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Sample records for zebrafish adult pigment

  1. Melanophore migration and survival during zebrafish adult pigment stripe development require the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Igsf11.

    PubMed

    Eom, Dae Seok; Inoue, Shinya; Patterson, Larissa B; Gordon, Tiffany N; Slingwine, Rebecca; Kondo, Shigeru; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Parichy, David M

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11). We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation.

  2. Melanophore Migration and Survival during Zebrafish Adult Pigment Stripe Development Require the Immunoglobulin Superfamily Adhesion Molecule Igsf11

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Larissa B.; Gordon, Tiffany N.; Slingwine, Rebecca; Kondo, Shigeru; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Parichy, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11). We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation. PMID:22916035

  3. Insights from zebrafish on human pigment cell disease and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Cynthia D

    2017-11-01

    Black pigment cells, melanocytes, arise early during development from multipotent neural crest cells. Melanocytes protect human skin from DNA damaging sunrays and provide color for hair, eyes, and skin. Several disorders and diseases originate from these cells, including the deadliest skin cell cancer, melanoma. Thus, melanocytes are critical for a healthy life and for protecting humans from disease. Due to the ease of visualizing pigment cells through transparent larvae skin and conserved roles for zebrafish melanophore genes to mammalian melanocyte genes, zebrafish larvae offer a biologically relevant model for understanding pigment cell development and disease in humans. This review discusses our current knowledge of melanophore biology and how zebrafish are contributing to improving how diseases of melanocytes are understood and treated in humans. Developmental Dynamics 246:889-896, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Distinct interactions of Sox5 and Sox10 in fate specification of pigment cells in medaka and zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Yusuke; Takada, Hiroyuki; Miyadai, Motohiro; Adachi, Tomoko; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Hara, Ikuyo; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Hibi, Masahiko

    2018-01-01

    Mechanisms generating diverse cell types from multipotent progenitors are fundamental for normal development. Pigment cells are derived from multipotent neural crest cells and their diversity in teleosts provides an excellent model for studying mechanisms controlling fate specification of distinct cell types. Zebrafish have three types of pigment cells (melanocytes, iridophores and xanthophores) while medaka have four (three shared with zebrafish, plus leucophores), raising questions about how conserved mechanisms of fate specification of each pigment cell type are in these fish. We have previously shown that the Sry-related transcription factor Sox10 is crucial for fate specification of pigment cells in zebrafish, and that Sox5 promotes xanthophores and represses leucophores in a shared xanthophore/leucophore progenitor in medaka. Employing TILLING, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, we generated medaka and zebrafish sox5 and sox10 mutants and conducted comparative analyses of their compound mutant phenotypes. We show that specification of all pigment cells, except leucophores, is dependent on Sox10. Loss of Sox5 in Sox10-defective fish partially rescued the formation of all pigment cells in zebrafish, and melanocytes and iridophores in medaka, suggesting that Sox5 represses Sox10-dependent formation of these pigment cells, similar to their interaction in mammalian melanocyte specification. In contrast, in medaka, loss of Sox10 acts cooperatively with Sox5, enhancing both xanthophore reduction and leucophore increase in sox5 mutants. Misexpression of Sox5 in the xanthophore/leucophore progenitors increased xanthophores and reduced leucophores in medaka. Thus, the mode of Sox5 function in xanthophore specification differs between medaka (promoting) and zebrafish (repressing), which is also the case in adult fish. Our findings reveal surprising diversity in even the mode of the interactions between Sox5 and Sox10 governing specification of pigment cell types in

  5. Tight Junction Protein 1a regulates pigment cell organisation during zebrafish colour patterning.

    PubMed

    Fadeev, Andrey; Krauss, Jana; Frohnhöfer, Hans Georg; Irion, Uwe; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2015-04-27

    Zebrafish display a prominent pattern of alternating dark and light stripes generated by the precise positioning of pigment cells in the skin. This arrangement is the result of coordinated cell movements, cell shape changes, and the organisation of pigment cells during metamorphosis. Iridophores play a crucial part in this process by switching between the dense form of the light stripes and the loose form of the dark stripes. Adult schachbrett (sbr) mutants exhibit delayed changes in iridophore shape and organisation caused by truncations in Tight Junction Protein 1a (ZO-1a). In sbr mutants, the dark stripes are interrupted by dense iridophores invading as coherent sheets. Immuno-labelling and chimeric analyses indicate that Tjp1a is expressed in dense iridophores but down-regulated in the loose form. Tjp1a is a novel regulator of cell shape changes during colour pattern formation and the first cytoplasmic protein implicated in this process.

  6. Regulatory effect of hydroquinone-tetraethylene glycol conjugates on zebrafish pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoa Thi; Hong, Bin Na; Lee, Yeong Ro; Cheon, Ji Hyun; Kang, Tong Ho; Kim, Tae Woo

    2016-01-15

    We synthesized two hydroquinone-tetraethylene glycol conjugates (HQ-TGs) and investigated their logP, photophysical stability, and redox chemical stability. HQ-TGs are a little more hydrophilic than hydroquinone (HQ) and show an enhanced photophysical and redox chemical stability compared with HQ. In addition we studied the effect of HQ-TGs on cell viability and on zebrafish pigmentation. MTT assay in HF-16 cells showed HQ-TGs are less cytotoxic than HQ. The phenotype-based image analysis of zebrafish larvae suggests that HQ-TGs suppress the pigmentation of zebrafish in a dose-dependent manner. The comparative experiments on stability, cytotoxicity, and zebrafish pigmentation between HQ and HQ-TGs suggest that mono tetraethylene glycol-functionalization of HQ is an alternative solution to overcome the adverse effect of HQ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo cell tracking and quantification method in adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Alt, Clemens; Li, Pulin; White, Richard M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Wei, Xunbin; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful vertebrate model organism for drug discovery, cancer and stem cell research. A recently developed transparent adult zebrafish using double pigmentation mutant, called casper, provide unparalleled imaging power in in vivo longitudinal analysis of biological processes at an anatomic resolution not readily achievable in murine or other systems. In this paper we introduce an optical method for simultaneous visualization and cell quantification, which combines the laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and the in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC). The system is designed specifically for non-invasive tracking of both stationary and circulating cells in adult zebrafish casper, under physiological conditions in the same fish over time. The confocal imaging part in this system serves the dual purposes of imaging fish tissue microstructure and a 3D navigation tool to locate a suitable vessel for circulating cell counting. The multi-color, multi-channel instrument allows the detection of multiple cell populations or different tissues or organs simultaneously. We demonstrate initial testing of this novel instrument by imaging vasculature and tracking circulating cells in CD41: GFP/Gata1: DsRed transgenic casper fish whose thrombocytes/erythrocytes express the green and red fluorescent proteins. Circulating fluorescent cell incidents were recorded and counted repeatedly over time and in different types of vessels. Great application opportunities in cancer and stem cell researches are discussed.

  8. Pigment cell interactions and differential xanthophore recruitment underlying zebrafish stripe reiteration and Danio pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Larissa B.; Bain, Emily J.; Parichy, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes have diverse pigment patterns, yet mechanisms of pattern evolution remain poorly understood. In zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment-cell autonomous interactions generate dark stripes of melanophores that alternate with light interstripes of xanthophores and iridophores. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying the evolution of a uniform pattern in D. albolineatus in which all three pigment cell classes are intermingled. We show that in this species xanthophores differentiate precociously over a wider area, and that cis regulatory evolution has increased expression of xanthogenic Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (Csf1). Expressing Csf1 similarly in D. rerio has cascading effects, driving the intermingling of all three pigment cell classes and resulting in the loss of stripes, as in D. albolineatus. Our results identify novel mechanisms of pattern development and illustrate how pattern diversity can be generated when a core network of pigment-cell autonomous interactions is coupled with changes in pigment cell differentiation. PMID:25374113

  9. Quantitative in vivo optical tomography of cancer progression & vasculature development in adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Lockwood, Nicola; Ramel, Marie-Christine; Correia, Teresa; Ellis, Matthew; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Andrews, Natalie; Patel, Rachel; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J.; Brandner, Sebastian; Arridge, Simon; Katan, Matilda; McGinty, James; Frankel, Paul; French, Paul M.W.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel approach to study tumour progression and vasculature development in vivo via global 3-D fluorescence imaging of live non-pigmented adult zebrafish utilising angularly multiplexed optical projection tomography with compressive sensing (CS-OPT). This “mesoscopic” imaging method bridges a gap between established ~μm resolution 3-D fluorescence microscopy techniques and ~mm-resolved whole body planar imaging and diffuse tomography. Implementing angular multiplexing with CS-OPT, we demonstrate the in vivo global imaging of an inducible fluorescently labelled genetic model of liver cancer in adult non-pigmented zebrafish that also present fluorescently labelled vasculature. In this disease model, addition of a chemical inducer (doxycycline) drives expression of eGFP tagged oncogenic K-RASV12 in the liver of immune competent animals. We show that our novel in vivo global imaging methodology enables non-invasive quantitative imaging of the development of tumour and vasculature throughout the progression of the disease, which we have validated against established methods of pathology including immunohistochemistry. We have also demonstrated its potential for longitudinal imaging through a study of vascular development in the same zebrafish from early embryo to adulthood. We believe that this instrument, together with its associated analysis and data management tools, constitute a new platform for in vivo cancer studies and drug discovery in zebrafish disease models. PMID:27259259

  10. BAC Recombineering of the Agouti Loci from Spotted Gar and Zebrafish Reveals the Evolutionary Ancestry of Dorsal-Ventral Pigment Asymmetry in Fish.

    PubMed

    Cal, Laura; MegÍas, Manuel; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Postlethwait, John H; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-11-01

    Dorsoventral pigment patterning, characterized by a light ventrum and a dark dorsum, is one of the most widespread chromatic adaptations in vertebrate body coloration. In mammals, this countershading depends on differential expression of agouti-signaling protein (ASIP), which drives a switch of synthesis of one type of melanin to another within melanocytes. Teleost fish share countershading, but the pattern results from a differential distribution of multiple types of chromatophores, with black-brown melanophores most abundant in the dorsal body and reflective iridophores most abundant in the ventral body. We previously showed that Asip1 (a fish ortholog of mammalian ASIP) plays a role in patterning melanophores. This observation leads to the surprising hypothesis that agouti may control an evolutionarily conserved pigment pattern by regulating different mechanisms in mammals and fish. To test this hypothesis, we compared two ray-finned fishes: the teleost zebrafish and the nonteleost spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus). By examining the endogenous pattern of asip1 expression in gar, we demonstrate a dorsoventral-graded distribution of asip1 expression that is highest ventrally, similar to teleosts. Additionally, in the first reported experiments to generate zebrafish transgenic lines carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) from spotted gar, we show that both transgenic zebrafish lines embryos replicate the endogenous asip1 expression pattern in adult zebrafish, showing that BAC transgenes from both species contain all of the regulatory elements required for regular asip1 expression within adult ray-finned fishes. These experiments provide evidence that the mechanism leading to an environmentally important pigment pattern was likely in place before the origin of teleosts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. An assay for lateral line regeneration in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Gina C; Mason, Samantha M; Dhliwayo, Nyembezi; Intine, Robert V; Sarras, Michael P

    2014-04-08

    Due to the clinical importance of hearing and balance disorders in man, model organisms such as the zebrafish have been used to study lateral line development and regeneration. The zebrafish is particularly attractive for such studies because of its rapid development time and its high regenerative capacity. To date, zebrafish studies of lateral line regeneration have mainly utilized fish of the embryonic and larval stages because of the lower number of neuromasts at these stages. This has made quantitative analysis of lateral line regeneration/and or development easier in the earlier developmental stages. Because many zebrafish models of neurological and non-neurological diseases are studied in the adult fish and not in the embryo/larvae, we focused on developing a quantitative lateral line regenerative assay in adult zebrafish so that an assay was available that could be applied to current adult zebrafish disease models. Building on previous studies by Van Trump et al. that described procedures for ablation of hair cells in adult Mexican blind cave fish and zebrafish (Danio rerio), our assay was designed to allow quantitative comparison between control and experimental groups. This was accomplished by developing a regenerative neuromast standard curve based on the percent of neuromast reappearance over a 24 hr time period following gentamicin-induced necrosis of hair cells in a defined region of the lateral line. The assay was also designed to allow extension of the analysis to the individual hair cell level when a higher level of resolution is required.

  12. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  13. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spiewak, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review recent studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. PMID:25421288

  14. Stable multilineage xenogeneic replacement of definitive hematopoiesis in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hess, Isabell; Boehm, Thomas

    2016-01-18

    Bony fishes are the most numerous and phenotypically diverse group of vertebrates inhabiting our planet, making them an ideal target for identifying general principles of tissue development and function. However, lack of suitable experimental platforms prevents the exploitation of this rich source of natural phenotypic variation. Here, we use a zebrafish strain lacking definitive hematopoiesis for interspecific analysis of hematopoietic cell development. Without conditioning prior to transplantation, hematopoietic progenitor cells from goldfish stably engraft in adult zebrafish homozygous for the c-myb(I181N) mutation. However, in competitive repopulation experiments, zebrafish hematopoietic cells exhibit an advantage over their goldfish counterparts, possibly owing to subtle species-specific functional differences in hematopoietic microenvironments resulting from over 100 million years of independent evolution. Thus, our unique animal model provides an unprecedented opportunity to genetically and functionally disentangle universal and species-specific contributions of the microenvironment to hematopoietic progenitor cell maintenance and development.

  15. Behavioral effects of MDMA ('ecstasy') on adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam; Riehl, Russell; Wong, Keith; Green, Jeremy; Cosgrove, Jessica; Vollmer, Karoly; Kyzar, Evan; Hart, Peter; Allain, Alexander; Cachat, Jonathan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Hook, Molly; Rhymes, Kate; Newman, Alan; Utterback, Eli; Chang, Katie; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-06-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is a potent psychedelic drug inducing euphoria and hypersociability in humans, as well as hyperactivity and anxiety in rodents. Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a widely used species in neurobehavioral research. Here, we explore the effects of a wide range (0.25-120 mg/l) of acute MDMA doses on zebrafish behavior in the novel tank test. Although MDMA was inactive at lower doses (0.25-10 mg/l), higher doses reduced bottom swimming and immobility (40-120 mg/l) and impaired intrasession habituation (10-120 mg/l). MDMA also elevated brain c-fos expression, collectively confirming the usage of zebrafish models for screening of hallucinogenic compounds.

  16. Recording the adult zebrafish cerebral field potential during pentylenetetrazole seizures

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Ricardo; Beattie, Christine E.; Hall, Charles W.

    2017-01-01

    Although the zebrafish is increasingly used as a model organism to study epilepsy, no standard electrophysiological technique for recording electrographic seizures in adult fish exists. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a readily implementable technique for recording pentylenetetrazole seizures in the adult zebrafish. We find that we can consistently record a high quality field potential over the zebrafish cerebrum using an amplification of 5000 V/V and bandpass filtering at corner frequencies of 1.6 and 16 Hz. The cerebral field potential recordings show consistent features in the baseline, pre-seizure, seizure and post-seizure time periods that can be easily recognized by visual inspection as is the case with human and rodent electroencephalogram. Furthermore, numerical analysis of the field potential at the time of seizure onset reveals an increase in the total power, bandwidth and peak frequency in the power spectrum, as is also the case with human and rodent electroencephalogram. The techniques presented herein stand to advance the utility of the adult zebrafish in the study of epilepsy by affording an equivalent to the electroencephalogram used in mammalian models and human patients. PMID:21689682

  17. Preparing Fresh Retinal Slices from Adult Zebrafish for Ex Vivo Imaging Experiments.

    PubMed

    Giarmarco, Michelle M; Cleghorn, Whitney M; Hurley, James B; Brockerhoff, Susan E

    2018-05-09

    The retina is a complex tissue that initiates and integrates the first steps of vision. Dysfunction of retinal cells is a hallmark of many blinding diseases, and future therapies hinge on fundamental understandings about how different retinal cells function normally. Gaining such information with biochemical methods has proven difficult because contributions of particular cell types are diminished in the retinal cell milieu. Live retinal imaging can provide a view of numerous biological processes on a subcellular level, thanks to a growing number of genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors. However, this technique has thus far been limited to tadpoles and zebrafish larvae, the outermost retinal layers of isolated retinas, or lower resolution imaging of retinas in live animals. Here we present a method for generating live ex vivo retinal slices from adult zebrafish for live imaging via confocal microscopy. This preparation yields transverse slices with all retinal layers and most cell types visible for performing confocal imaging experiments using perfusion. Transgenic zebrafish expressing fluorescent proteins or biosensors in specific retinal cell types or organelles are used to extract single-cell information from an intact retina. Additionally, retinal slices can be loaded with fluorescent indicator dyes, adding to the method's versatility. This protocol was developed for imaging Ca 2+ within zebrafish cone photoreceptors, but with proper markers it could be adapted to measure Ca 2+ or metabolites in Müller cells, bipolar and horizontal cells, microglia, amacrine cells, or retinal ganglion cells. The retinal pigment epithelium is removed from slices so this method is not suitable for studying that cell type. With practice, it is possible to generate serial slices from one animal for multiple experiments. This adaptable technique provides a powerful tool for answering many questions about retinal cell biology, Ca 2+ , and energy homeostasis.

  18. Reproductive toxicity of azoxystrobin to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Cao, Fangjie; Zhu, Lizhen; Li, Hui; Yu, Song; Wang, Chengju; Qiu, Lihong

    2016-12-01

    In the past few decades, extensive application of azoxystrobin has led to great concern regarding its adverse effects on aquatic organisms. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of azoxystrobin to zebrafish. After adult zebrafish of both sexes were exposed to 2, 20 and 200 μg/L azoxystrobin for 21 days, egg production, the fertilization rate, the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI), 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations, and histological alterations in the gonads and livers were measured. Meanwhile, expression alterations of genes encoding gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors (fshb, lhb, fshr and lhr), steroid hormone receptors (era, er2b and ar), steroidogenic enzymes (cyp11a, cyp11b, cyp17, cyp19a, cyp19b, hsd3b and hsd17b) in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and vitellogenin (vtg1 and vtg2) in the livers were also investigated. The results showed that reduced egg production and fertilization rates were observed at 200 μg/L azoxystrobin. In female zebrafish, reduced E2 and Vtg concentrations, decreased GSI, increased T concentrations, and histological alterations in the ovaries and livers were observed at 200 μg/L azoxystrobin, along with significant down-regulation of lhb, cyp19b, lhr, cyp19a, vtg1 and vtg2, and up-regulation of cyp17, hsd3b and hsd17b. In male zebrafish, increased E2 and Vtg concentrations, reduced T concentration and GSI, and histological alterations in the testes and livers were observed after exposure to 20 and 200 μg/L azoxystrobin, along with significant up-regulations of cyp19b, cyp11a, cyp17, cyp19a, hsd3b and hsd17b, vtg1 and vtg2. Moreover, cyp11a, hsd3b, cyp19a, vtg1 and vtg2 in male zebrafish were significantly up-regulated after treatment with 2 μg/L azoxystrobin. The results of the present study indicate that azoxystrobin led to reproductive toxicity in zebrafish and male zebrafish were more sensitive to

  19. Regenerative response following stab injury in the adult zebrafish telencephalon.

    PubMed

    März, Martin; Schmidt, Rebecca; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2011-09-01

    In contrast to mammals, the brain of the adult zebrafish has a remarkable ability to regenerate. In mammals, injuries induce proliferation of astrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitors contributing to the formation of a glial scar. We analyzed the proliferation of glial cells and microglia in response to stab injury in the adult zebrafish telencephalon: Radial glial markers were up-regulated at the ventricle and co-expressed the proliferation nuclear antigen (PCNA). Microglia and oligodendrocyte progenitors accumulated transiently at the site of lesion. However, we could not find evidence of permanent scar formation. Parenchymal proliferation was almost negligible in comparison to the increase in proliferation at the ventricular zone. This suggests that most of the cellular material for regeneration is derived from regions of constitutive neurogenesis. Remarkably, the proliferative response is almost completely restricted to the lesioned hemisphere indicating that signals inducing regeneration remain mainly confined within the lesioned half of the telencephalon. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Nickel exposure alters behavioral parameters in larval and adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nabinger, Débora Dreher; Altenhofen, Stefani; Bitencourt, Paula Eliete Rodrigues; Nery, Laura Roesler; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Vianna, Mônica Ryff Moreira Roca; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2018-05-15

    Nickel is a heavy metal that, at high concentrations, leads to environmental contamination and causes health problems. We evaluated the effects of NiCl 2 exposure on cognition and behavior in larval and adult zebrafish. Larval and adult zebrafish were exposed to NiCl 2 concentrations (0.025, 2.0, 5.0, and 15.0mg/L) or water (control) in two treatment regimens: acute and subchronic. Larvae were exposed to NiCl 2 for 2h (acute treatment: 5-day-old larvae treated for 2h, tested after treatment) or 11days (subchronic treatment: 11-day-old larvae treated since fertilization, tested at 5, 8 and 11days post-fertilization, dpf). Adults were exposed for 12h (acute treatment) or 96h (subchronic treatment) and were tested after the treatment period. In both regimens, exposed zebrafish showed concentration-dependent increases in body nickel levels compared with controls. For larvae, delayed hatching, decreased heart rate and morphological alterations were observed in subchronically treated zebrafish. Larvae from subchronic treatment tested at 5dpf decrease distance and mean speed at a low concentration (0.025mg/L) and increased at higher concentrations (5.0 and 15.0mg/L). Subchronic treated larvae decrease locomotion at 15.0mg/L at 8 and 11dpf, whereas decreased escape responses to an aversive stimulus was observed at 2.0, 5.0 and 15.0mg/L in all developmental stages. For adults, the exploratory behavior test showed that subchronic nickel exposure induced anxiogenic-like behavior and decrease aggression, whereas impaired memory was observed in both treatments. These results indicate that exposure to nickel in early life stages of zebrafish leads to morphological alterations, avoidance response impairment and locomotor deficits whereas acute and subchronic exposure in adults resulst in anxiogenic effects, impaired memory and decreased aggressive behavior. These effects may be associated to neurotoxic actions of nickel and suggest this metal may influence animals' physiology in

  1. Effects of piracetam on behavior and memory in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Leah; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Utterback, Eli; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Frank, Kevin; Hart, Peter; Howard, Harry; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-04-25

    Piracetam, a derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid, exerts memory-enhancing and mild anxiolytic effects in human and rodent studies. To examine the drug's behavioral profile further, we assessed its effects on behavioral and endocrine (cortisol) responses of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)--a novel model species rapidly gaining popularity in neurobehavioral research. Overall, acute piracetam did not affect zebrafish novel tank and light-dark box behavior at mild doses (25-400mg/L), but produced nonspecific behavioral inhibition at 700mg/L. No effects on cortisol levels or inter-/intra-session habituation in the novel tank test were observed for acute or chronic mild non-sedative dose of 200mg/L. In contrast, fish exposed to chronic piracetam at this dose performed significantly better in the cued learning plus-maze test. This observation parallels clinical and rodent literature on the behavioral profile of piracetam, supporting the utility of zebrafish paradigms for testing nootropic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental social isolation affects adult behavior, social interaction, and dopamine metabolite levels in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shams, Soaleha; Amlani, Shahid; Buske, Christine; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The zebrafish is a social vertebrate and an excellent translational model for a variety of human disorders. Abnormal social behavior is a hallmark of several human brain disorders. Social behavioral problems can arise as a result of adverse early social environment. Little is known about the effects of early social isolation in adult zebrafish. We compared zebrafish that were isolated for either short (7 days) or long duration (180 days) to socially housed zebrafish, testing their behavior across ontogenesis (ages 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 days), and shoal cohesion and whole-brain monoamines and their metabolites in adulthood. Long social isolation increased locomotion and decreased shoal cohesion and anxiety in the open-field in adult. Additionally, both short and long social isolation reduced dopamine metabolite levels in response to social stimuli. Thus, early social isolation has lasting effects in zebrafish, and may be employed to generate zebrafish models of human neuropsychiatric conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Craniofacial skeletal defects of adult zebrafish glypican 4 (knypek) mutants

    PubMed Central

    LeClair, Elizabeth E.; Mui, Stephanie R.; Huang, Angela; Topczewska, Jolanta M.; Topczewski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The heparan sulfate proteoglycan Glypican 4 (Gpc4) is part of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway, which is required for convergence and extension during zebrafish gastrulation. To observe Glypican 4-deficient phenotypes at later stages, we rescued gpc4−/− (knypek) homozygotes and raised them for more than one year. Adult mutants showed diverse cranial malformations of both dermal and endochondral bones, ranging from shortening of the rostral-most skull to loss of the symplectic. Additionally, the adult palatoquadrate cartilage was disorganized, with abnormal chondrocyte orientation. To understand how the palatoquadrate cartilage normally develops, we examined a juvenile series of wild type and mutant specimens. This identified two novel domains of elongated chondrocytes in the larval palatoquadrate, which normally form prior to endochondral ossification. In contrast, gpc4−/− larvae never form these domains, suggesting a failure of chondrocyte orientation, though not differentiation. Our findings implicate Gpc4 in the regulation of zebrafish cartilage and bone morphogenesis. PMID:19777561

  4. Evaluation of anaesthetic protocols for laboratory adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Martins, Tânia; Diniz, Enoque; Félix, Luís M; Antunes, Luís

    2018-01-01

    In the last decades, the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research has increased. Anaesthesia is daily used in fish during experimental procedures to avoid discomfort, stress or pain. Also, fish welfare and the reliability of results can be compromised if an unsuitable anaesthetic protocol is used. Therefore, we aimed to refine anaesthetic protocols to be used in adult zebrafish by evaluating the efficacy of different anaesthetics, used alone or in combination. For that, zebrafish were randomly assigned to 8 different groups: 100 μg/mLMS-222 (MS); 0.2 μg/mL etomidate (E); 0.2 μg/mL etomidate + 100 μg/mL lidocaine (E+L); 1.25 μg/mL propofol (P); 1.25 μg/mL propofol + 100 μg/mL lidocaine (P+L); 100 μg/mL ketamine (K); 100 μg/mL ketamine + 1.25 μg/mL medetomidine (K+M); and 100 μg/mL ketamine + 1.25 μg/mL medetomidine/3.125 μg/mL atipamezole (K+M/A). The animals were placed in an anaesthetic water bath, then, the following parameters were registered: time for equilibrium loss and anaesthesia induction, loss of sensitivity to soft and painful stimuli, respiratory rate, recovery time, and activity after recovery. The combined forms of E+L, P+L and K+M were the fastest to induce a surgical anaesthetic stage. Nevertheless, E+L induced respiratory depression, while K+M was shown to have the longer recovery time compared to MS-222, even when atipamezole was added. In conclusion, the P+L combination was shown to provide good anaesthesia with analgesia, without causing a major respiratory depression, providing as well a quick recovery, similar to MS-222.

  5. A Dynamic Anesthesia System for Long-Term Imaging in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wynd, Brenen M.; Watson, Claire J.; Patil, Karuna; Sanders, George E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Long-term in vivo imaging in adult zebrafish (i.e., 1–24 h) has been limited by the fact that regimens for long-term anesthesia in embryos and larvae are ineffective in adults. Here, we examined the potential for dynamic administration of benzocaine to enable long-term anesthesia in adult zebrafish. We developed a computer-controlled perfusion system comprised of programmable peristaltic pumps that enabled automatic exchange between anesthetic and system water. Continuous administration of benzocaine in adult zebrafish resulted in a mean time to respiratory arrest of 5.0 h and 8-h survival of 14.3%. We measured characteristic sedation and recovery times in response to benzocaine, and used them to devise an intermittent dosing regimen consisting of 14.5 min of benzocaine followed by 5.5 min of system water. Intermittent benzocaine administration in adult zebrafish resulted in a mean time to respiratory arrest of 7.6 h and 8-h survival of 71.4%. Finally, we performed a single 24-h trial and found that intermittent dosing maintained anesthesia in an adult zebrafish over the entire 24-h period. In summary, our studies demonstrate the potential for dynamic administration of benzocaine to enable prolonged anesthesia in adult zebrafish, expanding the potential for imaging in adult physiologies that unfold over 1–24 h. PMID:27409411

  6. A Dynamic Anesthesia System for Long-Term Imaging in Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wynd, Brenen M; Watson, Claire J; Patil, Karuna; Sanders, George E; Kwon, Ronald Y

    2017-02-01

    Long-term in vivo imaging in adult zebrafish (i.e., 1-24 h) has been limited by the fact that regimens for long-term anesthesia in embryos and larvae are ineffective in adults. Here, we examined the potential for dynamic administration of benzocaine to enable long-term anesthesia in adult zebrafish. We developed a computer-controlled perfusion system comprised of programmable peristaltic pumps that enabled automatic exchange between anesthetic and system water. Continuous administration of benzocaine in adult zebrafish resulted in a mean time to respiratory arrest of 5.0 h and 8-h survival of 14.3%. We measured characteristic sedation and recovery times in response to benzocaine, and used them to devise an intermittent dosing regimen consisting of 14.5 min of benzocaine followed by 5.5 min of system water. Intermittent benzocaine administration in adult zebrafish resulted in a mean time to respiratory arrest of 7.6 h and 8-h survival of 71.4%. Finally, we performed a single 24-h trial and found that intermittent dosing maintained anesthesia in an adult zebrafish over the entire 24-h period. In summary, our studies demonstrate the potential for dynamic administration of benzocaine to enable prolonged anesthesia in adult zebrafish, expanding the potential for imaging in adult physiologies that unfold over 1-24 h.

  7. An orthologue of the kit-related gene fms is required for development of neural crest-derived xanthophores and a subpopulation of adult melanocytes in the zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Parichy, D M; Ransom, D G; Paw, B; Zon, L I; Johnson, S L

    2000-07-01

    Developmental mechanisms underlying traits expressed in larval and adult vertebrates remain largely unknown. Pigment patterns of fishes provide an opportunity to identify genes and cell behaviors required for postembryonic morphogenesis and differentiation. In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment patterns reflect the spatial arrangements of three classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells: black melanocytes, yellow xanthophores and silver iridophores. We show that the D. rerio pigment pattern mutant panther ablates xanthophores in embryos and adults and has defects in the development of the adult pattern of melanocyte stripes. We find that panther corresponds to an orthologue of the c-fms gene, which encodes a type III receptor tyrosine kinase and is the closest known homologue of the previously identified pigment pattern gene, kit. In mouse, fms is essential for the development of macrophage and osteoclast lineages and has not been implicated in neural crest or pigment cell development. In contrast, our analyses demonstrate that fms is expressed and required by D. rerio xanthophore precursors and that fms promotes the normal patterning of melanocyte death and migration during adult stripe formation. Finally, we show that fms is required for the appearance of a late developing, kit-independent subpopulation of adult melanocytes. These findings reveal an unexpected role for fms in pigment pattern development and demonstrate that parallel neural crest-derived pigment cell populations depend on the activities of two essentially paralogous genes, kit and fms.

  8. Satellite-like cells contribute to pax7-dependent skeletal muscle repair in adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Berberoglu, Michael A.; Gallagher, Thomas L.; Morrow, Zachary T.; Talbot, Jared C.; Hromowyk, Kimberly J.; Tenente, Inês M.; Langenau, David M.; Amacher, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Satellite cells, also known as muscle stem cells, are responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair in mammals. Pax7 and Pax3 transcription factors are established satellite cell markers required for muscle development and regeneration, and there is great interest in identifying additional factors that regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and/or skeletal muscle regeneration. Due to the powerful regenerative capacity of many zebrafish tissues, even in adults, we are exploring the regenerative potential of adult zebrafish skeletal muscle. Here, we show that adult zebrafish skeletal muscle contains cells similar to mammalian satellite cells. Adult zebrafish satellite-like cells have dense heterochromatin, express Pax7 and Pax3, proliferate in response to injury, and show peak myogenic responses 4–5 days post-injury (dpi). Furthermore, using a pax7a-driven GFP reporter, we present evidence implicating satellite-like cells as a possible source of new muscle. In lieu of central nucleation, which distinguishes regenerating myofibers in mammals, we describe several characteristics that robustly identify newly-forming myofibers from surrounding fibers in injured adult zebrafish muscle. These characteristics include partially overlapping expression in satellite cells and regenerating myofibers of two RNA-binding proteins Rbfox2 and Rbfoxl1, known to regulate embryonic muscle development and function. Finally, by analyzing pax7a; pax7b double mutant zebrafish, we show that Pax7 is required for adult skeletal muscle repair, as it is in the mouse. PMID:28279710

  9. Pigment pattern in jaguar/obelix zebrafish is caused by a Kir7.1 mutation: implications for the regulation of melanosome movement.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Motoko; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Ishii, Masaru; Chen, Tim; Johnson, Stephen L; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Okada, Norihiro; Kondo, Shigeru

    2006-11-24

    Many animals have a variety of pigment patterns, even within a species, and these patterns may be one of the driving forces of speciation. Recent molecular genetic studies on zebrafish have revealed that interaction among pigment cells plays a key role in pattern formation, but the mechanism of pattern formation is unclear. The zebrafish jaguar/obelix mutant has broader stripes than wild-type fish. In this mutant, the development of pigment cells is normal but their distribution is altered, making these fish ideal for studying the process of pigment pattern formation. Here, we utilized a positional cloning method to determine that the inwardly rectifying potassium channel 7.1 (Kir7.1) gene is responsible for pigment cell distribution among jaguar/obelix mutant fish. Furthermore, in jaguar/obelix mutant alleles, we identified amino acid changes in the conserved region of Kir7.1, each of which affected K(+) channel activity as demonstrated by patch-clamp experiments. Injection of a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the wild-type Kir7.1 genomic sequence rescued the jaguar/obelix phenotype. From these results, we conclude that mutations in Kir7.1 are responsible for jaguar/obelix. We also determined that the ion channel function defect of melanophores expressing mutant Kir7.1 altered the cellular response to external signals. We discovered that mutant melanophores cannot respond correctly to the melanosome dispersion signal derived from the sympathetic neuron and that melanosome aggregation is constitutively activated. In zebrafish and medaka, it is well known that melanosome aggregation and subsequent melanophore death increase when fish are kept under constant light conditions. These observations indicate that melanophores of jaguar/obelix mutant fish have a defect in the signaling pathway downstream of the alpha2-adrenoceptor. Taken together, our results suggest that the cellular defect of the Kir7.1 mutation is directly responsible for the pattern change

  10. Pigment Pattern in jaguar/obelix Zebrafish Is Caused by a Kir7.1 Mutation: Implications for the Regulation of Melanosome Movement

    PubMed Central

    Iwashita, Motoko; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Ishii, Masaru; Chen, Tim; Johnson, Stephen L; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Okada, Norihiro; Kondo, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    Many animals have a variety of pigment patterns, even within a species, and these patterns may be one of the driving forces of speciation. Recent molecular genetic studies on zebrafish have revealed that interaction among pigment cells plays a key role in pattern formation, but the mechanism of pattern formation is unclear. The zebrafish jaguar/obelix mutant has broader stripes than wild-type fish. In this mutant, the development of pigment cells is normal but their distribution is altered, making these fish ideal for studying the process of pigment pattern formation. Here, we utilized a positional cloning method to determine that the inwardly rectifying potassium channel 7.1 (Kir7.1) gene is responsible for pigment cell distribution among jaguar/obelix mutant fish. Furthermore, in jaguar/obelix mutant alleles, we identified amino acid changes in the conserved region of Kir7.1, each of which affected K+ channel activity as demonstrated by patch-clamp experiments. Injection of a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the wild-type Kir7.1 genomic sequence rescued the jaguar/obelix phenotype. From these results, we conclude that mutations in Kir7.1 are responsible for jaguar/obelix. We also determined that the ion channel function defect of melanophores expressing mutant Kir7.1 altered the cellular response to external signals. We discovered that mutant melanophores cannot respond correctly to the melanosome dispersion signal derived from the sympathetic neuron and that melanosome aggregation is constitutively activated. In zebrafish and medaka, it is well known that melanosome aggregation and subsequent melanophore death increase when fish are kept under constant light conditions. These observations indicate that melanophores of jaguar/obelix mutant fish have a defect in the signaling pathway downstream of the α2-adrenoceptor. Taken together, our results suggest that the cellular defect of the Kir7.1 mutation is directly responsible for the pattern change in the

  11. High-throughput imaging of adult fluorescent zebrafish with an LED fluorescence macroscope

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jessica S; Liu, Sali; Raimondi, Aubrey R; Ignatius, Myron S; Salthouse, Christopher D; Langenau, David M

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish are a useful vertebrate model for the study of development, behavior, disease and cancer. A major advantage of zebrafish is that large numbers of animals can be economically used for experimentation; however, high-throughput methods for imaging live adult zebrafish had not been developed. Here, we describe protocols for building a light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence macroscope and for using it to simultaneously image up to 30 adult animals that transgenically express a fluorescent protein, are transplanted with fluorescently labeled tumor cells or are tagged with fluorescent elastomers. These protocols show that the LED fluorescence macroscope is capable of distinguishing five fluorescent proteins and can image unanesthetized swimming adult zebrafish in multiple fluorescent channels simultaneously. The macroscope can be built and used for imaging within 1 day, whereas creating fluorescently labeled adult zebrafish requires 1 hour to several months, depending on the method chosen. The LED fluorescence macroscope provides a low-cost, high-throughput method to rapidly screen adult fluorescent zebrafish and it will be useful for imaging transgenic animals, screening for tumor engraftment, and tagging individual fish for long-term analysis. PMID:21293462

  12. Cerebroventricular Microinjection (CVMI) into Adult Zebrafish Brain Is an Efficient Misexpression Method for Forebrain Ventricular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kizil, Caghan; Brand, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The teleost fish Danio rerio (zebrafish) has a remarkable ability to generate newborn neurons in its brain at adult stages of its lifespan-a process called adult neurogenesis. This ability relies on proliferating ventricular progenitors and is in striking contrast to mammalian brains that have rather restricted capacity for adult neurogenesis. Therefore, investigating the zebrafish brain can help not only to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of widespread adult neurogenesis in a vertebrate species, but also to design therapies in humans with what we learn from this teleost. Yet, understanding the cellular behavior and molecular programs underlying different biological processes in the adult zebrafish brain requires techniques that allow manipulation of gene function. As a complementary method to the currently used misexpression techniques in zebrafish, such as transgenic approaches or electroporation-based delivery of DNA, we devised a cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI)-assisted knockdown protocol that relies on vivo morpholino oligonucleotides, which do not require electroporation for cellular uptake. This rapid method allows uniform and efficient knockdown of genes in the ventricular cells of the zebrafish brain, which contain the neurogenic progenitors. We also provide data on the use of CVMI for growth factor administration to the brain – in our case FGF8, which modulates the proliferation rate of the ventricular cells. In this paper, we describe the CVMI method and discuss its potential uses in zebrafish. PMID:22076157

  13. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  14. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, Virginia G.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Monitoring of injury induced brain regeneration of the adult zebrafish by using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Jian

    2018-02-01

    The adult zebrafish has pronounced regenerative capacity of the brain, which makes it an ideal model organism of vertebrate biology for the investigation of recovery of central nervous system injuries. The aim of this study was to employ spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system for long-term in vivo monitoring of tissue regeneration using an adult zebrafish model of brain injury. Based on a 1325 nm light source and two high-speed galvo mirrors, the SD-OCT system can offer a large field of view of the three-dimensional (3D) brain structures with high imaging resolution (12 μm axial and 13 μm lateral) at video rate. In vivo experiments based on this system were conducted to monitor the regeneration process of zebrafish brain after injury during a period of 43 days. To monitor and detect the process of tissue regeneration, we performed 3D in vivo imaging in a zebrafish model of adult brain injury during a period of 43 days. The coronal and sagittal views of the injured zebrafish brain at each time point (0 days, 10 days, 20 days and 43 days postlesion) were presented to show the changes of the brain lesion in detail. In addition, the 3D SD-OCT images for an injured zebrafish brain were also reconstructed at days 0 and days 43 post-lesion. We found that SD-OCT is able to effectively and noninvasively monitor the regeneration of the adult zebrafish brain after injury in real time with high 3D spatial resolution and good penetration depth. Our findings also suggested that the adult zebrafish has the extraordinary capability of brain regeneration and is able to repair itself after brain injury.

  16. Short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Cao, Fangjie; Wu, Peizhuo; Huang, Lan; Li, Hui; Qian, Le; Pang, Sen; Qiu, Lihong

    2018-05-01

    Previous study indicated that azoxystrobin had high acute toxicity to zebrafish, and larval zebrafish were more sensitive to azoxystrobin than adult zebrafish. The objective of the present study was to investigate short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish. After zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin (equal to 25, 124 and 496 nM azoxystrobin, respectively) for 8 days, the lethal effect, physiological responses, liver histology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and expression alteration of genes related to mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response were determined. The results showed that there was no significant effect on larval and adult zebrafish after exposure to 0.01 mg/L azoxystrobin. However, increased ROS, MDA concentration and il1b in larval zebrafish, as well as increased il1b, il8 and cxcl-c1c in adult zebrafish were induced after exposure to 0.05 mg/L azoxystrobin. Reduced mitochondrial complex III activity and ATP concentration, increased SOD activity, ROS and MDA concentration, decreased cytb, as well as increased sod1, sod2, cat, il1b, il8 and cxcl-c1c were observed both in larval and adult zebrafish after exposure to 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin; meanwhile, increased p53, bax, apaf1 and casp9, alteration of liver histology and mitochondrial ultrastructure in larval zebrafish, and alteration of mitochondrial ultrastructure in adult zebrafish were also induced. The results demonstrated that azoxytrobin induced short-term developmental effects on larval zebrafish and adult zebrafish, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response. Statistical analysis indicated that azoxystrobin induced more negative effects on larval zebrafish, which might be the reason for the differences of developmental toxicity between larval and adult zebrafish caused by

  17. Long-term drug administration in the adult zebrafish using oral gavage for cancer preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Michelle; Henderson, Rachel E.; Garraway, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zebrafish are a major model for chemical genetics, and most studies use embryos when investigating small molecules that cause interesting phenotypes or that can rescue disease models. Limited studies have dosed adults with small molecules by means of water-borne exposure or injection techniques. Challenges in the form of drug delivery-related trauma and anesthesia-related toxicity have excluded the adult zebrafish from long-term drug efficacy studies. Here, we introduce a novel anesthetic combination of MS-222 and isoflurane to an oral gavage technique for a non-toxic, non-invasive and long-term drug administration platform. As a proof of principle, we established drug efficacy of the FDA-approved BRAFV600E inhibitor, Vemurafenib, in adult zebrafish harboring BRAFV600E melanoma tumors. In the model, adult casper zebrafish intraperitoneally transplanted with a zebrafish melanoma cell line (ZMEL1) and exposed to daily sub-lethal dosing at 100 mg/kg of Vemurafenib for 2 weeks via oral gavage resulted in an average 65% decrease in tumor burden and a 15% mortality rate. In contrast, Vemurafenib-resistant ZMEL1 cell lines, generated in culture from low-dose drug exposure for 4 months, did not respond to the oral gavage treatment regimen. Similarly, this drug treatment regimen can be applied for treatment of primary melanoma tumors in the zebrafish. Taken together, we developed an effective long-term drug treatment system that will allow the adult zebrafish to be used to identify more effective anti-melanoma combination therapies and opens up possibilities for treating adult models of other diseases. PMID:27482819

  18. Understanding spatio-temporal strategies of adult zebrafish exploration in the open field test.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kyzar, Evan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-04-27

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a useful model organism for neuroscience research. Mounting evidence suggests that various traditional rodent paradigms may be adapted for testing zebrafish behavior. The open field test is a popular rodent test of novelty exploration, recently applied to zebrafish research. To better understand fish novelty behavior, we exposed adult zebrafish to two different open field arenas for 30 min, assessing the amount and temporal patterning of their exploration. While (similar to rodents) zebrafish scale their locomotory activity depending on the size of the tank, the temporal patterning of their activity was independent of arena size. These observations strikingly parallel similar rodent behaviors, suggesting that spatio-temporal strategies of animal exploration may be evolutionarily conserved across vertebrate species. In addition, we found interesting oscillations in zebrafish exploration, with the per-minute distribution of their horizontal activity demonstrating sinusoidal-like patterns. While such patterning is not reported for rodents and other higher vertebrates, a nonlinear regression analysis confirmed the oscillation patterning of all assessed zebrafish behavioral endpoints in both open field arenas, revealing a potentially important aspect of novelty exploration in lower vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comprehensive Expression Map of Transcription Regulators in the Adult Zebrafish Telencephalon Reveals Distinct Neurogenic Niches

    PubMed Central

    Diotel, Nicolas; Rodriguez Viales, Rebecca; Armant, Olivier; März, Martin; Ferg, Marco; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish has become a model to study adult vertebrate neurogenesis. In particular, the adult telencephalon has been an intensely studied structure in the zebrafish brain. Differential expression of transcriptional regulators (TRs) is a key feature of development and tissue homeostasis. Here we report an expression map of 1,202 TR genes in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish. Our results are summarized in a database with search and clustering functions to identify genes expressed in particular regions of the telencephalon. We classified 562 genes into 13 distinct patterns, including genes expressed in the proliferative zone. The remaining 640 genes displayed unique and complex patterns of expression and could thus not be grouped into distinct classes. The neurogenic ventricular regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes, suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic niches in the telencephalon. In summary, the small telencephalon of the zebrafish shows a remarkable complexity in TR gene expression. The adult zebrafish telencephalon has become a model to study neurogenesis. We established the expression pattern of more than 1200 transcription regulators (TR) in the adult telencephalon. The neurogenic regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic potential. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1202–1221, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25556858

  20. Comprehensive expression map of transcription regulators in the adult zebrafish telencephalon reveals distinct neurogenic niches.

    PubMed

    Diotel, Nicolas; Rodriguez Viales, Rebecca; Armant, Olivier; März, Martin; Ferg, Marco; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-06-01

    The zebrafish has become a model to study adult vertebrate neurogenesis. In particular, the adult telencephalon has been an intensely studied structure in the zebrafish brain. Differential expression of transcriptional regulators (TRs) is a key feature of development and tissue homeostasis. Here we report an expression map of 1,202 TR genes in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish. Our results are summarized in a database with search and clustering functions to identify genes expressed in particular regions of the telencephalon. We classified 562 genes into 13 distinct patterns, including genes expressed in the proliferative zone. The remaining 640 genes displayed unique and complex patterns of expression and could thus not be grouped into distinct classes. The neurogenic ventricular regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes, suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic niches in the telencephalon. In summary, the small telencephalon of the zebrafish shows a remarkable complexity in TR gene expression. The adult zebrafish telencephalon has become a model to study neurogenesis. We established the expression pattern of more than 1200 transcription regulators (TR) in the adult telencephalon. The neurogenic regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic potential. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  2. Quantitative assessment of cypermethrin induced behavioural and biochemical anomalies in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nema, Shubham; Bhargava, Yogesh

    2018-05-23

    Cypermethrin is one of the top five pesticides used globally. Although the effect of cypermethrin on the embryonic stages of zebrafish is well characterized, its toxic effect on the behaviour of adult zebrafish is largely unknown. Here we used videogram and automated tracking approach to quantitatively assess behavioural toxicity induced by the short exposure of cypermethrin to adult zebrafish. We observed that cypermethrin at 25 ppb level induced behavioural toxicity in adult zebrafish. Motor activity of the treated group was significantly retarded which affected their overall exploratory behaviour including their visit to the central arena of the open-field test. Furthermore, the treated group showed erratic movements (covered less distance per unit time) without affecting their angle based behavioural endpoints. In contrast to the control group, the cypermethrin exposed group showed frequent freezing behaviour. However, their freezing episodes were characterized by constant drift-like movement caused by the loss of their voluntary control over the motor coordination. These behavioural changes are similar to typical anxiety-like behaviour. Though, cypermethrin exposure at ppb level for just half an hour was sufficient to induce behavioural toxicity, it failed to alter brain superoxide dismutase and acetylcholine esterase enzyme activity. Our data indicates that acute short-term exposure of cypermethrin induces behavioural anomalies in adult zebrafish through a mechanism distinct from alteration of brain superoxide dismutase and the acetylcholine esterase activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stab wound injury of the zebrafish adult telencephalon: a method to investigate vertebrate brain neurogenesis and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rebecca; Beil, Tanja; Strähle, Uwe; Rastegar, Sepand

    2014-08-04

    Adult zebrafish have an amazing capacity to regenerate their central nervous system after injury. To investigate the cellular response and the molecular mechanisms involved in zebrafish adult central nervous system (CNS) regeneration and repair, we developed a zebrafish model of adult telencephalic injury. In this approach, we manually generate an injury by pushing an insulin syringe needle into the zebrafish adult telencephalon. At different post injury days, fish are sacrificed, their brains are dissected out and stained by immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization (ISH) with appropriate markers to observe cell proliferation, gliogenesis, and neurogenesis. The contralateral unlesioned hemisphere serves as an internal control. This method combined for example with RNA deep sequencing can help to screen for new genes with a role in zebrafish adult telencephalon neurogenesis, regeneration, and repair.

  4. Cellular responses to recurrent pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in the adult zebrafish brain

    PubMed Central

    Duy, Phan Q; Berberoglu, Michael A; Beattie, Christine E; Hall, Charles W

    2017-01-01

    A seizure is a sustained increase in brain electrical activity that can result in loss of consciousness and injury. Understanding how the brain responds to seizures is important for development of new treatment strategies for epilepsy, a neurological condition characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures. Pharmacological induction of seizures in rodent models results in a myriad of cellular alterations, including inflammation, angiogenesis, and adult neurogenesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cellular responses to recurrent pentylenetetrazole seizures in the adult zebrafish brain. We subjected zebrafish to five once daily pentylenetetrazole induced seizures and characterized the cellular consequences of these seizures. In response to recurrent seizures, we found histologic evidence of vasodilatation, perivascular leukocyte egress and leukocyte proliferation suggesting seizure-induced acute CNS inflammation. We also found evidence of increased proliferation, neurogenesis, and reactive gliosis. Collectively, our results suggest that the cellular responses to seizures in the adult zebrafish brain are similar to those observed in mammalian brains. PMID:28238851

  5. Embryonic Alcohol Exposure Impairs the Dopaminergic System and Social Behavioral Responses in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Rampersad, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The zebrafish is a powerful neurobehavioral genetics tool with which complex human brain disorders including alcohol abuse and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders may be modeled and investigated. Zebrafish innately form social groups called shoals. Previously, it has been demonstrated that a single bath exposure (24 hours postfertilization) to low doses of alcohol (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1% vol/vol) for a short duration (2 hours) leads to impaired group forming, or shoaling, in adult zebrafish. Methods: In the current study, we immersed zebrafish eggs in a low concentration of alcohol (0.5% or 1% vol/vol) for 2 hours at 24 hours postfertilization and let the fish grow and reach adulthood. In addition to quantifying the behavioral response of the adult fish to an animated shoal, we also measured the amount of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid from whole brain extracts of these fish using high-pressure liquid chromatograph. Results: Here we confirm that embryonic alcohol exposure makes adult zebrafish increase their distance from the shoal stimulus in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that the shoal stimulus increases the amount of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the brain of control zebrafish but not in fish previously exposed to alcohol during their embryonic development. Conclusions: We speculate that one of the mechanisms that may explain the embryonic alcohol-induced impaired shoaling response in zebrafish is dysfunction of reward mechanisms subserved by the dopaminergic system. PMID:25568285

  6. Limb regeneration is impaired in an adult zebrafish model of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ansgar S; Sarras, Michael P; Intine, Robert V

    2010-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for the study of developmental processes, human disease, and tissue regeneration. We report that limb regeneration is severely impaired in our newly developed adult zebrafish model of type I diabetes mellitus. Intraperitoneal streptozocin injection of adult, wild-type zebrafish results in a sustained hyperglycemic state as determined by elevated fasting blood glucose values and increased glycation of serum protein. Serum insulin levels are also decreased and pancreas immunohistochemisty revealed a decreased amount of insulin signal in hyperglycemic fish. Additionally, the diabetic complications of retinal thinning and glomerular basement membrane thickening (early signs of retinopathy and nephropathy) resulting from the hyperglycemic state were evident in streptozocin-injected fish at 3 weeks. Most significantly, limb regeneration, following caudal fin amputation, is severely impaired in diabetic zebrafish and nonspecific toxic effects outside the pancreas were not found to contribute to impaired limb regeneration. This experimental system using adult zebrafish facilitates a broad spectrum of genetic and molecular approaches to study regeneration in the diabetic background. © 2010 by the Wound Healing Society.

  7. Rhodopsin expression in the zebrafish pineal gland from larval to adult stage.

    PubMed

    Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Laurà, Rosaria; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; Campo, Salvatore; de Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-09

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays an important role in different physiological functions including the regulation of the circadian clock. In the fish pineal gland the pinealocytes are made up of different segments: outer segment, inner segment and basal pole. Particularly, in the outer segment the rhodopsin participates in the external environment light reception that represents the first biochemical step in the melatonin production. It is well known that the rhodopsin in the adult zebrafish is well expressed in the pineal gland but both the expression and the cellular localization of this protein during development remain still unclear. In this study using qRT-PCR, sequencing and immunohistochemistry the expression as well as the protein localization of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish from larval (10 dpf) to adult stage (90 dpf) were demonstrated. The rhodopsin mRNA expression presents a peak of expression at 10 dpf, a further reduction to 50 dpf before increasing again in the adult stage. Moreover, the cellular localization of the rhodopsin-like protein was always localized in the pinealocyte at all ages examined. Our results demonstrated the involvement of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish pineal gland physiology particularly in the light capture during the zebrafish lifespan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The photoreceptive cells of the pineal gland in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Laurà, Rosaria; Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; De Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm through the melatonin secretion. The pinealocytes, also called photoreceptive cells, are considered the morphofunctional unit of pineal gland. In literature, the anatomical features, the cellular characteristics, and the pinealocytes morphology of zebrafish pineal gland have not been previously described in detail. Therefore, this study was undertaken to analyze the structure and ultrastructure, as well as the immunohistochemical profile of the zebrafish pineal gland with particular reference to the pinealocytes. Here, we demonstrated, using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, the expression of the mRNA for rhodopsin in the pineal gland of zebrafish, as well as its cellular localization exclusively in the pinealocytes of adult zebrafish. Moreover, the ultrastructural observations demonstrated that the pinealocytes were constituted by an outer segment with numerous lamellar membranes, an inner segment with many mitochondria, and a basal pole with the synapses. Our results taken together demonstrated a central role of zebrafish pinealocytes in the control of pineal gland functions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Production of zebrafish cardiospheres and cardiac progenitor cells in vitro and three-dimensional culture of adult zebrafish cardiac tissue in scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wendy R; Beh, Siew-Joo; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J; Doran, Pauline M

    2017-09-01

    The hearts of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are capable of complete regeneration in vivo even after major injury, making this species of particular interest for understanding the growth and differentiation processes required for cardiac tissue engineering. To date, little research has been carried out on in vitro culture of adult zebrafish cardiac cells. In this work, progenitor-rich cardiospheres suitable for cardiomyocyte differentiation and myocardial regeneration were produced from adult zebrafish hearts. The cardiospheres contained a mixed population of c-kit + and Mef2c + cells; proliferative peripheral cells of possible mesenchymal lineage were also observed. Cellular outgrowth from cardiac explants and cardiospheres was enhanced significantly using conditioned medium harvested from cultures of a rainbow trout cell line, suggesting that fish-specific trophic factors are required for zebrafish cardiac cell expansion. Three-dimensional culture of zebrafish heart cells in fibrous polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds was carried out under dynamic fluid flow conditions. High levels of cell viability and cardiomyocyte differentiation were maintained within the scaffolds. Expression of cardiac troponin T, a marker of differentiated cardiomyocytes, increased during the first 7 days of scaffold culture; after 15 days, premature disintegration of the biodegradable scaffolds led to cell detachment and a decline in differentiation status. This work expands our technical capabilities for three-dimensional zebrafish cardiac cell culture with potential applications in tissue engineering, drug and toxicology screening, and ontogeny research. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2142-2148. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Long-term (30 days) toxicity of NiO nanoparticles for adult zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide in the form of nanoparticles (NiO NPs) is extensively used in different industrial branches. In a test on adult zebrafish, the acute toxicity of NiO NPs was shown to be low, however longlasting contact with this compound can lead to its accumulation in the tissues and to increased toxicity. In this work we determined the 30-day toxicity of NiO NPs using a static test for zebrafish Danio rerio. We found the 30-day LC50 value to be 45.0 mg/L, LC100 (minimum concentration causing 100% mortality) was 100.0 mg/L, and LC0 (maximum concentration causing no mortality) was 6.25 mg/L for adult individuals of zebrafish. Considering a broad use of Ni in the industry, NiO NPs chronic toxicity may have a negative impact on the population of aquatic organisms and on food web dynamics in aquatic systems. PMID:26038672

  11. Long-term (30 days) toxicity of NiO nanoparticles for adult zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A; Sotníková, Ružena; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena

    2014-03-01

    Nickel oxide in the form of nanoparticles (NiO NPs) is extensively used in different industrial branches. In a test on adult zebrafish, the acute toxicity of NiO NPs was shown to be low, however longlasting contact with this compound can lead to its accumulation in the tissues and to increased toxicity. In this work we determined the 30-day toxicity of NiO NPs using a static test for zebrafish Danio rerio. We found the 30-day LC50 value to be 45.0 mg/L, LC100 (minimum concentration causing 100% mortality) was 100.0 mg/L, and LC0 (maximum concentration causing no mortality) was 6.25 mg/L for adult individuals of zebrafish. Considering a broad use of Ni in the industry, NiO NPs chronic toxicity may have a negative impact on the population of aquatic organisms and on food web dynamics in aquatic systems.

  12. Gross and fine dissection of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-05-08

    Neurosensory epithelia in the inner ear are the crucial structures for hearing and balance functions. Therefore, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular features of the epithelia, which are mainly composed of two types of cells: hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Here we choose to study the inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish not only because the epithelial structures are highly conserved in all vertebrates studied, but also because the adult zebrafish is able to regenerate HCs, an ability that mammals lose shortly after birth. We use the inner ear of adult zebrafish as a model system to study the mechanisms of inner ear HC regeneration in adult vertebrates that could be helpful for clinical therapy of hearing/balance deficits in human as a result of HC loss. Here we demonstrate how to do gross and fine dissections of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish. The gross dissection removes the tissues surrounding the inner ear and is helpful for preparing tissue sections, which allows us to examine the detailed structure of the sensory epithelia. The fine dissection cleans up the non-sensory-epithelial tissues of each individual epithelium and enables us to examine the heterogeneity of the whole epithelium easily in whole-mount epithelial samples.

  13. Knock-Down of Cathepsin D Affects the Retinal Pigment Epithelium, Impairs Swim-Bladder Ontogenesis and Causes Premature Death in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Follo, Carlo; Ozzano, Matteo; Mugoni, Vera; Castino, Roberta; Santoro, Massimo; Isidoro, Ciro

    2011-01-01

    The lysosomal aspartic protease Cathepsin D (CD) is ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic organisms. CD activity is essential to accomplish the acid-dependent extensive or partial proteolysis of protein substrates within endosomal and lysosomal compartments therein delivered via endocytosis, phagocytosis or autophagocytosis. CD may also act at physiological pH on small-size substrates in the cytosol and in the extracellular milieu. Mouse and fruit fly CD knock-out models have highlighted the multi-pathophysiological roles of CD in tissue homeostasis and organ development. Here we report the first phenotypic description of the lack of CD expression during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development obtained by morpholino-mediated knock-down of CD mRNA. Since the un-fertilized eggs were shown to be supplied with maternal CD mRNA, only a morpholino targeting a sequence containing the starting ATG codon was effective. The main phenotypic alterations produced by CD knock-down in zebrafish were: 1. abnormal development of the eye and of retinal pigment epithelium; 2. absence of the swim-bladder; 3. skin hyper-pigmentation; 4. reduced growth and premature death. Rescue experiments confirmed the involvement of CD in the developmental processes leading to these phenotypic alterations. Our findings add to the list of CD functions in organ development and patho-physiology in vertebrates. PMID:21747967

  14. The PBDE metabolite 6-OH-BDE 47 affects melanin pigmentation and THRβ MRNA expression in the eye of zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wu; Macaulay, Laura J; Kwok, Kevin WH; Hinton, David E; Ferguson, P Lee; Stapleton, Heather M

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxyl-metabolites (OH-BDEs) are commonly detected contaminants in human serum in the US population. They are also considered to be endocrine disruptors, and are specifically known to affect thyroid hormone regulation. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of a PBDE and its OH-BDE metabolite on developmental pathways regulated by thyroid hormones using zebrafish as a model. Exposure to 6-OHBDE 47 (10–100 nM), but not BDE 47 (1–50 μM), led to decreased melanin pigmentation and increased apoptosis in the retina of zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner in short-term exposures (4 – 30 hours). Six-OH-BDE 47 exposure also significantly decreased thyroid hormone receptor β (THRβ) mRNA expression, which was confirmed using both RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (whole mount and paraffin- section). Interestingly, exposure to the native thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3) also led to similar responses: decreased THRβ mRNA expression, decreased melanin pigmentation and increased apoptosis, suggesting that 6-OH-BDE 47 may be acting as a T3 mimic. To further investigate short-term effects that may be regulated by THRβ, experiments using a morpholino gene knock down and THRβ mRNA over expression were conducted. Knock down of THRβ led to decreases in melanin pigmentation and increases in apoptotic cells in the eye of zebrafish embryos, similar to exposure to T3 and 6-OH-BDE 47, but THRβ mRNA overexpression rescued these effects. Histological analysis of eyes at 22 hpf from each group revealed that exposure to T3 or to 6-OH-BDE 47 was associated with a decrease of melanin and diminished proliferation of cells in layers of retina near the choroid. This study suggests that 6-OH-BDE 47 disrupts the activity of THRβ in early life stages of zebrafish, and warrants further studies on effects in developing humans. PMID:25767823

  15. Effect of social isolation on anxiety-related behaviors, cortisol, and monoamines in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shams, Soaleha; Seguin, Diane; Facciol, Amanda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Social isolation can be used to study behavioral, neural, and hormonal mechanisms that regulate interactions in social animals. Although isolation effects have been reported in social mammals and various fish species, systematic studies with isolated zebrafish are rare. Here, the authors examined behavior (social and nonsocial), physiological stress (whole-body cortisol levels), and neurochemicals (serotonin, dopamine, and their metabolites), following acute and chronic social isolation in adult zebrafish. To observe how isolated fish respond behaviorally to social stimuli, they exposed zebrafish to live conspecifics or animated images after acute (24 hr) or chronic (6 months) social isolation. The authors observed that isolation did not affect locomotor activity, but acute isolation had weak nonsignificant anxiogenic effects in adult zebrafish. They also found that all isolated fish responded to both live and animated social stimuli, and the stress hormone, cortisol was lower in chronically isolated fish. Finally, neurochemical analyses showed that serotonin levels increased when fish were exposed to social stimulus after acute isolation, but its metabolite 5HIAA decreased in response to social stimulus following both acute and chronic isolation. Levels of both dopamine and its metabolite DOPAC were also reduced in fish exposed to social stimulus after acute and chronic isolation. Overall, these results show that isolation in zebrafish is an effective tool to study fundamental mechanisms controlling social interaction at behavioral and physiological levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Combined zebrafish-yeast chemical-genetic screens reveal gene-copper-nutrition interactions that modulate melanocyte pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Hironori; Spitzer, Michaela; Wildenhain, Jan; Anastasaki, Corina; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Dolma, Sonam; Shaw, Michael; Madsen, Erik; Gitlin, Jonathan; Marais, Richard; Tyers, Mike; Patton, E Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Hypopigmentation is a feature of copper deficiency in humans, as caused by mutation of the copper (Cu(2+)) transporter ATP7A in Menkes disease, or an inability to absorb copper after gastric surgery. However, many causes of copper deficiency are unknown, and genetic polymorphisms might underlie sensitivity to suboptimal environmental copper conditions. Here, we combined phenotypic screens in zebrafish for compounds that affect copper metabolism with yeast chemical-genetic profiles to identify pathways that are sensitive to copper depletion. Yeast chemical-genetic interactions revealed that defects in intracellular trafficking pathways cause sensitivity to low-copper conditions; partial knockdown of the analogous Ap3s1 and Ap1s1 trafficking components in zebrafish sensitized developing melanocytes to hypopigmentation in low-copper environmental conditions. Because trafficking pathways are essential for copper loading into cuproproteins, our results suggest that hypomorphic alleles of trafficking components might underlie sensitivity to reduced-copper nutrient conditions. In addition, we used zebrafish-yeast screening to identify a novel target pathway in copper metabolism for the small-molecule MEK kinase inhibitor U0126. The zebrafish-yeast screening method combines the power of zebrafish as a disease model with facile genome-scale identification of chemical-genetic interactions in yeast to enable the discovery and dissection of complex multigenic interactions in disease-gene networks.

  17. Primary Spinal OPC Culture System from Adult Zebrafish to Study Oligodendrocyte Differentiation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kroehne, Volker; Tsata, Vasiliki; Marrone, Lara; Froeb, Claudia; Reinhardt, Susanne; Gompf, Anne; Dahl, Andreas; Sterneckert, Jared; Reimer, Michell M

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a promising target to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) by remyelinating denuded, and therefore vulnerable, axons. Demyelination is the result of a primary insult and secondary injury, leading to conduction blocks and long-term degeneration of the axons, which subsequently can lead to the loss of their neurons. In response to SCI, dormant OPCs can be activated and subsequently start to proliferate and differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs). Therefore, researchers strive to control OPC responses, and utilize small molecule screening approaches in order to identify mechanisms of OPC activation, proliferation, migration and differentiation. In zebrafish, OPCs remyelinate axons of the optic tract after lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-induced demyelination back to full thickness myelin sheaths. In contrast to zebrafish, mammalian OPCs are highly vulnerable to excitotoxic stress, a cause of secondary injury, and remyelination remains insufficient. Generally, injury induced remyelination leads to shorter internodes and thinner myelin sheaths in mammals. In this study, we show that myelin sheaths are lost early after a complete spinal transection injury, but are re-established within 14 days after lesion. We introduce a novel, easy-to-use, inexpensive and highly reproducible OPC culture system based on dormant spinal OPCs from adult zebrafish that enables in vitro analysis. Zebrafish OPCs are robust, can easily be purified with high viability and taken into cell culture. This method enables to examine why zebrafish OPCs remyelinate better than their mammalian counterparts, identify cell intrinsic responses, which could lead to pro-proliferating or pro-differentiating strategies, and to test small molecule approaches. In this methodology paper, we show efficient isolation of OPCs from adult zebrafish spinal cord and describe culture conditions that enable analysis up to 10

  18. Heterogeneity and Fgf dependence of adult neural progenitors in the zebrafish telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Julia; Kaslin, Jan; Hochmann, Sarah; Freudenreich, Dorian; Brand, Michael

    2010-08-15

    Adult telencephalic neurogenesis is a conserved trait of all vertebrates studied. It has been investigated in detail in rodents, but very little is known about the composition of neurogenic niches and the cellular nature of progenitors in nonmammalian vertebrates. To understand the components of the progenitor zones in the adult zebrafish telencephalon and the link between glial characteristics and progenitor state, we examined whether canonical glial markers are colocalized with proliferation markers. In the adult zebrafish telencephalon, we identify heterogeneous progenitors that reside in two distinct glial domains. We find that the glial composition of the progenitor zone is linked to its proliferative behavior. Analyzing both fast-cycling proliferating cells as well as slowly cycling progenitors, we find four distinct progenitor types characterized by differential expression of glial markers. Importantly, a significant proportion of progenitors do not display typical radial glia characteristics. By blocking or activating Fgf signaling by misexpression of a dominant negative Fgf-receptor 1 or Fgf8a, respectively, we find that ventral and dorsal progenitors in the telencephalon also differ in their requirement for Fgf signaling. Together with data on the expression of Fgf signaling components in the ventricular zone of the telencephalon, this suggests that Fgf signaling directly regulates proliferation of specific subsets of adult telencephalic progenitors in vivo. Taken together our results show that adult neural progenitor cells are heterogeneous with their respect to distribution into two distinct glial domains and their dependence upon Fgf signaling as a proliferative cue in the zebrafish telencephalon.

  19. Novel approaches to determine contractile function of the isolated adult zebrafish ventricular cardiac myocyte.

    PubMed

    Dvornikov, Alexey V; Dewan, Sukriti; Alekhina, Olga V; Pickett, F Bryan; de Tombe, Pieter P

    2014-05-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used extensively in cardiovascular biology, but mainly in the study of heart development. The relative ease of its genetic manipulation may indicate the suitability of this species as a cost-effective model system for the study of cardiac contractile biology. However, whether the zebrafish heart is an appropriate model system for investigations pertaining to mammalian cardiac contractile structure-function relationships remains to be resolved. Myocytes were isolated from adult zebrafish hearts by enzymatic digestion, attached to carbon rods, and twitch force and intracellular Ca(2+) were measured. We observed the modulation of twitch force, but not of intracellular Ca(2+), by both extracellular [Ca(2+)] and sarcomere length. In permeabilized cells/myofibrils, we found robust myofilament length-dependent activation. Moreover, modulation of myofilament activation-relaxation and force redevelopment kinetics by varied Ca(2+) activation levels resembled that found previously in mammalian myofilaments. We conclude that the zebrafish is a valid model system for the study of cardiac contractile structure-function relationships.

  20. Differential requirement for irf8 in formation of embryonic and adult macrophages in zebrafish

    DOE PAGES

    Shiau, Celia E.; Kaufman, Zoe; Meireles, Ana M.; ...

    2015-01-23

    Interferon regulatory factor 8 (Irf8) is critical for mammalian macrophage development and innate immunity, but its role in teleost myelopoiesis remains incompletely understood. Specifically, genetic tools to analyze the role of irf8 in zebrafish macrophage development at larval and adult stages are lacking. In this study, we generated irf8 null mutants in zebrafish using TALEN-mediated targeting. Our analysis defines different requirements for irf8 at different stages. irf8 is required for formation of all macrophages during primitive and transient definitive hematopoiesis, but not during adult-phase definitive hematopoiesis starting at 5-6 days postfertilization. At early stages, irf8 mutants have excess neutrophils andmore » excess cell death in pu.1-expressing myeloid cells. Macrophage fates were recovered in irf8 mutants after wildtype irf8 expression in neutrophil and macrophage lineages, suggesting that irf8 regulates macrophage specification and survival. In juvenile irf8 mutant fish, mature macrophages are present, but at numbers significantly reduced compared to wildtype, indicating an ongoing requirement for irf8 after embryogenesis. As development progresses, tissue macrophages become apparent in zebrafish irf8 mutants, with the possible exception of microglia. Our study defines distinct requirement for irf8 in myelopoiesis before and after transition to the adult hematopoietic system.« less

  1. BDNF Expression in Larval and Adult Zebrafish Brain: Distribution and Cell Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cacialli, Pietro; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Coumailleau, Pascal; D’Angelo, Livia; Kah, Olivier; Lucini, Carla; Pellegrini, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has emerged as an active mediator in many essential functions in the central nervous system of mammals. BDNF plays significant roles in neurogenesis, neuronal maturation and/or synaptic plasticity and is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Despite the vast literature present in mammals, studies devoted to BDNF in the brain of other animal models are scarse. Zebrafish is a teleost fish widely known for developmental genetic studies and is emerging as model for translational neuroscience research. In addition, its brain shows many sites of adult neurogenesis allowing higher regenerative properties after traumatic injuries. To add further knowledge on neurotrophic factors in vertebrate brain models, we decided to determine the distribution of bdnf mRNAs in the larval and adult zebrafish brain and to characterize the phenotype of cells expressing bdnf mRNAs by means of double staining studies. Our results showed that bdnf mRNAs were widely expressed in the brain of 7 days old larvae and throughout the whole brain of mature female and male zebrafish. In adults, bdnf mRNAs were mainly observed in the dorsal telencephalon, preoptic area, dorsal thalamus, posterior tuberculum, hypothalamus, synencephalon, optic tectum and medulla oblongata. By combining immunohistochemistry with in situ hybridization, we showed that bdnf mRNAs were never expressed by radial glial cells or proliferating cells. By contrast, bdnf transcripts were expressed in cells with neuronal phenotype in all brain regions investigated. Our results provide the first demonstration that the brain of zebrafish expresses bdnf mRNAs in neurons and open new fields of research on the role of the BDNF factor in brain mechanisms in normal and brain repairs situations. PMID:27336917

  2. Characterization of Proliferating Neural Progenitors after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Subhra Prakash; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Ghosh, Sukla

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish can repair their injured brain and spinal cord after injury unlike adult mammalian central nervous system. Any injury to zebrafish spinal cord would lead to increased proliferation and neurogenesis. There are presences of proliferating progenitors from which both neuronal and glial loss can be reversed by appropriately generating new neurons and glia. We have demonstrated the presence of multiple progenitors, which are different types of proliferating populations like Sox2+ neural progenitor, A2B5+ astrocyte/ glial progenitor, NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor, radial glia and Schwann cell like progenitor. We analyzed the expression levels of two common markers of dedifferentiation like msx-b and vimentin during regeneration along with some of the pluripotency associated factors to explore the possible role of these two processes. Among the several key factors related to pluripotency, pou5f1 and sox2 are upregulated during regeneration and associated with activation of neural progenitor cells. Uncovering the molecular mechanism for endogenous regeneration of adult zebrafish spinal cord would give us more clues on important targets for future therapeutic approach in mammalian spinal cord repair and regeneration. PMID:26630262

  3. A novel method for automated tracking and quantification of adult zebrafish behaviour during anxiety.

    PubMed

    Nema, Shubham; Hasan, Whidul; Bhargava, Anamika; Bhargava, Yogesh

    2016-09-15

    Behavioural neuroscience relies on software driven methods for behavioural assessment, but the field lacks cost-effective, robust, open source software for behavioural analysis. Here we propose a novel method which we called as ZebraTrack. It includes cost-effective imaging setup for distraction-free behavioural acquisition, automated tracking using open-source ImageJ software and workflow for extraction of behavioural endpoints. Our ImageJ algorithm is capable of providing control to users at key steps while maintaining automation in tracking without the need for the installation of external plugins. We have validated this method by testing novelty induced anxiety behaviour in adult zebrafish. Our results, in agreement with established findings, showed that during state-anxiety, zebrafish showed reduced distance travelled, increased thigmotaxis and freezing events. Furthermore, we proposed a method to represent both spatial and temporal distribution of choice-based behaviour which is currently not possible to represent using simple videograms. ZebraTrack method is simple and economical, yet robust enough to give results comparable with those obtained from costly proprietary software like Ethovision XT. We have developed and validated a novel cost-effective method for behavioural analysis of adult zebrafish using open-source ImageJ software. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal Anesthetic Regime for Motionless Three-Dimensional Image Acquisition During Longitudinal Studies of Adult Nonpigmented Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Nicola; Parker, Jennifer; Wilson, Carole; Frankel, Paul

    2017-04-01

    With many live imaging techniques, it is crucial that a deep level of anesthesia is reached and maintained throughout image acquisition without reducing zebrafish viability. This is particularly true for three-dimensional tomographic imaging modalities. Currently, the most commonly used anesthetic in the zebrafish community, MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), does not allow this. We show, using a combination of both MS-222 and isoflurane, that we can significantly improve the anesthetic regime required for motionless image acquisition of live adult zebrafish. We have benchmarked this against the requirements of our novel quantitative imaging platform, compressive sensing optical projection tomography. Using nonpigmented transgenic zebrafish, we show that a combination of 175 ppm of both anesthetics improves the maintenance of deep anesthesia for prolonged periods of time and it can be used repeatedly to enable longitudinal imaging. Importantly, it does not affect the health or viability of the adult zebrafish. We also show that nonpigmented fish, with a mutated form of the gene transparent, took significantly longer to reach deep anesthesia. The anesthetic regime presented in this study should lead to significant improvements in accuracy and information achievable from imaging live adult zebrafish and in its application to longitudinal studies.

  5. Recent advancements in understanding endogenous heart regeneration—insights from adult zebrafish and neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Nicole; Harrison, Michael R.; Krainock, Michael; Kim, Richard; Lien, Ching-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing the endogenous regenerative capacity of the mammalian heart is a promising strategy that can lead to potential treatment of injured cardiac tissues. Studies on heart regeneration in zebrafish and neonatal mice have shown that cardiomyocyte proliferation is essential for replenishing myocardium. We will review recent advancements that have demonstrated the importance of Neuregulin 1/ErbB2 and innervation in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferation using both adult zebrafish and neonatal mouse heart regeneration models. Emerging findings suggest that different populations of macrophages and inflammation might contribute to regenerative versus fibrotic responses. Finally, we will discuss variation in the severity of the cardiac injury and size of the wound, which may explain the range of outcomes observed in different injury models. PMID:27132022

  6. Oral dosing in adult zebrafish: proof-of-concept using pharmacokinetics and pharmacological evaluation of carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Pushkar; Chaudhari, Girish Hari; Sripuram, Vijaykumar; Banote, Rakesh Kumar; Kirla, Krishna Tulasi; Sultana, Razia; Rao, Pallavi; Oruganti, Srinivas; Chatti, Kiranam

    2014-02-01

    We describe a method for obtaining pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacology data from adult zebrafish in terms of mg/kg using a novel method of oral administration. Using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a test drug, we employed dried blood spot (DBS) cards to enable drug quantification for PK; and we evaluated the pharmacological anxiolytic effect using novel tank test. The PK study confirmed the presence of CBZ in both blood and brain and the behavioural study showed dose dependent anxiolytic effect. The reproducibility of oral dosing was confirmed by the fact that the results obtained in both the experiments had negligible errors. This report enables a novel approach for optimizing the utility of zebrafish in drug discovery and drug delivery research. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary Intake Influences Adult Fertility and Offspring Fitness in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Newman, Trent; Jhinku, Noel; Meier, Michael; Horsfield, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The burden of malnutrition, including both over- and undernutrition, is a major public health concern. Here we used a zebrafish model of diet-induced obesity to analyze the impact of dietary intake on fertility and the phenotype of the next generation. Over an eight-week period, one group received 60 mg of food each day (60 mg arm), while another received 5 mg (5 mg arm). At the end of the diet, the body mass index of the 60 mg arm was 1.5 fold greater than the 5 mg arm. The intervention also had a marked impact on fertility; breeding success and egg production in the 60 mg arm were increased 2.1- and 6.2-fold compared to the 5 mg arm, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of eggs revealed that transcripts involved in metabolic biological processes differed according to dietary intake. The progeny from the differentially fed fish were more likely to survive when the parents had access to more food. An intergenerational crossover study revealed that while parental diet did not influence weight gain in the offspring, the progeny of well-fed parents had increased levels of physical activity when exposed again to high nutrient availability. We conclude that dietary intake has an important influence on fertility and the subsequent fitness of offspring, even prior to breeding.

  8. Dietary Intake Influences Adult Fertility and Offspring Fitness in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Jhinku, Noel; Meier, Michael; Horsfield, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The burden of malnutrition, including both over- and undernutrition, is a major public health concern. Here we used a zebrafish model of diet-induced obesity to analyze the impact of dietary intake on fertility and the phenotype of the next generation. Over an eight-week period, one group received 60 mg of food each day (60 mg arm), while another received 5 mg (5 mg arm). At the end of the diet, the body mass index of the 60 mg arm was 1.5 fold greater than the 5 mg arm. The intervention also had a marked impact on fertility; breeding success and egg production in the 60 mg arm were increased 2.1- and 6.2-fold compared to the 5 mg arm, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of eggs revealed that transcripts involved in metabolic biological processes differed according to dietary intake. The progeny from the differentially fed fish were more likely to survive when the parents had access to more food. An intergenerational crossover study revealed that while parental diet did not influence weight gain in the offspring, the progeny of well-fed parents had increased levels of physical activity when exposed again to high nutrient availability. We conclude that dietary intake has an important influence on fertility and the subsequent fitness of offspring, even prior to breeding. PMID:27870856

  9. Comparison of the In Vivo Biotransformation of Two Emerging Estrogenic Contaminants, BP2 and BPS, in Zebrafish Embryos and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Le Fol, Vincent; Brion, François; Hillenweck, Anne; Perdu, Elisabeth; Bruel, Sandrine; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Zalko, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish embryo assays are increasingly used in the toxicological assessment of endocrine disruptors. Among other advantages, these models are 3R-compliant and are fit for screening purposes. Biotransformation processes are well-recognized as a critical factor influencing toxic response, but major gaps of knowledge exist regarding the characterization of functional metabolic capacities expressed in zebrafish. Comparative metabolic studies between embryos and adults are even scarcer. Using 3H-labeled chemicals, we examined the fate of two estrogenic emerging contaminants, benzophenone-2 (BP2) and bisphenol S (BPS), in 4-day embryos and adult zebrafish. BPS and BP2 were exclusively metabolized through phase II pathways, with no major qualitative difference between larvae and adults except the occurrence of a BP2-di-glucuronide in adults. Quantitatively, the biotransformation of both molecules was more extensive in adults. For BPS, glucuronidation was the predominant pathway in adults and larvae. For BP2, glucuronidation was the major pathway in larvae, but sulfation predominated in adults, with ca. 40% conversion of parent BP2 and an extensive release of several conjugates into water. Further larvae/adults quantitative differences were demonstrated for both molecules, with higher residue concentrations measured in larvae. The study contributes novel data regarding the metabolism of BPS and BP2 in a fish model and shows that phase II conjugation pathways are already functional in 4-dpf-old zebrafish. Comparative analysis of BP2 and BPS metabolic profiles in zebrafish larvae and adults further supports the use of zebrafish embryo as a relevant model in which toxicity and estrogenic activity can be assessed, while taking into account the absorption and fate of tested substances. PMID:28346357

  10. Comparison of the In Vivo Biotransformation of Two Emerging Estrogenic Contaminants, BP2 and BPS, in Zebrafish Embryos and Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Fol, Vincent; Brion, François; Hillenweck, Anne; Perdu, Elisabeth; Bruel, Sandrine; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Zalko, Daniel

    2017-03-25

    Zebrafish embryo assays are increasingly used in the toxicological assessment of endocrine disruptors. Among other advantages, these models are 3R-compliant and are fit for screening purposes. Biotransformation processes are well-recognized as a critical factor influencing toxic response, but major gaps of knowledge exist regarding the characterization of functional metabolic capacities expressed in zebrafish. Comparative metabolic studies between embryos and adults are even scarcer. Using ³H-labeled chemicals, we examined the fate of two estrogenic emerging contaminants, benzophenone-2 (BP2) and bisphenol S (BPS), in 4-day embryos and adult zebrafish. BPS and BP2 were exclusively metabolized through phase II pathways, with no major qualitative difference between larvae and adults except the occurrence of a BP2-di-glucuronide in adults. Quantitatively, the biotransformation of both molecules was more extensive in adults. For BPS, glucuronidation was the predominant pathway in adults and larvae. For BP2, glucuronidation was the major pathway in larvae, but sulfation predominated in adults, with ca. 40% conversion of parent BP2 and an extensive release of several conjugates into water. Further larvae/adults quantitative differences were demonstrated for both molecules, with higher residue concentrations measured in larvae. The study contributes novel data regarding the metabolism of BPS and BP2 in a fish model and shows that phase II conjugation pathways are already functional in 4-dpf-old zebrafish. Comparative analysis of BP2 and BPS metabolic profiles in zebrafish larvae and adults further supports the use of zebrafish embryo as a relevant model in which toxicity and estrogenic activity can be assessed, while taking into account the absorption and fate of tested substances.

  11. Exercise quantity-dependent muscle hypertrophy in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hasumura, Takahiro; Meguro, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Exercise is very important for maintaining and increasing skeletal muscle mass, and is particularly important to prevent and care for sarcopenia and muscle disuse atrophy. However, the dose-response relationship between exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration and muscle mass is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exercise duration on skeletal muscle to reveal the relationship between exercise quantity and muscle hypertrophy in zebrafish forced to exercise. Adult male zebrafish were exercised 6 h/day for 4 weeks, 6 h/day for 2 weeks, or 3 h/day for 2 weeks. Flow velocity was adjusted to maximum velocity during continual swimming (initial 43 cm/s). High-speed consecutive photographs revealed that zebrafish mainly drove the caudal part. Additionally, X-ray micro computed tomography measurements indicated muscle hypertrophy of the mid-caudal half compared with the mid-cranial half part. The cross-sectional analysis of the mid-caudal half muscle revealed that skeletal muscle (red, white, or total) mass increased with increasing exercise quantity, whereas that of white muscle and total muscle increased only under the maximum exercise load condition of 6 h/day for 4 weeks. Additionally, the muscle fiver size distributions of exercised fish were larger than those from non-exercised fish. We revealed that exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration were correlated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The forced exercise model enabled us to investigate the relationship between exercise quantity and skeletal muscle mass. These results open up the possibility for further investigations on the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle in adult zebrafish.

  12. Effects of EGCG and Chlorpyrifos on the Mortality, AChE and GSH of Adult Zebrafish: Independent and Combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Qian; Guo, Nichun

    2018-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a neurotoxic agent and also causes oxidative stress in the body. EGCG is a typical strong antioxidant and has been reported to be neuroprotective. Our study investigated the mortality, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain and glutathione (GSH) in the liver of the adult Zebrafish in present of Chlorpyrifos and EGCG independent and combination. The results indicated that after the addition of EGCG, the mortality of zebrafish induced by Chlorpyrifos was reduced and the activity of AChE and glutathione (GSH) inhibited by Chlorpyrifos in zebrafish was significantly increased, which demonstrated that EGCG inhibited the toxicity Chlorpyrifos to zebrafish. The inhibition was dependent on the concentration of EGCG and Chlorpyrifos, which was not shown a gradual change trend but a complex situation.

  13. Using an Automated 3D-tracking System to Record Individual and Shoals of Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Maaswinkel, Hans; Zhu, Liqun; Weng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Like many aquatic animals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) moves in a 3D space. It is thus preferable to use a 3D recording system to study its behavior. The presented automatic video tracking system accomplishes this by using a mirror system and a calibration procedure that corrects for the considerable error introduced by the transition of light from water to air. With this system it is possible to record both single and groups of adult zebrafish. Before use, the system has to be calibrated. The system consists of three modules: Recording, Path Reconstruction, and Data Processing. The step-by-step protocols for calibration and using the three modules are presented. Depending on the experimental setup, the system can be used for testing neophobia, white aversion, social cohesion, motor impairments, novel object exploration etc. It is especially promising as a first-step tool to study the effects of drugs or mutations on basic behavioral patterns. The system provides information about vertical and horizontal distribution of the zebrafish, about the xyz-components of kinematic parameters (such as locomotion, velocity, acceleration, and turning angle) and it provides the data necessary to calculate parameters for social cohesions when testing shoals. PMID:24336189

  14. Fgf Signaling is Required for Photoreceptor Maintenance in the Adult Zebrafish Retina

    PubMed Central

    Hochmann, Sarah; Kaslin, Jan; Hans, Stefan; Weber, Anke; Machate, Anja; Geffarth, Michaela; Funk, Richard H. W.; Brand, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgf) are secreted signaling molecules that have mitogenic, patterning, neurotrophic and angiogenic properties. Their importance during embryonic development in patterning and morphogenesis of the vertebrate eye is well known, but less is known about the role of Fgfs in the adult vertebrate retina. To address Fgf function in adult retina, we determined the spatial distribution of components of the Fgf signaling pathway in the adult zebrafish retina. We detected differential expression of Fgf receptors, ligands and downstream Fgf targets within specific retinal layers. Furthermore, we blocked Fgf signaling in the retina, by expressing a dominant negative variant of Fgf receptor 1 conditionally in transgenic animals. After blocking Fgf signaling we observe a fast and progressive photoreceptor degeneration and disorganization of retinal tissue, coupled with cell death in the outer nuclear layer. Following the degeneration of photoreceptors, a profound regeneration response is triggered that starts with proliferation in the inner nuclear layer. Ultimately, rod and cone photoreceptors are regenerated completely. Our study reveals the requirement of Fgf signaling to maintain photoreceptors and for proliferation during regeneration in the adult zebrafish retina. PMID:22291943

  15. Culture of adult transgenic zebrafish retinal explants for live-cell imaging by multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lahne, Manuela; Gorsuch, Ryne A; Nelson, Craig M; Hyde, David R

    2017-01-01

    An endogenous regeneration program is initiated by Müller glia in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina following neuronal damage and death. The Müller glia re-enter the cell cycle and produce neuronal progenitor cells that undergo subsequent rounds of cell divisions and differentiate into the lost neuronal cell types. Both Müller glia and neuronal progenitor cell nuclei replicate their DNA and undergo mitosis in distinct locations of the retina i.e. they migrate between the basal inner nuclear layer (INL) and the outer nuclear layer (ONL), respectively, in a process described as interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). INM has predominantly been studied in the developing retina. To examine the dynamics of INM in the adult regenerating zebrafish retina in detail, live-cell imaging of fluorescently-labeled Müller glia/neuronal progenitor cells is required. Here, we provide the conditions to isolate and culture dorsal retinas from Tg[gfap:nGFP]mi2004 zebrafish that were exposed to constant intense light for 35 h. We also show that these retinal cultures are viable to perform live-cell imaging experiments, continuously acquiring z-stack images throughout the thickness of the retinal explant for up to 8 h using multiphoton microscopy to monitor the migratory behavior of gfap:nGFP-positive cells. In addition, we describe the details to perform post-imaging analysis to determine the velocity of apical and basal INM. To summarize, we established conditions to study the dynamics of INM in an adult model of neuronal regeneration. This will advance our understanding of this crucial cellular process and allow us to determine the mechanisms that control INM. PMID:28287581

  16. Culture of Adult Transgenic Zebrafish Retinal Explants for Live-cell Imaging by Multiphoton Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lahne, Manuela; Gorsuch, Ryne A; Nelson, Craig M; Hyde, David R

    2017-02-24

    An endogenous regeneration program is initiated by Müller glia in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina following neuronal damage and death. The Müller glia re-enter the cell cycle and produce neuronal progenitor cells that undergo subsequent rounds of cell divisions and differentiate into the lost neuronal cell types. Both Müller glia and neuronal progenitor cell nuclei replicate their DNA and undergo mitosis in distinct locations of the retina, i.e. they migrate between the basal Inner Nuclear Layer (INL) and the Outer Nuclear Layer (ONL), respectively, in a process described as Interkinetic Nuclear Migration (INM). INM has predominantly been studied in the developing retina. To examine the dynamics of INM in the adult regenerating zebrafish retina in detail, live-cell imaging of fluorescently-labeled Müller glia/neuronal progenitor cells is required. Here, we provide the conditions to isolate and culture dorsal retinas from Tg[gfap:nGFP] mi2004 zebrafish that were exposed to constant intense light for 35 h. We also show that these retinal cultures are viable to perform live-cell imaging experiments, continuously acquiring z-stack images throughout the thickness of the retinal explant for up to 8 h using multiphoton microscopy to monitor the migratory behavior of gfap:nGFP-positive cells. In addition, we describe the details to perform post-imaging analysis to determine the velocity of apical and basal INM. To summarize, we established conditions to study the dynamics of INM in an adult model of neuronal regeneration. This will advance our understanding of this crucial cellular process and allow us to determine the mechanisms that control INM.

  17. Cardiac and Metabolic Effects of Dietary Selenomethionine Exposure in Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Pettem, Connor M; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M

    2017-10-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient involved in important metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities. Recent studies have reported that elevated dietary exposure of fish to selenomethionine (Se-Met) can alter aerobic metabolic capacity, energetics and swimming performance. This study aims to further investigate mechanisms of sublethal Se-Met toxicity, particularly potential underlying cardiovascular implications of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of dietary Se-Met in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Adult zebrafish were fed either control food (1.1 μg Se/g dry mass [d.m.]) or Se-Met spiked food (10.3 or 28.8 μg Se/g d.m.) for 90 d at 5% body weight per day. Following exposure, ultrahigh resolution B-mode and Doppler ultrasound was used to characterize cardiac function. Chronic dietary exposure to elevated Se-Met significantly reduced ventricular contractile rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Exposure to Se-Met significantly decreased mRNA expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1 alpha and glutathione-S-transferase pi class in liver, and a key cardiac remodelling enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 2, in adult zebrafish heart. Se-Met significantly increased echodensity at the junction between atrium and ventricle, and these results combined with increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression are consistent with cardiac remodelling and fibrosis. The results of this study suggest that chronic exposure to dietary Se-Met can negatively impact cardiac function, and such physiological consequences could reduce the aerobic capacity and survivability of fish. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Zebrafish Whole-Adult-Organism Chemogenomics for Large-Scale Predictive and Discovery Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Siew Hong; Mathavan, Sinnakarupan; Tong, Yan; Li, Haixia; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Wu, Yilian; Vega, Vinsensius B.; Liu, Edison T.; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2008-01-01

    The ability to perform large-scale, expression-based chemogenomics on whole adult organisms, as in invertebrate models (worm and fly), is highly desirable for a vertebrate model but its feasibility and potential has not been demonstrated. We performed expression-based chemogenomics on the whole adult organism of a vertebrate model, the zebrafish, and demonstrated its potential for large-scale predictive and discovery chemical biology. Focusing on two classes of compounds with wide implications to human health, polycyclic (halogenated) aromatic hydrocarbons [P(H)AHs] and estrogenic compounds (ECs), we generated robust prediction models that can discriminate compounds of the same class from those of different classes in two large independent experiments. The robust expression signatures led to the identification of biomarkers for potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, respectively, and were validated in multiple targeted tissues. Knowledge-based data mining of human homologs of zebrafish genes revealed highly conserved chemical-induced biological responses/effects, health risks, and novel biological insights associated with AHR and ER that could be inferred to humans. Thus, our study presents an effective, high-throughput strategy of capturing molecular snapshots of chemical-induced biological states of a whole adult vertebrate that provides information on biomarkers of effects, deregulated signaling pathways, and possible affected biological functions, perturbed physiological systems, and increased health risks. These findings place zebrafish in a strategic position to bridge the wide gap between cell-based and rodent models in chemogenomics research and applications, especially in preclinical drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:18618001

  19. Neurodevelopmental Low-dose Bisphenol A Exposure Leads to Early Life-stage Hyperactivity and Learning Deficits in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Saili, Katerine S.; Corvi, Margaret M.; Weber, Daniel N.; Patel, Ami U.; Das, Siba R.; Przybyla, Jennifer; Anderson, Kim A.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been implicated in adverse behavior and learning deficits. The mode of action underlying these effects is unclear. The zebrafish model was employed to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. The objectives of this study were to identify whether low-dose, developmental BPA exposure affects larval zebrafish locomotor behavior and whether learning deficits occur in adults exposed during development. Two control compounds, 17β-estradiol (an estrogen receptor ligand) and GSK4716 (a synthetic estrogen related receptor gamma ligand), were included. Larval toxicity assays were used to determine appropriate BPA, 17β-estradiol, and GSK4716 concentrations for behavior testing. BPA tissue uptake was analyzed using HPLC and lower doses were extrapolated using a linear regression analysis. Larval behavior tests were conducted using a ViewPoint Zebrabox. Adult learning tests were conducted using a custom-built T-maze. BPA exposure to ≤30 μM was nonteratogenic in zebrafish. Neurodevelopmental BPA exposure to 0.01, 0.1, or 1 μM led to larval hyperactivity or learning deficits in adult zebrafish. Exposure to 0.1 μM 17β-estradiol or GSK4716 also led to larval hyperactivity. This study demonstrates the efficacy of using the larval zebrafish model for studying the neurobehavioral effects of low-dose developmental BPA exposure. PMID:22108044

  20. ScreenCube: A 3D Printed System for Rapid and Cost-Effective Chemical Screening in Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Monstad-Rios, Adrian T; Watson, Claire J; Kwon, Ronald Y

    2018-02-01

    Phenotype-based small molecule screens in zebrafish embryos and larvae have been successful in accelerating pathway and therapeutic discovery for diverse biological processes. Yet, the application of chemical screens to adult physiologies has been relatively limited due to additional demands on cost, space, and labor associated with screens in adult animals. In this study, we present a 3D printed system and methods for intermittent drug dosing that enable rapid and cost-effective chemical administration in adult zebrafish. Using prefilled screening plates, the system enables dosing of 96 fish in ∼3 min, with a 10-fold reduction in drug quantity compared to that used in previous chemical screens in adult zebrafish. We characterize water quality kinetics during immersion in the system and use these kinetics to rationally design intermittent dosing regimens that result in 100% fish survival. As a demonstration of system fidelity, we show the potential to identify two known chemical inhibitors of adult tail fin regeneration, cyclopamine and dorsomorphin. By developing methods for rapid and cost-effective chemical administration in adult zebrafish, this study expands the potential for small molecule discovery in postembryonic models of development, disease, and regeneration.

  1. Polystyrene microplastics induce microbiota dysbiosis and inflammation in the gut of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Xia, Jizhou; Pan, Zihong; Yang, Jiajing; Wang, Wenchao; Fu, Zhengwei

    2018-04-01

    Microplastic (MP) are environmental pollutants and have the potential to cause varying degrees of aquatic toxicity. In this study, the effects on gut microbiota of adult male zebrafish exposed for 14 days to 100 and 1000 μg/L of two sizes of polystyrene MP were evaluated. Both 0.5 and 50 μm-diameter spherical polystyrene MP increased the volume of mucus in the gut at a concentration of 1000 μg/L (about 1.456 × 10 10 particles/L for 0.5 μm and 1.456 × 10 4 particles/L for 50 μm). At the phylum level, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria decreased significantly and the abundance of Firmicutes increased significantly in the gut after 14-day exposure to 1000 μg/L of both sizes of polystyrene MP. In addition, high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region revealed a significant change in the richness and diversity of microbiota in the gut of polystyrene MP-exposed zebrafish. A more in depth analysis, at the genus level, revealed that a total of 29 gut microbes identified by operational taxonomic unit (OTU) analysis were significantly changed in both 0.5 and 50 μm-diameter polystyrene MP-treated groups. Moreover, it was observed that 0.5 μm polystyrene MP not only increased mRNA levels of IL1α, IL1β and IFN but also their protein levels in the gut, indicating that inflammation occurred after polystyrene MP exposure. Our findings suggest that polystyrene MP could induce microbiota dysbiosis and inflammation in the gut of adult zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds in adult zebrafish combines mechanisms of wound closure in embryonic and adult mammals.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Rebecca; Metzger, Manuel; Knyphausen, Philipp; Ramezani, Thomas; Slanchev, Krasimir; Kraus, Christopher; Schmelzer, Elmon; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2016-06-15

    Re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds in adult mammals takes days to complete and relies on numerous signalling cues and multiple overlapping cellular processes that take place both within the epidermis and in other participating tissues. Re-epithelialization of partial- or full-thickness skin wounds of adult zebrafish, however, is extremely rapid and largely independent of the other processes of wound healing. Live imaging after treatment with transgene-encoded or chemical inhibitors reveals that re-epithelializing keratinocytes repopulate wounds by TGF-β- and integrin-dependent lamellipodial crawling at the leading edges of the epidermal tongue. In addition, re-epithelialization requires long-range epithelial rearrangements, involving radial intercalations, flattening and directed elongation of cells - processes that are dependent on Rho kinase, JNK and, to some extent, planar cell polarity within the epidermis. These rearrangements lead to a massive recruitment of keratinocytes from the adjacent epidermis and make re-epithelialization independent of keratinocyte proliferation and the mitogenic effect of FGF signalling, which are only required after wound closure, allowing the epidermis outside the wound to re-establish its normal thickness. Together, these results demonstrate that the adult zebrafish is a valuable in vivo model for studying and visualizing the processes involved in cutaneous wound closure, facilitating the dissection of direct from indirect and motogenic from mitogenic effects of genes and molecules affecting wound re-epithelialization. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Notch Receptor Expression in Neurogenic Regions of the Adult Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira-Carlos, Vanessa; Ganz, Julia; Hans, Stefan; Kaslin, Jan; Brand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches. PMID:24039926

  4. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Weber, Gregory J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2015-07-03

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3μg/L as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1928, 89, and 435 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30μg/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Triclosan Exposure Is Associated with Rapid Restructuring of the Microbiome in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Carrie L.; Proffitt, Sarah; Tanguay, Robert L.; Sharpton, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that disrupting the microbial community that comprises the intestinal tract, known as the gut microbiome, can contribute to the development or severity of disease. As a result, it is important to discern the agents responsible for microbiome disruption. While animals are frequently exposed to a diverse array of environmental chemicals, little is known about their effects on gut microbiome stability and structure. Here, we demonstrate how zebrafish can be used to glean insight into the effects of environmental chemical exposure on the structure and ecological dynamics of the gut microbiome. Specifically, we exposed forty-five adult zebrafish to triclosan-laden food for four or seven days or a control diet, and analyzed their microbial communities using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Triclosan exposure was associated with rapid shifts in microbiome structure and diversity. We find evidence that several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with the family Enterobacteriaceae appear to be susceptible to triclosan exposure, while OTUs associated with the genus Pseudomonas appeared to be more resilient and resistant to exposure. We also found that triclosan exposure is associated with topological alterations to microbial interaction networks and results in an overall increase in the number of negative interactions per microbe in these networks. Together these data indicate that triclosan exposure results in altered composition and ecological dynamics of microbial communities in the gut. Our work demonstrates that because zebrafish afford rapid and inexpensive interrogation of a large number of individuals, it is a useful experimental system for the discovery of the gut microbiome’s interaction with environmental chemicals. PMID:27191725

  6. Startle response memory and hippocampal changes in adult zebrafish pharmacologically-induced to exhibit anxiety/depression-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Julian T; Lott, Chad S

    2014-01-17

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular animal model for neurobehavioral and psychopharmacological research. While startle testing is a well-established assay to investigate anxiety-like behaviors in different species, screening of the startle response and its habituation in zebrafish is a new direction of translational biomedical research. This study focuses on a novel behavioral protocol to assess a tapping-induced startle response and its habituation in adult zebrafish that have been pharmacologically-induced to exhibit anxiety/depression-like behaviors. We demonstrated that zebrafish exhibit robust learning performance in a task adapted from the mammalian literature, a modified plus maze, and showed that ethanol and fluoxetine impair memory performance in this maze when administered after training at a dose that does not impair motor function, however, leads to significant upregulation of hippocampal serotoninergic neurons. These results suggest that the maze associative learning paradigm has face and construct validity and that zebrafish may become a translationally relevant study species for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory changes associated with psychopharmacological treatment of anxiety/depression. © 2013.

  7. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s−1 with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

  8. Environmental estrogen(s) induced swimming behavioural alterations in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Goundadkar, Basavaraj B; Katti, Pancharatna

    2017-09-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of long-term (75days) exposure to environmental estrogens (EE) on the swimming behaviour of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Adult zebrafish were exposed semi-statically to media containing commonly detected estrogenic water contaminants (EE2, DES and BPA) at a concentration (5ng/L) much lower than environmentally recorded levels. Time spent in swimming, surface preference, patterns and path of swimming were recorded (6mins) for each fish using two video cameras on day 15, 30 60 and 75. Video clips were analysed using a software program. Results indicate that chronic exposure to EE leads to increased body weight and size of females, reduced (P<0.05) swimming time, delay in latency, increased (P<0.05) immobility, erratic movements and freezing episodes. We conclude that estrogenic contamination of natural aquatic systems induces alterations in locomotor behaviour and associated physiological disturbances in inhabitant fish fauna. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise-Induced Hypertrophic and Oxidative Signaling Pathways and Myokine Expression in Fast Muscle of Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Mireia; Arrey, Gerard; Planas, Josep V.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that undergoes cellular and metabolic adaptations under conditions of increased contractile activity such as exercise. Using adult zebrafish as an exercise model, we previously demonstrated that swimming training stimulates hypertrophy and vascularization of fast muscle fibers, consistent with the known muscle growth-promoting effects of exercise and with the resulting increased aerobic capacity of this tissue. Here we investigated the potential involvement of factors and signaling mechanisms that could be responsible for exercise-induced fast muscle remodeling in adult zebrafish. By subjecting zebrafish to swimming-induced exercise, we observed an increase in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Mef2 protein levels in fast muscle. We also observed an increase in the protein levels of the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 that correlated with an increase in the protein expression levels of Pax7, a satellite-like cell marker. Furthermore, the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was also increased by exercise, in parallel with an increase in the mRNA expression levels of pgc1α and also of pparda, a β-oxidation marker. Changes in the mRNA expression levels of slow and fast myosin markers further supported the notion of an exercise-induced aerobic phenotype in zebrafish fast muscle. The mRNA expression levels of il6, il6r, apln, aplnra and aplnrb, sparc, decorin and igf1, myokines known in mammals to be produced in response to exercise and to signal through mTOR/AMPK pathways, among others, were increased in fast muscle of exercised zebrafish. These results support the notion that exercise increases skeletal muscle growth and myogenesis in adult zebrafish through the coordinated activation of the mTOR-MEF2 and AMPK-PGC1α signaling pathways. These results, coupled with altered expression of markers for oxidative metabolism and fast-to-slow fiber-type switch, also suggest improved aerobic

  10. The contribution of the swimbladder to buoyancy in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): a morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, George N; Lindsey, Benjamin W; Dumbarton, Tristan C; Croll, Roger P; Smith, Frank M

    2008-06-01

    Many teleost fishes use a swimbladder, a gas-filled organ in the coelomic cavity, to reduce body density toward neutral buoyancy, thus minimizing the locomotory cost of maintaining a constant depth in the water column. However, for most swimbladder-bearing teleosts, the contribution of this organ to the attainment of neutral buoyancy has not been quantified. Here, we examined the quantitative contribution of the swimbladder to buoyancy and three-dimensional stability in a small cyprinid, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). In aquaria during daylight hours, adult animals were observed at mean depths from 10.1 +/- 6.0 to 14.2 +/- 5.6 cm below the surface. Fish mass and whole-body volume were linearly correlated (r(2) = 0.96) over a wide range of body size (0.16-0.73 g); mean whole-body density was 1.01 +/- 0.09 g cm(-3). Stereological estimations of swimbladder volume from linear dimensions of lateral X-ray images and direct measurements of gas volumes recovered by puncture from the same swimbladders showed that results from these two methods were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.85). The geometric regularity of the swimbladder thus permitted its volume to be accurately estimated from a single lateral image. Mean body density in the absence of the swimbladder was 1.05 +/- 0.04 g cm(-3). The swimbladder occupied 5.1 +/- 1.4% of total body volume, thus reducing whole-body density significantly. The location of the centers of mass and buoyancy along rostro-caudal and dorso-ventral axes overlapped near the ductus communicans, a constriction between the anterior and posterior swimbladder chambers. Our work demonstrates that the swimbladder of the adult zebrafish contributes significantly to buoyancy and attitude stability. Furthermore, we describe and verify a stereological method for estimating swimbladder volume that will aid future studies of the functions of this organ. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  11. Efficacy and Safety of 5 Anesthetics in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; Tolwani, Angela; Lieggi, Christine; Rasmussen, Skye

    2014-01-01

    Although the safety and efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) for anesthesia of fish are well established, other anesthetics used less commonly in fish have been less extensively evaluated. Therefore, we compared gradual cooling, lidocaine hydrochloride (300, 325, and 350 mg/L), metomidate hydrochloride (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/L), and isoflurane (0.5 mL/L) with MS222 (150 mg/L) for anesthesia of adult zebrafish. The efficacy and safety of each agent was evaluated by observing loss of equilibrium, slowing of opercular movement, response to tail-fin pinch, recovery time, and anesthesia-associated mortality rates. At 15 min after anesthetic recovery, we used a novel-tank test to evaluate whether anesthetic exposure influenced short-term anxiety-like behavior. Behavioral parameters measured included latency to enter and number of transitions to the upper half of the tank, number of erratic movements, and number of freezing bouts. Behavior after anesthesia was unaltered regardless of the anesthetic used. Efficacy and safety differed among the anesthetics evaluated. Gradual cooling was useful for short procedures requiring immobilization only, but all instrumentation and surfaces that come in contact with fish must be maintained at approximately 10 °C. MS222 and lidocaine hydrochloride at 325 mg/L were effective as anesthetic agents for surgical procedures in adult zebrafish, but isoflurane and high-dose lidocaine hydrochloride were unsuitable as sole anesthetic agents due to high (30%) mortality rates. Although MS222 remains the best choice for generating a surgical plane of anesthesia, metomidate hydrochloride and gradual cooling were useful for sedation and immobilization for nonpainful procedures. PMID:24602548

  12. BISPHENOL A EXPOSURE DURING EARLY DEVELOPMENT INDUCES SEX-SPECIFIC CHANGES IN ADULT ZEBRAFISH SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Hoke, Elizabeth S.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure is associated with adverse behavioral effects, although underlying modes of action remain unclear. Because BPA is a suspected xenoestrogen, the objective was to identify sex-based changes in adult zebrafish social behavior developmentally exposed to BPA (0.0, 0.1 or 1 μM) or one of two control compounds (0.1μM 17β-estradiol [E2], and 0.1 μM GSK4716, a synthetic estrogen-related receptor γ ligand). A test chamber was divided lengthwise so each arena held one fish unable to detect the presence of the other fish. A mirror was inserted at one end of each arena; baseline activity levels were determined without mirror. Arenas were divided into 3, computer-generated zones to represent different distances from mirror image. Circadian rhythm patterns were evaluated at 1–3 (= AM) and 5–8 (= PM) hr postprandial. Adult zebrafish were placed into arenas and monitored by digital camera for 5 min. Total distance traveled, % time spent at mirror image, and number of attacks on mirror image were quantified. E2, GSK4716, and all BPA treatments dampened male activity and altered male circadian activity patterns; there was no marked effect on female activity. BPA induced non-monotonic effects (response curve changes direction within range of concentrations examined) on male % time at mirror only in AM. All treatments produced increased % time at the mirror during PM. Male attacks on the mirror were reduced by BPA exposure only during AM. There were sex-specific effects of developmental BPA on social interactions and time-of-day of observation affected results. PMID:25424546

  13. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor during the regenerative response after traumatic brain injury in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cacialli, Pietro; Palladino, Antonio; Lucini, Carla

    2018-06-01

    Several mammalian animal models of traumatic brain injury have been used, mostly rodents. However, reparative mechanisms in mammalian brain are very limited, and newly formed neurons do not survive for long time. The brain of adult zebrafish, a teleost fish widely used as vertebrate model, possesses high regenerative properties after injury due to the presence of numerous stem cells niches. The ventricular lining of the zebrafish dorsal telencephalon is the most studied neuronal stem cell niche because its dorso-lateral zone is considered the equivalent to the hippocampus of mammals which contains one of the two constitutive neurogenic niches of mammals. To mimic TBI, stab wound in the dorso-lateral telencephalon of zebrafish was used in studies devoted to fish regenerative properties. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is known to play key roles in the repair process after traumatic brain lesions, persists around the lesioned area of injured telencephalon of adult zebrafish. These results are extensively compared to reparative processes in rodent brain. Considering the complete repair of the damaged area in fish, it could be tempting to consider brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a factor contributing to create a permissive environment that enables the establishment of new neuronal population in damaged brain.

  14. V-ATPase proton pumping activity is required for adult zebrafish appendage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Joana; Aires, Rita; Becker, Jörg D; Jacinto, António; Certal, Ana C; Rodríguez-León, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ion channels and transporters generates ion-specific fluxes that encode electrical and/or chemical signals with biological significance. Even though it is long known that some of those signals are crucial for regeneration, only in recent years the corresponding molecular sources started to be identified using mainly invertebrate or larval vertebrate models. We used adult zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate which and how ion transporters affect regeneration in an adult vertebrate model. Through the combined use of biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that V-ATPase activity contributes to a regeneration-specific H+ ef`flux. The onset and intensity of both V-ATPase expression and H+ efflux correlate with the different regeneration rate along the proximal-distal axis. Moreover, we show that V-ATPase inhibition impairs regeneration in adult vertebrate. Notably, the activity of this H+ pump is necessary for aldh1a2 and mkp3 expression, blastema cell proliferation and fin innervation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of V-ATPase during adult vertebrate regeneration.

  15. V-ATPase Proton Pumping Activity Is Required for Adult Zebrafish Appendage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Joana; Aires, Rita; Becker, Jörg D.; Jacinto, António; Certal, Ana C.; Rodríguez-León, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ion channels and transporters generates ion-specific fluxes that encode electrical and/or chemical signals with biological significance. Even though it is long known that some of those signals are crucial for regeneration, only in recent years the corresponding molecular sources started to be identified using mainly invertebrate or larval vertebrate models. We used adult zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate which and how ion transporters affect regeneration in an adult vertebrate model. Through the combined use of biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that V-ATPase activity contributes to a regeneration-specific H+ ef`flux. The onset and intensity of both V-ATPase expression and H+ efflux correlate with the different regeneration rate along the proximal-distal axis. Moreover, we show that V-ATPase inhibition impairs regeneration in adult vertebrate. Notably, the activity of this H+ pump is necessary for aldh1a2 and mkp3 expression, blastema cell proliferation and fin innervation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of V-ATPase during adult vertebrate regeneration. PMID:24671205

  16. Chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate are the major glycosaminoglycans present in the adult zebrafish Danio rerio (Chordata-Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Aline R C; Kozlowski, Eliene O; Cerqueira, Vinicius R; Castelo-Branco, Morgana T L; Costa, Manoel L; Pavão, Mauro S G

    2007-12-01

    The zebrafish Danio rerio (Chordata-Cyprinidae) is a model organism frequently used to study the functions of proteoglycans and their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. Although several studies clearly demonstrate the participation of these polymers in different biological and cellular events that take place during embryonic development, little is known about the GAGs in adult zebrafish. In the present study, the total GAGs were extracted from the whole fish by proteolytic digestion, purified by anion-exchange chromatography and characterized by electrophoresis after degradation with specific enzymes and/or by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the disaccharides. Two GAGs were identified: a low-molecular-weight chondroitin sulfate (CS) and keratan sulfate (KS), corresponding to approximately 80% and 20% of the total GAGs, respectively. In the fish eye, KS represents approximately 80% of total GAGs. Surprisingly, no heparinoid was detected, but may be present in the fish at concentrations lower than the limit of the method used. HPLC of the disaccharides formed after chondroitin AC or ABC lyase degradation revealed that the zebrafish CS is composed by DeltaUA-1-->3-GalNAc(4SO4) (59.4%), DeltaUA-1-->3-GalNAc(6SO4) (23.1%), and DeltaUA-1-->3-GalNAc (17.5%) disaccharide units. No disulfated disaccharides were detected. Immunolocalization on sections from zebrafish retina using monoclonal antibodies against CS4- or 6-sulfate showed that in the retina these GAGs are restricted to the outer and inner plexiform layers. This is the first report showing the presence of KS in zebrafish eye, and the structural characterization of CS and its localization in the zebrafish retina. Detailed information about the structure and tissue localization of GAGs is important to understand the functions of these polymers in this model organism.

  17. Single-cell in vivo imaging of adult neural stem cells in the zebrafish telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana S; Di Giaimo, Rossella; Götz, Magdalena; Ninkovic, Jovica

    2016-08-01

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) in zebrafish produce mature neurons throughout their entire life span in both the intact and regenerating brain. An understanding of the behavior of aNSCs in their intact niche and during regeneration in vivo should facilitate the identification of the molecular mechanisms controlling regeneration-specific cellular events. A greater understanding of the process in regeneration-competent species may enable regeneration to be achieved in regeneration-incompetent species, including humans. Here we describe a protocol for labeling and repetitive imaging of aNSCs in vivo. We label single aNSCs, allowing nonambiguous re-identification of single cells in repetitive imaging sessions using electroporation of a red-reporter plasmid in Tg(gfap:GFP)mi2001 transgenic fish expressing GFP in aNSCs. We image using two-photon microscopy through the thinned skull of anesthetized and immobilized fish. Our protocol allows imaging every 2 d for a period of up to 1 month. This methodology allowed the visualization of aNSC behavior in vivo in their natural niche, in contrast to previously available technologies, which rely on the imaging of either dissociated cells or tissue slices. We used this protocol to follow the mode of aNSC division, fate changes and cell death in both the intact and injured zebrafish telencephalon. This experimental setup can be widely used, with minimal prior experience, to assess key factors for processes that modulate aNSC behavior. A typical experiment with data analysis takes up to 1.5 months.

  18. Single Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Induces Genotoxicity in Adult Zebrafish and its Non-Irradiated Progeny.

    PubMed

    Lemos, J; Neuparth, T; Trigo, M; Costa, P; Vieira, D; Cunha, L; Ponte, F; Costa, P S; Metello, L F; Carvalho, A P

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated to what extent a single exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation can induce genotoxic damage in irradiated adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its non-irradiated F1 progeny. Four groups of adult zebrafish were irradiated with a single dose of X-rays at 0 (control), 100, 500 and 1000 mGy, respectively, and couples of each group were allowed to reproduce following irradiation. Blood of parental fish and whole-body offspring were analysed by the comet assay for detection of DNA damage. The level of DNA damage in irradiated parental fish increased in a radiation dose-dependent manner at day 1 post-irradiation, but returned to the control level thereafter. The level of DNA damage in the progeny was directly correlated with the parental irradiation dose. Results highlight the genotoxic risk of a single exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation in irradiated individuals and also in its non-irradiated progeny.

  19. Valerenic acid and Valeriana officinalis extracts delay onset of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced seizures in adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish).

    PubMed

    Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ortíz, José G

    2015-07-14

    Anticonvulsant properties have been attributed to extracts of the herbal medicine Valeriana officinalis. Our aims were to examine the anticonvulsant properties of valerenic acid and valerian extracts and to determine whether valerian preparations interact with the activity of other anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin or clonazepam). To achieve these goals, we validated the adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, as an animal model for studying anticonvulsant drugs. All drug treatments were administered by immersion in water containing the drug. For assays of anticonvulsant activity, zebrafish were pretreated with: anti-epileptic drugs, valerenic acid, aqueous or ethanolic valerian extracts, or mixtures (phenytoin or clonazepam with valerenic acid or valerian extracts). Seizures were then induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). A behavioral scale was developed for scoring PTZ-induced seizures in adult zebrafish. The seizure latency was evaluated for all pretreatments and control, untreated fish. Valerenic acid and both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of valerian root were also evaluated for their ability to improve survival after pentylenetetrazole-challenge. The assay was validated by comparison with well-studied anticonvulsant drugs (phenytoin, clonazepam, gabapentin and valproate). One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test was performed, using a p < 0.05 level of significance. All treatments were compared with the untreated animals and with the other pretreatments. After exposure to pentylenetetrazole, zebrafish exhibited a series of stereotypical behaviors prior to the appearance of clonic-like movements--convulsions. Both valerenic acid and valerian extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) significantly extended the latency period to the onset of seizure (convulsion) in adult zebrafish. The ethanolic valerian extract was a more potent anticonvulsant than the aqueous extract. Valerenic acid and both valerian extracts interacted synergistically with clonazepam to extended the

  20. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (-)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (-)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (-)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149.

  1. Behavioral, morphometric, and gene expression effects in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonically exposed to PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA.

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Carrie E; Annunziato, Kate M; Cooper, Keith R

    2016-11-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) are a class of persistent anthropogenic chemicals that have been detected worldwide. PFASs consist of fluorinated carbon chains of varying length, terminal groups, and have a number of industrial uses. A previous zebrafish study from our laboratory showed that acute (3-120h post fertilization, 0.02-2.0μM), waterborne embryonic exposure to these chemicals resulted in chemical specific alterations at 5days post fertilization (dpf), and some effects persisted up to 14 dpf. Using a gene battery consisting of 100 transcripts identified several genes that were up or down regulated. This current study looks at the long-term impacts of PFASs in adult zebrafish using the same exposure regimen. It was hypothesized that sub-lethal exposure of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) in embryonic zebrafish (3-120 hpf) would result in permanent morphometric, gene expression, and behavioral changes in adult fish similar to those observed at 5 and 14 dpf. Zebrafish were exposed to PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA (Control 0μM, 2.0μM) for the first five days post fertilization. At six months post fertilization, no PFAS treatment resulted in a significant change in total body length or weight. In terms of behavior, PFNA males showed a reduction in total distance traveled and time of immobility, and an increase in thigmotaxis behavior, aggressive attacks, and preference for the bright section of the tank. PFOS treated males had a reduced aggression behavior, and PFOA females preferred the dark section of the tank. Gene expression of slco2b1, slco1d1, and tgfb1a were analyzed because these transcripts were previously found to be affected by PFAS exposure in 5dpf and 14 dpf zebrafish and resulted in: significant decrease in expression of slco2b1 for both sexes in PFNA and PFOS treated groups, significant decrease of slco1d1 in all treatment groups for females and PFOS and PFOA exposed males

  2. Copper at low levels impairs memory of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and affects swimming performance of larvae.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Daiane da Silva; Danielle, Naissa Maria; Altenhofen, Stefani; Luzardo, Milene Dornelles; Costa, Patrícia Gomes; Bianchini, Adalto; Bonan, Carla Denise; da Silva, Rosane Souza; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Metal contamination at low levels is an important issue because it usually produces health and environmental effects, either positive or deleterious. Contamination of surface waters with copper (Cu) is a worldwide event, usually originated by mining, agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Water quality criteria for Cu are variable among countries but allowed limits are generally in the μg/L range, which can disrupt several functions in the early life-stages of fish species. Behavioral and biochemical alterations after Cu exposure have also been described at concentrations close to the allowed limits. Aiming to search for the effects of Cu in the range of the allowed limits, larvae and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to different concentrations of dissolved Cu (nominally: 0, 5, 9, 20 and 60μg/L; measured: 0.4, 5.7, 7.2 16.6 and 42.3μg/L, respectively) for 96h. Larvae swimming and body length, and adult behavior and biochemical biomarkers (activity of glutathione-related enzymes in gills, muscle, and brain) were assessed after Cu exposure. Several effects were observed in fish exposed to 9μg/L nominal Cu, including increased larvae swimming distance and velocity, abolishment of adult inhibitory avoidance memory, and decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in gills of adult fish. At the highest Cu concentration tested (nominally: 60μg/L), body length of larvae, spatial memory of adults, and gill GST activity were decreased. Social behavior (aggressiveness and conspecific interaction), and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were not affected in adult zebrafish. Exposure to Cu, at concentrations close to the water quality criteria for this metal in fresh water, was able to alter larvae swimming performance and to induce detrimental effects on the behavior of adult zebrafish, thus indicating the need for further studies to reevaluate the currently allowed limits for Cu in fresh water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  3. Dissecting hematopoietic and renal cell heterogeneity in adult zebrafish at single-cell resolution using RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qin; Iyer, Sowmya; Lobbardi, Riadh; Moore, John C; Chen, Huidong; Lareau, Caleb; Hebert, Christine; Shaw, McKenzie L; Neftel, Cyril; Suva, Mario L; Ceol, Craig J; Bernards, Andre; Aryee, Martin; Pinello, Luca; Drummond, Iain A; Langenau, David M

    2017-10-02

    Recent advances in single-cell, transcriptomic profiling have provided unprecedented access to investigate cell heterogeneity during tissue and organ development. In this study, we used massively parallel, single-cell RNA sequencing to define cell heterogeneity within the zebrafish kidney marrow, constructing a comprehensive molecular atlas of definitive hematopoiesis and functionally distinct renal cells found in adult zebrafish. Because our method analyzed blood and kidney cells in an unbiased manner, our approach was useful in characterizing immune-cell deficiencies within DNA-protein kinase catalytic subunit ( prkdc ), interleukin-2 receptor γ a ( il2rga ), and double-homozygous-mutant fish, identifying blood cell losses in T, B, and natural killer cells within specific genetic mutants. Our analysis also uncovered novel cell types, including two classes of natural killer immune cells, classically defined and erythroid-primed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, mucin-secreting kidney cells, and kidney stem/progenitor cells. In total, our work provides the first, comprehensive, single-cell, transcriptomic analysis of kidney and marrow cells in the adult zebrafish. © 2017 Tang et al.

  4. Dissecting hematopoietic and renal cell heterogeneity in adult zebrafish at single-cell resolution using RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Sowmya; Lobbardi, Riadh; Chen, Huidong; Hebert, Christine; Shaw, McKenzie L.; Neftel, Cyril; Suva, Mario L.; Bernards, Andre; Aryee, Martin; Drummond, Iain A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in single-cell, transcriptomic profiling have provided unprecedented access to investigate cell heterogeneity during tissue and organ development. In this study, we used massively parallel, single-cell RNA sequencing to define cell heterogeneity within the zebrafish kidney marrow, constructing a comprehensive molecular atlas of definitive hematopoiesis and functionally distinct renal cells found in adult zebrafish. Because our method analyzed blood and kidney cells in an unbiased manner, our approach was useful in characterizing immune-cell deficiencies within DNA–protein kinase catalytic subunit (prkdc), interleukin-2 receptor γ a (il2rga), and double-homozygous–mutant fish, identifying blood cell losses in T, B, and natural killer cells within specific genetic mutants. Our analysis also uncovered novel cell types, including two classes of natural killer immune cells, classically defined and erythroid-primed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, mucin-secreting kidney cells, and kidney stem/progenitor cells. In total, our work provides the first, comprehensive, single-cell, transcriptomic analysis of kidney and marrow cells in the adult zebrafish. PMID:28878000

  5. Effects of low-level laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and radiofrequency on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), electroacupuncture (EA), and radiofrequency (RF), which are used in physical therapy, on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women’s faces were investigated to provide basic data for skin interventions. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult females were assigned to either an LLLT group (n=10), an EA group (n=10), or an RF group (n=10). The intervention was performed in two 15-minute sessions per week for six weeks. Subjects’ skin tone and pigmentation were observed before and after the intervention. [Results] The EA group showed significant reductions in pigmentation in the left and right eye rims, as well as in the left cheek. The RF group showed significant post-intervention reductions in pigmentation under the left eye, as well as in the left and right eye rims and the left cheek. The LLLT group showed significant increases in skin tone in the forehead and both eye rims. The RF group showed significant increases in skin tone under both eyes. [Conclusion] The application of LLLT, EA, and RF had positive effects on pigmentation and skin tone of adult women’s faces. PMID:27313340

  6. Brief Embryonic Strychnine Exposure in Zebrafish Causes Long-Term Adult Behavioral Impairment with Indications of Embryonic Synaptic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nicole M.; Arpie, Brianna; Lugo, Joseph; Linney, Elwood; Levin, Edward D.; Cerutti, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish provide a powerful model of the impacts of embryonic toxicant exposure on neural development that may result in long-term behavioral dysfunction. In this study, zebrafish embryos were treated with 1.5 mM strychnine for short embryonic time windows to induce transient changes in inhibitory neural signaling, and were subsequently raised in untreated water until adulthood. PCR analysis showed indications that strychnine exposure altered expression of some genes related to glycinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal synapses during embryonic development. In adulthood, treated fish showed significant changes in swimming speed and tank diving behavior compared to controls. Taken together, these data show that a short embryonic exposure to a neurotoxicant can alter development of neural synapses and lead to changes in adult behavior. PMID:23022260

  7. Brief embryonic strychnine exposure in zebrafish causes long-term adult behavioral impairment with indications of embryonic synaptic changes.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; Arpie, Brianna; Lugo, Joseph; Linney, Elwood; Levin, Edward D; Cerutti, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish provide a powerful model of the impacts of embryonic toxicant exposure on neural development that may result in long-term behavioral dysfunction. In this study, zebrafish embryos were treated with 1.5mM strychnine for short embryonic time windows to induce transient changes in inhibitory neural signaling, and were subsequently raised in untreated water until adulthood. PCR analysis showed indications that strychnine exposure altered expression of some genes related to glycinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal synapses during embryonic development. In adulthood, treated fish showed significant changes in swimming speed and tank diving behavior compared to controls. Taken together, these data show that a short embryonic exposure to a neurotoxicant can alter development of neural synapses and lead to changes in adult behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased cell proliferation and neural activity by physostigmine in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunkyoung; Lee, Bongkyu; Jeong, Sumin; Park, Ji-Won; Han, Inn-Oc; Lee, Chang-Joong

    2016-08-26

    Physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is known to affect the brain function in various aspects. This study was conducted to test whether physostigmine affects cell proliferation in the telencephalon of zebrafish. BrdU-labeled cells was prominently observed in the ventral zone of the ventral telencephalon of zebrafish. The increased number of BrdU- and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeled cells were shown in zebrafish treated with 200μM physostigmine, which was inhibited by pretreatment with 200μM scopolamine. iNOS mRNA expression was increased in the brain of zebrafish treated with 200μM physostigmine. Consistently, aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, attenuated the increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells by physostigmine treatment. Zebrafish also showed seizure-like locomotor activity characterized by a rapid and abrupt movement during a 30min treatment with 200μM physostigmine. Neural activity in response to an electrical stimulus was increased in the isolated telencephalon of zebrafish continuously perfused with 200μM physostigmine. None of the number of BrdU-labeled cells, neural activity, or locomotor activity was affected by treatment with 20μM physostigmine. These results suggest that 200μM physostigmine increased neural activity and induced cell proliferation via nitric oxide production in zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A rapid throughput approach identifies cognitive deficits in adult zebrafish from developmental exposure to polybrominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Truong, Lisa; Mandrell, David; Mandrell, Rick; Simonich, Michael; Tanguay, Robert L

    2014-07-01

    A substantial body of evidence has correlated the human body burdens of some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants with cognitive and other behavioral deficits. Adult zebrafish exhibit testable learning and memory, making them an increasingly attractive model for neurotoxicology. Our goal was to develop a rapid throughput means of identifying the cognitive impact of developmental exposure to flame retardants in the zebrafish model. We exposed embryos from 6h post fertilization to 5 days post fertilization to either PBDE 47 (0.1μM), PBDE 99 (0.1μM) or PBDE 153 (0.1μM), vehicle (0.1% DMSO), or embryo medium (EM). The larvae were grown to adulthood and evaluated for the rate at which they learned an active-avoidance response in an automated shuttle box array. Zebrafish developmentally exposed to PBDE 47 learned the active avoidance paradigm significantly faster than the 0.1% DMSO control fish (P<0.0001), but exhibited significantly poorer performance when retested suggestive of impaired memory retention or altered neuromotor activity. Learning in the PBDE 153 group was not significantly different from the DMSO group. Developmental exposure to 0.1% DMSO impaired adult active avoidance learning relative to the sham group (n=39; P<0.0001). PBDE 99 prevented the DMSO effect, yielding a learning rate not significantly different from the sham group (n=36; P>0.9). Our results underscore the importance of vehicle choice in accurately assessing chemical effects on behavior. Active avoidance response in zebrafish is an effective model of learning that, combined with automated shuttle box testing, will provide a highly efficient platform for evaluating persistent neurotoxic hazard from many chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the taste buds of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Viña, E; Parisi, V; Cabo, R; Laurà, R; López-Velasco, S; López-Muñiz, A; García-Suárez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A

    2013-03-01

    In detecting chemical properties of food, different molecules and ion channels are involved including members of the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) family. Consistently ASICs are present in sensory cells of taste buds of mammals. In the present study the presence of ASICs (ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4) was investigated in the taste buds of adult zebrafish (zASICs) using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. zASIC1 and zASIC3 were regularly absent from taste buds, whereas faint zASIC2 and robust zASIC4 immunoreactivities were detected in sensory cells. Moreover, zASIC2 also immunolabelled nerves supplying taste buds. The present results demonstrate for the first time the presence of zASICs in taste buds of teleosts, with different patterns to that occurring in mammals, probably due to the function of taste buds in aquatic environment and feeding. Nevertheless, the role of zASICs in taste remains to be demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental design affects social behavior outcomes in adult zebrafish developmentally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Weber, Daniel N; Ghorai, Jugal K

    2013-09-01

    Lead (Pb(2+)) affects neuronal and endocrine systems that influence social interactions. By providing potential hiding locations, spatial heterogeneity may affect Pb(2+)-induced behavioral outcomes. Therefore, a test chamber was designed into which a refuge could be inserted. The refuge allowed test subjects to escape from the mirror image that stimulated agonistic interactions. Behaviors with a mirror were compared with baseline activity patterns without a mirror. Adult (12-month old) male and female zebrafish, exposed to Pb(2+) (0-10 μM) as embryos (2-24 hours post fertilization), were tested individually for 5 min in each chamber design within 2 h of feeding. Behaviors were evaluated for % time in mirror zone, distance traveled (=activity level), and attacks on the mirror image. When there was no refuge, significant concentration-dependent increases occurred in male % time in mirror zone, activity level, and number of attacks. Increases in these variables were less pronounced in females. When there was a refuge, there were significant differences for males only in activity level and attacks at the higher developmental exposure concentrations; % time in mirror zone followed a similar pattern and level as without refuge. Females displayed Pb(2+)-induced behavioral changes only for attacks on mirror. Since the presence of refuges that is, environmental enrichment, reduced Pb(2+)-induced agonistic behavior in both sexes, experimental spatial design can be considered an important factor when interpreting behavioral outcomes.

  12. Neurotoxicity of neem commercial formulation (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bernardi, M M; Dias, S G; Barbosa, V E

    2013-11-01

    The neurotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, also called neem or nim, in adult zebrafish were determined using behavioral models. General activity, anxiety-like effects, and learning and memory in a passive avoidance task were assessed after exposure to 20 or 40 μl/L neem. The results showed that 20 μl/L neem reduced the number of runs. Both neem concentrations increased the number of climbs to the water surface, and 40 μl/L increased the number of tremors. In the anxiety test, the 20 μl/L dose increased the number of entries in the light side compared with controls, but the latency to enter the dark side and the freezing behavior in this side did not changed. In relation to controls, the 40 μl/L neem reduced the latency to enter in the light side, did not change the number of entries in this side and increased freezing behavior in the light side. In the passive avoidance test, pre-training and pre-test neem exposure to 40 μl/L decreased the response to the learning task. Thus, no impairment was observed in this behavioral test. We conclude that neem reduced general activity and increased anxiety-like behavior but did not affect learning and memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stereoselective effects of ibuprofen in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) using UPLC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Chai, Tingting; Yin, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xining; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Yongzhong; Qiu, Jing

    2018-06-09

    Ibuprofen (IBU), as a commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP), is frequently prescribed by doctors to relieve pain. It is widely released into environmental water and soil in the form of chiral enantiomers by the urination and defecation of humans or animals and by sewage discharge from wastewater treatment plants. This study focused on the alteration of metabolism in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain after exposure to R-(-)-/S-(+)-/rac-IBU at 5 μg L -1 for 28 days. A total of 45 potential biomarkers and related pathways, including amino acids and their derivatives, purine and its derivatives, nucleotides and other metabolites, were observed with untargeted metabolomics. To validate the metabolic disorders induced by IBU, 22 amino acids and 3 antioxidant enzymes were selected to be quantitated and determined using targeted metabolomics and enzyme assay. Stereoselective changes were observed in the 45 identified biomarkers from the untargeted metabolomics analysis. The 22 amino acids quantitated in targeted metabolomics and 3 antioxidant enzymes determined in enzyme assay also showed stereoselective changes after R-(-)-/S-(+)-/rac-IBU exposure. Results showed that even at a low concentration of R-(-)-/S-(+)-/rac-IBU, disorders in metabolism and antioxidant defense systems were still induced with stereoselectivity. Our study may enable a better understanding of the risks of chiral PPCPs in aquatic organisms in the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after waterborne exposure to TBOEP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinglong; Wu, Ding; Dang, Yao; Yu, Liqin; Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is widely used as a substitute of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). It has been frequently measured at concentrations of micrograms per liter (μg/L) in surface waters and waste water. However, limited information is available about the reproduction toxicology of TBOEP. In this study, adult zebrafish pairs were exposed to TBOEP at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, and 500μg/L for 21days. The effects on reproduction, hormone concentration, transcription of genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and gonadal development were investigated. After exposure to TBOEP, plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol were significantly increased in both sexes of fish, while increase of testosterone was observed only in male fish. Transcription of genes along the HPG axis was significantly influenced by exposure to TBOEP in both male and female fish. Moreover, TBOEP decreases the average number of eggs production, as well as hatching success and survival rates in offspring. Histological examination shows inhibition of oocyte maturation in females and retardation spermiation in males, respectively. The results demonstrate that TBOEP could disturb the sex hormone balance by altering regulatory circuits of the HPG axis, affect gonadal development, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance and the development of progeny. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Embryonic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene inhibits reproductive capability in adult female zebrafish and correlation with DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dongxu; Lin, Jing; Ou, Kunlin; Chen, Ying; Li, Hongbin; Dai, Qinhua; Yu, Zhenni; Zuo, Zhenghong; Wang, Chonggang

    2018-05-09

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of embryonic short-term exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, on ovarian development and reproductive capability in adult female zebrafish. In 1-year-old fish after embryonic exposure to BaP for 96 h, the gonadosomatic indices and the percentage of mature oocytes were significantly decreased in the 0.5, 5 and 50 nmol/L treatments. The spawned egg number, the fertilization rate and the hatching success were significantly reduced, while the malformation rate of the F1 unexposed larvae were increased. The mRNA levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, ovarian cytochrome P450 aromatase cyp19a1a and cyp19b, estrogen receptor esr1 and esr2, and hepatic vitellogenin vtg1 and vtg2 genes, were down-regulated in adult female zebrafish that were exposed to BaP during embryonic stage. Both 17β-estradiol and testosterone levels were reduced in the ovary of adult females. The methylation levels of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) gene gnrh3 were significantly increased in the adult zebrafish brain, and those of the GnRH receptor gene gnrhr3 were elevated both in the larvae exposed to BaP and in the adult brain, which might cause the down-regulation of the mRNA levels of gnrh3 and gnrhr3. This epigenetic change caused by embryonic exposure to BaP might be a reason for physiological changes along the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. These results suggest that short-term exposure in early life should be included and evaluated in any risk assessment of pollutant exposure to the reproductive health of fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subretinal delivery and electroporation in pigmented and nonpigmented adult mouse eyes

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, John M.; Goodman, Penny; Chrenek, Micah A.; Johnson, Christiana J.; Berglin, Lennart; Redmond, T. Michael.; Boatright, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Subretinal injection offers one of the best ways to deliver many classes of drugs, reagents, cells and treatments to the photoreceptor, Müller, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells of the retina. Agents delivered to this space are placed within microns of the intended target cell, accumulating to high concentrations because there is no dilution due to transport processes or diffusion. Dilution in the interphotoreceptor space (IPS) is minimal because the IPS volume is only 10-20 microliters in the human eye and less than 1 microliter in the mouse eye. For gene delivery purposes, we wished to transfect the cells adjacent to the IPS in adult mouse eyes. Others transfect these cells in neonatal rats to study the development of the retina. In both neonates and adults, electroporation is found to be effective Here we describe the optimization of electroporation conditions for RPE cells in the adult mouse eye with naked plasmids. However, both techniques, subretinal injection and electroporation, present some technical challenges that require skill on the part of the surgeon to prevent untoward damage to the eye. Here we describe methods that we have used for the past ten years (1). PMID:22688698

  17. Biomarkers as a tool to assess effects of chromium (VI): comparison of responses in zebrafish early life stages and adults.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Inês; Oliveira, Rhaul; Lourenço, Joana; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, A M V M

    2010-09-01

    The present work aims to compare the sensitivity of embryos and adult zebrafish to chromium (VI) (as potassium dichromate) focusing on biomarkers (cholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase) as endpoints. Zebrafish eggs showed less sensitivity to Cr (VI) (96 h-LC50=145.7 mg/L) than adults (96 h-LC50=39.4 mg/L) probably due to the protective action of the chorion. However, biomarkers were much more responsive in larvae than in adults and gave clear indications about Cr (VI) mode of action: it seems to be neurotoxic (inhibited cholinesterase), to inhibit glutathione S-transferase activity and to interfere with cellular metabolic activity (changes in lactate dehydrogenase activity) in larvae. In adults, only glutathione S-transferase was responsive, showing a clear inhibition. The responsiveness of the analyzed biomarkers in larvae reinforces the idea of the usefulness of early life stage assays in the assessment of chemicals effects. Moreover, early life stage assays also contributed with relevant information regarding anomalies in larvae development and behavior. Further research should focus on the use of biomarkers to assess long term effects which are ecologically more relevant. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schall, K A; Holoyda, K A; Grant, C N; Levin, D E; Torres, E R; Maxwell, A; Pollack, H A; Moats, R A; Frey, M R; Darehzereshki, A; Al Alam, D; Lien, C; Grikscheit, T C

    2015-08-01

    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal contents via stoma as in the human disease. After 2 wk, S1 was dilated compared with controls and villus ridges had increased complexity, contributing to greater villus epithelial perimeter. The number of intervillus pockets, the intestinal stem cell zone of the zebrafish increased and contained a higher number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after 2 wk of SBS. Egf receptor and a subset of its ligands, also drivers of adaptation, were upregulated in SBS fish. Igf has been reported as a driver of intestinal adaptation in other animal models, and SBS fish exposed to a pharmacological inhibitor of the Igf receptor failed to demonstrate signs of intestinal adaptation, such as increased inner epithelial perimeter and BrdU incorporation. We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Schall, K. A.; Holoyda, K. A.; Grant, C. N.; Levin, D. E.; Torres, E. R.; Maxwell, A.; Pollack, H. A.; Moats, R. A.; Frey, M. R.; Darehzereshki, A.; Al Alam, D.; Lien, C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal contents via stoma as in the human disease. After 2 wk, S1 was dilated compared with controls and villus ridges had increased complexity, contributing to greater villus epithelial perimeter. The number of intervillus pockets, the intestinal stem cell zone of the zebrafish increased and contained a higher number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after 2 wk of SBS. Egf receptor and a subset of its ligands, also drivers of adaptation, were upregulated in SBS fish. Igf has been reported as a driver of intestinal adaptation in other animal models, and SBS fish exposed to a pharmacological inhibitor of the Igf receptor failed to demonstrate signs of intestinal adaptation, such as increased inner epithelial perimeter and BrdU incorporation. We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation. PMID:26089336

  20. Macular pigment optical density in young adults of South Asian origin.

    PubMed

    Howells, Olivia; Eperjesi, Frank; Bartlett, Hannah

    2013-04-17

    To assess the range of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in a healthy group of young adults of South Asian origin; to investigate whether any dietary factors or personal characteristics were related to intersubject variations in MPOD; and to compare the mean MPOD of the South Asian group with the mean MPOD of a white group. Heterochromatic flicker photometry was used to measure the macular pigment (MP) levels of 169 healthy volunteers, of which 117 were Asian and 52 were white. In addition, the Asian participants completed a questionnaire pertaining to the various physical, ocular, lifestyle, dietary, and environmental factors that may be associated with MPOD or AMD. The mean MPOD of the Asian subjects was 0.43 ± 0.14. The male participants had a higher mean MPOD than the females (0.47 ± 0.13 vs. 0.41 ± 0.14, P < 0.01). Possible associations also emerged between MPOD and form of refractive correction, and iris color. No MPOD associations were found for the other variables examined in the questionnaire. The mean MPOD of the white subject group was 0.33 ± 0.13, which was significantly lower than the Asian group (P < 0.0005). This study adds to the currently limited information on MPOD in South Asians, and while a comparison between Asians and Whites was not the main focus here, highly significant differences between these two ethnicities were revealed. This provokes the possibility that South Asian individuals could have a lower risk for AMD, and it warrants further study.

  1. Pigmented rice bran and plant sterol combination reduces serum lipids in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kitts, David D; Zawistowski, Jerzy; Dossett, Cynthia M; Kopeć, Aneta; Pope, Benjamin T; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary effect of including pigmented rice bran with or without plant sterols on lipid profiles during energy restriction-induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults not taking cholesterol-lowering medication. In addition, the study examined the effect of intervention on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. A group of 24 overweight and obese adults (age: 43 ± 6 years, body mass index 32 ± 1 kg/m(2), 18 females) were randomized to a 25% calorie-restricted diet containing either pigmented rice bran (RB) or the RB with addition of plant sterols (RB+PS) snack bars for 8 weeks. The individualized nutrient-balanced diet contained ∼70% of daily energy needs assessed from indirect calorimetry measured resting energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity-related EE assessed using accelerometry. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, urinary F2-isoprostanes, C-reactive protein, insulin, and leptin were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Participants lost approximately 4.7 ± 2.2 kg (p < 0.001). Weight loss was not significant between the RB+PS and RB group (p = 0.056). Changes in body fat corresponded to changes in body weight. Average decrease in total cholesterol was significantly higher in the RB+PS group than in the RB group (difference 36 ± 25 g/dL vs 7 ± 16 g/dL; p = 0.044). A similar pattern was observed for the decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (difference 22.3 ± 25.2 g/dL vs 4.4 ± 18.9 g/dL; p = 0.062). Changes in systolic blood pressure, serum levels of leptin, and F2-isoprostanes were significant between baseline values and after 8 weeks on the diet in both groups (p < 0.05) but did not differ between the 2 groups. A nutrient-balanced and energy-restricted diet supplemented with rice bran and plant sterols resulted in a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol in overweight and obese adults.

  2. Enhanced uptake of BPA in the presence of nanoplastics can lead to neurotoxic effects in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiqing; Yin, Daqiang; Jia, Yunlu; Schiwy, Sabrina; Legradi, Jessica; Yang, Shouye; Hollert, Henner

    2017-12-31

    Plastic particles have been proven to be abundant in the aquatic environment, raising concerns about their potential toxic effects. In the present study, we determined the bioaccumulation potential of bisphenol A (BPA) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) in the absence and presence of nano-sized plastic particles (nanoplastics, NPPs). Results show that BPA can accumulate in the viscera, gill, head and muscle of zebrafish with 85, 43, 20, and 3μg/g ww after 1d exposure. NPPs were also found to accumulate in different tissues of the fish. Relative equilibrium was reached after 1d exposure in different tissues with 39 to 636mg/kg ww. Co-exposure of NPPs and BPA led to a 2.2 and 2.6-fold significant increment of BPA uptake in the head and viscera, if compared with BPA alone treatment after 3d exposure. As such, we further investigated several neurotoxic biomarker alterations in the fish head. It was found that either BPA or NPPs can cause myelin basic protein (MBP)/gene up-regulation in the central nervous system (CNS); meanwhile, both contaminants exhibited significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which is a well-known representative biomarker for neurotoxicity. Moreover, for the co-exposure treatment, biomarkers of myeline and tubulin protein/gene expressions, dopamine content, and the mRNA expression of mesencephalic astrocyte derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) were all significantly up-regulated, suggesting that an enhanced neurotoxic effects in both CNS and dopaminergic system occurred. However, AChE activity was no more inhibited in the co-exposure treatment, which implies that solely AChE measurement may not be sufficient to identify neurotoxic effects in the cholinergic system. Overall, the present study demonstrates that the presence of NPPs can increase BPA bioavailability and cause neurotoxicity in adult zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic vitamin E deficiency impairs cognitive function in adult zebrafish via dysregulation of brain lipids and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Melissa; Choi, Jaewoo; Magnusson, Kathy; Truong, Lisa; Tanguay, Robert; Traber, Maret G

    2017-11-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a recognized model for studying the pathogenesis of cognitive deficits and the mechanisms underlying behavioral impairments, including the consequences of increased oxidative stress within the brain. The lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol; VitE) has an established role in neurological health and cognitive function, but the biological rationale for this action remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated behavioral perturbations due to chronic VitE deficiency in adult zebrafish fed from 45 days to 18-months of age diets that were either VitE-deficient (E-) or VitE-sufficient (E+). We hypothesized that E- zebrafish would display cognitive impairments associated with elevated lipid peroxidation and metabolic disruptions in the brain. Quantified VitE levels at 18-months in E- brains (5.7 ± 0.1 nmol/g tissue) were ~20-times lower than in E+ (122.8 ± 1.1; n = 10/group). Using assays of both associative (avoidance conditioning) and non-associative (habituation) learning, we found E- vs E+ fish were learning impaired. These functional deficits occurred concomitantly with the following observations in adult E- brains: decreased concentrations of and increased peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), altered brain phospholipid and lysophospholipid composition, as well as perturbed energy (glucose/ketone), phosphatidylcholine and choline/methyl-donor metabolism. Collectively, these data suggest that chronic VitE deficiency leads to neurological dysfunction through multiple mechanisms that become dysregulated secondary to VitE deficiency. Apparently, the E- animals alter their metabolism to compensate for the VitE deficiency, but these compensatory mechanisms are insufficient to maintain cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stripes and belly-spots – a review of pigment cell morphogenesis in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kelsh, Robert N.; Harris, Melissa L.; Colanesi, Sarah; Erickson, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Pigment patterns in the integument have long-attracted attention from both scientists and non-scientists alike since their natural attractiveness combines with their excellence as models for the general problem of pattern formation. Pigment cells are formed from the neural crest and must migrate to reach their final locations. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of mechanisms underlying the control of pigment cell migration and patterning in diverse vertebrates. The model systems discussed here –chick, mouse, and zebrafish – each provide unique insights into the major morphogenetic events driving pigment pattern formation. In birds and mammals, melanoblasts must be specified before they can migrate on the dorsolateral pathway. Transmembrane receptors involved in guiding them onto this route include EphB2 and Ednrb2 in chick, and Kit in mouse. Terminal migration depends, in part, upon extracellular matrix reorganization by ADAMTS20. Invasion of the ectoderm, especially into the feather germ and hair follicles, requires specific signals that are beginning to be characterized. We summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms regulating melanoblast number and organization in the epidermis. We note the apparent differences in pigment pattern formation in poikilothermic vertebrates when compared with birds and mammals. With more pigment cell types, migration pathways are more complex and largely unexplored; nevertheless, a role for Kit signaling in melanophore migration is clear and indicates that at least some patterning mechanisms may be highly conserved. We summarize the multiple factors thought to contribute to zebrafish embryonic pigment pattern formation, highlighting a recent study identifying Sdf1a as one factor crucial for regulation of melanophore positioning. Finally, we discuss the mechanisms generating a second, metamorphic pigment pattern in adult fish, emphasizing recent studies strengthening the evidence that undifferentiated

  5. In vivo and in vitro biophysical properties of hair cells from the lateral line and inner ear of developing and adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Olt, Jennifer; Johnson, Stuart L; Marcotti, Walter

    2014-05-15

    Hair cells detect and process sound and movement information, and transmit this with remarkable precision and efficiency to afferent neurons via specialized ribbon synapses. The zebrafish is emerging as a powerful model for genetic analysis of hair cell development and function both in vitro and in vivo. However, the full exploitation of the zebrafish is currently limited by the difficulty in obtaining systematic electrophysiological recordings from hair cells under physiological recording conditions. Thus, the biophysical properties of developing and adult zebrafish hair cells are largely unknown. We investigated potassium and calcium currents, voltage responses and synaptic activity in hair cells from the lateral line and inner ear in vivo and using near-physiological in vitro recordings. We found that the basolateral current profile of hair cells from the lateral line becomes more segregated with age, and that cells positioned in the centre of the neuromast show more mature characteristics and those towards the edge retain a more immature phenotype. The proportion of mature-like hair cells within a given neuromast increased with zebrafish development. Hair cells from the inner ear showed a developmental change in current profile between the juvenile and adult stages. In lateral line hair cells from juvenile zebrafish, exocytosis also became more efficient and required less calcium for vesicle fusion. In hair cells from mature zebrafish, the biophysical characteristics of ion channels and exocytosis resembled those of hair cells from other lower vertebrates and, to some extent, those in the immature mammalian vestibular and auditory systems. We show that although the zebrafish provides a suitable animal model for studies on hair cell physiology, it is advisable to consider that the age at which the majority of hair cells acquire a mature-type configuration is reached only in the juvenile lateral line and in the inner ear from >2 months after hatching. © 2014 The

  6. Effects of two strobilurins (azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin) on embryonic development and enzyme activities in juveniles and adult fish livers of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Mao, Liangang; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yanning; Jiang, Hongyun

    2018-09-01

    Azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin are two primary strobilurin fungicides used worldwide. This study was conducted to test their effects on embryonic development and the activity of several enzyme in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). After fish eggs were separately exposed to azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin from 24 to 144 h post fertilization (hpf), the mortality, hatching, and teratogenetic rates were measured. Additionally, effects of azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin on activities of three important antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD)] and two primary detoxification enzymes [carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)] and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish larvae (96 h) and livers of adult zebrafish of both sexes were also assessed for potential toxicity mechanisms. Based on the embryonic development test results, the mortality, hatching, and teratogenetic rates of eggs treated with azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin all showed significant dose- and time-dependent effects, and the 144-h LC 50 values of azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin were 1174.9 and 213.8 μg L -1 , respectively. In the larval zebrafish (96 h) test, activities of CAT, POD, CarE, and GST and MDA content in azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin-treated zebrafish larvae increased significantly with concentrations of the pesticides compared with those in the control. We further revealed that azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin exposure both caused significant oxidative stress in adult fish livers and the changes differed between the sexes. Our results indicated that picoxystrobin led to higher embryonic development toxicity and oxidative stress than azoxystrobin in zebrafish and the male zebrafish liver had stronger ability to detoxify than that of the females. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated toxic evaluation of sulfamethazine on zebrafish: Including two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure).

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengyu; Yang, Qiulian; Jiang, Weili; Lu, Jilai; Xiang, Zhongrun; Guo, Ruixin; Chen, Jianqiu

    2018-03-01

    Persistence of antibiotics in aquatic environment may pose a risk to the non-target aquatic organisms. This study provided an integrated evaluation to analyze the toxic stress of sulfamethazine (SMZ) on zebrafish in two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure). Zebrafish embryos and adult zebrafish were exposed to SMZ at 0.2, 20 and 2000 μg/L, respectively. The results showed that SMZ at any given concentration inhibited the hatching of embryos at 58-96 hpf (hours post-fertilization). Our result also indicated that two major kinds of the malformation, which was induced by the antibiotic, were edema and spinal curvature. Additionally, the antibiotic stimulated the heartbeat while reduced the body length of the embryo at 72 hpf. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents significantly increased at 120 hpf when the embryos were exposed to the lowest concentration (0.2 μg/L) of the antibiotic. On the other hand, the antibiotic induced SOD activities and MDA contents in adult zebrafish in the exposure and re-exposure periods. The MDA contents could recover while SOD activities still increased in 2 d after the exposure. Both SOD activities and MDA contents could recover in 7 d after the exposure. Levels of SOD and MDA in the re-exposure were higher than those in the first exposure. Our results suggested that SMZ had toxic effects on both embryos and adult zebrafish, and provided an integrated evaluation of the toxic effects of SMZ on zebrafish at a new perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic exposure of μg/L range Bisphenol A to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) leading to adipogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Mai Thi; Doan, Thao Thi-Phuong; Nguyen, Cong Thanh; Vo, Diem Thi-Ngoc; Do, Chi Hong-Lan; Le, Nga Phi

    2017-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is known as an endocrine disruptor compound and commonly found in food-packaging plastics and in aquatic environment. It is scientifically concerned that BPA may causes significant health risks to human and aquatic animals. In fact, most of scientific studies have been conducted with BPA-acute toxicity in early stages of animal development, while far lesser researches have been focused on BPA-chronic toxicity in adults. This study was to investigate the chronic effects of environmental 1, 10 and 100 µg/L BPA to four-week-old zebrafishes (Danio rerio) after 60 days of exposure in terms of changing of body morphology, hepatocyte morphology and the transcriptional expression of biomarker gene for lipid metabolism. As a result, significant effects were found in: 1/ the increase of body weight, but not body length; 2/ the increase in the number of vacuolated hepatocytes corresponding to relatively higher glycogen and lipid content; 3/ shifting hepatocyte morphology to basophilic cytoplasm and cytoplasmic and/or nuclear enlargement, but not inflammation signs (macrophages, granuloma, fibrosis/cirrhosis); 4/ the decrease of mRNA level of PPARγ and C/EBPα genes in liver. Our study here indicates that the exposure to μg/L range concentration of BPA leads to adipogensis in adult zebrafishes.

  9. Bioavailability of plant pigment phytochemicals in Angelica keiskei in older adults: A pilot absorption kinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Camila R; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Aldini, Giancarlo; Rasmussen, Helen; Ronchi, Carlos F; Berchieri-Ronchi, Carolina; Cho, Soo-Muk; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Angelica keiskei is a green leafy vegetable rich in plant pigment phytochemicals such as flavonoids and carotenoids. This study examined bioavailability of flavonoids and carotenoids in Angelica keiskei and the alteration of the antioxidant performance in vivo. SUBJECTS AND MATERIALS Absorption kinetics of phytochemicals in Angelica keiskei were determined in healthy older adults (> 60 y, n = 5) and subjects with metabolic syndrome (n = 5). Subjects consumed 5 g dry Angelica keiskei powder encapsulated in gelatin capsules with a low flavonoid and carotenoid liquid meal. Plasma samples were collected at baseline, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 h. Samples were analyzed for flavonoids and carotenoids using HPLC systems with electrochemical and UV detection, respectively, and for total antioxidant performance by fluorometry. RESULTS After ingestion of Angelica keiskei increases in plasma quercetin concentrations were observed at 1-3 and 6-8 hr in the healthy group and at all time points in the metabolic syndrome group compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Plasma lutein concentrations were significantly elevated in both the healthy and metabolic syndrome groups at 8 hr (P < 0.05). Significant increases in total antioxidant performance were also observed in both the healthy and the metabolic syndrome groups compared to baseline (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Findings of this study clearly demonstrate the bioavailability of phytonutrients of Angelica keiskei and their ability to increase antioxidant status in humans. PMID:25324936

  10. Actin-Cytoskeleton- and Rock-Mediated INM Are Required for Photoreceptor Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish Retina

    PubMed Central

    Lahne, Manuela; Li, Jingling; Marton, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of retinal neurons in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) induces a robust regenerative response mediated by the reentry of the resident Müller glia into the cell cycle. Upon initiating Müller glia proliferation, their nuclei migrate along the apicobasal axis of the retina in phase with the cell cycle in a process termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). We examined the mechanisms governing this cellular process and explored its function in regenerating the adult zebrafish retina. Live-cell imaging revealed that the majority of Müller glia nuclei migrated to the outer nuclear layer (ONL) to divide. These Müller glia formed prominent actin filaments at the rear of nuclei that had migrated to the ONL. Inhibiting actin filament formation or Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (Rock) activity, which is necessary for phosphorylation of myosin light chain and actin myosin-mediated contraction, disrupted INM with increased numbers of mitotic nuclei remaining in the basal inner nuclear layer, the region where Müller glia typically reside. Double knockdown of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2a (Rock2a) and Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2b (Rock2b) similarly disrupted INM and reduced Müller glial cell cycle reentry. In contrast, Rock inhibition immediately before the onset of INM did not affect Müller glia proliferation, but subsequently reduced neuronal progenitor cell proliferation due to early cell cycle exit. Long-term, Rock inhibition increased the generation of mislocalized ganglion/amacrine cells at the expense of rod and cone photoreceptors. In summary, INM is driven by an actin-myosin-mediated process controlled by Rock2a and Rock2b activity, which is required for sufficient proliferation and regeneration of photoreceptors after light damage. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The human retina does not replace lost or damaged neurons, ultimately causing vision impairment. In contrast, zebrafish are capable of regenerating lost neurons. Understanding the mechanisms

  11. Actin-Cytoskeleton- and Rock-Mediated INM Are Required for Photoreceptor Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish Retina.

    PubMed

    Lahne, Manuela; Li, Jingling; Marton, Rebecca M; Hyde, David R

    2015-11-25

    Loss of retinal neurons in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) induces a robust regenerative response mediated by the reentry of the resident Müller glia into the cell cycle. Upon initiating Müller glia proliferation, their nuclei migrate along the apicobasal axis of the retina in phase with the cell cycle in a process termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). We examined the mechanisms governing this cellular process and explored its function in regenerating the adult zebrafish retina. Live-cell imaging revealed that the majority of Müller glia nuclei migrated to the outer nuclear layer (ONL) to divide. These Müller glia formed prominent actin filaments at the rear of nuclei that had migrated to the ONL. Inhibiting actin filament formation or Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (Rock) activity, which is necessary for phosphorylation of myosin light chain and actin myosin-mediated contraction, disrupted INM with increased numbers of mitotic nuclei remaining in the basal inner nuclear layer, the region where Müller glia typically reside. Double knockdown of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2a (Rock2a) and Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2b (Rock2b) similarly disrupted INM and reduced Müller glial cell cycle reentry. In contrast, Rock inhibition immediately before the onset of INM did not affect Müller glia proliferation, but subsequently reduced neuronal progenitor cell proliferation due to early cell cycle exit. Long-term, Rock inhibition increased the generation of mislocalized ganglion/amacrine cells at the expense of rod and cone photoreceptors. In summary, INM is driven by an actin-myosin-mediated process controlled by Rock2a and Rock2b activity, which is required for sufficient proliferation and regeneration of photoreceptors after light damage. The human retina does not replace lost or damaged neurons, ultimately causing vision impairment. In contrast, zebrafish are capable of regenerating lost neurons. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate retinal

  12. A Whole Brain Staining, Embedding, and Clearing Pipeline for Adult Zebrafish to Visualize Cell Proliferation and Morphology in 3-Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Benjamin W; Douek, Alon M; Loosli, Felix; Kaslin, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The field of macro-imaging has grown considerably with the appearance of innovative clearing methods and confocal microscopes with lasers capable of penetrating increasing tissue depths. The ability to visualize and model the growth of whole organs as they develop from birth, or with manipulation, disease or injury, provides new ways of thinking about development, tissue-wide signaling, and cell-to-cell interactions. The zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) has ascended from a predominantly developmental model to a leading adult model of tissue regeneration. The unmatched neurogenic and regenerative capacity of the mature central nervous system, in particular, has received much attention, however tools to interrogate the adult brain are sparse. At present there exists no straightforward methods of visualizing changes in the whole adult brain in 3-dimensions (3-D) to examine systemic patterns of cell proliferation or cell populations of interest under physiological, injury, or diseased conditions. The method presented here is the first of its kind to offer an efficient step-by-step pipeline from intraperitoneal injections of the proliferative marker, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), to whole brain labeling, to a final embedded and cleared brain sample suitable for 3-D imaging using optical projection tomography (OPT). Moreover, this method allows potential for imaging GFP-reporter lines and cell-specific antibodies in the presence or absence of EdU. The small size of the adult zebrafish brain, the highly consistent degree of EdU labeling, and the use of basic clearing agents, benzyl benzoate, and benzyl alcohol, makes this method highly tractable for most laboratories interested in understanding the vertebrate central nervous system in health and disease. Post-processing of OPT-imaged adult zebrafish brains injected with EdU illustrate that proliferative patterns in EdU can readily be observed and analyzed using IMARIS and/or FIJI/IMAGEJ software. This protocol will be a

  13. A Whole Brain Staining, Embedding, and Clearing Pipeline for Adult Zebrafish to Visualize Cell Proliferation and Morphology in 3-Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Benjamin W.; Douek, Alon M.; Loosli, Felix; Kaslin, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The field of macro-imaging has grown considerably with the appearance of innovative clearing methods and confocal microscopes with lasers capable of penetrating increasing tissue depths. The ability to visualize and model the growth of whole organs as they develop from birth, or with manipulation, disease or injury, provides new ways of thinking about development, tissue-wide signaling, and cell-to-cell interactions. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has ascended from a predominantly developmental model to a leading adult model of tissue regeneration. The unmatched neurogenic and regenerative capacity of the mature central nervous system, in particular, has received much attention, however tools to interrogate the adult brain are sparse. At present there exists no straightforward methods of visualizing changes in the whole adult brain in 3-dimensions (3-D) to examine systemic patterns of cell proliferation or cell populations of interest under physiological, injury, or diseased conditions. The method presented here is the first of its kind to offer an efficient step-by-step pipeline from intraperitoneal injections of the proliferative marker, 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU), to whole brain labeling, to a final embedded and cleared brain sample suitable for 3-D imaging using optical projection tomography (OPT). Moreover, this method allows potential for imaging GFP-reporter lines and cell-specific antibodies in the presence or absence of EdU. The small size of the adult zebrafish brain, the highly consistent degree of EdU labeling, and the use of basic clearing agents, benzyl benzoate, and benzyl alcohol, makes this method highly tractable for most laboratories interested in understanding the vertebrate central nervous system in health and disease. Post-processing of OPT-imaged adult zebrafish brains injected with EdU illustrate that proliferative patterns in EdU can readily be observed and analyzed using IMARIS and/or FIJI/IMAGEJ software. This protocol will be a

  14. Priming of innate antimycobacterial immunity by heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes induces sterilizing response in the adult zebrafish tuberculosis model

    PubMed Central

    Luukinen, Hanna; Vanha-aho, Leena-Maija; Svorjova, Aleksandra; Kantanen, Laura; Järvinen, Sampsa; Dufour, Eric; Rämet, Mika; Hytönen, Vesa Pekka

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the most problematic infectious agents, owing to its highly developed mechanisms to evade host immune responses combined with the increasing emergence of antibiotic resistance. Host-directed therapies aiming to optimize immune responses to improve bacterial eradication or to limit excessive inflammation are a new strategy for the treatment of tuberculosis. In this study, we have established a zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum natural host-pathogen model system to study induced protective immune responses in mycobacterial infection. We show that priming adult zebrafish with heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLm) at 1 day prior to M. marinum infection leads to significantly decreased mycobacterial loads in the infected zebrafish. Using rag1−/− fish, we show that the protective immunity conferred by HKLm priming can be induced through innate immunity alone. At 24 h post-infection, HKLm priming leads to a significant increase in the expression levels of macrophage-expressed gene 1 (mpeg1), tumor necrosis factor α (tnfa) and nitric oxide synthase 2b (nos2b), whereas superoxide dismutase 2 (sod2) expression is downregulated, implying that HKLm priming increases the number of macrophages and boosts intracellular killing mechanisms. The protective effects of HKLm are abolished when the injected material is pretreated with nucleases or proteinase K. Importantly, HKLm priming significantly increases the frequency of clearance of M. marinum infection by evoking sterilizing immunity (25 vs 3.7%, P=0.0021). In this study, immune priming is successfully used to induce sterilizing immunity against mycobacterial infection. This model provides a promising new platform for elucidating the mechanisms underlying sterilizing immunity and to develop host-directed treatment or prevention strategies against tuberculosis. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. PMID:29208761

  15. In vivo spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography imaging of a far red fluorescent protein expressed in the exocrine pancreas of adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengyang; Schmitner, Nicole; Sandrian, Michelle G.; Zabihian, Behrooz; Hermann, Boris; Salvenmoser, Willi; Meyer, Dirk; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins brought a revolution in life sciences and biological research in that they make a powerful tool for researchers to study not only the structural and morphological information, but also dynamic and functional information in living cells and organisms. While green fluorescent proteins (GFP) have become a common labeling tool, red-shifted or even near infrared fluorescent proteins are becoming the research focus due to the fact that longer excitation wavelengths are more suitable for deep tissue imaging. In this study, E2-Crimson, a far red fluorescent protein whose excitation wavelength is 611 nm, was genetically expressed in the exocrine pancreas of adult zebrafish. Using spectroscopic all optical detection photoacoustic tomography, we mapped the distribution of E2-Crimson in 3D after imaging the transgenic zebrafish in vivo using two different wavelengths. With complementary morphological information provided by imaging the same fish using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system, the E2-Crimson distribution acquired from spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography was confirmed in 2D by epifluorescence microscopy and in 3D by histology. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time a far red fluorescent protein is imaged in vivo by spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography. Due to the regeneration feature of zebrafish pancreas, this work preludes the longitudinal studies of animal models of diseases such as pancreatitis by spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography. Since the effective penetration depth of photoacoustic tomography is beyond the transport mean free path length, other E2-Crimson labeled inner organs will also be able to be studied dynamically using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography.

  16. A Novel Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Adult Zebrafish Demonstrates Response to Injury and Treatment Comparable with Mammalian Models.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Victoria; Park, Eugene; Liu, Elaine; Sobhebidari, Pooya; Tavakkoli, Jahan; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Baker, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and morbidity in industrialized countries with considerable associated health care costs. The cost and time associated with pre-clinical development of TBI therapeutics is lengthy and expensive with a poor track record of successful translation to the clinic. The zebrafish is an emerging model organism in research with unique technical and genomic strengths in the study of disease and development. Its high degree of genetic homology and cell signaling pathways relative to mammalian species and amenability to high and medium throughput assays has potential to accelerate the rate of therapeutic drug identification. Accordingly, we developed a novel closed-head model of TBI in adult zebrafish using a targeted, pulsed, high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) to induce mechanical injury of the brain. Western blot results indicated altered microtubule and neurofilament expression as well as increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and beta APP (β-APP; p < 0.05). We used automated behavioral tracking software to evaluate locomotor deficits 24 and 48 h post-injury. Significant behavioral impairment included decreased swim distance and velocity (p < 0.05), as well as heightened anxiety and altered group social dynamics. Responses to injury were pHIFU dose-dependent and modifiable with MK-801, MDL-28170, or temperature modulation. Together, results indicate that the zebrafish exhibits responses to injury and intervention similar to mammalian TBI pathophysiology and suggest the potential for use to rapidly evaluate therapeutic compounds with high efficiency.

  17. Predicting adult fish acute lethality with the zebrafish embryo: relevance of test duration, endpoints, compound properties, and exposure concentration analysis.

    PubMed

    Knöbel, Melanie; Busser, Frans J M; Rico-Rico, Angeles; Kramer, Nynke I; Hermens, Joop L M; Hafner, Christoph; Tanneberger, Katrin; Schirmer, Kristin; Scholz, Stefan

    2012-09-04

    The zebrafish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, which is required by various regulations for environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We investigated the reliability of the embryo test by probing organic industrial chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties, toxicities, and modes of toxic action. Moreover, the relevance of using measured versus nominal (intended) exposure concentrations, inclusion of sublethal endpoints, and different exposure durations for the comparability with reported fish acute toxicity was explored. Our results confirm a very strong correlation of zebrafish embryo to fish acute toxicity. When toxicity values were calculated based on measured exposure concentrations, the slope of the type II regression line was 1 and nearly passed through the origin (1 to 1 correlation). Measured concentrations also explained several apparent outliers. Neither prolonged exposure (up to 120 h) nor consideration of sublethal effects led to a reduced number of outliers. Yet, two types of compounds were less lethal to embryos than to adult fish: a neurotoxic compound acting via sodium channels (permethrin) and a compound requiring metabolic activation (allyl alcohol).

  18. Behavioural responses to novelty or to a predator stimulus are not altered in adult zebrafish by early embryonic alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Diane; Shams, Soaleha; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) may vary in symptoms and severity. In the milder and more prevalent forms of the disease, behavioural abnormalities may include impaired social behaviour, e.g. difficulty interpreting social cues. FASD patients remain often undiagnosed due to lack of biomarkers, and treatment is unavailable because the mechanisms of the disease are not yet understood. Animal models have been proposed to facilitate addressing these problems. More recently, short exposure of the zebrafish embryo to low concentrations of alcohol was shown to lead to significant and lasting impairment of behaviour in response to social stimuli. The impairment may be the result of abnormal social behaviour or altered fear/anxiety. The goal of the current study was to investigate the latter. Methods Here, we employed the alcohol exposure regimen used previously (exposure of 24th hour post-fertilization embryos to 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 vol/vol % alcohol for 2 hours), allowed the fish to reach adulthood, and measured the behavioural responses of these adults to a novel tank (anxiety related behaviours) as well as to an animated image of a sympatric predator of zebrafish (fear related behaviours). Results We found behavioural responses of embryonic alcohol exposed adult fish to remain statistically indistinguishable from those of controls, suggesting unaltered anxiety and fear in the embryonic alcohol treated fish. Conclusions Given that motor and perceptual function was previously shown to be also unaltered in the adults after embryonic alcohol exposure, our current results suggest that the impaired response of these fish to social stimuli may be the result of abnormal social behaviour. PMID:27790739

  19. Identification of individual adult female Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus sondaicus) by using patterns of dark pigmentation in the pubic area.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Hadi, Islamul; Suryobroto, Bambang; Watanabe, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    In a series of field surveys of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus sondaicus) conducted at Pangandaran Nature Reserve in West Java, Indonesia, from 2011 to 2012, we tried to use a method of individual identification by using individual-specific patterns of dark pigmentation in the pubic area. During the 2011 dry season, we used a digital SLR camera with a 400-mm telephoto lens to photograph the pubic area of each individual of a habituated group. These photographs were the basis for identifying 14 different adult females. During the rainy season of 2011 and the dry season of 2012, we checked the presence/absence of each of the identified individuals and found that these patterns were stable, at least during our study period. We found that two adult females and one adult female disappeared from the subject group between the first and second and between the second and third surveys, respectively, and that one adult female gave birth between the first and second surveys, but the infant had disappeared from the group between the second and third surveys. We could not confirm the validity of the method for juvenile females because of the dense white hair in their pubic areas and the fact that few individuals had clear patterns. Furthermore, we could not use this method for males because of the lack of pigmentation in the pubic area. As patterns of pigmentation in the pubic area are known to be present in other Trachypithecus species, our method can be useful for identification of individual adult females of these species, on which few individual-based behavioral studies have been conducted. Collecting individual-based behavioral data would enable us to track the presence of individuals in groups or movements between groups; determine the effects of social rank and age on within-group competition and copulation; and examine population data.

  20. Contextual Fear Conditioning in Zebrafish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Justin W.; Scott, Ian C.; Josselyn, Sheena A.; Frankland, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development…

  1. Characterization of Light Lesion Paradigms and Optical Coherence Tomography as Tools to Study Adult Retina Regeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Anke; Hochmann, Sarah; Cimalla, Peter; Gärtner, Maria; Kuscha, Veronika; Hans, Stefan; Geffarth, Michaela; Kaslin, Jan; Koch, Edmund; Brand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Light-induced lesions are a powerful tool to study the amazing ability of photoreceptors to regenerate in the adult zebrafish retina. However, the specificity of the lesion towards photoreceptors or regional differences within the retina are still incompletely understood. We therefore characterized the process of degeneration and regeneration in an established paradigm, using intense white light from a fluorescence lamp on swimming fish (diffuse light lesion). We also designed a new light lesion paradigm where light is focused through a microscope onto the retina of an immobilized fish (focused light lesion). Focused light lesion has the advantage of creating a locally restricted area of damage, with the additional benefit of an untreated control eye in the same animal. In both paradigms, cell death is observed as an immediate early response, and proliferation is initiated around 2 days post lesion (dpl), peaking at 3 dpl. We furthermore find that two photoreceptor subtypes (UV and blue sensitive cones) are more susceptible towards intense white light than red/green double cones and rods. We also observed specific differences within light lesioned areas with respect to the process of photoreceptor degeneration: UV cone debris is removed later than any other type of photoreceptor in light lesions. Unspecific damage to retinal neurons occurs at the center of a focused light lesion territory, but not in the diffuse light lesion areas. We simulated the fish eye optical properties using software simulation, and show that the optical properties may explain the light lesion patterns that we observe. Furthermore, as a new tool to study retinal degeneration and regeneration in individual fish in vivo, we use spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Collectively, the light lesion and imaging assays described here represent powerful tools for studying degeneration and regeneration processes in the adult zebrafish retina. PMID:24303018

  2. The common neural parasite Pseudoloma neurophilia is associated with altered startle response habituation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): Implications for the zebrafish as a model organism.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, Sean; Xue, Lan; Kent, Michael L

    2015-09-15

    The zebrafish's potential as a model for human neurobehavioral research appears nearly limitless despite its relatively recent emergence as an experimental organism. Since the zebrafish has only been part of the research community for a handful of decades, pathogens from its commercial origins continue to plague laboratory stocks. One such pathogen is Pseudoloma neurophilia, a common microparasite in zebrafish laboratories world-wide that generally produces subclinical infections. Given its high prevalence, its predilection for the host's brain and spinal cord, and the delicate nature of neurobehavioral research, the behavioral consequences of subclinical P. neurophilia infection must be explored. Fish infected via cohabitation were tested for startle response habituation in parallel with controls in a device that administered ten taps over 10 min along with taps at 18 and 60 min to evaluate habituation extinction. After testing, fish were euthanized and evaluated for infection via histopathology. Infected fish had a significantly smaller reduction in startle velocity during habituation compared to uninfected tankmates and controls. Habituation was eliminated in infected and control fish at 18 min, whereas exposed negative fish retained partial habituation at 18 min. Infection was also associated with enhanced capture evasion: Despite the absence of external symptoms, infected fish tended to be caught later than uninfected fish netted from the same tank. The combination of decreased overall habituation, early extinction of habituation compared to uninfected cohorts, and enhanced netting evasion indicates that P. neurophilia infection is associated with a behavioral phenotype distinct from that of controls and uninfected cohorts. Because of its prevalence in zebrafish facilities, P. neurophilia has the potential to insidiously influence a wide range of neurobehavioral studies if these associations are causative. Rigorous health screening is therefore vital to the

  3. Avocado consumption increases macular pigment density in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lutein is selectively incorporated into the macula and brain. Lutein levels in the macula (macular pigment; MP) and the brain are related to better cognition. MP density (MPD) is a biomarker of brain lutein. Avocados are a bioavailable source of lutein. This study tests the effects of the intake of ...

  4. Effects of embryonic ethanol exposure at low doses on neuronal development, voluntary ethanol consumption and related behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish: Role of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, M.E.; Chang, G.-Q.; Karatayev, O.; Chang, S.Y.; Leibowitz, S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic exposure to ethanol is known to affect neurochemical systems in rodents and increase alcohol drinking and related behaviors in humans and rodents. With zebrafish emerging as a powerful tool for uncovering neural mechanisms of numerous diseases and exhibiting similarities to rodents, the present report building on our rat studies examined in zebrafish the effects of embryonic ethanol exposure on hypothalamic neurogenesis, expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, and voluntary ethanol consumption and locomotor behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish, and also effects of central neuropeptide injections on these behaviors affected by ethanol. At 24 h post-fertilization, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 2 h to ethanol, at low concentrations of 0.25% and 0.5%, in the tank water. Embryonic ethanol compared to control dose-dependently increased hypothalamic neurogenesis and the proliferation and expression of the orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), in the anterior hypothalamus. These changes in hypothalamic peptide neurons were accompanied by an increase in voluntary consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin and in novelty-induced locomotor and exploratory behavior in adult zebrafish and locomotor activity in larvae. After intracerebroventricular injection, these peptides compared to vehicle had specific effects on these behaviors altered by ethanol, with GAL stimulating consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin more than plain gelatin food and OX stimulating novelty-induced locomotor behavior while increasing intake of food and ethanol equally. These results, similar to those obtained in rats, suggest that the ethanol-induced increase in genesis and expression of these hypothalamic peptide neurons contribute to the behavioral changes induced by embryonic exposure to ethanol. PMID:26778786

  5. Effects of embryonic ethanol exposure at low doses on neuronal development, voluntary ethanol consumption and related behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish: Role of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Sterling, M E; Chang, G-Q; Karatayev, O; Chang, S Y; Leibowitz, S F

    2016-05-01

    Embryonic exposure to ethanol is known to affect neurochemical systems in rodents and increase alcohol drinking and related behaviors in humans and rodents. With zebrafish emerging as a powerful tool for uncovering neural mechanisms of numerous diseases and exhibiting similarities to rodents, the present report building on our rat studies examined in zebrafish the effects of embryonic ethanol exposure on hypothalamic neurogenesis, expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, and voluntary ethanol consumption and locomotor behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish, and also effects of central neuropeptide injections on these behaviors affected by ethanol. At 24h post-fertilization, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 2h to ethanol, at low concentrations of 0.25% and 0.5%, in the tank water. Embryonic ethanol compared to control dose-dependently increased hypothalamic neurogenesis and the proliferation and expression of the orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), in the anterior hypothalamus. These changes in hypothalamic peptide neurons were accompanied by an increase in voluntary consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin and in novelty-induced locomotor and exploratory behavior in adult zebrafish and locomotor activity in larvae. After intracerebroventricular injection, these peptides compared to vehicle had specific effects on these behaviors altered by ethanol, with GAL stimulating consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin more than plain gelatin food and OX stimulating novelty-induced locomotor behavior while increasing intake of food and ethanol equally. These results, similar to those obtained in rats, suggest that the ethanol-induced increase in genesis and expression of these hypothalamic peptide neurons contribute to the behavioral changes induced by embryonic exposure to ethanol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurochemical measurements in the zebrafish brain

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lauren J.; McCutcheon, James E.; Young, Andrew M. J.; Norton, William H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is an ideal model organism for behavioral genetics and neuroscience. The high conservation of genes and neurotransmitter pathways between zebrafish and other vertebrates permits the translation of research between species. Zebrafish behavior can be studied at both larval and adult stages and recent research has begun to establish zebrafish models for human disease. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique that permits the detection of neurotransmitter release and reuptake. In this study we have used in vitro FSCV to measure the release of analytes in the adult zebrafish telencephalon. We compare different stimulation methods and present a characterization of neurochemical changes in the wild-type zebrafish brain. This study represents the first FSCV recordings in zebrafish, thus paving the way for neurochemical analysis of the fish brain. PMID:26441575

  7. Cellular and molecular responses of adult zebrafish after exposure to CuO nanoparticles or ionic copper.

    PubMed

    Vicario-Parés, Unai; Lacave, Jose M; Reip, Paul; Cajaraville, Miren P; Orbea, Amaia

    2018-01-01

    Due to their antimicrobial, electrical and magnetic properties, copper nanoparticles (NPs) are suitable for a vast array of applications. Copper can be toxic to biota, making it necessary to assess the potential hazard of copper nanomaterials. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 10 µg Cu/L of CuO NPs of ≈100 nm (CuO-poly) or ionic copper to compare the effects provoked after 3 and 21 days of exposure and at 6 months post-exposure (mpe). At 21 days, significant copper accumulation was only detected in fish exposed to ionic copper. Exposure to both copper forms caused histopathological alterations that could reduce gill functionality, more markedly in the case of ionic copper. Nevertheless, at 6 mpe higher prevalences of gill lesions were detected in fish previously exposed to CuO-poly NPs. No relevant histological alterations were detected in liver, but the lysosomal membrane stability test showed significantly impaired general health status after exposure to both metal forms that lasted up to 6 mpe. 69 transcripts appeared regulated after 3 days of exposure to CuO-poly NPs, suggesting that NPs could produce oxidative stress and reduce metabolism and transport processes. Thirty transcripts were regulated after 21 days of exposure to ionic copper, indicating possible DNA damage. Genes of the circadian clock were identified as the key genes involved in time-dependent differences between the two copper forms. In conclusion, each copper form showed a distinct pattern of liver transcriptome regulation, but both caused gill histopathological alterations and long lasting impaired health status in adult zebrafish.

  8. Removal of the precursors of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), an emerging disinfection byproduct, in drinking water treatment process and its toxicity to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Lin, Tao; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is one of the emerging nitrogenous disinfection byproducts with probable cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. Its potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention but remain to be poorly understood. In this study, changes in NDEA precursors in drinking water treatment process were studied using the trial of its formation potential (FP), and the toxicity induced by NDEA to adult zebrafish was investigated. NDEA FP in the raw water of Taihu Lake ranged from 46.9 to 68.3 ng/L. The NDEA precursors were removed effectively by O 3 /BAC process. Hydrophilic fraction and low-molecular-weight fraction (<1 kDa) had the highest NDEA FP. The toxicity results demonstrated that the acute lethal concentration of NDEA causing 50% mortality in 96 h (96-h LC50) was 210.4 mg/L, and NDEA was more likely to be accumulated in kidney, followed by liver and gill. NDEA induced oxidative stress and antioxidant defense to zebrafish metabolism system at concentrations over 5 μg/L. After a 42-day exposure, a significant DNA damage was observed in zebrafish liver cells at NDEA concentrations beyond 500 μg/L. This study investigated NDEA properties in both engineering prospective and toxicity evaluation, thus providing comprehensive information on its control in drinking water treatment process and its toxicity effect on zebrafish as a model animal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. First report of Fusarium oxysporum species complex infection in zebrafish culturing system.

    PubMed

    Kulatunga, D C M; Dananjaya, S H S; Park, B K; Kim, C-H; Lee, J; De Zoysa, M

    2017-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a highly diverse fungus. Recently, F. oxysporum infection was identified from zebrafish (Danio rerio) culturing system in Korea. Initially, a rapid whitish smudge was appeared in the water with the fungal blooming on walls of fish tanks. Microscopic studies were conducted on fungal hyphae, colony pigmentation and chlamydospore formation and the presence of macro- and microspores confirmed that the isolated fungus as F. oxysporum. Furthermore, isolated F. oxysporum was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer sequencing which matched (100%) to nine F. oxysporum sequences available in GenBank. Experimental hypodermic injection of F. oxysporum into adult zebrafish showed the development of fungal mycelium and pathogenicity similar to signs observed. Histopathologic results revealed a presence of F. oxysporum hyphae in zebrafish muscle. Fusarium oxysporum growth was increased with sea salt in a concentration-dependent manner. Antifungal susceptibility results revealed that F. oxysporum is resistant to copper sulphate (up to 200 μg mL -1 ) and sensitive to nystatin (up to 40 μg mL -1 ). This is the first report of FOSC from zebrafish culture system, suggesting it appears as an emerging pathogen, thus posing a significant risk on zebrafish facilities in the world. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The common neural parasite Pseudoloma neurophilia is associated with altered startle response habituation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): Implications for the zebrafish as a model organism

    PubMed Central

    Spagnoli, Sean; Xue, Lan; Kent, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish’s potential as a model for human neurobehavioral research appears nearly limitless despite its relatively recent emergence as an experimental organism. Since the zebrafish has only been part of the research community for a handful of decades, pathogens from its commercial origins continue to plague laboratory stocks. One such pathogen is Pseudoloma neurophilia, a common microparasite in zebrafish laboratories world-wide that generally produces subclinical infections. Given its high prevalence, its predilection for the host’s brain and spinal cord, and the delicate nature of neurobehavioral research, the behavioral consequences of subclinical P. neurophilia infection must be explored. Fish infected via cohabitation were tested for startle response habituation in parallel with controls in a device that administered ten taps over ten minutes along with taps at 18 and 60 minutes to evaluate habituation extinction. After testing, fish were euthanized and evaluated for infection via histopathology. Infected fish had a significantly smaller reduction in startle velocity during habituation compared to uninfected tankmates and controls. Habituation was eliminated in infected and control fish at 18 minutes, whereas exposed negative fish retained partial habituation at 18 minutes. Infection was also associated with enhanced capture evasion: Despite the absence of external symptoms, infected fish tended to be caught later than uninfected fish netted from the same tank. The combination of decreased overall habituation, early extinction of habituation compared to uninfected cohorts, and enhanced netting evasion indicates that P. neurophilia infection is associated with a behavioral phenotype distinct from that of controls and uninfected cohorts. Because of its prevalence in zebrafish facilities, P. neurophilia has the potential to insidiously influence a wide range of neurobehavioral studies if these associations are causative. Rigorous health screening is

  11. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

  12. Intraperitoneal Exposure to Nano/Microparticles of Fullerene (C60) Increases Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dal Forno, Gonzalo Ogliari; Kist, Luiza Wilges; de Azevedo, Mariana Barbieri; Fritsch, Rachel Seemann; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Britto, Roberta Socoowski; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Bonan, Carla Denise; Monserrat, José María; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2013-01-01

    Even though technologies involving nano/microparticles have great potential, it is crucial to determine possible toxicity of these technological products before extensive use. Fullerenes C60 are nanomaterials with unique physicochemical and biological properties that are important for the development of many technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of nonphotoexcited fullerene C60 exposure in brain acetylcholinesterase expression and activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage using adult zebrafish as an animal model. None of the doses tested (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) altered AChE activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage when zebrafish were exposed to nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles during 6 and 12 hours. However, adult zebrafish exposed to the 30 mg/kg dose for 24 hours have shown enhanced AChE activity and augmented lipid peroxidation (TBARS assays) in brain. In addition, the up-regulation of brain AChE activity was neither related to the transcriptional control (RT-qPCR analysis) nor to the direct action of nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles on the protein (in vitro results) but probably involved a posttranscriptional or posttranslational modulation of this enzymatic activity. Taken together these findings provided further evidence of toxic effects on brain after C60 exposure. PMID:23865059

  13. Lactobacillus plantarum attenuates anxiety-related behavior and protects against stress-induced dysbiosis in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Doerr, Holly M; Grzelak, Agata K; Busi, Susheel B; Jasarevic, Eldin; Ericsson, Aaron C; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2016-09-19

    The consumption of probiotics has become increasingly popular as a means to try to improve health and well-being. Not only are probiotics considered beneficial to digestive health, but increasing evidence suggests direct and indirect interactions between gut microbiota (GM) and the central nervous system (CNS). Here, adult zebrafish were supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum to determine the effects of probiotic treatment on structural and functional changes of the GM, as well as host neurological and behavioral changes. L. plantarum administration altered the β-diversity of the GM while leaving the major core architecture intact. These minor structural changes were accompanied by significant enrichment of several predicted metabolic pathways. In addition to GM modifications, L. plantarum treatment also significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior and altered GABAergic and serotonergic signaling in the brain. Lastly, L. plantarum supplementation provided protection against stress-induced dysbiosis of the GM. These results underscore the influence commensal microbes have on physiological function in the host, and demonstrate bidirectional communication between the GM and the host.

  14. Generation and characterization of Kctd15 mutations in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Heffer, Alison; Marquart, Gregory D.; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Saleem, Nabil; Burgess, Harold A.

    2017-01-01

    Potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15 (Kctd15) was previously found to have a role in early neural crest (NC) patterning, specifically delimiting the region where NC markers are expressed via repression of transcription factor AP-2a and inhibition of Wnt signaling. We used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to generate null mutations in zebrafish kctd15a and kctd15b paralogs to study the in vivo role of Kctd15. We found that while deletions producing frame-shift mutations in each paralog showed no apparent phenotype, kctd15a/b double mutant zebrafish are smaller in size and show several phenotypes including some affecting the NC, such as expansion of the early NC domain, increased pigmentation, and craniofacial defects. Both melanophore and xanthophore pigment cell numbers and early markers are up-regulated in the double mutants. While we find no embryonic craniofacial defects, adult mutants have a deformed maxillary segment and missing barbels. By confocal imaging of mutant larval brains we found that the torus lateralis (TLa), a region implicated in gustatory networks in other fish, is absent. Ablation of this brain tissue in wild type larvae mimics some aspects of the mutant growth phenotype. Thus kctd15 mutants show deficits in the development of both neural crest derivatives, and specific regions within the central nervous system, leading to a strong reduction in normal growth rates. PMID:29216270

  15. Impacts of 17beta-estradiol, including environmentally relevant concentrations, on reproduction after exposure during embryo-larval-, juvenile- and adult-life stages in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Brion, F; Tyler, C R; Palazzi, X; Laillet, B; Porcher, J M; Garric, J; Flammarion, P

    2004-06-24

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed for 3 weeks to low concentrations of estradiol including environmentally relevant concentrations (5, 25 and 100 ng/l), encompassing either their embryo-larvae (from fertilization to 21 day post-fertilization (dpf)), juvenile (from 21 to 42 dpf) or adult life stages (>200 dpf) with a view to investigating the most sensitive life stage of the zebrafish to 17beta-estradiol (E2). At all sampling points, whole-body vitellogenin concentrations and gonadal development were analyzed in order to investigate the effects of estrogen exposure on these endpoint in the zebrafish. In the adult stage, additional endpoints were measured including secondary sexual characteristics (manifestation of the uro-genital papillae (UGP) in males), gonadal growth (the gonado-somatic index (GSI)) and sex ratio. For all the different life stage exposures, reproductive performance of the F0 generation was assessed (egg production) and survival and development of the F1 embryo-larvae. Exposure to low concentrations of E2 resulted in vitellogenin induction whatever the life stage exposed but these effects were reversible after depuration. The effective concentration for vitellogenin induction in zebrafish early life stages was 100 ng E2/l, and in adult male zebrafish the effective concentration for vitellogenin induction (between 5 and 25 ng/l) was lower than for the early life stage fish. Exposure to E2 prior to (from fertilization to 21 dpf) and during the time of sex differentiation (from 21 to 42 dpf) also caused disruptions in the process of sexual differentiation (resulting in formation of a retrogonadal cavity in presumptive male, germ cell development and leading to a significant change of the sex ratio towards the female sex at the dose of 100 ng E2/l for the fish exposure as embryo-larvae) and altered patterns of egg production in the subsequent adults. Exposure of adult fish to E2 resulted in a modification of the secondary sexual characteristic in

  16. Manganese(II) Chloride Alters Nucleotide and Nucleoside Catabolism in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Adult Brain.

    PubMed

    Altenhofen, Stefani; Nabinger, Débora Dreher; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2018-05-01

    ATP and adenosine, the main signaling molecules of purinergic system, are involved in toxicological effects induced by metals. The manganese (Mn) exposure induces several cellular changes, which could interfere with signaling pathways, such as the purinergic system. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to manganese(II) chloride (MnCl 2 ) during 96 h on nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, followed by analyzing the gene expression patterns of NTPDases (entpd1, entpd2a.1, entpd2a.2, entpd2-like, entpd3) and ADA (ADA 1 , ADA 2.1 , ADA 2.2 , ADAasi, ADAL) families in zebrafish brain. In addition, the brain metabolism of nucleotides and nucleosides was evaluated after MnCl 2 exposure. The results showed that MnCl 2 exposure during 96 h inhibited the NTPDase (1.0 and 1.5 mM) and ecto-ADA (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM) activities, further decreasing ADA2.1 expression at all MnCl 2 concentrations analyzed. Purine metabolism was also altered by the action of MnCl 2 . An increased amount of ADP appeared at all MnCl 2 concentrations analyzed; however, AMP and adenosine levels are decreased at the concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5 mM MnCl 2 , whereas decreased inosine (INO) levels were observed at all concentrations tested. The findings of this study demonstrated that MnCl 2 may inhibit NTPDase and ecto-ADA activities, consequently modulating nucleotide and nucleoside levels, which may contribute for the toxicological effects induced by this metal.

  17. Chronic PFOS exposures induce life stage-specific behavioral deficits in adult zebrafish and produce malformation and behavioral deficits in F1 offspring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangfei; Das, Siba R; La Du, Jane; Corvi, Margaret M; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Guonian; Tanguay, Robert L; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant that is ubiquitous in the environment. Few studies have assessed the behavioral effects of chronic PFOS exposure in aquatic organisms. The present study defined the behavioral effects of varying life span chronic exposures to PFOS in zebrafish. Specifically, zebrafish were exposed to control or 0.5 µM PFOS during 1 to 20, 21 to 120, or 1 to 120 d postfertilization (dpf). Exposure to PFOS impaired the adult zebrafish behavior mode under the tapping stimulus. The movement speed of male and female fish exposed for 1 to 120 dpf was significantly increased compared with control before and after tapping, whereas in the groups exposed for 1 to 20 and 21 to 120 dpf, only the males exhibited elevated swim speed before tapping. Residues of PFOS in F1 embryos derived from parental exposure for 1 to 120 and 21 to 120 dpf were significantly higher than control, and F1 embryos in these two groups also showed high malformation and mortality. The F1 larvae of parental fish exposed to PFOS for 1 to 20 or 21 to 120 dpf exhibited a higher swimming speed than control larvae in a light-to-dark behavior assessment test. The F1 larvae derived from parental fish exposed to PFOS for 1 to 120 dpf showed a significantly lower speed in the light period and a higher speed in the dark period compared with controls. Although there was little PFOS residue in embryos derived from the 1- to 20-dpf parental PFOS-exposed group, the adverse behavioral effects on both adult and F1 larvae indicate that exposure during the first 21 dpf induces long-term neurobehaviorial toxicity. The authors' findings demonstrate that chronic PFOS exposure during different life stages adversely affects adult behavior and F1 offspring morphology, behavior, and survival. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia

    MedlinePlus

    ... it causes a severe decline in thinking and reasoning abilities (dementia). Over time, motor skills are affected, ... Schmahmann JD. Adult onset leukodystrophy with neuroaxonal spheroids: clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathologic observations. Brain Pathol. 2009 Jan; ...

  19. Avocado Consumption Increases Macular Pigment Density in Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Scott, Tammy M; Rasmussen, Helen M; Chen, Oliver; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2017-08-23

    Lutein is selectively incorporated into the macula and brain. Lutein levels in the macula (macular pigment; MP) and the brain are related to better cognition. MP density (MPD) is a biomarker of brain lutein. Avocados are a bioavailable source of lutein. This study tests the effects of the intake of avocado on cognition. This was a six-month, randomized, controlled trial. Healthy subjects consumed one avocado ( n = 20, 0.5 mg/day lutein, AV) vs. one potato or one cup of chickpeas ( n = 20, 0 mg/day lutein, C). Serum lutein, MPD, and cognition were assessed at zero, three, and six months. Primary analyses were conducted according to intent-to-treat principles, with repeated-measures analysis. At six months, AV increased serum lutein levels by 25% from baseline ( p = 0.001). C increased by 15% ( p = 0.030). At six months, there was an increase in MPD from baseline in AV ( p = 0.001) and no increase in C. For both groups, there was an improvement in memory and spatial working memory ( p = 0.001; p = 0.032, respectively). For AV only there was improved sustained attention ( p = 0.033), and the MPD increase was related to improved working memory and efficiency in approaching a problem ( p = 0.036). Dietary recommendations including avocados may be an effective strategy for cognitive health.

  20. Biological Uptake, Distribution, and Depuration of Radio-Labeled Graphene in Adult Zebrafish: Effects of Graphene Size and Natural Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun; Dong, Shipeng; Petersen, Elijah J; Niu, Junfeng; Chang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Peng; Lin, Sijie; Gao, Shixiang; Mao, Liang

    2017-03-28

    The exciting commercial application potential of graphene materials may inevitably lead to their increasing release into the environment where they may pose ecological risks. This study focused on using carbon-14-labeled few-layer graphene (FLG) to determine whether the size of graphene plays a role in its uptake, depuration, and biodistribution in adult zebrafish. After 48 h exposure to larger FLG (L-FLG) at 250 μg/L, the amount of graphene in the organism was close to 48 mg/kg fish dry mass, which was more than 170-fold greater than the body burden of those exposed to the same concentration of smaller FLG (S-FLG). The amount of uptake for both L-FLG and S-FLG increased by a factor of 2.5 and 16, respectively, when natural organic matter (NOM) was added in the exposure suspension. While the L-FLG mainly accumulated in the gut of adult zebrafish, the S-FLG was found in both the gut and liver after exposure with or without NOM. Strikingly, the S-FLG was able to pass through the intestinal wall and enter the intestinal epithelial cells and blood. The presence of NOM increased the quantity of S-FLG in these cells. Exposure to L-FLG or S-FLG also had a significantly different impact on the intestinal microbial community structure.

  1. Long-distance communication by specialized cellular projections during pigment pattern development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Dae Seok; Bain, Emily J; Patterson, Larissa B; Grout, Megan E; Parichy, David M

    2015-01-01

    Changes in gene activity are essential for evolutionary diversification. Yet, elucidating the cellular behaviors that underlie modifications to adult form remains a profound challenge. We use neural crest-derived adult pigmentation of zebrafish and pearl danio to uncover cellular bases for alternative pattern states. We show that stripes in zebrafish require a novel class of thin, fast cellular projection to promote Delta-Notch signaling over long distances from cells of the xanthophore lineage to melanophores. Projections depended on microfilaments and microtubules, exhibited meandering trajectories, and stabilized on target cells to which they delivered membraneous vesicles. By contrast, the uniformly patterned pearl danio lacked such projections, concomitant with Colony stimulating factor 1-dependent changes in xanthophore differentiation that likely curtail signaling available to melanophores. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of cellular communication, roles for differentiation state heterogeneity in pigment cell interactions, and an unanticipated morphogenetic behavior contributing to a striking difference in adult form. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12401.001 PMID:26701906

  2. Zebrafish Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Charles K

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma skin cancer is a potentially deadly disease in humans and has remained extremely difficult to treat once it has metastasized. In just the last 10 years, a number of models of melanoma have been developed in the zebrafish that are biologically faithful to the human disease and have already yielded important insights into the fundamental biology of melanoma and offered new potential avenues for treatment. With the diversity and breadth of the molecular genetic tools available in the zebrafish, these melanoma models will continue to be refined and expanded upon to keep pace with the rapidly evolving field of melanoma biology.

  3. Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 17α-ethinylestradiol affects non-reproductive behavior and fertility as adults, and increases anxiety in unexposed progeny.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Porseryd, Tove; Hallgren, Stefan; Dinnétz, Patrik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) during development affects fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. These effects can also be transferred to coming generations. In fish, the effects of developmental EDC exposure on non-reproductive behavior are less well studied. Here, we analyze the effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on anxiety, shoaling behavior and fertility in zebrafish after developmental treatment and remediation in clean water until adulthood. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from day 1 to day 80 post fertilization to actual concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2. After remediation for 82days non-reproductive behavior and fertilization success were analyzed in both sexes. Males and females from the 1.2ng/L group, as well as control males and females, were bred, and behavior of the untreated F1 offspring was tested as adults. Developmental treatment with 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2 significantly increased anxiety in the novel tank test and increased shoaling intensity in both sexes. Fertilization success was significantly reduced by EE2 in both sexes when mated with untreated fish of opposite sex. Progeny of fish treated with 1.2ng/L EE2 showed increased anxiety in the novel tank test and increased light avoidance in the scototaxis test compared to control offspring. In conclusion, developmental exposure of zebrafish to low doses of EE2 resulted in persistent changes in behavior and fertility. The behavior of unexposed progeny was affected by their parents' exposure, which might suggest transgenerational effects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. IL4/STAT6 Signaling Activates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Neurogenesis upon Amyloid-β42 Aggregation in Adult Zebrafish Brain.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Prabesh; Thomas, Alvin Kuriakose; Cosacak, Mehmet Ilyas; Papadimitriou, Christos; Mashkaryan, Violeta; Froc, Cynthia; Reinhardt, Susanne; Kurth, Thomas; Dahl, Andreas; Zhang, Yixin; Kizil, Caghan

    2016-10-18

    Human brains are prone to neurodegeneration, given that endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) fail to support neurogenesis. To investigate the molecular programs potentially mediating neurodegeneration-induced NSPC plasticity in regenerating organisms, we generated an Amyloid-β42 (Aβ42)-dependent neurotoxic model in adult zebrafish brain through cerebroventricular microinjection of cell-penetrating Aβ42 derivatives. Aβ42 deposits in neurons and causes phenotypes reminiscent of amyloid pathophysiology: apoptosis, microglial activation, synaptic degeneration, and learning deficits. Aβ42 also induces NSPC proliferation and enhanced neurogenesis. Interleukin-4 (IL4) is activated primarily in neurons and microglia/macrophages in response to Aβ42 and is sufficient to increase NSPC proliferation and neurogenesis via STAT6 phosphorylation through the IL4 receptor in NSPCs. Our results reveal a crosstalk between neurons and immune cells mediated by IL4/STAT6 signaling, which induces NSPC plasticity in zebrafish brains. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 gene (TcAANAT1) is required for cuticle morphology and pigmentation of the adult red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Koo, Bonwoo; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2016-12-01

    In the insect cuticle tanning pathway (sclerotization and pigmentation), the enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) catalyzes the acetylation of dopamine to form N-acetyldopamine (NADA), which is one of the major precursors for quinone-mediated tanning. In this study we characterized and investigated the function of TcAANAT1 in cuticle pigmentation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We isolated a full length TcAANAT1 cDNA that encodes a protein of 256 amino acid residues with a predicted GCN5-related acetyltransferase domain containing an acetyl-CoA binding motif. TcAANAT1 transcripts were detected at all stages of development with lowest expressions at the embryonic and pharate pupal stages. We expressed and purified the encoded recombinant TcAANAT1 protein (rTcAANAT1) that exhibited highest activity at slightly basic pH values (for example, pH 7.5 to 8.5 using dopamine as the substrate). In addition, rTcAANAT1 acts on a wide range of substrates including tryptamine, octopamine and norepinephrine with similar substrate affinities with K m values in the range of 0.05-0.11 mM except for tyramine (K m  = 0.56 mM). Loss of function of TcAANAT1 caused by RNAi had no effect on larval and pupal development. The tanning of pupal setae, gin traps and urogomphi proceeded normally. However, the resulting adults (∼70%) exhibited a roughened exoskeletal surface, separated elytra and improperly folded hindwings. The body wall, elytra and veins of the hindwing of the mature adults were significantly darker than those of control insects probably due to the accumulation of dopamine melanin. A dark pigmentation surrounding the bristles located on the inter-veins of the elytron was evident primarily because of the underlying darkly pigmented trabeculae that partition the dorsal and ventral layers of the elytron. These results support the hypothesis that TcAANAT1 acetylates dopamine and plays a role in development of the morphology and pigmentation of T

  6. Accuracy of self-reported nevus and pigmentation phenotype compared with clinical assessment in a population-based study of young Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Cust, Anne E; Pickles, Kristen M; Goumas, Chris; Vu, Thao; Schmid, Helen; Nagore, Eduardo; Kelly, John; Aitken, Joanne F; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Mann, Graham J

    2015-04-01

    Awareness of individual risk may encourage improved prevention and early detection of melanoma. We evaluated the accuracy of self-reported pigmentation and nevus phenotype compared with clinical assessment, and examined agreement between nevus counts from selected anatomical regions. The sample included 456 cases with invasive cutaneous melanoma diagnosed between ages 18 to 39 years and 538 controls from the population-based Australian Melanoma Family Study. Participants completed a questionnaire about their pigmentation and nevus phenotype, and attended a dermatologic skin examination. There was strong agreement between self-reported and clinical assessment of eye color [κ, = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.81]; and moderate agreement for hair color (κ = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.42-0.50). Agreement between self-reported skin color and spectrophotometer-derived measurements was poor (κ = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.08-0.16) to moderate (Spearman correlation rs = -0.37; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.42). Participants tended to underestimate their nevus counts and pigmentation; men were more likely to underreport their skin color. The rs was 0.43 (95% CI, 0.38-0.49) comparing clinical total body nevus counts with self-reported nevus categories. There was good agreement between total body nevus counts and site-specific nevus counts, particularly on both arms. Young adults have suboptimal accuracy when assessing important risk characteristics including nevus numbers and pigmentation. Measuring nevus count on the arms is a good predictor of full body nevus count. These results have implications for the likely success of targeted public health programs that rely on self-assessment of these factors. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Accuracy of self-reported nevus and pigmentation phenotype compared to clinical assessment in a population-based study of young Australian adults

    PubMed Central

    Cust, Anne E.; Pickles, Kristen M.; Goumas, Chris; Vu, Thao; Schmid, Helen; Nagore, Eduardo; Kelly, John; Aitken, Joanne F.; Giles, Graham G.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Mann, Graham J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Awareness of individual risk may encourage improved prevention and early detection of melanoma. Methods We evaluated the accuracy of self-reported pigmentation and nevus phenotype compared to clinical assessment, and examined agreement between nevus counts from selected anatomical regions. The sample included 456 cases with invasive cutaneous melanoma diagnosed between ages 18-39 years and 538 controls from the population-based Australian Melanoma Family Study. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their pigmentation and nevus phenotype, and attended a dermatologic skin examination. Results There was strong agreement between self-reported and clinical assessment of eye color (kappa, κ, =0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.81); and moderate agreement for hair color (κ =0.46, 95% CI 0.42-0.50). Agreement between self-reported skin color and spectrophotometer-derived measurements was poor (κ =0.12, 95% CI 0.08-0.16) to moderate (Spearman correlation rs=-0.37, 95% CI -0.32- to -0.42). Participants tended to under-estimate their nevus counts and pigmentation; men were more likely to under-report their skin color. The rs was 0.43 (95% CI 0.38-0.49) comparing clinical total body nevus counts with self-reported nevus categories. There was good agreement of quartile distributions of total body nevus counts with site-specific nevus counts, particularly on both arms. Conclusions Young adults have sub-optimal accuracy when assessing important risk characteristics including nevus numbers and pigmentation. Measuring nevus count on the arms is a good predictor of full body nevus count. Impact These results have implications for the likely success of targeted public health programs that rely on self-assessment of these factors. PMID:25628333

  8. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanjing; Chen, Chuanyue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Li; Li, Jian; Chen, Yuanyuan; Jin, Jienan; Kawan, Atufa; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2016-01-01

    While microcystins (MCs) have been reported to exert reproductive toxicity on fish with a sex-dependent effect, the underlying mechanism has been rarely investigated. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to 1, 5 and 20 μg/L MC-LR for 30 d. The gonad-somatic index declined in all treated males. 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased in serum from all treated females, while T, FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels changed in all treated males. Histomorphological observation showed that MC-LR exposure evidently retarded oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Transcriptional changes of 22 genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis exhibited sex-specific responses, and the relationship between gene transcriptions and gametogenesis was evaluated by principle component analysis (PCA). Major contributors to PC1 (gnrh2, gnrhr3, ar, lhr, hmgra, hmgrb and cyp19a) were positively correlated with the number of post-vitellogenic oocytes, while PC1 (gnrh2, lhβ, erβ, fshr, cyp11a and 17βhsd) were positively correlated with the number of spermatozoa. The protein levels of 17βHSD and CYP19a were affected in both females and males. In conclusion, this study first investigated the sex-dependent effects of microcystins on fish reproduction and revealed some important molecular biomarkers related to gametogenesis in zebrafish suffered from MC-LR. PMID:26960901

  9. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wanjing; Chen, Chuanyue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Li; Li, Jian; Chen, Yuanyuan; Jin, Jienan; Kawan, Atufa; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2016-03-01

    While microcystins (MCs) have been reported to exert reproductive toxicity on fish with a sex-dependent effect, the underlying mechanism has been rarely investigated. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to 1, 5 and 20 μg/L MC-LR for 30 d. The gonad-somatic index declined in all treated males. 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased in serum from all treated females, while T, FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels changed in all treated males. Histomorphological observation showed that MC-LR exposure evidently retarded oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Transcriptional changes of 22 genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis exhibited sex-specific responses, and the relationship between gene transcriptions and gametogenesis was evaluated by principle component analysis (PCA). Major contributors to PC1 (gnrh2, gnrhr3, ar, lhr, hmgra, hmgrb and cyp19a) were positively correlated with the number of post-vitellogenic oocytes, while PC1 (gnrh2, lhβ, erβ, fshr, cyp11a and 17βhsd) were positively correlated with the number of spermatozoa. The protein levels of 17βHSD and CYP19a were affected in both females and males. In conclusion, this study first investigated the sex-dependent effects of microcystins on fish reproduction and revealed some important molecular biomarkers related to gametogenesis in zebrafish suffered from MC-LR.

  10. Proteomics Identification of Potential Candidates Involved in Cell Proliferation for Early Stage of Brain Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fei Tieng; Ogawa, Satoshi; Smith, A Ian; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2017-02-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of the non-mammalian vertebrates has better neuroregenerative capability as compared with the mammalian CNS. Regeneration of habenula was observed 40 days after damage in zebrafish. During the early stage of regeneration, we found a significant increase of apoptotic cells on day-1 post-damage and of proliferative cells on day-3 post-damage. To identify the molecular factor(s) involved in the early stages of neuroregeneration, differentially expressed proteins during sham, 20- and 40-h post-habenula damage were investigated by proteomic approach by using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight (MALDI-ToF) and tandem mass spectrometry. Protein profiles revealed 17 differentially (>1.5-fold) expressed proteins: 10 upregulated, 4 downregulated, 2 proteins were found to be downregulated at the early stage but upregulated at a later stage, and 1 protein was found to be upregulated at 2 different time points. All proteins identified can be summarized under few molecular processes involved in the early stages of neuroregeneration in zebrafish CNS: apoptosis regulation (Wnt inhibitory factor 1 [WIF1]), neuroprotection (metallothionein), cell proliferation (Spred2, ependymin, Lhx1, and Wnts), differentiation (Spred2, Lhx9, and Wnts), and morphogenesis (cytoplasmic actins and draculin). These protein profiling results suggest that drastic molecular changes occur in the neuroregenerative process during this period, which includes cell proliferation, differentiation, and protection.

  11. Characterization and Discrimination of Oueslati Virgin Olive Oils from Adult and Young Trees in Different Ripening Stages Using Sterols, Pigments, and Alcohols in Tandem with Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Chtourou, Fatma; Jabeur, Hazem; Lazzez, Ayda; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-05-03

    Dynamics of squalene, sterol, aliphatic alcohol, pigment, and triterpenic diol accumulations in olive oils from adult and young trees of the Oueslati cultivar were studied for two consecutive years, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Data were compared statistically for differences by age of trees, maturation of olive, and year of harvesting. Results showed that the mean campesterol content in olive oil from adult trees at the green stage of maturation was significantly (p < 0.02) above the limit established by IOC legislation. However, the mean values of campesterol and Δ-7-stigmastenol were significantly (p < 0.01) above the limits in oils from young trees at the black stage of ripening. Principal component analysis was applied to alcohols, squalene, pigments, and sterols having noncompliance with the legislation. Then, data of 36 samples were subjected to a discriminant analysis with "maturation" as grouping variable and principal components as input variables. The model revealed clear discrimination of each tree age/maturation stage group.

  12. Automatic multiple zebrafish larvae tracking in unconstrained microscopic video conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Cheng, Eva; Burnett, Ian S; Huang, Yushi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2017-12-14

    The accurate tracking of zebrafish larvae movement is fundamental to research in many biomedical, pharmaceutical, and behavioral science applications. However, the locomotive characteristics of zebrafish larvae are significantly different from adult zebrafish, where existing adult zebrafish tracking systems cannot reliably track zebrafish larvae. Further, the far smaller size differentiation between larvae and the container render the detection of water impurities inevitable, which further affects the tracking of zebrafish larvae or require very strict video imaging conditions that typically result in unreliable tracking results for realistic experimental conditions. This paper investigates the adaptation of advanced computer vision segmentation techniques and multiple object tracking algorithms to develop an accurate, efficient and reliable multiple zebrafish larvae tracking system. The proposed system has been tested on a set of single and multiple adult and larvae zebrafish videos in a wide variety of (complex) video conditions, including shadowing, labels, water bubbles and background artifacts. Compared with existing state-of-the-art and commercial multiple organism tracking systems, the proposed system improves the tracking accuracy by up to 31.57% in unconstrained video imaging conditions. To facilitate the evaluation on zebrafish segmentation and tracking research, a dataset with annotated ground truth is also presented. The software is also publicly accessible.

  13. Assessing toxic effects of [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4 in zebrafish adults using a biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Guo, Yingying; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Lusheng; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) on the zebrafish livers were studied at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg L(-1) on the 7th and 14th days. In addition, the concentrations of [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4 in the test water, the acute toxicity of the two ionic liquids (ILs), and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs were evaluated. The acute toxicity test results showed 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) values of 152.3 ± 12.1 mg L(-1) for [Omim]Cl and 144.0 ± 11.4 mg L(-1) for [Omim]BF4. At the lowest concentration investigated (5 mg L(-1)), [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4 did not significantly affect zebrafish during the exposure period. However, the toxic effects of these substances were enhanced as dosing concentrations and exposure times were increased. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly enhanced on the 7th day after 20 mg L(-1) and on the 14th day after 10 mg L(-1) of either substance was applied, resulting in oxidative damage, such as lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The experimental results also indicated little effect of the anions on the toxicity of ILs and consistent toxic effects of [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4. Graphical Abstract The graphical abstract for the present study after exposure to [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4. The letter R represents the anions Cl(-) and BF4 (.)

  14. What is the Thalamus in Zebrafish?

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Current research on the thalamus and related structures in the zebrafish diencephalon identifies an increasing number of both neurological structures and ontogenetic processes as evolutionary conserved between teleosts and mammals. The patterning processes, for example, which during the embryonic development of zebrafish form the thalamus proper appear largely conserved. Yet also striking differences between zebrafish and other vertebrates have been observed, particularly when we look at mature and histologically differentiated brains. A case in point is the migrated preglomerular complex of zebrafish which evolved only within the lineage of ray-finned fish and has no counterpart in mammals or tetrapod vertebrates. Based on its function as a sensory relay station with projections to pallial zones, the preglomerular complex has been compared to specific thalamic nuclei in mammals. However, no thalamic projections to the zebrafish dorsal pallium, which corresponds topologically to the mammalian isocortex, have been identified. Merely one teleostean thalamic nucleus proper, the auditory nucleus, projects to a part of the dorsal telencephalon, the pallial amygdala. Studies on patterning mechanisms identify a rostral and caudal domain in the embryonic thalamus proper. In both, teleosts and mammals, the rostral domain gives rise to GABAergic neurons, whereas glutamatergic neurons originate in the caudal domain of the zebrafish thalamus. The distribution of GABAergic derivatives in the adult zebrafish brain, furthermore, revealed previously overlooked thalamic nuclei and redefined already established ones. These findings require some reconsideration regarding the topological origin of these adult structures. In what follows, I discuss how evolutionary conserved and newly acquired features of the developing and adult zebrafish thalamus can be compared to the mammalian situation. PMID:22586363

  15. The UV-absorber benzophenone-4 alters transcripts of genes involved in hormonal pathways in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos and adult males

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchi, Sara; Bluethgen, Nancy; University of Basel, Division of Molecular and Systems Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Klingelbergstrasse 50, CH-4056 Basel

    Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) is frequently used as UV-absorber in cosmetics and materials protection. Despite its frequent detection in the aquatic environment potential effects on aquatic life are unknown. In this study, we evaluate the effects of BP-4 in eleuthero-embryos and in the liver, testis and brain of adult male fish on the transcriptional level by focusing on target genes involved in hormonal pathways to provide a more complete toxicological profile of this important UV-absorber. Eleuthero-embryos and males of zebrafish were exposed up to 3 days after hatching and for 14 days, respectively, to BP-4 concentrations between 30 and 3000 {mu}g/L. Inmore » eleuthero-embryos transcripts of vtg1, vtg3, esr1, esr2b, hsd17ss3, cyp19b cyp19a, hhex and pax8 were induced at 3000 {mu}g/L BP-4, which points to a low estrogenic activity and interference with early thyroid development, respectively. In adult males BP-4 displayed multiple effects on gene expression in different tissues. In the liver vtg1, vtg3, esr1 and esr2b were down-regulated, while in the brain, vtg1, vtg3 and cyp19b transcripts were up-regulated. In conclusion, the transcription profile revealed that BP-4 interferes with the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways and steroidogenesis. The effects of BP-4 differ in life stages and adult tissues and point to an estrogenic activity in eleuthero-embryos and adult brain, and an antiestrogenic activity in the liver. The results indicate that BP-4 interferes with the sex hormone system of fish, which is important for the risk assessment of this UV-absorber.« less

  16. Early-life perturbations in glucocorticoid activity impacts on the structure, function and molecular composition of the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K.S.; Baily, J.; Tucker, C.S.; Matrone, G.; Vass, S.; Moran, C.; Chapman, K.E.; Mullins, J.J.; Kenyon, C.; Hadoke, P.W.F.; Denvir, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transient early-life perturbations in glucocorticoids (GC) are linked with cardiovascular disease risk in later life. Here the impact of early life manipulations of GC on adult heart structure, function and gene expression were assessed. Methods and results Zebrafish embryos were incubated in dexamethasone (Dex) or injected with targeted glucocorticoid receptor (GR) morpholino knockdown (GR Mo) over the first 120 h post fertilisation (hpf); surviving embryos (>90%) were maintained until adulthood under normal conditions. Cardiac function, heart histology and cardiac genes were assessed in embryonic (120 hpf) and adult (120 days post fertilisation (dpf)) hearts. GR Mo embryos (120 hpf) had smaller hearts with fewer cardiomyocytes, less mature striation pattern, reduced cardiac function and reduced levels of vmhc and igf mRNA compared with controls. GR Mo adult hearts were smaller with diminished trabecular network pattern, reduced expression of vmhc and altered echocardiographic Doppler flow compared to controls. Dex embryos had larger hearts at 120 hpf (Dex 107.2 ± 3.1 vs. controls 90.2 ± 1.1 μm, p < 0.001) with a more mature trabecular network and larger cardiomyocytes (1.62 ± 0.13 cells/μm vs control 2.18 ± 0.13 cells/μm, p < 0.05) and enhanced cardiac performance compared to controls. Adult hearts were larger (1.02 ± 0.07 μg/mg vs controls 0.63 ± 0.06 μg/mg, p = 0.0007), had increased vmhc and gr mRNA levels. Conclusion Perturbations in GR activity during embryonic development results in short and long-term alterations in the heart. PMID:26219824

  17. Impact of low-dose chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on adult male zebrafish adaption to the environmental complexity: Disturbing the color preference patterns and reliving the anxiety behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Li, Xu; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Dai, Liang-Ti; Liu, Xing-Yu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2017-11-01

    The extensive usage of xenobiotic endocrine disrupting chemicals (XEDCs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA), has created obvious threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Although a comprehensive understanding of the adverse effect of BPA on behaviors and physiology have been proven, the potential impact of low-dose BPA on altering the basic ability of aquatic organism in adapting to the surrounded complex environment still remains elusive. In this research, we report that treatment of adult male zebrafish with chronic (7 weeks) low-dose (0.22 nM-2.2 nM) BPA, altered the ability in adapting the complex environment by disturbing the natural color preference patterns. In addition, chronic 50 ng/L (0.22 nM) BPA exposure alleviated the anxiety behavior of male zebrafish confronted with the novel environment by enhancing the preference towards light in the light/dark preference test. This phenotype was associated with less expression of serotonin (5-TH) in the hypothalamus and the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain tissues. As such, our results show that low-dose BPA remnant in surface waters altered zebrafish behavior that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences. Here we reported that the impact of chronic low-dose BPA exposure on the basic capability of zebrafish to adapt to the environmental complexity. Specifically, BPA at low concentration, under the environmental safety level and 3000-fold lower than the accepted human daily exposure, interfered with the ability to discriminate color and alleviate anxiety induced by the novel environment, which finally altered the capability of male zebrafish to adapt to the environmental complexity. These findings revealed the ecological effect of low-dose BPA and regular BPA concentration standard are not necessarily safe. The result also provided the consideration of retuning the hazard concentration level of BPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Justin W; Scott, Ian C; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intensity, prevented by an established amnestic agent (MK-801), lasts at least 14 d, and exhibits extinction. Furthermore, fish of various background strains (AB, Tu, and TL) are able to acquire fear conditioning, but differ in fear extinction rates. Taken together, we find that contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish shares many similarities with the widely used contextual fear conditioning paradigm in rodents. Combined with the amenability of genetic manipulation in zebrafish, we anticipate that our paradigm will prove to be a useful complementary system in which to examine the molecular basis of vertebrate learning and memory. © 2017 Kenney et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. The toxicity of a new disinfection by-product, 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its occurrence in the chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shilin; Lin, Tao; Chen, Wei; Tao, Hui

    2015-11-01

    The detection method of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), a new disinfection by-product (DBP) in chlorinated drinking water, was established using a gas chromatograph coupled with a micro-electron capture detector. The chlorinated water samples were taken from ten drinking water treatment plants around Yangtze River or Taihu Lake in China. The concentration of DCAcAm was detected ranging from 0.5 to 1.8μg/L in the waterworks around Yangtze River, and 1.5-2.6μg/L around Taihu Lake. The toxicity of DCAcAm on adult zebrafish was assessed by investigating the metabolism damage with multiple metabolic biomarkers and the accumulation capability with bio-concentration factor. The results showed that DCAcAm could cause the acute metabolism damage and was easily accumulated in zebrafish, and should be extremely cautioned. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicity and Transcriptome Sequencing (RNA-seq) Analyses of Adult Zebrafish in Response to Exposure Carboxymethyl Cellulose Stabilized Iron Sulfide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min; Lu, Jianguo; Zhao, Dongye

    2018-05-24

    Increasing utilization of stabilized iron sulfides (FeS) nanoparticles implies an elevated release of the materials into the environment. To understand potential impacts and underlying mechanisms of nanoparticle-induced stress, we used the transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) technique to characterize the transcriptomes from adult zebrafish exposed to 10 mg/L carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized FeS nanoparticles for 96 h, demonstrating striking differences in the gene expression profiles in liver. The exposure caused significant expression alterations in genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, detoxification, oxidative stress and DNA damage/repair. The complement and coagulation cascades Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway was found significantly up-regulated under nanoparticle exposure. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using twelve genes confirmed the RNA-seq results. We identified several candidate genes commonly regulated in liver, which may serve as gene indicators when exposed to the nanoparticles. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of pyknotic nuclei, and vacuole formation upon exposure. Tissue accumulation tests showed a 2.2 times higher iron concentration in the fish tissue upon exposure. This study provides preliminary mechanistic insights into potential toxic effects of organic matter stabilized FeS nanoparticles, which will improve our understanding of the genotoxicity caused by stabilized nanoparticles.

  1. Development of the zebrafish mesonephros.

    PubMed

    Diep, Cuong Q; Peng, Zhenzhen; Ukah, Tobechukwu K; Kelly, Paul M; Daigle, Renee V; Davidson, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate kidney plays an essential role in removing metabolic waste and balancing water and salt. This is carried out by nephrons, which comprise a blood filter attached to an epithelial tubule with proximal and distal segments. In zebrafish, two nephrons are first formed as part of the embryonic kidney (pronephros) and hundreds are formed later to make up the adult kidney (mesonephros). Previous studies have focused on the development of the pronephros while considerably less is known about how the mesonephros is formed. Here, we characterize mesonephros development in zebrafish and examine the nephrons that form during larval metamorphosis. These nephrons, arising from proliferating progenitor cells that express the renal transcription factor genes wt1b, pax2a, and lhx1a, form on top of the pronephric tubules and develop a segmentation pattern similar to pronephric nephrons. We find that the pronephros acts as a scaffold for the mesonephros, where new nephrons fuse with the distal segments of the pronephric tubules to form the final branching network that characterizes the adult zebrafish kidney. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of the zebrafish mesonephros

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cuong Q.; Peng, Zhenzhen; Ukah, Tobechukwu K.; Kelly, Paul M.; Daigle, Renee V.; Davidson, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate kidney plays an essential role in removing metabolic waste and balancing water and salt. This is carried out by nephrons, which comprise a blood filter attached to an epithelial tubule with proximal and distal segments. In zebrafish, two nephrons are first formed as part of the embryonic kidney (pronephros) and hundreds are formed later to make up the adult kidney (mesonephros). Previous studies have focused on the development of the pronephros while considerably less is known about how the mesonephros is formed. Here, we characterize mesonephros development in zebrafish and examine the nephrons that form during larval metamorphosis. These nephrons, arising from proliferating progenitor cells that express the renal transcription factor genes wt1b, pax2a, and lhx1a, form on top of the pronephric tubules and develop a segmentation pattern similar to pronephric nephrons. We find that the pronephros acts as a scaffold for the mesonephros, where new nephrons fuse with the distal segments of the pronephric tubules to form the final branching network that characterizes the adult zebrafish kidney. PMID:25677367

  3. Early-life perturbations in glucocorticoid activity impacts on the structure, function and molecular composition of the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K S; Baily, J; Tucker, C S; Matrone, G; Vass, S; Moran, C; Chapman, K E; Mullins, J J; Kenyon, C; Hadoke, P W F; Denvir, M A

    2015-10-15

    Transient early-life perturbations in glucocorticoids (GC) are linked with cardiovascular disease risk in later life. Here the impact of early life manipulations of GC on adult heart structure, function and gene expression were assessed. Zebrafish embryos were incubated in dexamethasone (Dex) or injected with targeted glucocorticoid receptor (GR) morpholino knockdown (GR Mo) over the first 120 h post fertilisation (hpf); surviving embryos (>90%) were maintained until adulthood under normal conditions. Cardiac function, heart histology and cardiac genes were assessed in embryonic (120 hpf) and adult (120 days post fertilisation (dpf)) hearts. GR Mo embryos (120 hpf) had smaller hearts with fewer cardiomyocytes, less mature striation pattern, reduced cardiac function and reduced levels of vmhc and igf mRNA compared with controls. GR Mo adult hearts were smaller with diminished trabecular network pattern, reduced expression of vmhc and altered echocardiographic Doppler flow compared to controls. Dex embryos had larger hearts at 120 hpf (Dex 107.2 ± 3.1 vs. controls 90.2 ± 1.1 μm, p < 0.001) with a more mature trabecular network and larger cardiomyocytes (1.62 ± 0.13 cells/μm vs control 2.18 ± 0.13 cells/μm, p < 0.05) and enhanced cardiac performance compared to controls. Adult hearts were larger (1.02 ± 0.07 μg/mg vs controls 0.63 ± 0.06 μg/mg, p = 0.0007), had increased vmhc and gr mRNA levels. Perturbations in GR activity during embryonic development results in short and long-term alterations in the heart. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  5. Identification of oocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish ovary.

    PubMed

    Draper, Bruce W

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish breed year round and females are capable of producing thousands of eggs during their lifetime. This amazing fecundity is due to the fact that the adult ovary, contains premeiotic oocyte progenitor cells, called oogonia, which produce a continuous supply of new oocytes throughout adult life. Oocyte progenitor cells can be easily identified based on their expression of Vasa, and their characteristic nuclear morphology. Thus, the zebrafish ovary provides a unique and powerful system to study the genetic regulation of oocyte production in a vertebrate animal. A method is presented here for identifying oocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish ovary using whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence that is simple and accurate.

  6. Waterborne fluoride exposure changed the structure and the expressions of steroidogenic-related genes in gonads of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Li, MeiYan; Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Song, Jie; Zhou, Bingrui; Feng, Cuiping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has been demonstrated to have adverse effects on reproductive system in humans and mammals, while the most vulnerable aquatic organisms were ignored. In this study, the effects of waterborne fluoride on growth performance, sex steroid hormone, histological structure, and the transcriptional profiles of sex steroid related genes were examined in both female and male zebrafish exposed to different concentrations of 0.79, 18.60, 36.83 mg L(-1) of fluoride for 30 and 60 d to investigate the effects of fluoride on reproductive system and the underlying toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results showed that the body weight was remarkably decreased, the structure of ovary and testis were serious injured, and the T and E2 levels were significantly reduced in male zebrafish. The transcriptional profiles of steroidogenic related genes displayed phenomenal alterations, the expressions of pgr and cyp19a1a were significantly up-regulated, while the transcriptional levels of er, ar and hsd3β were decreased both in the ovary and testis, and hsd17β8 were down-regulated just in males. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fluoride could significantly inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and notably affect the reproductive system in both sex zebrafish by impairing the structure of ovary and testis, altering steroid hormone levels and steroidogenic genes expression related to the synthesis of sex hormones in zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of sensory systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorman, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Zebrafish possess all of the classic sensory modalities: taste, tactile, smell, balance, vision, and hearing. For each sensory system, this article provides a brief overview of the system in the adult zebrafish followed by a more detailed overview of the development of the system. By far the majority of studies performed in each of the sensory systems of the zebrafish have involved some aspect of molecular biology or genetics. Although molecular biology and genetics are not major foci of the paper, brief discussions of some of the mutant strains of zebrafish that have developmental defects in each specific sensory system are included. The development of the sensory systems is only a small sampling of the work being done using zebrafish and provides a mere glimpse of the potential of this model for the study of vertebrate development, physiology, and human disease.

  8. The helix-loop-helix protein id1 controls stem cell proliferation during regenerative neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Viales, Rebecca; Diotel, Nicolas; Ferg, Marco; Armant, Olivier; Eich, Julia; Alunni, Alessandro; März, Martin; Bally-Cuif, Laure; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    The teleost brain has the remarkable ability to generate new neurons and to repair injuries during adult life stages. Maintaining life-long neurogenesis requires careful management of neural stem cell pools. In a genome-wide expression screen for transcription regulators, the id1 gene, encoding a negative regulator of E-proteins, was found to be upregulated in response to injury. id1 expression was mapped to quiescent type I neural stem cells in the adult telencephalic stem cell niche. Gain and loss of id1 function in vivo demonstrated that Id1 promotes stem cell quiescence. The increased id1 expression observed in neural stem cells in response to injury appeared independent of inflammatory signals, suggesting multiple antagonistic pathways in the regulation of reactive neurogenesis. Together, we propose that Id1 acts to maintain the neural stem cell pool by counteracting neurogenesis-promoting signals. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  9. Mapping the zebrafish brain methylome using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Ozaki, Yuichi; Stockwell, Peter A; Horsfield, Julia A; Morison, Ian M; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) has been used to profile DNA methylation patterns in mammalian genomes such as human, mouse and rat. The methylome of the zebrafish, an important animal model, has not yet been characterized at base-pair resolution using RRBS. Therefore, we evaluated the technique of RRBS in this model organism by generating four single-nucleotide resolution DNA methylomes of adult zebrafish brain. We performed several simulations to show the distribution of fragments and enrichment of CpGs in different in silico reduced representation genomes of zebrafish. Four RRBS brain libraries generated 98 million sequenced reads and had higher frequencies of multiple mapping than equivalent human RRBS libraries. The zebrafish methylome indicates there is higher global DNA methylation in the zebrafish genome compared with its equivalent human methylome. This observation was confirmed by RRBS of zebrafish liver. High coverage CpG dinucleotides are enriched in CpG island shores more than in the CpG island core. We found that 45% of the mapped CpGs reside in gene bodies, and 7% in gene promoters. This analysis provides a roadmap for generating reproducible base-pair level methylomes for zebrafish using RRBS and our results provide the first evidence that RRBS is a suitable technique for global methylation analysis in zebrafish. PMID:23975027

  10. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Subhra Prakash

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the present review we discuss two interrelated events—axonal damage and repair—known to occur after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the zebrafish. Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating axonal tracts and can restore full functionality after SCI. Unlike fish, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is extremely limited. As a consequence of an injury there is very little repair of disengaged axons and therefore functional deficit persists after SCI in adult mammals. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons readily regenerate following injury and hence allow functional recovery both in mammals and fish. A better mechanistic understanding of these three scenarios could provide a more comprehensive insight into the success or failure of axonal regeneration after SCI. This review summarizes the present understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of axonal regeneration, in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, and large scale gene expression analysis is used to focus on different events during regeneration. The discovery and identification of genes involved in zebrafish spinal cord regeneration and subsequent functional experimentation will provide more insight into the endogenous mechanism of myelination and remyelination. Furthermore, precise knowledge of the mechanism underlying the extraordinary axonal regeneration process in zebrafish will also allow us to unravel the potential therapeutic strategies to be implemented for enhancing regrowth and remyelination of axons in mammals. PMID:29721326

  12. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sukla; Hui, Subhra Prakash

    2018-03-01

    In the present review we discuss two interrelated events-axonal damage and repair-known to occur after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the zebrafish. Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating axonal tracts and can restore full functionality after SCI. Unlike fish, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is extremely limited. As a consequence of an injury there is very little repair of disengaged axons and therefore functional deficit persists after SCI in adult mammals. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons readily regenerate following injury and hence allow functional recovery both in mammals and fish. A better mechanistic understanding of these three scenarios could provide a more comprehensive insight into the success or failure of axonal regeneration after SCI. This review summarizes the present understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of axonal regeneration, in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, and large scale gene expression analysis is used to focus on different events during regeneration. The discovery and identification of genes involved in zebrafish spinal cord regeneration and subsequent functional experimentation will provide more insight into the endogenous mechanism of myelination and remyelination. Furthermore, precise knowledge of the mechanism underlying the extraordinary axonal regeneration process in zebrafish will also allow us to unravel the potential therapeutic strategies to be implemented for enhancing regrowth and remyelination of axons in mammals.

  13. Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Nicholas G.; Kelly, Derek E.; Hansen, Matthew E. B.; Beltrame, Marcia H.; Fan, Shaohua; Bowman, Shanna L.; Jewett, Ethan; Ranciaro, Alessia; Thompson, Simon; Lo, Yancy; Pfeifer, Susanne P.; Jensen, Jeffrey D.; Campbell, Michael C.; Beggs, William; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Mokone, Gaonyadiwe George; Nyambo, Thomas; Meskel, Dawit Wolde; Belay, Gurja; Haut, Jake; Rothschild, Harriet; Zon, Leonard; Zhou, Yi; Kovacs, Michael A.; Xu, Mai; Zhang, Tongwu; Bishop, Kevin; Sinclair, Jason; Rivas, Cecilia; Elliot, Eugene; Choi, Jiyeon; Li, Shengchao A.; Hicks, Belynda; Burgess, Shawn; Abnet, Christian; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E.; Oceana, Elena; Song, Yun S.; Eskin, Eleazar; Brown, Kevin M.; Marks, Michael S.; Loftus, Stacie K.; Pavan, William J.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Tishkoff, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide range of skin pigmentation in humans, little is known about its genetic basis in global populations. Examining ethnically diverse African genomes, we identify variants in or near SLC24A5, MFSD12, DDB1, TMEM138, OCA2 and HERC2 that are significantly associated with skin pigmentation. Genetic evidence indicates that the light pigmentation variant at SLC24A5 was introduced into East Africa by gene flow from non-Africans. At all other loci, variants associated with dark pigmentation in Africans are identical by descent in southern Asian and Australo-Melanesian populations. Functional analyses indicate that MFSD12 encodes a lysosomal protein that affects melanogenesis in zebrafish and mice, and that mutations in melanocyte-specific regulatory regions near DDB1/TMEM138 correlate with expression of UV response genes under selection in Eurasians. PMID:29025994

  14. Exposure to a PBDE/OH-BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Laura J.; Chernick, Melissa; Chen, Albert; Hinton, David E.; Bailey, Jordan M.; Kullman, Seth W.; Levin, Edward D.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and halogenated phenolic compounds (e.g., hydroxylated BDEs (OH-BDEs)) arecontaminants detected together frequently in human tissues, and are structurally similar to thyroid hormones (TH). THs partially mediate metamorphic transitions between life stages in zebrafish, making this a critical developmental window which may be uniquely vulnerable to chemicals disrupting thyroid signaling. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to 6-OH-BDE-47 (30 nM) alone or to a low (30 μg/L) or high dose (600 μg/L) mixture of PentaBDEs, 6-OH-BDE-47 (0.5–6 μg/L), & 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP) (5–100 μg/L) during juvenile development (9–23 days post fertilization; dpf) and evaluated for developmental endpoints mediated by TH signaling. Fish were sampled at three time points and examined for developmental and skeletal morphology, apical thyroid and skeletal gene markers, and modifications in swimming behavior (as adults). Exposure to the high mixture resulted in > 85% mortality within one week of exposure, despite being below reported acute toxicity thresholds for individual congeners. The low mixture and 6-OH-BDE-47 groups exhibited reductions in body length and delayed maturation, specifically relating to swim bladder,?, fin, and pigmentation development. Reduced skeletal ossification was also observed in 6-OH-BDE-47 treated fish. Assessment of thyroid and osteochondral gene regulatory networks demonstrated significantly increased expression of genes that regulate skeletal development and THs. Overall, these results indicate that exposures to PBDEs/OH-BDEs mixtures adversely impact zebrafish maturation during metamorphosis. PMID:27329031

  15. Effects of TDCPP or TPP on gene transcriptions and hormones of HPG axis, and their consequences on reproduction in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Ji, Kyunghee; Jo, Areum; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-06-15

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) belong to the group of triester organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), which have been used in a wide range of consumer products. These chemicals have been frequently detected in effluents, surface water, and fish, and hence their potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystem are of concern. The present study was conducted to investigate the reproduction-related effects and possible molecular mechanisms of TDCPP and TPP using a 21 day reproduction test employing adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). After 21 d of exposure to TDCPP or TPP, significant decrease in fecundity along with significant increases of plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations, vitellogenin (VTG) levels, and E2/testosterone (T) and E2/11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) ratios were observed. The transcriptional profiles of several genes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis changed as well after the exposure, but the trend was sex-dependent. In male fish, gonadotropin-releasing hormone2 (GnRH2), GnRHR3, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19B, estrogen receptor α (ERα), ER2 β1, and follicle stimulating hormone β (FSHβ) were upregulated in the brain, while luteinizing hormone β (LHβ) and androgen receptor (AR) were downregulated. Corresponding to the upregulation of FSHβ and downregulation of LHβ in the brain, FSHR was upregulated and LHR was downregulated in the testis. Among the genes that regulate the steroidogenesis pathway, transcription of hydroxyl methyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGRA), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) decreased, while transcription of CYP11A, CYP17, and CYP19A increased. In female fish, transcription ofGnRH2 and GnRHR3 decreased, but FSHβ, LHβ, CYP19B, ERα, ER2β1, and AR transcription increased in the brain. In the ovary, FSHR and LHR were significantly upregulated, and most steroidogenic genes were significantly upregulated. The observed

  16. Magnetite-Based Magnetoreceptor Cells in the Olfactory Organ of Rainbow Trout and Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Cadiou, H.; Dixson, A. D.; Eder, S.; Kobayashi, A.; McNaughton, P. A.; Muhamad, A. N.; Raub, T. D.; Walker, M. M.; Winklhofer, M.; Yuen, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Many vertebrate and invertebrate animals have a geomagnetic sensory system, but the biophysics and anatomy of how magnetic stimuli are transduced to the nervous system is a challenging problem. Previous work in our laboratories identified single-domain magnetite chains in olfactory epithelium in cells proximal to the ros V nerve, which, in rainbow trout, responds to magnetic fields. Our objectives are to characterize these magnetite-containing cells and determine whether they form part of the mechanism of magnetic field transduction in teleost fishes, as a model for other Vertebrates. Using a combination of reflection mode confocal microscopy and a Prussian Blue technique modified to stain specifically for magnetite, our Auckland group estimated that both juvenile rainbow trout (ca. 7 cm total length) olfactory rosettes have ~200 magnetite-containing cells. The magnetite present in two types of cells within the olfactory epithelium appears to be arranged in intracellular chains. All of our groups (Munich, Auckland, Cambridge and Caltech) have obtained different types of structural evidence that magnetite chains closely associate with the plasma membrane in the cells, even in disaggregated tissues. In addition, our Cambridge group used Ca2+ imaging to demonstrate a clear response by individual magnetite-containing cells to a step change in the intensity of the external magnetic field and a slow change in Ca2+ activity when the external magnetic field was cancelled. In the teleost, zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small (~4 cm adult length in captivity) genetic and developmental biology model organism, our Caltech group detected ferromagnetic material throughout the body, but concentrated in the rostral trunk, using NRM and IRM scans of whole adults. Our analysis suggests greater than one million, 80-100 nm crystals, with Lowrie-Fuller curves strongly consistent with single-domain magnetite in 100-100,000 magnetocytes. Ferromagentic resonance (FMR) spectra show crystals

  17. Genome-wide Gene Expression Profiling of Acute Metal Exposures in Male Zebrafish

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-23

    Data in Brief Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish Christine E. Baer a,⁎, Danielle L. Ippolito b, Naissan... Zebrafish Whole organism Nickel Chromium Cobalt Toxicogenomics To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal...toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human

  18. Overview of plant pigments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  19. Zebrafish: an animal model for research in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic

  20. Time-lapse imaging of neural development: zebrafish lead the way into the fourth dimension.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Sandra; Wang, Fang; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    Time-lapse imaging is often the only way to appreciate fully the many dynamic cell movements critical to neural development. Zebrafish possess many advantages that make them the best vertebrate model organism for live imaging of dynamic development events. This review will discuss technical considerations of time-lapse imaging experiments in zebrafish, describe selected examples of imaging studies in zebrafish that revealed new features or principles of neural development, and consider the promise and challenges of future time-lapse studies of neural development in zebrafish embryos and adults. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay D; Parnaik, Veena K

    2017-07-01

    Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans. Expression of zlamin A mutations Q291P and M368K in the heart was driven by the zebrafish cardiac troponin T2 promoter. Homozygous mutant embryos displayed nuclear abnormalities in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Expression analysis showed the upregulation of genes involved in heart regeneration in transgenic mutant embryos and a cell proliferation marker was increased in adult heart tissue. At the physiological level, there was deviation of up to 20% from normal heart rate in transgenic embryos expressing mutant lamins. Adult homozygous zebrafish were fertile and did not show signs of early mortality. Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. Differential expression of neuroligin genes in the nervous system of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Davey, Crystal; Tallafuss, Alexandra; Washbourne, Philip

    2010-02-01

    The establishment and maturation of appropriate synaptic connections is crucial in the development of neuronal circuits. Cellular adhesion is believed to play a central role in this process. Neuroligins are neuronal cell adhesion molecules that are hypothesized to act in the initial formation and maturation of synaptic connections. In order to establish the zebrafish as a model to investigate the in vivo role of Neuroligin proteins in nervous system development, we identified the zebrafish orthologs of neuroligin family members and characterized their expression. Zebrafish possess seven neuroligin genes. Synteny analysis and sequence comparisons show that NLGN2, NLGN3, and NLGN4X are duplicated in zebrafish, but NLGN1 has a single zebrafish ortholog. All seven zebrafish neuroligins are expressed in complex patterns in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of these genes suggest that they occupy a role in nervous system development and maintenance.

  3. Interordinal chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish for analyzing stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ni; Chen, Songlin; Ge, Ruowen; Song, Jianxing; Yi, Meisheng; Hong, Yunhan

    2012-08-10

    Chimera formation is a standard test for pluripotency of stem cells in vivo. Interspecific chimera formation between distantly related organisms offers also an attractive approach for propagating endangered species. Parameters influencing interspecies chimera formation have remained poorly elucidated. Here, we report interordinal chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish, which separated ∼320 million years ago and exhibit a more than 2-fold difference in developmental speed. We show that, on transplantation into zebrafish blastulae, both noncultivated blastomeres and long-term cultivated embryonic stem (ES) cells of medaka adopted the zebrafish developmental program and differentiated into physiologically functional cell types including pigment cells, blood cells, and cardiomyocytes. We also show that medaka ES cells express differentiation gene markers during chimeric embryogenesis. Therefore, the evolutionary distance and different embryogenesis speeds do not produce donor-host incompatibility to compromise chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish, and molecular markers are valuable for analyzing lineage commitment and cell differentiation in interspecific chimeric embryos.

  4. Interordinal Chimera Formation Between Medaka and Zebrafish for Analyzing Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ni; Chen, Songlin; Ge, Ruowen; Song, Jianxing

    2012-01-01

    Chimera formation is a standard test for pluripotency of stem cells in vivo. Interspecific chimera formation between distantly related organisms offers also an attractive approach for propagating endangered species. Parameters influencing interspecies chimera formation have remained poorly elucidated. Here, we report interordinal chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish, which separated ∼320 million years ago and exhibit a more than 2-fold difference in developmental speed. We show that, on transplantation into zebrafish blastulae, both noncultivated blastomeres and long-term cultivated embryonic stem (ES) cells of medaka adopted the zebrafish developmental program and differentiated into physiologically functional cell types including pigment cells, blood cells, and cardiomyocytes. We also show that medaka ES cells express differentiation gene markers during chimeric embryogenesis. Therefore, the evolutionary distance and different embryogenesis speeds do not produce donor-host incompatibility to compromise chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish, and molecular markers are valuable for analyzing lineage commitment and cell differentiation in interspecific chimeric embryos. PMID:22204449

  5. Zebrafish Health Conditions in the China Zebrafish Resource Center and 20 Major Chinese Zebrafish Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyue; Pan, Luyuan; Li, Kuoyu; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Zuoyan; Sun, Yonghua

    2016-07-01

    In China, the use of zebrafish as an experimental animal in the past 15 years has widely expanded. The China Zebrafish Resource Center (CZRC), which was established in 2012, is becoming one of the major resource centers in the global zebrafish community. Large-scale use and regular exchange of zebrafish resources have put forward higher requirements on zebrafish health issues in China. This article reports the current aquatic infrastructure design, animal husbandry, and health-monitoring programs in the CZRC. Meanwhile, through a survey of 20 Chinese zebrafish laboratories, we also describe the current health status of major zebrafish facilities in China. We conclude that it is of great importance to establish a widely accepted health standard and health-monitoring strategy in the Chinese zebrafish research community.

  6. Gap junctions composed of connexins 41.8 and 39.4 are essential for colour pattern formation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Irion, Uwe; Frohnhöfer, Hans Georg; Krauss, Jana; Çolak Champollion, Tuǧba; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Weiler, Christian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between all three pigment cell types are required to form the stripe pattern of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio), but their molecular nature is poorly understood. Mutations in leopard (leo), encoding Connexin 41.8 (Cx41.8), a gap junction subunit, cause a phenotypic series of spotted patterns. A new dominant allele, leotK3, leads to a complete loss of the pattern, suggesting a dominant negative impact on another component of gap junctions. In a genetic screen, we identified this component as Cx39.4 (luchs). Loss-of-function alleles demonstrate that luchs is required for stripe formation in zebrafish; however, the fins are almost not affected. Double mutants and chimeras, which show that leo and luchs are only required in xanthophores and melanophores, but not in iridophores, suggest that both connexins form heteromeric gap junctions. The phenotypes indicate that these promote homotypic interactions between melanophores and xanthophores, respectively, and those cells instruct the patterning of the iridophores. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05125.001 PMID:25535837

  7. Zebrafish and Streptococcal Infections.

    PubMed

    Saralahti, A; Rämet, M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcal bacteria are a versatile group of gram-positive bacteria capable of infecting several host organisms, including humans and fish. Streptococcal species are common colonizers of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, but they also cause some of the most common life-threatening, invasive infections in humans and aquaculture. With its unique characteristics and efficient tools for genetic and imaging applications, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful vertebrate model for infectious diseases. Several zebrafish models introduced so far have shown that zebrafish are suitable models for both zoonotic and human-specific infections. Recently, several zebrafish models mimicking human streptococcal infections have also been developed. These models show great potential in providing novel information about the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses associated with human streptococcal infections. Here, we review the zebrafish infection models for the most relevant streptococcal species: the human-specific Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the zoonotic Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae. The recent success and the future potential of these models for the study of host-pathogen interactions in streptococcal infections are also discussed. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  8. Measuring zebrafish turning rate.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; di Bernardo, Mario; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a popular animal model in preclinical research, and zebrafish turning rate has been proposed for the analysis of activity in several domains. The turning rate is often estimated from the trajectory of the fish centroid that is output by commercial or custom-made target tracking software run on overhead videos of fish swimming. However, the accuracy of such indirect methods with respect to the turning rate associated with changes in heading during zebrafish locomotion is largely untested. Here, we compare two indirect methods for the turning rate estimation using the centroid velocity or position data, with full shape tracking for three different video sampling rates. We use tracking data from the overhead video recorded at 60, 30, and 15 frames per second of zebrafish swimming in a shallow water tank. Statistical comparisons of absolute turning rate across methods and sampling rates indicate that, while indirect methods are indistinguishable from full shape tracking, the video sampling rate significantly influences the turning rate measurement. The results of this study can aid in the selection of the video capture frame rate, an experimental design parameter in zebrafish behavioral experiments where activity is an important measure.

  9. Modulatory effect of resveratrol on SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT4, PGC1α and NAMPT gene expression profiles in wild-type adult zebrafish liver.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Helena; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Bonan, Carla Denise; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Souto, André Arigony

    2012-03-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that catalyze the hydrolysis of acetyl-lysine residues. They play an important role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as the regulation of lifespan and the prevention of metabolic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the effect of resveratrol on the gene expression levels of SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT4, PGC1α, and NAMPT, as well as its effect on NAD(+) and NADH levels, in the liver of non stressed or non impaired wild-type zebrafish. Semiquantative RT-PCR assays showed that resveratrol did not change the mRNA levels of SIRT1 and PGC1α but decreased the expression levels of the SIRT3, SIRT4, and NAMPT genes. The decrease in NAMPT mRNA levels was accompanied by an increase in NADH levels, thereby decreasing the NAD(+)/H ratio. Taken together, our results suggest that resveratrol plays a modulatory role in the transcription of the NAMPT, SIRT3, and SIRT4 genes. Zebrafish is an interesting tool that can be used to understand the mechanisms of SIRTs and NAMPT metabolism and to help develop therapeutic compounds. However, further investigations using healthy experimental animals are required to study the modulation of the SIRT and NAMPT genes by resveratrol before it is used as a nutraceutical compound in healthy humans.

  10. Conserved gene regulation during acute inflammation between zebrafish and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, G.; Varela, M.; Pereiro, P.; Novoa, B.; Figueras, A.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio), largely used as a model for studying developmental processes, has also emerged as a valuable system for modelling human inflammatory diseases. However, in a context where even mice have been questioned as a valid model for these analysis, a systematic study evaluating the reproducibility of human and mammalian inflammatory diseases in zebrafish is still lacking. In this report, we characterize the transcriptomic regulation to lipopolysaccharide in adult zebrafish kidney, liver, and muscle tissues using microarrays and demonstrate how the zebrafish genomic responses can effectively reproduce the mammalian inflammatory process induced by acute endotoxin stress. We provide evidence that immune signaling pathways and single gene expression is well conserved throughout evolution and that the zebrafish and mammal acute genomic responses after lipopolysaccharide stimulation are highly correlated despite the differential susceptibility between species to that compound. Therefore, we formally confirm that zebrafish inflammatory models are suited to study the basic mechanisms of inflammation in human inflammatory diseases, with great translational impact potential. PMID:28157230

  11. Anxiogenic-like effects of chronic nicotine exposure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Grossman, Leah; Collier, Adam D; Echevarria, David J; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-12-01

    Nicotine is one of the most widely used and abused legal drugs. Although its pharmacological profile has been extensively investigated in humans and rodents, nicotine CNS action remains poorly understood. The importance of finding evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, and the need to apply high-throughput in vivo screens for CNS drug discovery, necessitate novel efficient experimental models for nicotine research. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as an excellent organism for studying drug abuse, neuropharmacology and toxicology and have recently been applied to testing nicotine. Anxiolytic, rewarding and memory-modulating effects of acute nicotine treatment in zebrafish are consistently reported in the literature. However, while nicotine abuse is more relevant to long-term exposure models, little is known about chronic effects of nicotine on zebrafish behavior. In the present study, chronic 4-day exposure to 1-2mg/L nicotine mildly increased adult zebrafish shoaling but did not alter baseline cortisol levels. We also found that chronic exposure to nicotine evokes robust anxiogenic behavioral responses in zebrafish tested in the novel tank test paradigm. Generally paralleling clinical and rodent data on anxiogenic effects of chronic nicotine, our study supports the developing utility of zebrafish for nicotine research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ionic channels underlying the ventricular action potential in zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Alday, Aintzane; Alonso, Hiart; Gallego, Monica; Urrutia, Janire; Letamendia, Ainhoa; Callol, Carles; Casis, Oscar

    2014-06-01

    Over the last years zebrafish has become a popular model in the study of cardiac physiology, pathology and pharmacology. Recently, the application of the 3Rs regulation and the characteristics of the embryo have reduced the use of adult zebrafish use in many studies. However, the zebrafish embryo cardiac physiology is poorly characterized since most works have used indirect techniques and direct recordings of cardiac action potential and ionic currents are scarce. In order to optimize the zebrafish embryo model, we used electrophysiological, pharmacological and immunofluorescence tools to identify the characteristics and the ionic channels involved in the ventricular action potentials of zebrafish embryos. The application of Na(+) or T-type Ca(+2) channel blockers eliminated the cardiac electrical activity, indicating that the action potential upstroke depends on Na(+) and T-type Ca(+2) currents. The plateau phase depends on L-type Ca(+2) channels since it is abolished by specific blockade. The direct channel blockade indicates that the action potential repolarization and diastolic potential depends on ERG K(+) channels. The presence in the embryonic heart of the Nav1.5, Cav1.2, Cav3.2 and ERG channels was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, while the absence of effect of specific blockers and immunostaining indicate that two K(+) repolarizing currents present in human heart, Ito and IKs, are absent in the embryonic zebrafish heart. Our results describe the ionic channels present and its role in the zebrafish embryo heart and support the use of zebrafish embryos to study human diseases and their use for drug testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Zebrafish heart regeneration: 15 years of discoveries

    PubMed Central

    González‐Rosa, Juan Manuel; Burns, Caroline E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Compared to other organs such as the liver, the adult human heart lacks the capacity to regenerate on a macroscopic scale after injury. As a result, myocardial infarctions are responsible for approximately half of all cardiovascular related deaths. In contrast, the zebrafish heart regenerates efficiently upon injury through robust myocardial proliferation. Therefore, deciphering the mechanisms that underlie the zebrafish heart's endogenous regenerative capacity represents an exciting avenue to identify novel therapeutic strategies for inducing regeneration of the human heart. This review provides a historical overview of adult zebrafish heart regeneration. We summarize 15 years of research, with a special focus on recent developments from this fascinating field. We discuss experimental findings that address fundamental questions of regeneration research. What is the origin of regenerated muscle? How is regeneration controlled from a genetic and molecular perspective? How do different cell types interact to achieve organ regeneration? Understanding natural models of heart regeneration will bring us closer to answering the ultimate question: how can we stimulate myocardial regeneration in humans? PMID:28979788

  14. Iridophores and their interactions with other chromatophores are required for stripe formation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Frohnhöfer, Hans Georg; Krauss, Jana; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Colour patterns of adult fish are produced by several types of pigment cells that distribute in the dermis during juvenile development. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, displays a striking pattern of dark stripes of melanophores interspersed by light stripes of xanthophores. Mutants lacking either cell type do not form proper stripes, indicating that interactions between these two chromatophore types are required for stripe formation. A third cell type, silvery iridophores, participates to render a shiny appearance to the pattern, but its role in stripe formation has been unclear. Mutations in rose (rse) or shady (shd) cause a lack or strong reduction of iridophores in adult fish; in addition, the melanophore number is drastically reduced and stripes are broken up into spots. We show that rse and shd are autonomously required in iridophores, as mutant melanophores form normal sized stripes when confronted with wild-type iridophores in chimeric animals. We describe stripe formation in mutants missing one or two of the three chromatophore types. None of the chromatophore types alone is able to create a pattern but residual stripe formation occurs with two cell types. Our analysis shows that iridophores promote and sustain melanophores. Furthermore, iridophores attract xanthophores, whereas xanthophores repel melanophores. We present a model for the interactions between the three chromatophore types underlying stripe formation. Stripe formation is initiated by iridophores appearing at the horizontal myoseptum, which serves as a morphological landmark for stripe orientation, but is subsequently a self-organising process. PMID:23821036

  15. The ontogeny of sleep-wake cycles in zebrafish: a comparison to humans

    PubMed Central

    Sorribes, Amanda; Þorsteinsson, Haraldur; Arnardóttir, Hrönn; Jóhannesdóttir, Ingibjörg Þ.; Sigurgeirsson, Benjamín; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.; Karlsson, Karl Æ.

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used extensively in sleep research; both to further understanding of sleep in general and also as a model of human sleep. To date, sleep studies have been performed in larval and adult zebrafish but no efforts have been made to document the ontogeny of zebrafish sleep–wake cycles. Because sleep differs across phylogeny and ontogeny it is important to validate the use of zebrafish in elucidating the neural substrates of sleep. Here we describe the development of sleep and wake across the zebrafish lifespan and how it compares to humans. We find power-law distributions to best fit wake bout data but demonstrate that exponential distributions, previously used to describe sleep bout distributions, fail to adequately account for the data in either species. Regardless, the data reveal remarkable similarities in the ontogeny of sleep cycles in zebrafish and humans. Moreover, as seen in other organisms, zebrafish sleep levels are highest early in ontogeny and sleep and wake bouts gradually consolidate to form the adult sleep pattern. Finally, sleep percentage, bout duration, bout number, and sleep fragmentation are shown to allow for meaningful comparisons between zebrafish and human sleep. PMID:24312015

  16. Glutathione S-Transferase Protein Expression in Different Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Tierbach, Alena; Groh, Ksenia J; Schönenberger, René; Schirmer, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish is a widely used animal model in biomedical sciences and toxicology. Although evidence for the presence of phases I and II xenobiotic defense mechanisms in zebrafish exists on the transcriptional and enzyme activity level, little is known about the protein expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Given the important role of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in phase II biotransformation, we analyzed cytosolic GST proteins in zebrafish early life stages and different organs of adult male and female fish, using a targeted proteomics approach. The established multiple reaction monitoring-based assays enable the measurement of the relative abundance of specific GST isoenzymes and GST classes in zebrafish through a combination of proteotypic peptides and peptides shared within the same class. GSTs of the classes alpha, mu, pi and rho are expressed in zebrafish embryo as early as 4 h postfertilization (hpf). The majority of GST enzymes are present at 72 hpf followed by a continuous increase in expression thereafter. In adult zebrafish, GST expression is organ dependent, with most of the GST classes showing the highest expression in the liver. The expression of a wide range of cytosolic GST isoenzymes and classes in zebrafish early life stages and adulthood supports the use of zebrafish as a model organism in chemical-related investigations. PMID:29361160

  17. Mycobacteriosis in zebrafish colonies.

    PubMed

    Whipps, Christopher M; Lieggi, Christine; Wagner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial infection, has been associated with severe losses in some zebrafish facilities and low-level mortalities and unknown impacts in others. The occurrence of at least six different described species (Mycobacterium abscessus, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. haemophilum, M. marinum, M. peregrinum) from zebrafish complicates diagnosis and control because each species is unique. As a generalization, mycobacteria are often considered opportunists, but M. haemophilum and M. marinum appear to be more virulent. Background genetics of zebrafish and environmental conditions influence the susceptibility of fish and progression of disease, emphasizing the importance of regular monitoring and good husbandry practices. A combined approach to diagnostics is ultimately the most informative, with histology as a first-level screen, polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection and species identification, and culture for strain differentiation. Occurrence of identical strains of Mycobacterium in both fish and biofilms in zebrafish systems suggests transmission can occur when fish feed on infected tissues or tank detritus containing mycobacteria. Within a facility, good husbandry practices and sentinel programs are essential for minimizing the impacts of mycobacteria. In addition, quarantine and screening of animals coming into a facility is important for eliminating the introduction of the more severe pathogens. Elimination of mycobacteria from an aquatic system is likely not feasible because these species readily establish biofilms on surfaces even in extremely low nutrient conditions. Risks associated with each commonly encountered species need to be identified and informed management plans developed. Basic research on the growth characteristics, disinfection, and pathogenesis of zebrafish mycobacteria is critical moving forward.

  18. Zebrafish neurofibromatosis type 1 genes have redundant functions in tumorigenesis and embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jimann; Padmanabhan, Arun; de Groh, Eric D.; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Haidar, Sam; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Guo, Feng; He, Shuning; Wolman, Marc A.; Granato, Michael; Lawson, Nathan D.; Wolfe, Scot A.; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna; Kanki, John P.; Ligon, Keith L.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common, dominantly inherited genetic disorder that results from mutations in the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene. Affected individuals demonstrate abnormalities in neural-crest-derived tissues that include hyperpigmented skin lesions and benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. NF1 patients also have a predisposition to malignancies including juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), optic glioma, glioblastoma, schwannoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). In an effort to better define the molecular and cellular determinants of NF1 disease pathogenesis in vivo, we employed targeted mutagenesis strategies to generate zebrafish harboring stable germline mutations in nf1a and nf1b, orthologues of NF1. Animals homozygous for loss-of-function alleles of nf1a or nf1b alone are phenotypically normal and viable. Homozygous loss of both alleles in combination generates larval phenotypes that resemble aspects of the human disease and results in larval lethality between 7 and 10 days post fertilization. nf1-null larvae demonstrate significant central and peripheral nervous system defects. These include aberrant proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), dysmorphic myelin sheaths and hyperplasia of Schwann cells. Loss of nf1 contributes to tumorigenesis as demonstrated by an accelerated onset and increased penetrance of high-grade gliomas and MPNSTs in adult nf1a+/−; nf1b−/−; p53e7/e7 animals. nf1-null larvae also demonstrate significant motor and learning defects. Importantly, we identify and quantitatively analyze a novel melanophore phenotype in nf1-null larvae, providing the first animal model of the pathognomonic pigmentation lesions of NF1. Together, these findings support a role for nf1a and nf1b as potent tumor suppressor genes that also function in the development of both central and peripheral glial cells as well as melanophores in zebrafish. PMID:22773753

  19. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  20. Ion transport in pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Oancea, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system,, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis. PMID:25034214

  1. Anesthesia and euthanasia in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Monte; Varga, Zoltán M

    2012-01-01

    Because of the relative ease of embryonic manipulation and observation, the ability to produce a great number of genetic mutations, efficient screening methods, and the continued advance of molecular genetic tools, such as the progress in sequencing and mapping of the zebrafish genome, the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a biomedical model organism continues to expand. However, studies involving zebrafish husbandry and veterinary care struggle to keep pace with scientific progress. This article outlines some of the current, acceptable methods for providing anesthesia and euthanasia and provides some examples of how performance-based approaches can be used to advance the relatively limited number of anesthetic and euthanizing techniques available for zebrafish.

  2. Cell Migration During Heart Regeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Naoyuki; Brush, Michael; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Zebrafish possess the remarkable ability to regenerate injured hearts as adults, which contrasts the very limited ability in mammals. Although very limited, mammalian hearts do in fact have measurable levels of cardiomyocyte regeneration. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms of zebrafish heart regeneration would provide information of naturally occurring regeneration to potentially apply to mammalian studies, in addition to addressing this biologically interesting phenomenon in itself. Studies over the past 13 years have identified processes and mechanisms of heart regeneration in zebrafish. After heart injury, preexisting cardiomyocytes dedifferentiate, enter the cell cycle, and repair the injured myocardium. This process requires interaction with epicardial cells, endocardial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Epicardial cells envelope the heart, while endocardial cells make up the inner lining of the heart. They provide paracrine signals to cardiomyocytes to regenerate the injured myocardium, which is vascularized during heart regeneration. In addition, accumulating results suggest that local migration of these major cardiac cell types have roles in heart regeneration. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of various heart injury methods used in the research community and regeneration of the major cardiac cell types. Then, we discuss local migration of these cardiac cell types and immune cells during heart regeneration. PMID:27085002

  3. Cell migration during heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Naoyuki; Brush, Michael; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Zebrafish possess the remarkable ability to regenerate injured hearts as adults, which contrasts the very limited ability in mammals. Although very limited, mammalian hearts do in fact have measurable levels of cardiomyocyte regeneration. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms of zebrafish heart regeneration would provide information of naturally occurring regeneration to potentially apply to mammalian studies, in addition to addressing this biologically interesting phenomenon in itself. Studies over the past 13 years have identified processes and mechanisms of heart regeneration in zebrafish. After heart injury, pre-existing cardiomyocytes dedifferentiate, enter the cell cycle, and repair the injured myocardium. This process requires interaction with epicardial cells, endocardial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Epicardial cells envelope the heart, while endocardial cells make up the inner lining of the heart. They provide paracrine signals to cardiomyocytes to regenerate the injured myocardium, which is vascularized during heart regeneration. In addition, accumulating results suggest that local migration of these major cardiac cell types have roles in heart regeneration. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of various heart injury methods used in the research community and regeneration of the major cardiac cell types. Then, we discuss local migration of these cardiac cell types and immune cells during heart regeneration. Developmental Dynamics 245:774-787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Juxtaposition of chemical and mutation-induced developmental defects in zebrafish reveal a copper-chelating activity for kalihinol F.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Imelda T; Manos, Elizabeth J; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Delacruz, Richard Glenn C; Edes, Kornelia; Winge, Dennis R; Ireland, Chris M; Jones, David A

    2013-06-20

    A major hurdle in using complex systems for drug screening is the difficulty of defining the mechanistic targets of small molecules. The zebrafish provides an excellent model system for juxtaposing developmental phenotypes with mechanism discovery using organism genetics. We carried out a phenotype-based screen of uncharacterized small molecules in zebrafish that produced a variety of chemically induced phenotypes with potential genetic parallels. Specifically, kalihinol F caused an undulated notochord, defects in pigment formation, hematopoiesis, and neural development. These phenotypes were strikingly similar to the zebrafish mutant, calamity, an established model of copper deficiency. Further studies into the mechanism of action of kalihinol F revealed a copper-chelating activity. Our data support this mechanism of action for kalihinol F and the utility of zebrafish as an effective system for identifying therapeutic and target pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  6. Two-photon-based photoactivation in live zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Russek-Blum, Niva; Nabel-Rosen, Helit; Levkowitz, Gil

    2010-12-24

    Photoactivation of target compounds in a living organism has proven a valuable approach to investigate various biological processes such as embryonic development, cellular signaling and adult physiology. In this respect, the use of multi-photon microscopy enables quantitative photoactivation of a given light responsive agent in deep tissues at a single cell resolution. As zebrafish embryos are optically transparent, their development can be monitored in vivo. These traits make the zebrafish a perfect model organism for controlling the activity of a variety of chemical agents and proteins by focused light. Here we describe the use of two-photon microscopy to induce the activation of chemically caged fluorescein, which in turn allows us to follow cell's destiny in live zebrafish embryos. We use embryos expressing a live genetic landmark (GFP) to locate and precisely target any cells of interest. This procedure can be similarly used for precise light induced activation of proteins, hormones, small molecules and other caged compounds.

  7. Anxiolytic-like effects of noribogaine in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, Allan V; Kaluyeva, Aleksandra; Maillet, Emeline L

    2017-07-14

    Noribogaine is the main psychoactive metabolite of the hallucinogenic drug ibogaine, and is a particularly interesting compound potentially useful to treat dependence and various psychiatric disorders. Here, we report the effects of noribogaine on anxiety and locomotion in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a new promising model organism in neurobehavioral and psychopharmacological research. Adult zebrafish were subjected to the 5min novel tank test (NTT) following an acute, 20-min drug immersion in 1, 5 and 10mg/L noribogaine. Overall, noribogaine produced robust anxiolytic-like behavior in zebrafish (increasing the time spent and transitions to the top half compartment and reducing freezing bouts) without overt effects on fish locomotion. Taken together, these results indicate that noribogaine modulates the components of the acute stress response related to emotionality and anxiety behaviors, implicating this drug as a potentially useful non-sedative anxiolytic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zebrafish Craniofacial Development: A Window into Early Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Mork, Lindsey; Crump, Gage

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the face and skull involves a complex series of developmental events mediated by cells derived from the neural crest, endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Although vertebrates boast an enormous diversity of adult facial morphologies, the fundamental signaling pathways and cellular events that sculpt the nascent craniofacial skeleton in the embryo have proven to be highly conserved from fish to man. The zebrafish Danio rerio, a small freshwater cyprinid fish from eastern India, has served as a popular model of craniofacial development since the 1990s. Unique strengths of the zebrafish model include a simplified skeleton during larval stages, access to rapidly developing embryos for live imaging, and amenability to transgenesis and complex genetics. In this chapter, we describe the anatomy of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton; its applications as models for the mammalian jaw, middle ear, palate, and cranial sutures; the superior imaging technology available in fish that has provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of facial morphogenesis; the use of the zebrafish to decipher the genetic underpinnings of craniofacial biology; and finally a glimpse into the most promising future applications of zebrafish craniofacial research. PMID:26589928

  9. Using the zebrafish to understand tendon development and repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jessica W.; Galloway, Jenna L.

    2017-01-01

    Tendons are important components of our musculoskeletal system. Injuries to these tissues are very common, resulting from occupational-related injuries, sports-related trauma, and age-related degeneration. Unfortunately, there are few treatment options, and current therapies rarely restore injured tendons to their original function. An improved understanding of the pathways regulating their development and repair would have significant impact in stimulating the formulation of regenerative-based approaches for tendon injury. The zebrafish provides an ideal system in which to perform genetic and chemical screens to identify new pathways involved in tendon biology. Until recently, there had been few descriptions of tendons and ligaments in the zebrafish and their similarity to mammalian tendon tissues. In this chapter, we describe the development of the zebrafish tendon and ligament tissues in the context of their gene expression, structure, and interactions with neighboring musculoskeletal tissues. We highlight the similarities with tendon development in higher vertebrates, showing that the craniofacial tendons and ligaments in zebrafish morphologically, molecularly, and structurally resemble mammalian tendons and ligaments from embryonic to adult stages. We detail methods for fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry as an assay to examine morphological changes in the zebrafish musculoskeleton. Staining assays such as these could provide the foundation for screen-based approaches to identify new regulators of tendon development, morphogenesis, and repair. These discoveries would provide new targets and pathways to study in the context of regenerative medicine-based approaches to improve tendon healing. PMID:28129848

  10. Ontogeny of classical and operant learning behaviors in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Valente, André; Huang, Kuo-Hua; Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2012-03-20

    The performance of developing zebrafish in both classical and operant conditioning assays was tested with a particular focus on the emergence of these learning behaviors during development. Strategically positioned visual cues paired with electroshocks were used in two fully automated assays to investigate both learning paradigms. These allow the evaluation of the behavioral performance of zebrafish continuously throughout development, from larva to adult. We found that learning improves throughout development, starts reliably around week 3, and reaches adult performance levels at week 6. Adult fish quickly learned to perform perfectly, and the expression of the learned behavior is manifestly controlled by vision. The memory is behaviorally expressed in adults for at least 6 h and retrievable for at least 12 h.

  11. Ontogeny of classical and operant learning behaviors in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Valente, André; Huang, Kuo-Hua; Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The performance of developing zebrafish in both classical and operant conditioning assays was tested with a particular focus on the emergence of these learning behaviors during development. Strategically positioned visual cues paired with electroshocks were used in two fully automated assays to investigate both learning paradigms. These allow the evaluation of the behavioral performance of zebrafish continuously throughout development, from larva to adult. We found that learning improves throughout development, starts reliably around week 3, and reaches adult performance levels at week 6. Adult fish quickly learned to perform perfectly, and the expression of the learned behavior is manifestly controlled by vision. The memory is behaviorally expressed in adults for at least 6 h and retrievable for at least 12 h. PMID:22434824

  12. UPLC/MS MS data of testosterone metabolites in human and zebrafish liver microsomes and whole zebrafish larval microsomes.

    PubMed

    Saad, Moayad; Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Matheeussen, An; Verbueken, Evy; Pype, Casper; Casteleyn, Christophe; Van Ginneken, Chris; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Van Cruchten, Steven

    2018-02-01

    This article represents data regarding a study published in Toxicology in vitro entitled " in vitro CYP-mediated drug metabolism in the zebrafish (embryo) using human reference compounds" (Saad et al., 2017) [1]. Data were acquired with ultra-performance liquid chromatography - accurate mass mass spectrometry (UPLC-amMS). A full spectrum scan was conducted for the testosterone (TST) metabolites from the microsomal stability assay in zebrafish and humans. The microsomal proteins were extracted from adult zebrafish male (MLM) and female (FLM) livers, whole body homogenates of 96 h post fertilization larvae (EM) and a pool of human liver microsomes from 50 donors (HLM). Data are expressed as the abundance from the extracted ion chromatogram of the metabolites.

  13. Automatic zebrafish heartbeat detection and analysis for zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Pylatiuk, Christian; Sanchez, Daniela; Mikut, Ralf; Alshut, Rüdiger; Reischl, Markus; Hirth, Sofia; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Just, Steffen

    2014-08-01

    A fully automatic detection and analysis method of heartbeats in videos of nonfixed and nonanesthetized zebrafish embryos is presented. This method reduces the manual workload and time needed for preparation and imaging of the zebrafish embryos, as well as for evaluating heartbeat parameters such as frequency, beat-to-beat intervals, and arrhythmicity. The method is validated by a comparison of the results from automatic and manual detection of the heart rates of wild-type zebrafish embryos 36-120 h postfertilization and of embryonic hearts with bradycardia and pauses in the cardiac contraction.

  14. Effects of combined exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol and dibutyl phthalate on the growth and reproduction of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Xu, Nan; Chen, Pengyu; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Yaqiong; Zhou, Haixia; Li, Song

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the combined effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on the growth and reproduction of male zebrafish, three-month-old fish were exposed to 0.005 or 0.020µg/L EE2, 100 or 500µg/L DBP or their binary mixtures under semi-static conditions. Investigated parameters include the length, weight, condition factor, vitellogenin (VTG) induction, acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) protein level, histopathological alteration of testis, liver and gill, and reproductive capacity. After 21d exposure, no statistical difference was found among the weights, lengths and condition factors of different treatment groups. In all binary mixture groups, decreased VTG levels were detected compared to EE2-only groups; and the AOX levels were significantly lower than DBP-only treatments while both chemicals can individually induce AOX synthesis. Therefore, EE2 and DBP may act additively on VTG and antagonistically on AOX induction in males. After 45d exposure, delayed gametogenesis was observed for the DBP-only groups, indicated by fewer spermatozoa and more spermatocytes, which was further aggravated with the addition of EE2. The developmental delay of testis partially recovered after a 30d depuration in clean water. Combined exposure also caused liver and gill lesions, which were not alleviated during the 30d depuration, suggesting a nonreversible harmful effect the same as single exposure. Mixed EE2 and DBP were observed to impair the reproductive capability (the fecundity and fertilization rate) of males, while single exposure did not. Co-exposed to 0.020µg/L EE2 and 100µg/L DBP promoted the early hatching of offspring (F1 generation) at 48h post-fertilization (hpf), but the survival rates of the F1 generation were similar in all treatments. Our findings indicate that the effects of mixed EE2 and DBP at environmentally relevant levels can be either antagonistic or additive relying on the specific toxicological endpoints and the respective doses of each

  15. Zebrafish pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Tiso, Natascia; Moro, Enrico; Argenton, Francesco

    2009-11-27

    An accurate understanding of the molecular events governing pancreas development can have an impact on clinical medicine related to diabetes, obesity and pancreatic cancer, diseases with a high impact in public health. Until 1996, the main animal models in which pancreas formation and differentiation could be studied were mouse and, for some instances related to early development, chicken and Xenopus. Zebrafish has penetrated this field very rapidly offering a new model of investigation; by joining functional genomics, genetics and in vivo whole mount visualization, Danio rerio has allowed large scale and fine multidimensional analysis of gene functions during pancreas formation and differentiation.

  16. Familial grouped pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, P T; Delleman, J W

    1988-01-01

    Grouped pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium was found in a father and his son. They had a normal resting potential on the electro-oculogram, but the son had a lower normal light rise. We believe this is the first description of familial grouped pigmentation. Images PMID:3390419

  17. Pigment epithelium-derived factor upregulates collagen I and downregulates matrix metalloproteinase 2 in osteosarcoma cells, and colocalises to collagen I and heat shock protein 47 in fetal and adult bone.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Marice B; Nemazannikova, Natalie; Elahy, Mina; Dass, Crispin R

    2014-11-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has proven anti-osteosarcoma activity. However, the mechanism(s) underpinning its ability to reduce primary bone tumour (osteosarcoma) metastasis is unknown. Adult and fetal murine bone were immunostained for PEDF, collagen I (major protein in bone) and its processing proteins, heat shock protein 47 (HSP47, a chaperone protein for collagen I), membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, a collagenase), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, which is activated by MT1-MMP). Immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry were used to observe levels of the above biomarkers when human osteosarcoma cells were treated with PEDF. Immunohistochemical staining in adult and fetal bone mirrors collagen I. PEDF localised to ridges of trabecular bone in tibial cortex and to megakaryocytes within bone marrow. Second, we observed that PEDF upregulates collagen I, HSP47 and MT1-MMP, while downregulating MMP-2 in osteosarcoma cells in vitro. PEDF is a promising antagonist to osteosarcoma cell metastasis via downregulation of MMP-2, and can induce tumour cells to further adopt differentiative properties, thereby possibly reducing their aggressive growth in vitro and in vivo. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Automated phenotype pattern recognition of zebrafish for high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Schutera, Mark; Dickmeis, Thomas; Mione, Marina; Peravali, Ravindra; Marcato, Daniel; Reischl, Markus; Mikut, Ralf; Pylatiuk, Christian

    2016-07-03

    Over the last years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a key model organism in genetic and chemical screenings. A growing number of experiments and an expanding interest in zebrafish research makes it increasingly essential to automatize the distribution of embryos and larvae into standard microtiter plates or other sample holders for screening, often according to phenotypical features. Until now, such sorting processes have been carried out by manually handling the larvae and manual feature detection. Here, a prototype platform for image acquisition together with a classification software is presented. Zebrafish embryos and larvae and their features such as pigmentation are detected automatically from the image. Zebrafish of 4 different phenotypes can be classified through pattern recognition at 72 h post fertilization (hpf), allowing the software to classify an embryo into 2 distinct phenotypic classes: wild-type versus variant. The zebrafish phenotypes are classified with an accuracy of 79-99% without any user interaction. A description of the prototype platform and of the algorithms for image processing and pattern recognition is presented.

  19. Expression of sall4 in taste buds of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robyn; Braubach, Oliver R; Bilkey, Jessica; Zhang, Jing; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée; Fine, Alan; Croll, Roger P; Jonz, Michael G

    2013-07-01

    We characterized the expression of sall4, a gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor involved in the maintenance of embryonic stem cells, in taste buds of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Using an enhancer trap line (ET5), we detected enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in developing and adult transgenic zebrafish in regions containing taste buds: the lips, branchial arches, and the nasal and maxillary barbels. Localization of EGFP to taste cells of the branchial arches and lips was confirmed by co-immunolabeling with antibodies against calretinin and serotonin, and a zebrafish-derived neuronal marker (zn-12). Transgenic insertion of the ET construct into the zebrafish genome was evaluated and mapped to chromosome 23 in proximity (i.e. 23 kb) to the sall4 gene. In situ hybridization and expression analysis between 24 and 96 h post-fertilization (hpf) demonstrated that transgenic egfp expression in ET5 zebrafish was correlated with the spatial and temporal pattern of expression of sall4 in the wild-type. Expression was first observed in the central nervous system and branchial arches at 24 hpf. At 48 hpf, sall4 and egfp expression was observed in taste bud primordia surrounding the mouth and branchial arches. At 72 and 96 hpf, expression was detected in the upper and lower lips and branchial arches. Double fluorescence in situ hybridization at 3 and 10 dpf confirmed colocalization of sall4 and egfp in the lips and branchial arches. These studies reveal sall4 expression in chemosensory cells and implicate this transcription factor in the development and renewal of taste epithelia in zebrafish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Oceans of opportunity: exploring vertebrate hematopoiesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Kelli J; North, Trista E

    2014-08-01

    Exploitation of the zebrafish model in hematology research has surged in recent years, becoming one of the most useful and tractable systems for understanding regulation of hematopoietic development, homeostasis, and malignancy. Despite the evolutionary distance between zebrafish and humans, remarkable genetic and phenotypic conservation in the hematopoietic system has enabled significant advancements in our understanding of blood stem and progenitor cell biology. The strengths of zebrafish in hematology research lie in the ability to perform real-time in vivo observations of hematopoietic stem, progenitor, and effector cell emergence, expansion, and function, as well as the ease with which novel genetic and chemical modifiers of specific hematopoietic processes or cell types can be identified and characterized. Further, myriad transgenic lines have been developed including fluorescent reporter systems to aid in the visualization and quantification of specified cell types of interest and cell-lineage relationships, as well as effector lines that can be used to implement a wide range of experimental manipulations. As our understanding of the complex nature of blood stem and progenitor cell biology during development, in response to infection or injury, or in the setting of hematologic malignancy continues to deepen, zebrafish will remain essential for exploring the spatiotemporal organization and integration of these fundamental processes, as well as the identification of efficacious small molecule modifiers of hematopoietic activity. In this review, we discuss the biology of the zebrafish hematopoietic system, including similarities and differences from mammals, and highlight important tools currently utilized in zebrafish embryos and adults to enhance our understanding of vertebrate hematology, with emphasis on findings that have impacted our understanding of the onset or treatment of human hematologic disorders and disease. Copyright © 2014 ISEH - International

  1. Oceans of Opportunity: Exploring Vertebrate Hematopoiesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kelli J.; North, Trista E.

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the zebrafish model in hematology research has surged in recent years, becoming one of the most useful and tractable systems for understanding regulation of hematopoietic development, homeostasis, and malignancy. Despite the evolutionary distance between zebrafish and humans, remarkable genetic and phenotypic conservation in the hematopoietic system has enabled significant advancements in our understanding of blood stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) biology. The strengths of zebrafish in hematology research lie in the ability to perform real-time in vivo observations of hematopoietic stem, progenitor and effector cell emergence, expansion and function, as well as the ease with which novel genetic and chemical modifiers of specific hematopoietic processes or cell-types can be identified and characterized. Further, a myriad of transgenic lines have been developed including fluorescent reporter systems to aid in the visualization and quantification of specified cell types of interest and cell-lineage relationships, as well as effector lines that can be used to implement a wide range of experimental manipulations. As our understanding of the complex nature of HSPC biology during development, in response to infection or injury, or in the setting of hematological malignancy, continues to deepen, zebrafish will remain essential for exploring the spatio-temporal organization and integration of these fundamental processes, as well as the identification of efficacious small molecule modifiers of hematopoietic activity. In this review, we discuss the biology of the zebrafish hematopoietic system, including similarities and differences from mammals, and highlight important tools currently utilized in zebrafish embryos and adults to enhance our understanding of vertebrate hematology, with emphasis on findings that have impacted our understanding of the onset or treatment of human hematologic disorders and disease. PMID:24816275

  2. Zebrafish Pronephros Development.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Richard W; Qubisi, Sarah S; Davidson, Alan J

    The pronephros is the first kidney type to form in vertebrate embryos. The first step of pronephrogenesis in the zebrafish is the formation of the intermediate mesoderm during gastrulation, which occurs in response to secreted morphogens such as BMPs and Nodals. Patterning of the intermediate mesoderm into proximal and distal cell fates is induced by retinoic acid signaling with downstream transcription factors including wt1a, pax2a, pax8, hnf1b, sim1a, mecom, and irx3b. In the anterior intermediate mesoderm, progenitors of the glomerular blood filter migrate and fuse at the midline and recruit a blood supply. More posteriorly localized tubule progenitors undergo epithelialization and fuse with the cloaca. The Notch signaling pathway regulates the formation of multi-ciliated cells in the tubules and these cells help propel the filtrate to the cloaca. The lumenal sheer stress caused by flow down the tubule activates anterior collective migration of the proximal tubules and induces stretching and proliferation of the more distal segments. Ultimately these processes create a simple two-nephron kidney that is capable of reabsorbing and secreting solutes and expelling excess water-processes that are critical to the homeostasis of the body fluids. The zebrafish pronephric kidney provides a simple, yet powerful, model system to better understand the conserved molecular and cellular progresses that drive nephron formation, structure, and function.

  3. Zebrafish as tools for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Calum A; Peterson, Randall T

    2015-10-01

    The zebrafish has become a prominent vertebrate model for disease and has already contributed to several examples of successful phenotype-based drug discovery. For the zebrafish to become useful in drug development more broadly, key hurdles must be overcome, including a more comprehensive elucidation of the similarities and differences between human and zebrafish biology. Recent studies have begun to establish the capabilities and limitations of zebrafish for disease modelling, drug screening, target identification, pharmacology, and toxicology. As our understanding increases and as the technologies for manipulating zebrafish improve, it is hoped that the zebrafish will have a key role in accelerating the emergence of precision medicine.

  4. Developmental effects of simulated microgravity on zebrafish, (Danio rerio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyek, Matthew; Edsall, Sara; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara; Smith, Frank; Croll, Roger

    Zebrafish are widely used model vertebrates in research and recently this species has been used to study the effects of microgravity on fundamental biological processes. In this study we used a NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity (SMG) on zebrafish development up to 14 days post fertilization (dpf). At developmental stages beyond the 3-4 somite stage we found SMG-exposed embryos reached key developmental stag-ing points more rapidly than fish raised within a non-rotating vessel. By the 21 somite stage, both groups were again synchronized in their developmental staging. However, SMG-exposed embryos eventually exhibited a delay in hatching time compared to controls. Otolith and to-tal body size were observed to be greater in larvae raised in SMG. In addition, pigmentation patterns in SMG exposed fish differed, with larger and differentially aggregated melanocytes . Heart development was slowed in SMG exposed fish, but no change in nervous system de-velopment was detected. Ongoing research will focus on differences in heart and respiration rates. Finally, by developing a method to extend the duration of SMG exposure, we found the swimming behaviour of SMG-exposed animals was altered with time in the RWV. Initially SMG-exposed animals swam in the direction of RWV rotation (5-9dpf) but older (9+dpf) fish swam against rotation and demonstrated righting behaviour with each rotation. These results suggest that vestibular reflexes may develop normally and be maintained in animals exposed to SMG. Together, our data provide insights into how zebrafish may develop when flown in space, permitting better formulation of experiments to test mechanisms by which microgravity may affect ontogeny of this model organism. Keywords: microgravity, zebrafish, growth, development

  5. Kidney organogenesis in the zebrafish: insights into vertebrate nephrogenesis and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Gary F.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrates form a progressive series of up to three kidney organs during development—the pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros. Each kidney derives from the intermediate mesoderm and is comprised of conserved excretory units called nephrons. The zebrafish is a powerful model for vertebrate developmental genetics, and recent studies have illustrated that zebrafish and mammals share numerous similarities in nephron composition and physiology. The zebrafish embryo forms an architecturally simple pronephros that has two nephrons, and these eventually become a scaffold onto which a mesonephros of several hundred nephrons is constructed during larval stages. In adult zebrafish, the mesonephros exhibits ongoing nephrogenesis, generating new nephrons from a local pool of renal progenitors during periods of growth or following kidney injury. The characteristics of the zebrafish pronephros and mesonephros make them genetically tractable kidney systems in which to study the functions of renal genes and address outstanding questions about the mechanisms of nephrogenesis. Here, we provide an overview of the formation and composition of these zebrafish kidney organs, and discuss how various zebrafish mutants, gene knockdowns, and transgenic models have created frameworks in which to further delineate nephrogenesis pathways. PMID:24014448

  6. A zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaopeng; Zhang Lichun; Weng Shaoping

    2008-06-20

    Zebrafish is a model animal for studies of genetics, development, toxicology, oncology, and immunology. In this study, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) was used to establish an infection in zebrafish, and the experimental conditions were established and characterized. Mortality of adult zebrafish infected with ISKNV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection exceeded 60%. ISKNV can be passed stably in zebrafish for over ten passages. The ailing zebrafish displayed petechial hemorrhaging and scale protrusion. Histological analysis of moribund fish revealed necrosis of tissue and enlarged cells in kidney and spleen. The real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA level confirmed that ISKNV wasmore » replicated in zebrafish. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses further confirmed the presence of ISKNV-infected cells in almost all organs of the infected fish. Electron microscope analyses showed that the ISKNV particle was present in the infected tissues. The establishment of zebrafish infection model of ISKNV can offer a valuable tool for studying the interactions between ISKNV and its host.« less

  7. Antibiotic toxicity and absorption in zebrafish using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Jing-Pu; Hu, Chang-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of drug toxicity is necessary for drug safety, but in vivo drug absorption is varied; therefore, a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for measuring drugs is needed. Zebrafish are acceptable drug toxicity screening models; we used these animals with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method in a multiple reaction monitoring mode to quantify drug uptake in zebrafish to better estimate drug toxicity. Analytes were recovered from zebrafish homogenate by collecting supernatant. Measurements were confirmed for drugs in the range of 10-1,000 ng/mL. Four antibiotics with different polarities were tested to explore any correlation of drug polarity, absorption, and toxicity. Zebrafish at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf) absorbed more drug than those at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf), and different developmental periods appeared to be differentially sensitive to the same compound. By observing abnormal embryos and LD50 values, zebrafish embryos at 6 hpf were considered to be suitable for evaluating embryotoxicity. Also, larvae at 3 dpf were adapted to measure acute drug toxicity in adult mammals. Thus, we can exploit zebrafish to study drug toxicity and can reliably quantify drug uptake with LC-MS/MS. This approach will be helpful for future studies of toxicology in zebrafish.

  8. Differences in Acute Alcohol-Induced Behavioral Responses Among Zebrafish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gerlai, Robert; Ahmad, Fahad; Prajapati, Sonal

    2009-01-01

    Background With the arsenal of genetic tools available for zebrafish, this species has been successfully used to investigate the genetic aspects of human diseases from developmental disorders to cancer. Interest in the behavior and brain function of zebrafish is also increasing as CNS disorders may be modeled and studied with this species. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are among the most devastating and costliest diseases. However, the mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood. Zebrafish has been proposed as a model organism to study such mechanisms. Characterization of alcohol’s effects on zebrafish is a necessary step in this research. Methods Here, we compare the effects of acute alcohol (EtOH) administration on the behavior of zebrafish from 4 distinct laboratory-bred populations using automated as well as observation based behavioral quantification methods. Results Alcohol treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent behavioral changes but the dose–response trajectories differed among zebrafish populations. Conclusions The results demonstrate for the first time a genetic component in alcohol responses in adult zebrafish and also show the feasibility of high throughput behavioral screening. We discuss the exploration and exploitation of the genetic differences found. PMID:18652595

  9. Behavioral and biochemical adjustments of the zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to the β-blocker propranolol.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly M; Moon, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    Propranolol (PROP) is a β-blocker prescribed mainly to treat human cardiovascular diseases and as a result of its wide usage and persistence, it is reported in aquatic environments. This study examined whether PROP alters developmental patterns and catecholamine (CA)-regulated processes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and if exposure during early life alters the stress response and behaviors of adults. The calculated 48h larva LC50 was 21.6mg/L, well above reported environmental levels (0.01-0.59μg/L). Stressed and PROP-exposed adult zebrafish had reduced testosterone and estradiol levels and exhibited behaviors indicating less anxiety than control fish. Furthermore, adults previously PROP-exposed as embryos/larvae had decreased growth in terms of body length and mass. Finally, these adults showed increased cholesterol and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels compared with unexposed zebrafish. Thus PROP-exposure of zebrafish embryos/larvae alters developmental patterns and CA-regulated processes that may affect normal behaviors and responses to stressors, and at least some of these changes persist in the adult zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Embryonic senescence and laminopathies in a progeroid zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Eriko; Imamura, Shintaro; Qi, Jie; Toure, Jamal; Valdez, Delgado M; Carr, Christopher E; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Kishi, Shuji

    2011-03-30

    Mutations that disrupt the conversion of prelamin A to mature lamin A cause the rare genetic disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and a group of laminopathies. Our understanding of how A-type lamins function in vivo during early vertebrate development through aging remains limited, and would benefit from a suitable experimental model. The zebrafish has proven to be a tractable model organism for studying both development and aging at the molecular genetic level. Zebrafish show an array of senescence symptoms resembling those in humans, which can be targeted to specific aging pathways conserved in vertebrates. However, no zebrafish models bearing human premature senescence currently exist. We describe the induction of embryonic senescence and laminopathies in zebrafish harboring disturbed expressions of the lamin A gene (LMNA). Impairments in these fish arise in the skin, muscle and adipose tissue, and sometimes in the cartilage. Reduced function of lamin A/C by translational blocking of the LMNA gene induced apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and craniofacial abnormalities/cartilage defects. By contrast, induced cryptic splicing of LMNA, which generates the deletion of 8 amino acid residues lamin A (zlamin A-Δ8), showed embryonic senescence and S-phase accumulation/arrest. Interestingly, the abnormal muscle and lipodystrophic phenotypes were common in both cases. Hence, both decrease-of-function of lamin A/C and gain-of-function of aberrant lamin A protein induced laminopathies that are associated with mesenchymal cell lineages during zebrafish early development. Visualization of individual cells expressing zebrafish progerin (zProgerin/zlamin A-Δ37) fused to green fluorescent protein further revealed misshapen nuclear membrane. A farnesyltransferase inhibitor reduced these nuclear abnormalities and significantly prevented embryonic senescence and muscle fiber damage induced by zProgerin. Importantly, the adult Progerin fish survived and remained fertile with

  11. Immunostaining of dissected zebrafish embryonic heart.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingchun; Xu, Xiaolei

    2012-01-10

    Zebrafish embryo becomes a popular in vivo vertebrate model for studying cardiac development and human heart diseases due to its advantageous embryology and genetics. About 100-200 embryos are readily available every week from a single pair of adult fish. The transparent embryos that develop ex utero make them ideal for assessing cardiac defects. The expression of any gene can be manipulated via morpholino technology or RNA injection. Moreover, forward genetic screens have already generated a list of mutants that affect different perspectives of cardiogenesis. Whole mount immunostaining is an important technique in this animal model to reveal the expression pattern of the targeted protein to a particular tissue. However, high resolution images that can reveal cellular or subcellular structures have been difficult, mainly due to the physical location of the heart and the poor penetration of the antibodies. Here, we present a method to address these bottlenecks by dissecting heart first and then conducting the staining process on the surface of a microscope slide. To prevent the loss of small heart samples and to facilitate solution handling, we restricted the heart samples within a circle on the surface of the microscope slides drawn by an immEdge pen. After the staining, the fluorescence signals can be directly observed by a compound microscope. Our new method significantly improves the penetration for antibodies, since a heart from an embryonic fish only consists of few cell layers. High quality images from intact hearts can be obtained within a much reduced procession time for zebrafish embryos aged from day 2 to day 6. Our method can be potentially extended to stain other organs dissected from either zebrafish or other small animals. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Visualized Experiments

  12. Cholinergic innervation of the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jeffrey G; Greig, Ann; Sakata, Yoko; Elkin, Dimitry; Michel, William C

    2007-10-20

    A number of fish species receive forebrain cholinergic input but two recent reports failed to find evidence of cholinergic cell bodies or fibers in the olfactory bulbs (OBs) of zebrafish. In the current study we sought to confirm these findings by examining the OBs of adult zebrafish for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. We observed a diffuse network of varicose ChAT-positive fibers associated with the nervus terminalis ganglion innervating the mitral cell/glomerular layer (MC/GL). The highest density of these fibers occurred in the anterior region of the bulb. The cellular targets of this cholinergic input were identified by exposing isolated OBs to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonists in the presence of agmatine (AGB), a cationic probe that permeates some active ion channels. Nicotine (50 microM) significantly increased the activity-dependent labeling of mitral cells and juxtaglomerular cells but not of tyrosine hydroxlase-positive dopaminergic neurons (TH(+) cells) compared to control preparations. The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine, an alpha7-nAChR subunit-specific antagonist, calcium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid, or a cocktail of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists each blocked nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that AGB does not enter the labeled neurons through activated nAChRs but rather through activated iGluRs following ACh-stimulated glutamate release. Deafferentation of OBs did not eliminate nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that cholinergic input is primarily acting on bulbar neurons. These findings confirm the presence of a functioning cholinergic system in the zebrafish OB.

  13. Novel biomarkers of perchlorate exposure in zebrafish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Carr, J.A.; Anderson, T.A.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate inhibits iodide uptake by thyroid follicles and lowers thyroid hormone production. Although several effects of perchlorate on the thyroid system have been reported, the utility of these pathologies as markers of environmental perchlorate exposures has not been adequately assessed. The present study examined time-course and concentration-dependent effects of perchlorate on thyroid follicle hypertrophy, colloid depletion, and angiogenesis; alterations in whole-body thyroxine (T4) levels; and somatic growth and condition factor of subadult and adult zebrafish. Changes in the intensity of the colloidal T4 ring previously observed in zebrafish also were examined immunohistochemically. Three-month-old zebrafish were exposed to ammonium perchlorate at measured perchlorate concentrations of 0, 11, 90, 1,131, and 11,480 ppb for 12 weeks and allowed to recover in clean water for 12 weeks. At two weeks of exposure, the lowest-observed-effective concentrations (LOECs) of perchlorate that induced angiogenesis and depressed the intensity of colloidal T4 ring were 90 and 1,131 ppb, respectively; other parameters were not affected (whole-body T4 was not determined at this time). At 12 weeks of exposure, LOECs for colloid depletion, hypertrophy, angiogenesis, and colloidal T4 ring were 11,480, 1,131, 90, and 11 ppb, respectively. All changes were reversible, but residual effects on angiogenesis and colloidal T4 ring intensity were still present after 12 weeks of recovery (LOEC, 11,480 ppb). Whole-body T 4 concentration, body growth (length and weight), and condition factor were not affected by perchlorate. The sensitivity and longevity of changes in colloidal T4 ring intensity and angiogenesis suggest their usefulness as novel markers of perchlorate exposure. The 12-week LOEC for colloidal T4 ring is the lowest reported for any perchlorate biomarker in aquatic vertebrates. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  14. Learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R

    2016-01-01

    Learning and memory are defining features of our own species inherently important to our daily lives and to who we are. Without our memories we cease to exist as a person. Without our ability to learn individuals and collectively our society would cease to function. Diseases of the mind still remain incurable. The interest in understanding of the mechanisms of learning and memory is thus well founded. Given the complexity of such mechanisms, concerted efforts have been made to study them under controlled laboratory conditions, ie, with laboratory model organisms. The zebrafish, although new in this field, is one such model organism. The rapidly developing forward- and reverse genetic methods designed for the zebrafish and the increasing use of pharmacological tools along with numerous neurobiology techniques make this species perhaps the best model for the analysis of the mechanisms of complex central nervous system characteristics. The fact that it is an evolutionarily ancient and simpler vertebrate, but at the same time it possesses numerous conserved features across multiple levels of biological organization makes this species an excellent tool for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory. The bottleneck lies in our understanding of its cognitive and mnemonic features, the topic of this chapter. The current paper builds on a chapter published in the previous edition and continues to focus on associative learning, but now it extends the discussion to other forms of learning and to recent discoveries on memory-related features and findings obtained both in adults and larval zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Terahertz Analysis of Quinacridone Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, A. D.; Kelly, M.; Lewis, R. A.

    2017-03-01

    We present terahertz spectroscopy and analysis of two commercially available quinacridone pigments in the 0.5-4.5 THz range. Our results show a clear distinction between quinacridone red and magenta pigments. We reveal four definite absorptions in the terahertz regime common to both pigments, but offset between the pigments by ˜0.2 THz. The lowest-energy line in each pigment is observed to increase in frequency by ˜0.1 THz as the temperature is reduced from 300 to 12 K.

  16. Cadherin-17 is required to maintain pronephric duct integrity during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Horsfield, Julia; Ramachandran, Anassuya; Reuter, Katja; LaVallie, Edward; Collins-Racie, Lisa; Crosier, Kathryn; Crosier, Philip

    2002-07-01

    We have isolated a zebrafish cadherin that is orthologous to human LI-cadherin (CDH17). Zebrafish cdh17 is expressed exclusively in the pronephric ducts during embryogenesis, and in the mesonephros during larval development and adulthood. Like its mammalian ortholog, cdh17 is also expressed in liver and intestine in adult zebrafish. We show that cdh17-positive mesodermal cells do not contribute to the hematopoietic system. Consistent with a cell adhesion role for Cdh17, depletion of Cdh17 function using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides compromised cell cohesion during pronephric duct formation. Our results indicate that Cdh17 is necessary for maintaining the integrity of the pronephric ducts during zebrafish embryogenesis. This finding contrasts with the role of mammalian CDH17, which does not appear to be involved in nephric development.

  17. Osteoblast Production by Reserved Progenitor Cells in Zebrafish Bone Regeneration and Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kazunori; Shibata, Eri; Hans, Stefan; Brand, Michael; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-12-04

    Mammals cannot re-form heavily damaged bones as in large fracture gaps, whereas zebrafish efficiently regenerate bones even after amputation of appendages. However, the source of osteoblasts that mediate appendage regeneration is controversial. Several studies in zebrafish have shown that osteoblasts are generated by dedifferentiation of existing osteoblasts at injured sites, but other observations suggest that de novo production of osteoblasts also occurs. In this study, we found from cell-lineage tracing and ablation experiments that a group of cells reserved in niches serves as osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) and has a significant role in fin ray regeneration. Besides regeneration, OPCs also supply osteoblasts for normal bone maintenance. We further showed that OPCs are derived from embryonic somites, as is the case with embryonic osteoblasts, and are replenished from mesenchymal precursors in adult zebrafish. Our findings reveal that reserved progenitors are a significant and complementary source of osteoblasts for zebrafish bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Zebrafish to Study Podocyte Genesis During Kidney Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Paul T.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During development, vertebrates form a progression of up to three different kidneys that are comprised of functional units termed nephrons. Nephron composition is highly conserved across species, and an increasing appreciation of the similarities between zebrafish and mammalian nephron cell types has positioned the zebrafish as a relevant genetic system for nephrogenesis studies. A key component of the nephron blood filter is a specialized epithelial cell known as the podocyte. Podocyte research is of the utmost importance as a vast majority of renal diseases initiate with the dysfunction or loss of podocytes, resulting in a condition known as proteinuria that causes nephron degeneration and eventually leads to kidney failure. Understanding how podocytes develop during organogenesis may elucidate new ways to promote nephron health by stimulating podocyte replacement in kidney disease patients. In this review, we discuss how the zebrafish model can be used to study kidney development, and how zebrafish research has provided new insights into podocyte lineage specification and differentiation. Further, we discuss the recent discovery of podocyte regeneration in adult zebrafish, and explore how continued basic research using zebrafish can provide important knowledge about podocyte genesis in embryonic and adult environments. PMID:24920186

  19. Developmental and Persistent Toxicities of Maternally Deposited Selenomethionine in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M

    2015-08-18

    The objectives of this study were (1) to establish egg selenium (Se) toxicity thresholds for mortality and deformities in early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) after exposure to excess selenomethionine (SeMet, the dominant chemical species of Se in diets) via in ovo maternal transfer and (2) to investigate the persistent effects of developmental exposure to excess SeMet on swim performance and metabolic capacities in F1-generation adult zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were fed either control food (1.3 μg Se/g, dry mass or d.m.) or food spiked with increasing measured concentrations of Se (3.4, 9.8, or 27.5 μg Se/g, d.m.) in the form of SeMet for 90 d. In ovo exposure to SeMet increased mortality and deformities in larval zebrafish in a concentration-dependent fashion with threshold egg Se concentrations (EC10s) of 7.5 and 7.0 μg Se/g d.m., respectively. Impaired swim performance and greater respiration and metabolic rates were observed in F1-generation zebrafish exposed in ovo to 6.8 and 12.7 μg Se/g d.m and raised to adulthood in clean water. A species sensitivity distribution (SSD) based on egg Se developmental toxicity thresholds suggests that zebrafish are the most sensitive fish species studied to date.

  20. PIGMENTS OF THE RETINA

    PubMed Central

    Wald, George

    1936-01-01

    1. Visual purple from the sea robin, sea bass, and scup is almost identical spectroscopically with that from frogs. The interrelations of this pigment with vitamin A and retinene are also the same as in the frog. 2. In strong acids or at pH > 11, the visual yellow of sea robin retinas is converted irreversibly into a pH indicator, yellow in acid and almost colorless in alkaline solution. Unlike neutral visual yellow, the indicator is not removed to form either vitamin A or visual purple. In the ammoniacal retina the reversion of visual yellow itself to purple is accelerated. 3. The combined pigment epithelium and choroid layer in these fishes contain vitamin A, flavine, and an unidentified xanthophyll. PMID:19872983

  1. Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Amar Jamil, Mohd Fadzly; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Chong Shu-Chien, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  2. Automated processing of zebrafish imaging data: a survey.

    PubMed

    Mikut, Ralf; Dickmeis, Thomas; Driever, Wolfgang; Geurts, Pierre; Hamprecht, Fred A; Kausler, Bernhard X; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J; Marée, Raphaël; Mikula, Karol; Pantazis, Periklis; Ronneberger, Olaf; Santos, Andres; Stotzka, Rainer; Strähle, Uwe; Peyriéras, Nadine

    2013-09-01

    Due to the relative transparency of its embryos and larvae, the zebrafish is an ideal model organism for bioimaging approaches in vertebrates. Novel microscope technologies allow the imaging of developmental processes in unprecedented detail, and they enable the use of complex image-based read-outs for high-throughput/high-content screening. Such applications can easily generate Terabytes of image data, the handling and analysis of which becomes a major bottleneck in extracting the targeted information. Here, we describe the current state of the art in computational image analysis in the zebrafish system. We discuss the challenges encountered when handling high-content image data, especially with regard to data quality, annotation, and storage. We survey methods for preprocessing image data for further analysis, and describe selected examples of automated image analysis, including the tracking of cells during embryogenesis, heartbeat detection, identification of dead embryos, recognition of tissues and anatomical landmarks, and quantification of behavioral patterns of adult fish. We review recent examples for applications using such methods, such as the comprehensive analysis of cell lineages during early development, the generation of a three-dimensional brain atlas of zebrafish larvae, and high-throughput drug screens based on movement patterns. Finally, we identify future challenges for the zebrafish image analysis community, notably those concerning the compatibility of algorithms and data formats for the assembly of modular analysis pipelines.

  3. Behavioral Changes Over Time Following Ayahuasca Exposure in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Savoldi, Robson; Polari, Daniel; Pinheiro-da-Silva, Jaquelinne; Silva, Priscila F.; Lobao-Soares, Bruno; Yonamine, Mauricio; Freire, Fulvio A. M.; Luchiari, Ana C.

    2017-01-01

    The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations. We exposed adult zebrafish to five concentrations of the ayahuasca infusion: 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3 ml/L (n = 14 each group), and behavior was recorded for 60 min. We evaluated swimming speed, distance traveled, freezing and bottom dwelling every min for 60 min. Swimming speed and distance traveled decreased with an increase in ayahuasca concentration while freezing increased with 1 and 3 ml/L. Bottom dwelling increased with 1 and 3 ml/L, but declined with 0.1 ml/L. Our data suggest that small amounts of ayahuasca do not affect locomotion and reduce anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish, while increased doses of the drug lead to crescent anxiogenic effects. We conclude that the temporal analysis of zebrafish behavior is a sensitive method for the study of ayahuasca-induced functional changes in the vertebrate brain. PMID:28804451

  4. Behavioral Changes Over Time Following Ayahuasca Exposure in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Savoldi, Robson; Polari, Daniel; Pinheiro-da-Silva, Jaquelinne; Silva, Priscila F; Lobao-Soares, Bruno; Yonamine, Mauricio; Freire, Fulvio A M; Luchiari, Ana C

    2017-01-01

    The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N , N -dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations. We exposed adult zebrafish to five concentrations of the ayahuasca infusion: 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3 ml/L ( n = 14 each group), and behavior was recorded for 60 min. We evaluated swimming speed, distance traveled, freezing and bottom dwelling every min for 60 min. Swimming speed and distance traveled decreased with an increase in ayahuasca concentration while freezing increased with 1 and 3 ml/L. Bottom dwelling increased with 1 and 3 ml/L, but declined with 0.1 ml/L. Our data suggest that small amounts of ayahuasca do not affect locomotion and reduce anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish, while increased doses of the drug lead to crescent anxiogenic effects. We conclude that the temporal analysis of zebrafish behavior is a sensitive method for the study of ayahuasca-induced functional changes in the vertebrate brain.

  5. Chemokine guided angiogenesis directs coronary vasculature formation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Michael R.M.; Bussmann, Jeroen; Huang, Ying; Zhao, Long; Osorio, Arthela; Burns, C. Geoffrey; Burns, Caroline E.; Sucov, Henry M.; Siekmann, Arndt F.; Lien, Ching-Ling

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Interruption of coronary blood supply severely impairs heart function with often-fatal consequences for heart disease patients. However the formation and maturation of these coronary vessels is not fully understood. Here we provide a detailed analysis of coronary vessel development in zebrafish. We observe that coronary vessels form in zebrafish by angiogenic sprouting of arterial cells derived from the endocardium at the atrioventricular canal. Endothelial cells express the CXC-motif chemokine receptor Cxcr4a and migrate to vascularize the ventricle under the guidance of the myocardium-expressed ligand Cxcl12b. cxcr4a mutant zebrafish fail to form a vascular network, whereas ectopic expression of Cxcl12b ligand induces coronary vessel formation. Importantly, cxcr4a mutant zebrafish fail to undergo heart regeneration following injury. Our results suggest that chemokine-signaling has an essential role in coronary vessel formation by directing migration of endocardium-derived endothelial cells. Poorly developed vasculature in cxcr4a mutants likely underlies decreased regenerative potential in adults. PMID:26017769

  6. Automated Processing of Zebrafish Imaging Data: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dickmeis, Thomas; Driever, Wolfgang; Geurts, Pierre; Hamprecht, Fred A.; Kausler, Bernhard X.; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J.; Marée, Raphaël; Mikula, Karol; Pantazis, Periklis; Ronneberger, Olaf; Santos, Andres; Stotzka, Rainer; Strähle, Uwe; Peyriéras, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Due to the relative transparency of its embryos and larvae, the zebrafish is an ideal model organism for bioimaging approaches in vertebrates. Novel microscope technologies allow the imaging of developmental processes in unprecedented detail, and they enable the use of complex image-based read-outs for high-throughput/high-content screening. Such applications can easily generate Terabytes of image data, the handling and analysis of which becomes a major bottleneck in extracting the targeted information. Here, we describe the current state of the art in computational image analysis in the zebrafish system. We discuss the challenges encountered when handling high-content image data, especially with regard to data quality, annotation, and storage. We survey methods for preprocessing image data for further analysis, and describe selected examples of automated image analysis, including the tracking of cells during embryogenesis, heartbeat detection, identification of dead embryos, recognition of tissues and anatomical landmarks, and quantification of behavioral patterns of adult fish. We review recent examples for applications using such methods, such as the comprehensive analysis of cell lineages during early development, the generation of a three-dimensional brain atlas of zebrafish larvae, and high-throughput drug screens based on movement patterns. Finally, we identify future challenges for the zebrafish image analysis community, notably those concerning the compatibility of algorithms and data formats for the assembly of modular analysis pipelines. PMID:23758125

  7. INDUCED AND SPONTANEOUS NEOPLASIA IN ZEBRAFISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To address the potential of zebrafish as a cancer model, it is important to determine the susceptibility of zebrafish to tumors, and to compare zebrafish tumors with human tumors. To determine whether the commonly-used germ line mutagen, ethylnitrosourea (ENU) induces tumors, we ...

  8. Afferent Connectivity of the Zebrafish Habenulae

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Katherine J.; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Yáñez, Julián; Anadón, Ramón; Wilson, Stephen W.; Folgueira, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The habenulae are bilateral nuclei located in the dorsal diencephalon that are conserved across vertebrates. Here we describe the main afferents to the habenulae in larval and adult zebrafish. We observe afferents from the subpallium, nucleus rostrolateralis, posterior tuberculum, posterior hypothalamic lobe, median raphe; we also see asymmetric afferents from olfactory bulb to the right habenula, and from the parapineal to the left habenula. In addition, we find afferents from a ventrolateral telencephalic nucleus that neurochemical and hodological data identify as the ventral entopeduncular nucleus (vENT), confirming and extending observations of Amo et al. (2014). Fate map and marker studies suggest that vENT originates from the diencephalic prethalamic eminence and extends into the lateral telencephalon from 48 to 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). No afferents to the habenula were observed from the dorsal entopeduncular nucleus (dENT). Consequently, we confirm that the vENT (and not the dENT) should be considered as the entopeduncular nucleus “proper” in zebrafish. Furthermore, comparison with data in other vertebrates suggests that the vENT is a conserved basal ganglia nucleus, being homologous to the entopeduncular nucleus of mammals (internal segment of the globus pallidus of primates) by both embryonic origin and projections, as previously suggested by Amo et al. (2014). PMID:27199671

  9. Is pigment patterning in fish skin determined by the Turing mechanism?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kondo, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    More than half a century ago, Alan Turing postulated that pigment patterns may arise from a mechanism that could be mathematically modeled based on the diffusion of two substances that interact with each other. Over the past 15 years, the molecular and genetic tools to verify this prediction have become available. Here, we review experimental studies aimed at identifying the mechanism underlying pigment pattern formation in zebrafish. Extensive molecular genetic studies in this model organism have revealed the interactions between the pigment cells that are responsible for the patterns. The mechanism discovered is substantially different from that predicted by the mathematical model, but it retains the property of 'local activation and long-range inhibition', a necessary condition for Turing pattern formation. Although some of the molecular details of pattern formation remain to be elucidated, current evidence confirms that the underlying mechanism is mathematically equivalent to the Turing mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maintenance of Zebrafish Lines at the European Zebrafish Resource Center.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Robert; Borel, Nadine; Ferg, Marco; Maier, Jana Viktoria; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    We have established a European Zebrafish Resource Center (EZRC) at the KIT. This center not only maintains and distributes a large number of existing mutant and transgenic zebrafish lines but also gives zebrafish researchers access to screening services and technologies such as imaging and high-throughput sequencing, provided by the Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG). The EZRC maintains and distributes the stock collection of the Nüsslein-Volhard laboratory, comprising over 2000 publicly released mutations, as frozen sperm samples. Within the framework of the ZF-HEALTH EU project, the EZRC distributes over 10,000 knockout mutations from the Sanger Institute (United Kingdom), as well as over 100 mutant and transgenic lines from other sources. In this article, we detail the measures we have taken to ensure the health of our fish, including hygiene, quarantine, and veterinary inspections.

  11. Biochemical adaptations of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium support a metabolic ecosystem in the vertebrate eye.

    PubMed

    Kanow, Mark A; Giarmarco, Michelle M; Jankowski, Connor Sr; Tsantilas, Kristine; Engel, Abbi L; Du, Jianhai; Linton, Jonathan D; Farnsworth, Christopher C; Sloat, Stephanie R; Rountree, Austin; Sweet, Ian R; Lindsay, Ken J; Parker, Edward D; Brockerhoff, Susan E; Sadilek, Martin; Chao, Jennifer R; Hurley, James B

    2017-09-13

    Here we report multiple lines of evidence for a comprehensive model of energy metabolism in the vertebrate eye. Metabolic flux, locations of key enzymes, and our finding that glucose enters mouse and zebrafish retinas mostly through photoreceptors support a conceptually new model for retinal metabolism. In this model, glucose from the choroidal blood passes through the retinal pigment epithelium to the retina where photoreceptors convert it to lactate. Photoreceptors then export the lactate as fuel for the retinal pigment epithelium and for neighboring Müller glial cells. We used human retinal epithelial cells to show that lactate can suppress consumption of glucose by the retinal pigment epithelium. Suppression of glucose consumption in the retinal pigment epithelium can increase the amount of glucose that reaches the retina. This framework for understanding metabolic relationships in the vertebrate retina provides new insights into the underlying causes of retinal disease and age-related vision loss.

  12. In vivo physiological recording from the lateral line of juvenile zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Olt, Jennifer; Allen, Claire E.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Zebrafish provide a unique opportunity to investigate in vivo sensory transduction in mature hair cells.We have developed a method for studying the biophysical properties of mature hair cells from the lateral line of juvenile zebrafish.The method involves application of the anaesthetic benzocaine and intubation to maintain ventilation and oxygenation through the gills.The same approach could be used for in vivo functional studies in other sensory and non‐sensory systems from juvenile and adult zebrafish. Abstract Hair cells are sensory receptors responsible for transducing auditory and vestibular information into electrical signals, which are then transmitted with remarkable precision to afferent neurons. The zebrafish lateral line is emerging as an excellent in vivo model for genetic and physiological analysis of hair cells and neurons. However, research has been limited to larval stages because zebrafish become protected from the time of independent feeding under European law (from 5.2 days post‐fertilization (dpf) at 28.5°C). In larval zebrafish, the functional properties of most of hair cells, as well as those of other excitable cells, are still immature. We have developed an experimental protocol to record electrophysiological properties from hair cells of the lateral line in juvenile zebrafish. We found that the anaesthetic benzocaine at 50 mg l−1 was an effective and safe anaesthetic to use on juvenile zebrafish. Concentrations up to 300 mg l−1 did not affect the electrical properties or synaptic vesicle release of juvenile hair cells, unlike the commonly used anaesthetic MS‐222, which reduces the size of basolateral membrane K+ currents. Additionally, we implemented a method to maintain gill movement, and as such respiration and blood oxygenation, via the intubation of > 21 dpf zebrafish. The combination of benzocaine and intubation provides an experimental platform to investigate the physiology of mature hair cells from live

  13. In vivo physiological recording from the lateral line of juvenile zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Olt, Jennifer; Allen, Claire E; Marcotti, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish provide a unique opportunity to investigate in vivo sensory transduction in mature hair cells. We have developed a method for studying the biophysical properties of mature hair cells from the lateral line of juvenile zebrafish. The method involves application of the anaesthetic benzocaine and intubation to maintain ventilation and oxygenation through the gills. The same approach could be used for in vivo functional studies in other sensory and non-sensory systems from juvenile and adult zebrafish. Hair cells are sensory receptors responsible for transducing auditory and vestibular information into electrical signals, which are then transmitted with remarkable precision to afferent neurons. The zebrafish lateral line is emerging as an excellent in vivo model for genetic and physiological analysis of hair cells and neurons. However, research has been limited to larval stages because zebrafish become protected from the time of independent feeding under European law (from 5.2 days post-fertilization (dpf) at 28.5°C). In larval zebrafish, the functional properties of most of hair cells, as well as those of other excitable cells, are still immature. We have developed an experimental protocol to record electrophysiological properties from hair cells of the lateral line in juvenile zebrafish. We found that the anaesthetic benzocaine at 50 mg l(-1) was an effective and safe anaesthetic to use on juvenile zebrafish. Concentrations up to 300 mg l(-1) did not affect the electrical properties or synaptic vesicle release of juvenile hair cells, unlike the commonly used anaesthetic MS-222, which reduces the size of basolateral membrane K(+) currents. Additionally, we implemented a method to maintain gill movement, and as such respiration and blood oxygenation, via the intubation of > 21 dpf zebrafish. The combination of benzocaine and intubation provides an experimental platform to investigate the physiology of mature hair cells from live zebrafish. More

  14. Mediator MED23 Links Pigmentation and DNA Repair through the Transcription Factor MITF.

    PubMed

    Xia, Min; Chen, Kun; Yao, Xiao; Xu, Yichi; Yao, Jiaying; Yan, Jun; Shao, Zhen; Wang, Gang

    2017-08-22

    DNA repair is related to many physiological and pathological processes, including pigmentation. Little is known about the role of the transcriptional cofactor Mediator complex in DNA repair and pigmentation. Here, we demonstrate that Mediator MED23 plays an important role in coupling UV-induced DNA repair to pigmentation. The loss of Med23 specifically impairs the pigmentation process in melanocyte-lineage cells and in zebrafish. Med23 deficiency leads to enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER) and less DNA damage following UV radiation because of the enhanced expression and recruitment of NER factors to chromatin for genomic stability. Integrative analyses of melanoma cells reveal that MED23 controls the expression of a melanocyte master regulator, Mitf, by modulating its distal enhancer activity, leading to opposing effects on pigmentation and DNA repair. Collectively, the Mediator MED23/MITF axis connects DNA repair to pigmentation, thus providing molecular insights into the DNA damage response and skin-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Sylvain; Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Peter, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare disease that can affect any joint, bursa or tendon sheath.The hip is less frequently affected than the knee, and hence is less discussed in scientific journals.PVNS of the hip mainly occurs in young adults, requiring early diagnosis and adequate treatment to obtain good results.There is no consensus on the management of PVNS of the hip in current literature.We will discuss the options for surgical intervention in hip PVNS using a literature review of clinical, biological, etiological, histological and radiographic aspects of the disease. Cite this article: Steinmetz S, Rougemont A-L, Peter R. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:260-266. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000021.

  16. Circadian rhythmicity and light sensitivity of the zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen A; Whitmore, David

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, circadian clocks have been thought of as a neurobiological phenomenon. This view changed somewhat over recent years with the discovery of peripheral tissue circadian oscillators. In mammals, however, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus still retains the critical role of a central synchronizer of biological timing. Zebrafish, in contrast, have always reflected a more highly decentralized level of clock organization, as individual cells and tissues contain directly light responsive circadian pacemakers. As a consequence, clock function in the zebrafish brain has remained largely unexplored, and the precise organization of rhythmic and light-sensitive neurons within the brain is unknown. To address this issue, we used the period3 (per3)-luciferase transgenic zebrafish to confirm that multiple brain regions contain endogenous circadian oscillators that are directly light responsive. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed localised neural expression of several rhythmic and light responsive clock genes, including per3, cryptochrome1a (cry1a) and per2. Adult brain nuclei showing significant clock gene expression include the teleost equivalent of the SCN, as well as numerous hypothalamic nuclei, the periventricular grey zone (PGZ) of the optic tectum, and granular cells of the rhombencephalon. To further investigate the light sensitive properties of neurons, expression of c-fos, a marker for neuronal activity, was examined. c-fos mRNA was upregulated in response to changing light conditions in different nuclei within the zebrafish brain. Furthermore, under constant dark (DD) conditions, c-fos shows a significant circadian oscillation. Taken together, these results show that there are numerous areas of the zebrafish central nervous system, which contain deep brain photoreceptors and directly light-entrainable circadian pacemakers. However, there are also multiple brain nuclei, which possess neither, demonstrating a degree of pacemaker

  17. Circadian Rhythmicity and Light Sensitivity of the Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Helen A.; Whitmore, David

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, circadian clocks have been thought of as a neurobiological phenomenon. This view changed somewhat over recent years with the discovery of peripheral tissue circadian oscillators. In mammals, however, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus still retains the critical role of a central synchronizer of biological timing. Zebrafish, in contrast, have always reflected a more highly decentralized level of clock organization, as individual cells and tissues contain directly light responsive circadian pacemakers. As a consequence, clock function in the zebrafish brain has remained largely unexplored, and the precise organization of rhythmic and light-sensitive neurons within the brain is unknown. To address this issue, we used the period3 (per3)-luciferase transgenic zebrafish to confirm that multiple brain regions contain endogenous circadian oscillators that are directly light responsive. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed localised neural expression of several rhythmic and light responsive clock genes, including per3, cryptochrome1a (cry1a) and per2. Adult brain nuclei showing significant clock gene expression include the teleost equivalent of the SCN, as well as numerous hypothalamic nuclei, the periventricular grey zone (PGZ) of the optic tectum, and granular cells of the rhombencephalon. To further investigate the light sensitive properties of neurons, expression of c-fos, a marker for neuronal activity, was examined. c-fos mRNA was upregulated in response to changing light conditions in different nuclei within the zebrafish brain. Furthermore, under constant dark (DD) conditions, c-fos shows a significant circadian oscillation. Taken together, these results show that there are numerous areas of the zebrafish central nervous system, which contain deep brain photoreceptors and directly light-entrainable circadian pacemakers. However, there are also multiple brain nuclei, which possess neither, demonstrating a degree of pacemaker

  18. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  19. Short-term memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Jason; Fernandes, Yohaan; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-15

    Learning and memory represent perhaps the most complex behavioral phenomena. Although their underlying mechanisms have been extensively analyzed, only a fraction of the potential molecular components have been identified. The zebrafish has been proposed as a screening tool with which mechanisms of complex brain functions may be systematically uncovered. However, as a relative newcomer in behavioral neuroscience, the zebrafish has not been well characterized for its cognitive and mnemonic features, thus learning and/or memory screens with adults have not been feasible. Here we study short-term memory of adult zebrafish. We show animated images of conspecifics (the stimulus) to the experimental subject during 1 min intervals on ten occasions separated by different (2, 4, 8 or 16 min long) inter-stimulus intervals (ISI), a between subject experimental design. We quantify the distance of the subject from the image presentation screen during each stimulus presentation interval, during each of the 1-min post-stimulus intervals immediately following the stimulus presentations and during each of the 1-min intervals furthest away from the last stimulus presentation interval and just before the next interval (pre-stimulus interval), respectively. Our results demonstrate significant retention of short-term memory even in the longest ISI group but suggest no acquisition of reference memory. Because in the employed paradigm both stimulus presentation and behavioral response quantification is computer automated, we argue that high-throughput screening for drugs or mutations that alter short-term memory performance of adult zebrafish is now becoming feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurobehavioral impairments produced by developmental lead exposure persisted for generations in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Weber, Daniel; Burge, Rebekah; VanAmberg, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish has become a useful animal model for studying the effects of environmental contaminants on neurobehavioral development due to its ease of breeding, high number of eggs per female, short generation times, and a well-established avoidance conditioning paradigm. Using avoidance conditioning as the behavioral paradigm, the present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure to lead (Pb) on learning in adult zebrafish and the third (F3) generation of those fish. In Experiment 1, adult zebrafish that were developmentally exposed to 0.0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10.0μM Pb (2-24h post fertilization) as embryos were trained and tested for avoidance responses. The results showed that adult zebrafish hatched from embryos exposed to 0.0 or 0.1μM Pb learned avoidance responses during training and displayed significantly increased avoidance responses during testing, while those hatched from embryos exposed to 1.0 or 10.0μM Pb displayed no significant increases in avoidance responses from training to testing. In Experiment 2, the F3 generation of zebrafish that were developmentally exposed to an identical exposure regimen as in Experiment 1 were trained and tested for avoidance responses. The results showed that the F3 generation of zebrafish developmentally exposed as embryos to 0.0 or 0.1μM Pb learned avoidance responses during training and displayed significantly increased avoidance responses during testing, while the F3 generation of zebrafish developmentally exposed as embryos to 1.0 or 10.0μM Pb displayed no significant changes in avoidance responses from training to testing. Thus, developmental Pb exposure produced learning impairments that persisted for at least three generations, demonstrating trans-generational effects of embryonic exposure to Pb. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Genomic Approaches to Zebrafish Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model for studying cancer biology. Identification of DNA, RNA and chromatin abnormalities can give profound insight into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the there are many techniques for analyzing the genomes of these tumors. Here, I present an overview of the available technologies for analyzing tumor genomes in the zebrafish, including array based methods as well as next-generation sequencing technologies. I also discuss the ways in which zebrafish tumor genomes can be compared to human genomes using cross-species oncogenomics, which act to filter genomic noise and ultimately uncover central drivers of malignancy. Finally, I discuss downstream analytic tools, including network analysis, that can help to organize the alterations into coherent biological frameworks that can then be investigated further. PMID:27165352

  2. New frontiers for zebrafish management.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a preeminent model organism with a wide and expanding utility for numerous scientific disciplines. The same features that once endeared this small freshwater minnow to developmental biologists combined with its relatively high genetic similarity to mammals and the advent of new, more efficient methods for genome editing are now helping to spur expanded growth in its usage in various fields, including toxicology, drug discovery, transplant biology, disease modeling, and even aquaculture. Continued maturation and adoption of the zebrafish model system in these and other fields of science will require that methods and approaches for husbandry and management of these fish in controlled settings be refined and improved to the extent that, ultimately, zebrafish research becomes more reproducible, defined, cost-effective, and accessible to the masses. Knowledge and technology transfer from laboratory animal science and commercial aquaculture will be a necessary part of this development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mayo Clinic Zebrafish Facility Overview.

    PubMed

    Leveque, Ryan E; Clark, Karl J; Ekker, Stephen C

    2016-07-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a premier nonmammalian vertebrate model organism. This small aquatic fish is utilized in multiple disciplines in the Mayo Clinic community and by many laboratories around the world because of its biological similarity to humans, its advanced molecular genetics, the elucidation of its genome sequence, and the ever-expanding and outstanding new biological tools now available to the zebrafish researcher. The Mayo Clinic Zebrafish Facility (MCZF) houses ∼2,000 tanks annotated using an in-house, Internet cloud-based bar-coding system tied to our established zfishbook.org web infrastructure. Paramecia are the primary food source for larval fish rearing, using a simplified culture protocol described herein. The MCZF supports the specific ongoing research in a variety of laboratories, while also serving as a local hub for new scientists as they learn to tap into the potential of this model system for understanding normal development, disease, and as models of health.

  4. Effectiveness of Rapid Cooling as a Method of Euthanasia for Young Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wallace, Chelsea K; Bright, Lauren A; Marx, James O; Andersen, Robert P; Mullins, Mary C; Carty, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Despite increased use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research, consistent information regarding appropriate euthanasia methods, particularly for embryos, is sparse. Current literature indicates that rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for adult zebrafish, yet consistent guidelines regarding zebrafish younger than 6 mo are unavailable. This study was performed to distinguish the age at which rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for zebrafish and the exposure times necessary to reliably euthanize zebrafish using this method. Zebrafish at 3, 4, 7, 14, 16, 19, 21, 28, 60, and 90 d postfertilization (dpf) were placed into an ice water bath for 5, 10, 30, 45, or 60 min (n = 12 to 40 per group). In addition, zebrafish were placed in ice water for 12 h (age ≤14 dpf) or 30 s (age ≥14 dpf). After rapid cooling, fish were transferred to a recovery tank and the number of fish alive at 1, 4, and 12-24 h after removal from ice water was documented. Euthanasia was defined as a failure when evidence of recovery was observed at any point after removal from ice water. Results showed that younger fish required prolonged exposure to rapid cooling for effective euthanasia, with the required exposure time decreasing as fish age. Although younger fish required long exposure times, animals became immobilized immediately upon exposure to the cold water, and behavioral indicators of pain or distress rarely occurred. We conclude that zebrafish 14 dpf and younger require as long as 12 h, those 16 to 28 dpf of age require 5 min, and those older than 28 dpf require 30 s minimal exposure to rapid cooling for reliable euthanasia.

  5. Genetically Blocking the Zebrafish Pineal Clock Affects Circadian Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe Livne, Zohar; Alon, Shahar; Vallone, Daniela; Bayleyen, Yared; Tovin, Adi; Shainer, Inbal; Nisembaum, Laura G; Aviram, Idit; Smadja-Storz, Sima; Fuentes, Michael; Falcón, Jack; Eisenberg, Eli; Klein, David C; Burgess, Harold A; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2016-11-01

    The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted. Moreover, transcriptome analysis revealed that the circadian expression pattern of the majority of clock-controlled genes in the adult pineal gland is abolished. Importantly, circadian rhythms of behavior in zebrafish larvae were affected: rhythms of place preference under constant darkness were eliminated, and rhythms of locomotor activity under constant dark and constant dim light conditions were markedly attenuated. On the other hand, global peripheral molecular oscillators, as measured in whole larvae, were unaffected in this model. In conclusion, characterization of this novel transgenic model provides evidence that the molecular clock in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland plays a key role, possibly as part of a multiple pacemaker system, in modulating circadian rhythms of behavior.

  6. Genetically Blocking the Zebrafish Pineal Clock Affects Circadian Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Alon, Shahar; Vallone, Daniela; Tovin, Adi; Shainer, Inbal; Nisembaum, Laura G.; Aviram, Idit; Smadja-Storz, Sima; Fuentes, Michael; Falcón, Jack; Eisenberg, Eli; Klein, David C.; Burgess, Harold A.; Foulkes, Nicholas S.; Gothilf, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted. Moreover, transcriptome analysis revealed that the circadian expression pattern of the majority of clock-controlled genes in the adult pineal gland is abolished. Importantly, circadian rhythms of behavior in zebrafish larvae were affected: rhythms of place preference under constant darkness were eliminated, and rhythms of locomotor activity under constant dark and constant dim light conditions were markedly attenuated. On the other hand, global peripheral molecular oscillators, as measured in whole larvae, were unaffected in this model. In conclusion, characterization of this novel transgenic model provides evidence that the molecular clock in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland plays a key role, possibly as part of a multiple pacemaker system, in modulating circadian rhythms of behavior. PMID:27870848

  7. Glucocorticoid activity detected by in vivo zebrafish assay and in vitro glucocorticoid receptor bioassay at environmental relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiyu; Jia, Ai; Snyder, Shane A; Gong, Zhiyuan; Lam, Siew Hong

    2016-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are pharmaceutical contaminants of emerging concern due to their incomplete removal during wastewater treatment, increased presence in aquatic environment and their biological potency. The zebrafish is a popular model for aquatic toxicology and environmental risk assessment. This study aimed to determine if glucocorticoids at environmental concentrations would perturb expression of selected glucocorticoid-responsive genes in zebrafish and to investigate their potentials as an in vivo zebrafish assay in complementing in vitro glucocorticoid receptor bioassay. The relative expression of eleven glucocorticoid-responsive genes in zebrafish larvae and liver of adult male zebrafish exposed to three representative glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone) was determined. The expression of pepck, baiap2 and pxr was up-regulated in zebrafish larvae and the expression of baiap2, pxr and mmp-2 was up-regulated in adult zebrafish exposed to glucocorticoids at concentrations equivalent to total glucocorticoids reported in environmental samples. The responsiveness of the specific genes were sufficiently robust in zebrafish larvae exposed to a complex environmental sample detected with in vitro glucocorticoid activity equivalent to 478 pM dexamethasone (DEX-EQ) and confirmed to contain low concentration (0.2 ng/L or less) of the targeted glucocorticoids, and possibly other glucocorticoid-active compounds. The findings provided in vivo relevance to the in vitro glucocorticoid activity and suggested that the environmental sample can perturb glucocorticoid-responsive genes in its original, or half the diluted, concentration as may be found in the environment. The study demonstrated the important complementary roles of in vivo zebrafish and in vitro bioassays coupled with analytical chemistry in monitoring environmental glucocorticoid contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative chromatography of chloroplast pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Sherma, J.; Strain, H. H.

    1969-01-01

    Methods for isolation of low concentration pigments of the cocklebur species are described. The methods entail two step chromatography so that the different sorption properties of the various pigments in varying column parameters can be utilized. Columnar and thin layer methods are compared. Many conditions influence separability of the chloroplasts.

  9. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  10. The smell of "anxiety": Behavioral modulation by experimental anosmia in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana C V V; Kalueff, Allan V; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-04-01

    Olfaction is strongly involved in the regulation of fish behavior, including reproductive, defensive, social and migration behaviors. In fish, anosmia (the lack of olfaction) can be induced experimentally, impairing their ability to respond to various olfactory stimuli. Here, we examine the effects of experimental lidocaine-induced anosmia on anxiety-like behavior and whole-body cortisol levels in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). We show that experimentally-induced anosmia reduces anxiolytic-like behavioral effects of fluoxetine and seems to interact with anxiogenic effect of stress also paralleling cortisol responses in zebrafish. These findings provide first experimental evidence that temporary anosmia modulates anxiety-like behaviors and physiology in adult zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  12. Use of a highly transparent zebrafish mutant for investigations in the development of the vertebrate auditory system (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniowiecki, Anna M.; Mattison, Scott P.; Kim, Sangmin; Riley, Bruce; Applegate, Brian E.

    2016-03-01

    Zebrafish, an auditory specialist among fish, offer analogous auditory structures to vertebrates and is a model for hearing and deafness in vertebrates, including humans. Nevertheless, many questions remain on the basic mechanics of the auditory pathway. Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography has been proven as valuable technique for functional vibrometric measurements in the murine ear. Such measurements are key to building a complete understanding of auditory mechanics. The application of such techniques in the zebrafish is impeded by the high level of pigmentation, which develops superior to the transverse plane and envelops the auditory system superficially. A zebrafish double mutant for nacre and roy (mitfa-/- ;roya-/- [casper]), which exhibits defects for neural-crest derived melanocytes and iridophores, at all stages of development, is pursued to improve image quality and sensitivity for functional imaging. So far our investigations with the casper mutants have enabled the identification of the specialized hearing organs, fluid-filled canal connecting the ears, and sub-structures of the semicircular canals. In our previous work with wild-type zebrafish, we were only able to identify and observe stimulated vibration of the largest structures, specifically the anterior swim bladder and tripus ossicle, even among small, larval specimen, with fully developed inner ears. In conclusion, this genetic mutant will enable the study of the dynamics of the zebrafish ear from the early larval stages all the way into adulthood.

  13. Zebrafish sex: a complicated affair

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Woei Chang

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we provide a detailed overview of studies on the elusive sex determination (SD) and gonad differentiation mechanisms of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We show that the data obtained from most studies are compatible with polygenic sex determination (PSD), where the decision is made by the allelic combinations of several loci. These loci are typically dispersed throughout the genome, but in some teleost species a few of them might be located on a preferential pair of (sex) chromosomes. The PSD system has a much higher level of variation of SD genotypes both at the level of gametes and the sexual genotype of individuals, than that of the chromosomal sex determination systems. The early sexual development of zebrafish males is a complicated process, as they first develop a ‘juvenile ovary’, that later undergoes a transformation to give way to a testis. To date, three major developmental pathways were shown to be involved with gonad differentiation through the modulation of programmed cell death. In our opinion, there are more pathways participating in the regulation of zebrafish gonad differentiation/transformation. Introduction of additional powerful large-scale genomic approaches into the analysis of zebrafish reproduction will result in further deepening of our knowledge as well as identification of additional pathways and genes associated with these processes in the near future. PMID:24148942

  14. Knockdown of prothrombin in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Day, Kenneth; Krishnegowda, Naveen; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2004-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease generated from its zymogen, prothrombin, and plays a central role in the coagulation cascade. It is also important for mammalian development. The zebrafish has now been established as an excellent genetic model for studies on mammalian hemostasis and development. In this report, we used prothrombin-specific antisense morpholinos to knock down the levels of prothrombin to characterize the effects of prothrombin deficiency in the zebrafish embryo. Prothrombin morpholino-injected zebrafish embryos yielded an early phenotype exhibiting severe abnormalities that later showed occasional bleeding. In a second late phenotype, the embryos had no observable morphological abnormalities in early stages, but showed occasional bleeding at later stages. These phenotypes resembled characteristics shown by prothrombin knockout mice. Laser-induced vascular injury on some of the normal appearing phenotypic larvae showed a prolonged time to occlusion, and recombinant zebrafish prothrombin injected into these larvae restored a normal time to occlusion thus showing the specificity of the morpholino effect. The system developed here should be useful for investigation of the role of thrombin in vertebrate development.

  15. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Norman L.; Trantow, Colleen M.; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among sixteen mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease. PMID:18715234

  16. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.

  17. Stab wound injury of the zebrafish telencephalon: a model for comparative analysis of reactive gliosis.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Emily Violette; Barbosa, Joana S; Bally-Cuif, Laure; Götz, Magdalena; Ninkovic, Jovica

    2012-03-01

    Reactive glia, including astroglia and oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) are at the core of the reaction to injury in the mammalian brain with initially beneficial and later partially adverse functions such as scar formation. Given the different glial composition in the adult zebrafish brain with radial ependymoglia but no parenchymal astrocytes, we examined the glial response to an invasive stab wound injury model in the adult zebrafish telencephalon. Strikingly, already a few days after injury the wound was closed without any scar tissue. Similar to mammals, microglia cells reacted first and accumulated close to the injury site, while neither GFAP+ radial ependymoglia nor adult OPCs were recruited to the injury site. Moreover, OPCs failed to increase their proliferation after this injury, while the number of proliferating GFAP+ glia was increased until 7 days after injury. Importantly, neurogenesis was also increased after injury, generating additional neurons recruited to the parenchyma which survived for several months. Thus, these data suggest that the specific glial environment in the adult zebrafish telencephalon is not only permissive for long-term neuronal survival, but avoids scar formation. Invasive injury in the adult zebrafish telencephalon may therefore provide a useful model to untangle the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial glial reactions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Behavioural fever in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sonia; Moiche, Visila; Boltaña, Sebastian; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Behavioural fever has been reported in different species of mobile ectotherms including the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in response to exogenous pyrogens. In this study we report, to our knowledge for the first time, upon the ontogenic onset of behavioural fever in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. For this, zebrafish larvae (from first feeding to juveniles) were placed in a continuous thermal gradient providing the opportunity to select their preferred temperature. The novel thermal preference aquarium was based upon a continuous vertical column system and allows for non-invasive observation of larvae vertical distribution under isothermal (T R at 28 °C) and thermal gradient conditions (T CH : 28-32 °C). Larval thermal preference was assessed under both conditions with or without an immersion challenge, in order to detect the onset of the behavioural fever response. Our results defined the onset of the dsRNA induced behavioural fever at 18-20 days post fertilization (dpf). Significant differences were observed in dsRNA challenged larvae, which prefer higher temperatures (1-4 °C increase) throughout the experimental period as compared to non-challenged larvae. In parallel we measured the abundance of antiviral transcripts; viperin, gig2, irf7, trim25 and Mxb mRNAs in dsRNA challenged larvae under both thermal regimes: T R and T Ch . Significant increases in the abundance of all measured transcripts were recorded under thermal choice conditions signifying that thermo-coupling and the resultant enhancement of the immune response to dsRNA challenge occurs from 18 dpf onwards in the zebrafish. The results are of importance as they identify a key developmental stage where the neuro-immune interface matures in the zebrafish likely providing increased resistance to viral infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Sepsis caused by pigmented and no pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum].

    PubMed

    Guevara, Armando; Salomón, Marlly; Oliveros, María; Guevara, Esmirna; Guevara, Milarys; Medina, Laida

    2007-10-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis is rare but associated with a high mortality rate. We report a fatal case of C. violaceum sepsis in a 6 years old Venezuelan indian boy. Clinical manifestations were fever and swelling in the right inguinal region. The initial diagnosis was an appendicular plastron. Appendicectomy was performed and during surgery a right psoas abscess was identified that resulted culture positive for pigmented C. violaceum. Blood cultures were positive for a pigmented and non pigmented C. violaceum strain. Imipenem and amikacin were administered despite of which the child died 9 days after hospital admission.

  20. Natural pigments and sacred art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  1. Novel Insights into the Genetic Controls of Primitive and Definitive Hematopoiesis from Zebrafish Models

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Raman; Liu, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is a dynamic process where initiation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells, as well as their differentiation into erythroid, myeloid and lymphoid lineages, are tightly regulated by a network of transcription factors. Understanding the genetic controls of hematopoiesis is crucial as perturbations in hematopoiesis lead to diseases such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, or cancers, including leukemias and lymphomas. Animal models, particularly conventional and conditional knockout mice, have played major roles in our understanding of the genetic controls of hematopoiesis. However, knockout mice for most of the hematopoietic transcription factors are embryonic lethal, thus precluding the analysis of their roles during the transition from embryonic to adult hematopoiesis. Zebrafish are an ideal model organism to determine the function of a gene during embryonic-to-adult transition of hematopoiesis since bloodless zebrafish embryos can develop normally into early larval stage by obtaining oxygen through diffusion. In this review, we discuss the current status of the ontogeny and regulation of hematopoiesis in zebrafish. By providing specific examples of zebrafish morphants and mutants, we have highlighted the contributions of the zebrafish model to our overall understanding of the roles of transcription factors in regulation of primitive and definitive hematopoiesis. PMID:22888355

  2. Editor's Highlight: Transgenic Zebrafish Reporter Lines as Alternative In Vivo Organ Toxicity Models.

    PubMed

    Poon, Kar Lai; Wang, Xingang; Lee, Serene G P; Ng, Ashley S; Goh, Wei Huang; Zhao, Zhonghua; Al-Haddawi, Muthafar; Wang, Haishan; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ingham, Philip W; McGinnis, Claudia; Carney, Tom J

    2017-03-01

    Organ toxicity, particularly liver toxicity, remains one of the major reasons for the termination of drug candidates in the development pipeline as well as withdrawal or restrictions of marketed drugs. A screening-amenable alternative in vivo model such as zebrafish would, therefore, find immediate application in the early prediction of unacceptable organ toxicity. To identify highly upregulated genes as biomarkers of toxic responses in the zebrafish model, a set of well-characterized reference drugs that cause drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in the clinic were applied to zebrafish larvae and adults. Transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on whole larvae or dissected adult livers. Integration of data sets from different drug treatments at different stages identified common upregulated detoxification pathways. Within these were candidate biomarkers which recurred in multiple treatments. We prioritized 4 highly upregulated genes encoding enzymes acting in distinct phases of the drug metabolism pathway. Through promoter isolation and fosmid recombineering, eGFP reporter transgenic zebrafish lines were generated and evaluated for their response to DILI drugs. Three of the 4 generated reporter lines showed a dose and time-dependent induction in endodermal organs to reference drugs and an expanded drug set. In conclusion, through integrated transcriptomics and transgenic approaches, we have developed parallel independent zebrafish in vivo screening platforms able to predict organ toxicities of preclinical drugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Glyphosate and Roundup® alter morphology and behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bridi, Daiane; Altenhofen, Stefani; Gonzalez, Jonas Brum; Reolon, Gustavo Kellermann; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2017-12-01

    Glyphosate has become the most widely used herbicide in the world, due to the wide scale adoption of transgenic glyphosate resistant crops after its introduction in 1996. Glyphosate may be used alone, but it is commonly applied as an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup ® . This pesticide contains several adjuvants, which may promote an unknown toxicity. The indiscriminate application poses numerous problems, both for the health of the applicators and consumers, and for the environment, contaminating the soil, water and leading to the death of plants and animals. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is quickly gaining popularity in behavioral research, because of physiological similarity to mammals, sensitivity to pharmacological factors, robust performance, low cost, short spawning intervals, external fertilization, transparency of embryos through larval stages, and rapid development. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of glyphosate and Roundup ® on behavioral and morphological parameters in zebrafish larvae and adults. Zebrafish larvae at 3days post-fertilization and adults were exposed to glyphosate (0.01, 0.065, and 0.5mg/L) or Roundup ® (0.01, 0.065, and 0.5mg/L) for 96h. Immediately after the exposure, we performed the analysis of locomotor activity, aversive behavior, and morphology for the larvae and exploratory behavior, aggression and inhibitory avoidance memory for adult zebrafish. In zebrafish larvae, there were significant differences in the locomotor activity and aversive behavior after glyphosate or Roundup ® exposure when compared to the control group. Our findings demonstrated that exposure to glyphosate at the concentration of 0.5mg/L, Roundup ® at 0.065 or 0.5mg/L reduced the distance traveled, the mean speed and the line crossings in adult zebrafish. A decreased ocular distance was observed for larvae exposed at 0.5mg/L of glyphosate. We verified that at 0.5mg/L of Roundup ® -treated adult zebrafish demonstrated a significant

  4. Characterization of glutathione-S-transferases in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Glisic, Branka; Mihaljevic, Ivan; Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Loncar, Jovica; Fent, Karl; Kovacevic, Radmila; Smital, Tvrtko

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are one of the key enzymes that mediate phase II of cellular detoxification. The aim of our study was a comprehensive characterization of GSTs in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an important vertebrate model species frequently used in environmental research. A detailed phylogenetic analysis of GST superfamily revealed 27 zebrafish gst genes. Further insights into the orthology relationships between human and zebrafish GSTs/Gsts were obtained by the conserved synteny analysis. Expression of gst genes in six tissues (liver, kidney, gills, intestine, brain and gonads) of adult male and female zebrafish was determined using qRT-PCR. Functional characterization was performed on 9 cytosolic Gst enzymes after overexpression in E. coli and subsequent protein purification. Enzyme kinetics was measured for GSH and a series of model substrates. Our data revealed ubiquitously high expression of gstp, gstm (except in liver), gstr1, mgst3a and mgst3b, high expression of gsto2 in gills and ovaries, gsta in intestine and testes, gstt1a in liver, and gstz1 in liver, kidney and brain. All zebrafish Gsts catalyzed the conjugation of GSH to model GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and monochlorobimane (MCB), apart from Gsto2 and Gstz1 that catalyzed GSH conjugation to dehydroascorbate (DHA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA), respectively. Affinity toward CDNB varied from 0.28 mM (Gstp2) to 3.69 mM (Gstm3), while affinity toward MCB was in the range of 5 μM (Gstt1a) to 250 μM (Gstp1). Affinity toward GSH varied from 0.27 mM (Gstz1) to 4.45 mM (Gstt1a). Turnover number for CDNB varied from 5.25s(-1) (Gstt1a) to 112s(-1) (Gstp2). Only Gst Pi enzymes utilized ethacrynic acid (ETA). We suggest that Gstp1, Gstp2, Gstt1a, Gstz1, Gstr1, Mgst3a and Mgst3b have important role in the biotransformation of xenobiotics, while Gst Alpha, Mu, Pi, Zeta and Rho classes are involved in the crucial physiological processes. In summary, this study provides the

  5. Female reproductive impacts of dietary methylmercury in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmentally relevant dietary MeHg exposures on adult female yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)reproduction. Yellow perch were used in the study for their socioeconomic and ecological importance within the Great Lak...

  6. Zebrafish numb and numblike are involved in primitive erythrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bresciani, Erica; Confalonieri, Stefano; Cermenati, Solei; Cimbro, Simona; Foglia, Efrem; Beltrame, Monica; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Cotelli, Franco

    2010-12-13

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved regulatory circuitry implicated in cell fate determination in various developmental processes including hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation of blood lineages. Known endogenous inhibitors of Notch activity are Numb-Nb and Numblike-Nbl, which play partially redundant functions in specifying and maintaining neuronal differentiation. Nb and Nbl are expressed in most tissues including embryonic and adult hematopoietic tissues in mice and humans, suggesting possible roles for these proteins in hematopoiesis. We employed zebrafish to investigate the possible functional role of Numb and Numblike during hematopoiesis, as this system allows a detailed analysis even in embryos with severe defects that would be lethal in other organisms. Here we describe that nb/nbl knockdown results in severe reduction or absence of embryonic erythrocytes in zebrafish. Interestingly, nb/nbl knocked-down embryos present severe downregulation of the erythroid transcription factor gata1. This results in erythroblasts which fail to mature and undergo apoptosis. Our results indicate that Notch activity is increased in embryos injected with nb/nbl morpholino, and we show that inhibition of Notch activation can partially rescue the hematopoietic phenotype. Our results provide the first in vivo evidence of an involvement of Numb and Numblike in zebrafish erythroid differentiation during primitive hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we found that, at least in part, the nb/nbl morphant phenotype is due to enhanced Notch activation within hematopoietic districts, which in turn results in primitive erythroid differentiation defects.

  7. Sensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Lush, Mark E; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-10-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling, and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Role of hepsin in factor VII activation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, Gauri; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2014-01-01

    Factor VII, the initiator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, circulates in human plasma mainly in its zymogen form, factor VII and in small amounts in its activated form, factor VIIa. However, the mechanism of initial generation of factor VIIa is not known despite intensive research using currently available model systems. Earlier findings suggested serine proteases factor VII activating protease and hepsin play a role in activating factor VII, however, it has remained controversial. In this paper we estimated the levels of factor VIIa and factor VII for the first time in zebrafish adult population and also reevaluated the role of the above two serine proteases in activating factor VII in vivo using zebrafish as a model system. Knockdown of factor VII activating protease and hepsin was performed followed by assaying for their effect on factor VIIa concentration and extrinsic coagulation as measured by the kinetic prothrombin time. Factor VII activating protease knockdown showed no change in kinetic prothrombin time and no effect on factor VIIa levels while hepsin knockdown increased the kinetic prothrombin time and significantly reduced the factor VIIa plasma levels. Our results thus indicate that hepsin plays a physiologically important role in factor VII activation and hemostasis in zebrafish. © 2013.

  9. SENSORY HAIR CELL REGENERATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH LATERAL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Lush, Mark E.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. PMID:25045019

  10. Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/regucalcin (RGN) expression decreases with aging, acute liver injuries and tumors in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, Koichi; Terai, Shuji, E-mail: terais@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Hirose, Yoshikazu

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Zebrafish SMP30/RGN mRNA expression decreases with aging. {yields} Decreased expression was observed in liver tumors as compared to the surrounding area. {yields} SMP30/RGN is important for liver proliferation and tumorigenesis. -- Abstract: Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/regucalcin (RGN) is known to be related to aging, hepatocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis. However, expression and function of non-mammalian SMP30/RGN is poorly understood. We found that zebrafish SMP30/RGN mRNA expression decreases with aging, partial hepatectomy and thioacetamide-induced acute liver injury. SMP30/RGN expression was also greatly decreased in a zebrafish liver cell line. In addition, we induced liver tumors in adult zebrafish bymore » administering diethylnitrosamine. Decreased expression was observed in foci, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocellular carcinomas and mixed tumors as compared to the surrounding area. We thus showed the importance of SMP30/RGN in liver proliferation and tumorigenesis.« less

  11. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially alters alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the zebrafish liver.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-02

    Chronic ethanol exposure paradigms have been successfully used in the past to induce behavioral and central nervous system related changes in zebrafish. However, it is currently unknown whether chronic ethanol exposure alters ethanol metabolism in adult zebrafish. In the current study we examine the effect of acute ethanol exposure on adult zebrafish behavioral responses, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the liver. We then examine how two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms (continuous and repeated ethanol exposure) alter behavioral responses and liver enzyme activity during a subsequent acute ethanol challenge. Acute ethanol exposure increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner. ADH activity was shown to exhibit an inverted U-shaped curve and ALDH activity was decreased by ethanol exposure at all doses. During the acute ethanol challenge, animals that were continuously housed in ethanol exhibited a significantly reduced locomotor response and increased ADH activity, however, ALDH activity did not change. Zebrafish that were repeatedly exposed to ethanol demonstrated a small but significant attenuation of the locomotor response during the acute ethanol challenge but ADH and ALDH activity was similar to controls. Overall, we identified two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms that differentially alter behavioral and physiological responses in zebrafish. We speculate that these two paradigms may allow dissociation of central nervous system-related and liver enzyme-dependent ethanol induced changes in zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurobehavioral impairments caused by developmental imidacloprid exposure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Emily B; Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are becoming more widely applied as organophosphate (OP) insecticides are decreasing in use. Because of their relative specificity to insect nicotinic receptors, they are thought to have reduced risk of neurotoxicity in vertebrates. However, there is scant published literature concerning the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure of vertebrates to neonicotinoids. Using zebrafish, we investigated the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to imidacloprid, a prototypic neonicotinoid pesticide. Nicotine was also administered for comparison. Zebrafish were exposed via immersion in aqueous solutions containing 45 μM or 60 μM of imidacloprid or nicotine (or vehicle control) from 4h to 5d post fertilization. The functional effects of developmental exposure to both imidacloprid and nicotine were assessed in larvae using an activity assay and during adolescence and adulthood using a battery of neurobehavioral assays, including assessment of sensorimotor response and habituation in a tactile startle test, novel tank swimming, and shoaling behavior. In larvae, developmental imidacloprid exposure at both doses significantly decreased swimming activity. The 5D strains of zebrafish were more sensitive to both nicotine and imidacloprid than the AB* strain. In adolescent and adult fish, developmental exposure to imidacloprid significantly decreased novel tank exploration and increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli. While nicotine did not affect novel tank swimming, it increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli at the low dose. No effects of either compound were found on shoaling behavior or habituation to a startling stimulus. Early developmental exposure to imidacloprid has both early-life and persisting effects on neurobehavioral function in zebrafish. Its developmental neurotoxicity should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Forkhead transcription factor foxe1 regulates chondrogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Chisako; Iida, Atsumi; Tabata, Yoko; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2009-12-15

    Forkhead transcription factor (Fox) e1 is a causative gene for Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, which is characterized by hypothyroidism and cleft palate. Applying degenerate polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the conserved forkhead domain, we identified zebrafish foxe1 (foxe1). Foxe1 is expressed in the thyroid, pharynx, and pharyngeal skeleton during development; strongly expressed in the gill and weakly expressed in the brain, eye, and heart in adult zebrafish. A loss of function of foxe1 by morpholino antisense oligo (MO) exhibited abnormal craniofacial development, shortening of Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyals, and suppressed chondrycytic proliferation. However, at 27 hr post fertilization, the foxe1 MO-injected embryos showed normal dlx2, hoxa2, and hoxb2 expression, suggesting that the initial steps of pharyngeal skeletal development, including neural crest migration and specification of the pharyngeal arch occurred normally. In contrast, at 2 dpf, a severe reduction in the expression of sox9a, colIIaI, and runx2b, which play roles in chondrocytic proliferation and differentiation, was observed. Interestingly, fgfr2 was strongly upregulated in the branchial arches of the foxe1 MO-injected embryos. Unlike Foxe1-null mice, normal thyroid development in terms of morphology and thyroid-specific marker expression was observed in foxe1 MO-injected zebrafish embryos. Taken together, our results indicate that Foxe1 plays an important role in chondrogenesis during development of the pharyngeal skeleton in zebrafish, probably through regulation of fgfr2 expression. Furthermore, the roles reported for FOXE1 in mammalian thyroid development may have been acquired during evolution. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Neurobehavioral Impairments Caused by Developmental Imidacloprid Exposure in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Emily B.; Bailey, Jordan M.; Oliveri, Anthony N.; Levin, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neonicotinoid insecticides are becoming more widely applied as organophosphate (OP) insecticides are decreasing in use. Because of their relative specificity to insect nicotinic receptors, they are thought to have reduced risk of neurotoxicity in vertebrates. However, there is scant published literature concerning the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure of vertebrates to neonicotinoids. METHODS Using zebrafish, we investigated the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to imidacloprid, a prototypic neonicotinoid pesticide. Nicotine was also administered for comparison. Zebrafish were exposed via immersion in aqueous solutions containing 45 μM or 60 μM of imidacloprid or nicotine (or vehicle control) from 4 h to 5 d post fertilization. The functional effects of developmental exposure to both imidacloprid and nicotine were assessed in larvae using an activity assay and during adolescence and adulthood using a battery of neurobehavioral assays, including assessment of sensorimotor response and habituation in a tactile startle test, novel tank swimming, and shoaling behavior. RESULTS In larvae, developmental imidacloprid exposure at both doses significantly decreased swimming activity. The 5D strain of zebrafish were more sensitive to both nicotine and imidacloprid than the AB* strain. In adolescent and adult fish, developmental exposure to imidacloprid significantly decreased novel tank exploration and increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli. While nicotine did not affect novel tank swimming, it increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli at the low dose. No effects of either compound were found on shoaling behavior or habituation to a startling stimulus. DISCUSSION Early developmental exposure to imidacloprid has both early-life and persisting effects on neurobehavioral function in zebrafish. Its developmental neurotoxicity should be further investigated. PMID:25944383

  15. Assessing the impact of thermal acclimation on physiological condition in the zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Hagenaars, An; De Boeck, Gudrun; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has become a valuable vertebrate model organism in a wide range of scientific disciplines, but current information concerning the physiological temperature response of adult zebrafish is rather scarce. In this study, zebrafish were experimentally acclimated for 28 days to 18, 26 or 34 °C and a suite of non-invasive and invasive methods was applied to determine the thermal dependence of zebrafish physiological condition. With decreasing temperature, the metabolic rate of zebrafish decreased, as shown by the decreasing oxygen uptake and ammonia excretion rates, limiting the critical swimming speed, probably due to a decreased muscle fibre power output. In response to exercise, fuel stores were mobilized to the liver as shown by the increased hepatosomatic index, liver total absolute energetic value and liver carbohydrate concentration but due to the low metabolic rate they could not be adequately addressed to power swimming activity at 18 °C. Conversely, the increased metabolic performance at high temperature came with an increased metabolic cost resulting in decreased energy status reflected particularly well by the non-invasive condition factor and invasive measures of carcass protein concentration, carcass total absolute energetic value and liver carbohydrate concentration. We showed that the combined measurement of the relative condition factor and critical swimming speed is a powerful non-invasive tool for long-term follow-up studies. Invasive methods were redundant for measuring general energy status but they provided detailed information concerning metabolic reorganization. With this study we proved that the usefulness of the zebrafish as a model organism can easily be expanded to include physiological studies and we provided a reference dataset for the selection of measures of physiological responses for future studies using the zebrafish.

  16. The small molecule probe PT-Yellow labels the renal proximal tubules in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sander, Veronika; Patke, Shantanu; Sahu, Srikanta; Teoh, Chai Lean; Peng, Zhenzhen; Chang, Young-Tae; Davidson, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a small fluorescent molecule, BDNCA3-D2, herein referred to as PT-Yellow. Soaking zebrafish embryos in PT-Yellow or intraperitoneal injection into adults results in non-toxic in vivo fluorescent labeling of the renal proximal tubules, the major site of blood filtrate reabsorption and a common target of injury in acute kidney injury. We demonstrate the applicability of this new compound as a rapid and simple readout for zebrafish kidney filtration and proximal tubule reabsorption function.

  17. Extraction Protocols for Individual Zebrafish's Ventricle Myosin and Skeletal Muscle Actin for In vitro Motility Assays

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Lisa-Mareike; Weber, Cornelia; Bopp, Nasrin; Mosqueira, Matias; Fink, Rainer H. A.

    2017-01-01

    The in vitro motility assay (IVMA) is a technique that enables the measurement of the interaction between actin and myosin providing a relatively simple model to understand the mechanical muscle function. For actin-myosin IVMA, myosin is immobilized in a measurement chamber, where it converts chemical energy provided by ATP hydrolysis into mechanical energy. The result is the movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments that can be recorded microscopically and analyzed quantitatively. Resulting sliding speeds and patterns help to characterize the underlying actin-myosin interaction that can be affected by different factors such as mutations or active compounds. Additionally, modulatory actions of the regulatory proteins tropomyosin and troponin in the presence of calcium on actin-myosin interaction can be studied with the IVMA. Zebrafish is considered a suitable model organism for cardiovascular and skeletal muscle research. In this context, straightforward protocols for the isolation and use of zebrafish muscle proteins in the IVMA would provide a useful tool in molecular studies. Currently, there are no protocols available for the mentioned purpose. Therefore, we developed fast and easy protocols for characterization of zebrafish proteins in the IVMA. Our protocols enable the interested researcher to (i) isolate actin from zebrafish skeletal muscle and (ii) extract functionally intact myosin from cardiac and skeletal muscle of individual adult zebrafish. Zebrafish tail muscle actin is isolated after acetone powder preparation, polymerized, and labeled with Rhodamine-Phalloidin. Myosin from ventricles of adult zebrafish is extracted directly into IVMA flow-cells. The same extraction protocol is applicable for comparably small tissue pieces as from zebrafish tail, mouse and frog muscle. After addition of the fluorescently labeled F-actin from zebrafish—or other origin—and ATP, sliding movement can be visualized using a fluorescence microscope and an

  18. Maternal nodal and zebrafish embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James T; Stickney, Heather L; Choi, Wen-Yee; Ciruna, Brian; Talbot, William S; Schier, Alexander F

    2007-11-08

    In fish and amphibians, the dorsal axis is specified by the asymmetric localization of maternally provided components of the Wnt signalling pathway. Gore et al. suggest that the Nodal signal Squint (Sqt) is required as a maternally provided dorsal determinant in zebrafish. Here we test their proposal and show that the maternal activities of sqt and the related Nodal gene cyclops (cyc) are not required for dorsoventral patterning.

  19. Zebrafish Discoveries in Cancer Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Chernyavskaya, Yelena; Kent, Brandon; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2016-01-01

    The cancer epigenome is fundamentally different than that of normal cells. How these differences arise in and contribute to carcinogenesis is not known, and studies using model organisms such as zebrafish provide an opportunity to address these important questions. Modifications of histones and DNA comprise the complex epigenome, and these influence chromatin structure, genome stability and gene expression, all of which are fundamental to the cellular changes that cause cancer. The cancer genome atlas covers the wide spectrum of genetic changes associated with nearly every cancer type, however, this catalog is currently uni-dimensional. As the pattern of epigenetic marks and chromatin structure in cancer cells is described and overlaid on the mutational landscape, the map of the cancer genome becomes multi-dimensional and highly complex. Two major questions remain in the field: (1) how the epigenome becomes repatterned in cancer and (2) which of these changes are cancer-causing. Zebrafish provide a tractable in vivo system to monitor the epigenome during transformation and to identify epigenetic drivers of cancer. In this chapter, we review principles of cancer epigenetics and discuss recent work using zebrafish whereby epigenetic modifiers were established as cancer driver genes, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming in cancer.

  20. Computerized pigment design based on property hypersurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halova, Jaroslava; Sulcova, Petra; Kupka, Karel

    2007-05-01

    Competition is tough in the pigment market. Rational pigment design has therefore a competitive advantage, saving time and money. The aim of this work is to provide methods that can assist in designing pigments with defined properties. These methods include partial least squares regression (PLSR), neural network (NN) and generalized regression ANOVA model. Authors show how PLS bi-plot can be used to identify market gaps poorly covered by pigment manufacturers, thus giving an opportunity to develop pigments with potentially profitable properties.

  1. Expression and activity profiling of the steroidogenic enzymes of glucocorticoid biosynthesis and the fdx1 co-factors in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Weger, M; Diotel, N; Weger, B D; Beil, T; Zaucker, A; Eachus, H L; Oakes, J A; do Rego, J L; Storbeck, K-H; Gut, P; Strähle, U; Rastegar, S; Müller, F; Krone, N

    2018-04-01

    The spatial and temporal expression of steroidogenic genes in zebrafish has not been fully characterised. Because zebrafish are increasingly employed in endocrine and stress research, a better characterisation of steroidogenic pathways is required to target specific steps in the biosynthetic pathways. In the present study, we have systematically defined the temporal and spatial expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in glucocorticoid biosynthesis (cyp21a2, cyp11c1, cyp11a1, cyp11a2, cyp17a1, cyp17a2, hsd3b1, hsd3b2), as well as the mitochondrial electron-providing ferredoxin co-factors (fdx1, fdx1b), during zebrafish development. Our studies showed an early expression of all these genes during embryogenesis. In larvae, expression of cyp11a2, cyp11c1, cyp17a2, cyp21a2, hsd3b1 and fdx1b can be detected in the interrenal gland, which is the zebrafish counterpart of the mammalian adrenal gland, whereas the fdx1 transcript is mainly found in the digestive system. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridisation in the adult zebrafish brain revealed a wide expression of these genes throughout the encephalon, including neurogenic regions. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to demonstrate the presence of the glucocorticoid cortisol in the adult zebrafish brain. Moreover, we demonstrate de novo biosynthesis of cortisol and the neurosteroid tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone in the adult zebrafish brain from radiolabelled pregnenolone. Taken together, the present study comprises a comprehensive characterisation of the steroidogenic genes and the fdx co-factors facilitating glucocorticoid biosynthesis in zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide additional evidence of de novo neurosteroid biosynthesising in the brain of adult zebrafish facilitated by enzymes involved in glucocorticoid biosynthesis. Our study provides a valuable source for establishing the zebrafish as a

  2. Perspectives on zebrafish models of hallucinogenic drugs and related psychotropic compounds.

    PubMed

    Neelkantan, Nikhil; Mikhaylova, Alina; Stewart, Adam Michael; Arnold, Raymond; Gjeloshi, Visar; Kondaveeti, Divya; Poudel, Manoj K; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-08-21

    Among different classes of psychotropic drugs, hallucinogenic agents exert one of the most prominent effects on human and animal behaviors, markedly altering sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive responses. The growing clinical and preclinical interest in psychedelic, dissociative, and deliriant hallucinogens necessitates novel translational, sensitive, and high-throughput in vivo models and screens. Primate and rodent models have been traditionally used to study cellular mechanisms and neural circuits of hallucinogenic drugs' action. The utility of zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) in neuroscience research is rapidly growing due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, robust behaviors, and cost effectiveness. Possessing a fully characterized genome, both adult and larval zebrafish are currently widely used for in vivo screening of various psychotropic compounds, including hallucinogens and related drugs. Recognizing the growing importance of hallucinogens in biological psychiatry, here we discuss hallucinogenic-induced phenotypes in zebrafish and evaluate their potential as efficient preclinical models of drug-induced states in humans.

  3. Transvection Arising from Transgene Interactions in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Matthew D; Bonkowsky, Joshua L

    2017-02-01

    There has been a rapid expansion in use of transgenic technologies in zebrafish. We report a novel example of transinteractions of genetic elements, or transvection. This interaction led to a novel expression pattern and illustrates a precautionary example regarding use of transgenes in zebrafish.

  4. Advances in the Study of Heart Development and Disease Using Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Daniel R.; Samsa, Leigh Ann; Qian, Li; Liu, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of cardiovascular disease are key players in the translational medicine pipeline used to define the conserved genetic and molecular basis of disease. Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the most common type of human birth defect and feature structural abnormalities that arise during cardiac development and maturation. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a valuable vertebrate model organism, offering advantages over traditional mammalian models. These advantages include the rapid, stereotyped and external development of transparent embryos produced in large numbers from inexpensively housed adults, vast capacity for genetic manipulation, and amenability to high-throughput screening. With the help of modern genetics and a sequenced genome, zebrafish have led to insights in cardiovascular diseases ranging from CHDs to arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy. Here, we discuss the utility of zebrafish as a model system and summarize zebrafish cardiac morphogenesis with emphasis on parallels to human heart diseases. Additionally, we discuss the specific tools and experimental platforms utilized in the zebrafish model including forward screens, functional characterization of candidate genes, and high throughput applications. PMID:27335817

  5. Myotonia congenita-associated mutations in chloride channel-1 affect zebrafish body wave swimming kinematics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Tian, Jing; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Hunziker, Walter; Eng, How-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Myotonia congenita is a human muscle disorder caused by mutations in CLCN1, which encodes human chloride channel 1 (CLCN1). Zebrafish is becoming an increasingly useful model for human diseases, including muscle disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing, under the control of a muscle specific promoter, human CLCN1 carrying mutations that have been identified in human patients suffering from myotonia congenita. We developed video analytic tools that are able to provide precise quantitative measurements of movement abnormalities in order to analyse the effect of these CLCN1 mutations on adult transgenic zebrafish swimming. Two new parameters for body-wave kinematics of swimming reveal changes in body curvature and tail offset in transgenic zebrafish expressing the disease-associated CLCN1 mutants, presumably due to their effect on muscle function. The capability of the developed video analytic tool to distinguish wild-type from transgenic zebrafish could provide a useful asset to screen for compounds that reverse the disease phenotype, and may be applicable to other movement disorders besides myotonia congenita.

  6. A novel TRIM family member, Trim69, regulates zebrafish development through p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruiqin; Zhao, Qing; Zong, Shudong; Miao, Shiying; Song, Wei; Wang, Linfang

    2016-05-01

    Trim69 contains the hallmark domains of a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, including a Ring-finger domain, B-box domain, and coiled-coil domain. Trim69 is structurally and evolutionarily conserved in zebrafish, mouse, rat, human, and chimpanzee. The role of this protein is unclear, however, so we investigated its function in zebrafish development. Trim69 is extensively expressed in zebrafish adults and developing embryos-particularly in the testis, brain, ovary, and heart-and its expression decreases in a time- and stage-dependent manner. Loss of trim69 in zebrafish induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis-related processes; indeed, the tp53 pathway was up-regulated in response to the knockdown. Expression of human trim69 rescued the apoptotic phenotype, while overexpression of trim69 does not increase cellular apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that trim69 participates in tp53-mediated apoptosis during zebrafish development. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 442-454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Characterization of Sleep in Zebrafish and Insomnia in Hypocretin Receptor Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Tohei; Marin, Wilfredo; Faraco, Juliette; Pézeron, Guillaume; Appelbaum, Lior; Zhang, Jian; Rosa, Frédéric; Mourrain, Philippe; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a fundamental biological process conserved across the animal kingdom. The study of how sleep regulatory networks are conserved is needed to better understand sleep across evolution. We present a detailed description of a sleep state in adult zebrafish characterized by reversible periods of immobility, increased arousal threshold, and place preference. Rest deprivation using gentle electrical stimulation is followed by a sleep rebound, indicating homeostatic regulation. In contrast to mammals and similarly to birds, light suppresses sleep in zebrafish, with no evidence for a sleep rebound. We also identify a null mutation in the sole receptor for the wake-promoting neuropeptide hypocretin (orexin) in zebrafish. Fish lacking this receptor demonstrate short and fragmented sleep in the dark, in striking contrast to the excessive sleepiness and cataplexy of narcolepsy in mammals. Consistent with this observation, we find that the hypocretin receptor does not colocalize with known major wake-promoting monoaminergic and cholinergic cell groups in the zebrafish. Instead, it colocalizes with large populations of GABAergic neurons, including a subpopulation of Adra2a-positive GABAergic cells in the anterior hypothalamic area, neurons that could assume a sleep modulatory role. Our study validates the use of zebrafish for the study of sleep and indicates molecular diversity in sleep regulatory networks across vertebrates. PMID:17941721

  8. Comparative Analyses of Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behavior Using Conflict-Based Novelty Tests.

    PubMed

    Kysil, Elana V; Meshalkina, Darya A; Frick, Erin E; Echevarria, David J; Rosemberg, Denis B; Maximino, Caio; Lima, Monica Gomes; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana C; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of stress and anxiety in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly utilized in neuroscience research and central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery. Representing the most commonly used zebrafish anxiety models, the novel tank test (NTT) focuses on zebrafish diving in response to potentially threatening stimuli, whereas the light-dark test (LDT) is based on fish scototaxis (innate preference for dark vs. bright areas). Here, we systematically evaluate the utility of these two tests, combining meta-analyses of published literature with comparative in vivo behavioral and whole-body endocrine (cortisol) testing. Overall, the NTT and LDT behaviors demonstrate a generally good cross-test correlation in vivo, whereas meta-analyses of published literature show that both tests have similar sensitivity to zebrafish anxiety-like states. Finally, NTT evokes higher levels of cortisol, likely representing a more stressful procedure than LDT. Collectively, our study reappraises NTT and LDT for studying anxiety-like states in zebrafish, and emphasizes their developing utility for neurobehavioral research. These findings can help optimize drug screening procedures by choosing more appropriate models for testing anxiolytic or anxiogenic drugs.

  9. Bioactive Molecule from Streptomyces sp. Mitigates MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae in Zebrafish Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheepurupalli, Lalitha; Raman, Thiagarajan; Rathore, Sudarshan S.; Ramakrishnan, Jayapradha

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) especially carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major emerging threat to public health, leading to excess in mortality rate as high as 50–86%. MDR K. pneumoniae manifests all broad mechanisms of drug resistance, hence development of new drugs to treat MDR K. pneumoniae infection has become a more relevant question in the scientific community. In the present study a potential Streptomyces sp. ASK2 was isolated from rhizosphere soil of medicinal plant. The multistep HPLC purification identified the active principle exhibiting antagonistic activity against MDR K. pneumoniae. The purified compound was found to be an aromatic compound with aliphatic side chain molecule having a molecular weight of 444.43 Da. FT-IR showed the presence of OH and C=O as functional groups. The bioactive compound was further evaluated for drug induced toxicity and efficacy in adult zebrafish infection model. As this is the first study on K. pneumoniae – zebrafish model, the infectious doses to manifest sub-clinical and clinical infection were optimized. Furthermore, the virulence of K. pneumoniae in planktonic and biofilm state was studied in zebrafish. The MTT assay of ex vivo culture of zebrafish liver reveals non-toxic nature of the proposed ASK2 compound at an effective dose. Moreover, significant increase in survival rate of infected zebrafish suggests that ASK2 compound from a new strain of Streptomyces sp. was potent in mitigating MDR K. pneumoniae infection. PMID:28446900

  10. Comparison of cannabinoids with known analgesics using a novel high throughput zebrafish larval model of nociception.

    PubMed

    Ellis, L D; Berrue, F; Morash, M; Achenbach, J C; Hill, J; McDougall, J J

    2018-01-30

    It has been established that both adult and larval zebrafish are capable of showing nociceptive responses to noxious stimuli; however, the use of larvae to test novel analgesics has not been fully explored. Zebrafish larvae represent a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to traditional mammalian models for the assessment of product efficacy during the initial stages of drug development. In the current study, a novel model of nociception using zebrafish larvae is described. During the recovery from an acute exposure to low levels of acetic acid, larvae display innate changes in behaviour that may be indicative of nociception. To assess the usefulness of this model for testing potential analgesics, three known synthetic pain medications were assessed (ibuprofen, acetaminophen and tramadol) along with three naturally occurring products (honokiol, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol). When the effect of each compound on both the acetic acid recovery and control activity was compared there appeared to be both similarities and differences between the compounds. One of the most interesting effects was found for cannabidiol which appeared to oppose the activity change during the recovery period of AA exposed larvae while having a nominal effect on control activity. This would appear to be in line with current research that has demonstrated the nociceptive properties of cannabidiol. Here we have provided a novel model that will complement existing zebrafish models and will expand on the potential use of zebrafish larvae for studying both nociception and new analgesics. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Myotonia Congenita-Associated Mutations in Chloride Channel-1 Affect Zebrafish Body Wave Swimming Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Tian, Jing; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Hunziker, Walter; Eng, How-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Myotonia congenita is a human muscle disorder caused by mutations in CLCN1, which encodes human chloride channel 1 (CLCN1). Zebrafish is becoming an increasingly useful model for human diseases, including muscle disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing, under the control of a muscle specific promoter, human CLCN1 carrying mutations that have been identified in human patients suffering from myotonia congenita. We developed video analytic tools that are able to provide precise quantitative measurements of movement abnormalities in order to analyse the effect of these CLCN1 mutations on adult transgenic zebrafish swimming. Two new parameters for body-wave kinematics of swimming reveal changes in body curvature and tail offset in transgenic zebrafish expressing the disease-associated CLCN1 mutants, presumably due to their effect on muscle function. The capability of the developed video analytic tool to distinguish wild-type from transgenic zebrafish could provide a useful asset to screen for compounds that reverse the disease phenotype, and may be applicable to other movement disorders besides myotonia congenita. PMID:25083883

  12. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling pathway regulates liver homeostasis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Mei; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Wen-Pin

    2013-04-01

    In mammals, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling controls liver specification and regulates the metabolism of lipids, cholesterol, and bile acids. FGF signaling also promotes hepatocyte proliferation, and helps detoxify hepatotoxin during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. However, the function of Fgf in zebrafish liver is not yet well understood, specifically for postnatal homeostasis. The current study analyzed the expression of fgf receptors (fgfrs) in the liver of zebrafish. We then investigated the function of Fgf signaling in the zebrafish liver by expressing a dominant-negative Fgf receptor in hepatocytes (lfabp:dnfgfr1-egfp, lf:dnfr). Histological analysis showed that our genetic intervention resulted in a small liver size with defected medial expansion of developing livers in transgenic (Tg) larvae. Morphologically, the liver lobe of lf:dnfr adult fish was shorter than that of control. Ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes was observed in fish as young as 3 months. Further examination revealed the development of hepatic steatosis and cholestasis. In adult Tg fish, we unexpectedly observed increased liver-to-body-weight ratios, with higher percentages of proliferating hepatocytes. Considering all these findings, we concluded that as in mammals, in adult zebrafish the metabolism of lipid and bile acids in the liver are regulated by Fgf signaling. Disruption of the Fgf signal-mediated metabolism might indirectly affect hepatocyte proliferation.

  13. Application of Zebrafish Model to Environmental Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a tropical freshwater fish, the zebrafish, has been generally used as a useful model organism in various fields of life science worldwide. The zebrafish model has also been applied to environmental toxicology; however, in Japan, it has not yet become widely used. In this review, we will introduce the biological and historical backgrounds of zebrafish as an animal model and their breeding. We then present the current status of toxicological experiments using zebrafish that were treated with some important environmental contaminants, including cadmium, organic mercury, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and tributyltin. Finally, the future possible application of genetically modified zebrafish to the study of environmental toxicology is discussed.

  14. Annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome: pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Burak; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Deniz, Nurettin; Catak, Onur

    2008-12-01

    To report annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in a case of pigment dispersion syndrome. Case report. A 36-year-old female with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the right eye over the past 1-2 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Remarkably, annular and central dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule was noted in the right eye. Annular pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The way of central pigmentation is the entrance of aqueous to Berger's space. In our case, it is probable that spontaneous detachment of the anterior hyaloid membrane aided this entrance.

  15. Acute toxicity of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), a typical nitrogenous disinfection by-product (N-DBP), on zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Zhou, Dongju; Dong, Jian; Jiang, Fuchun; Chen, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) is a typical nitrogenous disinfection by-product (N-DBP) and its toxicity on aquatic animals is investigated for the first time. The present study was designed to investigate the potential adverse effects of DCAN on zebrafish. DCAN could induce developmental toxicity to zebrafish embryos. A significant decrease in hatchability and an increase in malformation and mortality occurred when DCAN concentration was above 100µg/L. Heart function alteration and neuronal function disturbance occurred at concentration higher than 500 and 100µg/L, respectively. Further, DCAN was easily accumulated in adult zebrafish. The rank order of declining bioconcentration factor (BCF) was liver (1240-1670)> gill (1210-1430)> muscle (644-877). DCAN caused acute metabolism damage to adult zebrafish especially at 8 days exposure, at which time the "Integrated Biomarker Response" (IBR) index value reached 798 at 1mg/L DCAN dose. Acute DNA damage was induced to adult zebrafish by DCAN even at 10µg/L dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Innate Color Preference of Zebrafish and Its Use in Behavioral Analyses.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Su; Ryu, Jae-Ho; Choi, Tae-Ik; Bae, Young-Ki; Lee, Suman; Kang, Hae Jin; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2016-10-01

    Although innate color preference of motile organisms may provide clues to behavioral biases, it has remained a longstanding question. In this study, we investigated innate color preference of zebrafish larvae. A cross maze with different color sleeves around each arm was used for the color preference test (R; red, G; green, B; blue, Y; yellow). The findings showed that 5 dpf zebrafish larvae preferred blue over other colors (B > R > G > Y). To study innate color recognition further, tyrosinase mutants were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 system. As a model for oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and color vision impairment, tyrosinase mutants demonstrated diminished color sensation, indicated mainly by hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Due to its relative simplicity and ease, color preference screening using zebrafish larvae is suitable for high-throughput screening applications. This system may potentially be applied to the analysis of drug effects on larval behavior or the detection of sensory deficits in neurological disorder models, such as autism-related disorders, using mutant larvae generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 technique.

  17. Innate Color Preference of Zebrafish and Its Use in Behavioral Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Su; Ryu, Jae-Ho; Choi, Tae-Ik; Bae, Young-Ki; Lee, Suman; Kang, Hae Jin; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Although innate color preference of motile organisms may provide clues to behavioral biases, it has remained a longstanding question. In this study, we investigated innate color preference of zebrafish larvae. A cross maze with different color sleeves around each arm was used for the color preference test (R; red, G; green, B; blue, Y; yellow). The findings showed that 5 dpf zebrafish larvae preferred blue over other colors (B > R > G > Y). To study innate color recognition further, tyrosinase mutants were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 system. As a model for oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and color vision impairment, tyrosinase mutants demonstrated diminished color sensation, indicated mainly by hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Due to its relative simplicity and ease, color preference screening using zebrafish larvae is suitable for high-throughput screening applications. This system may potentially be applied to the analysis of drug effects on larval behavior or the detection of sensory deficits in neurological disorder models, such as autism-related disorders, using mutant larvae generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 technique. PMID:27802373

  18. The zebrafish mutant vps18 as a model for vesicle-traffic related hypopigmentation diseases.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Ernesto; Hernandez, Fabiola; Lozano, Carlos; Castro, Marta E; Navarro, Rosa E

    2006-08-01

    Hypopigmentation is a characteristic of several diseases associated with vesicle traffic defects, like the Hermansky-Pudlak, Chediak-Higashi, and Griscelli syndromes. Hypopigmentation is also a characteristic of the zebrafish mutant vps18(hi2499A), which is affected in the gene vps18, a component of the homotypic fusion and protein sorting complex that is involved in tethering during vesicular traffic. Vps18, as part of this complex, participates in the formation of early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Here, we show that Vps18 is also involved in the formation of melanosomes. In the zebrafish mutant vps18(hi2499A) the retroviral insertion located at exon 4 of vps18, leads to the formation of two abnormal splicing variants lacking the coding sequence for the clathrin repeat and the RING finger conserved domains. A deficiency of Vps18 in zebrafish larvae results in hepatomegaly and skin hypopigmentation. We also observed a drastic reduction in the number of melanosomes in the eye's retinal pigmented epithelium along with the accumulation of immature melanosomes. A significant reduction in the vps18(hi2499A) larvae visual system capacity was found using the optokinetic response assay. We propose that the insertional mutant vps18(hi2499A) can be used as a model for studying hypopigmentation diseases in which vesicle traffic problems exist.

  19. Embryotoxicity of nitrophenols to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Zeynep; Şişman, Turgay; Yazıcı, Zehra; Altıkat, Aysun Özen

    2016-08-01

    The nitrophenols (NPs) are water-soluble compounds. These compounds pose a significant health threat since they are priority environmental pollutants. In this study, 2-Nitrophenol (2NP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) were examined for embryo and early life stage toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity and teratogenicity of 2NP and DNP were tested for 4 days using zebrafish embryos. The typical lesions observed were no somite formation, incomplete eye and head development, tail curvature, weak pigmentation (≤48 hours postfertilization (hpf)), kyphosis, scoliosis, yolk sac deformity, and nonpigmentation (72 hpf). Also, embryo and larval mortality increased and hatching success decreased. The severity of abnormalities and mortalities were concentration- and compound-dependent. Of the compounds tested, 2,4-DNP was found to be highly toxic to the fish embryos following exposure. The median lethal concentrations and median effective concentrations for 2NP are 18.7 mg/L and 7.9 mg/L, respectively; the corresponding values for DNP are 9.65 mg/L and 3.05 mg/L for 48 h. The chorda deformity was the most sensitive endpoint measured. It is suggested that the embryotoxicity may be mediated by an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling mechanism. This article is the first to describe the teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of two NPs to the early life stages of zebrafish. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. In Vitro Biotransformation of Two Human CYP3A Probe Substrates and Their Inhibition during Early Zebrafish Development.

    PubMed

    Verbueken, Evy; Alsop, Derek; Saad, Moayad A; Pype, Casper; Van Peer, Els M; Casteleyn, Christophe R; Van Ginneken, Chris J; Wilson, Joanna; Van Cruchten, Steven J

    2017-01-22

    At present, the zebrafish embryo is increasingly used as an alternative animal model to screen for developmental toxicity after exposure to xenobiotics. Since zebrafish embryos depend on their own drug-metabolizing capacity, knowledge of their intrinsic biotransformation is pivotal in order to correctly interpret the outcome of teratogenicity assays. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to assess the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-a group of drug-metabolizing enzymes-in microsomes from whole zebrafish embryos (ZEM) of 5, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-fertilization (hpf) by means of a mammalian CYP substrate, i.e., benzyloxy-methyl-resorufin (BOMR). The same CYP activity assays were performed in adult zebrafish liver microsomes (ZLM) to serve as a reference for the embryos. In addition, activity assays with the human CYP3A4-specific Luciferin isopropyl acetal (Luciferin-IPA) as well as inhibition studies with ketoconazole and CYP3cide were carried out to identify CYP activity in ZLM. In the present study, biotransformation of BOMR was detected at 72 and 96 hpf; however, metabolite formation was low compared with ZLM. Furthermore, Luciferin-IPA was not metabolized by the zebrafish. In conclusion, the capacity of intrinsic biotransformation in zebrafish embryos appears to be lacking during a major part of organogenesis.

  1. C2orf71a/pcare1 is important for photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis and visual function in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Corral-Serrano, Julio C; Messchaert, Muriël; Dona, Margo; Peters, Theo A; Kamminga, Leonie M; van Wijk, Erwin; Collin, Rob W J

    2018-06-26

    Mutations in C2orf71 are causative for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa and occasionally cone-rod dystrophy. We have recently discovered that the protein encoded by this gene is important for modulation of the ciliary membrane through the recruitment of an actin assembly module, and have therefore renamed the gene to PCARE (photoreceptor cilium actin regulator). Here, we report on the identification of two copies of the c2orf71/pcare gene in zebrafish, pcare1 and pcare2. To study the role of the gene most similar to human PCARE, pcare1, we have generated a stable pcare1 mutant zebrafish model (designated pcare1 rmc100/rmc100 ) in which the coding sequence was disrupted using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Retinas of both embryonic (5 dpf) and adult (6 mpf) pcare1 rmc100/rmc100 zebrafish display a clear disorganization of photoreceptor outer segments, resembling the phenotype observed in Pcare -/- mice. Optokinetic response and visual motor response measurements indicated visual impairment in pcare1 rmc100/rmc100 zebrafish larvae at 5 dpf. In addition, electroretinogram measurements showed decreased b-wave amplitudes in pcare1 rmc100/rmc100 zebrafish as compared to age- and strain-matched wild-type larvae, indicating a defect in the transretinal current. Altogether, our data show that lack of pcare1 causes a retinal phenotype in zebrafish and indicate that the function of the PCARE gene is conserved across species.

  2. Ultracytochemical visualization of calcium distribution in heart cells and erythrocytes of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Niksirat, Hamid; Steinbach, Christoph

    2018-05-24

    Detection of patterns of subcellular calcium distribution in the cardiovascular system can contribute to understanding its role in cardiac and blood function. The present study localized calcium in heart atrium, ventricle, and bulbus arteriosus as well as in erythrocytes of zebrafish Danio rerio using an oxalate-pyroantimonate technique combined with transmission electron microscopy. Intracellular calcium stores were detected in caveolae, mitochondria, and the nuclei of several zebrafish cardiac cell types. Melanin pigmentation containing calcium stores was detected in the pericardial cavity. Melanin might be an extracellular source of calcium for heart beating and/or a lubricant to prevent friction during beating process. Calcium deposits were also detected in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes as well as in blood plasma. Possible exchange of calcium between erythrocytes and blood plasma was observed. Interactions of such calcium stores and possible contribution of extracellular calcium stores such as melanin pigmentation to supply calcium for vital functions of heart cells should be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anatomy and ontogeny of a novel hemodynamic organ in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Binelli, Erica A; Luna, Alejandra N; LeClair, Elizabeth E

    2014-12-01

    The zebrafish maxillary barbel can protract and retract in response to stimuli, and appears connected to a prominent blood sinus on the lateral aspect of the maxillary bone. However, the mechanism of barbel movement is not described. Using whole-mount phalloidin staining of the sinus region, we observed long filamentous actin cables, suggesting highly organized vascular smooth muscle cells, surrounding an endothelial chamber. Although the chamber is variably filled by erythrocytes in vivo, cardiac injection of fluorescent dextrans shows that it consistently contains plasma. Full-thickness confocal imaging of dextran-injected adults containing EGFP(+) endothelial cells revealed a vascular complex with three compartments, here named the distal bulb, central chamber, and accessory chamber. The early ontogeny of all three compartments was confirmed in a whole-mount series of Tg(fli1a:EGFP) juveniles. In wild type adults, the fine structure of each chamber was studied using paraffin- and plastic-section histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The distal bulb and central chamber have smooth muscle coats with luminally-elongated septa, forming semi-detached blood-filled lacunae. The central chamber walls and septa are extensively innervated by small, unmyelinated axons, as confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of acetylated tubulin, a component of axonal cytoplasm. The accessory chamber appears neither innervated nor muscularized, but is an endothelial cul-de-sac with a thickened elastic adventitia, suggesting an extensible fluid reservoir. We propose that we have identified a new organ in zebrafish, the maxillary barbel blood sinus, whose neurovascular specializations may contribute to zebrafish sensory biology and appendage control. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Zebrafish Model Systems for Developmental Neurobehavioral Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jordan; Oliveri, Anthony; Levin, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish offer many advantages that complement classic mammalian models for the study of normal development as well as for the teratogenic effects of exposure to hazardous compounds. The clear chorion and embryo of the zebrafish allow for continuous visualization of the anatomical changes associated with development, which, along with short maturation times and the capability of complex behavior, makes this model particularly useful for measuring changes to the developing nervous system. Moreover, the rich array of developmental, behavioral, and molecular benefits offered by the zebrafish have contributed to an increasing demand for the use of zebrafish in behavioral teratology. Essential for this endeavor has been the development of a battery of tests to evaluate a spectrum of behavior in zebrafish. Measures of sensorimotor plasticity, emotional function, cognition and social interaction have been used to characterize the persisting adverse effects of developmental exposure to a variety of chemicals including therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse and environmental toxicants. In this review, we present and discuss such tests and data from a range of developmental neurobehavioral toxicology studies using zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish provide a key intermediate model between high throughput in vitro screens and the classic mammalian models as they have the accessibility of in vitro models and the complex functional capabilities of mammalian models. PMID:23723169

  5. The importance of Zebrafish in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Bárbara; Santos Lopes, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal model organism for the study of vertebrate development. This is due to the large clutches that each couple produces, with up to 200 embryos every 7 days, and to the fact that the embryos and larvae are small, transparent and undergo rapid external development. Using scientific literature research tools available online and the keywords Zebrafish, biomedical research, human disease, and drug screening, we reviewed original studies and reviews indexed in PubMed. In this review we summarized work conducted with this model for the advancement of our knowledge related to several human diseases. We also focused on the biomedical research being performed in Portugal with the zebrafish model. Powerful live imaging and genetic tools are currently available for zebrafish making it a valuable model in biomedical research. The combination of these properties with the optimization of automated systems for drug screening has transformed the zebrafish into "a top model" in biomedical research, drug discovery and toxicity testing. Furthermore, with the optimization of xenografts technology it will be possible to use zebrafish to aide in the choice of the best therapy for each patient. Zebrafish is an excellent model organism in biomedical research, drug development and in clinical therapy.

  6. Zebrafish model systems for developmental neurobehavioral toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jordan; Oliveri, Anthony; Levin, Edward D

    2013-03-01

    Zebrafish offer many advantages that complement classic mammalian models for the study of normal development as well as for the teratogenic effects of exposure to hazardous compounds. The clear chorion and embryo of the zebrafish allow for continuous visualization of the anatomical changes associated with development, which, along with short maturation times and the capability of complex behavior, makes this model particularly useful for measuring changes to the developing nervous system. Moreover, the rich array of developmental, behavioral, and molecular benefits offered by the zebrafish have contributed to an increasing demand for the use of zebrafish in behavioral teratology. Essential for this endeavor has been the development of a battery of tests to evaluate a spectrum of behavior in zebrafish. Measures of sensorimotor plasticity, emotional function, cognition and social interaction have been used to characterize the persisting adverse effects of developmental exposure to a variety of chemicals including therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse and environmental toxicants. In this review, we present and discuss such tests and data from a range of developmental neurobehavioral toxicology studies using zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish provide a key intermediate model between high throughput in vitro screens and the classic mammalian models as they have the accessibility of in vitro models and the complex functional capabilities of mammalian models. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 2017 Midwest Zebrafish Meeting Report.

    PubMed

    Sandquist, Elizabeth; Petersen, Sarah C; Smith, Cody J

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 Midwest Zebrafish meeting was held from June 16 to 18 at the University of Cincinnati, sponsored by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Divisions of Developmental Biology, Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, and Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. The meeting, organized by Saulius Sumanas, Joshua Waxman, and Chunyue Yin, hosted >130 attendees from 16 different states. Scientific sessions were focused on morphogenesis, neural development, novel technologies, and disease models, with Steve Ekker, Stephen Potter, and Lila Solnica-Krezel presenting keynote talks. In this article, we highlight the results and emerging themes from the meeting.

  8. Sprouting Buds of Zebrafish Research in Malaysia: First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish is gaining prominence as an important vertebrate model for investigating various human diseases. Zebrafish provides unique advantages such as optical clarity of embryos, high fecundity rate, and low cost of maintenance, making it a perfect complement to the murine model equivalent in biomedical research. Due to these advantages, researchers in Malaysia are starting to take notice and incorporate the zebrafish model into their research activities. However, zebrafish research in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage and many researchers still remain unaware of the full potential of the zebrafish model or have limited access to related tools and techniques that are widely utilized in many zebrafish laboratories worldwide. To overcome this, we organized the First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop in Malaysia that took place on 11th and 12th of November 2015. In this workshop, we showcased how the zebrafish model is being utilized in the biomedical field in international settings as well as in Malaysia. For this, notable international speakers and those from local universities known to be carrying out impactful research using zebrafish were invited to share some of the cutting edge techniques that are used in their laboratories that may one day be incorporated in the Malaysian scientific community.

  9. PhOTO Zebrafish: A Transgenic Resource for In Vivo Lineage Tracing during Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, William P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Pantazis, Periklis

    2012-01-01

    Background Elucidating the complex cell dynamics (divisions, movement, morphological changes, etc.) underlying embryonic development and adult tissue regeneration requires an efficient means to track cells with high fidelity in space and time. To satisfy this criterion, we developed a transgenic zebrafish line, called PhOTO, that allows photoconvertible optical tracking of nuclear and membrane dynamics in vivo. Methodology PhOTO zebrafish ubiquitously express targeted blue fluorescent protein (FP) Cerulean and photoconvertible FP Dendra2 fusions, allowing for instantaneous, precise targeting and tracking of any number of cells using Dendra2 photoconversion while simultaneously monitoring global cell behavior and morphology. Expression persists through adulthood, making the PhOTO zebrafish an excellent tool for studying tissue regeneration: after tail fin amputation and photoconversion of a ∼100µm stripe along the cut area, marked differences seen in how cells contribute to the new tissue give detailed insight into the dynamic process of regeneration. Photoconverted cells that contributed to the regenerate were separated into three distinct populations corresponding to the extent of cell division 7 days after amputation, and a subset of cells that divided the least were organized into an evenly spaced, linear orientation along the length of the newly regenerating fin. Conclusions/Significance PhOTO zebrafish have wide applicability for lineage tracing at the systems-level in the early embryo as well as in the adult, making them ideal candidate tools for future research in development, traumatic injury and regeneration, cancer progression, and stem cell behavior. PMID:22431986

  10. Impact of stress, fear and anxiety on the nociceptive responses of larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Luna, Javier; Al-Jubouri, Qussay; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Sneddon, Lynne U

    2017-01-01

    Both adult and larval zebrafish have been demonstrated to show behavioural responses to noxious stimulation but also to potentially stress- and fear or anxiety- eliciting situations. The pain or nociceptive response can be altered and modulated by these situations in adult fish through a mechanism called stress-induced analgesia. However, this phenomenon has not been described in larval fish yet. Therefore, this study explores the behavioural changes in larval zebrafish after noxious stimulation and exposure to challenges that can trigger a stress, fear or anxiety reaction. Five-day post fertilization zebrafish were exposed to either a stressor (air emersion), a predatory fear cue (alarm substance) or an anxiogenic (caffeine) alone or prior to immersion in acetic acid 0.1%. Pre- and post-stimulation behaviour (swimming velocity and time spent active) was recorded using a novel tracking software in 25 fish at once. Results show that larvae reduced both velocity and activity after exposure to the air emersion and alarm substance challenges and that these changes were attenuated using etomidate and diazepam, respectively. Exposure to acetic acid decreased velocity and activity as well, whereas air emersion and alarm substance inhibited these responses, showing no differences between pre- and post-stimulation. Therefore, we hypothesize that an antinociceptive mechanism, activated by stress and/or fear, occur in 5dpf zebrafish, which could have prevented the larvae to display the characteristic responses to pain.

  11. Emotions and motivated behavior converge on an amygdala-like structure in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    von Trotha, Jakob William; Vernier, Philippe; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2014-01-01

    The brain reward circuitry plays a key role in emotional and motivational behaviors, and its dysfunction underlies neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and drug addiction. Here, we characterized the neuronal activity pattern induced by acute amphetamine administration and during drug-seeking behavior in the zebrafish, and demonstrate the existence of conserved underlying brain circuitry. Combining quantitative analyses of cfos expression with neuronal subtype-specific markers at single-cell resolution, we show that acute d-amphetamine administration leads to both increased neuronal activation and the recruitment of neurons in the medial (Dm) and the lateral (Dl) domains of the adult zebrafish pallium, which contain homologous structures to the mammalian amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Calbindin-positive and glutamatergic neurons are recruited in Dm, and glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons in Dl. The drug-activated neurons in Dm and Dl are born at juvenile stage rather than in the embryo or during adulthood. Furthermore, the same territory in Dm is activated during both drug-seeking approach and light avoidance behavior, while these behaviors do not elicit activation in Dl. These data identify the pallial territories involved in acute psychostimulant response and reward formation in the adult zebrafish. They further suggest an evolutionarily conserved function of amygdala-like structures in positive emotions and motivated behavior in zebrafish and mammals. PMID:25145867

  12. High-Resolution Tissue Doppler Imaging of the Zebrafish Heart During Its Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Han; Shih, Cho-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The human heart cannot regenerate after injury, whereas the adult zebrafish can fully regenerate its heart even after 20% of the ventricle is amputated. Many studies have begun to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this regenerative process, which have exciting implications for human cardiac diseases. However, the dynamic functions of the zebrafish heart during regeneration are not yet understood. This study established a high-resolution echocardiography for tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the zebrafish heart to explore the cardiac functions during different regeneration phases. Experiments were performed on AB-line adult zebrafish (n=40) in which 15% of the ventricle was surgically removed. An 80-MHz ultrasound TDI based on color M-mode imaging technology was employed. The cardiac flow velocities and patterns from both the ventricular chamber and myocardium were measured at different regeneration phases relative to the day of amputation. The peak velocities of early diastolic inflow, early diastolic myocardial motion, late diastolic myocardial motion, early diastolic deceleration slope, and heart rate were increased at 3 days after the myocardium amputation, but these parameters gradually returned to close to their baseline values for the normal heart at 7 days after amputation. The peak velocities of late diastolic inflow, ventricular systolic outflow, and systolic myocardial motion did not significantly differ during the heart regeneration. PMID:25517185

  13. Automated measurement of zebrafish larval movement

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Clinton L; Farrell, Thomas C; Milanese, Chiara; Burton, Edward A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish is a powerful vertebrate model that is readily amenable to genetic, pharmacological and environmental manipulations to elucidate the molecular and cellular basis of movement and behaviour. We report software enabling automated analysis of zebrafish movement from video recordings captured with cameras ranging from a basic camcorder to more specialized equipment. The software, which is provided as open-source MATLAB functions, can be freely modified and distributed, and is compatible with multiwell plates under a wide range of experimental conditions. Automated measurement of zebrafish movement using this technique will be useful for multiple applications in neuroscience, pharmacology and neuropsychiatry. PMID:21646414

  14. Zebrafish tracking using convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiping; Cheng, Xi En

    2017-02-17

    Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans. This work will make further behaviour analysis more reliable.

  15. Automated measurement of zebrafish larval movement.

    PubMed

    Cario, Clinton L; Farrell, Thomas C; Milanese, Chiara; Burton, Edward A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish is a powerful vertebrate model that is readily amenable to genetic, pharmacological and environmental manipulations to elucidate the molecular and cellular basis of movement and behaviour. We report software enabling automated analysis of zebrafish movement from video recordings captured with cameras ranging from a basic camcorder to more specialized equipment. The software, which is provided as open-source MATLAB functions, can be freely modified and distributed, and is compatible with multiwell plates under a wide range of experimental conditions. Automated measurement of zebrafish movement using this technique will be useful for multiple applications in neuroscience, pharmacology and neuropsychiatry.

  16. Zebrafish tracking using convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiping; Cheng, Xi En

    2017-02-01

    Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans. This work will make further behaviour analysis more reliable.

  17. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  18. Systematic approaches to toxicology in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Randall T; Macrae, Calum A

    2012-01-01

    As the current paradigms of drug discovery evolve, it has become clear that a more comprehensive understanding of the interactions between small molecules and organismal biology will be vital. The zebrafish is emerging as a complement to existing in vitro technologies and established preclinical in vivo models that can be scaled for high-throughput. In this review, we highlight the current status of zebrafish toxicology studies, identify potential future niches for the model in the drug development pipeline, and define the hurdles that must be overcome as zebrafish technologies are refined for systematic toxicology.

  19. A review of monoaminergic neuropsychopharmacology in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Maximino, Caio; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2010-12-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters are the major regulatory mechanisms in the vertebrate brain, involved in the adjustment of motivation, emotion, and cognition. The chemical anatomy of these systems is thought to be highly conserved in the brain of all vertebrates, including zebrafish. Recently, the development of behavioral assays in zebrafish allowed the neuropsychopharmacological investigation of these circuits and its functions. Here we review neuroanatomical, genetic, neurochemical, and psychopharmacological evidence regarding the roles of histaminergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and melatonergic systems in this species. We conclude that, in spite of species differences, zebrafish are suitable for the investigation of neuropsychopharmacology of drugs that affect theses systems; nonetheless, more thorough validation of behavioral methods is still needed.

  20. Long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion.

    PubMed

    Moroi, Sayoko E; Lark, Kurt K; Sieving, Paul A; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Katz, Gregory J; Ritch, Robert

    2003-12-01

    To describe pigment dispersion associated with long anterior zonules. Multicenter observational case series. Fifteen patients, seven of whom were treated for glaucoma or ocular hypertension, were identified with long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on one anterior capsule specimen. All patients had anterior zonules that inserted centrally on the lens capsule. Signs of pigment dispersion included corneal endothelial pigmentation, loss of the pupillary ruff, and variable trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Ultrasound biomicroscopy verified the lack of posterior iris insertion and concavity. There was no exfoliation material. Transmission electron microscopy showed zonular lamellae with adherent pigment granules, and no exfoliation material. Long anterior zonules inserted onto the central lens capsule may cause mechanical disruption of the pigment epithelium at the pupillary ruff and central iris leading to pigment dispersion.

  1. The hydrodynamics of predator-prey interactions in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHenry, Matthew; Soto, Alberto; Carrillo, Andres; Byron, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    Hydrodynamics govern the behavior of fishes when they operate as predators or prey. In addition to the role of fluid forces in propulsion, fishes relay on flow stimuli to sense a predatory threat and to localize palatable prey. We have performed a series of experiments on zebrafish (Danio rerio) that aim to resolve the major factors that determine whether prey survive an encounter with a predator. Zebrafish serve as a model system in this pursuit because the adults prey on larvae of the same species and the larvae are often successful in evading the attacks of the adults. We use a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches to resolve the behavioral algorithms and kinematics that determined the outcome of these interactions. In this context, the hydrodynamics of intermediate Reynolds numbers largely determines the range of flow stimuli and the limits to locomotor performance at dictate prey survival. These principles have the potential to apply to a broad diversity of fishes and other aquatic animals. ONR: N00014-15-1-2249.

  2. A zebrafish transgenic model of Ewing's sarcoma reveals conserved mediators of EWS-FLI1 tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Leacock, Stefanie W; Basse, Audrey N; Chandler, Garvin L; Kirk, Anne M; Rakheja, Dinesh; Amatruda, James F

    2012-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, a malignant bone tumor of children and young adults, is a member of the small-round-blue-cell tumor family. Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), which include peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), are characterized by chromosomal translocations that generate fusions between the EWS gene and ETS-family transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. The EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein represents an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of Ewing's sarcoma. The cell of origin of ESFT and the molecular mechanisms by which EWS-FLI1 mediates tumorigenesis remain unknown, and few animal models of Ewing's sarcoma exist. Here, we report the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model of EWS-FLI1 function and tumorigenesis. Mosaic expression of the human EWS-FLI1 fusion protein in zebrafish caused the development of tumors with histology strongly resembling that of human Ewing's sarcoma. The incidence of tumors increased in a p53 mutant background, suggesting that the p53 pathway suppresses EWS-FLI1-driven tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of the zebrafish tumors defined a set of genes that might be regulated by EWS-FLI1, including the zebrafish ortholog of a crucial EWS-FLI1 target gene in humans. Stable zebrafish transgenic lines expressing EWS-FLI1 under the control of the heat-shock promoter exhibit altered embryonic development and defective convergence and extension, suggesting that EWS-FLI1 interacts with conserved developmental pathways. These results indicate that functional targets of EWS-FLI1 that mediate tumorigenesis are conserved from zebrafish to human and provide a novel context in which to study the function of this fusion oncogene.

  3. Miniaturized Embryo Array for Automated Trapping, Immobilization and Microperfusion of Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Jin; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Evans, Barbara; Hall, Chris J.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Crosier, Philip S.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a powerful experimental model in drug discovery and environmental toxicology. Drug discovery screens performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy the tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and fish embryo toxicity assay (FET) is one of the most promising alternative approaches to acute ecotoxicity testing with adult fish. Notwithstanding this, automated in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos is still deeply in its infancy. This is mostly due to the inherent limitations of conventional techniques and the fact that metazoan organisms are not easily susceptible to laboratory automation. In this work, we describe the development of an innovative miniaturized chip-based device for the in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos. We present evidence that automatic, hydrodynamic positioning, trapping and long-term immobilization of single embryos inside the microfluidic chips can be combined with time-lapse imaging to provide real-time developmental analysis. Our platform, fabricated using biocompatible polymer molding technology, enables rapid trapping of embryos in low shear stress zones, uniform drug microperfusion and high-resolution imaging without the need of manual embryo handling at various developmental stages. The device provides a highly controllable fluidic microenvironment and post-analysis eleuthero-embryo stage recovery. Throughout the incubation, the position of individual embryos is registered. Importantly, we also for first time show that microfluidic embryo array technology can be effectively used for the analysis of anti-angiogenic compounds using transgenic zebrafish line (fli1a:EGFP). The work provides a new rationale for rapid and automated manipulation and analysis of developing zebrafish embryos at a large scale. PMID:22606275

  4. Identification of Chemical Inhibitors of β-Catenin-Driven Liver Tumorigenesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Evason, Kimberley J.; Francisco, Macrina T.; Juric, Vladislava; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Lopez Pazmino, Maria del Pilar; Gordan, John D.; Kakar, Sanjay; Spitsbergen, Jan; Goga, Andrei; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal human cancers. The search for targeted treatments has been hampered by the lack of relevant animal models for the genetically diverse subsets of HCC, including the 20-40% of HCCs that are defined by activating mutations in the gene encoding β-catenin. To address this chemotherapeutic challenge, we created and characterized transgenic zebrafish expressing hepatocyte-specific activated β-catenin. By 2 months post fertilization (mpf), 33% of transgenic zebrafish developed HCC in their livers, and 78% and 80% of transgenic zebrafish showed HCC at 6 and 12 mpf, respectively. As expected for a malignant process, transgenic zebrafish showed significantly decreased mean adult survival compared to non-transgenic control siblings. Using this novel transgenic model, we screened for druggable pathways that mediate β-catenin-induced liver growth and identified two c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors and two antidepressants (one tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline, and one selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) that suppressed this phenotype. We further found that activated β-catenin was associated with JNK pathway hyperactivation in zebrafish and in human HCC. In zebrafish larvae, JNK inhibition decreased liver size specifically in the presence of activated β-catenin. The β-catenin-specific growth-inhibitory effect of targeting JNK was conserved in human liver cancer cells. Our other class of hits, antidepressants, has been used in patient treatment for decades, raising the exciting possibility that these drugs could potentially be repurposed for cancer treatment. In support of this proposal, we found that amitriptyline decreased tumor burden in a mouse HCC model. Our studies implicate JNK inhibitors and antidepressants as potential therapeutics for β-catenin-induced liver tumors. PMID:26134322

  5. Modeling consequences of prolonged strong unpredictable stress in zebrafish: Complex effects on behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Song, Cai; Liu, Bai-Ping; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Peng, Zhilan; Wang, JiaJia; Collier, Adam D; Echevarria, David J; Savelieva, Katerina V; Lawrence, Robert F; Rex, Christopher S; Meshalkina, Darya A; Kalueff, Allan V

    2018-02-02

    Chronic stress is the major pathogenetic factor of human anxiety and depression. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a novel popular model species for neuroscience research and CNS drug discovery. The utility of zebrafish for mimicking human affective disorders is also rapidly growing. Here, we present a new zebrafish model of clinically relevant, prolonged unpredictable strong chronic stress (PUCS). The 5-week PUCS induced overt anxiety-like and motor retardation-like behaviors in adult zebrafish, also elevating whole-body cortisol and proinflammatory cytokines - interleukins IL-1β and IL-6. PUCS also elevated whole-body levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and increased the density of dendritic spines in zebrafish telencephalic neurons. Chronic treatment of fish with an antidepressant fluoxetine (0.1mg/L for 8days) normalized their behavioral and endocrine phenotypes, as well as corrected stress-elevated IL-1β and IL-6 levels, similar to clinical and rodent data. The CNS expression of the bdnf gene, the two genes of its receptors (trkB, p75), and the gfap gene of glia biomarker, the glial fibrillary acidic protein, was unaltered in all three groups. However, PUCS elevated whole-body BDNF levels and the telencephalic dendritic spine density (which were corrected by fluoxetine), thereby somewhat differing from the effects of chronic stress in rodents. Together, these findings support zebrafish as a useful in-vivo model of chronic stress, also calling for further cross-species studies of both shared/overlapping and distinct neurobiological responses to chronic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Requirement of zebrafish pcdh10a and pcdh10b in melanocyte precursor migration.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jason S; Hsu, Jessica Y; Rossi, Christy Cortez; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2018-03-29

    Melanocytes derive from neural crest cells, which are a highly migratory population of cells that play an important role in pigmentation of the skin and epidermal appendages. In most vertebrates, melanocyte precursor cells migrate solely along the dorsolateral pathway to populate the skin. However, zebrafish melanocyte precursors also migrate along the ventromedial pathway, in route to the yolk, where they interact with other neural crest derivative populations. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for zebrafish paralogs pcdh10a and pcdh10b in zebrafish melanocyte precursor migration. pcdh10a and pcdh10b are expressed in a subset of melanocyte precursor and somatic cells respectively, and knockdown and TALEN mediated gene disruption of pcdh10a results in aberrant migration of melanocyte precursors resulting in fully melanized melanocytes that differentiate precociously in the ventromedial pathway. Live cell imaging analysis demonstrates that loss of pchd10a results in a reduction of directed cell migration of melanocyte precursors, caused by both increased adhesion and a loss of cell-cell contact with other migratory neural crest cells. Also, we determined that the paralog pcdh10b is upregulated and can compensate for the genetic loss of pcdh10a. Disruption of pcdh10b alone by CRISPR mutagenesis results in somite defects, while the loss of both paralogs results in enhanced migratory melanocyte precursor phenotype and embryonic lethality. These results reveal a novel role for pcdh10a and pcdh10b in zebrafish melanocyte precursor migration and suggest that pcdh10 paralogs potentially interact for proper transient migration along the ventromedial pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Automated feature extraction for retinal vascular biometry in zebrafish using OCT angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Ivan; Rao, Gopikrishna M.; Desai, Vineet; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2017-02-01

    Zebrafish have been identified as an ideal model for angiogenesis because of anatomical and functional similarities with other vertebrates. The scale and complexity of zebrafish assays are limited by the need to manually treat and serially screen animals, and recent technological advances have focused on automation and improving throughput. Here, we use optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCT-A) to perform noninvasive, in vivo imaging of retinal vasculature in zebrafish. OCT-A summed voxel projections were low pass filtered and skeletonized to create an en face vascular map prior to connectivity analysis. Vascular segmentation was referenced to the optic nerve head (ONH), which was identified by automatically segmenting the retinal pigment epithelium boundary on the OCT structural volume. The first vessel branch generation was identified as skeleton segments with branch points closest to the ONH, and subsequent generations were found iteratively by expanding the search space outwards from the ONH. Biometric parameters, including length, curvature, and branch angle of each vessel segment were calculated and grouped by branch generation. Despite manual handling and alignment of each animal over multiple time points, we observe distinct qualitative patterns that enable unique identification of each eye from individual animals. We believe this OCT-based retinal biometry method can be applied for automated animal identification and handling in high-throughput organism-level pharmacological assays and genetic screens. In addition, these extracted features may enable high-resolution quantification of longitudinal vascular changes as a method for studying zebrafish models of retinal neovascularization and vascular remodeling.

  8. Importance of Toxicokinetics to Assess the Utility of Zebrafish Larvae as Model for Psychoactive Drug Screening Using Meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) as Example

    PubMed Central

    Kirla, Krishna Tulasi; Groh, Ksenia J.; Poetzsch, Michael; Banote, Rakesh Kumar; Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita; Eggen, Rik I. L.; Schirmer, Kristin; Kraemer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) increases rapidly, harming society and fuelling the need for alternative testing strategies. These should allow the ever-increasing number of drugs to be tested more effectively for their toxicity and psychoactive effects. One proposed strategy is to complement rodent models with zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Yet, our understanding of the toxicokinetics in this model, owing to the waterborne drug exposure and the distinct physiology of the fish, is incomplete. We here explore the toxicokinetics and behavioral effects of an NPS, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), in zebrafish larvae. Uptake kinetics of mCPP, supported by toxicokinetic modeling, strongly suggested the existence of active transport processes. Internal distribution showed a dominant accumulation in the eye, implying that in zebrafish, like in mammals, melanin could serve as a binding site for basic drugs. We confirmed this by demonstrating significantly lower drug accumulation in two types of hypo-pigmented fish. Comparison of the elimination kinetics between mCPP and previously characterized cocaine demonstrated that drug affinities to melanin in zebrafish vary depending on the structure of the test compound. As expected from mCPP-elicited responses in rodents and humans, zebrafish larvae displayed hypoactive behavior. However, significant differences were seen between zebrafish and rodents with regard to the concentration-dependency of the behavioral response and the comparability of tissue levels, corroborating the need to consider the organism-internal distribution of the chemical to allow appropriate dose modeling while evaluating effects and concordance between zebrafish and mammals. Our results highlight commonalities and differences of mammalian versus the fish model in need of further exploration. PMID:29755353

  9. Importance of Toxicokinetics to Assess the Utility of Zebrafish Larvae as Model for Psychoactive Drug Screening Using Meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) as Example.

    PubMed

    Kirla, Krishna Tulasi; Groh, Ksenia J; Poetzsch, Michael; Banote, Rakesh Kumar; Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita; Eggen, Rik I L; Schirmer, Kristin; Kraemer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) increases rapidly, harming society and fuelling the need for alternative testing strategies. These should allow the ever-increasing number of drugs to be tested more effectively for their toxicity and psychoactive effects. One proposed strategy is to complement rodent models with zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) larvae. Yet, our understanding of the toxicokinetics in this model, owing to the waterborne drug exposure and the distinct physiology of the fish, is incomplete. We here explore the toxicokinetics and behavioral effects of an NPS, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), in zebrafish larvae. Uptake kinetics of mCPP, supported by toxicokinetic modeling, strongly suggested the existence of active transport processes. Internal distribution showed a dominant accumulation in the eye, implying that in zebrafish, like in mammals, melanin could serve as a binding site for basic drugs. We confirmed this by demonstrating significantly lower drug accumulation in two types of hypo-pigmented fish. Comparison of the elimination kinetics between mCPP and previously characterized cocaine demonstrated that drug affinities to melanin in zebrafish vary depending on the structure of the test compound. As expected from mCPP-elicited responses in rodents and humans, zebrafish larvae displayed hypoactive behavior. However, significant differences were seen between zebrafish and rodents with regard to the concentration-dependency of the behavioral response and the comparability of tissue levels, corroborating the need to consider the organism-internal distribution of the chemical to allow appropriate dose modeling while evaluating effects and concordance between zebrafish and mammals. Our results highlight commonalities and differences of mammalian versus the fish model in need of further exploration.

  10. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only...) Astaxanthin, not less than 1.75 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Paracoccus pigment may be safely used in... astaxanthin in finished feed, from paracoccus pigment when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin...

  11. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only...) Astaxanthin, not less than 1.75 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Paracoccus pigment may be safely used in... astaxanthin in finished feed, from paracoccus pigment when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin...

  12. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only...) Astaxanthin, not less than 1.75 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Paracoccus pigment may be safely used in... astaxanthin in finished feed, from paracoccus pigment when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin...

  13. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only...) Astaxanthin, not less than 1.75 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Paracoccus pigment may be safely used in... astaxanthin in finished feed, from paracoccus pigment when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin...

  14. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only...) Astaxanthin, not less than 1.75 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Paracoccus pigment may be safely used in... astaxanthin in finished feed, from paracoccus pigment when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin...

  15. BACILLUS PYOCYANEUS AND ITS PIGMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Edwin O.

    1899-01-01

    The principal conclusions that seem to me justified are as follows: 1. The fluorescent pigment formed by some varieties of B. pyocyaneus is produced under conditions identical with those governing the production of the pigment by other "fluorescent bacteria." 2. The production of pyocyanin is not dependent upon the presence of either phosphate or sulfate in the culture medium. It is formed in non-proteid as well as in proteid media, but is not a necessary accompaniment of the metabolic activities of the organism (e. g. tartrate solution). 3. The power of producing pyocyanin under conditions of artificial cultivation is lost sooner than the fluorescigenic power. 4. There are greater natural and acquired differences in pyocyanigenic power than in fluorescigenic. 5. The fluorescent pigment may be oxidized slowly by the action of light and air as well as by reagents into a yellow pigment, and pyocyanin may be similarly oxidized into a black pigment. 6. A convenient separation of B. pyocyaneus into four varieties would be the following: var. α, pyocyanigenic and fluorescigenic (most common); var. β, pyocyanigenic only (rare); var. γ, fluorescigenic only (not uncommon, closely related to "B. fluorescens liquefaciens"); var. δ, non-chromogenic. 7. Except for the occasional loss of one or another function the different varieties are not so plastic as sometimes assumed, and cannot be readily converted into one another by subjection to varying conditions of life. 8. The signification and correlation of the almost countless physiological variations among the members of this group in respect to growth in gelatin, behavior to temperature, indol production, etc., remain to be determined. It is not yet clear that the variations in chromogenic power can be in any way correlated with the presence or absence of other physiological functions. PMID:19866929

  16. Gene expression changes in a zebrafish model of drug dependency suggest conservation of neuro-adaptation pathways.

    PubMed

    Kily, Layla J M; Cowe, Yuka C M; Hussain, Osman; Patel, Salma; McElwaine, Suzanne; Cotter, Finbarr E; Brennan, Caroline H

    2008-05-01

    Addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder considered to be a disease of the brain's natural reward reinforcement system. Repeated stimulation of the 'reward' pathway leads to adaptive changes in gene expression and synaptic organization that reinforce drug taking and underlie long-term changes in behaviour. The primitive nature of reward reinforcement pathways and the near universal ability of abused drugs to target the same system allow drug-associated reward and reinforcement to be studied in non-mammalian species. Zebrafish have proved to be a valuable model system for the study of vertebrate development and disease. Here we demonstrate that adult zebrafish show a dose-dependent acute conditioned place preference (CPP) reinforcement response to ethanol or nicotine. Repeated exposure of adult zebrafish to either nicotine or ethanol leads to a robust CPP response that persists following 3 weeks of abstinence and in the face of adverse stimuli, a behavioural indicator of the establishment of dependence. Microarray analysis using whole brain samples from drug-treated and control zebrafish identified 1362 genes that show a significant change in expression between control and treated individuals. Of these genes, 153 are common to both ethanol- and nicotine-treated animals. These genes include members of pathways and processes implicated in drug dependence in mammalian models, revealing conservation of neuro-adaptation pathways between zebrafish and mammals.

  17. [Generation and phenotype analysis of zebrafish mutations of obesity-related genes lepr and mc4r].

    PubMed

    Fei, Fei; Sun, Shao-Yang; Yao, Yu-Xiao; Wang, Xu

    2017-02-25

    Obesity has become a severe public health problem across the world, and seriously affects the health and life quality of human beings. Here we generated lepr and mc4r mutant zebrafish via the CRISPR/Cas9 technique, and performed morphological and functional characterizations of those mutants. We observed that there was no significant phenotypic difference between homozygous mutants and wild-type controls before 2.5 months post-fertilization (mpf). However, the adult lepr -/- and mc4r -/- individuals displayed increased food intake, heavier weight, and higher body fat percentage, the characteristics of obesity phenotypes. Blood glucose test showed that overfeeding induced significantly impaired glucose tolerance in adult lepr -/- and mc4r -/- zebrafish. Furthermore, we analyzed 76 energy metabolism-related transcripts in lepr -/- and mc4r -/- zebrafish livers by using real-time RT-PCR, and compared the results with the published microarray data of Lep ob/ob mouse livers, and found that the changes in the expression of insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) pathway genes in lepr -/- zebrafish and Lep ob/ob mouse were positively correlated, suggesting that the IIS pathway maintains functional conservation between zebrafish and mammals during the evolution of the obesity-regulating molecule network.

  18. Morphologic analysis of the zebrafish digestive system.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Andrew J; Parslow, Adam C; Heath, Joan K

    2009-01-01

    The zebrafish provides an ideal model for the study of vertebrate organogenesis, including the formation of the digestive tract and its associated organs. Despite optical transparency of embryos, the internal position of the developing digestive system and its close juxtaposition with the yolk initially made morphological analysis relatively challenging, particularly during the first 3 d of development. However, methodologies have been successfully developed to address these problems and comprehensive morphologic analysis of the developing digestive system has now been achieved using a combination of light and fluorescence microscope approaches-including confocal analysis-to visualize wholemount and histological preparations of zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, the expanding number of antibodies that cross-react with zebrafish proteins and the generation of tissue-specific transgenic green fluorescent protein reporter lines that mark specific cell and tissue compartments have greatly enhanced our ability to successfully image the developing zebrafish digestive system.

  19. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  20. Episodic-like memory in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trevor J; Myggland, Allison; Duperreault, Erika; May, Zacnicte; Gallup, Joshua; Powell, Russell A; Schalomon, Melike; Digweed, Shannon M

    2016-11-01

    Episodic-like memory tests often aid in determining an animal's ability to recall the what, where, and which (context) of an event. To date, this type of memory has been demonstrated in humans, wild chacma baboons, corvids (Scrub jays), humming birds, mice, rats, Yucatan minipigs, and cuttlefish. The potential for this type of memory in zebrafish remains unexplored even though they are quickly becoming an essential model organism for the study of a variety of human cognitive and mental disorders. Here we explore the episodic-like capabilities of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a previously established mammalian memory paradigm. We demonstrate that when zebrafish were presented with a familiar object in a familiar context but a novel location within that context, they spend more time in the novel quadrant. Thus, zebrafish display episodic-like memory as they remember what object they saw, where they saw it (quadrant location), and on which occasion (yellow or blue walls) it was presented.

  1. Polygenic Sex Determination System in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Woei Chang; Bartfai, Richard; Lim, Zijie; Sreenivasan, Rajini; Siegfried, Kellee R.; Orban, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of zebrafish as a research model, its sex determination (SD) mechanism is still unknown. Most cytogenetic studies failed to find dimorphic sex chromosomes and no primary sex determining switch has been identified even though the assembly of zebrafish genome sequence is near to completion and a high resolution genetic map is available. Recent publications suggest that environmental factors within the natural range have minimal impact on sex ratios of zebrafish populations. The primary aim of this study is to find out more about how sex is determined in zebrafish. Methodology/Principal Findings Using classical breeding experiments, we found that sex ratios across families were wide ranging (4.8% to 97.3% males). On the other hand, repeated single pair crossings produced broods of very similar sex ratios, indicating that parental genotypes have a role in the sex ratio of the offspring. Variation among family sex ratios was reduced after selection for breeding pairs with predominantly male or female offspring, another indication that zebrafish sex is regulated genetically. Further examinations by a PCR-based “blind assay" and array comparative genomic hybridization both failed to find universal sex-linked differences between the male and female genomes. Together with the ability to increase the sex bias of lines by selective breeding, these data suggest that zebrafish is unlikely to utilize a chromosomal sex determination (CSD) system. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our study suggests that zebrafish sex is genetically determined with limited, secondary influences from the environment. As we have not found any sign for CSD in the species, we propose that the zebrafish has a polygenic sex determination system. PMID:22506019

  2. Exploratory behaviour in the open field test adapted for larval zebrafish: impact of environmental complexity.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farooq; Richardson, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours as well to determine natural colour preference/avoidance. We report the following main findings: (1) zebrafish larvae display characteristic patterns of exploratory behaviours in the standard open field, such as thigmotaxis/centre avoidance; (2) environmental complexity (i.e. presence of colours) differentially affects patterns of exploratory behaviours and greatly attenuates natural zone preference; (3) larvae displayed the ability to discriminate colours. As reported previously in adult zebrafish, larvae showed avoidance towards blue and black; however, in contrast to the reported adult behaviour, larvae displayed avoidance towards red. Avoidance towards yellow and preference for green and orange are shown for the first time, (4) compared to standard open field tests, exposure to the colour-enriched open field resulted in an enhanced expression of anxiety-like behaviours. To conclude, we not only developed and adapted a traditional rodent behavioural assay that serves as a gold standard in preclinical drug screening, but we also provide a version of the same test that affords the possibility to investigate the impact of environmental stress on behaviour in larval zebrafish while representing the first test for assessment of natural colour preference/avoidance in larval zebrafish. In the future, these assays will improve preclinical drug screening methodologies towards the goal to uncover novel drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Fanconi anemia/BRCA gene network in zebrafish: embryonic expression and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Titus, Tom A; Yan, Yi-Lin; Wilson, Catherine; Starks, Amber M; Frohnmayer, Jonathan D; Bremiller, Ruth A; Cañestro, Cristian; Rodriguez-Mari, Adriana; He, Xinjun; Postlethwait, John H

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease resulting in bone marrow failure, high cancer risks, and infertility, and developmental anomalies including microphthalmia, microcephaly, hypoplastic radius and thumb. Here we present cDNA sequences, genetic mapping, and genomic analyses for the four previously undescribed zebrafish FA genes (fanci, fancj, fancm, and fancn), and show that they reverted to single copy after the teleost genome duplication. We tested the hypothesis that FA genes are expressed during embryonic development in tissues that are disrupted in human patients by investigating fanc gene expression patterns. We found fanc gene maternal message, which can provide Fanc proteins to repair DNA damage encountered in rapid cleavage divisions. Zygotic expression was broad but especially strong in eyes, central nervous system and hematopoietic tissues. In the pectoral fin bud at hatching, fanc genes were expressed specifically in the apical ectodermal ridge, a signaling center for fin/limb development that may be relevant to the radius/thumb anomaly of FA patients. Hatching embryos expressed fanc genes strongly in the oral epithelium, a site of squamous cell carcinomas in FA patients. Larval and adult zebrafish expressed fanc genes in proliferative regions of the brain, which may be related to microcephaly in FA. Mature ovaries and testes expressed fanc genes in specific stages of oocyte and spermatocyte development, which may be related to DNA repair during homologous recombination in meiosis and to infertility in human patients. The intestine strongly expressed some fanc genes specifically in proliferative zones. Our results show that zebrafish has a complete complement of fanc genes in single copy and that these genes are expressed in zebrafish embryos and adults in proliferative tissues that are often affected in FA patients. These results support the notion that zebrafish offers an attractive experimental system to help unravel mechanisms relevant not only

  4. The Fanconi anemia/BRCA gene network in zebrafish: Embryonic expression and comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Titus, Tom A.; Yan, Yi-Lin; Wilson, Catherine; Starks, Amber M.; Frohnmayer, Jonathan D.; Canestro, Cristian; Rodriguez-Mari, Adriana; He, Xinjun; Postlethwait, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genic disease resulting in bone marrow failure, high cancer risks, and infertility, and developmental anomalies including microphthalmia, microcephaly, hypoplastic radius and thumb. Here we present cDNA sequences, genetic mapping, and genomic analyses for the four previously undescribed zebrafish FA genes (fanci, fancj, fancm, and fancn, and show that they reverted to single copy after the teleost genome duplication. We tested the hypothesis that FA genes are expressed during embryonic development in tissues that are disrupted in human patients by investigating fanc gene expression patterns. We found fanc gene maternal message, which can provide Fanc proteins to repair DNA damage encountered in rapid cleavage divisions. Zygotic expression was broad but especially strong in eyes, central nervous system and hematopoietic tissues. In the pectoral fin bud at hatching, fanc genes were expressed specifically in the apical ectodermal ridge, a signaling center for fin/limb development that may be relevant to the radius/thumb anomaly of FA patients. Hatching embryos expressed fanc genes strongly in the oral epithelium, a site of squamous cell carcinomas in FA patients. Larval and adult zebrafish expressed fanc genes in proliferative regions of the brain, which may be related to microcephaly in FA. Mature ovaries and testes expressed fanc genes in specific stages of oocyte and spermatocyte development, which may be related to DNA repair during homologous recombination in meiosis and to infertility in human patients. The intestine strongly expressed some fanc genes specifically in proliferative zones. Our results show that zebrafish has a complete complement of fanc genes in single copy and that these genes are expressed in zebrafish embryos and adults in proliferative tissues that are often affected in FA patients. These results support the notion that zebrafish offers an attractive experimental system to help unravel mechanisms relevant not only to

  5. Zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Homechaudhuri, Sumit; Stewart, Adam Michael; Collier, Adam D; Kaluyeva, Aleksandra A; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Yingcong; Chen, Peirong; Wang, JiaJia; Yang, Lei; Mitra, Anisa; Pal, Subharthi; Chaudhuri, Adwitiya; Roy, Anwesha; Biswas, Missidona; Roy, Dola; Podder, Anupam; Poudel, Manoj K; Katare, Deepshikha P; Mani, Ruchi J; Kyzar, Evan J; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as an important model organism for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research. The behavioral/phenotypic complexity of zebrafish allows for thorough dissection of complex human brain disorders and drug-evoked pathological states. As numerous zebrafish models become available with a wide spectrum of behavioral, genetic, and environmental methods to test novel drugs, here we discuss recent zebrafish phenomics methods to facilitate drug discovery, particularly in the field of biological psychiatry. Additionally, behavioral, neurological, and endocrine endpoints are becoming increasingly well-characterized in zebrafish, making them an inexpensive, robust and effective model for toxicology research and pharmacological screening. We also discuss zebrafish behavioral phenotypes, experimental considerations, pharmacological candidates and relevance of zebrafish neurophenomics to other 'omics' (e.g., genomic, proteomic) approaches. Finally, we critically evaluate the limitations of utilizing this model organism, and outline future strategies of research in the field of zebrafish phenomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can Zebrafish be used to Identify Developmentally Neurotoxic Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Can Zebrafish be Used to Identify Developmentally Neurotoxic Chemicals? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. We are exploring behavioral methods using zebrafish by desig...

  7. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  8. Mixtures, Metabolites, and Mechanisms: Understanding Toxicology Using Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gamse, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For more than 60 years, zebrafish have been used in toxicological studies. Due to their transparency, genetic tractability, and compatibility with high-throughput screens, zebrafish embryos are uniquely suited to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental insults on embryonic development, organ formation and function, and reproductive success. This special issue of Zebrafish highlights the ways zebrafish are used to investigate the toxic effects of endocrine disruptors, pesticides, and heavy metals. PMID:27618129

  9. Mixtures, Metabolites, and Mechanisms: Understanding Toxicology Using Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gamse, Joshua T; Gorelick, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    For more than 60 years, zebrafish have been used in toxicological studies. Due to their transparency, genetic tractability, and compatibility with high-throughput screens, zebrafish embryos are uniquely suited to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental insults on embryonic development, organ formation and function, and reproductive success. This special issue of Zebrafish highlights the ways zebrafish are used to investigate the toxic effects of endocrine disruptors, pesticides, and heavy metals.

  10. Roles of inflammatory caspases during processing of zebrafish interleukin-1β in Francisella noatunensis infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vojtech, Lucia N.; Scharping, Nichole; Woodson, James C.; Hansen, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The interleukin-1 family of cytokines are essential for the control of pathogenic microbes but are also responsible for devastating autoimmune pathologies. Consequently, tight regulation of inflammatory processes is essential for maintaining homeostasis. In mammals, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is primarily regulated at two levels, transcription and processing. The main pathway for processing IL-1β is the inflammasome, a multiprotein complex that forms in the cytosol and which results in the activation of inflammatory caspase (caspase 1) and the subsequent cleavage and secretion of active IL-1β. Although zebrafish encode orthologs of IL-1β and inflammatory caspases, the processing of IL-1β by activated caspase(s) has never been examined. Here, we demonstrate that in response to infection with the fish-specific bacterial pathogen Francisella noatunensis, primary leukocytes from adult zebrafish display caspase-1-like activity that results in IL-1β processing. Addition of caspase 1 or pancaspase inhibitors considerably abrogates IL-1β processing. As in mammals, this processing event is concurrent with the secretion of cleaved IL-1β into the culture medium. Furthermore, two putative zebrafish inflammatory caspase orthologs, caspase A and caspase B, are both able to cleave IL-1β, but with different specificities. These results represent the first demonstration of processing and secretion of zebrafish IL-1β in response to a pathogen, contributing to our understanding of the evolutionary processes governing the regulation of inflammation.                   

  11. Effects of ZnSO4-induced peripheral anosmia on zebrafish behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana C V V; Rodriguez, Rubens; Kalueff, Allan V; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2017-03-01

    Olfaction plays a key role in modulating behavioral and physiological responses of various animal species, including fishes. Olfactory deficits can be induced in fish experimentally, and utilized to examine the role of olfaction in their normal and pathological behaviors. Here, we examine whether experimental anosmia, evoked by ZnSO 4 in adult zebrafish can be associated with behavioral and/or physiological responses. We show that experimental ZnSO 4 -induced anosmia caused acute, but not prolonged, anxiogenic-like effects on zebrafish behavior tested in the novel tank test. The procedure also elevated whole-body cortisol levels in zebrafish. Moreover, ZnSO4 treatment, but not sham, produced damage to olfactory epithelium, inducing overt basal cell vacuolization and intercellular edema. The loss of olfaction, assessed by the fish food preference behavior in the aquatic Y-maze, was present 1h, but not 24h, after the treatment. Collectively, this suggests that transient experimental anosmia by ZnSO 4 modulates zebrafish behavior and olfaction, which can be used to evoke and assess their stress-related anxiety-like states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A simple automated system for appetitive conditioning of zebrafish in their home tanks.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Jillian M; Merovitch, Neil; Wyeth, Russell C; Stoyek, Matthew R; Schmidt, Michael; Wilfart, Florentin; Fine, Alan; Croll, Roger P

    2017-01-15

    We describe here an automated apparatus that permits rapid conditioning paradigms for zebrafish. Arduino microprocessors were used to control the delivery of auditory or visual stimuli to groups of adult or juvenile zebrafish in their home tanks in a conventional zebrafish facility. An automatic feeder dispensed precise amounts of food immediately after the conditioned stimuli, or at variable delays for controls. Responses were recorded using inexpensive cameras, with the video sequences analysed with ImageJ or Matlab. Fish showed significant conditioned responses in as few as 5 trials, learning that the conditioned stimulus was a predictor of food presentation at the water surface and at the end of the tank where the food was dispensed. Memories of these conditioned associations persisted for at least 2days after training when fish were tested either as groups or as individuals. Control fish, for which the auditory or visual stimuli were specifically unpaired with food, showed no comparable responses. This simple, low-cost, automated system permits scalable conditioning of zebrafish with minimal human intervention, greatly reducing both variability and labour-intensiveness. It will be useful for studies of the neural basis of learning and memory, and for high-throughput screening of compounds modifying those processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraocular muscle regeneration in zebrafish requires late signals from Insulin-like growth factors.

    PubMed

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Louie, Ke'ale W; Sha, Cuilee; Kelly, Ryan M; Kish, Phillip E; Kahana, Alon

    2018-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (Igfs) are key regulators of key biological processes such as embryonic development, growth, and tissue repair and regeneration. The role of Igf in myogenesis is well documented and, in zebrafish, promotes fin and heart regeneration. However, the mechanism of action of Igf in muscle repair and regeneration is not well understood. Using adult zebrafish extraocular muscle (EOM) regeneration as an experimental model, we show that Igf1 receptor blockage using either chemical inhibitors (BMS754807 and NVP-AEW541) or translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) reduced EOM regeneration. Zebrafish EOMs regeneration depends on myocyte dedifferentiation, which is driven by early epigenetic reprogramming and requires autophagy activation and cell cycle reentry. Inhibition of Igf signaling had no effect on either autophagy activation or cell proliferation, indicating that Igf signaling was not involved in the early reprogramming steps of regeneration. Instead, blocking Igf signaling produced hypercellularity of regenerating EOMs and diminished myosin expression, resulting in lack of mature differentiated muscle fibers even many days after injury, indicating that Igf was involved in late re-differentiation steps. Although it is considered the main mediator of myogenic Igf actions, Akt activation decreased in regenerating EOMs, suggesting that alternative signaling pathways mediate Igf activity in muscle regeneration. In conclusion, Igf signaling is critical for re-differentiation of reprogrammed myoblasts during late steps of zebrafish EOM regeneration, suggesting a regulatory mechanism for determining regenerated muscle size and timing of differentiation, and a potential target for regenerative therapy.

  14. Copper toxicology, oxidative stress and inflammation using zebrafish as experimental model.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Campos, Maria Martha; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2016-07-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient and a key catalytic cofactor in a wide range of enzymes. As a trace element, copper levels are tightly regulated and both its deficit and excess are deleterious to the organism. Under inflammatory conditions, serum copper levels are increased and trigger oxidative stress responses that activate inflammatory responses. Interestingly, copper dyshomeostasis, oxidative stress and inflammation are commonly present in several chronic diseases. Copper exposure can be easily modeled in zebrafish; a consolidated model in toxicology with increasing interest in immunity-related research. As a result of developmental, economical and genetic advantages, this freshwater teleost is uniquely suitable for chemical and genetic large-scale screenings, representing a powerful experimental tool for a whole-organism approach, mechanistic studies, disease modeling and beyond. Copper toxicological and more recently pro-inflammatory effects have been investigated in both larval and adult zebrafish with breakthrough findings. Here, we provide an overview of copper metabolism in health and disease and its effects on oxidative stress and inflammation responses in zebrafish models. Copper-induced inflammation is highlighted owing to its potential to easily mimic pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory features that combined with zebrafish genetic tractability could help further in the understanding of copper metabolism, inflammatory responses and related diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Analyzing notochord segmentation and intervertebral disc formation using the twhh:gfp transgenic zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yutaka; Dominique, Vincent J; Du, Shao Jun

    2009-10-01

    To characterize the process of vertebral segmentation and disc formation in living animals, we analyzed tiggy-winkle hedgehog (twhh):green fluorescent protein (gfp) and sonic hedgehog (shh):gfp transgenic zebrafish models that display notochord-specific GFP expression. We found that they showed distinct patterns of expression in the intervertebral discs of late stage fish larvae and adult zebrafish. A segmented pattern of GFP expression was detected in the intervertebral disc of twhh:gfp transgenic fish. In contrast, little GFP expression was found in the intervertebral disc of shh:gfp transgenic fish. Treating twhh:gfp transgenic zebrafish larvae with exogenous retinoic acid (RA), a teratogenic factor on normal development, resulted in disruption of notochord segmentation and formation of oversized vertebrae. Histological analysis revealed that the oversized vertebrae are likely due to vertebral fusion. These studies demonstrate that the twhh:gfp transgenic zebrafish is a useful model for studying vertebral segmentation and disc formation, and moreover, that RA signaling may play a role in this process.

  16. Effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a species of choice in neurobiological and behavioral studies of alcohol-related disorders. In these efforts, the activity of adult zebrafish is typically quantified using indirect activity measures that are either scored manually or identified automatically from the fish trajectory. The analysis of such activity measures has produced important insight into the effect of acute ethanol exposure on individual and social behavior of this vertebrate species. Here, we leverage a recently developed tracking algorithm that reconstructs fish body shape to investigate the effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion in terms of amplitude and frequency. Our results demonstrate a significant effect of ethanol on the tail-beat amplitude as well as the tail-beat frequency, both of which were found to robustly decrease for high ethanol concentrations. Such a direct measurement of zebrafish motor functions is in agreement with evidence based on indirect activity measures, offering a complementary perspective in behavioral screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Progenitor potential of nkx6.1-expressing cells throughout zebrafish life and during beta cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ghaye, Aurélie P; Bergemann, David; Tarifeño-Saldivia, Estefania; Flasse, Lydie C; Von Berg, Virginie; Peers, Bernard; Voz, Marianne L; Manfroid, Isabelle

    2015-09-02

    In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and the differences with mammals will be fundamental to discovering molecules able to stimulate the regeneration process in mammals. To identify the pancreatic cells able to give rise to new beta cells in the zebrafish, we generated new transgenic lines allowing the tracing of multipotent pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. Using novel bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic nkx6.1 and ascl1b reporter lines, we established that nkx6.1-positive cells give rise to all the pancreatic cell types and ascl1b-positive cells give rise to all the endocrine cell types in the zebrafish embryo. These two genes are initially co-expressed in the pancreatic primordium and their domains segregate, not as a result of mutual repression, but through the opposite effects of Notch signaling, maintaining nkx6.1 expression while repressing ascl1b in progenitors. In the adult zebrafish, nkx6.1 expression persists exclusively in the ductal tree at the tip of which its expression coincides with Notch active signaling in centroacinar/terminal end duct cells. Tracing these cells reveals that they are able to differentiate into other ductal cells and into insulin-expressing cells in normal (non-diabetic) animals. This capacity of ductal cells to generate endocrine cells is supported by the detection of ascl1b in the nkx6.1:GFP ductal cell transcriptome. This transcriptome also reveals, besides actors of the Notch and Wnt pathways, several novel markers such as id2a. Finally, we show that beta cell ablation in the adult zebrafish triggers proliferation of ductal cells and their differentiation into insulin-expressing cells. We have shown that, in the zebrafish embryo, nkx6.1+ cells are bona fide multipotent pancreatic progenitors, while ascl1b+ cells represent committed endocrine precursors. In

  18. Modeling Leukemogenesis in the Zebrafish Using Genetic and Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Vinothkumar; Dellaire, Graham; Berman, Jason N

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish is a widely accepted model to study leukemia. The major advantage of studying leukemogenesis in zebrafish is attributed to its short life cycle and superior imaging capacity. This chapter highlights using transgenic- and xenograft-based models in zebrafish to study a specific leukemogenic mutation and analyze therapeutic responses in vivo.

  19. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  20. Mechanisms of cadmium-caused eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Xin-Ying; Ma, Xu-Fa; Liu, Jing-Xia

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium-caused head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation has been recognized for a long time, but knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is limited. In this study, we found that high mortality occurred in exposed embryos after 24 hpf, when cadmium (Cd) dosage was above 17.8 μM. Using high-throughput in situ hybridization screening, we found that genes labelling the neural crest and its derivative pigment cells exhibited obviously reduced expression in Cd-exposed embryos from 24 hpf, 2 days earlier than head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation occurred. Moreover, based on expression of crestin, a neural crest marker, we found that embryos before the gastrula stage were more sensitive to cadmium toxicity and that damage caused by Cd on embryogenesis was dosage dependent. In addition, by phenotype observation and detection of neural crest and pigment cell markers, we found that BIO and retinoic acid (RA) could neutralize the toxic effects of Cd on zebrafish embryogenesis. In this study, we first determined that Cd blocked the formation of the neural crest and inhibited specification of pigment cells, which might contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotype defects of head and eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation in Cd-exposed embryos. Moreover, we found that compounds BIO or RA could neutralize the toxic effects of Cd. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distinct myocardial lineages break atrial symmetry during cardiogenesis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Oliver; Arnaout, Rima; Guenther, Stefan; Ahuja, Suchit; Uribe, Verónica; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Stainier, Didier YR

    2018-01-01

    The ultimate formation of a four-chambered heart allowing the separation of the pulmonary and systemic circuits was key for the evolutionary success of tetrapods. Complex processes of cell diversification and tissue morphogenesis allow the left and right cardiac compartments to become distinct but remain poorly understood. Here, we describe an unexpected laterality in the single zebrafish atrium analogous to that of the two atria in amniotes, including mammals. This laterality appears to derive from an embryonic antero-posterior asymmetry revealed by the expression of the transcription factor gene meis2b. In adult zebrafish hearts, meis2b expression is restricted to the left side of the atrium where it controls the expression of pitx2c, a regulator of left atrial identity in mammals. Altogether, our studies suggest that the multi-chambered atrium in amniotes arose from a molecular blueprint present before the evolutionary emergence of cardiac septation and provide insights into the establishment of atrial asymmetry. PMID:29762122

  2. Dopaminergic control of anxiety in young and aged zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Victoria; Patel, Neil A; Riley, Elizabeth; Yu, Lili; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J; Zhdanova, Irina V

    2017-06-01

    Changes in the expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT), or the sensitivity of dopamine receptors, are associated with aging and substance abuse and may underlie some of the symptoms common to both conditions. In this study, we explored the role of the dopaminergic system in the anxiogenic effects of aging and acute cocaine exposure by comparing the behavioral phenotypes of wild type (WT) and DAT knockout zebrafish (DAT-KO) of different ages. To determine the involvement of specific dopamine receptors in anxiety states, antagonists to D1 (SCH23390) and D2/D3 (sulpiride) were employed. We established that DAT-KO results in a chronic anxiety-like state, seen as an increase in bottom-dwelling and thigmotaxis. Similar effects were produced by aging and acute cocaine administration, both leading to reduction in DAT mRNA abundance (qPCR). Inhibition of D1 activity counteracted the anxiety-like effects associated with DAT deficit, independent of its origin. Inhibition of D2/D3 receptors reduced anxiety in young DAT-KO, and enhanced the anxiogenic effects of cocaine in WT, but did not affect aged WT or DAT-KO fish. These findings provide new evidence that the dopaminergic system plays a critical role in anxiety-like states, and suggest that adult zebrafish provide a sensitive diurnal vertebrate model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anxiety and a platform for anxiolytic drug screens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MANF regulates dopaminergic neuron development in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-C; Sundvik, M; Rozov, S; Priyadarshini, M; Panula, P

    2012-10-15

    Mesencephalic astrocyte derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is recognized as a dopaminergic neurotrophic factor, which can protect dopaminergic neurons from neurotoxic damage. However, little is known about the function of MANF during the vertebrate development. Here, we report that MANF expression is widespread during embryonic development and in adult organs analyzed by qPCR and in situ hybridization in zebrafish. Knockdown of MANF expression with antisense splice-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in no apparent abnormal phenotype. Nevertheless, the dopamine level of MANF morphants was lower than that of the wild type larvae, the expression levels of the two tyrosine hydroxylase gene transcripts were decreased and a decrease in neuron number in certain groups of th1 and th2 cells in the diencephalon region in MANF morphants was observed. These defects were rescued by injection of exogenous manf mRNA. Strikingly, manf mRNA could partly restore the decrease of th1 positive cells in Nr4a2-deficient larvae. These results suggest that MANF is involved in the regulation of the development of dopaminergic system in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Myocardial Polyploidization Creates a Barrier to Heart Regeneration in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    González-Rosa, Juan Manuel; Sharpe, Michka; Field, Dorothy; Soonpaa, Mark H; Field, Loren J; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey

    2018-02-26

    Correlative evidence suggests that polyploidization of heart muscle, which occurs naturally in post-natal mammals, creates a barrier to heart regeneration. Here, we move beyond a correlation by demonstrating that experimental polyploidization of zebrafish cardiomyocytes is sufficient to suppress their proliferative potential during regeneration. Initially, we determined that zebrafish myocardium becomes susceptible to polyploidization upon transient cytokinesis inhibition mediated by dominant-negative Ect2. Using a transgenic strategy, we generated adult animals containing mosaic hearts composed of differentially labeled diploid and polyploid-enriched cardiomyocyte populations. Diploid cardiomyocytes outcompeted their polyploid neighbors in producing regenerated heart muscle. Moreover, hearts composed of equivalent proportions of diploid and polyploid cardiomyocytes failed to regenerate altogether, demonstrating that a critical percentage of diploid cardiomyocytes is required to achieve heart regeneration. Our data identify cardiomyocyte polyploidization as a barrier to heart regeneration and suggest that mobilizing rare diploid cardiomyocytes in the human heart will improve its regenerative capacity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transformation of tributyltin in zebrafish eleutheroembryos (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Borges, Aline Rocha; López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Gallego-Gallegos, Mercedes; Muñoz-Olivas, Riansares; Rodrigues Vale, Maria Goreti; Cámara, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Organotin compounds are highly versatile group of organometallic chemicals used in industrial and agricultural applications. Their endocrine-disrupting effects are well known and their extensive uses as biocide materials, e.g., in antifouling paints, for many years have led to serious environmental problems. So far, attention has mainly been given to tributyltin pollution in water, sediments, and marine organisms because of its highly toxic effects and high accumulation levels at very low concentrations. In this study, we will focus on the conversion of tributyltin after it is absorbed by zebrafish eleutheroembryos, presented here as an alternative model to adult fish for describing bioconcentration. A simplified analytical extraction procedure based on the use of an assisted ultrasonic probe and derivatization by ethylation, followed by gas chromatography with a flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) is proposed. This classical methodology for organotin determination has been validated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (ZGF-AAS) in terms of total tin content. The speciation analysis results show that zebrafish eleutheroembryos absorb high amounts of tributyltin and convert it into monobutyltin and likely in inorganic tin.

  6. Temporally-Controlled Site-Specific Recombination in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Stefan; Kaslin, Jan; Freudenreich, Dorian; Brand, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Conventional use of the site-specific recombinase Cre is a powerful technology in mouse, but almost absent in other vertebrate model organisms. In zebrafish, Cre-mediated recombination efficiency was previously very low. Here we show that using transposon-mediated transgenesis, Cre is in fact highly efficient in this organism. Furthermore, temporal control of recombination can be achieved by using the ligand-inducible CreERT2. Site-specific recombination only occurs upon administration of the drug tamoxifen (TAM) or its active metabolite, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OHT). Cre-mediated recombination is detectable already 4 or 2 hours after administration of TAM or 4-OHT, demonstrating fast recombination kinetics. In addition, low doses of TAM allow mosaic labeling of single cells. Combined, our results show that conditional Cre/lox will be a valuable tool for both, embryonic and adult zebrafish studies. Furthermore, single copy insertion transgenesis of Cre/lox constructs suggest a strategy suitable also for other organisms. PMID:19247481

  7. Loss of col8a1a Function during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Congenital Vertebral Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Ryan S.; Wilm, Thomas; Smith, Jeff; Bagnat, Michel; Dale, Rodney M.; Topczewski, Jacek; Johnson, Stephen L.; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) occur in 1 in 1,000 live births and in many cases can cause spinal deformities, such as scoliosis, and result in disability and distress of affected individuals. Many severe forms of the disease, such as spondylocostal dystostosis, are recessive monogenic traits affecting somitogenesis, however the etiologies of the majority of CVM cases remain undetermined. Here we demonstrate that morphological defects of the notochord in zebrafish can generate congenital-type spine defects. We characterize three recessive zebrafish leviathan/col8a1a mutant alleles (m531, vu41, vu105) that disrupt collagen type VIII alpha1a (col8a1a), and cause folding of the embryonic notochord and consequently adult vertebral column malformations. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a transient loss of col8a1a function or inhibition of Lysyl oxidases with drugs during embryogenesis was sufficient to generate vertebral fusions and scoliosis in the adult spine. Using periodic imaging of individual zebrafish, we correlate focal notochord defects of the embryo with vertebral malformations (VM) in the adult. Finally, we show that bends and kinks in the notochord can lead to aberrant apposition of osteoblasts normally confined to well-segmented areas of the developing vertebral bodies. Our results afford a novel mechanism for the formation of VM, independent of defects of somitogenesis, resulting from aberrant bone deposition at regions of misshapen notochord tissue. PMID:24333517

  8. Loss of col8a1a function during zebrafish embryogenesis results in congenital vertebral malformations.

    PubMed

    Gray, Ryan S; Wilm, Thomas P; Smith, Jeff; Bagnat, Michel; Dale, Rodney M; Topczewski, Jacek; Johnson, Stephen L; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2014-02-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) occur in 1 in 1000 live births and in many cases can cause spinal deformities, such as scoliosis, and result in disability and distress of affected individuals. Many severe forms of the disease, such as spondylocostal dystostosis, are recessive monogenic traits affecting somitogenesis, however the etiologies of the majority of CVM cases remain undetermined. Here we demonstrate that morphological defects of the notochord in zebrafish can generate congenital-type spine defects. We characterize three recessive zebrafish leviathan/col8a1a mutant alleles ((m531, vu41, vu105)) that disrupt collagen type VIII alpha1a (col8a1a), and cause folding of the embryonic notochord and consequently adult vertebral column malformations. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a transient loss of col8a1a function or inhibition of Lysyl oxidases with drugs during embryogenesis was sufficient to generate vertebral fusions and scoliosis in the adult spine. Using periodic imaging of individual zebrafish, we correlate focal notochord defects of the embryo with vertebral malformations (VM) in the adult. Finally, we show that bends and kinks in the notochord can lead to aberrant apposition of osteoblasts normally confined to well-segmented areas of the developing vertebral bodies. Our results afford a novel mechanism for the formation of VM, independent of defects of somitogenesis, resulting from aberrant bone deposition at regions of misshapen notochord tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. R-spondin 3 regulates dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning by antagonizing Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiaozhi; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Pin; Zhou, Yumei; Li, Yun; Lu, Ling; Liu, Yunzhang; Zhou, Jianfeng; Duan, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin or canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in early development and in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. R-spondin 3 (Rspo3) is a secreted protein that has been implicated in activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in amphibians and mammals. Here we report that zebrafish Rspo3 plays a negative role in regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Zebrafish Rspo3 has a unique domain structure. It contains a third furin-like (FU3) domain. This FU3 is present in other four ray-finned fish species studied but not in elephant shark. In zebrafish, rspo3 mRNA is maternally deposited and has a ubiquitous expression in early embryonic stages. After 12 hpf, its expression becomes tissue-specific. Forced expression of rspo3 promotes dorsoanterior patterning and increases the expression of dorsal and anterior marker genes. Knockdown of rspo3 increases ventral-posterior development and stimulates ventral and posterior marker genes expression. Forced expression of rspo3 abolishes exogenous Wnt3a action and reduces the endogenous Wnt signaling activity. Knockdown of rspo3 results in increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. Further analyses indicate that Rspo3 does not promote maternal Wnt signaling. Human RSPO3 has similar action when tested in zebrafish embryos. These results suggest that Rspo3 regulates dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning by negatively regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos.

  10. R-Spondin 3 Regulates Dorsoventral and Anteroposterior Patterning by Antagonizing Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pin; Zhou, Yumei; Li, Yun; Lu, Ling; Liu, Yunzhang; Zhou, Jianfeng; Duan, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin or canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in early development and in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. R-spondin 3 (Rspo3) is a secreted protein that has been implicated in activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in amphibians and mammals. Here we report that zebrafish Rspo3 plays a negative role in regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Zebrafish Rspo3 has a unique domain structure. It contains a third furin-like (FU3) domain. This FU3 is present in other four ray-finned fish species studied but not in elephant shark. In zebrafish, rspo3 mRNA is maternally deposited and has a ubiquitous expression in early embryonic stages. After 12 hpf, its expression becomes tissue-specific. Forced expression of rspo3 promotes dorsoanterior patterning and increases the expression of dorsal and anterior marker genes. Knockdown of rspo3 increases ventral-posterior development and stimulates ventral and posterior marker genes expression. Forced expression of rspo3 abolishes exogenous Wnt3a action and reduces the endogenous Wnt signaling activity. Knockdown of rspo3 results in increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. Further analyses indicate that Rspo3 does not promote maternal Wnt signaling. Human RSPO3 has similar action when tested in zebrafish embryos. These results suggest that Rspo3 regulates dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning by negatively regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos. PMID:24918770

  11. Differential Lectin Binding Patterns Identify Distinct Heart Regions in Giant Danio (Devario aequipinnatus) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Manalo, Trina; May, Adam; Quinn, Joshua; Lafontant, Dominique S.; Shifatu, Olubusola; He, Wei; Gonzalez-Rosa, Juan M.; Burns, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, Alan R.; Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins commonly used as biochemical and histochemical tools to study glycoconjugate (glycoproteins, glycolipids) expression patterns in cells, tissues, including mammalian hearts. However, lectins have received little attention in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) heart studies. Here, we sought to determine the binding patterns of six commonly used lectins—wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS lectin), concanavalin A (Con A), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), and Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin)—in these hearts. Con A showed broad staining in the myocardium. WGA stained cardiac myocyte borders, with binding markedly stronger in the compact heart and bulbus. BS lectin, which stained giant danio coronaries, was used to measure vascular reconstruction during regeneration. However, BS lectin reacted poorly in zebrafish. RCA I stained the compact heart of both fish. Tomato lectin stained the giant danio, and while low reactivity was seen in the zebrafish ventricle, staining was observed in their transitional cardiac myocytes. In addition, we observed unique staining patterns in the developing zebrafish heart. Lectins’ ability to reveal differential glycoconjugate expression in giant danio and zebrafish hearts suggests they can serve as simple but important tools in studies of developing, adult, and regenerating fish hearts. PMID:27680670

  12. Optimisation of Embryonic and Larval ECG Measurement in Zebrafish for Quantifying the Effect of QT Prolonging Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Sundeep Singh; Dóró, Éva; Magyary, István; Egginton, Stuart; Sík, Attila; Müller, Ferenc

    2013-01-01

    Effective chemical compound toxicity screening is of paramount importance for safe cardiac drug development. Using mammals in preliminary screening for detection of cardiac dysfunction by electrocardiography (ECG) is costly and requires a large number of animals. Alternatively, zebrafish embryos can be used as the ECG waveform is similar to mammals, a minimal amount of chemical is necessary for drug testing, while embryos are abundant, inexpensive and represent replacement in animal research with reduced bioethical concerns. We demonstrate here the utility of pre-feeding stage zebrafish larvae in detection of cardiac dysfunction by electrocardiography. We have optimised an ECG recording system by addressing key parameters such as the form of immobilization, recording temperature, electrode positioning and developmental age. Furthermore, analysis of 3 days post fertilization (dpf) zebrafish embryos treated with known QT prolonging drugs such as terfenadine, verapamil and haloperidol led to reproducible detection of QT prolongation as previously shown for adult zebrafish. In addition, calculation of Z-factor scores revealed that the assay was sensitive and specific enough to detect large drug-induced changes in QTc intervals. Thus, the ECG recording system is a useful drug-screening tool to detect alteration to cardiac cycle components and secondary effects such as heart block and arrhythmias in zebrafish larvae before free feeding stage, and thus provides a suitable replacement for mammalian experimentation. PMID:23579446

  13. Production of Androgenetic Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Corley-Smith, G. E.; Lim, C. J.; Brandhorst, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    To help investigate the evolutionary origin of the imprinting (parent-of-origin mono-allelic expression) of paternal genes observed in mammals, we constructed haploid and diploid androgenetic zebrafish (Danio rerio). Haploid androgenotes were produced by fertilizing eggs that had been X-ray irradiated to eliminate the maternal genome. Subsequent inhibition of the first mitotic division of haploid androgenotes by heat shock produced diploid androgenotes. The lack of inheritance of maternal-specific DNA markers (RAPD and SSR) by putative diploid and haploid androgenotes confirmed the androgenetic origin of their genomes. Marker analysis was performed on 18 putative androgenotes (five diploids and 13 haploids) from six families. None of 157 maternal-specific RAPD markers analyzed, some of which were apparently homozygous, were passed on to any of these putative androgenotes. A mean of 7.7 maternal-specific markers were assessed per family. The survival of androgenetic zebrafish suggests that if paternal imprinting occurs in zebrafish, it does not result in essential genes being inactivated when their expression is required for development. Production of haploid androgenotes can be used to determine the meiotic recombination rate in male zebrafish. Androgenesis may also provide useful information about the mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish. PMID:8846903

  14. The zebrafish genome: a review and msx gene case study.

    PubMed

    Postlethwait, J H

    2006-01-01

    Zebrafish is one of several important teleost models for understanding principles of vertebrate developmental, molecular, organismal, genetic, evolutionary, and genomic biology. Efficient investigation of the molecular genetic basis of induced mutations depends on knowledge of the zebrafish genome. Principles of zebrafish genomic analysis, including gene mapping, ortholog identification, conservation of syntenies, genome duplication, and evolution of duplicate gene function are discussed here using as a case study the zebrafish msxa, msxb, msxc, msxd, and msxe genes, which together constitute zebrafish orthologs of tetrapod Msx1, Msx2, and Msx3. Genomic analysis suggests orthologs for this difficult to understand group of paralogs.

  15. Transient Overexpression of adh8a Increases Allyl Alcohol Toxicity in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Klüver, Nils; Ortmann, Julia; Paschke, Heidrun; Renner, Patrick; Ritter, Axel P.; Scholz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50 = 478 mg/L vs. fish LC50 = 0.28 mg/L). Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh) to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1) during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50 = 0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos). Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L). Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes involved in

  16. [Preparation and component analysis of tea pigments].

    PubMed

    Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun; Xia, Tao

    2004-11-01

    To prepare tea pigments. Tea pigments are prepared by solvent extraction from Sri lanka black tea. Tea pigments contains the components as follows: caffeine 1.77%, epigallocatechin 1.37%, catechin 1.20%, epicatechin 9.55%, epigallocatechin gallate 10.52%, epicatechin gallate 9.94%, theaflavin 10.34%, theaflavin monogallate 9.57%, theaflavin digallate 4.81%, thearubigin about 40.93%. The best proportions of the compound that are obtained with HPLC analysis.

  17. Dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule associated with the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Danny Y; Volpicelli, Mark; Singh, Kuldev

    2003-12-01

    To report an unusual case of pigment dispersion syndrome associated with unilateral dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule. Case report. A 59-year-old male with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the left eye over the past 10 to 20 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including the presence of bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Of note, there was remarkably dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule in the eye with decreased visual acuity. Pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The optimal treatment of this unusual condition remains undetermined.

  18. Resveratrol ameliorates diet-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Yan, Qiaoqiao; Yi, Weijie; Ying, Chenjiang; Wu, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Defective lipid metabolism is associated with increased risk of various chronic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, has been shown the potential of ameliorating disregulations of lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feed intake and RSV on lipid metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The adult males were randomly allocated to 6 groups: control (Con, 8 mg cysts/fish/day), control with 20 μmol/L RSV (Con+RSV), calorie restriction (CR, 5 mg cysts/fish/day), calorie restriction with RSV (CR+RSV), overfeed (OF, 60 mg cysts/fish/day), and overfeed with RSV (OF+RSV) groups. The treatment period was 8 weeks. Results showed that CR reduced body length, body weight, and condition factor of zebrafish. CR reduced levels of plasma triglyceride (TG) and induced protein expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase-α (pAMPKα), silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α). RSV attenuated CR-induced pAMPKα/AMPKαincreases. RSV increased levels of Sirt1 protein in the OF zebrafish, and decreased OF-induced increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) protein level. Additionally, RSV down-regulated caveolin-1 and up-regulated microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 -II (LC3-II) protein levels in OF zebrafish. In conclusion, these results suggest that 1) CR reduces plasma TG level through activation of the AMPKα-Sirt1- PGC1α pathway; 2) under different dietary stress conditions RSV might regulate AMPK phosphorylation bi-directionally; 3) RSV might regulate lipid metabolism through the AMPKα-Sirt1-PPARγ pathway in OF zebrafish. PMID:28686680

  19. Small GTPase R-Ras participates in neural tube formation in zebrafish embryonic spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Shinya; Uga, Hideko; Okamoto, Hitoshi; Katada, Toshiaki

    2018-06-27

    Ras related (R-Ras), a small GTPase, is involved in the maintenance of apico-basal polarity in neuroepithelial cells of the zebrafish hindbrain, axonal collapse in cultured murine hippocampal neurons, and maturation of blood vessels in adult mice. However, the role of R-Ras in neural tube formation remains unknown. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs), we found that in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos, the lumen was formed bilaterally in rras morphants, whereas it was formed at the midline in control embryos. As AMO can cause off-target effects, we generated rras mutant zebrafish lines using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Although these rras mutant embryos did not have a bilateral lumen in the spinal cord, the following findings suggest that the phenotype is unlikely due to an off-target effect of rras AMO: 1) The rras morphant phenotype was rescued by an injection of AMO-resistant rras mRNA, and 2) a bilaterally segregated spinal cord was not observed in rras mutant embryos injected with rras AMO. The results suggest that the function of other ras family genes may be redundant in rras mutants. Previous research reported a bilaterally formed lumen in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos with a mutation in a planar cell polarity (PCP) gene, van gogh-like 2 (vangl2). In the present study, in cultured cells, R-Ras was co-immunoprecipitated with Vangl2 but not with another PCP regulator, Pricke1. Interestingly, the interaction between R-Ras and Vangl2 was stronger in guanine-nucleotide free point mutants of R-Ras than in wild-type or constitutively active (GTP-bound) forms of R-Ras. R-Ras may regulate neural tube formation in cooperation with Vangl2 in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diving deeper into Zebrafish development of social behavior: analyzing high resolution data.

    PubMed

    Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-30

    Vertebrate model organisms have been utilized in high throughput screening but only with substantial cost and human capital investment. The zebrafish is a vertebrate model species that is a promising and cost effective candidate for efficient high throughput screening. Larval zebrafish have already been successfully employed in this regard (Lessman, 2011), but adult zebrafish also show great promise. High throughput screening requires the use of a large number of subjects and collection of substantial amount of data. Collection of data is only one of the demanding aspects of screening. However, in most screening approaches that involve behavioral data the main bottleneck that slows throughput is the time consuming aspect of analysis of the collected data. Some automated analytical tools do exist, but often they only work for one subject at a time, eliminating the possibility of fully utilizing zebrafish as a screening tool. This is a particularly important limitation for such complex phenotypes as social behavior. Testing multiple fish at a time can reveal complex social interactions but it may also allow the identification of outliers from a group of mutagenized or pharmacologically treated fish. Here, we describe a novel method using a custom software tool developed within our laboratory, which enables tracking multiple fish, in combination with a sophisticated analytical approach for summarizing and analyzing high resolution behavioral data. This paper focuses on the latter, the analytic tool, which we have developed using the R programming language and environment for statistical computing. We argue that combining sophisticated data collection methods with appropriate analytical tools will propel zebrafish into the future of neurobehavioral genetic research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Evolution of vertebrate visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Bowmaker, James K

    2008-09-01

    The visual pigments of vertebrates evolved about 500 million years ago, before the major evolutionary step of the development of jaws. Four spectrally distinct classes of cone opsin evolved through gene duplication, followed by the rod opsin class that arose from the duplication of the middle-wave-sensitive cone opsin. All four cone classes are present in many extant teleost fish, reptiles and birds, but one or more classes have been lost in primitive fish, amphibians and mammals. Gene duplication within the cone classes, especially in teleosts, has resulted in multiple opsins being available, both temporally and spatially, during development.

  2. Preparation of nearly monodisperse nanoscale inorganic pigments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingsheng; Liang, Xin; Li, Yadong

    2006-07-17

    Many different important commercial pigments have been synthesized based on the liquid-solid-solution (LSS) phase-transfer and separation process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement results show that they are very small in size and have a narrow size distribution. Visible absorption spectra were taken to examine the very pure and brilliant colors of the pigments. They can be well-dispersed in cyclohexane and remain non-agglomerated, even over several months. These nearly monodisperse nanoscale inorganic pigments may have wide applications in many important fields and could bring about new developments in the pigment industry.

  3. Skin Color and Pigmentation in Ethnic Skin.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O

    2017-02-01

    Skin coloration is highly diverse, partly due to the presence of pigmentation. Color variation is related to the extent of ultraviolet radiation exposure, as well as other factors. Inherent skin coloration arises from differences in basal epidermal melanin amount and type. Skin color is influenced by both the quantity and distribution of melanocytes. The effectiveness of inherent pigmentation for protecting living cells also varies. This article discusses skin color, pigmentation, and ethnicity in relation to clinical practice. Color perception, skin typing/classification, and quantitation of pigmentation are reviewed in relation to ethnicity, environmental stresses/irritants, and potential treatment effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of multiciliated ependymal cells that emerge in the neurogenic niche of the aged zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Takashi; Sawada, Masato; Takase, Hiroshi; Nakai, Chiemi; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Kaneko, Naoko; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2016-10-15

    In mammals, ventricular walls of the developing brain maintain a neurogenic niche, in which radial glial cells act as neural stem cells (NSCs) and generate new neurons in the embryo. In the adult brain, the neurogenic niche is maintained in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral wall of lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the neonatal V-SVZ, radial glial cells transform into astrocytic postnatal NSCs and multiciliated ependymal cells. On the other hand, in zebrafish, radial glial cells continue to cover the surface of the adult telencephalic ventricle and maintain a higher neurogenic potential in the adult brain. However, the cell composition of the neurogenic niche of the aged zebrafish brain has not been investigated. Here we show that multiciliated ependymal cells emerge in the neurogenic niche of the aged zebrafish telencephalon. These multiciliated cells appear predominantly in the dorsal part of the ventral telencephalic ventricular zone, which also contains clusters of migrating new neurons. Scanning electron microscopy and live imaging analyses indicated that these multiple cilia beat coordinately and generate constant fluid flow within the ventral telencephalic ventricle. Analysis of the cell composition by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the neurogenic niche in the aged zebrafish contains different types of cells, with ultrastructures similar to those of ependymal cells, transit-amplifying cells, and migrating new neurons in postnatal mice. These data suggest that the transformation capacity of radial glial cells is conserved but that its timing is different between fish and mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2982-2992, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Compared with MS222 for the Euthanasia of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; Banks, E Kate; Turner, Patricia V

    2016-01-01

    Despite several shortcomings, MS222 is the most commonly used chemical agent for euthanasia of zebrafish. Although lidocaine hydrochloride has some advantages over MS222, its effectiveness as a euthanasia agent for zebrafish is unknown. Larvae at 9 to 16 d postfertilization were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 mg/L lidocaine and observed for cessation of heartbeat. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, or 600 mg/L lidocaine; times to loss of righting reflex, cessation of opercular movement, and complete recovery; body length; aversive behavior; and gross and microscopic evidence of acute toxicity were evaluated. The heartbeat was not lost from any larvae in any group, regardless of drug or dosage. For adults, time to loss of righting reflex was greatest in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group. Opercular movement ceased earlier in all lidocaine groups compared with the MS222 group. Fish in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group were smaller than those in other groups. Fewer fish in the lidocaine groups displayed aversive behavior (erratic swimming and piping) compared with the MS222 group. No fish in the lidocaine hydrochloride groups (n = 30) recovered from euthanasia, whereas one fish in the MS222 group did (n = 10). Neither the MS222 nor lidocaine groups showed any gross or histologic changes suggestive of acute toxicity. Our results suggest that lidocaine hydrochloride may be an effective alternative chemical euthanasia agent for adult zebrafish but should not be used in larval fish. PMID:27931323

  6. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Compared with MS222 for the Euthanasia of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Collymore, Chereen; Banks, E Kate; Turner, Patricia V

    2016-11-01

    Despite several shortcomings, MS222 is the most commonly used chemical agent for euthanasia of zebrafish. Although lidocaine hydrochloride has some advantages over MS222, its effectiveness as a euthanasia agent for zebrafish is unknown. Larvae at 9 to 16 d postfertilization were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 mg/L lidocaine and observed for cessation of heartbeat. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, or 600 mg/L lidocaine; times to loss of righting reflex, cessation of opercular movement, and complete recovery; body length; aversive behavior; and gross and microscopic evidence of acute toxicity were evaluated. The heartbeat was not lost from any larvae in any group, regardless of drug or dosage. For adults, time to loss of righting reflex was greatest in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group. Opercular movement ceased earlier in all lidocaine groups compared with the MS222 group. Fish in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group were smaller than those in other groups. Fewer fish in the lidocaine groups displayed aversive behavior (erratic swimming and piping) compared with the MS222 group. No fish in the lidocaine hydrochloride groups (n = 30) recovered from euthanasia, whereas one fish in the MS222 group did (n = 10). Neither the MS222 nor lidocaine groups showed any gross or histologic changes suggestive of acute toxicity. Our results suggest that lidocaine hydrochloride may be an effective alternative chemical euthanasia agent for adult zebrafish but should not be used in larval fish.

  7. DNA methylation regulates gabrb2 mRNA expression: developmental variations and disruptions in l-methionine-induced zebrafish with schizophrenia-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Jiang, W; Lin, Q; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C

    2016-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor β 2 subunit gene (GABRB2) have been associated with schizophrenia and quantitatively correlated with mRNA expression in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. l-Methionine (MET) administration has been reported to cause a recrudescence of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, and similar symptoms have been generated in MET-induced mice. In this study, a zebrafish animal model was used to evaluate the relationship between the gabrb2 mRNA expression and its promoter DNA methylation in developmental and MET-induced schizophrenia-like zebrafish. The results indicated developmental increases in global DNA methylation and decreases in gabrb2 promoter methylation in zebrafish. A significant increase in gabrb2 mRNA levels was observed after GABA was synthesized. Additionally, the MET-triggered schizophrenia-like symptoms in adult zebrafish, involving social withdrawal and cognitive dysfunction analyzed with social interaction and T-maze behavioral tests, were accompanied by significantly increased DNA methylation levels in the global genome and the gabrb2 promoter. Furthermore, the significant correlation between gabrb2 mRNA expression and gabrb2 promoter methylation observed in the developmental stages became non-significant in MET-triggered adult zebrafish. These findings demonstrate that gabrb2 mRNA expression is associated with DNA methylation varies by developmental stage and show that these epigenetic association mechanisms are disrupted in MET-triggered adult zebrafish with schizophrenia-like symptoms. In conclusion, these results provide plausible epigenetic evidence of the GABA A receptor β 2 subunit involvement in the schizophrenia-like behaviors and demonstrate the potential use of zebrafish models in neuropsychiatric research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. The role of Sox6 in zebrafish muscle fiber type specification.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Harriet E; Ono, Yosuke; Wang, Xingang; Elworthy, Stone; Cunliffe, Vincent T; Ingham, Philip W

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox6 has been implicated in regulating muscle fiber type-specific gene expression in mammals. In zebrafish, loss of function of the transcription factor Prdm1a results in a slow to fast-twitch fiber type transformation presaged by ectopic expression of sox6 in slow-twitch progenitors. Morpholino-mediated Sox6 knockdown can suppress this transformation but causes ectopic expression of only one of three slow-twitch specific genes assayed. Here, we use gain and loss of function analysis to analyse further the role of Sox6 in zebrafish muscle fiber type specification. The GAL4 binary misexpression system was used to express Sox6 ectopically in zebrafish embryos. Cis-regulatory elements were characterized using transgenic fish. Zinc finger nuclease mediated targeted mutagenesis was used to analyse the effects of loss of Sox6 function in embryonic, larval and adult zebrafish. Zebrafish transgenic for the GCaMP3 Calcium reporter were used to assay Ca2+ transients in wild-type and mutant muscle fibres. Ectopic Sox6 expression is sufficient to downregulate slow-twitch specific gene expression in zebrafish embryos. Cis-regulatory elements upstream of the slow myosin heavy chain 1 (smyhc1) and slow troponin c (tnnc1b) genes contain putative Sox6 binding sites required for repression of the former but not the latter. Embryos homozygous for sox6 null alleles expressed tnnc1b throughout the fast-twitch muscle whereas other slow-specific muscle genes, including smyhc1, were expressed ectopically in only a subset of fast-twitch fibers. Ca2+ transients in sox6 mutant fast-twitch fibers were intermediate in their speed and amplitude between those of wild-type slow- and fast-twitch fibers. sox6 homozygotes survived to adulthood and exhibited continued misexpression of tnnc1b as well as smaller slow-twitch fibers. They also exhibited a striking curvature of the spine. The Sox6 transcription factor is a key regulator of fast-twitch muscle fiber differentiation

  9. Cytochrome P450 20A1 in zebrafish: Cloning, regulation and potential involvement in hyperactivity disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Kubota, Akira; O'Meara, Conor M.

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes for which there is no functional information are considered “orphan” CYPs. Previous studies showed that CYP20A1, an orphan, is expressed in human hippocampus and substantia nigra, and in zebrafish (Danio rerio) CYP20A1 maternal transcript occurs in eggs, suggesting involvement in brain and in early development. Moreover, hyperactivity is reported in humans with chromosome 2 microdeletions including CYP20A1. We examined CYP20A1 in zebrafish, including impacts of chemical exposure on expression. Zebrafish CYP20A1 cDNA was cloned, sequenced, and aligned with cloned human CYP20A1 and predicted vertebrate orthologs. CYP20A1s share a highly conserved N-terminal region and unusual sequences inmore » the I-helix and the heme-binding CYP signature motifs. CYP20A1 mRNA expression was observed in adult zebrafish organs including the liver, heart, gonads, spleen and brain, as well as the eye and optic nerve. Putative binding sites in proximal promoter regions of CYP20A1s, and response of zebrafish CYP20A1 to selected nuclear and xenobiotic receptor agonists, point to up-regulation by agents involved in steroid hormone response, cholesterol and lipid metabolism. There also was a dose-dependent reduction of CYP20A1 expression in embryos exposed to environmentally relevant levels of methylmercury. Morpholino knockdown of CYP20A1 in developing zebrafish resulted in behavioral effects, including hyperactivity and a slowing of the optomotor response in larvae. The results suggest that altered expression of CYP20A1 might be part of a mechanism linking methylmercury exposure to neurobehavioral deficits. The expanded information on CYP20A1 brings us closer to “deorphanization”, that is, identifying CYP20A1 functions and its roles in health and disease. - Highlights: • The “orphan” CYP20A1 was cloned from zebrafish and its sequence analyzed. • Knockdown of CYP20A1 reduced an optomotor response and elicited bursts of activity. • Effects

  10. Zebrafish heart failure models: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingjuan; Chen, Ru; Zhang, Yu; Yun, Junghwa; Brand-Arzamendi, Koroboshka; Liu, Xiangdong; Wen, Xiao-Yan

    2018-05-03

    Heart failure is a complex pathophysiological syndrome of pumping functional failure that results from injury, infection or toxin-induced damage on the myocardium, as well as genetic influence. Gene mutations associated with cardiomyopathies can lead to various pathologies of heart failure. In recent years, zebrafish, Danio rerio, has emerged as an excellent model to study human cardiovascular diseases such as congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and preclinical development of drugs targeting these diseases. In this review, we will first summarize zebrafish genetic models of heart failure arose from cardiomyopathy, which is caused by mutations in sarcomere, calcium or mitochondrial-associated genes. Moreover, we outline zebrafish heart failure models triggered by chemical compounds. Elucidation of these models will improve the understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis and provide potential targets for novel therapies.

  11. Midline signals regulate retinal neurogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Masai, I; Stemple, D L; Okamoto, H; Wilson, S W

    2000-08-01

    In zebrafish, neuronal differentiation progresses across the retina in a pattern that is reminiscent of the neurogenic wave that sweeps across the developing eye in Drosophila. We show that expression of a zebrafish homolog of Drosophila atonal, ath5, sweeps across the eye predicting the wave of neuronal differentiation. By analyzing the regulation of ath5 expression, we have elucidated the mechanisms that regulate initiation and spread of neurogenesis in the retina. ath5 expression is lost in Nodal pathway mutant embryos lacking axial tissues that include the prechordal plate. A likely role for axial tissue is to induce optic stalk cells that subsequently regulate ath5 expression. Our results suggest that a series of inductive events, initiated from the prechordal plate and progressing from the optic stalks, regulates the spread of neuronal differentiation across the zebrafish retina.

  12. Tributyltin and Zebrafish: Swimming in Dangerous Water

    PubMed Central

    Berto-Júnior, Clemilson; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Soares, Paula; Miranda-Alves, Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Zebrafish has been established as a reliable biological model with important insertion in academy (morphologic, biochemical, and pathophysiological studies) and pharmaceutical industry (toxicology and drug development) due to its molecular complexity and similar systems biology that recapitulate those from other organisms. Considering the toxicological aspects, many efforts using zebrafish models are being done in order to elucidate the effects of endocrine disruptors, and some of them are focused on tributyltin (TBT) and its mechanism of action. TBT is an antifouling agent applied in ship’s hull that is constantly released into the water and absorbed by marine organisms, leading to bioaccumulation and biomagnification effects. Thus, several findings of malformations and changes in the normal biochemical and physiologic aspects of these marine animals have been related to TBT contamination. In the present review, we have compiled the most significant studies related to TBT effects in zebrafish, also taking into consideration the effects found in other study models. PMID:29692757

  13. 15 years of zebrafish chemical screening

    PubMed Central

    Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the first chemical screen using living zebrafish in a multi-well plate was reported. Since then, more than 60 additional screens have been published describing whole-organism drug and pathway discovery projects in zebrafish. To investigate the scope of the work reported in the last 14 years and to identify trends in the field, we analyzed the discovery strategies of 64 primary research articles from the literature. We found that zebrafish screens have expanded beyond the use of developmental phenotypes to include behavioral, cardiac, metabolic, proliferative and regenerative endpoints. Additionally, many creative strategies have been used to uncover the mechanisms of action of new small molecules including chemical phenocopy, genetic phenocopy, mutant rescue, and spatial localization strategies. PMID:25461724

  14. Culturable Gut Microbiota Diversity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sørby, Jan Roger Torp; Aleström, Peter; Sørum, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly used laboratory animal model in basic biology and biomedicine, novel drug development, and toxicology. The wide use has increased the demand for optimized husbandry protocols to ensure animal health care and welfare. The knowledge about the correlation between culturable zebrafish intestinal microbiota and health in relation to environmental factors and management procedures is very limited. A semi-quantitative level of growth of individual types of bacteria was determined and associated with sampling points. A total of 72 TAB line zebrafish from four laboratories (Labs A–D) in the Zebrafish Network Norway were used. Diagnostic was based on traditional bacterial culture methods and biochemical characterization using commercial kits, followed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing from pure subcultures. Also selected Gram-negative isolates were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to 8 different antibiotics. A total of 13 morphologically different bacterial species were the most prevalent: Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas luteola, Comamonas testosteroni, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, and Staphylococcus warneri. Only Lab B had significantly higher levels of total bacterial growth (OR=2.03), whereas numbers from Lab C (OR=1.01) and Lab D (OR=1.12) were found to be similar to the baseline Lab A. Sexually immature individuals had a significantly higher level of harvested total bacterial growth than mature fish (OR=0.82), no statistically significant differences were found between male and female fish (OR=1.01), and the posterior intestinal segment demonstrated a higher degree of culturable bacteria than the anterior segment (OR=4.1). Multiple antibiotic (>3) resistance was observed in 17% of the strains. We propose that a rapid

  15. Culturable gut microbiota diversity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cantas, Leon; Sørby, Jan Roger Torp; Aleström, Peter; Sørum, Henning

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly used laboratory animal model in basic biology and biomedicine, novel drug development, and toxicology. The wide use has increased the demand for optimized husbandry protocols to ensure animal health care and welfare. The knowledge about the correlation between culturable zebrafish intestinal microbiota and health in relation to environmental factors and management procedures is very limited. A semi-quantitative level of growth of individual types of bacteria was determined and associated with sampling points. A total of 72 TAB line zebrafish from four laboratories (Labs A-D) in the Zebrafish Network Norway were used. Diagnostic was based on traditional bacterial culture methods and biochemical characterization using commercial kits, followed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing from pure subcultures. Also selected Gram-negative isolates were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to 8 different antibiotics. A total of 13 morphologically different bacterial species were the most prevalent: Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas luteola, Comamonas testosteroni, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, and Staphylococcus warneri. Only Lab B had significantly higher levels of total bacterial growth (OR=2.03), whereas numbers from Lab C (OR=1.01) and Lab D (OR=1.12) were found to be similar to the baseline Lab A. Sexually immature individuals had a significantly higher level of harvested total bacterial growth than mature fish (OR=0.82), no statistically significant differences were found between male and female fish (OR=1.01), and the posterior intestinal segment demonstrated a higher degree of culturable bacteria than the anterior segment (OR=4.1). Multiple antibiotic (>3) resistance was observed in 17% of the strains. We propose that a rapid conventional

  16. Zebrafish fin and heart: what's special about regeneration?

    PubMed

    Sehring, Ivonne M; Jahn, Christopher; Weidinger, Gilbert

    2016-10-01

    Many organs regenerate well in adult zebrafish, but most research has been directed toward fin and heart regeneration. Cells have been found to remain generally lineage-restricted during regeneration, and proliferative regenerative progenitors can be formed by dedifferentiation from differentiated cells. Recent studies begin to shed light on the molecular underpinnings of differences between development and regeneration. Retinoic acid, BMP and NF-κB signaling are emerging as regulators of cellular dedifferentiation. Reactive oxygen species promote regeneration, and the dynamics of ROS signaling might help explain differences between wound healing and regeneration. Finally, the heart has been added to those organs that require a nerve supply to regenerate, and a trade-off between regeneration and tumor suppression has been proposed to help explain why mammals regenerate poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Zebrafish embryo developmental toxicology assay.

    PubMed

    Panzica-Kelly, Julieta M; Zhang, Cindy X; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A promising in vitro zebrafish developmental toxicology assay was generated to test compounds for their teratogenic potential. The assay's predictivity is approximately 87% in AB strain fish (Brannen KC et al., Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 89:66-77, 2010). The procedure entails exposing dechorionated gastrulation-stage embryos to a range of compound concentrations for 5 days throughout embryonic and larva development. The larvae are evaluated for viability in order to identify an LC25 (the compound concentration in which 25% lethality is observed) and morphological anomalies using a numerical score system to identify the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level). These values are used to calculate the teratogenic index (LC25/NOAEL ratio) of each compound. If the teratogenic index is equal to or greater than 10 then the compound is classified as a teratogen, and if the ratio is less than 10 then the compound is classified as a nonteratogen (Brannen KC et al., Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 89:66-77, 2010).

  18. Glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; Carneiro, Bruno; Ochs, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Glyphosate based herbicides (GBH) like Roundup(®) are used extensively in agriculture as well as in urban and rural settings as a broad spectrum herbicide. Its mechanism of action was thought to be specific only to plants and thus considered safe and non-toxic. However, mounting evidence suggests that GBHs may not be as safe as once thought as initial studies in frogs suggest that GBHs may be teratogenic. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of glyphosate exposure using technical grade glyphosate and the Roundup(®) Classic formulation. We find morphological abnormalities including cephalic and eye reductions and a loss of delineated brain ventricles. Concomitant with structural changes in the developing brain, using in situ hybridization analysis, we detect decreases in genes expressed in the eye, fore and midbrain regions of the brain including pax2, pax6, otx2 and ephA4. However, we do not detect changes in hindbrain expression domains of ephA4 nor exclusive hindbrain markers krox-20 and hoxb1a. Additionally, using a Retinoic Acid (RA) mediated reporter transgenic, we detect no alterations in the RA expression domains in the hindbrain and spinal cord, but do detect a loss of expression in the retina. We conclude that glyphosate and the Roundup(®) formulation is developmentally toxic to the forebrain and midbrain but does not affect the hindbrain after 24 h exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential teratogenicity of methimazole: exposure of zebrafish embryos to methimazole causes similar developmental anomalies to human methimazole embryopathy.

    PubMed

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2013-06-01

    While methimazole (MMI) is widely used in the therapy for hyperthyroidism, several groups have reported that maternal exposure to MMI results in a variety of congenital anomalies, including choanal and esophageal atresia, iridic and retinal coloboma, and delayed neurodevelopment. Thus, adverse effects of maternal exposure to MMI on fetal development have long been suggested; however, direct evidence for the teratogenicity of MMI has not been presented. Therefore, we studied the effects of MMI on early development by using zebrafish as a model organism. The fertilized eggs of zebrafish were collected immediately after spawning and grown in egg culture water containing MMI at various concentrations. External observation of the embryos revealed that exposure to high concentrations of MMI resulted in loss of pigmentation, hypoplastic hindbrain, turbid tissue in the forebrain, swelling of the notochord, and curly trunk. Furthermore, these effects occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Precise observation of the serial cross-sections of MMI-exposed embryos elucidated delayed development and hypoplasia of the whole brain and spinal cord, narrowing of the pharynx and esophagus, severe disruption of the retina, and aberrant structure of the notochord. These neuronal, pharyngeal, esophageal, and retinal anomalous morphologies have a direct analogy to the congenital anomalies observed in children exposed to MMI in utero. Here, we show the teratogenic effects of MMI on the development of zebrafish and provide the first experimental evidence for the connection between exposure to MMI and human MMI embryopathy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Curcumin affects development of zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jheng-Yu; Lin, Chin-Yi; Lin, Tien-Wei; Ken, Chuian-Fu; Wen, Yu-Der

    2007-07-01

    Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of curcumin on the development of zebrafish embryo were investi-gated in this study. The LD(50) values of curcumin (24-h incubation) were estimated at 7.5 microM and 5 microM for embryos and larvae, respectively. The developmental defects caused by curcumin treatments include bent or hook-like tails, spinal column curving, edema in pericardial sac, retarded yolk sac resorption, and shorter body length. In curcumin-treated larvae, fluorescence signals of curcumin were found in edamae sac and some skin cells. Together, these results indicate that zebrafish are suitable model organisms to study the toxic effects of curcumin.

  1. Inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on zebrafish methamphetamine dependence are associated with amelioration of neurotransmitters content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingjin; Chen, Yifei; Li, Chan; Peng, Qiuxian; Fang, Miao; Liu, Wei; Kang, Qunzhao; Lin, Yingbo; Yung, Ken Kin Lam; Mo, Zhixian

    2016-07-04

    Others and we have reported that rhynchophylline reverses amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) effect which may be partly mediated by amelioration of central neurotransmitters and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) levels in the rat brains. The current study investigated the inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on methamphetamine-induced (METH-induced) CPP in adult zebrafish and METH-induced locomotor activity in tyrosine hydroxylase-green fluorescent protein (TH-GFP) transgenic zebrafish larvae and attempted to confirm the hypothesis that these effects were mediated via regulation of neurotransmitters and dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. After baseline preference test (on days 1-3), zebrafish were injected intraperitoneally METH (on days 4, 6 and 8) or the same volume of fish physiological saline (on days 5 and 7) and were immediately conditioned. Rhynchophylline was administered at 12h after injection of METH. On day 9, zebrafish were tested for METH-induced CPP. Results revealed that rhynchophylline (100mg/kg) significantly inhibited the acquisition of METH-induced CPP, reduced the content of dopamine and glutamate and down-regulated the expression of TH and NR2B in the CPP zebrafish brains. Furthermore, the influence of rhynchophylline on METH-induced locomotor activity was also observed in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Results showed that rhynchophylline (50mg/L) treatment led to a significant reduction on the locomotor activity and TH expression in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Taken together, these data indicate that the inhibition of the formation of METH dependence by rhynchophylline in zebrafish is associated with amelioration of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Generation of Demyelination Models by Targeted Ablation of Oligodendrocytes in the Zebrafish CNS

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ah-Young; Kim, Pan-Soo; Kim, Suhyun; Kim, Eunmi; Kim, Dohyun; Jeong, Inyoung; Kim, Hwan-Ki; Ryu, Jae-Ho; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Choi, June; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Hae-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Demyelination is the pathological process by which myelin sheaths are lost from around axons, and is usually caused by a direct insult targeted at the oligodendrocytes in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). A demyelinated CNS is usually remyelinated by a population of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, which are widely distributed throughout the adult CNS. However, myelin disruption and remyelination failure affect the normal function of the nervous system, causing human diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In spite of numerous studies aimed at understanding the remyelination process, many questions still remain unanswered. Therefore, to study remyelination mechanisms in vivo, a demyelination animal model was generated using a transgenic zebrafish system in which oligodendrocytes are conditionally ablated in the larval and adult CNS. In this transgenic system, bacterial nitroreductase enzyme (NTR), which converts the prodrug metronidazole (Mtz) into a cytotoxic DNA cross-linking agent, is expressed in oligodendrocyte lineage cells under the control of the mbp and sox10 promoter. Exposure of transgenic zebrafish to Mtz-containing media resulted in rapid ablation of oligodendrocytes and CNS demyelination within 48 h, but removal of Mtz medium led to efficient remyelination of the demyelinated CNS within 7 days. In addition, the demyelination and remyelination processes could be easily observed in living transgenic zebrafish by detecting the fluorescent protein, mCherry, indicating that this transgenic system can be used as a valuable animal model to study the remyelination process in vivo, and to conduct high-throughput primary screens for new drugs that facilitate remyelination. PMID:23807048

  3. Sox-2 in taste bud and lateral line system of zebrafish during development.

    PubMed

    Germanà, A; Montalbano, G; Guerrera, M C; Laura, R; Levanti, M; Abbate, F; de Carlos, F; Vega, J A; Ciriaco, E

    2009-12-18

    The Sox-2 is a transcription factor involved in adult neurogenesis in different vertebrate species, including fishes. Sox-2 also participates in growth and renewal on sensory cells in neuromasts of the fish lateral line system, and it is essential for development of taste buds in mammals. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot we have investigated the occurrence and localization of Sox-2 taste buds and neuromast of zebrafish from 10 days post-fertilization to adult stage (1 year). The antibody used identifies two protein bands with estimated molecular weights of 34 and 37kDa which are consistent with those predicted for Sox-2. Sensory cells in taste buds displayed Sox-2 immunoreactivity at all the ages sampled, whereas in the neuromasts Sox-2 expression was restricted to the basal non-sensory cells. Interestingly Sox-2 immunoreactivity was observed in epithelial cells associated with both taste buds and neuromasts. Present results demonstrate that Sox-2 expressed in taste buds and neuromasts of zebrafish during the whole lifespan. Nevertheless, whereas the role of Sox-2 in taste buds of zebrafish remains to be established, the results in neuromast suggest that Sox-2 could participate in cell renewal of the mechanosensory cells.

  4. Olfactory imprinting is correlated with changes in gene expression in the olfactory epithelia of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Harden, Maegan V; Newton, Lucy A; Lloyd, Russell C; Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2006-11-01

    Odors experienced as juveniles can have significant effects on the behavior of mature organisms. A dramatic example of this occurs in salmon, where the odors experienced by developing fish determine the river to which they return as adults. Further examples of olfactory memories are found in many animals including vertebrates and invertebrates. Yet, the cellular and molecular bases underlying the formation of olfactory memory are poorly understood. We have devised a series of experiments to determine whether zebrafish can form olfactory memories much like those observed in salmonids. Here we show for the first time that zebrafish form and retain olfactory memories of an artificial odorant, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), experienced as juveniles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to PEA results in changes in gene expression within the olfactory sensory system. These changes are evident by in situ hybridization in the olfactory epithelium of the developing zebrafish. Strikingly, our analysis by in situ hybridization demonstrates that the transcription factor, otx2, is up regulated in the olfactory sensory epithelia in response to PEA. This increase is evident at 2-3 days postfertilization and is maintained in the adult animals. We propose that the changes in otx2 gene expression are manifest as an increase in the number of neuronal precursors in the cells olfactory epithelium of the odor-exposed fish. Thus, our results reveal a role for the environment in controlling gene expression in the developing peripheral nervous system. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahali, Anil Gulsel; Yildiz, Pelin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented purpuric dermatosis is a chronic skin disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by symmetrical petechial and pigmented macules, often confined to the lower limbs. The aetiology of pigmented purpuric dermatosis is unknown. Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the visualisation of morphological features invisible to the naked eye; it combines a method that renders the corneal layer of the skin translucent with an optical system that magnifies the image projected onto the retina. The aim of this study is to investigate the dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. This study enrolled patients diagnosed histopathologically with pigmented purpuric dermatosis who had dermatoscopic records. We reviewed the dermatoscopic images of PPD patients who attended the outpatient clinic in the Istanbul Dermatovenereology Department at the Bezmialem Vakıf University Medical Faculty. Dermatoscopy showed: coppery-red pigmentation (97%, n = 31) in the background, a brown network (34%, n = 11), linear vessels (22%, n = 7), round to oval red dots, globules, and patches (69%, n = 22; 75%, n = 24; 34%, n = 11; respectively), brown globules (26%, n = 8) and dots (53%, n = 17), linear brown lines (22%, n = 7), and follicular openings (13%, n = 4). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the dermatoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. In our opinion, dermatoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented purpuric dermatosis.

  6. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  7. Efficient Multiple Genome Modifications Induced by the crRNAs, tracrRNA and Cas9 Protein Complex in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ohga, Rie; Ota, Satoshi; Kawahara, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    The type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated with Cas9 endonuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) has become a powerful genetic tool for understanding the function of a gene of interest. In zebrafish, the injection of Cas9 mRNA and guide-RNA (gRNA), which are prepared using an in vitro transcription system, efficiently induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the targeted genomic locus. Because gRNA was originally constructed by fusing two short RNAs CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA), we examined the effect of synthetic crRNAs and tracrRNA with Cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein on the genome editing activity. We previously reported that the disruption of tyrosinase (tyr) by tyr-gRNA/Cas9 mRNA causes a retinal pigment defect, whereas the disruption of spns2 by spns2-gRNA1/Cas9 mRNA leads to a cardiac progenitor migration defect in zebrafish. Here, we found that the injection of spns2-crRNA1, tyr-crRNA and tracrRNA with Cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein simultaneously caused a migration defect in cardiac progenitors and a pigment defect in retinal epithelial cells. A time course analysis demonstrated that the injection of crRNAs and tracrRNA with Cas9 protein rapidly induced genome modifications compared with the injection of crRNAs and tracrRNA with Cas9 mRNA. We further show that the crRNA-tracrRNA-Cas9 protein complex is functional for the visualization of endogenous gene expression; therefore, this is a very powerful, ready-to-use system in zebrafish. PMID:26010089

  8. Barrier properties of cultured retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    The principal function of an epithelium is to form a dynamic barrier that regulates movement between body compartments. Each epithelium is specialized with barrier functions that are specific for the tissues it serves. The apical surface commonly faces a lumen, but the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to be unique by a facing solid tissue, the sensory retina. Nonetheless, there exists a thin (subretinal) space that can become fluid filled during pathology. RPE separates the subretinal space from the blood supply of the outer retina, thereby forming the outer blood-retinal barrier. The intricate interaction between the RPE and sensory retina presents challenges for learning how accurately culture models reflect native behavior. The challenge is heightened by findings that detail the variation of RPE barrier proteins both among species and at different stages of the life cycle. Among the striking differences is the expression of claudin family members. Claudins are the tight junction proteins that regulate ion diffusion across the spaces that lie between the cells of a monolayer. Claudin expression by RPE varies with species and life-stage, which implies functional differences among commonly used animal models. Investigators have turned to transcriptomics to supplement functional studies when comparing native and cultured tissue. The most detailed studies of the outer blood-retinal barrier have focused on human RPE with transcriptome and functional studies reported for human fetal, adult, and stem-cell derived RPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All right