, we examined the patterns of coexistence between the native mud crabs and the invasive Asian shore crab in and out of a facilitation cascade habitat generated by mid intertidal cordgrass and ribbed mussels. These crab species co-occurred in low intertidal cobbles adjacent to the cordgrass-mussel beds, despite experimental findings that the dominant mud crabs can kill and displace Asian shore crabs and thereby limit their successful recruitment to their shared habitat. A difference between the native and invasive species in their utilization of the facilitation cascade likely contributes to this pattern. Only the Asian shore crabs inhabit the cordgrass-mussel beds, despite experimental evidence that both species can similarly benefit from stress amelioration in the beds. Moreover, only Asian shore crabs settle in the beds, which function as a nursery habitat free of lethal mud crabs, and where their recruitment rates are particularly high (nearly an order of magnitude higher than outside beds). Persistence of invasive adult Asian shore crabs among the dominant native mud crabs in the low cobble zone is likely enhanced by a spillover effect of the facilitation cascade in which recruitment-limited Asian shore crabs settle in the mid intertidal cordgrass-mussel beds and subsidize their vulnerable populations in the adjacent low cobble zone. This would explain why the abundances of Asian shore crabs in cobbles are doubled when adjacent to facilitation cascade habitats. The propensity for this exotic species to utilize habitats created by facilitation cascades, despite the lack of a

  1. Species coexistence and the superior ability of an invasive species to exploit a facilitation cascade habitat

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Facilitation cascades generated by co-occurring foundation species can enhance the abundance and diversity of associated organisms. However, it remains poorly understood how differences among native and invasive species in their ability to exploit these positive interactions contribute to emergent patterns of community structure and biotic acceptance. On intertidal shorelines in New England, we examined the patterns of coexistence between the native mud crabs and the invasive Asian shore crab in and out of a facilitation cascade habitat generated by mid intertidal cordgrass and ribbed mussels. These crab species co-occurred in low intertidal cobbles adjacent to the cordgrass–mussel beds, despite experimental findings that the dominant mud crabs can kill and displace Asian shore crabs and thereby limit their successful recruitment to their shared habitat. A difference between the native and invasive species in their utilization of the facilitation cascade likely contributes to this pattern. Only the Asian shore crabs inhabit the cordgrass–mussel beds, despite experimental evidence that both species can similarly benefit from stress amelioration in the beds. Moreover, only Asian shore crabs settle in the beds, which function as a nursery habitat free of lethal mud crabs, and where their recruitment rates are particularly high (nearly an order of magnitude higher than outside beds). Persistence of invasive adult Asian shore crabs among the dominant native mud crabs in the low cobble zone is likely enhanced by a spillover effect of the facilitation cascade in which recruitment-limited Asian shore crabs settle in the mid intertidal cordgrass–mussel beds and subsidize their vulnerable populations in the adjacent low cobble zone. This would explain why the abundances of Asian shore crabs in cobbles are doubled when adjacent to facilitation cascade habitats. The propensity for this exotic species to utilize habitats created by facilitation cascades, despite the lack

  2. Selective auditory grouping by zebra finches: testing the iambic-trochaic law.

    PubMed

    Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Ten Cate, Carel

    2017-07-01

    Humans have a strong tendency to spontaneously group visual or auditory stimuli together in larger patterns. One of these perceptual grouping biases is formulated as the iambic/trochaic law, where humans group successive tones alternating in pitch and intensity as trochees (high-low and loud-soft) and alternating in duration as iambs (short-long). The grouping of alternations in pitch and intensity into trochees is a human universal and is also present in one non-human animal species, rats. The perceptual grouping of sounds alternating in duration seems to be affected by native language in humans and has so far not been found among animals. In the current study, we explore to which extent these perceptual biases are present in a songbird, the zebra finch. Zebra finches were trained to discriminate between short strings of pure tones organized as iambs and as trochees. One group received tones that alternated in pitch, a second group heard tones alternating in duration, and for a third group, tones alternated in intensity. Those zebra finches that showed sustained correct discrimination were next tested with longer, ambiguous strings of alternating sounds. The zebra finches in the pitch condition categorized ambiguous strings of alternating tones as trochees, similar to humans. However, most of the zebra finches in the duration and intensity condition did not learn to discriminate between training stimuli organized as iambs and trochees. This study shows that the perceptual bias to group tones alternating in pitch as trochees is not specific to humans and rats, but may be more widespread among animals.

  3. Zebra Finch Song Phonology and Syntactical Structure across Populations and Continents-A Computational Comparison.

    PubMed

    Lachlan, Robert F; van Heijningen, Caroline A A; Ter Haar, Sita M; Ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Learned bird songs are often characterized by a high degree of variation between individuals and sometimes between populations, while at the same time maintaining species specificity. The evolution of such songs depends on the balance between plasticity and constraints. Captive populations provide an opportunity to examine signal variation and differentiation in detail, so we analyzed adult male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) songs recorded from 13 populations across the world, including one sample of songs from wild-caught males in their native Australia. Cluster analysis suggested some, albeit limited, evidence that zebra finch song units belonged to universal, species-wide categories, linked to restrictions in vocal production and non-song parts of the vocal repertoire. Across populations, songs also showed some syntactical structure, although any song unit could be placed anywhere within the song. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant differentiation between populations, but the effect size was very small, and its communicative significance dubious. Our results suggest that variation in zebra finch songs within a population is largely determined by species-wide constraints rather than population-specific features. Although captive zebra finch populations have been sufficiently isolated to allow them to genetically diverge, there does not appear to have been any divergence in the genetically determined constraints that underlie song learning. Perhaps more surprising is the lack of locally diverged cultural traditions. Zebra finches serve as an example of a system where frequent learning errors may rapidly create within-population diversity, within broad phonological and syntactical constraints, and prevent the formation of long-term cultural traditions that allow populations to diverge.

  4. Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Ekblom, Robert; Völker, Martin; Westerdahl, Helena; Godinez, Ricardo; Kotkiewicz, Holly; Burt, David W; Graves, Tina; Griffin, Darren K; Warren, Wesley C; Edwards, Scott V

    2010-04-01

    Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH) evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving chromosomal fission, gene duplication and translocation in the

  5. Temporal and spatial variability in stable isotope compositions of a freshwater mussel: Implications for biomonitoring and ecological studies

    Gustafson, L.; Showers, W.; Kwak, T.; Levine, J.; Stoskopf, M.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotopes can be used to elucidate ecological relationships in community and trophic studies. Findings are calibrated against baselines, e.g. from a producer or primary consumer, assumed to act as a reference to the isotopic context created by spatio-temporal attributes such as geography, climate, nutrient, and energy sources. The ability of an organism to accurately represent a community base depends on how, and over what time-scale, it assimilates ambient materials. Freshwater mussels have served as references for trophic studies of freshwater communities and as indicators of change in nutrient pollution load or source. Their suitability as reference animals has not yet been fully explored, however. We conducted a series of studies examining the suitability of freshwater mussels as isotopic baselines, using their ability to reflect variation in ambient nutrient loads as a case scenario. (1) We analyzed bivalve foot tissue ??15N and ??13C from 22 stream reaches in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, USA to show that compositions varied substantially among locations. Site mean bivalve ??13C values correlated with site ambient particulate organic matter (POM) ??13C values, and site mean bivalve ??15N values correlated with site ambient water dissolved ??15N-NO3 values. (2) Similarity of results among sample types demonstrated that the minimally invasive hemolymph sample is a suitable substitute for foot tissue in ??15N analyses, and that small sample sizes generate means representative of a larger population. Both findings can help minimize the impact of sampling on imperiled freshwater mussel populations. (3) In a bivalve transplantation study we showed that hemolymph ??15N compositions responded to a shift in ambient dissolved ??15N-NO3, although slowly. The tissue turnover time for bivalve hemolymph was 113 days. We conclude that bivalves serve best as biomonitors of chronic, rather than acute, fluctuations in stream nutrient loads, and provide initial

  6. 75 FR 17758 - Approved Recovery Plan for the Scaleshell Mussel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-ES-2010-N058; 30120-1113-0000 D2] Approved Recovery Plan for the Scaleshell Mussel AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document availability. [[Page 17759

  7. A hierarchical classification of freshwater mussel diversity in North America

    Wendell R. Haag

    2010-01-01

    Aim North America harbours the most diverse freshwater mussel fauna on Earth. This fauna has high endemism at the continental scale and within individual river systems. Previous faunal classifications for North America were based on intuitive, subjective assessments of species distributions, primarily the occurrence of endemic species, and do not portray continent-wide...

  8. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-05-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches over the vast sediment flats during low tide. However, the abundance and function of the diatom film is not homogenously distributed. Recently, we have realized the importance of bivalve reefs for structuring intertidal ecosystems; by creating structures on the intertidal flats they provide habitat, reduce hydrodynamic stress and modify the surrounding sediment conditions, which promote the abundance of associated organisms. Accordingly, field studies show that high chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment co-vary with the presence of mussel beds. Here we present conclusive evidence by a manipulative experiment that mussels increase the local biomass of benthic microalgae; and relate this to increasing biomass of microalgae as well as productivity of the biofilm across a nearby mussel bed. Our results show that the ecosystem engineering properties of mussel beds transform them into hot spots for primary production on tidal flats, highlighting the importance of biological control of sedimentary systems.

  9. Evidence of Bald Eagles feeding on freshwater mussels

    Teryl G. Grubb; Michael A. Coffey

    1982-01-01

    A 1978 study of the winter habitat of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Coconino National Forest, Arizona, indicated repeated and potentially heavy use of a freshwater mussel (Anodonta corpulenta) in the eagles’ diet. As many as 10 eagles (five adults and five immatures) were observed at Upper Lake Mary near...

  10. Effects of severe drought on freshwater mussel assemblages

    Wendell Hagg; Jr. Warren Melvin L.

    2008-01-01

    We examined changes in freshwater mussel abundance and species composition at eight sites in Alabama and Mississippi in response to a severe drought in 2000. Five small-stream sites in Bankhead National Forest were heavily impacted by drought; one site dried almost completely, and four sites experienced total or near cessation of flow but retained water in their...

  11. Effects of turbidity, sediment, and polyacrylamide on native freshwater mussels

    Buczek, Sean B.; Cope, W. Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Turbidity is a ubiquitous pollutant adversely affecting water quality and aquatic life in waterways globally. Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is widely used as an effective chemical flocculent to reduce suspended sediment (SS) and turbidity. However, no information exists on the toxicity of PAM‐flocculated sediments to imperiled, but ecologically important, freshwater mussels (Unionidae). Thus, we conducted acute (96 h) and chronic (24 day) laboratory tests with juvenile fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and three exposure conditions (nonflocculated settled sediment, SS, and PAM‐flocculated settled sediment) over a range of turbidity levels (50, 250, 1,250, and 3,500 nephelometric turbidity units). Survival and sublethal endpoints of protein oxidation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, and protein concentration were used as measures of toxicity. We found no effect of turbidity levels or exposure condition on mussel survival in acute or chronic tests. However, we found significant reductions in protein concentration, ATP production, and oxidized proteins in mussels acutely exposed to the SS condition, which required water movement to maintain sediment in suspension, indicating responses that are symptoms of physiological stress. Our results suggest anionic PAM applied to reduce SS may minimize adverse effects of short‐term turbidity exposure on juvenile freshwater mussels without eliciting additional lethal or sublethal toxicity.

  12. Freshwater mussels of the Delta National Forest, Mississippi Final Report

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-three species of freshwater mussels were collected during a survey of aquatic habitats in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi. An additional 6 species not encountered in this survey were reported by an earlier study in the Big Sunflower River near the northern proclamation boundary of the Forest. These species are included here, bringing the total species...

  13. Mantle displays of freshwater mussels elicit attacks from fish

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    1999-01-01

    Gravid females of some North American freshwater mussel species (Bivalvia: Unionidae) display highly modified mantle margins and other reproductive structures which mimic small fish, terrestrial insects, or aquatic macro-invertebrates. The authors report the responses of fish to these lures, based on the results of laboratory encounters between the following pairs of...

  14. Growth and longevity in freshwater mussels: evolutionary and conservation implications

    Wendell R. Haag; Andrew L. Rypel

    2010-01-01

    The amount of energy allocated to growth versus other functions is a fundamental feature of an organism’s life history. Constraints on energy availability result in characteristic trade-offs among life-history traits and reflect strategies by which organisms adapt to their environments. Freshwater mussels are a diverse and imperiled component of aquatic ecosystems but...

  15. Widespread introgression in deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels.

    PubMed

    Breusing, Corinna; Vrijenhoek, Robert C; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2017-01-13

    The analysis of hybrid zones is crucial for gaining a mechanistic understanding of the process of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. Hybrid zones have been studied intensively in terrestrial and shallow-water ecosystems, but very little is known about their occurrence in deep-sea environments. Here we used diagnostic, single nucleotide polymorphisms in combination with one mitochondrial gene to re-examine prior hypotheses about a contact zone involving deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels, Bathymodiolus azoricus and B. puteoserpentis, living along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Admixture was found to be asymmetric with respect to the parental species, while introgression was more widespread geographically than previously recognized. Admixed individuals with a majority of alleles from one of the parental species were most frequent in habitats corresponding to that species. Mussels found at a geographically intermediate vent field constituted a genetically mixed population that showed no evidence for hybrid incompatibilities, a finding that does not support a previously inferred tension zone model. Our analyses indicate that B. azoricus and B. puteoserpentis hybridize introgressively across a large geographic area without evidence for general hybrid incompatibilities. While these findings shed new light onto the genetic structure of this hybrid zone, many aspects about its nature still remain obscure. Our study sets a baseline for further research that should primarily focus on the acquisition of additional mussel samples and environmental data, a detailed exploration of vent areas and hidden populations as well as genomic analyses in both mussel hosts and their bacterial symbionts.

  16. 78 FR 5481 - Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-FHC-2013-N008; 94140-1341-0000-N5] Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting to gather information for planning an FY13 strategy to...

  17. Alternative mechanisms alter the emergent properties of self-organization in mussel beds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Weerman, Ellen J.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Olff, Han; van de Koppel, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that spatial self-organization can have important, unexpected implications by affecting the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resilience and productivity. Whether and how these emergent effects depend on specific formulations of the underlying mechanisms are questions that are often ignored. Here, we compare two alternative models of regular spatial pattern formation in mussel beds that have different mechanistic descriptions of the facilitative interactions between mussels. The first mechanism involves a reduced mussel loss rate at high density owing to mutual protection between the mussels, which is the basis of prior studies on the pattern formation in mussels. The second mechanism assumes, based on novel experimental evidence, that mussels feed more efficiently on top of mussel-generated hummocks. Model simulations point out that the second mechanism produces very similar types of spatial patterns in mussel beds. Yet the mechanisms predict a strikingly contrasting effect of these spatial patterns on ecosystem functioning, in terms of productivity and resilience. In the first model, where high mussel densities reduce mussel loss rates, patterns are predicted to strongly increase productivity and decrease the recovery time of the bed following a disturbance. When pattern formation is generated by increased feeding efficiency on hummocks, only minor emergent effects of pattern formation on ecosystem functioning are predicted. Our results provide a warning against predictions of the implications and emergent properties of spatial self-organization, when the mechanisms that underlie self-organization are incompletely understood and not based on the experimental study. PMID:22418256

  18. Influences of water and sediment quality and hydrologic processes on mussels in the Clinch River

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Ostby, Brett J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Segments of the Clinch River in Virginia have experienced declining freshwater mussel populations during the past 40 years, while other segments of the river continue to support some of the richest mussel communities in the country. The close proximity of these contrasting reaches provides a study area where differences in climate, hydrology, and historic mussel distribution are minimal. The USGS conducted a study between 2009 and 2011 to evaluate possible causes of the mussel declines. Evaluation of mussel habitat showed no differences in physical habitat quality, leaving water and sediment quality as possible causes for declines. Three years of continuous water-quality data showed higher turbidity and specific conductance in the reaches with low-quality mussel assemblages compared to reaches with high-quality mussel assemblages. Discrete water-quality samples showed higher major ions and metals concentrations in the low-quality reach. Base-flow samples contained high major ion and metal concentrations coincident to low-quality mussel populations. These results support a conceptual model of dilution and augmentation where increased concentrations of major ions and other dissolved constituents from mined tributaries result in reaches with declining mussel populations. Tributaries from unmined basins provide water with low concentrations of dissolved constituents, diluting reaches of the Clinch River where high-quality mussel populations occur.

  19. Epigenetic signatures of invasive status in populations of marine invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardura, Alba; Zaiko, Anastasija; Morán, Paloma; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-02-01

    Epigenetics, as a DNA signature that affects gene expression and enables rapid reaction of an organism to environmental changes, is likely involved in the process of biological invasions. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism common to plants and animals for regulating gene expression. In this study we show, for the first time in any marine species, significant reduction of global methylation levels during the expansive phase of a pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) recent invasion in Europe (two-year old), while in older introductions such epigenetic signature of invasion was progressively reduced. Decreased methylation was interpreted as a rapid way of increasing phenotypic plasticity that would help invasive populations to thrive. This epigenetic signature of early invasion was stronger than the expected environmental signature of environmental stress in younger populations sampled from ports, otherwise detected in a much older population (>90 year old) of the also invasive tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus established in similar locations. Higher epigenetic than genetic diversity found in X. securis was confirmed from F. enigmaticus samples. As reported for introduced plants and vertebrates, epigenetic variation could compensate for relatively lower genetic variation caused by founder effects. These phenomena were compared with epigenetic mechanisms involved in metastasis, as parallel processes of community (biological invasion) and organism (cancer) invasions.

  20. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  2. Genetic structure of the benthic amphipod Diporeia (Amphipoda: Pontoporeiidae) and its relationship to abundance in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    The freshwater amphipod Diporeia is a crucial part of the food web in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but has faced serious declines correlated with the invasion of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), except in Lake Superior, which has seen an increase in Diporeia abundance. Specul...

  3. New environmentally friendly MSPD solid support based on golden mussel shell: characterization and application for extraction of organic contaminants from mussel tissue.

    PubMed

    Rombaldi, Caroline; de Oliveira Arias, Jean Lucas; Hertzog, Gabriel Ianzer; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Vieira, João P; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2015-06-01

    The use of golden mussel shells as a solid support in vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was evaluated for the first time for extraction of residues of 11 pesticides and nine pharmaceutical and personal care products from mussel tissue samples. After they had been washed, dried, and milled, the mussel shells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The MSPD procedure with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allowed the determination of target analytes at trace concentrations (nanograms per gram), with mean recoveries ranging from 61 to 107 % and relative standard deviations lower than 18 %. The optimized method consisted of dispersion of 0.5 g of mussel tissue, 0.5 g of NaSO4, and 0.5 g of golden mussel shell for 5 min, and subsequent extraction with 5 mL of ethyl acetate. The matrix effect was evaluated, and a low effect was found for all compounds. The results showed that mussel shell is an effective material and a less expensive material than materials that have traditionally been used, i.e., it may be used in the MSPD dispersion step during the extraction of pesticides and pharmaceutical and personal care products from golden mussel tissues. Graphical Abstract Vortex-assited matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of 11 pesticides and 9 PPCPs care products from mussel tissue samples.

  4. Discrimination of Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) feces in deposited materials by fecal morphology.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro B; Iseri, Erina; Kataoka, Tomoya; Tanaka, Makiko; Katsukoshi, Kiyonori; Moki, Hirotada; Naito, Ryoji; Hem, Ramrav; Okada, Tomonari

    2017-02-15

    In the present study, we determined the common morphological characteristics of the feces of Mytilus galloprovincialis to develop a method for visually discriminating the feces of this mussel in deposited materials. This method can be used to assess the effect of mussel feces on benthic environments. The accuracy of visual morphology-based discrimination of mussel feces in deposited materials was confirmed by DNA analysis. Eighty-nine percent of mussel feces shared five common morphological characteristics. Of the 372 animal species investigated, only four species shared all five of these characteristics. More than 96% of the samples were visually identified as M. galloprovincialis feces on the basis of morphology of the particles containing the appropriate mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest that mussel feces can be discriminated with high accuracy on the basis of their morphological characteristics. Thus, our method can be used to quantitatively assess the effect of mussel feces on local benthic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Investigation of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae) in the Tennessee River below Kentucky Lock and Dam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Division of Water , Murray, KY. Sickel, J. B. 1987. "Survey of Freshwater Mussels in the Kentucky Dam Tailwater at the Site of the Proposed Reed...AN]ITECHNICAL REPORT EL-91-8 AN INVESTIGATION OF FRESHWATER MUSSELS (UNiONIDAE) IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER BELOW KENTUCKY LOCK AND DAM by ADA 24 0 265...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS An Investigation of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae) in the Tennessee River Below Kentucky Lock and Dam 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew C

  6. Estimation of mussel population response to hydrologic alteration in a southeastern U.S. stream

    Peterson, J.T.; Wisniewski, J.M.; Shea, C.P.; Rhett, Jackson C.

    2011-01-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels (Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola- Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  7. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher) resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h−1) than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h−1). The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization) than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals. PMID:26849372

  8. Botulism challenge studies of a modified atmosphere package for fresh mussels: inoculated pack studies.

    PubMed

    Newell, C R; Ma, Li; Doyle, Michael

    2012-06-01

    A series of botulism challenge studies were performed to determine the possibility of production of botulinum toxin in mussels (Mytilus edulis) held under a commercial high-oxygen (60 to 65% O(2)), modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) condition. Spore mixtures of six strains of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were introduced into mussel MAP packages receiving different packaging buffers with or without the addition of lactic acid bacteria. Dye studies and package flipping trials were conducted to ensure internalization of spores by packed mussels. Inoculated mussel packages were stored at normal (4°C) and abusive (12°C) temperatures for 21 and 13 days, respectively, which were beyond the packaged mussels' intended shelf life. Microbiological and chemical analyses were conducted at predetermined intervals (a total of five sampling times at each temperature), including total aerobic plate counts, C. botulinum counts, lactic acid bacterial counts, package headspace gas composition, pH of packaging buffer and mussel meat, and botulinum toxin assays of packaging buffer and mussel meat. Results revealed that C. botulinum inoculated in fresh mussels packed under MAP packaging did not produce toxin, even at an abusive storage temperature and when held beyond their shelf life. No evidence was found that packaging buffers or gas composition influenced the lack of botulinum toxin production in packed mussels.

  9. Canning process that diminishes paralytic shellfish poison in naturally contaminated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Vieites, J M; Botana, L M; Vieytes, M R; Leira, F J

    1999-05-01

    Changes in toxin profile and total toxicity levels of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-containing mussels were monitored during the standard canning process of pickled mussels and mussels in brine using mouse bioassays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Detoxification percentages for canned mussel meat exceeded 50% of initial toxicity. Total toxicity reduction did not fully correspond to toxin destruction, which was due to the loss of PSP to cooking water and packing media of the canned product. Significant differences in detoxification percentages were due to changes in toxin profile during heat treatment in packing media. Toxin conversion phenomena should be determined to validate detoxification procedures in the canning industry.

  10. California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for marine contamination with Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Lauren; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a terrestrial parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in the endangered Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). To date, neither risk factors associated with marine contamination nor the route of S. neurona infection to marine mammals has been described. This study evaluated coastal S. neurona contamination using California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for pathogen pollution. A field investigation was designed to test the hypotheses that (1) mussels can serve as sentinels for S. neurona contamination, and (2) S. neurona contamination in mussels would be highest during the rainy season and in mussels collected near freshwater. Initial validation of molecular assays through sporocyst spiking experiments revealed the ITS-1500 assay to be most sensitive for detection of S. neurona, consistently yielding parasite amplification at concentrations ⩾5 sporocysts/1 mL mussel haemolymph. Assays were then applied on 959 wild-caught mussels, with detection of S. neurona confirmed using sequence analysis in three mussels. Validated molecular assays for S. neurona detection in mussels provide a novel toolset for investigating marine contamination with this parasite, while confirmation of S. neurona in wild mussels suggests that uptake by invertebrates may serve as a route of transmission to susceptible marine animals.

  11. Water and sediment temperatures at mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River basin

    Newton, Teresa J.; Sauer, Jennifer; Karns, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Native freshwater mussels are in global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Declines in the abundance and diversity of North American mussels have been attributed to human activities that cause pollution, waterquality degradation, and habitat destruction. Recent studies suggest that effects of climate change may also endanger native mussel assemblages, as many mussel species are living close to their upper thermal tolerances. Adult and juvenile mussels spend a large fraction of their lives burrowed into sediments of rivers and lakes. Our objective was to measure surface water and sediment temperatures at known mussel beds in the Upper Mississippi (UMR) and St. Croix (SCR) rivers to estimate the potential for sediments to serve as thermal refugia. Across four mussel beds in the UMR and SCR, surface waters were generally warmer than sediments in summer, and were cooler than sediments in winter. This suggests that sediments may act as a thermal buffer for mussels in these large rivers. Although the magnitude of this effect was usually <3.0°C, sediments were up to 7.5°C cooler at one site in May, suggesting site-specific variation in the ability of sediments to act as thermal buffers. Sediment temperatures in the UMR exceeded those shown to cause mortality in laboratory studies. These data suggest that elevated water temperatures resulting from global warming, thermal discharges, water extraction, and/or droughts have the potential to adversely affect native mussel assemblages.

  12. Caudal thoracic air sac cannulation in zebra finches for isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Nilson, Paige Crystal; Teramitsu, Ikuko; White, Stephanie Ann

    2005-04-30

    Small songbirds such as the zebra finch are commonly used for studies on the neural mechanisms that underlie vocal learning. For these studies, survival surgeries are often performed that involve animal anesthesia and stereotaxic stabilization for localization of specific brain regions. Here we describe air sac cannulation as a novel method for delivering isoflurane gas to zebra finches for anesthesia during neurosurgery. Advantages of this method include that it leaves the bird's head free for stereotaxic targeting and does not interfere with the beak clamps that are often used to position and stabilize the head. It additionally allows for the use of the inhalant anesthetic, isoflurane, which is an appealing alternative to injectable anesthetics because it provides fast, minimally stressful induction, and low subject and personnel toxicity. The use of isoflurane also prevents overdosing and lengthy postoperative recovery times.

  13. Biomechanics of predator-prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alan M.; Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Wilshin, Simon D.; Lowe, John C.; Lorenc, Maja; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L. A.; Diack, Rebecca; Bennitt, Emily; Golabek, Krystyna A.; Woledge, Roger C.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Curtin, Nancy A.; West, Timothy G.

    2018-02-01

    The fastest and most manoeuvrable terrestrial animals are found in savannah habitats, where predators chase and capture running prey. Hunt outcome and success rate are critical to survival, so both predator and prey should evolve to be faster and/or more manoeuvrable. Here we compare locomotor characteristics in two pursuit predator-prey pairs, lion-zebra and cheetah-impala, in their natural savannah habitat in Botswana. We show that although cheetahs and impalas were universally more athletic than lions and zebras in terms of speed, acceleration and turning, within each predator-prey pair, the predators had 20% higher muscle fibre power than prey, 37% greater acceleration and 72% greater deceleration capacity than their prey. We simulated hunt dynamics with these data and showed that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival, and that the predator needs to be more athletic than its prey to sustain a viable success rate.

  14. FoxP2 isoforms delineate spatiotemporal transcriptional networks for vocal learning in the zebra finch

    PubMed Central

    Day, Nancy F; Kimball, Todd Haswell; Aamodt, Caitlin M; Heston, Jonathan B; Hilliard, Austin T; Xiao, Xinshu; White, Stephanie A

    2018-01-01

    Human speech is one of the few examples of vocal learning among mammals yet ~half of avian species exhibit this ability. Its neurogenetic basis is largely unknown beyond a shared requirement for FoxP2 in both humans and zebra finches. We manipulated FoxP2 isoforms in Area X, a song-specific region of the avian striatopallidum analogous to human anterior striatum, during a critical period for song development. We delineate, for the first time, unique contributions of each isoform to vocal learning. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis of RNA-seq data revealed gene modules correlated to singing, learning, or vocal variability. Coexpression related to singing was found in juvenile and adult Area X whereas coexpression correlated to learning was unique to juveniles. The confluence of learning and singing coexpression in juvenile Area X may underscore molecular processes that drive vocal learning in young zebra finches and, by analogy, humans. PMID:29360038

  15. Biomechanics of predator-prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alan M; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilshin, Simon D; Lowe, John C; Lorenc, Maja; Dewhirst, Oliver P; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Diack, Rebecca; Bennitt, Emily; Golabek, Krystyna A; Woledge, Roger C; McNutt, J Weldon; Curtin, Nancy A; West, Timothy G

    2018-02-08

    The fastest and most manoeuvrable terrestrial animals are found in savannah habitats, where predators chase and capture running prey. Hunt outcome and success rate are critical to survival, so both predator and prey should evolve to be faster and/or more manoeuvrable. Here we compare locomotor characteristics in two pursuit predator-prey pairs, lion-zebra and cheetah-impala, in their natural savannah habitat in Botswana. We show that although cheetahs and impalas were universally more athletic than lions and zebras in terms of speed, acceleration and turning, within each predator-prey pair, the predators had 20% higher muscle fibre power than prey, 37% greater acceleration and 72% greater deceleration capacity than their prey. We simulated hunt dynamics with these data and showed that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival, and that the predator needs to be more athletic than its prey to sustain a viable success rate.

  16. Ammonium detection by formation of colored zebra-bands in a detecting tube.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tatsuaki; Niki, Keizou; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Kamimoto, Yuki; Yamada, Toshiro; Nagai, Masahiro

    2010-06-15

    Ammonium ion was colorized by means of a diazo coupling reaction with 2-phenylphenol, where the color development reaction was conducted within 3min by using boric acid as a catalyst. The resulting colored solution (0.5ml) was supplied by suction to a detecting tube consisting of a nonwoven fabric test strip (2mm wide, 1mm thick, 150mm long) impregnated with benzylcetyldimethylammonium chloride in a stripe pattern and enclosed in a heat-shrinkable tube. When the colored solution was supplied to the detecting tube, blue zebra-bands formed, and the ammonium concentration was determined by counting the number of zebra-bands. The detection range was 1-20mg-Nl(-1). Ammonium ion in actual domestic wastewater samples was successfully detected by means of this method.

  17. An experimental assessment of the imaging quality of the low energy gamma-ray telescope ZEBRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. C.; Caroli, E.; Dicocco, G.; Natalucci, L.; Spada, G.; Spizzichino, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Carter, J. N.; Charalambous, P. M.; Dean, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    One gamma-ray detection plane of the ZEBRA telescope, consisting of nine position sensitive scintillation crystal bars designed to operate over the spectral range 0.2 to 10 MeV, has been constructed in the laboratory. A series of experimental images has been generated using a scaled down flight pattern mask in conjunction with a diverging gamma-ray beam. Point and extended sources have been imaged in order to assess quantitatively the performance of the system.

  18. Same-sex partner preference in zebra finches: pairing flexibility and choice.

    PubMed

    Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Zatirka, Brendon P

    2014-11-01

    This study examined flexibility and choice in same-sex pair-bonding behavior in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Zebra finches form life-long monogamous relationships and extra pair behavior is very low, making them an ideal species in which to study same-sex pairing. We examined same-sex behaviors using both semi-naturalistic choice paradigms and skewed sex ratios. In the first experiment, we allowed zebra finches to pair in aviaries with equal sex ratios as part of multiple experiments. On average, 6.4% (N = 78) of unmanipulated pairs were same-sex: all but one was female-female. In a second experiment, we identified pairs from same-sex cages and selected 20 total same-sex pairs (10 of each sex). We then gave pairs a chance to court and pair with members of the opposite sex and observed their behavior for three days. Females did not retain their partner, but most paired with males. In contrast, some males did retain their partner. Similarly, females were more likely to engage in pairing behaviors with males than with their partners or other females whereas males were equally likely to engage in same-sex and opposite-sex pairing behaviors. These findings suggest that same-sex partnerships in zebra finches can be facultative, based on the sex ratio of the group in which they live, but can also be a choice, when opportunities to pair with opposite-sex individuals are possible. Furthermore, it is possible that females are more flexible in this choice of same-sex partnerships than are males.

  19. Quality of public information matters in mate-choice copying in female zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Kniel, Nina; Schmitz, Jennifer; Witte, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Mate-choice copying is a form of social learning in which an individual gains information about potential mates by observing conspecifics. However, it is still unknown what kind of information drives the decision of an individual to copy the mate choice of others. Among zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis), only females (not males) copy the mate choice of others. We tested female zebra finches in a binary choice test where they, first, could choose between two males of different phenotypes: one unadorned male and one male artificially adorned with a red feather on the forehead. After this mate-choice test, females could observe a single unadorned male and a pair of zebra finches, i.e. a wild-type female and her adorned mate. Pair interactions were either restricted to acoustic and visual communication (clear glass screen between pair mates) or acoustic communication alone (opaque screen between pair mates). After the observation period, females could again choose between new males of the two phenotypes in a second mate-choice test. In experiments with a clear glass screen, time spent with the respective males changed between the two mate-choice tests, and females preferred adorned over unadorned males during the second mate-choice test. In experiments with an opaque screen, time spent with the respective males did not change between the two mate-choice tests, although females lost an initial preference for unadorned males. Our results demonstrate that the quality of the received public information (visual and acoustic interaction of the observed pair) influences mate-choice copying in female zebra finches.

  20. Noninvasive diffusive optical imaging of the auditory response to birdsong in the zebra finch

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James V.; Maclin, Edward L.; Low, Kathy A.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica; Clayton, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Songbirds communicate by learned vocalizations with concomitant changes in neurophysiological and genomic activities in discrete parts of the brain. Here we tested a novel implementation of diffusive optical imaging (also known as diffuse optical imaging, DOI) for monitoring brain physiology associated with vocal signal perception. DOI noninvasively measures brain activity using red and near-infrared light delivered through optic fibers (optodes) resting on the scalp. DOI does not harm subjects, so it raises the possibility of repeatedly measuring brain activity and the effects of accumulated experience in the same subject over an entire life span, all while leaving tissue intact for further study. We developed a custom-made apparatus for interfacing optodes to the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) head using 3D modeling software and rapid prototyping technology, and applied it to record responses to presentations of birdsong in isoflurane-anesthetized zebra finches. We discovered a subtle but significant difference between the hemoglobin spectra of zebra finches and mammals which has a major impact in how hemodynamic responses are interpreted in the zebra finch. Our measured responses to birdsong playback were robust, highly repeatable, and readily observed in single trials. Responses were complex in shape and closely paralleled responses described in mammals. They were localized to the caudal medial portion of the brain, consistent with response localization from prior gene expression, electrophysiological, and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. These results define an approach for collecting neurophysiological data from songbirds that should be applicable to diverse species and adaptable for studies in awake behaving animals. PMID:23322445

  1. Biocide triclosan impairs byssus formation in marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Motta, C M; Tizzano, M; Tagliafierro, A M; Simoniello, P; Panzuto, R; Esposito, L; Migliaccio, V; Rosati, L; Avallone, B

    2018-05-22

    The effects of the biocide Triclosan, used in personal care products and known as a common environmental contaminant, on byssal apparatus were studied in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Experimental evidences indicated that an exposure for 7 days at a concentration of 10 μg/L induced marked alterations in the byssus gland resulting in a significant delay in byssus regrowth and in a decrease in threads resistance to traction. Such alterations in animals exposed to tidal and waves action would cause a significant loss in ecological fitness and severely impact on mussel survival. Triclosan release in coastal environments therefore should be more carefully monitored to prevent drastic consequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biokinetics of /sup 237/Np in mussels and shrimp

    SciT

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. Bioaccumulation of /sup 237/Np from water was relatively slow in both species, reaching whole body concentration factors of only 15 to 20 after three months. Surface adsorption was implicated in the initial uptake. Both uptake and loss of the radioisotope were not significantly affected by temperature; this may be a reflection of the physical nature of the uptake. By virtue of the large amounts of accumulated /sup 237/Np associated with the exoskeleton of shrimp, molting will play an important role in the biogeochemical cyclingmore » of this transuranic in the marine environment. Rapid growth of organisms like mussels acts to reduce the /sup 237/Np concentration in tissues during a period of decontamination.« less

  3. Domoic acid excretion in dungeness crabs, razor clams and mussels.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Irvin R; Skillman, Ann; Woodruff, Dana

    2008-07-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by several marine algal species of the Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) genus. We studied the elimination of DA from hemolymph after intravascular (IV) injection in razor clams (Siliqua patula), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). Crabs were also injected with two other organic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and kainic acid (KA). For IV dosing, hemolymph was repetitively sampled and DA concentrations measured by HPLC-UV. Toxicokinetic analysis of DA in crabs suggested most of the injected dose remained within hemolymph compartment with little extravascular distribution. This observation is in sharp contrast to results obtained from clams and mussels which exhibited similarly large apparent volumes of distribution despite large differences in overall clearance. These findings suggest fundamentally different storage and elimination processes are occurring for DA between bivalves and crabs.

  4. The threat of climate change to freshwater pearl mussel populations.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Lee C; Cosgrove, Peter J; Ellis, Noranne; Gaywood, Martin J

    2003-02-01

    Changes in climate are occurring around the world and the effects on ecosystems will vary, depending on the extent and nature of these changes. In northern Europe, experts predict that annual rainfall will increase significantly, along with dramatic storm events and flooding in the next 50-100 years. Scotland is a stronghold of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera (L.), and a number of populations may be threatened. For example, large floods have been shown to adversely affect mussels, and although these stochastic events were historically rare, they may now be occurring more often as a result of climate change. Populations may also be affected by a number of other factors, including predicted changes in temperature, sea level, habitat availability, host fish stocks and human activity. In this paper, we explain how climate change may impact M. margaritifera and discuss the general implications for the conservation management of this species.

  5. [Resection of the recurrent third branchial fistula under gastroscope with assistance of yellow zebra guidewire].

    PubMed

    Feng, X; Huang, Z C; Tao, F; Ou, X L

    2016-02-01

    To investigate clinical aspects and a new operative method for resecting third branchial fistula. The clinical aspects of 4 patients with third branchial fistula were retrospectively analyzed. It is difficult to locate the inner orifice of fistula through neck path due to tiny diameter of inner orifice. The inner orifice could be found and closed effectively by inserting yellow zebra guidewire from sinus piriformis with gastroscope. The mucous membrane of sinus piriformis could not be damaged due to the soft pointed end of yellow zebra guidewire. 4 cases were treated successfully without pharyngeal fistula or recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. No recurrent infections were found in all cases with follows-up of 6-66 months. Ineffectiveness of radiography with meglumine diatrizoate or oral administration of methylene blue before operation indicates tiny fistula. In this case, resection of third branchial fistula with the assistance of gastroscope and yellow zebra guidewire under general anesthesia can be performed. This innovative method of diagnosis and treatment is worth of application clinically.

  6. Zebra Finch Mates Use Their Forebrain Song System in Unlearned Call Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ter Maat, Andries; Trost, Lisa; Sagunsky, Hannes; Seltmann, Susanne; Gahr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Unlearned calls are produced by all birds whereas learned songs are only found in three avian taxa, most notably in songbirds. The neural basis for song learning and production is formed by interconnected song nuclei: the song control system. In addition to song, zebra finches produce large numbers of soft, unlearned calls, among which “stack” calls are uttered frequently. To determine unequivocally the calls produced by each member of a group, we mounted miniature wireless microphones on each zebra finch. We find that group living paired males and females communicate using bilateral stack calling. To investigate the role of the song control system in call-based male female communication, we recorded the electrical activity in a premotor nucleus of the song control system in freely behaving male birds. The unique combination of acoustic monitoring together with wireless brain recording of individual zebra finches in groups shows that the neuronal activity of the song system correlates with the production of unlearned stack calls. The results suggest that the song system evolved from a brain circuit controlling simple unlearned calls to a system capable of producing acoustically rich, learned vocalizations. PMID:25313846

  7. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciT

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can bemore » assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.« less

  8. Immediate early gene expression following exposure to acoustic and visual components of courtship in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Avey, Marc T; Phillmore, Leslie S; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2005-12-07

    Sensory driven immediate early gene expression (IEG) has been a key tool to explore auditory perceptual areas in the avian brain. Most work on IEG expression in songbirds such as zebra finches has focused on playback of acoustic stimuli and its effect on auditory processing areas such as caudal medial mesopallium (CMM) caudal medial nidopallium (NCM). However, in a natural setting, the courtship displays of songbirds (including zebra finches) include visual as well as acoustic components. To determine whether the visual stimulus of a courting male modifies song-induced expression of the IEG ZENK in the auditory forebrain we exposed male and female zebra finches to acoustic (song) and visual (dancing) components of courtship. Birds were played digital movies with either combined audio and video, audio only, video only, or neither audio nor video (control). We found significantly increased levels of Zenk response in the auditory region CMM in the two treatment groups exposed to acoustic stimuli compared to the control group. The video only group had an intermediate response, suggesting potential effect of visual input on activity in these auditory brain regions. Finally, we unexpectedly found a lateralization of Zenk response that was independent of sex, brain region, or treatment condition, such that Zenk immunoreactivity was consistently higher in the left hemisphere than in the right and the majority of individual birds were left-hemisphere dominant.

  9. Evaluation of Best Practices for the Euthanasia of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kathleen E; Bracchi, Lauren A; Lieberman, Mia T; Hill, Nichola J; Caron, Tyler J; Patterson, Mary M

    2017-01-01

    Although zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) have been used in biomedical research for many years, no published reports are available about euthanizing these small birds. In this study, we compared 5 methods for zebra finch euthanasia: sodium pentobarbital (NaP) given intracoelomically with physical restraint but no anesthesia; isoflurane anesthesia followed by intracoelomic injection of NaP; and CO2 asphyxiation at 20%, 40%, and 80% chamber displacement rates (percentage of chamber volume per minute). Birds undergoing euthanasia were videorecorded and scored by 2 observers for behaviors potentially related to discomfort or distress. Time to recumbency and time until respiratory arrest (RA) were also assessed. RA was achieved faster by using NaP in a conscious bird compared to using isoflurane anesthesia followed by NaP; however, neither method caused behaviors that might affect animal welfare, such as open-mouth breathing, to any appreciable extent. Among the CO2 treatment groups, there was an inverse correlation between the chamber displacement rate used and the duration of open-mouth breathing, onset of head retroflexion, and time to RA. The results demonstrate that the intracoelomic administration of NaP in an awake, restrained zebra finch is a rapid and effective method of euthanasia. If CO2 is used to euthanize these birds, a high displacement rate (for example, 80%) will minimize the duration of the procedure and associated behaviors. PMID:29256376

  10. Evaluation of Best Practices for the Euthanasia of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Scott, Kathleen E; Bracchi, Lauren A; Lieberman, Mia T; Hill, Nichola J; Caron, Tyler J; Patterson, Mary M

    2017-11-01

    Although zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) have been used in biomedical research for many years, no published reports are available about euthanizing these small birds. In this study, we compared 5 methods for zebra finch euthanasia: sodium pentobarbital (NaP) given intracoelomically with physical restraint but no anesthesia; isoflurane anesthesia followed by intracoelomic injection of NaP; and CO2 asphyxiation at 20%, 40%, and 80% chamber displacement rates (percentage of chamber volume per minute). Birds undergoing euthanasia were videorecorded and scored by 2 observers for behaviors potentially related to discomfort or distress. Time to recumbency and time until respiratory arrest (RA) were also assessed. RA was achieved faster by using NaP in a conscious bird compared to using isoflurane anesthesia followed by NaP; however, neither method caused behaviors that might affect animal welfare, such as open-mouth breathing, to any appreciable extent. Among the CO2 treatment groups, there was an inverse correlation between the chamber displacement rate used and the duration of open-mouth breathing, onset of head retroflexion, and time to RA. The results demonstrate that the intracoelomic administration of NaP in an awake, restrained zebra finch is a rapid and effective method of euthanasia. If CO2 is used to euthanize these birds, a high displacement rate (for example, 80%) will minimize the duration of the procedure and associated behaviors.

  11. Zebra finch mates use their forebrain song system in unlearned call communication.

    PubMed

    Ter Maat, Andries; Trost, Lisa; Sagunsky, Hannes; Seltmann, Susanne; Gahr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Unlearned calls are produced by all birds whereas learned songs are only found in three avian taxa, most notably in songbirds. The neural basis for song learning and production is formed by interconnected song nuclei: the song control system. In addition to song, zebra finches produce large numbers of soft, unlearned calls, among which "stack" calls are uttered frequently. To determine unequivocally the calls produced by each member of a group, we mounted miniature wireless microphones on each zebra finch. We find that group living paired males and females communicate using bilateral stack calling. To investigate the role of the song control system in call-based male female communication, we recorded the electrical activity in a premotor nucleus of the song control system in freely behaving male birds. The unique combination of acoustic monitoring together with wireless brain recording of individual zebra finches in groups shows that the neuronal activity of the song system correlates with the production of unlearned stack calls. The results suggest that the song system evolved from a brain circuit controlling simple unlearned calls to a system capable of producing acoustically rich, learned vocalizations.

  12. Modulation of antioxidant defense and immune response in zebra fish (Danio rerio) using dietary sodium propionate.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kavandi, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the effect of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response and expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Six hundred healthy zebra fish (0.42 ± 0.06 g) supplied, randomly stocked in 12 aquariums and fed on basal diets supplemented with different levels of sodium propionate [0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g kg -1 ] for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, mucosal immune parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz), antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT) as well as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression were measured. The results revealed feeding on sodium propionate significantly up-regulated inflammatory response genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). However, antioxidant enzyme genes significantly down-regulated in the treated group compared with control (P < 0.05). Also, HSP70 gene expression was higher in the liver of fish fed the basal diet and deceased with elevation of sodium propionate levels in the diet. These results showed beneficial effects of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response as well as the antioxidant defense of zebra fish.

  13. Primary structure of pancreatic polypeptide from four species of Perissodactyla (Przewalski's horse, zebra, rhino, tapir).

    PubMed

    Henry, J S; Lance, V A; Conlon, J M

    1991-12-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been purified from extracts of the pancreas of four species of odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla): Przewalski's horse, mountain zebra, white rhinoceros, and mountain tapir. The amino acid sequence of Przewalski's horse pancreatic polypeptide was established as Ala-Pro-Met-Glu-Pro-Val-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Asp10-Asn- Ala-Thr-Pro-Glu-Gln-Met-Ala-Gln-Tyr20-Ala-Ala-Glu-Leu-Arg-Arg-Tyr- Ile-Asn-Met30 - Leu-Thr-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr.NH2. Zebra PP was identical to Przewalski's horse PP, rhinoceros PP contained three substitutions relative to the horse (Ser for Ala1, Leu for Met3, and Glu for Gln16), and tapir PP contained one substitution relative to the horse (Leu for Met3). On the basis of morphological characteristics and the fossil record, the rhinocerotids are classified with the tapirids in the suborder Ceratomorpha, whereas the horse and zebra belong to a separate suborder, Hippomorpha. On the basis of structural similarity of the PP molecules, however, it would appear that the tapir is more closely related to the horse than to the rhinoceros. These observations provide a further example of the need for extreme caution when inferring taxonomic or phylogenetic relationships between species from the structures of homologous peptides.

  14. A Daily Oscillation in the Fundamental Frequency and Amplitude of Harmonic Syllables of Zebra Finch Song

    PubMed Central

    Wood, William E.; Osseward, Peter J.; Roseberry, Thomas K.; Perkel, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Complex motor skills are more difficult to perform at certain points in the day (for example, shortly after waking), but the daily trajectory of motor-skill error is more difficult to predict. By undertaking a quantitative analysis of the fundamental frequency (FF) and amplitude of hundreds of zebra finch syllables per animal per day, we find that zebra finch song follows a previously undescribed daily oscillation. The FF and amplitude of harmonic syllables rises across the morning, reaching a peak near mid-day, and then falls again in the late afternoon until sleep. This oscillation, although somewhat variable, is consistent across days and across animals and does not require serotonin, as animals with serotonergic lesions maintained daily oscillations. We hypothesize that this oscillation is driven by underlying physiological factors which could be shared with other taxa. Song production in zebra finches is a model system for studying complex learned behavior because of the ease of gathering comprehensive behavioral data and the tractability of the underlying neural circuitry. The daily oscillation that we describe promises to reveal new insights into how time of day affects the ability to accomplish a variety of complex learned motor skills. PMID:24312654

  15. Comparative Cytogenetics between Two Important Songbird, Models: The Zebra Finch and the Canary

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Michelly da Silva; Kretschmer, Rafael; Frankl-Vilches, Carolina; Bakker, Antje; Gahr, Manfred; O´Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.

    2017-01-01

    Songbird species (order Passeriformes, suborder Oscines) are important models in various experimental fields spanning behavioural genomics to neurobiology. Although the genomes of some songbird species were sequenced recently, the chromosomal organization of these species is mostly unknown. Here we focused on the two most studied songbird species in neuroscience, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and the canary (Serinus canaria). In order to clarify these issues and also to integrate chromosome data with their assembled genomes, we used classical and molecular cytogenetics in both zebra finch and canary to define their chromosomal homology, localization of heterochromatic blocks and distribution of rDNA clusters. We confirmed the same diploid number (2n = 80) in both species, as previously reported. FISH experiments confirmed the occurrence of multiple paracentric and pericentric inversions previously found in other species of Passeriformes, providing a cytogenetic signature for this order, and corroborating data from in silico analyses. Additionally, compared to other Passeriformes, we detected differences in the zebra finch karyotype concerning the morphology of some chromosomes, in the distribution of 5S rDNA clusters, and an inversion in chromosome 1. PMID:28129381

  16. Zebra Alphaherpesviruses (EHV-1 and EHV-9): Genetic Diversity, Latency and Co-Infections.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Damiani, Armando; Ho, Simon Y W; Strauss, Günter; Szentiks, Claudia A; East, Marion L; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D

    2016-09-20

    Alphaherpesviruses are highly prevalent in equine populations and co-infections with more than one of these viruses' strains frequently diagnosed. Lytic replication and latency with subsequent reactivation, along with new episodes of disease, can be influenced by genetic diversity generated by spontaneous mutation and recombination. Latency enhances virus survival by providing an epidemiological strategy for long-term maintenance of divergent strains in animal populations. The alphaherpesviruses equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and 9 (EHV-9) have recently been shown to cross species barriers, including a recombinant EHV-1 observed in fatal infections of a polar bear and Asian rhinoceros. Little is known about the latency and genetic diversity of EHV-1 and EHV-9, especially among zoo and wild equids. Here, we report evidence of limited genetic diversity in EHV-9 in zebras, whereas there is substantial genetic variability in EHV-1. We demonstrate that zebras can be lytically and latently infected with both viruses concurrently. Such a co-occurrence of infection in zebras suggests that even relatively slow-evolving viruses such as equine herpesviruses have the potential to diversify rapidly by recombination. This has potential consequences for the diagnosis of these viruses and their management in wild and captive equid populations.

  17. Accumulation and distribution of selenium in mussel and shrimp tissues

    SciT

    Fowler, S.W.; Benayoun, G.

    1976-09-01

    The tissue distribution of selenium in mussels and shrimp was examined and the bioaccumulation kinetics in the various tissues was elucidated with the aid of radio selenium. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and shrimp (Lysmata seticaudata) collected near the Monaco port, were apportioned into several groups. One group of mussels and shrimp was maintained in sea water containing 0.8 ..mu..Ci/liter high specific activity Se-75. Three to four individuals were dissected and their tissues monitored for Se-75 content periodically. Another group of shrimp, maintained in flowing sea water, were fed ad libitum mussels that had previously accumulated Se-75 from sea water for severalmore » days. Shrimp were periodically dissected to follow tissue accumulation of ingested selenium. The highest concentrations of selenium were found in the exoskeleton, presumably due, in part, to the relatively large amount of isotope sorbed to its outer surface. Molts, cast by shrimp at various times throughout uptake, contained from 60 to 90% of the total Se-75 body burden. Direct uptake of water led to initially small fractions in internal tissues such as muscle and viscera compared to the relatively large fraction associated with the exoskeleton. With time percentages in internal tissues gradually increased relative to that in the exoskeleton. When Se-75 was accumulated through the food chain an opposite trend was noted with the Se-75 fraction in exoskeleton slowly increasing and that in viscera decreasing during the course of the experiment. All tissues examined readily accumulated the isotope and, in general, did not appear to have reached a steady state concentration after 63 days. The highest Se-75 concentrations were found in the visceral mass with lesser amounts in gills, muscle and mantle, in that order.« less

  18. Influence of sediment presence on freshwater mussel thermal tolerance

    Archambault, Jennifer M.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Median lethal temperature (LT50) data from water-only exposures with the early life stages of freshwater mussels suggest that some species may be living near their upper thermal tolerances. However, evaluation of thermal sensitivity has never been conducted in sediment. Mussels live most of their lives burrowed in sediment, so understanding the effect of sediment on thermal sensitivity is a necessary step in evaluating the effectiveness of the water-only standard method, on which the regulatory framework for potential thermal criteria currently is based, as a test of thermal sensitivity. We developed a method for testing thermal sensitivity of juvenile mussels in sediment and used the method to assess thermal tolerance of 4 species across a range of temperatures common during summer. Stream beds may provide a thermal refuge in the wild, but we hypothesized that the presence of sediment alone does not alter thermal sensitivity. We also evaluated the effects of 2 temperature acclimation levels (22 and 27°C) and 2 water levels (watered and dewatered treatments). We then compared results from the sediment tests to those conducted using the water-only standard methods. We also conducted water-only LT tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) for comparison with the juvenile life stage. We found few consistent differences in thermal tolerance between sediment and water-only treatments, between acclimation temperatures, between waterlevel treatments, among species, or between juvenile and glochidial life stages (LT50 range = 33.3-37.2°C; mean = 35.6°C), supporting our hypothesis that the presence of sediment alone does not alter thermal sensitivity. The method we developed has potential for evaluating the role of other stressors (e.g., contaminants) in a more natural and complex environment.

  19. Toxic effects of the antihistamine cetirizine in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Miguel; Almeida, Ângela; Calisto, Vânia; Esteves, Valdemar I; Schneider, Rudolf J; Wrona, Frederick J; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have become increasingly focused on the assessment of pharmaceuticals occurrence in aquatic ecosystems, however the potential toxicity to non-target organisms is still largely unknown. The antihistamine cetirizine is a commonly used pharmaceutical, already detected in surface waters of marine aquatic systems worldwide. In the present study Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels were exposed to a range of cetirizine concentrations (0.3, 3.0, 6.0 and 12.0 μg/L), resembling moderate to highly contaminated areas, over 28 days. The responses of different biochemical markers were evaluated in mussels whole soft tissue, and included energy-related parameters (glycogen content, GLY; protein content, PROT; electron transport system activity, ETS), and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase activity, SOD; catalase activity, CAT; glutathione S-transferases activity, GSTs; lipid peroxidation levels, LPO; reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione content). The results obtained demonstrated that with the increase of exposure concentrations mussels tended to increase their energy reserves and maintain their metabolic potential, which was significantly higher only at the highest concentration. Our findings clearly revealed that cetirizine inhibited the activity of GSTs and although induced the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) mussels were not able to prevent cellular damages observed through the increase of LPO associated to the increase of exposure concentrations. Thus, this study confirmed that cetirizine induces toxic effects in Mytilus galloprovincialis, which, considering their trophic relevance, wide use as bioindicator and wide spatial distribution of this species, can result in ecological and economic negative impacts at a large scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical design of mussel byssus: material yield enhances attachment strength

    PubMed

    Bell; Gosline

    1996-01-01

    The competitive dominance of mussels in the wave-swept rocky intertidal zone is in part due to their ability to maintain a secure attachment. Mussels are tethered to the substratum by a byssus composed of numerous extracellular, collagenous threads secreted by the foot. Each byssal thread has three serially arranged parts: a corrugated proximal region, a smooth distal region and an adhesive plaque. This study examines the material and structural properties of the byssal threads of three mussel species: Mytilus californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Tensile tests in general reveal similar material properties among species: the proximal region has a lower initial modulus, a lower ultimate stress and a higher ultimate strain than the distal region. The distal region also yields at a stress well below its ultimate value. In whole thread tests, the proximal region and adhesive plaque are common sites of structural failure and are closely matched in strength, while the distal region appears to be excessively strong. We propose that the high strength of the distal region is the byproduct of a material designed to yield and extend before structural failure occurs. Experimental and theoretical evidence is presented suggesting that thread yield and extensibility provide two important mechanisms for increasing the overall attachment strength of the mussel: (1) the reorientation of threads towards the direction of applied load, and (2) the 'recruitment' of more threads into tension and the consequent distribution of applied load over a larger cross-sectional area, thereby reducing the stress on each thread. This distal region yield behavior is most striking for M. californianus and may be a key to its success in extreme wave-swept environments.

  1. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the threeridge mussel (Amblema plicata) by chlorpyrifos: implications for biomonitoring

    Doran, W.J.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, were examined on the activity of the nervous system enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the threeridge mussel Amblema plicata in a 24-day laboratory test. Thirty-six mussels in each of seven treatments (18 mussels per duplicate) were exposed to chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/L), a solvent (acetone), and a solvent-free (well water) control for 12, 24, or 96 h. The activity of AChE was measured in the anterior adductor muscle of eight mussels from each treatment after exposure. To assess potential latent effects, six mussels from each treatment were removed after 24 h of exposure and transferred to untreated water for a 21-day holding period; AChE activity was measured on three mussels from each treatment at 7 and 21 days of the holding period. The activity of AChE in chlorpyrifos-exposed mussels did not differ from controls after 12 or 24 h of exposure (t- test, P>0.05), but was significantly less than controls after 96 h (t- test, P=0.01). AChE activity did not vary among mussels at 24 h of exposure (i.e., Day 0 of holding period) and those at Day 7 and Day 21 of the holding period. Overall changes in AChE activity of mussels during the test were unrelated to individual chlorpyrifos concentrations and exposure times (repeated measure ANOVA; (P=0.06). A power analysis revealed that the sample size must be increased from 2 to 5 replicates (8 to 20 mussels per time interval and test concentration) to increase the probability of detecting significant differences in AChE activity. This calculated increase in sample size has potential implications for future biomonitoring studies with chlorpyrifos and unionid mussels.

  2. The use of waste mussel shells for the adsorption of dyes and heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Chrysi A.; Krey, Grigorios; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Kallaniotis, Argyris

    2016-04-01

    Mussel culture is very important sector of the Greek agricultural economy. The majority of mussel culture activities take place in the area of Central Macedonia, Greece, 60% of total mussel production in Greece producing almost 12 tons of waste mussels shells on a daily basis. Currently there is no legislation concerning the disposal of mussel shells. In the present study the waste shells were used for the removal of dyes and heavy metals from aqueous solutions while powdered mussel shells were added in activated sludge processes for the removal of hexavalent chromium. Mussel shells were cleaned, dried and then crushed in order to form a powder. Powdered mussels shells were used in standard adsorption experiments for the removal of methylene blue and methyl red as well as for the removal of Cr (VI), Cd and Cu. Moreover the powdered mussel shells were added in laboratory scale activated sludge reactors treating synthetic wastewater with hexavalent chromium, in order investigate the effects in activated sludge processes and their potential attribution to the removal of hexavalent chromium. Adsorption experiments indicated almost 100% color removal, while adsorption was directly proportional to the amount of powdered mussel shells added in each case. The isotherms calculated for the case of methylene blue indicated similar adsorption capacity and properties to those of the commercially available activated carbon SAE 2, Norit. High removal efficiencies were observed for the metals, especially in the case of chromium and copper. The addition of powdered mussel shells in the activated sludge processes enhanced the removal of chromium and phosphorus, while enabled the formation of heavier activated sludge flocs and thus enhanced the settling properties of the activated sludge.

  3. Biomarker responses of mussels exposed to earthquake disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri; Marsden, Islay D.; Glover, Chris N.; Gaw, Sally

    2016-12-01

    The green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus is recognised as a bioindicator of coastal contamination in New Zealand (NZ). Mussels (shell length 60-80 mm) were collected from three intertidal areas of Canterbury in the South Island of NZ prior to extreme earthquake disturbances on 22nd February 2011, and 9 months later in October 2011. Trace elements, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), were measured in the gills, digestive gland, foot and mantle. Metal levels in tissues were site specific, and mostly unaffected by earthquake disturbances. Physiological biomarkers were negatively affected by earthquake disturbances and mussels from the Port of Lyttelton had higher negative scope for growth post-earthquake. Metallothionein-like protein in the digestive gland correlated with metal content of tissues, as did catalase activity in the gill and lipid peroxidation values for the digestive gland. This research demonstrates that physiological and other biomarkers are effective at detecting the effects of multiple stressors following seismic disturbances.

  4. Methanotrophic marine molluscan (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) symbiosis: mussels fueled by gas

    SciT

    Childress, J.J.; Fisher, C.R.; Brooks, J.M.

    An undescribed mussel (family Mytilidae), which lives in the vicinity of hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico, consumes methane (the principal component of natural gas) at a high rate. The methane consumption is limited to the gills of these animals and is apparently due to the abundant intracellular bacteria found there. This demonstrates a methane-based symbiosis between an animal and intracellular bacteria. Methane consumption is dependent on the availability of oxygen and is inhibited by acetylene. The consumption of methane by these mussels is associated with a dramatic increase in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. As the methanemore » consumption of the bivalve can exceed its carbide dioxide production, the symbiosis may be able to entirely satisfy its carbon needs from methane uptake. The very light (delta/sup 13/C = -51 to -57 per mil) stable carbon isotope ratios found in this animal support methane (delta/sup 13/C = -45 per mil at this site) as the primary carbon source for both the mussels and their symbionts. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table.« less

  5. A Mussel-Derived One-Component Adhesive Coacervate

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Tan, Yerpeng; Rodriguez, N. Martinez; Yu, Jing; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Marine organisms process and deliver many of their underwater coatings and adhesives as complex fluids. In marine mussels, one such fluid, secreted during the formation of adhesive plaques, consists of a concentrated colloidal suspension of a mussel foot protein (mfp) known as Mfp-3S. Results of this study suggest that Mfp-3S becomes a complex fluid by a liquid-liquid phase separation from equilibrium solution at a pH and ionic strength reminiscent of conditions created by the mussel foot during plaque formation. The pH dependence of phase separation and its sensitivity indicate that inter/intra-molecular electrostatic interactions are partially responsible for driving the phase separation. Hydrophobic interactions between the nonpolar Mfp-3S proteins provide another important driving force for coacervation. As complex coacervation typically results from charge-charge interactions between polyanions and polycations, Mfp-3S is thus unique in being the only known protein that coacervates with itself. The Mfp-3S coacervate was shown to have an effective interfacial energy of ≤ 1 mJ/m2 which explains its tendency to spread over or engulf most surfaces. Of particular interest to biomedical applications is the extremely high adsorption capacity of coacervated Mfp-3S on hydroxyapatite. PMID:24060881

  6. Invasive forest species

    Barbara L. Illman

    2006-01-01

    Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazards–are now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...

  7. Mortality, movement and behaviour of native mussels during a planned water-level drawdown in the Upper Mississippi River

    Newton, Teresa J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Gray, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Collectively, these data suggest that drawdowns can influence the mortality, movement and behaviour of mussels in the UMR. However, more information on spatial and temporal distributions of mussels is needed to better understand the magnitude of these effects. Results from this study are being used by resource managers to better evaluate the effects of this management tool on native mussel assemblages.

  8. The effects of flow and stream characteristics on the variation in freshwater mussel growth in a Southeast US river basin

    Dycus, Justin C.; Wisniewski, Jason M.; Peterson, James T.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides insight to the factors affecting the growth of stream-dwelling freshwater mussels. Although hierarchical von Bertalanffy growth models are rarely used for freshwater mussel age and growth studies, this approach can provide important information regarding the ecology of freshwater mussels.

  9. Chemical defence in mussels: antifouling effect of crude extracts of the periostracum of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Bers, A Valeria; D'Souza, Fraddry; Klijnstra, Job W; Willemsen, Peter R; Wahl, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Shells of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis remain free of fouling organisms as long as they possess an intact periostracum, and a multiple antifouling defence that comprises a ripple-like microtopography and the production of chemical antifouling compounds has been suggested previously. This study investigates the chemical defence strategy of blue mussels for the first time. Six crude extracts of the periostracum of intact shells were made using solvents of increasing polarity. These extracts were tested against common fouling organisms in laboratory based bioassays. Non-polar and moderately polar fractions showed the highest activities: the diethyl ether fraction strongly inhibited attachment of Balanus amphitrite cyprids and the marine bacteria Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Attachment of the benthic diatom Amphora coffeaeformis was significantly reduced by the dichloromethane extract, whereas both ethyl acetate and diethyl ether fractions slowed diatom growth. These results provide the first evidence of surface bound compounds that may moderate surface colonisation.

  10. Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. Results The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH) evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. Conclusion The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving chromosomal fission, gene

  11. Morphological and ecological determinants of body temperature of Geukensia demissa, the Atlantic ribbed mussel, and their effects on mussel mortality.

    PubMed

    Jost, Jennifer; Helmuth, Brian

    2007-10-01

    Measurements of body temperatures in the field have shown that spatial and temporal patterns are often far more complex than previously anticipated, particularly in intertidal regions, where temperatures are driven by both marine and terrestrial climates. We examined the effects of body size, body position within the sediment, and microhabitat (presence or absence of Spartina alterniflora) on the body temperature of the mussel Geukensia demissa. We then used these data to develop a laboratory study exposing mussels to an artificial "stressful" day, mimicking field conditions as closely as possible. Results suggested that G. demissa mortality increases greatly at average daily peak temperatures of 45 degrees C and higher. When these temperatures were compared to field data collected in South Carolina in the summer of 2004, our data indicated that mussels likely experienced mortality due to high-temperature stress at this site during this period. Our results also showed that body position in the mud is the most important environmental modifier of body temperature. This experiment suggested that the presence of marsh grass leads to increases in body temperature by reducing convection, overwhelming the effects of shading. These data add to a growing body of evidence showing that small-scale thermal variability can surpass large-scale gradients.

  12. Status of the Mussel Resource in Little South Fork Cumberland River

    Melvin L. Warren; Wendell R. Haag; Brooks M. Burr

    1999-01-01

    As recently as the 198Os, the Little South Fork Cumberland River of southeastern Kentucky supported a diverse freshwater mussel fauna (Starnes and Bogan 1982; Appendix A). The Little South Fork represented one of the last rivers to support a high number of mussel species in the Cumberland River drainage of Kentucky and Tennessee. The river was first surveyed...

  13. Mussels and sediment as monitoring tools for contaminants: which to use when?

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades, sediments and mussels have been used to assess the ecological and human health risks associated with concentrations of bioavailable organic and metal contaminants in a variety of coastal-wide and localized monitoring programs. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) bioaccumulate o...

  14. USING MUSSEL ISOTOPE RATIOS TO ASSESS ANTHROPOGEN NITROGEN INPUTS TO COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stable nitrogen isotope ratio in ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissus) tissue was investigated as an indicator of the source of nitrogen inputs to coastal salt marshes. Mussels fed a diet of 15N enriched algae in the laboratory showed an increase in tissue nitrogen isotope rati...

  15. RIBBED MUSSEL NITROGEN ISOTOPE SIGNATURES REFLECT NITROGEN SOURCES IN COASTAL MARSHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stable nitrogen isotope ratio in tissue of the ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) was investigated as an indicator of the source of nitrogen inputs to coastal salt marshes. Initially, mussels were fed a diet of 15N-enriched algae in the laboratory to determine how the tissue n...

  16. Effects of handling and aerial exposure on the survival of unionid mussels

    Waller, D.L.; Rach, J.J.; Cope, W.G.; Miller, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a relocation study of unionid mussels in Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River (river mile 713.2) to evaluate survival after handling and aerial exposure. Two separate studies were conducted to compare seasonal differences in mussel survival; the first was initiated in June and the second in October. Amblema plicata plicata (subfamily Ambleminae) and Obliquaria reflexa (subfamily Lampsilinae) were studied. Mussels were marked, held out of water for either 0, 1, 4, or 8 h, and then placed into a 3 x 3 m grid (divided into nine 1-m super(2) units). The mussels were re-examined after four-five months to measure mortality in the control and treatment groups. Mussels of both species had >90% survival after aerial exposure up to 4 h in both studies. However, survival (number recaptured live / number recaptured live and dead) of mussels showed a decreasing trend with duration of exposure in the first study, but not in the second study. The overall recovery of marked mussels (number recaptured/number marked) was 91% in the first study and 87% in the second study. However, only 37% of O. reflexa mussels in the 8-h treatment were recovered in the first study; the adjusted survival (number live recaptured/number marked) of this treatment group was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (35%) than all other treatments.

  17. CONDITIONS FOR COEXISTENCE OF FRESHWATER MUSSEL SPECIES VIA PARTITIONING OF FISH HOST RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riverine freshwater mussel species can be found in highly diverse communities where many similar species coexist. Mussel species potentially compete for food and space as adults, and for fish host resources during the larval (glochidial) stage. Resource partitioning at the larv...

  18. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  19. Current Distributional Information on Freshwater Mussels (family Unionidae) in Mississippi National Forests

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the distribution of freshwater mussels in Mississippi national forests. Review of the scant available information revealed that the national forests harbor a diverse mussel fauna of possibly 46 or more species (including confirmed, probable, and potential occurrences). Occurrence of 33 species is confirmed. Because of the geographic, physiographic...

  20. Polonium-210 in marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) inhabiting the southern coast of India.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin; Rajan, M P

    2014-12-01

    The present study focused on the determination of the alpha-emitter, (210)Po, in two species of marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) commonly available in the southern coastal region of India. The brown mussel, Perna indica was collected from the west coast and the green mussel, Perna viridis from the east coast. The concentration of (210)Po was related to the allometry (length of shell, wet/dry weight of shell/soft tissue) of the mussels and significant results were found. The study period focused on three seasons namely, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon for a 1-year period (2010-2011). The results revealed higher activity levels in smaller-sized mussels compared to larger ones. Marked variation in (210)Po activity concentration was noted in the whole-body soft tissues between seasons and sampling site (p < 0.05). The dose rate assessment for mussels was performed using the ERICA Assessment tool. The chronic exposure to mussels due to (210)Po was found to be lesser than the global benchmark dose rate of 10 μGy h(-1). The effective ingestion dose to adults who intake mussels was estimated to be in the range 5.1-34.9 μSv y(-1). The measurement contributes to the furthering of knowledge of (210)Po, since no data exist in this region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of freshwater mussel communities from 1988 to 2015 in the Cedar Creek Watershed, Indiana

    Out of the 300 genera of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) represented in North America, most species have shown declines in abundance and distribution largely due to human-mediated factors. This study compares current community composition, abundance and richness of mussels in Cedar Creek, Indiana wit...

  2. Freshwater mussel assemblage structure in a regulated river in the Lower Mississippi river Alluvial Basin, USA

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    2007-01-01

    1. This paper documents a diverse, reproducing freshwater mussel community (20 species) in Lower Lake } an impounded, regulated portion of the Little Tallahatchie River below Sardis Dam in Panola Co., Mississippi, USA. 2. Despite being regulated and impounded, the lake has a heterogeneous array of habitats that differ markedly in mussel community attributes...

  3. Facile preparation of mussel-inspired polyurethane hydrogel and its rapid curing behavior.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peiyu; Wang, Jing; Yao, Xiong; Peng, Ying; Tu, Xiaoxiong; Du, Pengfei; Zheng, Zhen; Wang, Xinling

    2014-08-13

    A facile method was found to incorporate a mussel-inspired adhesive moiety into synthetic polymers, and mussel mimetic polyurethanes were developed as adhesive hydrogels. In these polymers, a urethane backbone was substituted for the polyamide chain of mussel adhesive proteins, and dopamine was appended to mimic the adhesive moiety of adhesive proteins. A series of mussel mimetic polyurethanes were created through a step-growth polymerization based on hexamethylene diisocyanate as a hard segment, PEG having different molecular weights as a soft segment, and lysine-dopamine as a chain extender. Upon a treatment with Fe(3+), the aqueous mussel mimetic polyurethane solutions can be triggered by pH adjustment to form adhesive hydrogels instantaneously; these materials can be used as injectable adhesive hydrogels. Upon a treatment with NaIO4, the mussel mimetic polyurethane solutions can be cured in a controllable period of time. The successful combination of the unique mussel-inspired adhesive moiety with a tunable polyurethane structure can result in a new kind of mussel-inspired adhesive polymers.

  4. Host fishes and reproductive biology of 6 freshwater mussel species from the Mobile Basin, USA

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    1997-01-01

    Host fishes were identified for 6 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) from the Black Warrior River drainage, Mobile Basin, USA: Stropkitus subwxus, Pleurohema furvum, Ptyckobranchus greeni, Lampsilis perovalis, Medionidus acutissimus, and Villosa nebulosna. Hosts were determined as those that produced juvenile mussels from...

  5. Host fishes and infection strategies of freshwater mussels in large Mobile Basin streams, USA

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    2003-01-01

    We investigated host fishes, timing and modes of glochidial release, and host-attraction strategies for 7 species of freshwater mussels from the Buttahatchee and Sipsey rivers (Mobile Basin), Alabama and Mississippi, USA. We determined hosts as fish species that produced juvenile mussels from laboratory-induced glochidial infections. We established the following...

  6. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  7. Fluvial processes and local lithology controlling abundance, structure, and composition of mussel beds.

    PubMed

    Vannote, R L; Minshall, G W

    1982-07-01

    In the Salmon River Canyon, Idaho, the fresh-water pearl mussel, Margaritifera falcata, attains maximum density and age in river reaches where large block-boulders structurally stabilize cobbles and interstitial gravels. We hypothesize that block-boulders prevent significant bed scour during major floods, and these boulder-sheltered mussel beds, although rare, may be critical for population recruitment elsewhere within the river, especially after periodic flood scour of less protected mussel habitat. Mussel shells in Indian middens adjacent to these boulder-stabilized areas suggest that prehistoric tribes selectively exploited the high-density old-aged mussel beds. Locally, canyon reaches are aggrading with sand and gravel, and M. falcata is being replaced by Gonidea angulata.

  8. Trematode Aspidogastrea found in the freshwater mussels in the Yangtze River basin.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Wu, Hua

    2017-03-30

    To investigate the prevalence of trematode Aspidogastrea in the freshwater mussels in the Yangtze River basin within Anhui province, China. We initially harvested the freshwater mussels living in the Yangtze River running through Anhui area, and labeled them with corresponding number. Then the samples were dissected for isolating the flukes, which were identified by conventional staining. Infection rate of trematode Aspidogastrea in freshwater mussels in the Yangtze River basin within the territory of Anhui province was 30.38% (103/339) in general, and a total of 912 flukes of Aspidogastrea were detected in the 103 mussels, with average infection rate of 8.85 for each mussel. Trematode Aspidogastrea is prevalent in the freshwater bivalves living in the Yangtze River basin running through Anhui area, and the treamatode was identified as Aspidogaster sp. belong to Aspidogaste under Aspidogastridae of Aspidogastrea.

  9. Relations of Environmental Factors with Mussel-Species Richness in the Neversink River, New York

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Declines in the distribution, abundance, and diversity of freshwater-mussel species (family Unionidae1) have been reported worldwide (Bogan, 1993; Strayer and Jirka, 1997). The principal causes of the observed declines are difficult to confirm, however, because only a few of the many factors that affect mussel-species populations have been identified (Strayer and Ralley, 1993; Strayer, 1999; Baldigo and others, 2003; Strayer and others, 2006). The Neversink River, which drains the Catskill Mountains in southeastern New York (fig. 1), contains seven species of mussels (Strayer and Ralley, 1991; Strayer and Jirka, 1997). Populations of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) and the threatened swollen wedgemussel (Alasmidonta varicosa) coexist with other unionid mussels in the Neversink River (Strayer and Ralley, 1991, 1993; Baldigo and others, 2003). Dwarf wedgemussel populations had previously been found only downstream from the site of an abandoned dam in the lower part of the river at Cuddebackville (fig. 1), and swollen wedgemussels were only found in the lower and middle reaches of the river. The limited distribution of these two species suggests that they may be susceptible to local extinctions. The distribution of mussel populations can be limited by impoundments. Mussel larvae develop in species-specific host fish; thus, impoundments that restrict passage of these host fish also restrict the extent of mussels. The Neversink River is impounded by the Neversink Reservoir [241 square kilometers (km2)], a major source of drinking water for the City of New York, and was also impounded 50 km downstream by the Cuddebackville Dam until 2004, when the latter was removed by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to improve fish passage. The removal of this dam has provided previously unavailable habitat for diadromous and other fish species that act as hosts for rare mussel species. In addition, releases from

  10. Influence of dreissenid mussels on catchability of benthic fishes in bottom trawls

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Stapanian, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Inferring trends in true abundance of fish populations from catch per unit effort data requires either the knowledge of capture probability or the assumption that it is constant, both of which are unlikely contingencies. We developed and validated an index of catchability (a proxy measure for capture probability) from a long-term data set describing nearshore waters of western Lake Erie, and we used the index to test the hypothesis that catchability of four abundant benthic species captured in bottom trawls changed after the invasion of dreissenid mussels. We estimated daytime and nighttime catchability for 1972–1990 (predreissenid period) and 1991–2009 (dreissenid period); we then tested for differences between nighttime and daytime catchability in the predreissenid and dreissenid periods and the nighttime–daytime differential in catchability during the dreissenid period. We also tested relationships between Secchi depth and the catchability index via linear regression. Catchability indices for white perch Morone americana, yellow perch Perca flavescens, and trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus did not differ between daytime and nighttime during the predreissenid period. After establishment of dreissenids, all three of these species had lower daytime catchability than nighttime catchability and had positive nighttime–daytime differentials, indicating a shift toward higher nighttime catchability relative to daytime catchability. Changes in catchability indices for freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens were opposite the changes observed for the other three species, possibly because the freshwater drum is the only species that actively feeds on dreissenids. Catchability indices were negatively related to water clarity (Secchi depth) for three of the species. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that catchability of the four most common benthic fish species captured in bottom trawls within nearshore waters of western Lake Erie changed after the

  11. Variation in abundance of Pacific Blue Mussel (Mytilus trossulus) in the Northern Gulf of Alaska, 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodkin, James L.; Coletti, Heather A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esler, Daniel; Dean, Thomas A.

    2018-01-01

    Mussels are conspicuous and ecologically important components of nearshore marine communities around the globe. Pacific blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) are common residents of intertidal habitats in protected waters of the North Pacific, serving as a conduit of primary production to a wide range of nearshore consumers including predatory invertebrates, sea ducks, shorebirds, sea otters, humans, and other terrestrial mammals. We monitored seven metrics of intertidal Pacific blue mussel abundance at five sites in each of three regions across the northern Gulf of Alaska: Katmai National Park and Preserve (Katmai) (2006-2015), Kenai Fjords National Park (Kenai Fjords) (2008-2015) and western Prince William Sound (WPWS) (2007-2015). Metrics included estimates of: % cover at two tide heights in randomly selected rocky intertidal habitat; and in selected mussel beds estimates of: the density of large mussels (≥ 20 mm); density of all mussels > 2 mm estimated from cores extracted from those mussel beds; bed size; and total abundance of large and all mussels, i.e. the product of density and bed size. We evaluated whether these measures of mussel abundance differed among sites or regions, whether mussel abundance varied over time, and whether temporal patterns in abundance were site specific, or synchronous at regional or Gulf-wide spatial scales. We found that, for all metrics, mussel abundance varied on a site-by-site basis. After accounting for site differences, we found similar temporal patterns in several measures of abundance (both % cover metrics, large mussel density, large mussel abundance, and mussel abundance estimated from cores), in which abundance was initially high, declined significantly over several years, and subsequently recovered. Averaged across all sites, we documented declines of 84% in large mussel abundance through 2013 with recovery to 41% of initial abundance by 2015. These findings suggest that factors operating across the northern Gulf of

  12. Variation in abundance of Pacific Blue Mussel (Mytilus trossulus) in the Northern Gulf of Alaska, 2006–2015

    Bodkin, James L.; Coletti, Heather A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel; Esler, Daniel N.; Dean, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Mussels are conspicuous and ecologically important components of nearshore marine communities around the globe. Pacific blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) are common residents of intertidal habitats in protected waters of the North Pacific, serving as a conduit of primary production to a wide range of nearshore consumers including predatory invertebrates, sea ducks, shorebirds, sea otters, humans, and other terrestrial mammals. We monitored seven metrics of intertidal Pacific blue mussel abundance at five sites in each of three regions across the northern Gulf of Alaska: Katmai National Park and Preserve (Katmai) (2006–2015), Kenai Fjords National Park (Kenai Fjords) (2008–2015) and western Prince William Sound (WPWS) (2007–2015). Metrics included estimates of: % cover at two tide heights in randomly selected rocky intertidal habitat; and in selected mussel beds estimates of: the density of large mussels (≥ 20 mm); density of all mussels > 2 mm estimated from cores extracted from those mussel beds; bed size; and total abundance of large and all mussels, i.e. the product of density and bed size. We evaluated whether these measures of mussel abundance differed among sites or regions, whether mussel abundance varied over time, and whether temporal patterns in abundance were site specific, or synchronous at regional or Gulf-wide spatial scales. We found that, for all metrics, mussel abundance varied on a site-by-site basis. After accounting for site differences, we found similar temporal patterns in several measures of abundance (both % cover metrics, large mussel density, large mussel abundance, and mussel abundance estimated from cores), in which abundance was initially high, declined significantly over several years, and subsequently recovered. Averaged across all sites, we documented declines of 84% in large mussel abundance through 2013 with recovery to 41% of initial abundance by 2015. These findings suggest that factors operating across the northern Gulf

  13. Effects of flow restoration on mussel growth in a Wild and Scenic North American River

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Freshwater mussels remain among the most imperiled species in North America due primarily to habitat loss or degradation. Understanding how mussels respond to habitat changes can improve conservation efforts. Mussels deposit rings in their shell in which age and growth information can be read, and thus used to evaluate how mussels respond to changes in habitat. However, discrepancies between methodological approaches to obtain life history information from growth rings has led to considerable uncertainty regarding the life history characteristics of many mussel species. In this study we compared two processing methods, internal and external ring examination, to obtain age and growth information of two populations of mussels in the St. Croix River, MN, and evaluated how mussel growth responded to changes in the operation of a hydroelectric dam. Results External ring counts consistently underestimated internal ring counts by 4 years. Despite this difference, internal and external growth patterns were consistent. In 2000, the hydroelectric dam switched from operating on a peaking schedule to run-of-the-river/partial peaking. Growth patterns between an upstream and downstream site of the dam were similar both before and after the change in operation. At the downstream site, however, older mussels had higher growth rates after the change in operation than the same sized mussels collected before the change. Conclusions Because growth patterns between internal and external processing methods were consistent, we suggest that external processing is an effective method to obtain growth information despite providing inaccurate age information. External processing is advantageous over internal processing due to its non-destructive nature. Applying this information to analyze the influence of the operation change in the hydroelectric dam, we suggest that changing to run-of-the-river/partial peaking operation has benefited the growth of older mussels below the dam

  14. Trace metals and macroelements in mussels from Chinese coastal waters: National spatial patterns and normalization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guang-Yuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2018-06-01

    Metal contamination is one of the most ubiquitous and complex problems in the Chinese coastal environment. To explore the large-scale spatial patterns of bioavailable metals, we sampled three major mussels, including 784 blue mussels (Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758) of 14 sites, 224 hard-shelled mussels (Mytilus unguiculatus Valenciennes, 1858) of 4 sites, and 392 green mussels (Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758)) of 7 sites, ranging from temperate to tropical coastlines of China, during August and September 2015. The concentrations of macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P) and toxic trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn) in the mussel's whole soft tissues were determined. Among the four Chinese coastal basins, Cd, Ti and Cr in the mussel tissues were the highest at Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS), and Cu, Ni, Pb and Ag in the mussel tissues were the highest at East China Sea (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS). Zinc concentrations in mussels from YS were significantly higher than those from the other regions. Given the variability of environmental conditions such as salinity and nutrients, we further normalized the measured tissue metal concentrations with tissue Na and P levels. After Na normalization as the salinity proxy, the variability of Cd, Cu, Zn, Ag, and Ni was reduced. Trace elements accumulation in the mussel tissues was significantly related to both macroelements (Na or P) and body dry weight. The present study demonstrated that nonlinear optimization of different elements was necessary in assessing metal bioaccumulation patterns in marine mussels at a large spatial scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biotic interactions at hydrothermal vents: Recruitment inhibition by the mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenihan, H. S.; Mills, S. W.; Mullineaux, L. S.; Peterson, C. H.; Fisher, C. R.; Micheli, F.

    2008-12-01

    The structure and dynamics of marine communities are regulated in part by variation in recruitment. As in other ecosystems, recruitment at deep-sea hydrothermal vents is controlled by the interplay of propagule supply and behavior, gradients in physical-chemical conditions, and biotic interactions during pre- and post-settlement periods. Recent research along the East Pacific Rise indicates that inhibition of recently settled larvae by mobile predators (mainly limpets) influences patterns of recruitment and subsequent community succession. We conducted a manipulative experiment at the same sites (˜2510 m water depth) to test whether high-density assemblages of the mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus also inhibit recruitment. In a preliminary study, recruitment of vent invertebrates within the faunal zone dominated by B. thermophilus was strikingly different at two sites, East Wall and Worm Hole. East Wall had high densities of mussels but very low total recruitment. In contrast, Worm Hole had few mussels but high recruitment. Using the submersible Alvin, we transplanted a large number of mussels from East Wall to Worm Hole and quantified recruitment on basalt blocks placed in three treatments: (1) naturally high densities of mussels at East Wall; (2) naturally low densities of mussels at Worm Hole; and (3) high densities of transplanted mussels at Worm Hole. After 11 months, a total of 24 taxa had recruited to the basalt blocks. Recruitment was 44-60% lower in the transplanted high-density mussel patch at Worm Hole and the natural high-density patch at East Wall than within the natural low-density patch at Worm Hole. Biotic processes that may have caused the pattern of recruitment observed included predation of larvae via water filtration by mussels, larval avoidance of superior competitors, interference competition, and enhanced predation by species within the mussel-bed community. Our results indicate that biotic interactions affecting recruitment must be

  16. Changes in freshwater mussel communities linked to legacy pollution in the Lower Delaware River

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Silldorff, Erik L.; Galbraith, Heather S.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most-imperiled organisms worldwide, although they provide a variety of important functions in the streams and rivers they inhabit. Among Atlantic-slope rivers, the Delaware River is known for its freshwater mussel diversity and biomass; however, limited data are available on the freshwater mussel fauna in the lower, non-tidal portion of the river. This section of the Delaware River has experienced decades of water-quality degradation from both industrial and municipal sources, primarily as a function of one of its major tributaries, the Lehigh River. We completed semi-quantitative snorkel surveys in 53.5 of the 121 km of the river to document mussel community composition and the continued impacts from pollution (particularly inputs from the Lehigh River) on mussel fauna. We detected changes in mussel catch per unit effort (CPUE) below the confluence of the Lehigh River, with significant declines in the dominant species Elliptio complanata (Eastern Elliptio) as we moved downstream from its confluence—CPUE dropped from 179 to 21 mussels/h. Patterns in mussel distribution around the Lehigh confluence matched chemical signatures of Lehigh water input. Specifically, Eastern Elliptio CPUE declined more quickly moving downstream on the Pennsylvania bank, where Lehigh River water input was more concentrated compared to the New Jersey bank. A definitive causal link remains to be established between the Lehigh River and the dramatic shifts in mussel community composition, warranting continued investigation as it relates to mussel conservation and restoration in the basin.

  17. Exposure of unionid mussels to electric current: Assessing risks associated with electrofishing

    Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Cope, W.G.; Levine, Jay F.

    2007-01-01

    Electric current is routinely applied in freshwater for scientific sampling of fish populations (i.e., electrofishing). Freshwater mussels (families Margaritiferidae and Unionidae) are distributed worldwide, but their recent declines in diversity and abundance constitute an imperilment of global significance. Freshwater mussels are not targeted for capture by electrofishing, and any exposure to electric current is unintentional. The effects of electric shock are not fully understood for mussels but could disrupt vital physiological processes and represent an additional threat to their survival. In a controlled laboratory environment, we examined the consequences of exposure to two typical electrofishing currents, 60-Hz pulsed DC and 60-Hz AC, for the survival of adult and early life stages of three unionid species; we included fish as a quality control measure. The outcomes suggest that electrical exposure associated with typical electrofishing poses little direct risk to freshwater mussels. That is, adult mussel survival and righting behaviors (indicators of sublethal stress) were not adversely affected by electrical exposure. Glochidia (larvae that attach to and become parasites on fish gills or fins) showed minimal immediate reduction in viability after exposure. Metamorphosis from glochidia to free-living juvenile mussels was not impaired after electric current simulated capture-prone behaviors (stunning) in infested host fish. In addition, the short-term survival of juvenile mussels was not adversely influenced by exposure to electric current. Any minimal risk to imperiled mussels must be weighed at the population level against the benefits gained by using the gear for scientific sampling of fish in the same waters. However, scientists sampling fish by electrofishing should be aware of mussel reproductive periods and processes in order to minimize the harmful effects to host fish, especially in areas where mussel conservation is a concern. ?? Copyright by the

  18. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici") and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000-300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had

  19. Arthropod parasites of springbok, gemsbok, kudus, giraffes and Burchell's and Hartmann's zebras in the Etosha and Hardap Nature Reserves, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Anthonissen, M; Krecek, R C; Boomker, J

    1992-12-01

    A total of 48 springbok, 48 gemsbok, 23 kudus and 6 giraffes were examined for ticks and lice, while 9 Burchell's zebras and 6 Hartmann's mountain zebras were examined only for ticks. Springbok and gemsbok were shot in both the Etosha National Park in the north and the Hardap Nature Reserve in the south of Namibia. All the other animals were shot in the Etosha National Park. A total of 7 ixodid tick species and 8 lice species were recovered. The springbok carried few ticks. The adults of a Rhipicephalus sp. (near R. oculatus) were most numerous on the gemsbok, especially during November. The kudus were the only animals harbouring Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. Adult Hyalomma truncatum, followed by adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, were most abundant on the giraffes and adult Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus were commonest on the zebras.

  20. Freshwater mussel population status and habitat quality in the Clinch River, Virginia and Tennessee, USA: a featured collection

    Zipper, Carl E.; Beaty, Braven; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Jess W.; Krstolic, Jennifer Lynn; Ostby, Brett J.K.; Wolfe, William J.; Donovan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The Clinch River of southwestern Virginia and northeastern Tennessee is arguably the most important river for freshwater mussel conservation in the United States. This featured collection presents investigations of mussel population status and habitat quality in the Clinch River. Analyses of historic water- and sediment-quality data suggest that water column ammonia and water column and sediment metals, including Cu and Zn, may have contributed historically to declining densities and extirpations of mussels in the river's Virginia sections. These studies also reveal increasing temporal trends for dissolved solids concentrations throughout much of the river's extent. Current mussel abundance patterns do not correspond spatially with physical habitat quality, but they do correspond with specific conductance, dissolved major ions, and water column metals, suggesting these and/or associated constituents as factors contributing to mussel declines. Mussels are sensitive to metals. Native mussels and hatchery-raised mussels held in cages in situ accumulated metals in their body tissues in river sections where mussels are declining. Organic compound and bed-sediment contaminant analyses did not reveal spatial correspondences with mussel status metrics, although potentially toxic levels were found. Collectively, these studies identify major ions and metals as water- and sediment-quality concerns for mussel conservation in the Clinch River.

  1. Mate call as reward: Acoustic communication signals can acquire positive reinforcing values during adulthood in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Alexandra M; Perez, Emilie C; Mulard, Hervé; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2016-02-01

    Social stimuli can have rewarding properties and promote learning. In birds, conspecific vocalizations like song can act as a reinforcer, and specific song variants can acquire particular rewarding values during early life exposure. Here we ask if, during adulthood, an acoustic signal simpler and shorter than song can become a reward for a female songbird because of its particular social value. Using an operant choice apparatus, we showed that female zebra finches display a preferential response toward their mate's calls. This reinforcing value of mate's calls could be involved in the maintenance of the monogamous pair-bond of the zebra finch. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Ocean acidification reduces the crystallographic control in juvenile mussel shells.

    PubMed

    Fitzer, Susan C; Cusack, Maggie; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2014-10-01

    Global climate change threatens the oceans as anthropogenic carbon dioxide causes ocean acidification and reduced carbonate saturation. Future projections indicate under saturation of aragonite, and potentially calcite, in the oceans by 2100. Calcifying organisms are those most at risk from such ocean acidification, as carbonate is vital in the biomineralisation of their calcium carbonate protective shells. This study highlights the importance of multi-generational studies to investigate how marine organisms can potentially adapt to future projected global climate change. Mytilus edulis is an economically important marine calcifier vulnerable to decreasing carbonate saturation as their shells comprise two calcium carbonate polymorphs: aragonite and calcite. M. edulis specimens were cultured under current and projected pCO2 (380, 550, 750 and 1000μatm), following 6months of experimental culture, adults produced second generation juvenile mussels. Juvenile mussel shells were examined for structural and crystallographic orientation of aragonite and calcite. At 1000μatm pCO2, juvenile mussels spawned and grown under this high pCO2 do not produce aragonite which is more vulnerable to carbonate under-saturation than calcite. Calcite and aragonite were produced at 380, 550 and 750μatm pCO2. Electron back scatter diffraction analyses reveal less constraint in crystallographic orientation with increased pCO2. Shell formation is maintained, although the nacre crystals appear corroded and crystals are not so closely layered together. The differences in ultrastructure and crystallography in shells formed by juveniles spawned from adults in high pCO2 conditions may prove instrumental in their ability to survive ocean acidification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioural and physiological effects of population density on domesticated Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) held in aviaries.

    PubMed

    Poot, Hanneke; ter Maat, Andries; Trost, Lisa; Schwabl, Ingrid; Jansen, René F; Gahr, Manfred

    2012-02-01

    Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are highly social and monogamous birds that display relatively low levels of aggression and coordinate group life mainly by means of vocal communication. In the wild, small groups may congregate to larger flocks of up to 150-350 birds. Little is known, however, about possible effects of population density on development in captivity. Investigating density effects on physiology and behaviour might be helpful in identifying optimal group size, in order to optimise Zebra Finch wellbeing. A direct effect of population density on development and reproduction was found: birds in lower density conditions produced significantly more and larger (body mass, tarsus length) surviving offspring than birds in high density conditions. Furthermore, offspring in low density aviaries produced slightly longer song motifs and more different syllables than their tutors, whereas offspring in high density aviaries produced shorter motifs and a smaller or similar number of different syllables than their tutors. Aggression levels within the populations were low throughout the experiment, but the number of aggressive interactions was significantly higher in high density aviaries. Baseline corticosterone levels did not differ significantly between high- and low density aviaries for either adult or offspring birds. On day 15 post hatching, brood size and baseline corticosterone levels were positively correlated. On days 60 and 100 post hatching this correlation was no longer present. The results of this study prove that population density affects various aspects of Zebra Finch development, with birds living in low population density conditions having an advantage over those living under higher population density conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Zebra finches have a light-dependent magnetic compass similar to migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus; Muheim, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Birds have a light-dependent magnetic compass that provides information about the spatial alignment of the geomagnetic field. It is proposed to be located in the avian retina and mediated by a light-induced, radical-pair mechanism involving cryptochromes as sensory receptor molecules. To investigate how the behavioural responses of birds under different light spectra match with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, we examined the spectral properties of the magnetic compass in zebra finches. We trained birds to relocate a food reward in a spatial orientation task using magnetic compass cues. The birds were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis when trained and tested under low-irradiance 521 nm green light. In the presence of a 1.4 MHz radio-frequency electromagnetic (RF)-field, the birds were disoriented, which supports the involvement of radical-pair reactions in the primary magnetoreception process. Birds trained and tested under 638 nm red light showed a weak tendency to orient ∼45 deg clockwise of the trained magnetic direction. Under low-irradiance 460 nm blue light, they tended to orient along the trained magnetic compass axis, but were disoriented under higher irradiance light. Zebra finches trained and tested under high-irradiance 430 nm indigo light were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis, but disoriented in the presence of a RF-field. We conclude that magnetic compass responses of zebra finches are similar to those observed in nocturnally migrating birds and agree with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, suggesting that light-dependent, radical-pair-mediated magnetoreception is a common property for all birds, including non-migratory species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. High-density genetic map of Miscanthus sinensis reveals inheritance of zebra stripe

    SciT

    Liu, Siyao; Clark, Lindsay V.; Swaminathan, Kankshita

    Miscanthus is a perennial C4 grass that has recently become an important bioenergy crop. The efficiency of breeding improved Miscanthus biomass cultivars could be greatly increased by marker-assisted selection. Thus, a high-density genetic map is critical to Miscanthus improvement. In this study, a mapping population of 261 F1 progeny was developed from a cross between two diploid M. sinensis cultivars, ‘Strictus’ and ‘Kaskade’. High-density genetic maps for the two parents were produced with 3044 newly developed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, and 138 previously mapped GoldenGate SNPs. The female parent (‘Strictus’) map spanned 1599 cM,more » with 1989 SNPs on 19 linkage groups, and an average intermarker spacing of 0.8 cM. The length of the male parent (‘Kaskade’) map was 1612 cM, with 1821 SNPs, and an average intermarker spacing of 0.9 cM. The utility of the map was confirmed by locating quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the zebra-striped trait, which was segregating in this population. Three QTL for zebra-striped presence/absence (zb1, zb2 on LG 7, and zb3 on LG 10) and three for zebra-striped intensity (zbi1, zbi2, zbi3 on LGs 7, 10, 3) were identified. Each allele that caused striping was recessive. Incomplete penetrance was observed for each zb QTL, but penetrance was greatest when two or more zb QTL were homozygous for the causative alleles. Similarly, the intensity of striping was greatest when two or more zbi QTL were homozygous for alleles that conferred the trait. Comparative mapping indicated putative correspondence between zb3 and/or zbi2 on LG 10 to previously sequenced genes conferring zebra stripe in maize and rice. These results demonstrate that the new map is useful for identifying marker–trait associations. The mapped markers will become a valuable community resource, facilitating comparisons among studies and the breeding of Miscanthus.« less

  6. High-density genetic map of Miscanthus sinensis reveals inheritance of zebra stripe

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Siyao; Clark, Lindsay V.; Swaminathan, Kankshita; ...

    2015-05-06

    Miscanthus is a perennial C4 grass that has recently become an important bioenergy crop. The efficiency of breeding improved Miscanthus biomass cultivars could be greatly increased by marker-assisted selection. Thus, a high-density genetic map is critical to Miscanthus improvement. In this study, a mapping population of 261 F1 progeny was developed from a cross between two diploid M. sinensis cultivars, ‘Strictus’ and ‘Kaskade’. High-density genetic maps for the two parents were produced with 3044 newly developed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, and 138 previously mapped GoldenGate SNPs. The female parent (‘Strictus’) map spanned 1599 cM,more » with 1989 SNPs on 19 linkage groups, and an average intermarker spacing of 0.8 cM. The length of the male parent (‘Kaskade’) map was 1612 cM, with 1821 SNPs, and an average intermarker spacing of 0.9 cM. The utility of the map was confirmed by locating quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the zebra-striped trait, which was segregating in this population. Three QTL for zebra-striped presence/absence (zb1, zb2 on LG 7, and zb3 on LG 10) and three for zebra-striped intensity (zbi1, zbi2, zbi3 on LGs 7, 10, 3) were identified. Each allele that caused striping was recessive. Incomplete penetrance was observed for each zb QTL, but penetrance was greatest when two or more zb QTL were homozygous for the causative alleles. Similarly, the intensity of striping was greatest when two or more zbi QTL were homozygous for alleles that conferred the trait. Comparative mapping indicated putative correspondence between zb3 and/or zbi2 on LG 10 to previously sequenced genes conferring zebra stripe in maize and rice. These results demonstrate that the new map is useful for identifying marker–trait associations. The mapped markers will become a valuable community resource, facilitating comparisons among studies and the breeding of Miscanthus.« less

  7. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  8. Population assessment and potential functional roles of native mussels in the Upper Mississippi River

    Newton, Teresa J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Rogala, James T.; Gray, Brian R.; Davis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    1. Despite a heightened global concern for native mussels, fundamental research on mussel ecology in large rivers is lacking. These gaps in knowledge about where mussels occur, and why, are limiting habitat restoration activities. 2. Large-scale systematic surveys for native mussels in three reaches of the Upper Mississippi River documented mussel communities composed of 16–23 species and ranging from 2.9–4.5 live mussels m-2 that were actively recruiting new cohorts into their populations (87–100% of the species were found as juveniles 5 years old). Estimates of mean tissue biomass and production in these reaches ranged from 2.1–3.1 g C m-2 and 0.4–0.6 g C m-2year-1, respectively. 3. Mussels filtered a significant amount of water (range, 0.05–0.07 m3m-2d-1) over a 480 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River — amounting to a filtration rate of 53.1 million m3day-1. The filtration rate of mussels as a percentage of river discharge ranged from 0.5–1.4% at high flows (5% exceedance), from 1.5–4.4% at moderate flows (50% exceedance) and from 4.4–12.2% during low flows (95% exceedance). 4. Collectively, these data suggest that native mussels play an integral role in this ecosystem by sequestering suspended materials that can be used by other benthic organisms.

  9. Intrinsic Variability in Shell and Soft Tissue Growth of the Freshwater Mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    PubMed Central

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1–66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ∼145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  10. Intrinsic variability in shell and soft tissue growth of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1-66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ~145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  11. Rocky intertidal zonation pattern in Antofagasta, chile: invasive species and shellfish gathering.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Juan Carlos; Manríquez, Patricio H; Delgado, Alejandro; Ortiz, Verónica; Jara, María Elisa; Varas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions affecting rocky intertidal zonation patterns, yield information on species interactions. In the Bay of Antofagasta, northern Chile, the non-indigenous tunicate Pyura praeputialis, originally from Australia, has invaded (in the past century or so) and monopolized a major portion of the mid-intertidal rocky shore, displacing upshore the native mussel Perumytilus purpuratus. In Antofagasta the tunicate is subjected to intensive exploitation. Monitoring protocols show that in the past 10 years Antofagasta's tunicate population has experienced a drastic decline, affecting the intertidal zonation pattern. A 12.5 km of coastline, on the southern eastern shore of the Bay of Antofagasta, was studied. Eight sites were systematically (1993-1994) or sporadically (2003-2014) monitored for the seaward-shoreward expansion or reduction of the tunicate Pyura praeputialis, and native mussel and barnacle bands. A notable reduction in the mid-intertidal band of P. praeputialis and a seaward expansion of the mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, and barnacle bands was observed. We suggest that the major cause for the decline in the tunicate is due to its intensive exploitation by rocky shore Pyura-gathers. The rate of extraction of tunicates by professional Pyura-gathers ranged between 256-740 tunicates hour-(1). Between 2009-2014 the density of professional Pyura-gather ranged between 0.5-4.5 km(-1) per low tide. Hence, 10 professional Pyura-gathers working 1 h for 10 low tides per month, during 6 months, will remove between 307-888 m(2) of tunicates. A drastic decline in tunicate recruitment was observed and several P. praeputialis ecosystems services have been lost. In Antofagasta, the continuous and intensive intertidal gathering of the invasive tunicate Pyura praeputialis, has caused a drastic reduction of its population modifying the zonation pattern. Thereby, native mussel Perumytilus purpuratus has regained its ecological center in the intertidal zone. We

  12. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  13. Protection against suspended sand: the function of the branchial membrane in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    2006-09-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) living in estuaries have to cope with varying concentrations of suspended sand. Sand flowing through the inhalant siphons comes into the infrabranchial chamber. The inhalant siphon can be partially closed by the branchial membrane. As a result the inward flow decreases, and suspended sand sinks and can be eliminated. Experiments with mussels from three ecologically different locations showed about the same response of the branchial membrane on contact with suspended sand. The presence and function of the branchial membrane appears to be an adaptation of mussels to their estuarine environment.

  14. Freshwater Mussels as Biological Sensors and Cyclers of Aquatic Nitrogen Constituents: An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, A.; Just, C. L.; Mudumbai, R.; Dasgupta, S.; Newton, T. J.; Durst, J.; Boddicker, M. D.; Diken, M. B.; Bril, J.; Baidoo-Williams, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most extensive manifestations of anthropogenic mismanagement of nitrogen is eutrophication of the Gulf of Mexico. Leaching and runoff transport nitrate compounds-excess agricultural fertilizer and animal waste-via the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Phytoplankton then multiplies exponentially, and consumes most of the dissolved oxygen. This hypoxia kills fish and other organisms, leading to so-called dead zones in the Gulf that can cover 6,000-7,000 square miles. Dead zone mitigation plans call for coupling management actions with enhanced monitoring, modeling, and research on nitrogen delivery to, as well as processing within, the Mississippi River. Our vision is to create a biosensor network of native freshwater mussels in a major river to monitor, comprehend, and ultimately model key components of the nitrogen cycle. Native freshwater mussels are a guild of long-lived, suspension feeding bivalves that perform important ecological functions in aquatic systems. Mussels can influence nutrient cycling by transferring nutrients from the water column to the riverbed. A major problem for environmental scientists is that relatively little is known about the diurnal behaviors of freshwater mussels or the impacts these behaviors may have on the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Our multidisciplinary team is performing a series of laboratory experiments exploring the feasibility of using freshwater mussels as sensors of and capacitors for nitrates. For sensing, we place Hall-effect sensors on mussels to monitor the rhythmic opening and closing of their valves (gape). One shortcoming of previous work is that mussels were monitored in artificial conditions: glued fast in laboratory flumes, or tethered in constrained settings. To overcome this shortcoming, our team has built a mussel microhabitat with a constant river water feed stock, solar simulator, and a variety of water chemistry sensor. A main thrust of our work is to develop the technology to monitor mussel

  15. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein MEFP-2 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-02-07

    The present invention includes a Mytilus edulis cDNA having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-2 (Mefp-2), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-2 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-2 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-2 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-2 gene sequences will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  16. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein Mefp-1 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-01-17

    The present invention comprises a Mytilus edulis cDNA sequenc having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (Mefp-1), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-1 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-1 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-1 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-1 gene sequence will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  17. The effects of dissecting tools on the trace element concentrations of fish and mussel tissues.

    PubMed

    Heit, M; Klusek, C S

    1982-06-01

    A comparison of the effects of dissecting tools composed of various materials on the trace element content of the muscle of the marine bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, and the soft tissues of freshwater mussels, Eliptio complanatus and Lampsilus radiata, is presented. The fish were dissected with blades made of stainless steel, Lexan plastic, titanium, and Teflon-coated stainless steel. The mussels were dissected with stainless and Teflon tools only. Elements measured included As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Te, V, and Zn. Significant concentration differences (P = 0.01) were not found for any element in fish or mussel samples dissected by the different tools.

  18. Transmission of hemic neoplasia in the bay mussel, Mytilus edulis, using whole cells and cell homogenate.

    PubMed

    Elston, R A; Kent, M L; Drum, A S

    1988-01-01

    Experimental studies with hemic neoplasia in the bay mussel indicated that the condition can be transmitted allogeneically with intact whole cells and cell-free homogenate. A differential pathogenesis of the disease in mussels receiving the two different inocula supports the argument that actual cell transplantation occurred. In addition to the first demonstration of the infectious nature of the disease with cell-free homogenates, it was also shown that the disease is transmitted by cohabitation. Remission of the disease occurred in some mussels indicating individual variation in recognition mechanisms.

  19. Contrasting results from molecular and pedigree-based population diversity measures in captive zebra highlight challenges facing genetic management of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hideyuki; Ogden, Rob; Langenhorst, Tanya; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2017-01-01

    Zoo conservation breeding programs manage the retention of population genetic diversity through analysis of pedigree records. The range of demographic and genetic indices determined through pedigree analysis programs allows the conservation of diversity to be monitored relative to the particular founder population for a species. Such approaches are based on a number of well-documented founder assumptions, however without knowledge of actual molecular genetic diversity there is a risk that pedigree-based measures will be misinterpreted and population genetic diversity misunderstood. We examined the genetic diversity of the captive populations of Grevy's zebra, Hartmann's mountain zebra and plains zebra in Japan and the United Kingdom through analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Very low nucleotide variability was observed in Grevy's zebra. The results were evaluated with respect to current and historic diversity in the wild, and indicate that low genetic diversity in the captive population is likely a result of low founder diversity, which in turn suggests relatively low wild genetic diversity prior to recent population declines. Comparison of molecular genetic diversity measures with analogous diversity indices generated from the studbook data for Grevy's zebra and Hartmann's mountain zebra show contrasting patterns, with Grevy's zebra displaying markedly less molecular diversity than mountain zebra, despite studbook analysis indicating that the Grevy's zebra population has substantially more founders, greater effective population size, lower mean kinship, and has suffered less loss of gene diversity. These findings emphasize the need to validate theoretical estimates of genetic diversity in captive breeding programs with empirical molecular genetic data. Zoo Biol. 36:87-94, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Behavioral responses of freshwater mussels to experimental dewatering

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Lellis, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of flow alteration on freshwater ecosystems is critical for predicting species responses and restoring appropriate flow regimes. We experimentally evaluated the effects of 3 dewatering rates on behavior of 6 freshwater mussel species in the context of water-removal rates observed in 21 Atlantic Coast rivers. Horizontal movement differed significantly among species and dewatering rates, but a significant species × dewatering interaction suggested that these factors influence movement in complex ways. Species differences in movement were evident only in controls and under slow dewatering rates, but these differences disappeared at moderate and fast dewatering rates. Burrowing behavior did not differ with respect to species identity or dewatering rate. The proportion of individuals that became stranded did not differ among species, but most individuals became stranded under low and moderate dewatering, and all individuals became stranded under fast dewatering. Mortality after stranding differed strongly among species along a gradient from 25% inPyganodon cataracta to 92% in Alasmidonta marginata. Together, these results suggest that species behavior may differ under gradual dewatering, but all species in our study are poorly adapted for rapid dewatering. Most of the 21 rivers we assessed experienced dewatering events comparable to our moderate rate, and several experienced events comparable to our fast rate. Dewatering events that exceed the movement or survival capability of most mussel species can be expected to result in assemblage-wide impacts. Consequently, the rate of water level change may be important in refining target flow conditions for restoration.

  1. Silver Nanoparticles Impact Biofilm Communities and Mussel Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Long; Li, Yi-Feng; Liang, Xiao; Guo, Xing-Pan; Ding, De-Wen; Zhang, Demin; Zhou, Shuxue; Bao, Wei-Yang; Bellou, Nikoleta; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) demonstrating good antimicrobial activity are widely used in many fields. However, the impact of AgNPs on the community structures of marine biofilms that drive biogeochemical cycling processes and the recruitment of marine invertebrate larvae remains unknown. Here, we employed MiSeq sequencing technology to evaluate the bacterial communities of 28-day-old marine biofilms formed on glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and PDMS filled with AgNPs and subsequently tested the influence of these marine biofilms on plantigrade settlement by the mussel Mytilus coruscus. AgNP-filled PDMS significantly reduced the dry weight and bacterial density of biofilms compared with the glass and PDMS controls. AgNP incorporation impacted bacterial communities by reducing the relative abundance of Flavobacteriaceae (phylum: Bacteroidetes) and increasing the relative abundance of Vibrionaceae (phylum: Proteobacteria) in 28-day-old biofilms compared to PDMS. The settlement rate of M. coruscus on 28-day-old biofilms developed on AgNPs was lower by >30% compared to settlement on control biofilms. Thus, the incorporation of AgNPs influences biofilm bacterial communities in the marine environment and subsequently inhibits mussel settlement. PMID:27869180

  2. Polyphenol oxidase inhibitor from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) extract.

    PubMed

    Schulbach, Kurt F; Johnson, Jodie V; Simonne, Amarat H; Kim, Jeong-Mok; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Maurice R

    2013-03-01

    Enzymatic browning remains a problem for the fruit and vegetable industry, especially new emerging markets like pre-cuts. A crude inhibitor from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) showed broad inhibition for apple (58%), mushroom (32%), and potato (44%) polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and was further characterized. Inhibition increased as the concentration of inhibitor increased in the reaction mixture eventually leveling off at a maximum inhibition of 92% for apple PPO. The inhibitor was capable of bleaching the brown color formed in the reaction mixture with apple PPO. Identification of the inhibitor by mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed it to be hypotaurine (C2 H7 NO2 S). Hypotaurine and other sulfinic acid analogs (methane and benzene sulfinic acids) showed very good inhibition for apple PPO at various concentrations with the highest inhibition occurring at 500 μM for hypotaurine (89%), methane sulfinic acid (100%), and benzene sulfinic acid (100%). An inhibitor found in the expressed liquid from blue mussel shows very good inhibition on enzymatic browning. Since this enzyme is responsible for losses to the fruit and vegetable industry, natural inhibitors that prevent browning would be valuable. Finding alternative chemistries that inhibit browning and understanding their mode of action would be beneficial to the fruit and vegetable industries and their segments such as pre-cuts, juices, and so on. Inhibitors from products ingested by consumers are more acceptable as natural ingredients. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Conservation genetics of North American freshwater mussels Amblema and Megalonaias

    Mulvey, M.; Lydeard, C.; Pyer, D.L.; Hicks, K.M.; Brim-Box, J.; Williams, J.D.; Butler, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Freshwater bivalves are among the most endangered groups of organisms in North America. Efforts to protect the declining mussel fauna are confounded by ambiguities associated with recognition of distinct evolutionary entities or species. This, in part, is due to the paucity of reliable morphological characters for differentiating taxa. We have employed allozymes and DNA sequence data to search for diagnosably distinct evolutionary entities within two problematic genera of unionid mussels, Amblema and Megalonaias. Within the genus Amblema three species are recognized based on our DNA sequence data for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and allozyme data (Amblema neislerii, A. plicata, and A. elliotti). Only one taxonomically distinct entity is recognized within the genus Megalonaias—M. nervosa. Megalonaias boykiniana of the Apalachicolan Region is not diagnosable and does not warrant specific taxonomic status. Interestingly, Megalonaias from west of the Mississippi River, including the Mississippi, exhibited an allozyme and mtDNA haplotype frequency shift suggestive of an east-west dichotomy. The results of this study eliminate one subspecies of Amblema and increase the range of A. plicata. This should not affect the conservation status of “currently stable” assigned to A. plicata by Williams et al. (1993). The conservation status of A. elliotti needs to be reexamined because its distribution appears to be limited to the Coosa River System in Alabama and Georgia.

  4. Toxic effects of unresolved complex mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons accumulated by mussels, Mytilus edulis, from contaminated field sites.

    PubMed

    Donkin, Peter; Smith, Emma L; Rowland, Steven J

    2003-11-01

    Exposure of marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) to an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of aromatic hydrocarbons isolated from a crude oil has been shown to reduce their feeding rate by 40%. The present study was undertaken to determine whether UCMs bioaccumulated by mussels in the field are also toxic. The feeding rate of mussels derived from polluted sites increased when they were placed in clean water, pointing to a loss of toxic agents from the tissues. At the end of the depuration period, water in which mussels from an oil-polluted site had been held contained a UCM. Steam-distillation extracts of the tissues of mussels taken from several polluted sites were shown to be highly toxic to the feeding activity of juvenile mussels. The tissues of mussels from these sites contained UCMs. Nontoxic steam distillates from clean mussels did not. Steam-distillation extracts of mussels from an oil-polluted site were fractionated by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. A fraction, largely comprising a "monoaromatic" UCM, reduced the feeding rate of juvenile mussels by 70%. Two later-eluting fractions containing aromatic UCMs also produced smaller depressions in feeding rate. These results support our contention that some aromatic UCM hydrocarbons constitute a forgotten pollutant burden in the marine environment.

  5. Biomonitoring of Trace Metals in the Keban Dam Reservoir (Turkey) Using Mussels (Unio elongatulus eucirrus) and Crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus).

    PubMed

    Varol, Memet; Sünbül, Muhammet Raşit

    2018-01-03

    Freshwater mussels and crayfish are commonly used as biomonitors of trace metals. In the present study, the concentrations of ten metals were determined in mussels (Unio elongatulus eucirrus) and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) collected from the Keban Dam Reservoir in Turkey. The significant spatial differences in concentrations of studied metals except As in mussels were not found. However, Co, Cr, Cu, and Zn concentrations in mussels and As, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations in crayfish showed significant seasonal differences. As, Cd, and Mn levels in mussels were about nine times higher than those in crayfish. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and inorganic As in crayfish and mussels were lower than maximum permissible levels. When compared with other biomonitoring studies using mussels and crayfish, high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni in mussels and Cr and Ni in crayfish were observed due to lithogenic sources and anthropogenic activities in the basin. Bioconcentration factor values of Fe, Mn, Cd, and Zn in mussels and Zn, Cu, Fe, and Co in crayfish were > 1000, which indicates that both U. e. eucirrus and A. leptodactylus have potential to bioaccumulate these metals. Therefore, attention should be paid to mussels and crayfish from ecological and human health perspective, because they are potential vectors of metals to higher trophic levels.

  6. Genetic signatures of historical dispersal of fish threatened by biological invasions: the case of galaxiids in South America

    Vanhaecke, Delphine; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Dunham, Jason; Giannico, Guillermo; Consegura, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Aim The ecological effects of biological invasions are well documented, but little is known about the effects of invaders on the genetic structure of native species. We examined the phylogeography, genetic variation and population structuring of two galaxiid fishes, Aplochiton zebraand A. taeniatus, threatened by non-native salmonids, and whose conservation is complicated by misidentification and limited knowledge of their genetic diversity. Location Chile and the Falkland Islands. Methods We combined microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (16S rDNA and COI) markers to compare genetic diversity, effective population size and gene flow of Aplochiton spp. populations differentially affected by salmonid presence. Results We identified two 16S rDNA haplotypes among A. zebra – one dominant in coastal populations and another dominant in inland populations. Populations living on the island of Chiloé displayed a mixture of coastal and inland haplotypes, as well as high microsatellite diversity, as one would expect if the island had been a refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum, or a contact zone among populations. Microsatellite data revealed strong population structuring, indicative of current isolation patterns, and a negative correlation between the genetic diversity of A. zebra and the relative abundance of invasive salmonids. Main conclusions Our study indicates that population structuring of A. zebra reflects the influence of historical patterns of migration, but also the current levels of reduced gene flow among watersheds. Invasive salmonids, known to compete with and prey on native galaxiids, may have had negative impacts on the genetic diversity of Aplochiton spp. The low genetic variation found in some populations, coupled with potential biases in abundance estimates due to species misidentification, highlight the urgent need for more research into the conservation status of the two species of Aplochiton.

  7. Courtship song preferences in female zebra finches are shaped by developmental auditory experience.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yining; Clark, Oliver; Woolley, Sarah C

    2017-05-31

    The performance of courtship signals provides information about the behavioural state and quality of the signaller, and females can use such information for social decision-making (e.g. mate choice). However, relatively little is known about the degree to which the perception of and preference for differences in motor performance are shaped by developmental experiences. Furthermore, the neural substrates that development could act upon to influence the processing of performance features remains largely unknown. In songbirds, females use song to identify males and select mates. Moreover, female songbirds are often sensitive to variation in male song performance. Consequently, we investigated how developmental exposure to adult male song affected behavioural and neural responses to song in a small, gregarious songbird, the zebra finch. Zebra finch males modulate their song performance when courting females, and previous work has shown that females prefer the high-performance, female-directed courtship song. However, unlike females allowed to hear and interact with an adult male during development, females reared without developmental song exposure did not demonstrate behavioural preferences for high-performance courtship songs. Additionally, auditory responses to courtship and non-courtship song were altered in adult females raised without developmental song exposure. These data highlight the critical role of developmental auditory experience in shaping the perception and processing of song performance. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Social interaction with a tutor modulates responsiveness of specific auditory neurons in juvenile zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Shin; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko

    2018-04-12

    Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors. They also learn from playback of recorded songs however, learning can be greatly improved when song models are provided through social communication with tutors (Eales, 1989; Chen et al., 2016). Recently we found a subset of neurons in the higher-level auditory cortex of juvenile zebra finches that exhibit highly selective auditory responses to the tutor song after song learning, suggesting an auditory memory trace of the tutor song (Yanagihara and Yazaki-Sugiyama, 2016). Here we show that auditory responses of these selective neurons became greater when juveniles were paired with their tutors, while responses of non-selective neurons did not change. These results suggest that social interaction modulates cortical activity and might function in state-dependent song learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chick Development and Asynchroneous Hatching in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis).

    PubMed

    Ikebuchi, Maki; Okanoya, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2017-10-01

    The mode of hatching in birds has important impacts on both parents and chicks, including the costs and risks of breeding for parents, and sibling competition in a clutch. Birds with multiple eggs in a single clutch often begin incubating when most eggs are laid, thereby reducing time of incubation, nursing burden, and sibling competition. In some songbirds and some other species, however, incubation starts immediately after the first egg is laid, and the chicks thus hatch asynchronously. This may result in differences in parental care and in sibling competition based on body size differences among older and younger chicks, which in turn might produce asynchronous development among siblings favoring the first hatchling, and further affect the development and fitness of the chicks after fledging. To determine whether such processes in fact occur in the zebra finch, we observed chick development in 18 clutches of zebra finches. We found that there were effects of asynchronous hatching, but these were smaller than expected and mostly not significant. Our observations suggest that the amount of care given to each chick may be equated with such factors as a camouflage effect of the down feathers, and that the low illumination within the nest also complicates the determination of the hatching order by the parents.

  10. Effect of Infection by Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on the Feeding of Uvarovistia zebra

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadbeigi, A.; Port, G.

    2015-01-01

    To identify the susceptibility of long-horned grasshoppers to entomopathogenic fungi, the effect of infection with the fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on food consumption by Uvarovistia zebra (Uvarov) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) was investigated. Preliminary results showed that both fungi had a negative effect on food consumption of the insects. For both fungi a significant reduction of food consumption and faeces production by insects were observed between the highest spore concentration (5 × 106 spores/ml) and other treatments. Compared with control insects, the insects treated with 5 × 106 spores/ml of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae showed 60 and 63% reduction in mean food consumption/insect, respectively. The corrected cumulative percent mortality of the insects treated with the highest concentration of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were 57.7 and 55.5%, respectively. This was the first account of these entomopathogenic fungi being used against a species from this family, therefore based on the results obtained from this research, it could be said that the fungi have pathogenicity effect on U. zebra as a long-horned grasshopper.

  11. Transcriptional response to West Nile virus infection in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Newhouse, Daniel J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a widespread arbovirus that imposes a significant cost to both human and wildlife health. WNV exists in a bird-mosquito transmission cycle in which passerine birds act as the primary reservoir host. As a public health concern, the mammalian immune response to WNV has been studied in detail. Little, however, is known about the avian immune response to WNV. Avian taxa show variable susceptibility to WNV and what drives this variation is unknown. Thus, to study the immune response to WNV in birds, we experimentally infected captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Zebra finches provide a useful model, as like many natural avian hosts they are moderately susceptible to WNV and thus provide sufficient viremia to infect mosquitoes. We performed RNAseq in spleen tissue during peak viremia to provide an overview of the transcriptional response. In general, we find strong parallels with the mammalian immune response to WNV, including upregulation of five genes in the Rig-I-like receptor signalling pathway, and offer insights into avian-specific responses. Together with complementary immunological assays, we provide a model of the avian immune response to WNV and set the stage for future comparative studies among variably susceptible populations and species.

  12. Skin-deep diagnosis: affective bias and zebra retreat complicating the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Chad S

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half of medical errors can be attributed to an error of clinical reasoning or decision making. It is estimated that the correct diagnosis is missed or delayed in between 5% and 14% of acute hospital admissions. Through understanding why and how physicians make these errors, it is hoped that strategies can be developed to decrease the number of these errors. In the present case, a patient presented with dyspnea, gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss; the diagnosis was initially missed when the treating physicians took mental short cuts and used heuristics as in this case. Heuristics have an inherent bias that can lead to faulty reasoning or conclusions, especially in complex or difficult cases. Affective bias, which is the overinvolvement of emotion in clinical decision making, limited the available information for diagnosis because of the hesitancy to acquire a full history and perform a complete physical examination in this patient. Zebra retreat, another type of bias, is when a rare diagnosis figures prominently on the differential diagnosis but the physician retreats for various reasons. Zebra retreat also factored in the delayed diagnosis. Through the description of these clinical reasoning errors in an actual case, it is hoped that future errors can be prevented or inspiration for additional research in this area will develop.

  13. Transcriptional repressor foxl1 regulates central nervous system development by suppressing shh expression in zebra fish.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Chisako; Satoh, Shinya; Tabata, Yoko; Arai, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2006-10-01

    We identified zebra fish forkhead transcription factor l1 (zfoxl1) as a gene strongly expressed in neural tissues such as midbrain, hindbrain, and the otic vesicle at the early embryonic stage. Loss of the function of zfoxl1 effected by morpholino antisense oligonucleotide resulted in defects in midbrain and eye development, and in that of formation of the pectoral fins. Interestingly, ectopic expression of shh in the midbrain and elevated pax2a expression in the optic stalk were observed in foxl1 MO-injected embryos. In contrast, expression of pax6a, which is negatively regulated by shh, was suppressed in the thalamus and pretectum regions, supporting the idea of augmentation of the shh signaling pathway by suppression of foxl1. Expression of zfoxl1-EnR (repressing) rather than zfoxl1-VP16 (activating) resulted in a phenotype similar to that induced by foxl1-mRNA, suggesting that foxl1 may act as a transcriptional repressor of shh in zebra fish embryos. Supporting this notion, foxl1 suppressed isolated 2.7-kb shh promoter activity in PC12 cells, and the minimal region of foxl1 required for its transcriptional repressor activity showed strong homology with the groucho binding motif, which is found in genes encoding various homeodomain proteins. In view of all of our data taken together, we propose zfoxl1 to be a novel regulator of neural development that acts by suppressing shh expression.

  14. Transcriptional Repressor foxl1 Regulates Central Nervous System Development by Suppressing shh Expression in Zebra Fish†

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Chisako; Satoh, Shinya; Tabata, Yoko; Arai, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2006-01-01

    We identified zebra fish forkhead transcription factor l1 (zfoxl1) as a gene strongly expressed in neural tissues such as midbrain, hindbrain, and the otic vesicle at the early embryonic stage. Loss of the function of zfoxl1 effected by morpholino antisense oligonucleotide resulted in defects in midbrain and eye development, and in that of formation of the pectoral fins. Interestingly, ectopic expression of shh in the midbrain and elevated pax2a expression in the optic stalk were observed in foxl1 MO-injected embryos. In contrast, expression of pax6a, which is negatively regulated by shh, was suppressed in the thalamus and pretectum regions, supporting the idea of augmentation of the shh signaling pathway by suppression of foxl1. Expression of zfoxl1-EnR (repressing) rather than zfoxl1-VP16 (activating) resulted in a phenotype similar to that induced by foxl1-mRNA, suggesting that foxl1 may act as a transcriptional repressor of shh in zebra fish embryos. Supporting this notion, foxl1 suppressed isolated 2.7-kb shh promoter activity in PC12 cells, and the minimal region of foxl1 required for its transcriptional repressor activity showed strong homology with the groucho binding motif, which is found in genes encoding various homeodomain proteins. In view of all of our data taken together, we propose zfoxl1 to be a novel regulator of neural development that acts by suppressing shh expression. PMID:16980626

  15. Juvenile zebra finches learn the underlying structural regularities of their fathers’ song

    PubMed Central

    Menyhart, Otília; Kolodny, Oren; Goldstein, Michael H.; DeVoogd, Timothy J.; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Natural behaviors, such as foraging, tool use, social interaction, birdsong, and language, exhibit branching sequential structure. Such structure should be learnable if it can be inferred from the statistics of early experience. We report that juvenile zebra finches learn such sequential structure in song. Song learning in finches has been extensively studied, and it is generally believed that young males acquire song by imitating tutors (Zann, 1996). Variability in the order of elements in an individual’s mature song occurs, but the degree to which variation in a zebra finch’s song follows statistical regularities has not been quantified, as it has typically been dismissed as production error (Sturdy et al., 1999). Allowing for the possibility that such variation in song is non-random and learnable, we applied a novel analytical approach, based on graph-structured finite-state grammars, to each individual’s full corpus of renditions of songs. This method does not assume syllable-level correspondence between individuals. We find that song variation can be described by probabilistic finite-state graph grammars that are individually distinct, and that the graphs of juveniles are more similar to those of their fathers than to those of other adult males. This grammatical learning is a new parallel between birdsong and language. Our method can be applied across species and contexts to analyze complex variable learned behaviors, as distinct as foraging, tool use, and language. PMID:26005428

  16. Statistics and classification of the microwave zebra patterns associated with solar flares

    SciT

    Tan, Baolin; Tan, Chengming; Zhang, Yin

    2014-01-10

    The microwave zebra pattern (ZP) is the most interesting, intriguing, and complex spectral structure frequently observed in solar flares. A comprehensive statistical study will certainly help us to understand the formation mechanism, which is not exactly clear now. This work presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a big sample with 202 ZP events collected from observations at the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou and the Ondŕejov Radiospectrograph in the Czech Republic at frequencies of 1.00-7.60 GHz from 2000 to 2013. After investigating the parameter properties of ZPs, such as the occurrence in flare phase, frequency range, polarization degree,more » duration, etc., we find that the variation of zebra stripe frequency separation with respect to frequency is the best indicator for a physical classification of ZPs. Microwave ZPs can be classified into three types: equidistant ZPs, variable-distant ZPs, and growing-distant ZPs, possibly corresponding to mechanisms of the Bernstein wave model, whistler wave model, and double plasma resonance model, respectively. This statistical classification may help us to clarify the controversies between the existing various theoretical models and understand the physical processes in the source regions.« less

  17. In Vivo Recording of Single-Unit Activity during Singing in Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Tatsuo S.; Mackevicius, Emily L.; Fee, Michale S.

    2015-01-01

    The zebra finch is an important model for investigating the neural mechanisms that underlie vocal production and learning. Previous anatomical and gene expression studies have identified an interconnected set of brain areas in this organism that are important for singing. To advance our understanding of how these various brain areas act together to learn and produce a highly stereotyped song, it is necessary to record the activity of individual neurons during singing. Here, we present a protocol for recording single-unit activity in freely moving zebra finches during singing using a miniature, motorized microdrive. It includes procedures for both the microdrive implant surgery and the electrophysiological recordings. There are several advantages of this technique: (1) high-impedance electrodes can be used in the microdrive to obtain well-isolated single units; (2) a motorized microdrive is used to remotely control the electrode position, allowing neurons to be isolated without handling the bird, and (3) a lateral positioner is used to move electrodes into fresh tissue before each penetration, allowing recordings from well-isolated neurons over the course of several weeks. We also describe the application of the antidromic stimulation and the spike collision test to identify neurons based on the axonal projection patterns. PMID:25342072

  18. The roles of vocal and visual interactions in social learning zebra finches: A video playback experiment.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D

    2017-06-01

    The transmission of information from an experienced demonstrator to a naïve observer often depends on characteristics of the demonstrator, such as familiarity, success or dominance status. Whether or not the demonstrator pays attention to and/or interacts with the observer may also affect social information acquisition or use by the observer. Here we used a video-demonstrator paradigm first to test whether video demonstrators have the same effect as using live demonstrators in zebra finches, and second, to test the importance of visual and vocal interactions between the demonstrator and observer on social information use by the observer. We found that female zebra finches copied novel food choices of male demonstrators they saw via live-streaming video while they did not consistently copy from the demonstrators when they were seen in playbacks of the same videos. Although naive observers copied in the absence of vocalizations by the demonstrator, as they copied from playback of videos with the sound off, females did not copy where there was a mis-match between the visual information provided by the video and vocal information from a live male that was out of sight. Taken together these results suggest that video demonstration is a useful methodology for testing social information transfer, at least in a foraging context, but more importantly, that social information use varies according to the vocal interactions, or lack thereof, between the observer and the demonstrator. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-association of Gata1 enhances transcriptional activity in vivo in zebra fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Keizo; Kobayashi, Makoto; Masumi, Atsuko; Lyons, Susan E; Weinstein, Brant M; Liu, P Paul; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2003-11-01

    Gata1 is a prototype transcription factor that regulates hematopoiesis, yet the molecular mechanisms by which Gata1 transactivates its target genes in vivo remain unclear. We previously showed, in transgenic zebra fish, that Gata1 autoregulates its own expression. In this study, we characterized the molecular mechanisms for this autoregulation by using mutations in the Gata1 protein which impair autoregulation. Of the tested mutations, replacement of six lysine residues with alanine (Gata1KA6), which inhibited self-association activity of Gata1, reduced the Gata1-dependent induction of reporter gene expression driven by the zebra fish gata1 hematopoietic regulatory domain (gata1 HRD). Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type Gata1 but not Gata1KA6 rescued the expression of Gata1 downstream genes in vlad tepes, a germ line gata1 mutant fish. Interestingly, both GATA sites in the double GATA motif in gata1 HRD were critical for the promoter activity and for binding of the self-associated Gata1 complex, whereas only the 3'-GATA site was required for Gata1 monomer binding. These results thus provide the first in vivo evidence that the ability of Gata1 to self-associate critically contributes to the autoregulation of the gata1 gene.

  20. Differences in depredation by small predators limit the use of plasticine and zebra finch eggs in artificial-nest studies

    Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2001-01-01

    Small mammals, such as mice and voles, have been implicated as major egg predators of Neotropical migrant passerines by field studies using soft plasticine eggs or the very small eggs of Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Nevertheless, the effort required to depredate these commonly used egg surrogates may be less than that required to depredate the...

  1. Changes in sex steroid hormone levels reflect the reproductive status of captive female zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum).

    PubMed

    Nozu, Ryo; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Yano, Nagisa; Furuyama, Rina; Matsumoto, Rui; Yanagisawa, Makio; Sato, Keiichi

    2018-03-03

    Captive breeding in aquaria is a useful means for ex situ preservation of threatened elasmobranch species. To promote captive breeding, it is important to determine the female reproductive status. However, information regarding reproductive status in female elasmobranchs is limited. Here, we used zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, as a model for elasmobranch reproduction in captivity. We investigated the relationships among changes in the sex steroid hormone levels, follicle size, and egg-laying period to develop indicators for the female reproductive status. We confirmed that mature female zebra sharks undergo an annual reproductive cycle. Additionally, we showed that the variations in sex steroid hormone levels correlated with reproductive status in mature female zebra sharks. Plasma estradiol-17ß (E2) concentrations increased two months before ovarian follicle development and decreased along with follicle regression. Interestingly, E2 levels were inversely correlated with water temperature (R = -0.901). Moreover, high levels of testosterone (T) correlated well with the laying period. These results strongly suggest that E2 is an indicator for ovarian follicle development, and that T is a useful indicator for both the onset and end of the egg-laying period in captive zebra sharks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of Zebra Chip disease development and bacterial titer on biochemical properties in relation to the time of infection

    Potato tuber biochemical responses to ‘Candidatus’ Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso), the causal agent of Zebra chip disease, were evaluated both within infected tubers and across different infection dates. Tuber biochemistry also was related to symptom severity and bacterial titer. Symptom severity w...

  3. Zebra Chip disease and potato biochemistry: Tuber physiological changes in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection over time

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), putatively caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is of increasing concern to potato production in Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. However, little is known about host tuber physiological changes that result in ZC symptom formation. This study exp...

  4. Characterization of the Serralysin-like gene of 'Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with Potato Zebra Chip disease

    The non-culturable bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is the causative agent of zebra chip disease in potato. Computational analysis of the Lso genome revealed a serralysin-like gene based on conserved domains characteristic of genes encoding metalloprotease enzymes similar to se...

  5. Association of promising germplasm exhibiting tolerance to psyllids, aphids, and zebra chip disease with foliar host chemistry

    Long term, sustainable management of zebra chip disease of potato, caused by “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) and vectored by potato psyllids (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc), will require development of new cultivars resistant or tolerant to infection and/or capable of reducing spread. The...

  6. Sex bias and dosage compensation in the zebra finch versus chicken genomes: General and specialized patterns among birds

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yuichiro; Replogle, Kirstin; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Wade, Juli; Clayton, David F.; Arnold, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    We compared global patterns of gene expression between two bird species, the chicken and zebra finch, with regard to sex bias of autosomal versus Z chromosome genes, dosage compensation, and evolution of sex bias. Both species appear to lack a Z chromosome–wide mechanism of dosage compensation, because both have a similar pattern of significantly higher expression of Z genes in males relative to females. Unlike the chicken Z chromosome, which has female-specific expression of the noncoding RNA MHM (male hypermethylated) and acetylation of histone 4 lysine 16 (H4K16) near MHM, the zebra finch Z chromosome appears to lack the MHM sequence and acetylation of H4K16. The zebra finch also does not show the reduced male-to-female (M:F) ratio of gene expression near MHM similar to that found in the chicken. Although the M:F ratios of Z chromosome gene expression are similar across tissues and ages within each species, they differ between the two species. Z genes showing the greatest species difference in M:F ratio were concentrated near the MHM region of the chicken Z chromosome. This study shows that the zebra finch differs from the chicken because it lacks a specialized region of greater dosage compensation along the Z chromosome, and shows other differences in sex bias. These patterns suggest that different avian taxa may have evolved specific compensatory mechanisms. PMID:20357053

  7. Characterizing zebra chip symptom severity and identifying spectral signatures associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' infected potato tubers

    Zebra chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes, which is associated with the bacteria ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso). Lso is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). ZC reduces yield and quality, as it results in discoloration of the vascular ...

  8. Accelerated Evolution of PAK3- and PIM1-like Kinase Gene Families in the Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia guttata

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lesheng; Lovell, Peter V.; Heger, Andreas; Mello, Claudio V.; Ponting, Chris P.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoding protein kinases tend to evolve slowly over evolutionary time, and only rarely do they appear as recent duplications in sequenced vertebrate genomes. Consequently, it was a surprise to find two families of kinase genes that have greatly and recently expanded in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) lineage. In contrast to other amniotic genomes (including chicken) that harbor only single copies of p21-activated serine/threonine kinase 3 (PAK3) and proviral integration site 1 (PIM1) genes, the zebra finch genome appeared at first to additionally contain 67 PAK3-like (PAK3L) and 51 PIM1-like (PIM1L) protein kinase genes. An exhaustive analysis of these gene models, however, revealed most to be incomplete, owing to the absence of terminal exons. After reprediction, 31 PAK3L genes and 10 PIM1L genes remain, and all but three are predicted, from the retention of functional sites and open reading frames, to be enzymatically active. PAK3L, but not PIM1L, gene sequences show evidence of recurrent episodes of positive selection, concentrated within structures spatially adjacent to N- and C-terminal protein regions that have been discarded from zebra finch PAK3L genes. At least seven zebra finch PAK3L genes were observed to be expressed in testis, whereas two sequences were found transcribed in the brain, one broadly including the song nuclei and the other in the ventricular zone and in cells resembling Bergmann's glia in the cerebellar Purkinje cell layer. Two PIM1L sequences were also observed to be expressed with broad distributions in the zebra finch brain, one in both the ventricular zone and the cerebellum and apparently associated with glial cells and the other showing neuronal cell expression and marked enrichment in midbrain/thalamic nuclei. These expression patterns do not correlate with zebra finch-specific features such as vocal learning. Nevertheless, our results show how ancient and conserved intracellular signaling molecules can be co

  9. Identification, localisation and functional implication of 26RFa orthologue peptide in the brain of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Tobari, Y; Iijima, N; Tsunekawa, K; Osugi, T; Haraguchi, S; Ubuka, T; Ukena, K; Okanoya, K; Tsutsui, K; Ozawa, H

    2011-09-01

    Several neuropeptides with the C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH(2) (RFa) sequence have been identified in the hypothalamus of a variety of vertebrates. The present study was conducted to isolate novel RFa peptides from the zebra finch brain. Peptides were isolated by immunoaffinity purification using an antibody that recognises avian RFa peptides. The isolated peptide consisted of 25 amino acids with RFa at its C-terminus. The sequence was SGTLGNLAEEINGYNRRKGGFTFRFa. Alignment of the peptide with vertebrate 26RFa has revealed that the identified peptide is the zebra finch 26RFa. We also cloned the precursor cDNA encoding this peptide. Synteny analysis of the gene showed a high conservation of this gene among vertebrates. In addition, we cloned the cDNA encoding a putative 26RFa receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 103 (GPR103) in the zebra finch brain. GPR103 cDNA encoded a 432 amino acid protein that has seven transmembrane domains. In situ hybridisation analysis in the brain showed that the expression of 26RFa mRNA is confined to the anterior-medial hypothalamic area, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamic area, the brain regions that are involved in the regulation of feeding behaviour, whereas GPR103 mRNA is distributed throughout the brain in addition to the hypothalamic nuclei. When administered centrally in free-feeding male zebra finches, 26RFa increased food intake 24 h after injection without body mass change. Diencephalic GPR103 mRNA expression was up-regulated by fasting for 10 h. Our data suggest that the hypothalamic 26RFa-its receptor system plays an important role in the central control of food intake and energy homeostasis in the zebra finch. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Humoral response of captive zebra sharks Stegostoma fasciatum to salivary gland proteins of the leech Branchellion torpedinis.

    PubMed

    Marancik, David P; Leary, John H; Fast, Mark M; Flajnik, Martin F; Camus, Alvin C

    2012-10-01

    Parasitism by the marine leech Branchellion torpedinis is known to cause disease and mortality in captive elasmobranchs and is difficult to control when inadvertently introduced into public aquaria. Preliminary characterization of the salivary gland transcriptome of B. torpedinis has identified anticoagulants, proteases, and immunomodulators that may be secreted into host tissues to aid leech feeding. This retrospective study examined antigen-specific serum IgM responses in captive zebra sharks Stegostoma fasciatum to leech salivary gland extract. Antibody response was examined by ELISA and Western blot assays in 20 serum samples from six zebra sharks, with a 5 year history of leech infection, and 18 serum samples from 8 captive bred zebra sharks, with no history of leech exposure. ELISA demonstrated significantly higher serum IgM titers to salivary gland extract in exposed zebra sharks compared to the non-exposed population. No obvious trends in antibody titers were appreciated in exposed zebra sharks over a four-year period. One-dimensional and two-dimensional Western blot assays revealed IgM targeted specific salivary gland proteins within the 40, 55, 70 and 90 kD range. Antigenic proteins identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and de novo peptide sequencing include a secreted disintegrin, metalloproteinase and thrombospondin motif containing protein (ADAMTS), tubulin, aldehyde dehydrogenase and two unknown proteins. Humoral immune responses to leech salivary gland proteins warrants further investigation as there may be options to exploit immune mechanisms to reduce parasite burdens in aquaria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SEASONAL VARIABILTIY LIPIDS, LIPID CLASSES AND PCBS IN INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS OF RIBBED MUSSELS, MODIOLUS DEMISSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Modiolus demissus) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the seasonal variability of total lipids, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. One population was located in a highly c...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of Corral Bay, south central Chile.

    PubMed

    Palma-Fleming, Hernan; P, Adalberto J Asencio; Gutierrez, Elena

    2004-03-01

    PAHs were measured in sediments and mussels (Mytilus chilensis) from Carboneros and Puerto Claro, located in Corral Bay, Valdivia. According to the ratio of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene concentrations, these sites are medium polluted with PAHs originating mainly from pyrolytic sources. Fluoranthene was the major component measured in mussels (3.1-390 ng g(-1) dry weight) and sediments (6.9-74.1 ng g(-1) dry weight). In general, mussels were mainly exposed to the dissolved fraction of the lower molecular weight PAHs (tri- and tetra-aromatics) while the higher molecular ring systems (penta- and hexa-aromatics) were more bioavailable to sediments. Mussel PAHs content was relatively constant, with the exception of the 1999 summer season (March), when higher concentration values were found in both sites; however, PAHs residues in sediments showed a temporal variation.

  13. Evolution of active host-attraction strategies in the freshwater mussel tribe Lampsilini (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Zanatta, David T; Murphy, Robert W

    2006-10-01

    Most freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) require a host, usually a fish, to complete their life cycle. Most species of mussels show adaptations that increase the chances of glochidia larvae contacting a host. We investigated the evolutionary relationships of the freshwater mussel tribe Lampsilini including 49 of the approximately 100 extant species including 21 of the 24 recognized genera. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data (COI, 16S, and ND1) were used to create a molecular phylogeny for these species. Parsimony and Bayesian likelihood topologies revealed that the use of an active lure arose early in the evolution of the Lampsiline mussels. The mantle flap lure appears to have been the first to evolve with other lure types being derived from this condition. Apparently, lures were lost independently in several clades. Hypotheses are discussed as to how some of these lure strategies may have evolved in response to host fish prey preferences.

  14. Effects of elevated water temperature on physiological responses in adult freshwater mussels

    Ganser, Alissa M.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    These data suggest that elevated temperatures can alter metabolic rates in native mussels and may decrease the amount of energy that is available for key biological processes, such as survival, growth and reproduction.

  15. Methallothionein expression on the gills and stomach of Chinese pond mussels exposed to lead (Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartikaningsih, H.; Suryanto, A. M.; Arfiati, D.

    2018-04-01

    In freshwaters area, Pb originates from rocks (naturally), industries, and pesticides. The ability of Chinese pond mussels as biofilters to absorb heavy metal (Pb) was demonstrated in water circulation system using ten 8 cm mussels. PbNO3 (0, 10, 20, and 30 ppm) was administered into water containing mussels. Carp culture was done for 30 days, and Pb accumulation in carps was measured every week (week 0, 1, 2, and 3). The results showed that the highest Pb ion accumulation was found in the gills of mussels. The examination using hematoxylin-eosin showed that tissues were damage due to haemorrhage, cell ruptures, and cell deaths. The results of the measurement of metallothionein (MT) showed that MT molecular weight was 12.84 kDa.

  16. A Survey of the Freshwater Mussel Fauna of the Little Kanawha River Basin,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Mussels, * Aquatic biology, Surveys, Rivers, Basins(Geographic), Natural resources, Population, Distribution, Sampling, Environmental impact...Chemical analysis, Pesticides, Metals, Water quality, Waste water , Waste management, Decision making, West Virginia, Fresh water , Workshops

  17. Annual variation in recruitment of freshwater mussels and its relationship with river discharge

    Ries, Patricia R.; Newton, Teresa; Haro, Roger J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Davis, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variation in recruitment dynamics of native mussels and its relationship to river discharge will be useful in designing effective management strategies to enhance conservation of this imperilled fauna.

  18. Hydrology and grazing jointly control a large-river food web.

    PubMed

    Strayer, David L; Pace, Michael L; Caraco, Nina F; Cole, Jonathan J; Findlay, Stuart E G

    2008-01-01

    Inputs of fresh water and grazing both can control aquatic food webs, but little is known about the relative strengths of and interactions between these controls. We use long-term data on the food web of the freshwater Hudson River estuary to investigate the importance of, and interactions between, inputs of fresh water and grazing by the invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Both freshwater inputs and zebra mussel grazing have strong, pervasive effects on the Hudson River food web. High flow tended to reduce population size in most parts of the food web. High grazing also reduced populations in the planktonic food web, but increased populations in the littoral food web, probably as a result of increases in water clarity. The influences of flow and zebra mussel grazing were roughly equal (i.e., within a factor of 2) for many variables over the period of our study. Zebra mussel grazing made phytoplankton less sensitive to freshwater inputs, but water clarity and the littoral food web more sensitive to freshwater inputs, showing that interactions between these two controlling factors can be strong and varied.

  19. Commercially important species associated with horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) biogenic reefs: A priority habitat for nature conservation and fisheries benefits.

    PubMed

    Kent, Flora E A; Mair, James M; Newton, Jason; Lindenbaum, Charles; Porter, Joanne S; Sanderson, William G

    2017-05-15

    Horse mussel reefs (Modiolus modiolus) are biodiversity hotspots afforded protection by Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the NE Atlantic. In this study, horse mussel reefs, cobble habitats and sandy habitats were assessed using underwater visual census and drop-down video techniques in three UK regions. Megafauna were enumerated, differences in community composition and individual species abundances were analysed. Samples of conspicuous megafauna were also collected from horse mussel reefs in Orkney for stable isotope analysis. Communities of conspicuous megafauna were different between horse mussel habitats and other habitats throughout their range. Three commercially important species: whelks (Buccinum undatum), queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) and spider crabs (Maja brachydactyla) were significantly more abundant (by as much as 20 times) on horse mussel reefs than elsewhere. Isotopic analysis provided insights into their trophic relationship with the horse mussel reef. Protection of M. modiolus habitat can achieve biodiversity conservation objectives whilst benefiting fisheries also. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Freshwater mussel shells (Unionidae) chronicle changes in a North American river over the past 1000 years

    Andrea K. Fritts; Mark W. Fritts; Wendell R. Haag; Jason A. DeBoer; Andrew F. Casper

    2017-01-01

    The Illinois River was substantially altered during the 20th century with the installation of navigational locks and dams, construction of extensive levee networks, and degradation of water quality. Freshwater mussels were affected by these changes.Weused sclerochronology and stable isotopes to evaluate changes over time in age-andgrowth and food sources for two mussel...

  1. Variability in biochemical components of the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) cultured after Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Peteiro, Laura G; Labarta, Uxío; Fernández-Reiriz, María José

    2007-05-01

    The biochemical composition (proteins, carbohydrates, glycogen, total lipids and lipid classes) of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated during an experimental culture using mussel seed from areas with different degree of exposure to the Prestige oil spill. The aim of the study was to identify alterations in the biochemical composition of mussel seed from natural populations commonly used in Galicia for mussel raft culture that might be linked to previous oil exposure. We have selected three mussel seed populations from Pindo, Miranda and Redes, that were characterised in a previous study according to the oil exposure three months after the spill. These populations were transplanted to a raft culture system in the Ría de Ares-Betanzos where our experimental culture followed standard commercial techniques from March 2003 to February 2004. Mussels from Pindo (characterised as the most affected area by the oil spill) showed marked differences in lipid composition with regard to other populations in the content of triacylglycerols, (P<0.001), free fatty acids (P<0.001) and phospholipids (P<0.05) at the onset of the culture. Although these differences in lipid composition might reflect their previous exposition to hydrocarbons, this pattern did not last longer most likely due to depuration of hydrocarbons stored in the tissues or by the development of certain tolerance to PAHs. These significant differences were not detected between Miranda (designed as hardly affected area) and Redes (designed as reference area) which may reflect that Miranda mussels were not affected or only hardly affected by the spill. With the exception of the onset of the culture, biochemical composition showed similar patterns in all mussel populations. Then, the fact of being cultured in a common environment seemed to be more responsible for the long-term variability in the energetic reserve than the origin of the populations or their previous biochemical status.

  2. Mussels as Bioindicators: A Case Study of Tributyltin Effects in San Diego Bay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    As part of a Navy research program to evaluate the environmental effects of tributyltin ( TBT ) antifouling coatings and develop in-situ field...documented temporal and spatial variability in TBT and the effects of TBT on growth, bioaccumulation and survival that have not been previously...the mussel bioidicator for assessing TBT effects in San Diego Bay and establishes a significant refinement in the use of mussels as biological

  3. Restoration and colonization of freshwater mussels and fish in a southeastern United States tailwater

    Layzer, J.B.; Scott, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The French Broad River originates in North Carolina, flows west into Tennessee and at its confluence with the Holston River forms the Tennessee River. Douglas Dam, located on the French Broad River 52 km above its mouth, is operated primarily for peaking hydroelectric power and flood control. Prior to completion of the dam in 1943, the lower French Broad River contained about 53 species of freshwater mussels and 100 species of fish. By 1977, the fauna in the 52-km-long tailwater was reduced to 12 species of mussels and 42 native species of fish. Improvements in tailwater conditions occurred following initiation of minimum flows in 1987, and consistent reaeration of discharge in 1993. From 1988 to 2002, we sampled three sites (4, 28, and 39 km downstream of the dam) to monitor the fish assemblage. Each year since 1988, we have collected one or more additional species, indicating continued immigration. We collected 82 native and 9 exotic species of fish overall, but the maximum of 67 species in 1 year suggests that some species reside in the tailwater at low densities or all immigrants may not successfully colonize the tailwater. There is limited potential for most extirpated species of mussels to naturally recolonize the tailwater because source populations are isolated. Consequently, 19 754 adult mussels of 19 species were introduced between 1997 and 2000. Survival of translocated mussels has been high, and successful reproduction of at least one translocated species has occurred. Additionally, four mussel species are naturally colonizing the tailwater. Colonization and recruitment of additional mussel species is expected as populations of their host fishes increase. We believe that the improved conditions of the tailwater may allow for the re-establishment of sustaining populations of 30 mussel species of historic occurrence, but the continued operation of Douglas Dam as a peaking hydroelectric project will reduce the probability of successfully reintroducing some

  4. Lysosomal responses to heat-shock of seasonal temperature extremes in Cd-exposed mussels.

    PubMed

    Múgica, M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature extremes on lysosomal biomarkers in mussels exposed to a model toxic pollutant (Cd) at different seasons. For this purpose, temperature was elevated 10°C (from 12°C to 22°C in winter and from 18°C to 28°C in summer) for a period of 6h (heat-shock) in control and Cd-exposed mussels, and then returned back to initial one. Lysosomal membrane stability and lysosomal structural changes in digestive gland were investigated. In winter, heat-shock reduced the labilisation period (LP) of the lysosomal membrane, especially in Cd-exposed mussels, and provoked transient lysosomal enlargement. LP values recovered after the heat-shock cessation but lysosomal enlargement prevailed in both experimental groups. In summer, heat-shock induced remarkable reduction in LP and lysosomal enlargement (more markedly in Cd-exposed mussels), which recovered within 3 days. Besides, whilst heat-shock effects on LP were practically identical for Cd-exposed mussels in winter and summer, the effects were longer-lasting in summer than in winter for control mussels. Thus, lysosomal responsiveness after heat-shock was higher in summer than in winter but recovery was faster as well, and therefore the consequences of the heat shock seem to be more decisive in winter. In contrast, inter-season differences were attenuated in the presence of Cd. Consequently, mussels seem to be better prepared in summer than in winter to stand short periods of abrupt temperature change; this is, however, compromised when mussels are exposed to pollutants such as Cd. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of high salinity wastewater discharges on unionid mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania

    Kathleen Patnode,; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Robert Anderson,; Lora Zimmerman,; Fulton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of high salinity wastewater (brine) from oil and natural gas drilling on freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, during 2012. Mussel cages (N = 5 per site) were deployed at two sites upstream and four sites downstream of a brine treatment facility on the Allegheny River. Each cage contained 20 juvenile northern riffleshell mussels Epioblasma torulosa rangiana). Continuous specific conductance and temperature data were recorded by water quality probes deployed at each site. To measure the amount of mixing throughout the entire study area, specific conductance surveys were completed two times during low-flow conditions along transects from bank to bank that targeted upstream (reference) reaches, a municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge upstream of the brine-facility discharge, the brine facility, and downstream reaches. Specific conductance data indicated that high specific conductance water from the brine facility (4,000–12,000 µS/cm; mean 7,846) compared to the reference reach (103–188 µS/cm; mean 151) is carried along the left descending bank of the river and that dilution of the discharge via mixing does not occur until 0.5 mi (805 m) downstream. Juvenile northern riffleshell mussel survival was severely impaired within the high specific conductance zone (2 and 34% at and downstream of the brine facility, respectively) and at the municipal wastewater treatment plant (21%) compared to background (84%). We surveyed native mussels (family Unionidae) at 10 transects: 3 upstream, 3 within, and 4 downstream of the high specific conductance zone. Unionid mussel abundance and diversity were lower for all transects within and downstream of the high conductivity zone compared to upstream. The results of this study clearly demonstrate in situ toxicity to juvenile northern riffleshell mussels, a federally endangered species, and to the native unionid mussel assemblage located downstream of a brine discharge to the