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Sample records for zebrafish interactome reveals

  1. HIV–host interactome revealed directly from infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yang; Jacobs, Erica Y.; Greco, Todd M.; Mohammed, Kevin D.; Tong, Tommy; Keegan, Sarah; Binley, James M.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P.; Chait, Brian T.; Muesing, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Although genetically compact, HIV-1 commandeers vast arrays of cellular machinery to sustain and protect it during cycles of viral outgrowth. Transposon-mediated saturation linker scanning mutagenesis was used to isolate fully replication-competent viruses harbouring a potent foreign epitope tag. Using these viral isolates, we performed differential isotopic labelling and affinity-capture mass spectrometric analyses on samples obtained from cultures of human lymphocytes to classify the vicinal interactomes of the viral Env and Vif proteins as they occur during natural infection. Importantly, interacting proteins were recovered without bias, regardless of their potential for positive, negative or neutral impact on viral replication. We identified specific host associations made with trimerized Env during its biosynthesis, at virological synapses, with innate immune effectors (such as HLA-E) and with certain cellular signalling pathways (for example, Notch1). We also defined Vif associations with host proteins involved in the control of nuclear transcription and nucleoside biosynthesis as well as those interacting stably or transiently with the cytoplasmic protein degradation apparatus. Our approach is broadly applicable to elucidating pathogen–host interactomes, providing high-certainty identification of interactors by their direct access during cycling infection. Understanding the pathophysiological consequences of these associations is likely to provide strategic targets for antiviral intervention. PMID:27375898

  2. The human cytoplasmic dynein interactome reveals novel activators of motility

    PubMed Central

    Redwine, William B; DeSantis, Morgan E; Hollyer, Ian; Htet, Zaw Min; Tran, Phuoc Tien; Swanson, Selene K; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Reck-Peterson, Samara L

    2017-01-01

    In human cells, cytoplasmic dynein-1 is essential for long-distance transport of many cargos, including organelles, RNAs, proteins, and viruses, towards microtubule minus ends. To understand how a single motor achieves cargo specificity, we identified the human dynein interactome by attaching a promiscuous biotin ligase (‘BioID’) to seven components of the dynein machinery, including a subunit of the essential cofactor dynactin. This method reported spatial information about the large cytosolic dynein/dynactin complex in living cells. To achieve maximal motile activity and to bind its cargos, human dynein/dynactin requires ‘activators’, of which only five have been described. We developed methods to identify new activators in our BioID data, and discovered that ninein and ninein-like are a new family of dynein activators. Analysis of the protein interactomes for six activators, including ninein and ninein-like, suggests that each dynein activator has multiple cargos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28257.001 PMID:28718761

  3. GRID-seq reveals the global RNA-chromatin interactome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Zhou, Bing; Chen, Liang; Gou, Lan-Tao; Li, Hairi; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Higher eukaryotic genomes are bound by a large number of coding and non-coding RNAs, but approaches to comprehensively map the identity and binding sites of these RNAs are lacking. Here we report a method to in situ capture global RNA interactions with DNA by deep sequencing (GRID-seq), which enables the comprehensive identification of the entire repertoire of chromatin-interacting RNAs and their respective binding sites. In human, mouse and Drosophila cells, we detected a large set of tissue-specific coding and non-coding RNAs that are bound to active promoters and enhancers, especially super-enhancers. Assuming that most mRNA-chromatin interactions indicate the physical proximity of a promoter and an enhancer, we constructed a three-dimensional global connectivity map of promoters and enhancers, revealing transcription activity-linked genomic interactions in the nucleus. PMID:28922346

  4. Elucidation of the 14-3-3ζ interactome reveals critical roles of RNA-splicing factors during adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mugabo, Yves; Sadeghi, Mina; Fang, Nancy N; Mayor, Thibault; Lim, Gareth E

    2018-05-04

    Adipogenesis involves a complex signaling network requiring strict temporal and spatial organization of effector molecules. Molecular scaffolds, such as 14-3-3 proteins, facilitate such organization, and we have previously identified 14-3-3ζ as an essential scaffold in adipocyte differentiation. The interactome of 14-3-3ζ is large and diverse, and it is possible that novel adipogenic factors may be present within it, but this possibility has not yet been tested. Herein, we generated mouse embryonic fibroblasts from mice overexpressing a tandem affinity purification (TAP) epitope-tagged 14-3-3ζ molecule. After inducing adipogenesis, TAP-14-3-3ζ complexes were purified, followed by MS analysis to determine the 14-3-3ζ interactome. We observed more than 100 proteins that were unique to adipocyte differentiation, 56 of which were novel interacting partners. Among these, we were able to identify previously established regulators of adipogenesis ( i.e. Ptrf/Cavin1) within the 14-3-3ζ interactome, confirming the utility of this approach to detect adipogenic factors. We found that proteins related to RNA metabolism, processing, and splicing were enriched in the interactome. Analysis of transcriptomic data revealed that 14-3-3ζ depletion in 3T3-L1 cells affected alternative splicing of mRNA during adipocyte differentiation. siRNA-mediated depletion of RNA-splicing factors within the 14-3-3ζ interactome, that is, of Hnrpf, Hnrpk, Ddx6, and Sfpq, revealed that they have essential roles in adipogenesis and in the alternative splicing of Pparg and the adipogenesis-associated gene Lpin1 In summary, we have identified novel adipogenic factors within the 14-3-3ζ interactome. Further characterization of additional proteins within the 14-3-3ζ interactome may help identify novel targets to block obesity-associated expansion of adipose tissues. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Bcl2-associated Athanogene 3 Interactome Analysis Reveals a New Role in Modulating Proteasome Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Li-Na; Cheng, Li; Tu, Shun; Guo, Shu-Juan; Le, Huang-Ying; Xiong, Qian; Mo, Ran; Li, Chong-Yang; Jeong, Jun-Seop; Jiang, Lizhi; Blackshaw, Seth; Bi, Li-Jun; Zhu, Heng; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Ge, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of the BAG family of co-chaperones, plays a critical role in regulating apoptosis, development, cell motility, autophagy, and tumor metastasis and in mediating cell adaptive responses to stressful stimuli. BAG3 carries a BAG domain, a WW domain, and a proline-rich repeat (PXXP), all of which mediate binding to different partners. To elucidate BAG3's interaction network at the molecular level, we employed quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knockdown and human proteome microarrays to comprehensively profile the BAG3 interactome in humans. We identified a total of 382 BAG3-interacting proteins with diverse functions, including transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, transcription factors, proteases, and chaperones, suggesting that BAG3 is a critical regulator of diverse cellular functions. In addition, we characterized interactions between BAG3 and some of its newly identified partners in greater detail. In particular, bioinformatic analysis revealed that the BAG3 interactome is strongly enriched in proteins functioning within the proteasome-ubiquitination process and that compose the proteasome complex itself, suggesting that a critical biological function of BAG3 is associated with the proteasome. Functional studies demonstrated that BAG3 indeed interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity, sustaining cell survival and underlying resistance to therapy through the down-modulation of apoptosis. Taken as a whole, this study expands our knowledge of the BAG3 interactome, provides a valuable resource for understanding how BAG3 affects different cellular functions, and demonstrates that biologically relevant data can be harvested using this kind of integrated approach. PMID:23824909

  6. Small Molecule Interactome Mapping by Photoaffinity Labeling Reveals Binding Site Hotspots for the NSAIDs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinxu; Mfuh, Adelphe; Amako, Yuka; Woo, Christina M

    2018-03-28

    Many therapeutics elicit cell-type specific polypharmacology that is executed by a network of molecular recognition events between a small molecule and the whole proteome. However, measurement of the structures that underpin the molecular associations between the proteome and even common therapeutics, such as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), is limited by the inability to map the small molecule interactome. To address this gap, we developed a platform termed small molecule interactome mapping by photoaffinity labeling (SIM-PAL) and applied it to the in cellulo direct characterization of specific NSAID binding sites. SIM-PAL uses (1) photochemical conjugation of NSAID derivatives in the whole proteome and (2) enrichment and isotope-recoding of the conjugated peptides for (3) targeted mass spectrometry-based assignment. Using SIM-PAL, we identified the NSAID interactome consisting of over 1000 significantly enriched proteins and directly characterized nearly 200 conjugated peptides representing direct binding sites of the photo-NSAIDs with proteins from Jurkat and K562 cells. The enriched proteins were often identified as parts of complexes, including known targets of NSAID activity (e.g., NF-κB) and novel interactions (e.g., AP-2, proteasome). The conjugated peptides revealed direct NSAID binding sites from the cell surface to the nucleus and a specific binding site hotspot for the three photo-NSAIDs on histones H2A and H2B. NSAID binding stabilized COX-2 and histone H2A by cellular thermal shift assay. Since small molecule stabilization of protein complexes is a gain of function regulatory mechanism, it is conceivable that NSAIDs affect biological processes through these broader proteomic interactions. SIM-PAL enabled characterization of NSAID binding site hotspots and is amenable to map global binding sites for virtually any molecule of interest.

  7. Native KCC2 interactome reveals PACSIN1 as a critical regulator of synaptic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Khademullah, C Sahara; Dargaei, Zahra; Chevrier, Jonah; Uvarov, Pavel; Kwan, Julian; Bagshaw, Richard D; Pawson, Tony; Emili, Andrew; De Koninck, Yves; Anggono, Victor; Airaksinen, Matti; Woodin, Melanie A

    2017-10-13

    KCC2 is a neuron-specific K + -Cl - cotransporter essential for establishing the Cl - gradient required for hyperpolarizing inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS). KCC2 is highly localized to excitatory synapses where it regulates spine morphogenesis and AMPA receptor confinement. Aberrant KCC2 function contributes to human neurological disorders including epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Using functional proteomics, we identified the KCC2-interactome in the mouse brain to determine KCC2-protein interactions that regulate KCC2 function. Our analysis revealed that KCC2 interacts with diverse proteins, and its most predominant interactors play important roles in postsynaptic receptor recycling. The most abundant KCC2 interactor is a neuronal endocytic regulatory protein termed PACSIN1 (SYNDAPIN1). We verified the PACSIN1-KCC2 interaction biochemically and demonstrated that shRNA knockdown of PACSIN1 in hippocampal neurons increases KCC2 expression and hyperpolarizes the reversal potential for Cl - . Overall, our global native-KCC2 interactome and subsequent characterization revealed PACSIN1 as a novel and potent negative regulator of KCC2.

  8. Native KCC2 interactome reveals PACSIN1 as a critical regulator of synaptic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Chevrier, Jonah; Uvarov, Pavel; Kwan, Julian; Bagshaw, Richard D; Pawson, Tony; Emili, Andrew; De Koninck, Yves; Anggono, Victor; Airaksinen, Matti

    2017-01-01

    KCC2 is a neuron-specific K+-Cl– cotransporter essential for establishing the Cl- gradient required for hyperpolarizing inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS). KCC2 is highly localized to excitatory synapses where it regulates spine morphogenesis and AMPA receptor confinement. Aberrant KCC2 function contributes to human neurological disorders including epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Using functional proteomics, we identified the KCC2-interactome in the mouse brain to determine KCC2-protein interactions that regulate KCC2 function. Our analysis revealed that KCC2 interacts with diverse proteins, and its most predominant interactors play important roles in postsynaptic receptor recycling. The most abundant KCC2 interactor is a neuronal endocytic regulatory protein termed PACSIN1 (SYNDAPIN1). We verified the PACSIN1-KCC2 interaction biochemically and demonstrated that shRNA knockdown of PACSIN1 in hippocampal neurons increases KCC2 expression and hyperpolarizes the reversal potential for Cl-. Overall, our global native-KCC2 interactome and subsequent characterization revealed PACSIN1 as a novel and potent negative regulator of KCC2. PMID:29028184

  9. A Proteome-wide Fission Yeast Interactome Reveals Network Evolution Principles from Yeasts to Human.

    PubMed

    Vo, Tommy V; Das, Jishnu; Meyer, Michael J; Cordero, Nicolas A; Akturk, Nurten; Wei, Xiaomu; Fair, Benjamin J; Degatano, Andrew G; Fragoza, Robert; Liu, Lisa G; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Trickey, Michelle; Horibata, Sachi; Grimson, Andrew; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Roth, Frederick P; Pleiss, Jeffrey A; Xia, Yu; Yu, Haiyuan

    2016-01-14

    Here, we present FissionNet, a proteome-wide binary protein interactome for S. pombe, comprising 2,278 high-quality interactions, of which ∼ 50% were previously not reported in any species. FissionNet unravels previously unreported interactions implicated in processes such as gene silencing and pre-mRNA splicing. We developed a rigorous network comparison framework that accounts for assay sensitivity and specificity, revealing extensive species-specific network rewiring between fission yeast, budding yeast, and human. Surprisingly, although genes are better conserved between the yeasts, S. pombe interactions are significantly better conserved in human than in S. cerevisiae. Our framework also reveals that different modes of gene duplication influence the extent to which paralogous proteins are functionally repurposed. Finally, cross-species interactome mapping demonstrates that coevolution of interacting proteins is remarkably prevalent, a result with important implications for studying human disease in model organisms. Overall, FissionNet is a valuable resource for understanding protein functions and their evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactome of E. piscicida and grouper liver proteins reveals strategies of bacterial infection and host immune response.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Peng, Xuan-Xian; Peng, Bo

    2017-01-03

    The occurrence of infectious diseases is related to heterogeneous protein interactions between a host and a microbe. Therefore, elucidating the host-pathogen interplay is essential. We previously revealed the protein interactome between Edwardsiella piscicida and fish gill cells, and the present study identified the protein interactome between E. piscicida and E. drummondhayi liver cells. E. drummondhayi liver cells and bacterial pull-down approaches were used to identify E. piscicida outer membrane proteins that bind to liver cells and fish liver cell proteins that interact with bacterial cells, respectively. Eight bacterial proteins and 11 fish proteins were characterized. Heterogeneous protein-protein interactions between these bacterial cells and fish liver cells were investigated through far-Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation. A network was constructed based on 42 heterogeneous protein-protein interactions between seven bacterial proteins and 10 fish proteins. A comparison of the new interactome with the previously reported interactome showed that four bacterial proteins overlapped, whereas all of the identified fish proteins were new, suggesting a difference between bacterial tricks for evading host immunity and the host strategy for combating bacterial infection. Furthermore, these bacterial proteins were found to regulate the expression of host innate immune-related proteins. These findings indicate that the interactome contributes to bacterial infection and host immunity.

  11. Arabidopsis G-protein interactome reveals connections to cell wall carbohydrates and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Phan, Nguyen; Augustin, Kelsey; Bayne, Robert S; Booker, Katherine S; Botella, Jose R; Carpita, Nicholas C; Carr, Tyrell; Chen, Jin-Gui; Cooke, Thomas Ryan; Frick-Cheng, Arwen; Friedman, Erin J; Fulk, Brandon; Hahn, Michael G; Jiang, Kun; Jorda, Lucia; Kruppe, Lydia; Liu, Chenggang; Lorek, Justine; McCann, Maureen C; Molina, Antonio; Moriyama, Etsuko N; Mukhtar, M Shahid; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Schwarz, John; Seta, Steven; Tan, Matthew; Temp, Ulrike; Trusov, Yuri; Urano, Daisuke; Welter, Bastian; Yang, Jing; Panstruga, Ralph; Uhrig, Joachim F; Jones, Alan M

    2011-09-27

    The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of effectors are known in metazoans and fungi, none of these are predicted to exist in their canonical forms in plants. To identify ab initio plant G-protein effectors and scaffold proteins, we screened a set of proteins from the G-protein complex using two-hybrid complementation in yeast. After deep and exhaustive interrogation, we detected 544 interactions between 434 proteins, of which 68 highly interconnected proteins form the core G-protein interactome. Within this core, over half of the interactions comprising two-thirds of the nodes were retested and validated as genuine in planta. Co-expression analysis in combination with phenotyping of loss-of-function mutations in a set of core interactome genes revealed a novel role for G-proteins in regulating cell wall modification.

  12. Arabidopsis G-protein interactome reveals connections to cell wall carbohydrates and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Phan, Nguyen; Augustin, Kelsey; Bayne, Robert S; Booker, Katherine S; Botella, Jose R; Carpita, Nicholas C; Carr, Tyrell; Chen, Jin-Gui; Cooke, Thomas Ryan; Frick-Cheng, Arwen; Friedman, Erin J; Fulk, Brandon; Hahn, Michael G; Jiang, Kun; Jorda, Lucia; Kruppe, Lydia; Liu, Chenggang; Lorek, Justine; McCann, Maureen C; Molina, Antonio; Moriyama, Etsuko N; Mukhtar, M Shahid; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Schwarz, John; Seta, Steven; Tan, Matthew; Temp, Ulrike; Trusov, Yuri; Urano, Daisuke; Welter, Bastian; Yang, Jing; Panstruga, Ralph; Uhrig, Joachim F; Jones, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of effectors are known in metazoans and fungi, none of these are predicted to exist in their canonical forms in plants. To identify ab initio plant G-protein effectors and scaffold proteins, we screened a set of proteins from the G-protein complex using two-hybrid complementation in yeast. After deep and exhaustive interrogation, we detected 544 interactions between 434 proteins, of which 68 highly interconnected proteins form the core G-protein interactome. Within this core, over half of the interactions comprising two-thirds of the nodes were retested and validated as genuine in planta. Co-expression analysis in combination with phenotyping of loss-of-function mutations in a set of core interactome genes revealed a novel role for G-proteins in regulating cell wall modification. PMID:21952135

  13. Arabidopsis G-protein interactome reveals connections to cell wall carbohydrates and morphogenesis

    SciT

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Phan, Nguyen; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of G{alpha}, G{beta}, and G{gamma} subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of effectors are known in metazoans and fungi, none of these are predicted to exist in their canonical forms in plants. To identify ab initio plant G-protein effectors and scaffold proteins, we screened a set of proteins from the G-protein complex using two-hybrid complementation in yeast. After deep and exhaustive interrogation, wemore » detected 544 interactions between 434 proteins, of which 68 highly interconnected proteins form the core G-protein interactome. Within this core, over half of the interactions comprising two-thirds of the nodes were retested and validated as genuine in planta. Co-expression analysis in combination with phenotyping of loss-of-function mutations in a set of core interactome genes revealed a novel role for G-proteins in regulating cell wall modification.« less

  14. The SSU processome interactome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals novel protein subcomplexes.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Nicholas G; Charette, J Michael; Baserga, Susan J

    2018-01-01

    Ribosome assembly is an evolutionarily conserved and energy intensive process required for cellular growth, proliferation, and maintenance. In yeast, assembly of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) requires approximately 75 assembly factors that act in coordination to form the SSU processome, a 6 MDa ribonucleoprotein complex. The SSU processome is required for processing, modifying, and folding the preribosomal RNA (rRNA) to prepare it for incorporation into the mature SSU. Although the protein composition of the SSU processome has been known for some time, the interaction network of the proteins required for its assembly has remained poorly defined. Here, we have used a semi-high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay and coimmunoprecipitation validation method to produce a high-confidence interactome of SSU processome assembly factors (SPAFs), providing essential insight into SSU assembly and ribosome biogenesis. Further, we used glycerol density-gradient sedimentation to reveal the presence of protein subcomplexes that have not previously been observed. Our work not only provides essential insight into SSU assembly and ribosome biogenesis, but also serves as an important resource for future investigations into how defects in biogenesis and assembly cause congenital disorders of ribosomes known as ribosomopathies. © 2018 Vincent et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. Sequential Elution Interactome Analysis of the Mind Bomb 1 Ubiquitin Ligase Reveals a Novel Role in Dendritic Spine Outgrowth*

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Joseph; Tan, Haiyan; Pagala, Vishwajeeth; Bai, Bing; Chen, Ping-Chung; Li, Yuxin; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Shaw, Timothy; Wang, Xusheng; Peng, Junmin

    2015-01-01

    The mind bomb 1 (Mib1) ubiquitin ligase is essential for controlling metazoan development by Notch signaling and possibly the Wnt pathway. It is also expressed in postmitotic neurons and regulates neuronal morphogenesis and synaptic activity by mechanisms that are largely unknown. We sought to comprehensively characterize the Mib1 interactome and study its potential function in neuron development utilizing a novel sequential elution strategy for affinity purification, in which Mib1 binding proteins were eluted under different stringency and then quantified by the isobaric labeling method. The strategy identified the Mib1 interactome with both deep coverage and the ability to distinguish high-affinity partners from low-affinity partners. A total of 817 proteins were identified during the Mib1 affinity purification, including 56 high-affinity partners and 335 low-affinity partners, whereas the remaining 426 proteins are likely copurified contaminants or extremely weak binding proteins. The analysis detected all previously known Mib1-interacting proteins and revealed a large number of novel components involved in Notch and Wnt pathways, endocytosis and vesicle transport, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, cellular morphogenesis, and synaptic activities. Immunofluorescence studies further showed colocalization of Mib1 with five selected proteins: the Usp9x (FAM) deubiquitinating enzyme, alpha-, beta-, and delta-catenins, and CDKL5. Mutations of CDKL5 are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-2 (EIEE2), a severe form of mental retardation. We found that the expression of Mib1 down-regulated the protein level of CDKL5 by ubiquitination, and antagonized CDKL5 function during the formation of dendritic spines. Thus, the sequential elution strategy enables biochemical characterization of protein interactomes; and Mib1 analysis provides a comprehensive interactome for investigating its role in signaling networks and neuronal development. PMID:25931508

  16. Mass Spectrometry-Based Screening Platform Reveals Orco Interactome in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kate E; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Yong-In; Jones, Walton D; Lee, J Eugene

    2018-02-28

    Animals use their odorant receptors to receive chemical information from the environment. Insect odorant receptors differ from the G protein-coupled odorant receptors in vertebrates and nematodes, and very little is known about their protein-protein interactions. Here, we introduce a mass spectrometric platform designed for the large-scale analysis of insect odorant receptor protein-protein interactions. Using this platform, we obtained the first Orco interactome from Drosophila melanogaster . From a total of 1,186 identified proteins, we narrowed the interaction candidates to 226, of which only two-thirds have been named. These candidates include the known olfactory proteins Or92a and Obp51a. Around 90% of the proteins having published names likely function inside the cell, and nearly half of these intracellular proteins are associated with the endomembrane system. In a basic loss-of-function electrophysiological screen, we found that the disruption of eight (i.e., Rab5, CG32795, Mpcp, Tom70, Vir-1, CG30427, Eaat1, and CG2781) of 28 randomly selected candidates affects olfactory responses in vivo . Thus, because this Orco interactome includes physiologically meaningful candidates, we anticipate that our platform will help guide further research on the molecular mechanisms of the insect odorant receptor family.

  17. The MYO6 interactome reveals adaptor complexes coordinating early endosome and cytoskeletal dynamics.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Thomas; Masters, Thomas A; Buss, Folma

    2018-04-01

    The intracellular functions of myosin motors requires a number of adaptor molecules, which control cargo attachment, but also fine-tune motor activity in time and space. These motor-adaptor-cargo interactions are often weak, transient or highly regulated. To overcome these problems, we use a proximity labelling-based proteomics strategy to map the interactome of the unique minus end-directed actin motor MYO6. Detailed biochemical and functional analysis identified several distinct MYO6-adaptor modules including two complexes containing RhoGEFs: the LIFT (LARG-Induced F-actin for Tethering) complex that controls endosome positioning and motility through RHO-driven actin polymerisation; and the DISP (DOCK7-Induced Septin disPlacement) complex, a novel regulator of the septin cytoskeleton. These complexes emphasise the role of MYO6 in coordinating endosome dynamics and cytoskeletal architecture. This study provides the first in vivo interactome of a myosin motor protein and highlights the power of this approach in uncovering dynamic and functionally diverse myosin motor complexes. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. The cardiac TBX5 interactome reveals a chromatin remodeling network essential for cardiac septation

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Lauren; Steimle, Jeffrey D.; Greco, Todd M.; Gomez, Nicholas C.; Dorr, Kerry M.; Kweon, Junghun; Temple, Brenda; Yang, Xinan Holly; Wilczewski, Caralynn M.; Davis, Ian J.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Moskowitz, Ivan P.; Conlon, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human mutations in the cardiac transcription factor gene TBX5 cause Congenital Heart Disease (CHD), however the underlying mechanism is unknown. We report characterization of the endogenous TBX5 cardiac interactome and demonstrate that TBX5, long considered a transcriptional activator, interacts biochemically and genetically with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) repressor complex. Incompatible gene programs are repressed by TBX5 in the developing heart. CHD missense mutations that disrupt the TBX5-NuRD interaction cause depression of a subset of repressed genes. Furthermore, the TBX5-NuRD interaction is required for heart development. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the TBX5-NuRD interaction domain evolved during early diversification of vertebrates, simultaneous with the evolution of cardiac septation. Collectively, this work defines a TBX5-NuRD interaction essential to cardiac development and the evolution of the mammalian heart, and when altered may contribute to human CHD. PMID:26859351

  19. Ovarian Cancer Differential Interactome and Network Entropy Analysis Reveal New Candidate Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ayyildiz, Dilara; Gov, Esra; Sinha, Raghu; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2017-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common cancers and has a high mortality rate due to insidious symptoms and lack of robust diagnostics. A hitherto understudied concept in cancer pathogenesis may offer new avenues for innovation in ovarian cancer biomarker development. Cancer cells are characterized by an increase in network entropy, and several studies have exploited this concept to identify disease-associated gene and protein modules. We report in this study the changes in protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in ovarian cancer within a differential network (interactome) analysis framework utilizing the entropy concept and gene expression data. A compendium of six transcriptome datasets that included 140 samples from laser microdissected epithelial cells of ovarian cancer patients and 51 samples from healthy population was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus, and the high confidence human protein interactome (31,465 interactions among 10,681 proteins) was used. The uncertainties of the up- or downregulation of PPIs in ovarian cancer were estimated through an entropy formulation utilizing combined expression levels of genes, and the interacting protein pairs with minimum uncertainty were identified. We identified 105 proteins with differential PPI patterns scattered in 11 modules, each indicating significantly affected biological pathways in ovarian cancer such as DNA repair, cell proliferation-related mechanisms, nucleoplasmic translocation of estrogen receptor, extracellular matrix degradation, and inflammation response. In conclusion, we suggest several PPIs as biomarker candidates for ovarian cancer and discuss their future biological implications as potential molecular targets for pharmaceutical development as well. In addition, network entropy analysis is a concept that deserves greater research attention for diagnostic innovation in oncology and tumor pathogenesis.

  20. Proteome-scale human interactomics

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Katja; Sheynkman, Gloria M.; Zhang, Ivy; Vidal, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Cellular functions are mediated by complex interactome networks of physical, biochemical, and functional interactions between DNA sequences, RNA molecules, proteins, lipids, and small metabolites. A thorough understanding of cellular organization requires accurate and relatively complete models of interactome networks at proteome-scale. The recent publication of four human protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps represents a technological breakthrough and an unprecedented resource for the scientific community, heralding a new era of proteome-scale human interactomics. Our knowledge gained from these and complementary studies provides fresh insights into the opportunities and challenges when analyzing systematically generated interactome data, defines a clear roadmap towards the generation of a first reference interactome, and reveals new perspectives on the organization of cellular life. PMID:28284537

  1. Proteome-Scale Human Interactomics.

    PubMed

    Luck, Katja; Sheynkman, Gloria M; Zhang, Ivy; Vidal, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Cellular functions are mediated by complex interactome networks of physical, biochemical, and functional interactions between DNA sequences, RNA molecules, proteins, lipids, and small metabolites. A thorough understanding of cellular organization requires accurate and relatively complete models of interactome networks at proteome scale. The recent publication of four human protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps represents a technological breakthrough and an unprecedented resource for the scientific community, heralding a new era of proteome-scale human interactomics. Our knowledge gained from these and complementary studies provides fresh insights into the opportunities and challenges when analyzing systematically generated interactome data, defines a clear roadmap towards the generation of a first reference interactome, and reveals new perspectives on the organization of cellular life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The protein interactome of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2/DPYSL2) reveals novel partner proteins in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Cassoli, Juliana S; Nascimento, Juliana M; Hensley, Kenneth; Guest, Paul C; Pinzon-Velasco, Andres M; Turck, Christoph W

    2015-10-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) is a CNS protein involved in neuronal development, axonal and neuronal growth, cell migration, and protein trafficking. Recent studies have linked perturbations in CRMP2 function to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain, and Batten disease, and to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Like most proteins, CRMP2 functions though interactions with a molecular network of proteins and other molecules. Here, we have attempted to identify additional proteins of the CRMP2 interactome to provide further leads about its roles in neurological functions. We used a combined co-immunoprecipitation and shotgun proteomic approach in order to identify CRMP2 protein partners. We identified 78 CRMP2 protein partners not previously reported in public protein interaction databases. These were involved in seven biological processes, which included cell signaling, growth, metabolism, trafficking, and immune function, according to Gene Ontology classifications. Furthermore, 32 different molecular functions were found to be associated with these proteins, such as RNA binding, ribosomal functions, transporter activity, receptor activity, serine/threonine phosphatase activity, cell adhesion, cytoskeletal protein binding and catalytic activity. In silico pathway interactome construction revealed a highly connected network with the most overrepresented functions corresponding to semaphorin interactions, along with axon guidance and WNT5A signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that the CRMP2 pathway is critical for regulating neuronal and synaptic architecture. Further studies along these lines might uncover novel biomarkers and drug targets for use in drug discovery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Identification of the interactome between fish plasma proteins and Edwardsiella tarda reveals tissue-specific strategies against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Zaohai; Peng, Xuan-Xian; Peng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the complex pathogen-host interaction is essential for a comprehensive understanding of how these remarkable agents invade their hosts and how the hosts defend against these invaders. During the infection, pathogens interact intensively with host to enable their survival, which can be revealed through their interactome. Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing huge economic loss in aquaculture and a spectrum of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases in humans. E. tarda is an ideal model for host-pathogen investigation as it infects fish in three distinct steps: entering the host, circulating through the blood and establishing infection. We adopted a previous established proteomic approach that inactivated E. tarda cells and covalent crosslink fish plasma proteins were used to capture plasma proteins and bacterial outer membrane proteins, respectively. By the combinatorial use of proteomic and biochemical approaches, six plasma proteins and seven outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were identified. Interactions among these proteins were validated with protein-array, far-Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation. At last, seventeen plasma protein-bacteria protein-protein interaction were confirmed to be involved in the interaction network, forming a complex interactome. Compared to our previous results, different host proteins were detected, whereas some of the bacterial proteins were similar, which indicates that hosts adopt tissue-specific strategies to cope with the same pathogen during infection. Thus, our results provide a robust demonstration of both bacterial initiators and host receptors or interacting proteins to further explore infection and anti-infective mechanisms between hosts and microbes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational genomic analysis of PARK7 interactome reveals high BBS1 gene expression as a prognostic factor favoring survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Vavougios, Georgios D; Solenov, Evgeniy I; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Baturina, Galina S; Katkova, Liubov E; Molyvdas, Paschalis Adam; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the differential gene expression of Parkinson protein 7 (PARK7) interactome in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) using data mining techniques to identify novel candidate genes that may play a role in the pathogenicity of MPM. We constructed the PARK7 interactome using the ConsensusPathDB database. We then interrogated the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database using the Gordon Mesothelioma Study, for differential gene expression of the PARK7 interactome. In ConsensusPathDB, 38 protein interactors of PARK7 were identified. In the Gordon Mesothelioma Study, 34 of them were assessed out of which SUMO1, UBC3, KIAA0101, HDAC2, DAXX, RBBP4, BBS1, NONO, RBBP7, HTRA2, and STUB1 were significantly overexpressed whereas TRAF6 and MTA2 were significantly underexpressed in MPM patients (network 2). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that MPM patients with high BBS1 expression had a median overall survival of 16.5 vs. 8.7 mo of those that had low expression. For validation purposes, we performed a meta-analysis in Oncomine database in five sarcoma datasets. Eight network 2 genes (KIAA0101, HDAC2, SUMO1, RBBP4, NONO, RBBP7, HTRA2, and MTA2) were significantly differentially expressed in an array of 18 different sarcoma types. Finally, Gene Ontology annotation enrichment analysis revealed significant roles of the PARK7 interactome in NuRD, CHD, and SWI/SNF protein complexes. In conclusion, we identified 13 novel genes differentially expressed in MPM, never reported before. Among them, BBS1 emerged as a novel predictor of overall survival in MPM. Finally, we identified that PARK7 interactome is involved in novel pathways pertinent in MPM disease. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Interactome Analysis of Microtubule-targeting Agents Reveals Cytotoxicity Bases in Normal Cells.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Escobar, Andrés Julián; Méndez-Callejas, Gina

    2017-12-01

    Cancer causes millions of deaths annually and microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are the most commonly-used anti-cancer drugs. However, the high toxicity of MTAs on normal cells raises great concern. Due to the non-selectivity of MTA targets, we analyzed the interaction network in a non-cancerous human cell. Subnetworks of fourteen MTAs were reconstructed and the merged network was compared against a randomized network to evaluate the functional richness. We found that 71.4% of the MTA interactome nodes are shared, which affects cellular processes such as apoptosis, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, stress response, and regulation of energy metabolism. Additionally, possible secondary targets were identified as client proteins of interphase microtubules. MTAs affect apoptosis signaling pathways by interacting with client proteins of interphase microtubules, suggesting that their primary targets are non-tumor cells. The paclitaxel and doxorubicin networks share essential topological axes, suggesting synergistic effects. This may explain the exacerbated toxicity observed when paclitaxel and doxorubicin are used in combination for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. What model organisms and interactomics can reveal about the genetics of human obesity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael J; Almén, Markus S; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2012-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genes associated with human body weight. While some of these genes are large fields within obesity research, such as MC4R, POMC, FTO and BDNF, the majority do not have a clearly defined functional role explaining why they may affect body weight. Here, we searched biological databases and discovered 33 additional genes associated with human obesity (CADM2, GIPR, GPCR5B, LRP1B, NEGR1, NRXN3, SH2B1, FANCL, GNPDA2, HMGCR, MAP2K5, NUDT3, PRKD1, QPCTL, TNNI3K, MTCH2, DNAJC27, SLC39A8, MTIF3, RPL27A, SEC16B, ETV5, HMGA1, TFAP2B, TUB, ZNF608, FAIM2, KCTD15, LINGO2, POC5, PTBP2, TMEM18, TMEM160). We find that the majority have orthologues in distant species, such as D. melanogaster and C. elegans, suggesting that they are important for the biology of most bilateral species. Intriguingly, signalling cascade genes and transcription factors are enriched among these obesity genes, and several of the genes show properties that could be useful for potential drug discovery. In this review, we demonstrate how information from several distant model species, interactomics and signalling pathway analysis represents an important way to better understand the functional diversity of the surprisingly high number of molecules that seem to be important for human obesity.

  7. The Interactomic Analysis Reveals Pathogenic Protein Networks in Phomopsis longicolla Underlying Seed Decay of Soybean.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxian; Musungu, Bryan; Lightfoot, David; Ji, Pingsheng

    2018-01-01

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla ) is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. This disease results in poor seed quality and is one of the most economically important seed diseases in soybean. The objectives of this study were to infer protein-protein interactions (PPI) and to identify conserved global networks and pathogenicity subnetworks in P. longicolla including orthologous pathways for cell signaling and pathogenesis. The interlog method used in the study identified 215,255 unique PPIs among 3,868 proteins. There were 1,414 pathogenicity related genes in P. longicolla identified using the pathogen host interaction (PHI) database. Additionally, 149 plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE) were detected. The network captured five different classes of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, including the auxiliary activities, carbohydrate esterases, glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, and carbohydrate binding molecules. From the PPI analysis, novel interacting partners were determined for each of the PCWDE classes. The most predominant class of PCWDE was a group of 60 glycoside hydrolases proteins. The glycoside hydrolase subnetwork was found to be interacting with 1,442 proteins within the network and was among the largest clusters. The orthologous proteins FUS3, HOG, CYP1, SGE1, and the g5566t.1 gene identified in this study could play an important role in pathogenicity. Therefore, the P. longicolla protein interactome (PiPhom) generated in this study can lead to a better understanding of PPIs in soybean pathogens. Furthermore, the PPI may aid in targeting of genes and proteins for further studies of the pathogenicity mechanisms.

  8. The Interactomic Analysis Reveals Pathogenic Protein Networks in Phomopsis longicolla Underlying Seed Decay of Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxian; Musungu, Bryan; Lightfoot, David; Ji, Pingsheng

    2018-01-01

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. This disease results in poor seed quality and is one of the most economically important seed diseases in soybean. The objectives of this study were to infer protein–protein interactions (PPI) and to identify conserved global networks and pathogenicity subnetworks in P. longicolla including orthologous pathways for cell signaling and pathogenesis. The interlog method used in the study identified 215,255 unique PPIs among 3,868 proteins. There were 1,414 pathogenicity related genes in P. longicolla identified using the pathogen host interaction (PHI) database. Additionally, 149 plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE) were detected. The network captured five different classes of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, including the auxiliary activities, carbohydrate esterases, glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, and carbohydrate binding molecules. From the PPI analysis, novel interacting partners were determined for each of the PCWDE classes. The most predominant class of PCWDE was a group of 60 glycoside hydrolases proteins. The glycoside hydrolase subnetwork was found to be interacting with 1,442 proteins within the network and was among the largest clusters. The orthologous proteins FUS3, HOG, CYP1, SGE1, and the g5566t.1 gene identified in this study could play an important role in pathogenicity. Therefore, the P. longicolla protein interactome (PiPhom) generated in this study can lead to a better understanding of PPIs in soybean pathogens. Furthermore, the PPI may aid in targeting of genes and proteins for further studies of the pathogenicity mechanisms. PMID:29666630

  9. Rapid, Optimized Interactomic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Domanski, Michal; Hough, Loren; Oroskar, Asha A.; Oroskar, Anil R.; Keegan, Sarah; Dilworth, David J.; Molloy, Kelly R.; Sherman, Vadim; Aitchison, John D.; Fenyö, David; Chait, Brian T.; Jensen, Torben Heick; Rout, Michael P.; LaCava, John

    2015-01-01

    We must reliably map the interactomes of cellular macromolecular complexes in order to fully explore and understand biological systems. However, there are no methods to accurately predict how to capture a given macromolecular complex with its physiological binding partners. Here, we present a screen that comprehensively explores the parameters affecting the stability of interactions in affinity-captured complexes, enabling the discovery of physiological binding partners and the elucidation of their functional interactions in unparalleled detail. We have implemented this screen on several macromolecular complexes from a variety of organisms, revealing novel profiles even for well-studied proteins. Our approach is robust, economical and automatable, providing an inroad to the rigorous, systematic dissection of cellular interactomes. PMID:25938370

  10. Structure of Zebrafish IRBP Reveals Fatty Acid Binding

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debashis; Haswell, Karen M.; Sprada, Molly; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) has a remarkable role in targeting and protecting all-trans and 11-cis retinol, and 11-cis retinal during the rod and cone visual cycles. Little is known about how the correct retinoid is efficiently delivered and removed from the correct cell at the required time. It has been proposed that different fatty composition at that the outer-segments and retinal-pigmented epithelium could have an important role is regulating the delivery and uptake of the visual cycle retinoids at the cell-interphotoreceptor-matrix interface. Although this suggests intriguing mechanisms for the role of local fatty acids in visual-cycle retinoid trafficking, nothing is known about the structural basis of IRBP-fatty acid interactions. Such regulation may be mediated through IRBP’s unusual repeating homologous modules, each containing about 300 amino acids. We have been investigating structure-function relationships of Zebrafish IRBP (zIRBP), which has only two tandem modules (z1 and z2), as a model for the more complex four-module mammalian IRBP’s. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of a teleost IRBP, and the only structure with a bound ligand. The X-ray structure of z1, determined at 1.90Å resolution, reveals a two-domain organization of the module (domains A and B). A deep hydrophobic pocket was identified within the N-terminal domain A. In fluorescence titrations assays, oleic acid displaced all-trans retinol from zIRBP. Our study, which provides the first structure of an IRBP with bound ligand, supports a potential role for fatty acids in regulating retinoid binding. PMID:26344741

  11. Integration of Proteomic, Transcriptional, and Interactome Data Reveals Hidden Signaling Components

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shao-shan Carol; Fraenkel, Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Cellular signaling and regulatory networks underlie fundamental biological processes such as growth, differentiation, and response to the environment. Although there are now various high-throughput methods for studying these processes, knowledge of them remains fragmentary. Typically, the vast majority of hits identified by transcriptional, proteomic, and genetic assays lie outside of the expected pathways. These unexpected components of the cellular response are often the most interesting, because they can provide new insights into biological processes and potentially reveal new therapeutic approaches. However, they are also the most difficult to interpret. We present a technique, based on the Steiner tree problem, that uses previously reported protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions to determine how these hits are organized into functionally coherent pathways, revealing many components of the cellular response that are not readily apparent in the original data. Applied simultaneously to phosphoproteomic and transcriptional data for the yeast pheromone response, it identifies changes in diverse cellular processes that extend far beyond the expected pathways. PMID:19638617

  12. Targeted interactomics reveals a complex core cell cycle machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Van Leene, Jelle; Hollunder, Jens; Eeckhout, Dominique; Persiau, Geert; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Stals, Hilde; Van Isterdael, Gert; Verkest, Aurine; Neirynck, Sandy; Buffel, Yelle; De Bodt, Stefanie; Maere, Steven; Laukens, Kris; Pharazyn, Anne; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Eloy, Nubia; Renne, Charlotte; Meyer, Christian; Faure, Jean-Denis; Steinbrenner, Jens; Beynon, Jim; Larkin, John C; Van de Peer, Yves; Hilson, Pierre; Kuiper, Martin; De Veylder, Lieven; Van Onckelen, Harry; Inzé, Dirk; Witters, Erwin; De Jaeger, Geert

    2010-01-01

    Cell proliferation is the main driving force for plant growth. Although genome sequence analysis revealed a high number of cell cycle genes in plants, little is known about the molecular complexes steering cell division. In a targeted proteomics approach, we mapped the core complex machinery at the heart of the Arabidopsis thaliana cell cycle control. Besides a central regulatory network of core complexes, we distinguished a peripheral network that links the core machinery to up- and downstream pathways. Over 100 new candidate cell cycle proteins were predicted and an in-depth biological interpretation demonstrated the hypothesis-generating power of the interaction data. The data set provided a comprehensive view on heterodimeric cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)–cyclin complexes in plants. For the first time, inhibitory proteins of plant-specific B-type CDKs were discovered and the anaphase-promoting complex was characterized and extended. Important conclusions were that mitotic A- and B-type cyclins form complexes with the plant-specific B-type CDKs and not with CDKA;1, and that D-type cyclins and S-phase-specific A-type cyclins seem to be associated exclusively with CDKA;1. Furthermore, we could show that plants have evolved a combinatorial toolkit consisting of at least 92 different CDK–cyclin complex variants, which strongly underscores the functional diversification among the large family of cyclins and reflects the pivotal role of cell cycle regulation in the developmental plasticity of plants. PMID:20706207

  13. Targeted interactomics reveals a complex core cell cycle machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Van Leene, Jelle; Hollunder, Jens; Eeckhout, Dominique; Persiau, Geert; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Stals, Hilde; Van Isterdael, Gert; Verkest, Aurine; Neirynck, Sandy; Buffel, Yelle; De Bodt, Stefanie; Maere, Steven; Laukens, Kris; Pharazyn, Anne; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Eloy, Nubia; Renne, Charlotte; Meyer, Christian; Faure, Jean-Denis; Steinbrenner, Jens; Beynon, Jim; Larkin, John C; Van de Peer, Yves; Hilson, Pierre; Kuiper, Martin; De Veylder, Lieven; Van Onckelen, Harry; Inzé, Dirk; Witters, Erwin; De Jaeger, Geert

    2010-08-10

    Cell proliferation is the main driving force for plant growth. Although genome sequence analysis revealed a high number of cell cycle genes in plants, little is known about the molecular complexes steering cell division. In a targeted proteomics approach, we mapped the core complex machinery at the heart of the Arabidopsis thaliana cell cycle control. Besides a central regulatory network of core complexes, we distinguished a peripheral network that links the core machinery to up- and downstream pathways. Over 100 new candidate cell cycle proteins were predicted and an in-depth biological interpretation demonstrated the hypothesis-generating power of the interaction data. The data set provided a comprehensive view on heterodimeric cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-cyclin complexes in plants. For the first time, inhibitory proteins of plant-specific B-type CDKs were discovered and the anaphase-promoting complex was characterized and extended. Important conclusions were that mitotic A- and B-type cyclins form complexes with the plant-specific B-type CDKs and not with CDKA;1, and that D-type cyclins and S-phase-specific A-type cyclins seem to be associated exclusively with CDKA;1. Furthermore, we could show that plants have evolved a combinatorial toolkit consisting of at least 92 different CDK-cyclin complex variants, which strongly underscores the functional diversification among the large family of cyclins and reflects the pivotal role of cell cycle regulation in the developmental plasticity of plants.

  14. Characterization of the Cardiac Overexpression of HSPB2 Reveals Mitochondrial and Myogenic Roles Supported by a Cardiac HspB2 Interactome.

    PubMed

    Grose, Julianne H; Langston, Kelsey; Wang, Xiaohui; Squires, Shayne; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Hayes, Whitney; Neubert, Jonathan; Fischer, Susan K; Fasano, Matthew; Saunders, Gina Moore; Dai, Qiang; Christians, Elisabeth; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Ping, Peipei; Benjamin, Ivor J

    2015-01-01

    Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that transiently interact with other proteins, thereby assisting with quality control of proper protein folding and/or degradation. They are also recruited to protect cells from a variety of stresses in response to extreme heat, heavy metals, and oxidative-reductive stress. Although ten human sHSPs have been identified, their likely diverse biological functions remain an enigma in health and disease, and much less is known about non-redundant roles in selective cells and tissues. Herein, we set out to comprehensively characterize the cardiac-restricted Heat Shock Protein B-2 (HspB2), which exhibited ischemic cardioprotection in transgenic overexpressing mice including reduced infarct size and maintenance of ATP levels. Global yeast two-hybrid analysis using HspB2 (bait) and a human cardiac library (prey) coupled with co-immunoprecipitation studies for mitochondrial target validation revealed the first HspB2 "cardiac interactome" to contain many myofibril and mitochondrial-binding partners consistent with the overexpression phenotype. This interactome has been submitted to the Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID). A related sHSP chaperone HspB5 had only partially overlapping binding partners, supporting specificity of the interactome as well as non-redundant roles reported for these sHSPs. Evidence that the cardiac yeast two-hybrid HspB2 interactome targets resident mitochondrial client proteins is consistent with the role of HspB2 in maintaining ATP levels and suggests new chaperone-dependent functions for metabolic homeostasis. One of the HspB2 targets, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), has reported roles in HspB2 associated phenotypes including cardiac ATP production, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis, and was validated as a potential client protein of HspB2 through chaperone assays. From the clientele and phenotypes identified herein, it is tempting to

  15. Interactome Analyses of Mature γ-Secretase Complexes Reveal Distinct Molecular Environments of Presenilin (PS) Paralogs and Preferential Binding of Signal Peptide Peptidase to PS2*

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Amy Hye Won; Böhm, Christopher; Chen, Fusheng; Huo, Hairu; Ruan, Xueying; Ren, Carl He; Ho, Keith; Qamar, Seema; Mathews, Paul M.; Fraser, Paul E.; Mount, Howard T. J.; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2013-01-01

    γ-Secretase plays a pivotal role in the production of neurotoxic amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) in Alzheimer disease (AD) and consists of a heterotetrameric core complex that includes the aspartyl intramembrane protease presenilin (PS). The human genome codes for two presenilin paralogs. To understand the causes for distinct phenotypes of PS paralog-deficient mice and elucidate whether PS mutations associated with early-onset AD affect the molecular environment of mature γ-secretase complexes, quantitative interactome comparisons were undertaken. Brains of mice engineered to express wild-type or mutant PS1, or HEK293 cells stably expressing PS paralogs with N-terminal tandem-affinity purification tags served as biological source materials. The analyses revealed novel interactions of the γ-secretase core complex with a molecular machinery that targets and fuses synaptic vesicles to cellular membranes and with the H+-transporting lysosomal ATPase macrocomplex but uncovered no differences in the interactomes of wild-type and mutant PS1. The catenin/cadherin network was almost exclusively found associated with PS1. Another intramembrane protease, signal peptide peptidase, predominantly co-purified with PS2-containing γ-secretase complexes and was observed to influence Aβ production. PMID:23589300

  16. The Sharpin interactome reveals a role for Sharpin in lamellipodium formation via the Arp2/3 complex.

    PubMed

    Khan, Meraj H; Salomaa, Siiri I; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Butt, Umar; Miihkinen, Mitro; Deguchi, Takahiro; Kremneva, Elena; Lappalainen, Pekka; Humphries, Martin J; Pouwels, Jeroen

    2017-09-15

    Sharpin, a multifunctional adaptor protein, regulates several signalling pathways. For example, Sharpin enhances signal-induced NF-κB signalling as part of the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) and inhibits integrins, the T cell receptor, caspase 1 and PTEN. However, despite recent insights into Sharpin and LUBAC function, a systematic approach to identify the signalling pathways regulated by Sharpin has not been reported. Here, we present the first 'Sharpin interactome', which identifies a large number of novel potential Sharpin interactors in addition to several known ones. These data suggest that Sharpin and LUBAC might regulate a larger number of biological processes than previously identified, such as endosomal trafficking, RNA processing, metabolism and cytoskeleton regulation. Importantly, using the Sharpin interactome, we have identified a novel role for Sharpin in lamellipodium formation. We demonstrate that Sharpin interacts with Arp2/3, a protein complex that catalyses actin filament branching. We have identified the Arp2/3-binding site in Sharpin and demonstrate using a specific Arp2/3-binding deficient mutant that the Sharpin-Arp2/3 interaction promotes lamellipodium formation in a LUBAC-independent fashion.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Systematic Differences in Signal Emitting and Receiving Revealed by PageRank Analysis of a Human Protein Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Most protein PageRank studies do not use signal flow direction information in protein interactions because this information was not readily available in large protein databases until recently. Therefore, four questions have yet to be answered: A) What is the general difference between signal emitting and receiving in a protein interactome? B) Which proteins are among the top ranked in directional ranking? C) Are high ranked proteins more evolutionarily conserved than low ranked ones? D) Do proteins with similar ranking tend to have similar subcellular locations? In this study, we address these questions using the forward, reverse, and non-directional PageRank approaches to rank an information-directional network of human proteins and study their evolutionary conservation. The forward ranking gives credit to information receivers, reverse ranking to information emitters, and non-directional ranking mainly to the number of interactions. The protein lists generated by the forward and non-directional rankings are highly correlated, but those by the reverse and non-directional rankings are not. The results suggest that the signal emitting/receiving system is characterized by key-emittings and relatively even receivings in the human protein interactome. Signaling pathway proteins are frequent in top ranked ones. Eight proteins are both informational top emitters and top receivers. Top ranked proteins, except a few species-related novel-function ones, are evolutionarily well conserved. Protein-subunit ranking position reflects subunit function. These results demonstrate the usefulness of different PageRank approaches in characterizing protein networks and provide insights to protein interaction in the cell. PMID:23028653

  18. A comprehensive protein-protein interactome for yeast PAS kinase 1 reveals direct inhibition of respiration through the phosphorylation of Cbf1.

    PubMed

    DeMille, Desiree; Bikman, Benjamin T; Mathis, Andrew D; Prince, John T; Mackay, Jordan T; Sowa, Steven W; Hall, Tacie D; Grose, Julianne H

    2014-07-15

    Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase is a sensory protein kinase required for glucose homeostasis in yeast, mice, and humans, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its function. Using both yeast two-hybrid and copurification approaches, we identified the protein-protein interactome for yeast PAS kinase 1 (Psk1), revealing 93 novel putative protein binding partners. Several of the Psk1 binding partners expand the role of PAS kinase in glucose homeostasis, including new pathways involved in mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, the interactome suggests novel roles for PAS kinase in cell growth (gene/protein expression, replication/cell division, and protein modification and degradation), vacuole function, and stress tolerance. In vitro kinase studies using a subset of 25 of these binding partners identified Mot3, Zds1, Utr1, and Cbf1 as substrates. Further evidence is provided for the in vivo phosphorylation of Cbf1 at T211/T212 and for the subsequent inhibition of respiration. This respiratory role of PAS kinase is consistent with the reported hypermetabolism of PAS kinase-deficient mice, identifying a possible molecular mechanism and solidifying the evolutionary importance of PAS kinase in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. © 2014 DeMille et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Transgenic Zebrafish Reveal Tissue-Specific Differences in Estrogen Signaling in Response to Environmental Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves. Citation: Gorelick DA, Iwanowicz LR, Hung AL, Blazer VS, Halpern ME. 2014. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to

  20. Comparative analysis of human tissue interactomes reveals factors leading to tissue-specific manifestation of hereditary diseases.

    PubMed

    Barshir, Ruth; Shwartz, Omer; Smoly, Ilan Y; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2014-06-01

    An open question in human genetics is what underlies the tissue-specific manifestation of hereditary diseases, which are caused by genomic aberrations that are present in cells across the human body. Here we analyzed this phenomenon for over 300 hereditary diseases by using comparative network analysis. We created an extensive resource of protein expression and interactions in 16 main human tissues, by integrating recent data of gene and protein expression across tissues with data of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The resulting tissue interaction networks (interactomes) shared a large fraction of their proteins and PPIs, and only a small fraction of them were tissue-specific. Applying this resource to hereditary diseases, we first show that most of the disease-causing genes are widely expressed across tissues, yet, enigmatically, cause disease phenotypes in few tissues only. Upon testing for factors that could lead to tissue-specific vulnerability, we find that disease-causing genes tend to have elevated transcript levels and increased number of tissue-specific PPIs in their disease tissues compared to unaffected tissues. We demonstrate through several examples that these tissue-specific PPIs can highlight disease mechanisms, and thus, owing to their small number, provide a powerful filter for interrogating disease etiologies. As two thirds of the hereditary diseases are associated with these factors, comparative tissue analysis offers a meaningful and efficient framework for enhancing the understanding of the molecular basis of hereditary diseases.

  1. Linking Proteomic and Transcriptional Data through the Interactome and Epigenome Reveals a Map of Oncogene-induced Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shao-shan Carol; Clarke, David C.; Gosline, Sara J. C.; Labadorf, Adam; Chouinard, Candace R.; Gordon, William; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Fraenkel, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    Cellular signal transduction generally involves cascades of post-translational protein modifications that rapidly catalyze changes in protein-DNA interactions and gene expression. High-throughput measurements are improving our ability to study each of these stages individually, but do not capture the connections between them. Here we present an approach for building a network of physical links among these data that can be used to prioritize targets for pharmacological intervention. Our method recovers the critical missing links between proteomic and transcriptional data by relating changes in chromatin accessibility to changes in expression and then uses these links to connect proteomic and transcriptome data. We applied our approach to integrate epigenomic, phosphoproteomic and transcriptome changes induced by the variant III mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) in a cell line model of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). To test the relevance of the network, we used small molecules to target highly connected nodes implicated by the network model that were not detected by the experimental data in isolation and we found that a large fraction of these agents alter cell viability. Among these are two compounds, ICG-001, targeting CREB binding protein (CREBBP), and PKF118–310, targeting β-catenin (CTNNB1), which have not been tested previously for effectiveness against GBM. At the level of transcriptional regulation, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to experimentally determine the genome-wide binding locations of p300, a transcriptional co-regulator highly connected in the network. Analysis of p300 target genes suggested its role in tumorigenesis. We propose that this general method, in which experimental measurements are used as constraints for building regulatory networks from the interactome while taking into account noise and missing data, should be applicable to a wide range of high-throughput datasets. PMID:23408876

  2. A new mode of pancreatic islet innervation revealed by live imaging in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu Hsuan Carol; Kawakami, Koichi; Stainier, Didier Yr

    2018-06-19

    Pancreatic islets are innervated by autonomic and sensory nerves that influence their function. Analyzing the innervation process should provide insight into the nerve-endocrine interactions and their roles in development and disease. Here, using in vivo time-lapse imaging and genetic analyses in zebrafish, we determined the events leading to islet innervation. Comparable neural density in the absence of vasculature indicates that it is dispensable for early pancreatic innervation. Neural crest cells are in close contact with endocrine cells early in development. We find these cells give rise to neurons that extend axons towards the islet as they surprisingly migrate away. Specific ablation of these neurons partly prevents other neurons from migrating away from the islet resulting in diminished innervation. Thus, our studies establish the zebrafish as a model to interrogate mechanisms of organ innervation, and reveal a novel mode of innervation whereby neurons establish connections with their targets before migrating away. © 2018, Yang et al.

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of normal and collagen IX null mouse cartilage reveals altered extracellular matrix composition and novel components of the collagen IX interactome.

    PubMed

    Brachvogel, Bent; Zaucke, Frank; Dave, Keyur; Norris, Emma L; Stermann, Jacek; Dayakli, Münire; Koch, Manuel; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Bateman, John F; Wilson, Richard

    2013-05-10

    Collagen IX is an integral cartilage extracellular matrix component important in skeletal development and joint function. Proteomic analysis and validation studies revealed novel alterations in collagen IX null cartilage. Matrilin-4, collagen XII, thrombospondin-4, fibronectin, βig-h3, and epiphycan are components of the in vivo collagen IX interactome. We applied a proteomics approach to advance our understanding of collagen IX ablation in cartilage. The cartilage extracellular matrix is essential for endochondral bone development and joint function. In addition to the major aggrecan/collagen II framework, the interacting complex of collagen IX, matrilin-3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is essential for cartilage matrix stability, as mutations in Col9a1, Col9a2, Col9a3, Comp, and Matn3 genes cause multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, in which patients develop early onset osteoarthritis. In mice, collagen IX ablation results in severely disturbed growth plate organization, hypocellular regions, and abnormal chondrocyte shape. This abnormal differentiation is likely to involve altered cell-matrix interactions but the mechanism is not known. To investigate the molecular basis of the collagen IX null phenotype we analyzed global differences in protein abundance between wild-type and knock-out femoral head cartilage by capillary HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 297 proteins in 3-day cartilage and 397 proteins in 21-day cartilage. Components that were differentially abundant between wild-type and collagen IX-deficient cartilage included 15 extracellular matrix proteins. Collagen IX ablation was associated with dramatically reduced COMP and matrilin-3, consistent with known interactions. Matrilin-1, matrilin-4, epiphycan, and thrombospondin-4 levels were reduced in collagen IX null cartilage, providing the first in vivo evidence for these proteins belonging to the collagen IX interactome. Thrombospondin-4 expression was reduced at the mRNA level

  4. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Daniel A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hung, Alice L; Blazer, Vicki S; Halpern, Marnie E

    2014-04-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  5. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples

    Gorelick, Daniel A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EED) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones, such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ER) in the larval heart compared to the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit similar tissue-specific effects as BPA and genistein or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of estrogen receptor genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: Selective patterns of ER activation were observed in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue-specificity in ER activation is due to differences in the expression of estrogen receptor subtypes. ERα is expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 has the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activate the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish has revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero is associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  6. Juxtaposition of chemical and mutation-induced developmental defects in zebrafish reveal a copper-chelating activity for kalihinol F.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Imelda T; Manos, Elizabeth J; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Delacruz, Richard Glenn C; Edes, Kornelia; Winge, Dennis R; Ireland, Chris M; Jones, David A

    2013-06-20

    A major hurdle in using complex systems for drug screening is the difficulty of defining the mechanistic targets of small molecules. The zebrafish provides an excellent model system for juxtaposing developmental phenotypes with mechanism discovery using organism genetics. We carried out a phenotype-based screen of uncharacterized small molecules in zebrafish that produced a variety of chemically induced phenotypes with potential genetic parallels. Specifically, kalihinol F caused an undulated notochord, defects in pigment formation, hematopoiesis, and neural development. These phenotypes were strikingly similar to the zebrafish mutant, calamity, an established model of copper deficiency. Further studies into the mechanism of action of kalihinol F revealed a copper-chelating activity. Our data support this mechanism of action for kalihinol F and the utility of zebrafish as an effective system for identifying therapeutic and target pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative interactome reveals that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 forms a complex with viral nucleocapsid protein and cellular vimentin.

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Zeng, Songlin; An, Kang; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2016-06-16

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has heavily impacted the global swine industry. The PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) plays crucial roles in viral replication and host immune regulation, most likely by interacting with viral or cellular proteins that have not yet been identified. In this study, a quantitative interactome approach based on immunoprecipitation and stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was performed to identify nsp2-interacting proteins in PRRSV-infected cells with an nsp2-specific monoclonal antibody. Nine viral proteins and 62 cellular proteins were identified as potential nsp2-interacting partners. Our data demonstrate that the PRRSV nsp1α, nsp1β, and nucleocapsid proteins all interact directly with nsp2. Nsp2-interacting cellular proteins were classified into different functional groups and an interactome network of nsp2 was generated. Interestingly, cellular vimentin, a known receptor for PRRSV, forms a complex with nsp2 by using viral nucleocapsid protein as an intermediate. Taken together, the nsp2 interactome under the condition of virus infection clarifies a role of nsp2 in PRRSV replication and immune evasion. Viral proteins must interact with other virus-encoded proteins and/or host cellular proteins to function, and interactome analysis is an ideal approach for identifying such interacting proteins. In this study, we used the quantitative interactome methodology to identify the viral and cellular proteins that potentially interact with the nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) under virus infection conditions, thus providing a rich source of potential viral and cellular interaction partners for PRRSV nsp2. Based on the interactome data, we further demonstrated that PRRSV nsp2 and nucleocapsid protein together with cellular vimentin, form a complex that may be essential for viral attachment and

  8. Comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analyses of zebrafish plasma reveals conserved protein profiles between genders and between zebrafish and human.

    PubMed

    Li, Caixia; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-04-13

    Omic approaches have been increasingly used in the zebrafish model for holistic understanding of molecular events and mechanisms of tissue functions. However, plasma is rarely used for omic profiling because of the technical challenges in collecting sufficient blood. In this study, we employed two mass spectrometric (MS) approaches for a comprehensive characterization of zebrafish plasma proteome, i.e. conventional shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for an overview study and quantitative SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra) for comparison between genders. 959 proteins were identified in the shotgun profiling with estimated concentrations spanning almost five orders of magnitudes. Other than the presence of a few highly abundant female egg yolk precursor proteins (vitellogenins), the proteomic profiles of male and female plasmas were very similar in both number and abundance and there were basically no other highly gender-biased proteins. The types of plasma proteins based on IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) classification and tissue sources of production were also very similar. Furthermore, the zebrafish plasma proteome shares significant similarities with human plasma proteome, in particular in top abundant proteins including apolipoproteins and complements. Thus, the current study provided a valuable dataset for future evaluation of plasma proteins in zebrafish.

  9. Comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analyses of zebrafish plasma reveals conserved protein profiles between genders and between zebrafish and human

    PubMed Central

    Li, Caixia; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Omic approaches have been increasingly used in the zebrafish model for holistic understanding of molecular events and mechanisms of tissue functions. However, plasma is rarely used for omic profiling because of the technical challenges in collecting sufficient blood. In this study, we employed two mass spectrometric (MS) approaches for a comprehensive characterization of zebrafish plasma proteome, i.e. conventional shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for an overview study and quantitative SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra) for comparison between genders. 959 proteins were identified in the shotgun profiling with estimated concentrations spanning almost five orders of magnitudes. Other than the presence of a few highly abundant female egg yolk precursor proteins (vitellogenins), the proteomic profiles of male and female plasmas were very similar in both number and abundance and there were basically no other highly gender-biased proteins. The types of plasma proteins based on IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) classification and tissue sources of production were also very similar. Furthermore, the zebrafish plasma proteome shares significant similarities with human plasma proteome, in particular in top abundant proteins including apolipoproteins and complements. Thus, the current study provided a valuable dataset for future evaluation of plasma proteins in zebrafish. PMID:27071722

  10. Identification of the PAK4 interactome reveals PAK4 phosphorylation of N-WASP and promotion of Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Miao; Spiess, Matthias; Johansson, Henrik J; Olofsson, Helene; Hu, Jianjiang; Lehtiö, Janne; Strömblad, Staffan

    2017-09-29

    p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell motility and F-actin remodeling, but the PAK4 interactome has not been systematically analyzed. Here, we comprehensively characterized the human PAK4 interactome by iTRAQ quantitative mass spectrometry of PAK4-immunoprecipitations. Consistent with its multiple reported functions, the PAK4 interactome was enriched in diverse protein networks, including the 14-3-3, proteasome, replication fork, CCT and Arp2/3 complexes. Because PAK4 co-immunoprecipitated most subunits of the Arp2/3 complex, we hypothesized that PAK4 may play a role in Arp2/3 dependent actin regulation. Indeed, we found that PAK4 interacts with and phosphorylates the nucleation promoting factor N-WASP at Ser484/Ser485 and promotes Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization in vitro. Also, PAK4 ablation in vivo reduced N-WASP Ser484/Ser485 phosphorylation and altered the cellular balance between G- and F-actin as well as the actin organization. By presenting the PAK4 interactome, we here provide a powerful resource for further investigations and as proof of principle, we also indicate a novel mechanism by which PAK4 regulates actin cytoskeleton remodeling.

  11. Multiple Sex-Associated Regions and a Putative Sex Chromosome in Zebrafish Revealed by RAD Mapping and Population Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jennifer L.; Rodríguez Marí, Adriana; Braasch, Ingo; Amores, Angel; Hohenlohe, Paul; Batzel, Peter; Postlethwait, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Within vertebrates, major sex determining genes can differ among taxa and even within species. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified. Furthermore, environmental factors can influence zebrafish sex determination. Although progress has been made in understanding zebrafish gonad differentiation (e.g. the influence of germ cells on gonad fate), the primary genetic basis of zebrafish sex determination remains poorly understood. To identify genetic loci associated with sex, we analyzed F2 offspring of reciprocal crosses between Oregon *AB and Nadia (NA) wild-type zebrafish stocks. Genome-wide linkage analysis, using more than 5,000 sequence-based polymorphic restriction site associated (RAD-tag) markers and population genomic analysis of more than 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in our *ABxNA crosses revealed a sex-associated locus on the end of the long arm of chr-4 for both cross families, and an additional locus in the middle of chr-3 in one cross family. Additional sequencing showed that two SNPs in dmrt1 previously suggested to be functional candidates for sex determination in a cross of ABxIndia wild-type zebrafish, are not associated with sex in our AB fish. Our data show that sex determination in zebrafish is polygenic and that different genes may influence sex determination in different strains or that different genes become more important under different environmental conditions. The association of the end of chr-4 with sex is remarkable because, unique in the karyotype, this chromosome arm shares features with known sex chromosomes: it is highly heterochromatic, repetitive, late replicating, and has reduced recombination. Our results reveal that chr-4 has functional and structural properties expected of a sex chromosome. PMID:22792396

  12. Transient knockdown and overexpression reveal a developmental role for the zebrafish enosf1b gene.

    PubMed

    Finckbeiner, Steve; Ko, Pin-Joe; Carrington, Blake; Sood, Raman; Gross, Kenneth; Dolnick, Bruce; Sufrin, Janice; Liu, Paul

    2011-09-26

    Despite detailed in vivo knowledge of glycolytic enolases and many bacterial non-enolase members of the superfamily, little is known about the in vivo function of vertebrate non-enolase enolase superfamily members (ENOSF1s). Results of previous studies suggest involvement of the β splice form of ENOSF1 in breast and colon cancers. This study used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model of ENOSF1β function. Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) showed that zebrafish ENOSF1β (enosf1b) is zygotic and expressed ubiquitously through the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf). After 24 hpf, enosf1b expression is restricted to the notochord. Embryos injected with enosf1b-EGFP mRNA grew slower than EGFP mRNA-injected embryos but caught up to the EGFP-injected embryos by 48 hpf. Embryos injected with ATG or exon 10 enosf1b mRNA-targeting morpholinos had kinked notochords, shortened anterior-posterior axes, and circulatory edema. WISH for ntl or pax2a expression showed that embryos injected with either morpholino have deformed notochord and pronephros. TUNEL staining revealed increased apoptosis in the peri-notochord region. This study is the first report of ENOSF1 function in a vertebrate and shows that ENOSF1 is required for embryonic development. Increased apoptosis following enosf1b knockdown suggests a potential survival advantage for increased ENOSF1β expression in human cancers.

  13. Transient knockdown and overexpression reveal a developmental role for the zebrafish enosf1b gene

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite detailed in vivo knowledge of glycolytic enolases and many bacterial non-enolase members of the superfamily, little is known about the in vivo function of vertebrate non-enolase enolase superfamily members (ENOSF1s). Results of previous studies suggest involvement of the β splice form of ENOSF1 in breast and colon cancers. This study used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model of ENOSF1β function. Results Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) showed that zebrafish ENOSF1β (enosf1b) is zygotic and expressed ubiquitously through the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf). After 24 hpf, enosf1b expression is restricted to the notochord. Embryos injected with enosf1b-EGFP mRNA grew slower than EGFP mRNA-injected embryos but caught up to the EGFP-injected embryos by 48 hpf. Embryos injected with ATG or exon 10 enosf1b mRNA-targeting morpholinos had kinked notochords, shortened anterior-posterior axes, and circulatory edema. WISH for ntl or pax2a expression showed that embryos injected with either morpholino have deformed notochord and pronephros. TUNEL staining revealed increased apoptosis in the peri-notochord region. Conclusions This study is the first report of ENOSF1 function in a vertebrate and shows that ENOSF1 is required for embryonic development. Increased apoptosis following enosf1b knockdown suggests a potential survival advantage for increased ENOSF1β expression in human cancers. PMID:21943404

  14. Combined zebrafish-yeast chemical-genetic screens reveal gene-copper-nutrition interactions that modulate melanocyte pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Hironori; Spitzer, Michaela; Wildenhain, Jan; Anastasaki, Corina; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Dolma, Sonam; Shaw, Michael; Madsen, Erik; Gitlin, Jonathan; Marais, Richard; Tyers, Mike; Patton, E Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Hypopigmentation is a feature of copper deficiency in humans, as caused by mutation of the copper (Cu(2+)) transporter ATP7A in Menkes disease, or an inability to absorb copper after gastric surgery. However, many causes of copper deficiency are unknown, and genetic polymorphisms might underlie sensitivity to suboptimal environmental copper conditions. Here, we combined phenotypic screens in zebrafish for compounds that affect copper metabolism with yeast chemical-genetic profiles to identify pathways that are sensitive to copper depletion. Yeast chemical-genetic interactions revealed that defects in intracellular trafficking pathways cause sensitivity to low-copper conditions; partial knockdown of the analogous Ap3s1 and Ap1s1 trafficking components in zebrafish sensitized developing melanocytes to hypopigmentation in low-copper environmental conditions. Because trafficking pathways are essential for copper loading into cuproproteins, our results suggest that hypomorphic alleles of trafficking components might underlie sensitivity to reduced-copper nutrient conditions. In addition, we used zebrafish-yeast screening to identify a novel target pathway in copper metabolism for the small-molecule MEK kinase inhibitor U0126. The zebrafish-yeast screening method combines the power of zebrafish as a disease model with facile genome-scale identification of chemical-genetic interactions in yeast to enable the discovery and dissection of complex multigenic interactions in disease-gene networks.

  15. Muscular contractions in the zebrafish embryo are necessary to reveal thiuram-induced notochord distortions

    SciT

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Urakawa, Satsuki; Nanba, Satomi

    2006-04-01

    Dithiocarbamates form a large group of chemicals that have numerous uses in agriculture and medicine. It has been reported that dithiocarbamates, including thiuram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide), cause wavy distortions of the notochord in zebrafish and other fish embryos. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the toxicity of thiuram in zebrafish embryos. When embryos were exposed to thiuram (2-1000 nM: 0.48-240 {mu}g/L) from 3 h post fertilization (hpf) (30% epiboly) until 24 hpf (Prim-5), all embryos develop wavy notochords, disorganized somites, and have shortened yolk sac extensions. The thiuram response was specific and did not cause growth retardation ormore » mortality at 24 hpf. The thiuram-dependent responses showed the same concentration dependence with a waterborne EC{sub 5} values of approximately 7 nM. Morphometric measurements revealed that thiuram does not affect the rate of notochord lengthening. However, the rate of overall body lengthening was significantly reduced in thiuram-exposed animals. Other dithiocarbamates, such as ziram, caused similar malformations to thiuram. While expression of genes involved in somitogenesis was not affected, the levels of notochord-specific transcripts were altered after the onset of malformations. Distortion of the notochord started precisely at 18 hpf, which is concomitant with onset of spontaneous rhythmic trunk contractions. Abolishment of spontaneous contractions using tricaine, {alpha}-bungarotoxin, and a paralytic mutant sofa potato, resulted in normal notochord morphology in the presence of thiuram. These results indicate that muscle activity is necessary to reveal the underlying functional deficit and suggest that the developmental target of dithiocarbamates impairs trunk plasticity through an unknown mechanism.« less

  16. Interactome disassembly during apoptosis occurs independent of caspase cleavage.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nichollas E; Rogers, Lindsay D; Prudova, Anna; Brown, Nat F; Fortelny, Nikolaus; Overall, Christopher M; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-01-12

    Protein-protein interaction networks (interactomes) define the functionality of all biological systems. In apoptosis, proteolysis by caspases is thought to initiate disassembly of protein complexes and cell death. Here we used a quantitative proteomics approach, protein correlation profiling (PCP), to explore changes in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial interactomes in response to apoptosis initiation as a function of caspase activity. We measured the response to initiation of Fas-mediated apoptosis in 17,991 interactions among 2,779 proteins, comprising the largest dynamic interactome to date. The majority of interactions were unaffected early in apoptosis, but multiple complexes containing known caspase targets were disassembled. Nonetheless, proteome-wide analysis of proteolytic processing by terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS) revealed little correlation between proteolytic and interactome changes. Our findings show that, in apoptosis, significant interactome alterations occur before and independently of caspase activity. Thus, apoptosis initiation includes a tight program of interactome rearrangement, leading to disassembly of relatively few, select complexes. These early interactome alterations occur independently of cleavage of these protein by caspases. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. Interactome Networks and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Marc; Cusick, Michael E.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    Complex biological systems and cellular networks may underlie most genotype to phenotype relationships. Here we review basic concepts in network biology, discussing different types of interactome networks and the insights that can come from analyzing them. We elaborate on why interactome networks are important to consider in biology, how they can be mapped and integrated with each other, what global properties are starting to emerge from interactome network models, and how these properties may relate to human disease. PMID:21414488

  18. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  19. A survey of the interactome of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF45 revealed its binding to viral ORF33 and cellular USP7, resulting in stabilization of ORF33 that is required for production of progeny viruses.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Joseph; Li, Wenwei; Liang, Qiming; Avey, Denis; Wu, Jianjun; Wu, Fayi; Myoung, JinJong; Zhu, Fanxiu

    2015-05-01

    The ORF45 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus-specific immediate-early tegument protein. Our previous studies have revealed its crucial roles in both early and late stages of KSHV infection. In this study, we surveyed the interactome of ORF45 using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. In addition to the previously identified extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) proteins, we found several other copurified proteins, including prominent ones of ∼38 kDa and ∼130 kDa. Mass spectrometry revealed that the 38-kDa protein is viral ORF33 and the 130-kDa protein is cellular USP7 (ubiquitin-specific protease 7). We mapped the ORF33-binding domain to the highly conserved carboxyl-terminal 19 amino acids (aa) of ORF45 and the USP7-binding domain to the reported consensus motif in the central region of ORF45. Using immunofluorescence staining, we observed colocalization of ORF45 with ORF33 or USP7 both under transfected conditions and in KSHV-infected cells. Moreover, we noticed ORF45-dependent relocalization of a portion of ORF33/USP7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. We found that ORF45 caused an increase in ORF33 protein accumulation that was abolished if either the ORF33- or USP7-binding domain in ORF45 was deleted. Furthermore, deletion of the conserved carboxyl terminus of ORF45 in the KSHV genome drastically reduced the level of ORF33 protein in KSHV-infected cells and abolished production of progeny virions. Collectively, our results not only reveal new components of the ORF45 interactome, but also demonstrate that the interactions among these proteins are crucial for KSHV lytic replication. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of several human cancers. KSHV ORF45 is a multifunctional protein that is required for KSHV lytic replication, but the exact mechanisms by which ORF45 performs its critical functions are unclear. Our previous studies revealed that all

  20. Comprehensive Expression Map of Transcription Regulators in the Adult Zebrafish Telencephalon Reveals Distinct Neurogenic Niches

    PubMed Central

    Diotel, Nicolas; Rodriguez Viales, Rebecca; Armant, Olivier; März, Martin; Ferg, Marco; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish has become a model to study adult vertebrate neurogenesis. In particular, the adult telencephalon has been an intensely studied structure in the zebrafish brain. Differential expression of transcriptional regulators (TRs) is a key feature of development and tissue homeostasis. Here we report an expression map of 1,202 TR genes in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish. Our results are summarized in a database with search and clustering functions to identify genes expressed in particular regions of the telencephalon. We classified 562 genes into 13 distinct patterns, including genes expressed in the proliferative zone. The remaining 640 genes displayed unique and complex patterns of expression and could thus not be grouped into distinct classes. The neurogenic ventricular regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes, suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic niches in the telencephalon. In summary, the small telencephalon of the zebrafish shows a remarkable complexity in TR gene expression. The adult zebrafish telencephalon has become a model to study neurogenesis. We established the expression pattern of more than 1200 transcription regulators (TR) in the adult telencephalon. The neurogenic regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic potential. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1202–1221, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25556858

  1. Comprehensive expression map of transcription regulators in the adult zebrafish telencephalon reveals distinct neurogenic niches.

    PubMed

    Diotel, Nicolas; Rodriguez Viales, Rebecca; Armant, Olivier; März, Martin; Ferg, Marco; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-06-01

    The zebrafish has become a model to study adult vertebrate neurogenesis. In particular, the adult telencephalon has been an intensely studied structure in the zebrafish brain. Differential expression of transcriptional regulators (TRs) is a key feature of development and tissue homeostasis. Here we report an expression map of 1,202 TR genes in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish. Our results are summarized in a database with search and clustering functions to identify genes expressed in particular regions of the telencephalon. We classified 562 genes into 13 distinct patterns, including genes expressed in the proliferative zone. The remaining 640 genes displayed unique and complex patterns of expression and could thus not be grouped into distinct classes. The neurogenic ventricular regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes, suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic niches in the telencephalon. In summary, the small telencephalon of the zebrafish shows a remarkable complexity in TR gene expression. The adult zebrafish telencephalon has become a model to study neurogenesis. We established the expression pattern of more than 1200 transcription regulators (TR) in the adult telencephalon. The neurogenic regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic potential. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Zebrafish monosex population reveals female dominance in sex determination and earliest events of gonad differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Sok-Keng; Hsu, Hwei-Jan; Chung, Bon-chu

    2010-08-15

    The zebrafish is a popular model for genetic analysis and its sex differentiation has been the focus of attention for breeding purposes. Despite numerous efforts, very little is known about the mechanism of zebrafish sex determination. The lack of discernible sex chromosomes and the difficulty of distinguishing the sex of juvenile fish are two major obstacles that hamper the progress in such studies. To alleviate these problems, we have developed a scheme involving methyltestosterone treatment followed by natural mating to generate fish with predictable sex trait. Female F1 fish that gave rise to all-female offspring were generated. This predictable sex trait enables characterization of gonadal development in juvenile fish by histological examination and gene expression analysis. We found the first sign of zebrafish sex differentiation to be ovarian gonocyte proliferation and differentiation at 10 to 12 days post-fertilization (dpf). Somatic genes were expressed indifferently at 10 to 17 dpf, and then became sexually dimorphic at three weeks. This result indicates clear distinction of male and female gonads derived independently from primordial gonads. We classified the earliest stages of zebrafish sex determination into the initial preparation followed by female germ cell growth, oocyte differentiation, and somatic differentiation. Our genetic selection scheme matches the prediction that female-dominant genetic factors are required to determine zebrafish sex. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactome analysis reveals ZNF804A, a schizophrenia risk gene, as a novel component of protein translational machinery critical for embryonic neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y; Dong, F; Lanz, T A; Reinhart, V; Li, M; Liu, L; Zou, J; Xi, H S; Mao, Y

    2018-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies identified over 100 genetic loci that significantly associate with schizophrenia (SZ). A top candidate gene, ZNF804A, was robustly replicated in different populations. However, its neural functions are largely unknown. Here we show in mouse that ZFP804A, the homolog of ZNF804A, is required for normal progenitor proliferation and neuronal migration. Using a yeast two-hybrid genome-wide screen, we identified novel interacting proteins of ZNF804A. Rather than transcriptional factors, genes involved in mRNA translation are highly represented in our interactome result. ZNF804A co-fractionates with translational machinery and modulates the translational efficiency as well as the mTOR pathway. The ribosomal protein RPSA interacts with ZNF804A and rescues the migration and translational defects caused by ZNF804A knockdown. RNA immunoprecipitation–RNAseq (RIP-Seq) identified transcripts bound to ZFP804A. Consistently, ZFP804A associates with many short transcripts involved in translational and mitochondrial regulation. Moreover, among the transcripts associated with ZFP804A, a SZ risk gene, neurogranin (NRGN), is one of ZFP804A targets. Interestingly, downregulation of ZFP804A decreases NRGN expression and overexpression of NRGN can ameliorate ZFP804A-mediated migration defect. To verify the downstream targets of ZNF804A, a Duolink in situ interaction assay confirmed genes from our RIP-Seq data as the ZNF804A targets. Thus, our work uncovered a novel mechanistic link of a SZ risk gene to neurodevelopment and translational control. The interactome-driven approach here is an effective way for translating genome-wide association findings into novel biological insights of human diseases. PMID:28924186

  4. A zebrafish transgenic model of Ewing's sarcoma reveals conserved mediators of EWS-FLI1 tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Leacock, Stefanie W; Basse, Audrey N; Chandler, Garvin L; Kirk, Anne M; Rakheja, Dinesh; Amatruda, James F

    2012-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, a malignant bone tumor of children and young adults, is a member of the small-round-blue-cell tumor family. Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), which include peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), are characterized by chromosomal translocations that generate fusions between the EWS gene and ETS-family transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. The EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein represents an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of Ewing's sarcoma. The cell of origin of ESFT and the molecular mechanisms by which EWS-FLI1 mediates tumorigenesis remain unknown, and few animal models of Ewing's sarcoma exist. Here, we report the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model of EWS-FLI1 function and tumorigenesis. Mosaic expression of the human EWS-FLI1 fusion protein in zebrafish caused the development of tumors with histology strongly resembling that of human Ewing's sarcoma. The incidence of tumors increased in a p53 mutant background, suggesting that the p53 pathway suppresses EWS-FLI1-driven tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of the zebrafish tumors defined a set of genes that might be regulated by EWS-FLI1, including the zebrafish ortholog of a crucial EWS-FLI1 target gene in humans. Stable zebrafish transgenic lines expressing EWS-FLI1 under the control of the heat-shock promoter exhibit altered embryonic development and defective convergence and extension, suggesting that EWS-FLI1 interacts with conserved developmental pathways. These results indicate that functional targets of EWS-FLI1 that mediate tumorigenesis are conserved from zebrafish to human and provide a novel context in which to study the function of this fusion oncogene.

  5. CTCF knockout reveals an essential role for this protein during the zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Aldana, Francisco; Zampedri, Cecilia; Suaste-Olmos, Fernando; Murillo-de-Ozores, Adrián; Guerrero, Georgina; Arzate-Mejía, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Ernesto; Navarro, Rosa; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2018-05-01

    Chromatin regulation and organization are essential processes that regulate gene activity. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a protein with different and important molecular functions related with chromatin dynamics. It is conserved since invertebrates to vertebrates, posing it as a factor with an important role in the physiology. In this work, we aimed to understand the distribution and functional relevance of CTCF during the embryonic development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We generated a zebrafish specific anti-Ctcf antibody, and found this protein to be ubiquitous, through different stages and tissues. We used the CRISPR-Cas9 system to induce molecular alterations in the locus. This resulted in early lethality. We delayed the lethality performing knockdown morpholino experiments, and found an aberrant embryo morphology involving malformations in structures through all the length of the embryo. These phenotypes were rescued with human CTCF mRNA injections, showing the specificity of the morpholinos and a partial functional conservation between the fish and the human proteins. Lastly, we found that the pro-apoptotic genes p53 and bbc3/PUMA are deregulated in the ctcf morpholino-injected embryos. In conclusion, CTCF is a ubiquitous factor during the zebrafish development, which regulates the correct formation of different structures of the embryo, and its deregulation impacts on essential cell survival genes. Overall, this work provides a basis to look for the particular functions of CTCF in the different developing tissues and organs of the zebrafish. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. MaxiK channel interactome reveals its interaction with GABA transporter 3 and heat shock protein 60 in the mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Li, M; Hall, L; Chen, S; Sukur, S; Lu, R; Caputo, A; Meredith, A L; Stefani, E; Toro, L

    2016-03-11

    Large conductance voltage and calcium-activated potassium (MaxiK) channels are activated by membrane depolarization and elevated cytosolic Ca(2+). In the brain, they localize to neurons and astrocytes, where they play roles such as resetting the membrane potential during an action potential, neurotransmitter release, and neurovascular coupling. MaxiK channels are known to associate with several modulatory proteins and accessory subunits, and each of these interactions can have distinct physiological consequences. To uncover new players in MaxiK channel brain physiology, we applied a directed proteomic approach and obtained MaxiK channel pore-forming α subunit brain interactome using specific antibodies. Controls included immunoprecipitations with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) and with anti-MaxiK antibodies in wild type and MaxiK channel knockout mice (Kcnma1(-/-)), respectively. We have found known and unreported interactive partners that localize to the plasma membrane, extracellular space, cytosol and intracellular organelles including mitochondria, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Localization of MaxiK channel to mitochondria was further confirmed using purified brain mitochondria colabeled with MitoTracker. Independent proof of MaxiK channel interaction with previously unidentified partners is given for GABA transporter 3 (GAT3) and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60). In human embryonic kidney 293 cells containing SV40 T-antigen (HEK293T) cells, both GAT3 and HSP60 coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with MaxiK channel; colabeling was observed mainly at the cell periphery with GAT3 and intracellularly with HSP60 with protein proximity indices of ∼ 0.6 and ∼ 0.4, respectively. In rat primary hippocampal neurons, colocalization index was identical for GAT3 (∼ 0.6) and slightly higher for HSP60 (∼ 0.5) association with MaxiK channel. The results of this study provide a complete interactome of MaxiK channel the mouse brain, further establish

  7. Striatal Transcriptome and Interactome Analysis of Shank3-overexpressing Mice Reveals the Connectivity between Shank3 and mTORC1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeunkum; Kim, Sun Gyun; Lee, Bokyoung; Zhang, Yinhua; Kim, Yoonhee; Kim, Shinhyun; Kim, Eunjoon; Kang, Hyojin; Han, Kihoon

    2017-01-01

    Mania causes symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, elevated mood, reduced anxiety and decreased need for sleep, which suggests that the dysfunction of the striatum, a critical component of the brain motor and reward system, can be causally associated with mania. However, detailed molecular pathophysiology underlying the striatal dysfunction in mania remains largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify the molecular pathways showing alterations in the striatum of SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (Shank3)-overexpressing transgenic (TG) mice that display manic-like behaviors. The results of transcriptome analysis suggested that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling may be the primary molecular signature altered in the Shank3 TG striatum. Indeed, we found that striatal mTORC1 activity, as measured by mTOR S2448 phosphorylation, was significantly decreased in the Shank3 TG mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. To elucidate the potential underlying mechanism, we re-analyzed previously reported protein interactomes, and detected a high connectivity between Shank3 and several upstream regulators of mTORC1, such as tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1), TSC2 and Ras homolog enriched in striatum (Rhes), via 94 common interactors that we denominated “Shank3-mTORC1 interactome”. We noticed that, among the 94 common interactors, 11 proteins were related to actin filaments, the level of which was increased in the dorsal striatum of Shank3 TG mice. Furthermore, we could co-immunoprecipitate Shank3, Rhes and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous protein 1 (WAVE1) proteins from the striatal lysate of Shank3 TG mice. By comparing with the gene sets of psychiatric disorders, we also observed that the 94 proteins of Shank3-mTORC1 interactome were significantly associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Altogether, our results suggest a protein interaction-mediated connectivity between Shank3 and certain upstream regulators of mTORC1

  8. The nuclear F-actin interactome of Xenopus oocytes reveals an actin-bundling kinesin that is essential for meiotic cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Samwer, Matthias; Dehne, Heinz-Jürgen; Spira, Felix; Kollmar, Martin; Gerlich, Daniel W; Urlaub, Henning; Görlich, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Nuclei of Xenopus laevis oocytes grow 100 000-fold larger in volume than a typical somatic nucleus and require an unusual intranuclear F-actin scaffold for mechanical stability. We now developed a method for mapping F-actin interactomes and identified a comprehensive set of F-actin binders from the oocyte nuclei. Unexpectedly, the most prominent interactor was a novel kinesin termed NabKin (Nuclear and meiotic actin-bundling Kinesin). NabKin not only binds microtubules but also F-actin structures, such as the intranuclear actin bundles in prophase and the contractile actomyosin ring during cytokinesis. The interaction between NabKin and F-actin is negatively regulated by Importin-β and is responsive to spatial information provided by RanGTP. Disconnecting NabKin from F-actin during meiosis caused cytokinesis failure and egg polyploidy. We also found actin-bundling activity in Nabkin's somatic paralogue KIF14, which was previously shown to be essential for somatic cell division. Our data are consistent with the notion that NabKin/KIF14 directly link microtubules with F-actin and that such link is essential for cytokinesis. PMID:23727888

  9. Network biology discovers pathogen contact points in host protein-protein interactomes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hadia; Howton, T C; Sun, Yali; Weinberger, Natascha; Belkhadir, Youssef; Mukhtar, M Shahid

    2018-06-13

    In all organisms, major biological processes are controlled by complex protein-protein interactions networks (interactomes), yet their structural complexity presents major analytical challenges. Here, we integrate a compendium of over 4300 phenotypes with Arabidopsis interactome (AI-1 MAIN ). We show that nodes with high connectivity and betweenness are enriched and depleted in conditional and essential phenotypes, respectively. Such nodes are located in the innermost layers of AI-1 MAIN and are preferential targets of pathogen effectors. We extend these network-centric analyses to Cell Surface Interactome (CSI LRR ) and predict its 35 most influential nodes. To determine their biological relevance, we show that these proteins physically interact with pathogen effectors and modulate plant immunity. Overall, our findings contrast with centrality-lethality rule, discover fast information spreading nodes, and highlight the structural properties of pathogen targets in two different interactomes. Finally, this theoretical framework could possibly be applicable to other inter-species interactomes to reveal pathogen contact points.

  10. RASopathies: Presentation at the Genome, Interactome, and Phenome Levels.

    PubMed

    Pevec, Urska; Rozman, Neva; Gorsek, Blaz; Kunej, Tanja

    2016-05-01

    Clinical symptoms often reflect molecular correlations between mutated proteins. Alignment between interactome and phenome levels reveals new disease genes and connections between previously unrelated diseases. Despite a great potential for novel discoveries, this approach is still rarely used in genomics. In the present study, we analyzed the data of 6 syndromes belonging to the RASopathy class of disorders (RASopathies) and presented them as a model to study associations between genome, interactome, and phenome levels. Causative genes and clinical symptoms were collected from OMIM and NCBI GeneReviews databases for 6 syndromes: Noonan, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, neurofibromatosis type 1, cardiofaciocutaneous, and Legius and Costello syndrome. The STRING tool was used for the identification of protein interactions. Six RASopathy syndromes were found to be associated with 12 causative genes. We constructed an interactome of RASopathy proteins and their neighbors and developed a database of 328 clinical symptoms. The collected data was presented at genome, interactome, and phenome levels and as an integrated network of all 3 data types. The present study provides a baseline for future studies of associations between interactome and phenome in RASopathies and could serve as a novel approach to analyze phenotypically and genetically related diseases.

  11. Interactome Analysis of NS1 Protein Encoded by Influenza A H7N9 Virus Reveals an Inhibitory Role of NS1 in Host mRNA Maturation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Chen, Chi-Jene; Tam, Ee-Hong; Huang, Chung-Guei; Li, Li-Hsin; Li, Zong-Hua; Su, Pei-Chia; Liu, Hao-Ping; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2018-04-06

    Influenza A virus infections can result in severe respiratory diseases. The H7N9 subtype of avian influenza A virus has been transmitted to humans and caused severe disease and death. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus is a virulence determinant during viral infection. To elucidate the functions of the NS1 encoded by influenza A H7N9 virus (H7N9 NS1), interaction partners of H7N9 NS1 in human cells were identified with immunoprecipitation followed by SDS-PAGE coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS). We identified 36 cellular proteins as the interacting partners of the H7N9 NS1, and they are involved in RNA processing, mRNA splicing via spliceosome, and the mRNA surveillance pathway. Two of the interacting partners, cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 2 (CPSF2) and CPSF7, were confirmed to interact with H7N9 NS1 using coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting based on the previous finding that the two proteins are involved in pre-mRNA polyadenylation machinery. Furthermore, we illustrate that overexpression of H7N9 NS1, as well as infection by the influenza A H7N9 virus, interfered with pre-mRNA polyadenylation in host cells. This study comprehensively profiled the interactome of H7N9 NS1 in host cells, and the results demonstrate a novel endotype for H7N9 NS1 in inhibiting host mRNA maturation.

  12. A genetic screen for vascular mutants in zebrafish reveals dynamic roles for Vegf/Plcg1 signaling during artery development.

    PubMed

    Covassin, L D; Siekmann, A F; Kacergis, M C; Laver, E; Moore, J C; Villefranc, J A; Weinstein, B M; Lawson, N D

    2009-05-15

    In this work we describe a forward genetic approach to identify mutations that affect blood vessel development in the zebrafish. By applying a haploid screening strategy in a transgenic background that allows direct visualization of blood vessels, it was possible to identify several classes of mutant vascular phenotypes. Subsequent characterization of mutant lines revealed that defects in Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) signaling specifically affected artery development. Comparison of phenotypes associated with different mutations within a functional zebrafish Vegf receptor-2 ortholog (referred to as kdr-like, kdrl) revealed surprisingly varied effects on vascular development. In parallel, we identified an allelic series of mutations in phospholipase c gamma 1 (plcg1). Together with in vivo structure-function analysis, our results suggest a requirement for Plcg1 catalytic activity downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. We further find that embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic plcg1 display more severe defects in artery differentiation but are otherwise similar to zygotic mutants. Finally, we demonstrate through mosaic analysis that plcg1 functions autonomously in endothelial cells. Together our genetic analyses suggest that Vegf/Plcg1 signaling acts at multiple time points and in different signaling contexts to mediate distinct aspects of artery development.

  13. A genetic screen for vascular mutants in zebrafish reveals dynamic roles for Vegf/Plcg1 signaling during artery development

    PubMed Central

    Covassin, L. D.; Siekmann, A. F.; Kacergis, M. C.; Laver, E.; Moore, J. C.; Villefranc, J. A.; Weinstein, B. M.; Lawson, N. D.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we describe a forward genetic approach to identify mutations that affect blood vessel development in the zebrafish. By applying a haploid screening strategy in a transgenic background that allows direct visualization of blood vessels, it was possible to identify several classes of mutant vascular phenotypes. Subsequent characterization of mutant lines revealed that defects in Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) signaling specifically affected artery development. Comparison of phenotypes associated with different mutations within a functional zebrafish Vegf receptor-2 ortholog (referred to as kdr-like, kdrl) revealed surprisingly varied effects on vascular development. In parallel, we identified an allelic series of mutations in phospholipase c gamma 1 (plcg1). Together with in vivo structure-function analysis, our results suggest a requirement for Plcg1 catalytic activity downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. We further find that embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic plcg1 display more severe defects in artery differentiation but are otherwise similar to zygotic mutants. Finally, we demonstrate through mosaic analysis that plcg1 functions autonomously in endothelial cells. Together our genetic analyses suggest that Vegf/Plcg1 signaling acts at multiple time points and in different signaling contexts to mediate distinct aspects of artery development. PMID:19269286

  14. The power of projectomes: genetic mosaic labeling in the larval zebrafish brain reveals organizing principles of sensory circuits.

    PubMed

    Robles, Estuardo

    2017-09-01

    In no vertebrate species do we possess an accurate, comprehensive tally of neuron types in the brain. This is in no small part due to the vast diversity of neuronal types that comprise complex vertebrate nervous systems. A fundamental goal of neuroscience is to construct comprehensive catalogs of cell types defined by structure, connectivity, and physiological response properties. This type of information will be invaluable for generating models of how assemblies of neurons encode and distribute sensory information and correspondingly alter behavior. This review summarizes recent efforts in the larval zebrafish to construct sensory projectomes, comprehensive analyses of axonal morphologies in sensory axon tracts. Focusing on the olfactory and optic tract, these studies revealed principles of sensory information processing in the olfactory and visual systems that could not have been directly quantified by other methods. In essence, these studies reconstructed the optic and olfactory tract in a virtual manner, providing insights into patterns of neuronal growth that underlie the formation of sensory axon tracts. Quantitative analysis of neuronal diversity revealed organizing principles that determine information flow through sensory systems in the zebrafish that are likely to be conserved across vertebrate species. The generation of comprehensive cell type classifications based on structural, physiological, and molecular features will lead to testable hypotheses on the functional role of individual sensory neuron subtypes in controlling specific sensory-evoked behaviors.

  15. A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Thomas; Taşan, Murat; Charloteaux, Benoit; Pevzner, Samuel J.; Zhong, Quan; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Lemmens, Irma; Fontanillo, Celia; Mosca, Roberto; Kamburov, Atanas; Ghiassian, Susan D.; Yang, Xinping; Ghamsari, Lila; Balcha, Dawit; Begg, Bridget E.; Braun, Pascal; Brehme, Marc; Broly, Martin P.; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Convery-Zupan, Dan; Corominas, Roser; Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Dann, Elizabeth; Dreze, Matija; Dricot, Amélie; Fan, Changyu; Franzosa, Eric; Gebreab, Fana; Gutierrez, Bryan J.; Hardy, Madeleine F.; Jin, Mike; Kang, Shuli; Kiros, Ruth; Lin, Guan Ning; Luck, Katja; MacWilliams, Andrew; Menche, Jörg; Murray, Ryan R.; Palagi, Alexandre; Poulin, Matthew M.; Rambout, Xavier; Rasla, John; Reichert, Patrick; Romero, Viviana; Ruyssinck, Elien; Sahalie, Julie M.; Scholz, Annemarie; Shah, Akash A.; Sharma, Amitabh; Shen, Yun; Spirohn, Kerstin; Tam, Stanley; Tejeda, Alexander O.; Trigg, Shelly A.; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Vega, Kerwin; Walsh, Jennifer; Cusick, Michael E.; Xia, Yu; Barabási, Albert-László; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Aloy, Patrick; De Las Rivas, Javier; Tavernier, Jan; Calderwood, Michael A.; Hill, David E.; Hao, Tong; Roth, Frederick P.; Vidal, Marc

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Just as reference genome sequences revolutionized human genetics, reference maps of interactome networks will be critical to fully understand genotype-phenotype relationships. Here, we describe a systematic map of ~14,000 high-quality human binary protein-protein interactions. At equal quality, this map is ~30% larger than what is available from small-scale studies published in the literature in the last few decades. While currently available information is highly biased and only covers a relatively small portion of the proteome, our systematic map appears strikingly more homogeneous, revealing a “broader” human interactome network than currently appreciated. The map also uncovers significant inter-connectivity between known and candidate cancer gene products, providing unbiased evidence for an expanded functional cancer landscape, while demonstrating how high quality interactome models will help “connect the dots” of the genomic revolution. PMID:25416956

  16. Genetic visualization with an improved GCaMP calcium indicator reveals spatiotemporal activation of the spinal motor neurons in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Akira; Ohkura, Masamichi; Kotani, Tomoya; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Nakai, Junichi; Kawakami, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Animal behaviors are generated by well-coordinated activation of neural circuits. In zebrafish, embryos start to show spontaneous muscle contractions at 17 to 19 h postfertilization. To visualize how motor circuits in the spinal cord are activated during this behavior, we developed GCaMP-HS (GCaMP-hyper sensitive), an improved version of the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP, and created transgenic zebrafish carrying the GCaMP-HS gene downstream of the Gal4-recognition sequence, UAS (upstream activation sequence). Then we performed a gene-trap screen and identified the SAIGFF213A transgenic fish that expressed Gal4FF, a modified version of Gal4, in a subset of spinal neurons including the caudal primary (CaP) motor neurons. We conducted calcium imaging using the SAIGFF213A; UAS:GCaMP-HS double transgenic embryos during the spontaneous contractions. We demonstrated periodic and synchronized activation of a set of ipsilateral motor neurons located on the right and left trunk in accordance with actual muscle movements. The synchronized activation of contralateral motor neurons occurred alternately with a regular interval. Furthermore, a detailed analysis revealed rostral-to-caudal propagation of activation of the ipsilateral motor neuron, which is similar to but much slower than the rostrocaudal delay observed during swimming in later stages. Our study thus demonstrated coordinated activities of the motor neurons during the first behavior in a vertebrate. We propose the GCaMP technology combined with the Gal4FF-UAS system is a powerful tool to study functional neural circuits in zebrafish. PMID:21383146

  17. A zebrafish model of manganism reveals reversible and treatable symptoms that are independent of neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Das Sharma, Shreya; Sonawane, Mahendra; Thirumalai, Vatsala; Datta, Ankona

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (manganese ion; referred to as Mn) is essential for neuronal function, yet it is toxic at high concentrations. Environmental and occupational exposure to high concentrations of Mn causes manganism, a well-defined movement disorder in humans, with symptoms resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, manganism is distinct from PD and the neural basis of its pathology is poorly understood. To address this issue, we generated a zebrafish model of manganism by incubating larvae in rearing medium containing Mn. We find that Mn-treated zebrafish larvae exhibit specific postural and locomotor defects. Larvae begin to float on their sides, show a curved spine and swim in circles. We discovered that treatment with Mn causes postural defects by interfering with mechanotransduction at the neuromasts. Furthermore, we find that the circling locomotion could be caused by long-duration bursting in the motor neurons, which can lead to long-duration tail bends in the Mn-treated larvae. Mn-treated larvae also exhibited fewer startle movements. Additionally, we show that the intensity of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity is reversibly reduced after Mn-treatment. This led us to propose that reduced dopamine neuromodulation drives the changes in startle movements. To test this, when we supplied an external source of dopamine to Mn-treated larvae, the larvae exhibited a normal number of startle swims. Taken together, these results indicate that Mn interferes with neuronal function at the sensory, motor and modulatory levels, and open avenues for therapeutically targeted studies on the zebrafish model of manganism. PMID:25261567

  18. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Normal and Collagen IX Null Mouse Cartilage Reveals Altered Extracellular Matrix Composition and Novel Components of the Collagen IX Interactome*

    PubMed Central

    Brachvogel, Bent; Zaucke, Frank; Dave, Keyur; Norris, Emma L.; Stermann, Jacek; Dayakli, Münire; Koch, Manuel; Gorman, Jeffrey J.; Bateman, John F.; Wilson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The cartilage extracellular matrix is essential for endochondral bone development and joint function. In addition to the major aggrecan/collagen II framework, the interacting complex of collagen IX, matrilin-3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is essential for cartilage matrix stability, as mutations in Col9a1, Col9a2, Col9a3, Comp, and Matn3 genes cause multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, in which patients develop early onset osteoarthritis. In mice, collagen IX ablation results in severely disturbed growth plate organization, hypocellular regions, and abnormal chondrocyte shape. This abnormal differentiation is likely to involve altered cell-matrix interactions but the mechanism is not known. To investigate the molecular basis of the collagen IX null phenotype we analyzed global differences in protein abundance between wild-type and knock-out femoral head cartilage by capillary HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 297 proteins in 3-day cartilage and 397 proteins in 21-day cartilage. Components that were differentially abundant between wild-type and collagen IX-deficient cartilage included 15 extracellular matrix proteins. Collagen IX ablation was associated with dramatically reduced COMP and matrilin-3, consistent with known interactions. Matrilin-1, matrilin-4, epiphycan, and thrombospondin-4 levels were reduced in collagen IX null cartilage, providing the first in vivo evidence for these proteins belonging to the collagen IX interactome. Thrombospondin-4 expression was reduced at the mRNA level, whereas matrilin-4 was verified as a novel collagen IX-binding protein. Furthermore, changes in TGFβ-induced protein βig-h3 and fibronectin abundance were found in the collagen IX knock-out but not associated with COMP ablation, indicating specific involvement in the abnormal collagen IX null cartilage. In addition, the more widespread expression of collagen XII in the collagen IX-deficient cartilage suggests an attempted compensatory response to the

  19. A zebrafish model of PINK1 deficiency reveals key pathway dysfunction including HIF signaling.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, M; Tuimala, J; Chen, Y C; Panula, P

    2013-06-01

    The PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene is mutated in patients with hereditary early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). The targets of PINK1 and the mechanisms in PD are still not fully understood. Here, we carried out a high-throughput and unbiased microarray study to identify novel functions and pathways for PINK1. In larval zebrafish, the function of pink1 was inhibited using splice-site morpholino oligonucleotides and the samples were hybridized on a two-color gene expression array. We found 177 significantly altered genes in pink1 morphants compared with the uninjected wildtype controls (log fold change values from -1.6 to +0.9). The five most prominent pathways based on critical biological processes and key toxicological responses were hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling, TGF-β signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, RAR activation, and biogenesis of mitochondria. Furthermore, we verified that potentially important genes such as hif1α, catalase, SOD3, and atp1a2a were downregulated in pink1 morphants, whereas genes such as fech, pax2a, and notch1a were upregulated. Some of these genes have been found to play important roles in HIF signaling pathways. The pink1 morphants were found to have heart dysfunction, increased erythropoiesis, increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factors, and increased ROS. Our findings suggest that a lack of pink1 in zebrafish alters many vital and critical pathways in addition to the HIF signaling pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Photocrosslinking approaches to interactome mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Nam D.; Parker, Randy B.; Kohler, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Photocrosslinking approaches can be used to map interactome networks within the context of living cells. Photocrosslinking methods rely on use of metabolic engineering or genetic code expansion to incorporate photocrosslinking analogs of amino acids or sugars into cellular biomolecules. Immunological and mass spectrometry techniques are used to analyze crosslinked complexes, thereby defining specific interactomes. Because photocrosslinking can be conducted in native, cellular settings, it can be used to define context-dependent interactions. Photocrosslinking methods are also ideally suited for determining interactome dynamics, mapping interaction interfaces, and identifying transient interactions in which intrinsically disordered proteins and glycoproteins engage. Here we discuss the application of cell-based photocrosslinking to the study of specific problems in immune cell signaling, transcription, membrane protein dynamics, nucleocytoplasmic transport, and chaperone-assisted protein folding. PMID:23149092

  1. The behavior of larval zebrafish reveals stressor-mediated anorexia during early vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Treviño, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between stress and food consumption has been well documented in adults but less so in developing vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that an encounter with a stressor can suppress food consumption in larval zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide indication that food intake suppression cannot be accounted for by changes in locomotion, oxygen consumption and visual responses, as they remain unaffected after exposure to a potent stressor. We also show that feeding reoccurs when basal levels of cortisol (stress hormone in humans and teleosts) are re-established. The results present evidence that the onset of stress can switch off the drive for feeding very early in vertebrate development, and add a novel endpoint for analyses of metabolic and behavioral disorders in an organism suitable for high-throughput genetics and non-invasive brain imaging. PMID:25368561

  2. Regulatory gene expression patterns reveal transverse and longitudinal subdivisions of the embryonic zebrafish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, G; Gerster, T

    2000-03-01

    To shed light on the organization of the rostral embryonic brain of a lower vertebrate, we have directly compared the expression patterns of dlx, fgf, hh, hlx, otx, pax, POU, winged helix and wnt gene family members in the fore- and midbrain of the zebrafish. We show that the analyzed genes are expressed in distinct transverse and longitudinal domains and share expression boundaries at stereotypic positions within the fore- and midbrain. Some of these shared expression boundaries coincide with morphological landmarks like the pathways of primary axon tracts. We identified a series of eight transverse diencephalic domains suggestive of neuromeric subdivisions within the rostral brain. In addition, we identified four molecularly distinct longitudinal subdivisions and provide evidence for a strong bending of the longitudinal rostral brain axis at the cephalic flexure. Our data suggest a strong conservation of early forebrain organization between lower and higher vertebrates.

  3. The behavior of larval zebrafish reveals stressor-mediated anorexia during early vertebrate development.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Rodrigo J; Groneberg, Antonia H; Yeh, Chen-Min; Treviño, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between stress and food consumption has been well documented in adults but less so in developing vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that an encounter with a stressor can suppress food consumption in larval zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide indication that food intake suppression cannot be accounted for by changes in locomotion, oxygen consumption and visual responses, as they remain unaffected after exposure to a potent stressor. We also show that feeding reoccurs when basal levels of cortisol (stress hormone in humans and teleosts) are re-established. The results present evidence that the onset of stress can switch off the drive for feeding very early in vertebrate development, and add a novel endpoint for analyses of metabolic and behavioral disorders in an organism suitable for high-throughput genetics and non-invasive brain imaging.

  4. A novel subset of enteric neurons revealed by ptf1a:GFP in the developing zebrafish enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Rosa A; Gu, Tiffany; Bronner, Marianne E

    2016-03-01

    The enteric nervous system, the largest division of the peripheral nervous system, is derived from vagal neural crest cells that invade and populate the entire length of the gut to form diverse neuronal subtypes. Here, we identify a novel population of neurons within the enteric nervous system of zebrafish larvae that express the transgenic marker ptf1a:GFP within the midgut. Genetic lineage analysis reveals that enteric ptf1a:GFP(+) cells are derived from the neural crest and that most ptf1a:GFP(+) neurons express the neurotransmitter 5HT, demonstrating that they are serotonergic. This transgenic line, Tg(ptf1a:GFP), provides a novel neuronal marker for a subpopulation of neurons within the enteric nervous system, and highlights the possibility that Ptf1a may act as an important transcription factor for enteric neuron development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Synchrotron microCT imaging of soft tissue in juvenile zebrafish reveals retinotectal projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Xuying; Clark, Darin; Ang, Khai Chung; van Rossum, Damian B.; Copper, Jean; Xiao, Xianghui; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Cheng, Keith C.

    2017-02-01

    Biomedical research and clinical diagnosis would benefit greatly from full volume determinations of anatomical phenotype. Comprehensive tools for morphological phenotyping are central for the emerging field of phenomics, which requires high-throughput, systematic, accurate, and reproducible data collection from organisms affected by genetic, disease, or environmental variables. Theoretically, complete anatomical phenotyping requires the assessment of every cell type in the whole organism, but this ideal is presently untenable due to the lack of an unbiased 3D imaging method that allows histopathological assessment of any cell type despite optical opacity. Histopathology, the current clinical standard for diagnostic phenotyping, involves the microscopic study of tissue sections to assess qualitative aspects of tissue architecture, disease mechanisms, and physiological state. However, quantitative features of tissue architecture such as cellular composition and cell counting in tissue volumes can only be approximated due to characteristics of tissue sectioning, including incomplete sampling and the constraints of 2D imaging of 5 micron thick tissue slabs. We have used a small, vertebrate organism, the zebrafish, to test the potential of microCT for systematic macroscopic and microscopic morphological phenotyping. While cell resolution is routinely achieved using methods such as light sheet fluorescence microscopy and optical tomography, these methods do not provide the pancellular perspective characteristic of histology, and are constrained by the limited penetration of visible light through pigmented and opaque specimens, as characterizes zebrafish juveniles. Here, we provide an example of neuroanatomy that can be studied by microCT of stained soft tissue at 1.43 micron isotropic voxel resolution. We conclude that synchrotron microCT is a form of 3D imaging that may potentially be adopted towards more reproducible, large-scale, morphological phenotyping of optically

  6. Interactome INSIDER: a structural interactome browser for genomic studies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael J; Beltrán, Juan Felipe; Liang, Siqi; Fragoza, Robert; Rumack, Aaron; Liang, Jin; Wei, Xiaomu; Yu, Haiyuan

    2018-01-01

    We present Interactome INSIDER, a tool to link genomic variant information with structural protein-protein interactomes. Underlying this tool is the application of machine learning to predict protein interaction interfaces for 185,957 protein interactions with previously unresolved interfaces in human and seven model organisms, including the entire experimentally determined human binary interactome. Predicted interfaces exhibit functional properties similar to those of known interfaces, including enrichment for disease mutations and recurrent cancer mutations. Through 2,164 de novo mutagenesis experiments, we show that mutations of predicted and known interface residues disrupt interactions at a similar rate and much more frequently than mutations outside of predicted interfaces. To spur functional genomic studies, Interactome INSIDER (http://interactomeinsider.yulab.org) enables users to identify whether variants or disease mutations are enriched in known and predicted interaction interfaces at various resolutions. Users may explore known population variants, disease mutations, and somatic cancer mutations, or they may upload their own set of mutations for this purpose.

  7. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L; Wheeler, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live whole

  8. Asynchronous oscillations of two zebrafish CLOCK partners reveal differential clock control and function

    PubMed Central

    Cermakian, Nicolas; Whitmore, David; Foulkes, Nicholas S.; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    Most clock genes encode transcription factors that interact to elicit cooperative control of clock function. Using a two-hybrid system approach, we have isolated two different partners of zebrafish (zf) CLOCK, which are similar to the mammalian BMAL1 (brain and muscle arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1). The two homologs, zfBMAL1 and zfBMAL2, contain conserved basic helix–loop–helix-PAS (Period-Arylhydrocarbon receptor-Singleminded) domains but diverge in the carboxyl termini, thus bearing different transcriptional activation potential. As for zfClock, the expression of both zfBmals oscillates in most tissues in the animal. However, in many tissues, the peak, levels, and kinetics of expression are different between the two genes and for the same gene from tissue to tissue. These results support the existence of independent peripheral oscillators and suggest that zfBMAL1 and zfBMAL2 may exert distinct circadian functions, interacting differentially with zfCLOCK at various times in different tissues. Our findings also indicate that multiple controls may be exerted by the central clock and/or that peripheral oscillators can differentially interpret central clock signals. PMID:10760301

  9. Diversity in cell motility reveals the dynamic nature of the formation of zebrafish taste sensory organs.

    PubMed

    Soulika, Marina; Kaushik, Anna-Lila; Mathieu, Benjamin; Lourenço, Raquel; Komisarczuk, Anna Z; Romano, Sebastian Alejo; Jouary, Adrien; Lardennois, Alicia; Tissot, Nicolas; Okada, Shinji; Abe, Keiko; Becker, Thomas S; Kapsimali, Marika

    2016-06-01

    Taste buds are sensory organs in jawed vertebrates, composed of distinct cell types that detect and transduce specific taste qualities. Taste bud cells differentiate from oropharyngeal epithelial progenitors, which are localized mainly in proximity to the forming organs. Despite recent progress in elucidating the molecular interactions required for taste bud cell development and function, the cell behavior underlying the organ assembly is poorly defined. Here, we used time-lapse imaging to observe the formation of taste buds in live zebrafish larvae. We found that tg(fgf8a.dr17)-expressing cells form taste buds and get rearranged within the forming organs. In addition, differentiating cells move from the epithelium to the forming organs and can be displaced between developing organs. During organ formation, tg(fgf8a.dr17) and type II taste bud cells are displaced in random, directed or confined mode relative to the taste bud they join or by which they are maintained. Finally, ascl1a activity in the 5-HT/type III cell is required to direct and maintain tg(fgf8a.dr17)-expressing cells into the taste bud. We propose that diversity in displacement modes of differentiating cells acts as a key mechanism for the highly dynamic process of taste bud assembly. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Novel hypophysiotropic AgRP2 neurons and pineal cells revealed by BAC transgenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shainer, Inbal; Buchshtab, Adi; Hawkins, Thomas A; Wilson, Stephen W; Cone, Roger D; Gothilf, Yoav

    2017-03-20

    The neuropeptide agouti-related protein (AgRP) is expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulating food consumption and energy homeostasis. Fish express two agrp genes in the brain: agrp1, considered functionally homologous with the mammalian AgRP, and agrp2. The role of agrp2 and its relationship to agrp1 are not fully understood. Utilizing BAC transgenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which agrp1- and agrp2-expressing cells can be visualized and manipulated. By characterizing these transgenic lines, we showed that agrp1-expressing neurons are located in the ventral periventricular hypothalamus (the equivalent of the mammalian arcuate nucleus), projecting throughout the hypothalamus and towards the preoptic area. The agrp2 gene was expressed in the pineal gland in a previously uncharacterized subgroup of cells. Additionally, agrp2 was expressed in a small group of neurons in the preoptic area that project directly towards the pituitary and form an interface with the pituitary vasculature, suggesting that preoptic AgRP2 neurons are hypophysiotropic. We showed that direct synaptic connection can exist between AgRP1 and AgRP2 neurons in the hypothalamus, suggesting communication and coordination between AgRP1 and AgRP2 neurons and, therefore, probably also between the processes they regulate.

  11. Genome wide analysis reveals Zic3 interaction with distal regulatory elements of stage specific developmental genes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Winata, Cecilia L; Kondrychyn, Igor; Kumar, Vibhor; Srinivasan, Kandhadayar G; Orlov, Yuriy; Ravishankar, Ashwini; Prabhakar, Shyam; Stanton, Lawrence W; Korzh, Vladimir; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan

    2013-10-01

    Zic3 regulates early embryonic patterning in vertebrates. Loss of Zic3 function is known to disrupt gastrulation, left-right patterning, and neurogenesis. However, molecular events downstream of this transcription factor are poorly characterized. Here we use the zebrafish as a model to study the developmental role of Zic3 in vivo, by applying a combination of two powerful genomics approaches--ChIP-seq and microarray. Besides confirming direct regulation of previously implicated Zic3 targets of the Nodal and canonical Wnt pathways, analysis of gastrula stage embryos uncovered a number of novel candidate target genes, among which were members of the non-canonical Wnt pathway and the neural pre-pattern genes. A similar analysis in zic3-expressing cells obtained by FACS at segmentation stage revealed a dramatic shift in Zic3 binding site locations and identified an entirely distinct set of target genes associated with later developmental functions such as neural development. We demonstrate cis-regulation of several of these target genes by Zic3 using in vivo enhancer assay. Analysis of Zic3 binding sites revealed a distribution biased towards distal intergenic regions, indicative of a long distance regulatory mechanism; some of these binding sites are highly conserved during evolution and act as functional enhancers. This demonstrated that Zic3 regulation of developmental genes is achieved predominantly through long distance regulatory mechanism and revealed that developmental transitions could be accompanied by dramatic changes in regulatory landscape.

  12. Interactome analysis of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus nucleoprotein in infected cells reveals ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit Alpha 1 and prohibitin as host-cell factors involved in the life cycle of mammarenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Caì, Yíngyún; de la Torre, Juan C.

    2018-01-01

    Several mammalian arenaviruses (mammarenaviruses) cause hemorrhagic fevers in humans and pose serious public health concerns in their endemic regions. Additionally, mounting evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed, prototypic mammarenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Concerns about human-pathogenic mammarenaviruses are exacerbated by of the lack of licensed vaccines, and current anti-mammarenavirus therapy is limited to off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. Detailed understanding of virus/host-cell interactions may facilitate the development of novel anti-mammarenavirus strategies by targeting components of the host-cell machinery that are required for efficient virus multiplication. Here we document the generation of a recombinant LCMV encoding a nucleoprotein (NP) containing an affinity tag (rLCMV/Strep-NP) and its use to capture the NP-interactome in infected cells. Our proteomic approach combined with genetics and pharmacological validation assays identified ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1) and prohibitin (PHB) as pro-viral factors. Cell-based assays revealed that ATP1A1 and PHB are involved in different steps of the virus life cycle. Accordingly, we observed a synergistic inhibitory effect on LCMV multiplication with a combination of ATP1A1 and PHB inhibitors. We show that ATP1A1 inhibitors suppress multiplication of Lassa virus and Candid#1, a live-attenuated vaccine strain of Junín virus, suggesting that the requirement of ATP1A1 in virus multiplication is conserved among genetically distantly related mammarenaviruses. Our findings suggest that clinically approved inhibitors of ATP1A1, like digoxin, could be repurposed to treat infections by mammarenaviruses pathogenic for humans. PMID:29462184

  13. Comparative interactomics: analysis of arabidopsis 14-3-3 complexes reveals highly conserved 14-3-3 interactions between humans and plants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Liu, Li; McClung, Scott; Laughner, Beth; Chen, Sixue; Ferl, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    As a first step in the broad characterization of plant 14-3-3 multiprotein complexes in vivo, stringent and specific antibody affinity purification was used to capture 14-3-3s together with their interacting proteins from extracts of Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures. Approximately 120 proteins were identified as potential in vivo 14-3-3 interacting proteins by mass spectrometry of the recovered complexes. Comparison of the proteins in this data set with the 14-3-3 interacting proteins from a similar study in human embryonic kidney cell cultures revealed eight interacting proteins that likely represent reasonably abundant, fundamental 14-3-3 interaction complexes that are highly conserved across all eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis 14-3-3 interaction data set was also compared to a yeast in vivo 14-3-3 interaction data set. Four 14-3-3 interacting proteins are conserved in yeast, humans, and Arabidopsis. Comparisons of the data sets based on biochemical function revealed many additional similarities in the human and Arabidopsis data sets that represent conserved functional interactions, while also leaving many proteins uniquely identified in either Arabidopsis or human cells. In particular, the Arabidopsis interaction data set is enriched for proteins involved in metabolism.

  14. Live imaging reveals a conserved role of fatty acid β-oxidation in early lymphatic development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zecchin, Annalisa; Wong, Brian W; Tembuyser, Bieke; Souffreau, Joris; Van Nuffelen, An; Wyns, Sabine; Vinckier, Stefan; Carmeliet, Peter; Dewerchin, Mieke

    2018-06-18

    During embryonic development, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) differentiate from venous endothelial cells (VECs), a process that is tightly regulated by several genetic signals. While the aquatic zebrafish model is regularly used for studying lymphangiogenesis and offers the unique advantage of time-lapse video-imaging of lymphatic development, some aspects of lymphatic development in this model differ from those in the mouse. It therefore remained to be determined whether fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO), which we showed to regulate lymphatic formation in the mouse, also co-determines lymphatic development in this aquatic model. Here, we took advantage of the power of the zebrafish embryo model to visualize the earliest steps of lymphatic development through time-lapse video-imaging. By targeting zebrafish isoforms of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (cpt1a), a rate controlling enzyme of FAO, with multiple morpholinos, we demonstrate that reducing CPT1A levels and FAO flux during zebrafish development impairs lymphangiogenic secondary sprouting, the initiation of lymphatic development in the zebrafish trunk, and the formation of the first lymphatic structures. These findings not only show evolutionary conservation of the importance of FAO for lymphatic development, but also suggest a role for FAO in co-regulating the process of VEC-to-LEC differentiation in zebrafish in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. System-wide identification of RNA-binding proteins by interactome capture.

    PubMed

    Castello, Alfredo; Horos, Rastislav; Strein, Claudia; Fischer, Bernd; Eichelbaum, Katrin; Steinmetz, Lars M; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Hentze, Matthias W

    2013-03-01

    Owing to their preeminent biological functions, the repertoire of expressed RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and their activity states are highly informative about cellular systems. We have developed a novel and unbiased technique, called interactome capture, for identifying the active RBPs of cultured cells. By making use of in vivo UV cross-linking of RBPs to polyadenylated RNAs, covalently bound proteins are captured with oligo(dT) magnetic beads. After stringent washes, the mRNA interactome is determined by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS). The protocol takes 3 working days for analysis of single proteins by western blotting, and about 2 weeks for the determination of complete cellular mRNA interactomes by MS. The most important advantage of interactome capture over other in vitro and in silico approaches is that only RBPs bound to RNA in a physiological environment are identified. When applied to HeLa cells, interactome capture revealed hundreds of novel RBPs. Interactome capture can also be broadly used to compare different biological states, including metabolic stress, cell cycle, differentiation, development or the response to drugs.

  16. Discovery and targeted LC-MS/MS of purified polerovirus reveals differences in the virus-host interactome associated with altered aphid transmission.

    PubMed

    Cilia, Michelle; Peter, Kari A; Bereman, Michael S; Howe, Kevin; Fish, Tara; Smith, Dawn; Gildow, Fredrick; MacCoss, Michael J; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Gray, Stewart M

    2012-01-01

    Circulative transmission of viruses in the Luteoviridae, such as cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV), requires a series of precisely orchestrated interactions between virus, plant, and aphid proteins. Natural selection has favored these viruses to be retained in the phloem to facilitate acquisition and transmission by aphids. We show that treatment of infected oat tissue homogenate with sodium sulfite reduces transmission of the purified virus by aphids. Transmission electron microscopy data indicated no gross change in virion morphology due to treatments. However, treated virions were not acquired by aphids through the hindgut epithelial cells and were not transmitted when injected directly into the hemocoel. Analysis of virus preparations using nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry revealed a number of host plant proteins co-purifying with viruses, some of which were lost following sodium sulfite treatment. Using targeted mass spectrometry, we show data suggesting that several of the virus-associated host plant proteins accumulated to higher levels in aphids that were fed on CYDV-infected plants compared to healthy plants. We propose two hypotheses to explain these observations, and these are not mutually exclusive: (a) that sodium sulfite treatment disrupts critical virion-host protein interactions required for aphid transmission, or (b) that host infection with CYDV modulates phloem protein expression in a way that is favorable for virus uptake by aphids. Importantly, the genes coding for the plant proteins associated with virus may be examined as targets in breeding cereal crops for new modes of virus resistance that disrupt phloem-virus or aphid-virus interactions.

  17. Discovery and Targeted LC-MS/MS of Purified Polerovirus Reveals Differences in the Virus-Host Interactome Associated with Altered Aphid Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Kevin; Fish, Tara; Smith, Dawn; Gildow, Fredrick; MacCoss, Michael J.; Thannhauser, Theodore W.; Gray, Stewart M.

    2012-01-01

    Circulative transmission of viruses in the Luteoviridae, such as cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV), requires a series of precisely orchestrated interactions between virus, plant, and aphid proteins. Natural selection has favored these viruses to be retained in the phloem to facilitate acquisition and transmission by aphids. We show that treatment of infected oat tissue homogenate with sodium sulfite reduces transmission of the purified virus by aphids. Transmission electron microscopy data indicated no gross change in virion morphology due to treatments. However, treated virions were not acquired by aphids through the hindgut epithelial cells and were not transmitted when injected directly into the hemocoel. Analysis of virus preparations using nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry revealed a number of host plant proteins co-purifying with viruses, some of which were lost following sodium sulfite treatment. Using targeted mass spectrometry, we show data suggesting that several of the virus-associated host plant proteins accumulated to higher levels in aphids that were fed on CYDV-infected plants compared to healthy plants. We propose two hypotheses to explain these observations, and these are not mutually exclusive: (a) that sodium sulfite treatment disrupts critical virion-host protein interactions required for aphid transmission, or (b) that host infection with CYDV modulates phloem protein expression in a way that is favorable for virus uptake by aphids. Importantly, the genes coding for the plant proteins associated with virus may be examined as targets in breeding cereal crops for new modes of virus resistance that disrupt phloem-virus or aphid-virus interactions. PMID:23118947

  18. Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Albrecht, Anne-Susann; de Melo Costa, Veronica Rodrigues; Sauer, Sascha; Meierhofer, David; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-04-04

    Novel RNA-guided cellular functions are paralleled by an increasing number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we present 'serial RNA interactome capture' (serIC), a multiple purification procedure of ultraviolet-crosslinked poly(A)-RNA-protein complexes that enables global RBP detection with high specificity. We apply serIC to the nuclei of proliferating K562 cells to obtain the first human nuclear RNA interactome. The domain composition of the 382 identified nuclear RBPs markedly differs from previous IC experiments, including few factors without known RNA-binding domains that are in good agreement with computationally predicted RNA binding. serIC extends the number of DNA-RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs), and reveals a network of RBPs involved in p53 signalling and double-strand break repair. serIC is an effective tool to couple global RBP capture with additional selection or labelling steps for specific detection of highly purified RBPs.

  19. Schizophrenia interactome with 504 novel protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathiraju, Madhavi K; Thahir, Mohamed; Handen, Adam; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Sweet, Robert A; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Loscher, Christine E; Bauer, Eileen M; Chaparala, Srilakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia (GWAS) have revealed the role of rare and common genetic variants, but the functional effects of the risk variants remain to be understood. Protein interactome-based studies can facilitate the study of molecular mechanisms by which the risk genes relate to schizophrenia (SZ) genesis, but protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are unknown for many of the liability genes. We developed a computational model to discover PPIs, which is found to be highly accurate according to computational evaluations and experimental validations of selected PPIs. We present here, 365 novel PPIs of liability genes identified by the SZ Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). Seventeen genes that had no previously known interactions have 57 novel interactions by our method. Among the new interactors are 19 drug targets that are targeted by 130 drugs. In addition, we computed 147 novel PPIs of 25 candidate genes investigated in the pre-GWAS era. While there is little overlap between the GWAS genes and the pre-GWAS genes, the interactomes reveal that they largely belong to the same pathways, thus reconciling the apparent disparities between the GWAS and prior gene association studies. The interactome including 504 novel PPIs overall, could motivate other systems biology studies and trials with repurposed drugs. The PPIs are made available on a webserver, called Schizo-Pi at http://severus.dbmi.pitt.edu/schizo-pi with advanced search capabilities. PMID:27336055

  20. Functional analysis of the zebrafish ortholog of HMGCS1 reveals independent functions for cholesterol and isoprenoids in craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Cesar G.

    2017-01-01

    There are 8 different human syndromes caused by mutations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. A subset of these disorders such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz disorder, are associated with facial dysmorphia. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such facial deficits are not fully understood, primarily because of the diverse functions associated with the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Recent evidence has demonstrated that mutation of the zebrafish ortholog of HMGCR results in orofacial clefts. Here we sought to expand upon these data, by deciphering the cholesterol dependent functions of the cholesterol synthesis pathway from the cholesterol independent functions. Moreover, we utilized loss of function analysis and pharmacological inhibition to determine the extent of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in animals with aberrant cholesterol and/or isoprenoid synthesis. Our analysis confirmed that mutation of hmgcs1, which encodes the first enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, results in craniofacial abnormalities via defects in cranial neural crest cell differentiation. Furthermore targeted pharmacological inhibition of the cholesterol synthesis pathway revealed a novel function for isoprenoid synthesis during vertebrate craniofacial development. Mutation of hmgcs1 had no effect on Shh signaling at 2 and 3 days post fertilization (dpf), but did result in a decrease in the expression of gli1, a known Shh target gene, at 4 dpf, after morphological deficits in craniofacial development and chondrocyte differentiation were observed in hmgcs1 mutants. These data raise the possibility that deficiencies in cholesterol modulate chondrocyte differentiation by a combination of Shh independent and Shh dependent mechanisms. Moreover, our results describe a novel function for isoprenoids in facial development and collectively suggest that cholesterol regulates craniofacial development through versatile mechanisms. PMID:28686747

  1. Tracing of her5 progeny in zebrafish transgenics reveals the dynamics of midbrain-hindbrain neurogenesis and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Tallafuss, Alexandra; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2003-09-01

    The midbrain-hindbrain domain (MH) of the vertebrate embryonic neural tube develops in response to the isthmic organizer (IsO), located at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB). MH derivatives are largely missing in mutants affected in IsO activity; however, the potentialities and fate of MH precursors in these conditions have not been directly determined. To follow the dynamics of MH maintenance in vivo, we used artificial chromosome transgenesis in zebrafish to construct lines where egfp transcription is driven by the complete set of regulatory elements of her5, the first known gene expressed in the MH area. In these lines, egfp transcription faithfully recapitulates her5 expression from its induction phase onwards. Using the stability of GFP protein as lineage tracer, we first demonstrate that her5 expression at gastrulation is a selective marker of MH precursor fate. By comparing GFP protein and her5 transcription, we further reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of her5 expression that conditions neurogenesis progression towards the MHB over time. Finally, we trace the molecular identity of GFP-positive cells in the acerebellar (ace) and no-isthmus (noi) mutant backgrounds to analyze directly fgf8 and pax2.1 mutant gene activities for their ultimate effect on cell fate. We demonstrate that most MH precursors are maintained in both mutants but express abnormal identities, in a manner that strikingly differs between the ace and noi contexts. Our observations directly support a role for Fgf8 in protecting anterior tectal and metencephalic precursors from acquiring anterior identities, while Pax2.1 controls the choice of MH identity as a whole. Together, our results suggest a model where an ordered MH pro-domain is identified at gastrulation, and where cell identity choices within this domain are subsequently differentially controlled by Fgf8 and Pax2.1 functions.

  2. Domain-based prediction of the human isoform interactome provides insights into the functional impact of alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Ghadie, Mohamed Ali; Lambourne, Luke; Vidal, Marc; Xia, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Alternative splicing is known to remodel protein-protein interaction networks ("interactomes"), yet large-scale determination of isoform-specific interactions remains challenging. We present a domain-based method to predict the isoform interactome from the reference interactome. First, we construct the domain-resolved reference interactome by mapping known domain-domain interactions onto experimentally-determined interactions between reference proteins. Then, we construct the isoform interactome by predicting that an isoform loses an interaction if it loses the domain mediating the interaction. Our prediction framework is of high-quality when assessed by experimental data. The predicted human isoform interactome reveals extensive network remodeling by alternative splicing. Protein pairs interacting with different isoforms of the same gene tend to be more divergent in biological function, tissue expression, and disease phenotype than protein pairs interacting with the same isoforms. Our prediction method complements experimental efforts, and demonstrates that integrating structural domain information with interactomes provides insights into the functional impact of alternative splicing.

  3. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Reveal Irritant Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Extracts and a Role for TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joey S; Padilla, Stephanie; DeMarini, David M; Hunter, Deborah L; Martin, W Kyle; Thompson, Leslie C; Gilmour, M Ian; Hazari, Mehdi S; Farraj, Aimen K

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes. Yet, the limited capacity to readily identify contributing PM sources and associated PM constituents in any given ambient air shed impedes risk assessment efforts. The health effects of PM have been attributed in part to its capacity to elicit irritant responses. A variety of chemicals trigger irritant behavior responses in zebrafish that can be easily measured. The purposes of this study were to examine the utility of zebrafish locomotor responses in the toxicity assessment of fine PM and its chemical fractions and uncover mechanisms of action. Locomotor responses were recorded in 6-day-old zebrafish exposed for 60 min in the dark at 26 °C to the extractable organic matter of a compressor-generated diesel exhaust PM (C-DEP) and 4 of its fractions (F1-F4) containing varying chemical classes of increasing polarity. The role of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel TRPA1, a chemical sensor in mammals and zebrafish, in locomotor responses to C-DEP, was also examined. Acrolein, an environmental irritant and known activator of TRPA1, and all extracts induced concentration-dependent locomotor responses whose potencies ranked as follows: polar F3 > weakly polar F2 > C-DEP > highly polar F4 > nonpolar F1, indicating that polar and weakly polar fractions that included nitro- and oxy-polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), drove C-DEP responses. Irritant potencies in fish positively correlated with mutagenic potencies of the same extracts in strains of Salmonella sensitive to nitro- and oxy-PAHs, further implicating these chemical classes in the zebrafish responses to C-DEP. Pharmacologic inhibition of TRPA1 blocked locomotor responses to acrolein and the extracts. Taken together, these data indicate that the zebrafish locomotor assay may help expedite toxicity screening of fine PM sources, identify causal chemical classes, and uncover plausible

  4. RNA interactome capture in yeast.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Benedikt M

    2017-04-15

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key players in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. To be able to unbiasedly identify RBPs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we developed a yeast RNA interactome capture protocol which employs RNA labeling, covalent UV crosslinking of RNA and proteins at 365nm wavelength (photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking, PAR-CL) and finally purification of the protein-bound mRNA. The method can be easily implemented in common workflows and takes about 3days to complete. Next to a comprehensive explanation of the method, we focus on our findings about the choice of crosslinking in yeast and discuss the rationale of individual steps in the protocol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A convex optimization approach for identification of human tissue-specific interactomes.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shahin; Grama, Ananth

    2016-06-15

    Analysis of organism-specific interactomes has yielded novel insights into cellular function and coordination, understanding of pathology, and identification of markers and drug targets. Genes, however, can exhibit varying levels of cell type specificity in their expression, and their coordinated expression manifests in tissue-specific function and pathology. Tissue-specific/tissue-selective interaction mechanisms have significant applications in drug discovery, as they are more likely to reveal drug targets. Furthermore, tissue-specific transcription factors (tsTFs) are significantly implicated in human disease, including cancers. Finally, disease genes and protein complexes have the tendency to be differentially expressed in tissues in which defects cause pathology. These observations motivate the construction of refined tissue-specific interactomes from organism-specific interactomes. We present a novel technique for constructing human tissue-specific interactomes. Using a variety of validation tests (Edge Set Enrichment Analysis, Gene Ontology Enrichment, Disease-Gene Subnetwork Compactness), we show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art techniques. Finally, using case studies of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, we show that tissue-specific interactomes derived from our study can be used to construct pathways implicated in pathology and demonstrate the use of these pathways in identifying novel targets. http://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/mohammas/projects/ActPro.html mohammadi@purdue.edu. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. A Zebrafish Loss-of-Function Model for Human CFAP53 Mutations Reveals Its Specific Role in Laterality Organ Function.

    PubMed

    Noël, Emily S; Momenah, Tarek S; Al-Dagriri, Khalid; Al-Suwaid, Abdulrahman; Al-Shahrani, Safar; Jiang, Hui; Willekers, Sven; Oostveen, Yara Y; Chocron, Sonja; Postma, Alex V; Bhuiyan, Zahurul A; Bakkers, Jeroen

    2016-02-01

    Establishing correct left-right asymmetry during embryonic development is crucial for proper asymmetric positioning of the organs. Congenital heart defects, such as dextrocardia, transposition of the arteries, and inflow or outflow tract malformations, comprise some of the most common birth defects and may be attributed to incorrect establishment of body laterality. Here, we identify new patients with dextrocardia who have mutations in CFAP53, a coiled-coil domain containing protein. To elucidate the mechanism by which CFAP53 regulates embryonic asymmetry, we used genome editing to generate cfap53 zebrafish mutants. Zebrafish cfap53 mutants have specific defects in organ laterality and randomization of asymmetric gene expression. We show that cfap53 is required for cilia rotation specifically in Kupffer's vesicle, the zebrafish laterality organ, providing a mechanism by which patients with CFAP53 mutations develop dextrocardia and heterotaxy, and confirming previous evidence that left-right asymmetry in humans is regulated through cilia-driven fluid flow in a laterality organ. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. Zebrafish scarb2a insertional mutant reveals a novel function for the Scarb2/Limp2 receptor in notochord development.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Tellez, Abigail; Zampedri, Cecilia; Ramos-Balderas, Jose L; García-Hernández, Fernando; Maldonado, Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    Scarb2 or Limp2 belong to a subfamily of Scavenger receptors described as lysosomal transmembrane glycosylated receptors, that are mutated in the human syndrome AMRF (action myoclonus-renal failure). The zebrafish insertional mutant scarb2a(hi1463Tg) has notochord defects, the notochord is a defining feature of chordates running along the center of the longitudinal axis and it is essential for forming the spinal column in all vertebrates. There are three paralogous scarb2 genes in zebrafish; scarb2a, scarb2b, and scarb2c. Both Scarb2a and Scarb2b proteins lack the classical di-leucine motif. We found that scarb2a(hi1463Tg) homozygous zebrafish embryos have a null mutation impairing vacuole formation in the notochord and simultaneously disrupting proper formation of the basement membrane resulting in its thickening at the ventral side of the notochord, which may be the cause for the anomalous upward bending observed in the trunk. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we detected scarb2a mRNA expression in the notochord and in the brain early in development. However, it is puzzling that scarb2a notochord mRNA expression is short-lived in the presumptive notochord and precedes the complete differentiation of the notochord. This work describes a novel function for the Scarb2 receptor as an essential glycoprotein for notochord development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Phenotypically anchored transcriptome profiling of developmental exposure to the antimicrobial agent, triclosan, reveals hepatotoxicity in embryonic zebrafish

    SciT

    Haggard, Derik E.

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent commonly found in a variety of personal care products and cosmetics. TCS readily enters the environment through wastewater and is detected in human plasma, urine, and breast milk due to its widespread use. Studies have implicated TCS as a disruptor of thyroid and estrogen signaling; therefore, research examining the developmental effects of TCS is warranted. In this study, we used embryonic zebrafish to investigate the developmental toxicity and potential mechanism of action of TCS. Embryos were exposed to graded concentrations of TCS from 6 to 120 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and the concentration where 80%more » of the animals had mortality or morbidity at 120 hpf (EC{sub 80}) was calculated. Transcriptomic profiling was conducted on embryos exposed to the EC{sub 80} (7.37 μM). We identified a total of 922 significant differentially expressed transcripts (FDR adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05; fold change ≥ 2). Pathway and gene ontology enrichment analyses identified biological networks and transcriptional hubs involving normal liver functioning, suggesting TCS may be hepatotoxic in zebrafish. Tissue-specific gene enrichment analysis further supported the role of the liver as a target organ for TCS toxicity. We also examined the in vitro bioactivity profile of TCS reported by the ToxCast screening program. TCS had a diverse bioactivity profile and was a hit in 217 of the 385 assay endpoints we identified. We observed similarities in gene expression and hepatic steatosis assays; however, hit data for TCS were more concordant with the hypothesized CAR/PXR activity of TCS from rodent and human in vitro studies. - Highlights: • Triclosan is a common antimicrobial agent with widespread human exposure. • Exposure to the triclosan EC{sub 80} causes robust gene expression changes in zebrafish. • The liver may be a target organ of triclosan toxicity in embryonic zebrafish. • Triclosan disrupts normal liver functioning and

  9. A protein domain-based interactome network for C. elegans early embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boxem, Mike; Maliga, Zoltan; Klitgord, Niels; Li, Na; Lemmens, Irma; Mana, Miyeko; de Lichtervelde, Lorenzo; Mul, Joram D.; van de Peut, Diederik; Devos, Maxime; Simonis, Nicolas; Yildirim, Muhammed A.; Cokol, Murat; Kao, Huey-Ling; de Smet, Anne-Sophie; Wang, Haidong; Schlaitz, Anne-Lore; Hao, Tong; Milstein, Stuart; Fan, Changyu; Tipsword, Mike; Drew, Kevin; Galli, Matilde; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Drechsel, David; Koller, Daphne; Roth, Frederick P.; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Dunker, A. Keith; Bonneau, Richard; Gunsalus, Kristin C.; Hill, David E.; Piano, Fabio; Tavernier, Jan; van den Heuvel, Sander; Hyman, Anthony A.; Vidal, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Summary Many protein-protein interactions are mediated through independently folding modular domains. Proteome-wide efforts to model protein-protein interaction or “interactome” networks have largely ignored this modular organization of proteins. We developed an experimental strategy to efficiently identify interaction domains and generated a domain-based interactome network for proteins involved in C. elegans early embryonic cell divisions. Minimal interacting regions were identified for over 200 proteins, providing important information on their domain organization. Furthermore, our approach increased the sensitivity of the two-hybrid system, resulting in a more complete interactome network. This interactome modeling strategy revealed new insights into C. elegans centrosome function and is applicable to other biological processes in this and other organisms. PMID:18692475

  10. The amyloid interactome: Exploring protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Mastrokalou, Chara V.; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.

    2017-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are the quintessence of physiological activities, but also participate in pathological conditions. Amyloid formation, an abnormal protein-protein interaction process, is a widespread phenomenon in divergent proteins and peptides, resulting in a variety of aggregation disorders. The complexity of the mechanisms underlying amyloid formation/amyloidogenicity is a matter of great scientific interest, since their revelation will provide important insight on principles governing protein misfolding, self-assembly and aggregation. The implication of more than one protein in the progression of different aggregation disorders, together with the cited synergistic occurrence between amyloidogenic proteins, highlights the necessity for a more universal approach, during the study of these proteins. In an attempt to address this pivotal need we constructed and analyzed the human amyloid interactome, a protein-protein interaction network of amyloidogenic proteins and their experimentally verified interactors. This network assembled known interconnections between well-characterized amyloidogenic proteins and proteins related to amyloid fibril formation. The consecutive extended computational analysis revealed significant topological characteristics and unraveled the functional roles of all constituent elements. This study introduces a detailed protein map of amyloidogenicity that will aid immensely towards separate intervention strategies, specifically targeting sub-networks of significant nodes, in an attempt to design possible novel therapeutics for aggregation disorders. PMID:28249044

  11. Proteomics profiling of interactome dynamics by colocalisation analysis (COLA).

    PubMed

    Mardakheh, Faraz K; Sailem, Heba Z; Kümper, Sandra; Tape, Christopher J; McCully, Ryan R; Paul, Angela; Anjomani-Virmouni, Sara; Jørgensen, Claus; Poulogiannis, George; Marshall, Christopher J; Bakal, Chris

    2016-12-20

    Localisation and protein function are intimately linked in eukaryotes, as proteins are localised to specific compartments where they come into proximity of other functionally relevant proteins. Significant co-localisation of two proteins can therefore be indicative of their functional association. We here present COLA, a proteomics based strategy coupled with a bioinformatics framework to detect protein-protein co-localisations on a global scale. COLA reveals functional interactions by matching proteins with significant similarity in their subcellular localisation signatures. The rapid nature of COLA allows mapping of interactome dynamics across different conditions or treatments with high precision.

  12. Domain-based prediction of the human isoform interactome provides insights into the functional impact of alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Lambourne, Luke; Vidal, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Alternative splicing is known to remodel protein-protein interaction networks (“interactomes”), yet large-scale determination of isoform-specific interactions remains challenging. We present a domain-based method to predict the isoform interactome from the reference interactome. First, we construct the domain-resolved reference interactome by mapping known domain-domain interactions onto experimentally-determined interactions between reference proteins. Then, we construct the isoform interactome by predicting that an isoform loses an interaction if it loses the domain mediating the interaction. Our prediction framework is of high-quality when assessed by experimental data. The predicted human isoform interactome reveals extensive network remodeling by alternative splicing. Protein pairs interacting with different isoforms of the same gene tend to be more divergent in biological function, tissue expression, and disease phenotype than protein pairs interacting with the same isoforms. Our prediction method complements experimental efforts, and demonstrates that integrating structural domain information with interactomes provides insights into the functional impact of alternative splicing. PMID:28846689

  13. A zebrafish model for Waardenburg syndrome type IV reveals diverse roles for Sox10 in the otic vesicle.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Kirsten; Abbas, Leila; Spencer, Joanne; Brannon, Claire; Mowbray, Catriona; Nikaido, Masataka; Kelsh, Robert N; Whitfield, Tanya T

    2009-01-01

    In humans, mutations in the SOX10 gene are a cause of the auditory-pigmentary disorder Waardenburg syndrome type IV (WS4) and related variants. SOX10 encodes an Sry-related HMG box protein essential for the development of the neural crest; deafness in WS4 and other Waardenburg syndromes is usually attributed to loss of neural-crest-derived melanocytes in the stria vascularis of the cochlea. However, SOX10 is strongly expressed in the developing otic vesicle and so direct roles for SOX10 in the otic epithelium might also be important. Here, we examine the otic phenotype of zebrafish sox10 mutants, a model for WS4. As a cochlea is not present in the fish ear, the severe otic phenotype in these mutants cannot be attributed to effects on this tissue. In zebrafish sox10 mutants, we see abnormalities in all otic placodal derivatives. Gene expression studies indicate deregulated expression of several otic genes, including fgf8, in sox10 mutants. Using a combination of mutant and morphant data, we show that the three sox genes belonging to group E (sox9a, sox9b and sox10) provide a link between otic induction pathways and subsequent otic patterning: they act redundantly to maintain sox10 expression throughout otic tissue and to restrict fgf8 expression to anterior macula regions. Single-cell labelling experiments indicate a small and transient neural crest contribution to the zebrafish ear during normal development, but this is unlikely to account for the strong defects seen in the sox10 mutant. We discuss the implication that the deafness in WS4 patients with SOX10 mutations might reflect a haploinsufficiency for SOX10 in the otic epithelium, resulting in patterning and functional abnormalities in the inner ear.

  14. Phenotype anchoring in zebrafish reveals a potential role for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tamoxifen's effects on skin epithelium

    SciT

    Bugel, Sean M., E-mail: Sean.Bugel@oregonstate.edu; Wehmas, Leah C., E-mail: wehmasl@onid.oregonstate.edu; La Du, Jane K., E-mail: Jane.LaDu@oregonstate.edu

    The zebrafish is a powerful alternative model used to link phenotypes with molecular effects to discover drug mode of action. Using a zebrafish embryo-larval toxicity bioassay, we evaluated the effects of tamoxifen — a widely used anti-estrogen chemotherapeutic. Zebrafish exposed to ≥ 10 μM tamoxifen exhibited a unique necrotic caudal fin phenotype that was rapidly induced regardless of developmental life-stage when treatment was applied. To define tamoxifen's bioactivity resulting in this phenotype, targeted gene expression was used to evaluate 100 transcripts involved in tissue remodeling, calcium signaling, cell cycle and cell death, growth factors, angiogenesis and hypoxia. The most robustlymore » misregulated transcripts in the tail were matrix metalloproteinases mmp9 and mmp13a, induced 127 and 1145 fold, respectively. Expression of c-fos, c-jun, and ap1s1 were also moderately elevated (3–7 fold), consistent with AP-1 activity — a transcription factor that regulates MMP expression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed high levels of induction for MMP13a in affected caudal fin skin epithelial tissue. The necrotic caudal fin phenotype was significantly attenuated or prevented by three functionally unique MMP inhibitors: EDTA (metal chelator), GM 6001 (broad MMP inhibitor), and SR 11302 (AP-1 transcription factor inhibitor), suggesting MMP-dependence. SR 11302 also inhibited induction of mmp9, mmp13a, and a putative MMP target, igfbp1a. Overall, our studies suggest that tamoxifen's effect is the result of perturbation of the MMP system in the skin leading to ectopic expression, cytotoxicity, and the necrotic caudal fin phenotype. These studies help advance our understanding of tamoxifen's non-classical mode of action and implicate a possible role for MMPs in tissues such as skin. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen rapidly induced a unique necrotic caudal fin phenotype in zebrafish. • Apoptosis co-localized temporally and spatially in the necrotic tail. • The

  15. Virtual Interactomics of Proteins from Biochemical Standpoint

    PubMed Central

    Kubrycht, Jaroslav; Sigler, Karel; Souček, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Virtual interactomics represents a rapidly developing scientific area on the boundary line of bioinformatics and interactomics. Protein-related virtual interactomics then comprises instrumental tools for prediction, simulation, and networking of the majority of interactions important for structural and individual reproduction, differentiation, recognition, signaling, regulation, and metabolic pathways of cells and organisms. Here, we describe the main areas of virtual protein interactomics, that is, structurally based comparative analysis and prediction of functionally important interacting sites, mimotope-assisted and combined epitope prediction, molecular (protein) docking studies, and investigation of protein interaction networks. Detailed information about some interesting methodological approaches and online accessible programs or databases is displayed in our tables. Considerable part of the text deals with the searches for common conserved or functionally convergent protein regions and subgraphs of conserved interaction networks, new outstanding trends and clinically interesting results. In agreement with the presented data and relationships, virtual interactomic tools improve our scientific knowledge, help us to formulate working hypotheses, and they frequently also mediate variously important in silico simulations. PMID:22928109

  16. Global gene expression analysis reveals pathway differences between teratogenic and non-teratogenic exposure concentrations of bisphenol A and 17β-estradiol in embryonic zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Saili, Katerine S.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Transient developmental exposure to 0.1 μM bisphenol A (BPA) results in larval zebrafish hyperactivity and learning impairments in the adult, while exposure to 80 μM BPA results in teratogenic responses, including craniofacial abnormalities and edema. The mode of action underlying these effects is unclear. We used global gene expression analysis to identify candidate genes and signaling pathways that mediate BPA’s developmental toxicity in zebrafish. Exposure concentrations were selected and anchored to the positive control, 17β-estradiol (E2), based on previously determined behavioral or teratogenic phenotypes. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed distinct expression profiles at 24 hours post fertilization for 0.1 versus 80 μM BPA and 0.1 versus 15 μM E2 exposure, identification of prothrombin activation as a top canonical pathway impacted by both 0.1 μM BPA and 0.1 μM E2 exposure, and suppressed expression of several genes involved in nervous system development and function following 0.1 μM BPAexposure. PMID:23557687

  17. Quantitative imaging reveals real-time Pou5f3–Nanog complexes driving dorsoventral mesendoderm patterning in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Camps, Mireia; Tian, Jing; Chng, Serene C; Sem, Kai Pin; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Teh, Cathleen; Wachsmuth, Malte; Korzh, Vladimir; Ahmed, Sohail; Reversade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the three embryonic germ layers is a fundamental developmental process that initiates differentiation. How the zebrafish pluripotency factor Pou5f3 (homologous to mammalian Oct4) drives lineage commitment is unclear. Here, we introduce fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to assess the formation of Pou5f3 complexes with other transcription factors in real-time in gastrulating zebrafish embryos. We show, at single-cell resolution in vivo, that Pou5f3 complexes with Nanog to pattern mesendoderm differentiation at the blastula stage. Later, during gastrulation, Sox32 restricts Pou5f3–Nanog complexes to the ventrolateral mesendoderm by binding Pou5f3 or Nanog in prospective dorsal endoderm. In the ventrolateral endoderm, the Elabela / Aplnr pathway limits Sox32 levels, allowing the formation of Pou5f3–Nanog complexes and the activation of downstream BMP signaling. This quantitative model shows that a balance in the spatiotemporal distribution of Pou5f3–Nanog complexes, modulated by Sox32, regulates mesendoderm specification along the dorsoventral axis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11475.001 PMID:27684073

  18. Modulation of Fgfr1a signaling in zebrafish reveals a genetic basis for the aggression-boldness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Norton, William H J; Stumpenhorst, Katharina; Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Folchert, Anja; Rohner, Nicolas; Harris, Matthew P; Callebert, Jacques; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2011-09-28

    Behavioral syndromes are suites of two or more behaviors that correlate across environmental contexts. The aggression-boldness syndrome links aggression, boldness, and exploratory activity in a novel environment. Although aggression-boldness has been described in many animals, the mechanism linking its behavioral components is not known. Here we show that mutation of the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 1a (fgfr1a) simultaneously increases aggression, boldness, and exploration in adult zebrafish. We demonstrate that altered Fgf signaling also results in reduced brain histamine levels in mutants. Pharmacological increase of histamine signaling is sufficient to rescue the behavioral phenotype of fgfr1a mutants. Together, we show that a single genetic locus can underlie the aggression-boldness behavioral syndrome. We also identify one of the neurotransmitter pathways that may mediate clustering of these behaviors.

  19. MicroCT-based phenomics in the zebrafish skeleton reveals virtues of deep phenotyping in a distributed organ system.

    PubMed

    Hur, Matthew; Gistelinck, Charlotte A; Huber, Philippe; Lee, Jane; Thompson, Marjorie H; Monstad-Rios, Adrian T; Watson, Claire J; McMenamin, Sarah K; Willaert, Andy; Parichy, David M; Coucke, Paul; Kwon, Ronald Y

    2017-09-08

    Phenomics, which ideally involves in-depth phenotyping at the whole-organism scale, may enhance our functional understanding of genetic variation. Here, we demonstrate methods to profile hundreds of phenotypic measures comprised of morphological and densitometric traits at a large number of sites within the axial skeleton of adult zebrafish. We show the potential for vertebral patterns to confer heightened sensitivity, with similar specificity, in discriminating mutant populations compared to analyzing individual vertebrae in isolation. We identify phenotypes associated with human brittle bone disease and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor hyperactivity. Finally, we develop allometric models and show their potential to aid in the discrimination of mutant phenotypes masked by alterations in growth. Our studies demonstrate virtues of deep phenotyping in a spatially distributed organ system. Analyzing phenotypic patterns may increase productivity in genetic screens, and facilitate the study of genetic variants associated with smaller effect sizes, such as those that underlie complex diseases.

  20. The light-induced transcriptome of the zebrafish pineal gland reveals complex regulation of the circadian clockwork by light

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Alon, Shahar; Mracek, Philipp; Faigenbloom, Lior; Tovin, Adi; Vatine, Gad D.; Eisenberg, Eli; Foulkes, Nicholas S.; Gothilf, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Light constitutes a primary signal whereby endogenous circadian clocks are synchronized (‘entrained’) with the day/night cycle. The molecular mechanisms underlying this vital process are known to require gene activation, yet are incompletely understood. Here, the light-induced transcriptome in the zebrafish central clock organ, the pineal gland, was characterized by messenger RNA (mRNA) sequencing (mRNA-seq) and microarray analyses, resulting in the identification of multiple light-induced mRNAs. Interestingly, a considerable portion of the molecular clock (14 genes) is light-induced in the pineal gland. Four of these genes, encoding the transcription factors dec1, reverbb1, e4bp4-5 and e4bp4-6, differentially affected clock- and light-regulated promoter activation, suggesting that light-input is conveyed to the core clock machinery via diverse mechanisms. Moreover, we show that dec1, as well as the core clock gene per2, is essential for light-entrainment of rhythmic locomotor activity in zebrafish larvae. Additionally, we used microRNA (miRNA) sequencing (miR-seq) and identified pineal-enhanced and light-induced miRNAs. One such miRNA, miR-183, is shown to downregulate e4bp4-6 mRNA through a 3′UTR target site, and importantly, to regulate the rhythmic mRNA levels of aanat2, the key enzyme in melatonin synthesis. Together, this genome-wide approach and functional characterization of light-induced factors indicate a multi-level regulation of the circadian clockwork by light. PMID:24423866

  1. Comprehensive interactome of Otx2 in the adult mouse neural retina.

    PubMed

    Fant, Bruno; Samuel, Alexander; Audebert, Stéphane; Couzon, Agnès; El Nagar, Salsabiel; Billon, Nathalie; Lamonerie, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Otx2 homeodomain transcription factor exerts multiple functions in specific developmental contexts, probably through the regulation of different sets of genes. Protein partners of Otx2 have been shown to modulate its activity. Therefore, the Otx2 interactome may play a key role in selecting a precise target-gene repertoire, hence determining its function in a specific tissue. To address the nature of Otx2 interactome, we generated a new recombinant Otx2(CTAP-tag) mouse line, designed for protein complexes purification. We validated this mouse line by establishing the Otx2 interactome in the adult neural retina. In this tissue, Otx2 is thought to have overlapping function with its paralog Crx. Our analysis revealed that, in contrary to Crx, Otx2 did not develop interactions with proteins that are known to regulate phototransduction genes but showed specific partnership with factors associated with retinal development. The relationship between Otx2 and Crx in the neural retina should therefore be considered as complementarity rather than redundancy. Furthermore, study of the Otx2 interactome revealed strong associations with RNA processing and translation machineries, suggesting unexpected roles for Otx2 in the regulation of selected target genes all along the transcription/translation pathway. The Otx2(CTAP-tag) line, therefore, appears suitable for a systematic approach to Otx2 protein-protein interactions. genesis 53:685-694, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The role of the interactome in the maintenance of deleterious variability in human populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Jiménez-Almazán, Jorge; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Vela-Boza, Alicia; Santoyo-López, Javier; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic projects have revealed the existence of an unexpectedly large amount of deleterious variability in the human genome. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain such an apparently high mutational load. However, the mechanisms by which deleterious mutations in some genes cause a pathological effect but are apparently innocuous in other genes remain largely unknown. This study searched for deleterious variants in the 1,000 genomes populations, as well as in a newly sequenced population of 252 healthy Spanish individuals. In addition, variants causative of monogenic diseases and somatic variants from 41 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients were analysed. The deleterious variants found were analysed in the context of the interactome to understand the role of network topology in the maintenance of the observed mutational load. Our results suggest that one of the mechanisms whereby the effect of these deleterious variants on the phenotype is suppressed could be related to the configuration of the protein interaction network. Most of the deleterious variants observed in healthy individuals are concentrated in peripheral regions of the interactome, in combinations that preserve their connectivity, and have a marginal effect on interactome integrity. On the contrary, likely pathogenic cancer somatic deleterious variants tend to occur in internal regions of the interactome, often with associated structural consequences. Finally, variants causative of monogenic diseases seem to occupy an intermediate position. Our observations suggest that the real pathological potential of a variant might be more a systems property rather than an intrinsic property of individual proteins. PMID:25261458

  3. The Protein Interactome of Mycobacteriophage Giles Predicts Functions for Unknown Proteins.

    PubMed

    Mehla, Jitender; Dedrick, Rebekah M; Caufield, J Harry; Siefring, Rachel; Mair, Megan; Johnson, Allison; Hatfull, Graham F; Uetz, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts and are prevalent in the environment. Nearly 700 mycobacteriophage genomes have been completely sequenced, revealing considerable diversity and genetic novelty. Here, we have determined the protein complement of mycobacteriophage Giles by mass spectrometry and mapped its genome-wide protein interactome to help elucidate the roles of its 77 predicted proteins, 50% of which have no known function. About 22,000 individual yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) tests with four different Y2H vectors, followed by filtering and retest screens, resulted in 324 reproducible protein-protein interactions, including 171 (136 nonredundant) high-confidence interactions. The complete set of high-confidence interactions among Giles proteins reveals new mechanistic details and predicts functions for unknown proteins. The Giles interactome is the first for any mycobacteriophage and one of just five known phage interactomes so far. Our results will help in understanding mycobacteriophage biology and aid in development of new genetic and therapeutic tools to understand Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes over 9 million new cases of tuberculosis each year. Mycobacteriophages, viruses of mycobacterial hosts, hold considerable potential to understand phage diversity, evolution, and mycobacterial biology, aiding in the development of therapeutic tools to control mycobacterial infections. The mycobacteriophage Giles protein-protein interaction network allows us to predict functions for unknown proteins and shed light on major biological processes in phage biology. For example, Giles gp76, a protein of unknown function, is found to associate with phage packaging and maturation. The functions of mycobacteriophage-derived proteins may suggest novel therapeutic approaches for tuberculosis. Our ORFeome clone set of Giles proteins and the interactome data will be useful resources for phage interactomics. Copyright © 2015

  4. Pathogenesis of POLR1C-dependent Type 3 Treacher Collins Syndrome revealed by a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Lau, Marco Chi Chung; Kwong, Ernest Man Lok; Lai, Keng Po; Li, Jing-Woei; Ho, Jeff Cheuk Hin; Chan, Ting-Fung; Wong, Chris Kong Chu; Jiang, Yun-Jin; Tse, William Ka Fai

    2016-06-01

    Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS) is a rare congenital birth disorder (1 in 50,000 live births) characterized by severe craniofacial defects, including the downward slanting palpebral fissures, hypoplasia of the facial bones, and cleft palate (CP). Over 90% of patients with TCS have a mutation in the TCOF1 gene. However, some patients exhibit mutations in two new causative genes, POLR1C and POLR1D, which encode subunits of RNA polymerases I and III, that affect ribosome biogenesis. In this study, we examine the role of POLR1C in TCS using zebrafish as a model system. Our data confirmed that polr1c is highly expressed in the facial region, and dysfunction of this gene by knockdown or knock-out resulted in mis-expression of neural crest cells during early development that leads to TCS phenotype. Next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of the polr1c mutants further demonstrated the up-regulated p53 pathway and predicted skeletal disorders. Lastly, we partially rescued the TCS facial phenotype in the background of p53 mutants, which supported the hypothesis that POLR1C-dependent type 3 TCS is associated with the p53 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging of viral neuroinvasion in the zebrafish reveals that Sindbis and chikungunya viruses favour different entry routes

    PubMed Central

    Passoni, Gabriella; Langevin, Christelle; Palha, Nuno; Mounce, Bryan C.; Briolat, Valérie; Affaticati, Pierre; De Job, Elodie; Joly, Jean-Stéphane; Vignuzzi, Marco; Saleh, Maria-Carla; Herbomel, Philippe; Boudinot, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), are vector-borne pathogens that cause acute illnesses in humans and are sometimes associated with neuropathies, especially in infants and elderly patients. Little is known about their mechanism of entry into the central nervous system (CNS), even for SINV, which has been used extensively as a model for viral encephalopathies. We previously established a CHIKV infection model in the optically transparent zebrafish larva; here we describe a new SINV infection model in this host. We imaged in vivo the onset and progression of the infection caused by intravenous SINV inoculation. Similar to that described for CHIKV, infection in the periphery was detected early and was transient, whereas CNS infection started at later time points and was persistent or progressive. We then tested the possible mechanisms of neuroinvasion by CHIKV and SINV. Neither virus relied on macrophage-mediated transport to access the CNS. CHIKV, but not SINV, always infects endothelial cells of the brain vasculature. By contrast, axonal transport was much more efficient with SINV than CHIKV, both from the periphery to the CNS and between neural tissues. Thus, the preferred mechanisms of neuroinvasion by these two related viruses are distinct, providing a powerful imaging-friendly system to compare mechanisms and prevention methods of encephalopathies. PMID:28483796

  6. Transcriptome alterations in zebrafish embryos after exposure to environmental estrogens and anti-androgens can reveal endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Viktoria; Wichmann, Arne; Kriehuber, Ralf; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors (EDs) is in many cases associated with an unpredictable hazard for wildlife and human health. The identification of endocrine disruptive properties of chemicals certain to enter the aquatic environment relies on toxicity tests with fish, assessing adverse effects on reproduction and sexual development. The demand for quick, reliable ED assays favored the use of fish embryos as alternative test organisms. We investigated the application of a transcriptomics-based assay for estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals with zebrafish embryos. Two reference compounds, 17α-ethinylestradiol and flutamide, were tested to evaluate the effects on development and the transcriptome after 48h-exposures. Comparison of the transcriptome response with other estrogenic and anti-androgenic compounds (genistein, bisphenol A, methylparaben, linuron, prochloraz, propanil) showed commonalities and differences in regulated pathways, enabling us to classify the estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies. This demonstrates that different mechanism of ED can be assessed already in fish embryos. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeted Identification of Sialoglycoproteins in Hypoxic Endothelial Cells and Validation in Zebrafish Reveal Roles for Proteins in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Delcourt, Nicolas; Quevedo, Celia; Nonne, Christelle; Fons, Pierre; O'Brien, Donogh; Loyaux, Denis; Diez, Maria; Autelitano, François; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Ferrara, Pascual; Muriana, Arantza; Callol, Carlos; Hérault, Jean-Pascal; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Favre, Gilles; Bono, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new vessels in the tumor, termed angiogenesis, is essential for primary tumor growth and facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis. Hypoxia has been described as one trigger of angiogenesis. Indeed, hypoxia, which is characterized by areas of low oxygen levels, is a hallmark of solid tumors arising from an imbalance between oxygen delivery and consumption. Hypoxic conditions have profound effects on the different components of the tumoral environment. For example, hypoxia is able to activate endothelial cells, leading to angiogenesis but also thereby initiating a cascade of reactions involving neutrophils, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. In addition, hypoxia directly regulates the expression of many genes for which the role and the importance in the tumoral environment remain to be completely elucidated. In this study, we used a method to selectively label sialoglycoproteins to identify new membrane and secreted proteins involved in the adaptative process of endothelial cells by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We used an in vitro assay under hypoxic condition to observe an increase of protein expression or modifications of glycosylation. Then the function of the identified proteins was assessed in a vasculogenesis assay in vivo by using a morpholino strategy in zebrafish. First, our approach was validated by the identification of sialoglycoproteins such as CD105, neuropilin-1, and CLEC14A, which have already been described as playing key roles in angiogenesis. Second, we identified several new proteins regulated by hypoxia and demonstrated for the first time the pivotal role of GLUT-1, TMEM16F, and SDF4 in angiogenesis. PMID:25384978

  8. Targeted identification of sialoglycoproteins in hypoxic endothelial cells and validation in zebrafish reveal roles for proteins in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Delcourt, Nicolas; Quevedo, Celia; Nonne, Christelle; Fons, Pierre; O'Brien, Donogh; Loyaux, Denis; Diez, Maria; Autelitano, François; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Ferrara, Pascual; Muriana, Arantza; Callol, Carlos; Hérault, Jean-Pascal; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Favre, Gilles; Bono, Françoise

    2015-02-06

    The formation of new vessels in the tumor, termed angiogenesis, is essential for primary tumor growth and facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis. Hypoxia has been described as one trigger of angiogenesis. Indeed, hypoxia, which is characterized by areas of low oxygen levels, is a hallmark of solid tumors arising from an imbalance between oxygen delivery and consumption. Hypoxic conditions have profound effects on the different components of the tumoral environment. For example, hypoxia is able to activate endothelial cells, leading to angiogenesis but also thereby initiating a cascade of reactions involving neutrophils, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. In addition, hypoxia directly regulates the expression of many genes for which the role and the importance in the tumoral environment remain to be completely elucidated. In this study, we used a method to selectively label sialoglycoproteins to identify new membrane and secreted proteins involved in the adaptative process of endothelial cells by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We used an in vitro assay under hypoxic condition to observe an increase of protein expression or modifications of glycosylation. Then the function of the identified proteins was assessed in a vasculogenesis assay in vivo by using a morpholino strategy in zebrafish. First, our approach was validated by the identification of sialoglycoproteins such as CD105, neuropilin-1, and CLEC14A, which have already been described as playing key roles in angiogenesis. Second, we identified several new proteins regulated by hypoxia and demonstrated for the first time the pivotal role of GLUT-1, TMEM16F, and SDF4 in angiogenesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Zebrafish Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Charles K

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma skin cancer is a potentially deadly disease in humans and has remained extremely difficult to treat once it has metastasized. In just the last 10 years, a number of models of melanoma have been developed in the zebrafish that are biologically faithful to the human disease and have already yielded important insights into the fundamental biology of melanoma and offered new potential avenues for treatment. With the diversity and breadth of the molecular genetic tools available in the zebrafish, these melanoma models will continue to be refined and expanded upon to keep pace with the rapidly evolving field of melanoma biology.

  10. Functional integrative levels in the human interactome recapitulate organ organization.

    PubMed

    Souiai, Ouissem; Becker, Emmanuelle; Prieto, Carlos; Benkahla, Alia; De las Rivas, Javier; Brun, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Interactome networks represent sets of possible physical interactions between proteins. They lack spatio-temporal information by construction. However, the specialized functions of the differentiated cell types which are assembled into tissues or organs depend on the combinatorial arrangements of proteins and their physical interactions. Is tissue-specificity, therefore, encoded within the interactome? In order to address this question, we combined protein-protein interactions, expression data, functional annotations and interactome topology. We first identified a subnetwork formed exclusively of proteins whose interactions were observed in all tested tissues. These are mainly involved in housekeeping functions and are located at the topological center of the interactome. This 'Largest Common Interactome Network' represents a 'functional interactome core'. Interestingly, two types of tissue-specific interactions are distinguished when considering function and network topology: tissue-specific interactions involved in regulatory and developmental functions are central whereas tissue-specific interactions involved in organ physiological functions are peripheral. Overall, the functional organization of the human interactome reflects several integrative levels of functions with housekeeping and regulatory tissue-specific functions at the center and physiological tissue-specific functions at the periphery. This gradient of functions recapitulates the organization of organs, from cells to organs. Given that several gradients have already been identified across interactomes, we propose that gradients may represent a general principle of protein-protein interaction network organization.

  11. Functional Integrative Levels in the Human Interactome Recapitulate Organ Organization

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Carlos; Benkahla, Alia; De Las Rivas, Javier; Brun, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Interactome networks represent sets of possible physical interactions between proteins. They lack spatio-temporal information by construction. However, the specialized functions of the differentiated cell types which are assembled into tissues or organs depend on the combinatorial arrangements of proteins and their physical interactions. Is tissue-specificity, therefore, encoded within the interactome? In order to address this question, we combined protein-protein interactions, expression data, functional annotations and interactome topology. We first identified a subnetwork formed exclusively of proteins whose interactions were observed in all tested tissues. These are mainly involved in housekeeping functions and are located at the topological center of the interactome. This ‘Largest Common Interactome Network’ represents a ‘functional interactome core’. Interestingly, two types of tissue-specific interactions are distinguished when considering function and network topology: tissue-specific interactions involved in regulatory and developmental functions are central whereas tissue-specific interactions involved in organ physiological functions are peripheral. Overall, the functional organization of the human interactome reflects several integrative levels of functions with housekeeping and regulatory tissue-specific functions at the center and physiological tissue-specific functions at the periphery. This gradient of functions recapitulates the organization of organs, from cells to organs. Given that several gradients have already been identified across interactomes, we propose that gradients may represent a general principle of protein-protein interaction network organization. PMID:21799769

  12. The Protein Interactome of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacterial Meta-interactomes Improve Function Predictions.

    PubMed

    Wuchty, S; Rajagopala, S V; Blazie, S M; Parrish, J R; Khuri, S; Finley, R L; Uetz, P

    2017-01-01

    The functions of roughly a third of all proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae , a significant human-pathogenic bacterium, are unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we have determined more than 2,000 novel protein interactions in this organism. We augmented this network with meta-interactome data that we defined as the pool of all interactions between evolutionarily conserved proteins in other bacteria. We found that such interactions significantly improved our ability to predict a protein's function, allowing us to provide functional predictions for 299 S. pneumoniae proteins with previously unknown functions. IMPORTANCE Identification of protein interactions in bacterial species can help define the individual roles that proteins play in cellular pathways and pathogenesis. Very few protein interactions have been identified for the important human pathogen S. pneumoniae . We used an experimental approach to identify over 2,000 new protein interactions for S. pneumoniae , the most extensive interactome data for this bacterium to date. To predict protein function, we used our interactome data augmented with interactions from other closely related bacteria. The combination of the experimental data and meta-interactome data significantly improved the prediction results, allowing us to assign possible functions to a large number of poorly characterized proteins.

  13. The Protein Interactome of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacterial Meta-interactomes Improve Function Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopala, S. V.; Blazie, S. M.; Parrish, J. R.; Khuri, S.; Finley, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The functions of roughly a third of all proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a significant human-pathogenic bacterium, are unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we have determined more than 2,000 novel protein interactions in this organism. We augmented this network with meta-interactome data that we defined as the pool of all interactions between evolutionarily conserved proteins in other bacteria. We found that such interactions significantly improved our ability to predict a protein’s function, allowing us to provide functional predictions for 299 S. pneumoniae proteins with previously unknown functions. IMPORTANCE Identification of protein interactions in bacterial species can help define the individual roles that proteins play in cellular pathways and pathogenesis. Very few protein interactions have been identified for the important human pathogen S. pneumoniae. We used an experimental approach to identify over 2,000 new protein interactions for S. pneumoniae, the most extensive interactome data for this bacterium to date. To predict protein function, we used our interactome data augmented with interactions from other closely related bacteria. The combination of the experimental data and meta-interactome data significantly improved the prediction results, allowing us to assign possible functions to a large number of poorly characterized proteins. PMID:28744484

  14. APID interactomes: providing proteome-based interactomes with controlled quality for multiple species and derived networks

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-López, Diego; Gutiérrez, Miguel A.; Lopes, Katia P.; Prieto, Carlos; Santamaría, Rodrigo; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2016-01-01

    APID (Agile Protein Interactomes DataServer) is an interactive web server that provides unified generation and delivery of protein interactomes mapped to their respective proteomes. This resource is a new, fully redesigned server that includes a comprehensive collection of protein interactomes for more than 400 organisms (25 of which include more than 500 interactions) produced by the integration of only experimentally validated protein–protein physical interactions. For each protein–protein interaction (PPI) the server includes currently reported information about its experimental validation to allow selection and filtering at different quality levels. As a whole, it provides easy access to the interactomes from specific species and includes a global uniform compendium of 90,379 distinct proteins and 678,441 singular interactions. APID integrates and unifies PPIs from major primary databases of molecular interactions, from other specific repositories and also from experimentally resolved 3D structures of protein complexes where more than two proteins were identified. For this purpose, a collection of 8,388 structures were analyzed to identify specific PPIs. APID also includes a new graph tool (based on Cytoscape.js) for visualization and interactive analyses of PPI networks. The server does not require registration and it is freely available for use at http://apid.dep.usal.es. PMID:27131791

  15. Simultaneously measuring multiple protein interactions and their correlations in a cell by Protein-interactome Footprinting

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Si-Wei; Liang, Zhi; Wu, Jia-Rui

    2017-01-01

    Quantitatively detecting correlations of multiple protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in vivo is a big challenge. Here we introduce a novel method, termed Protein-interactome Footprinting (PiF), to simultaneously measure multiple PPIs in one cell. The principle of PiF is that each target physical PPI in the interactome is simultaneously transcoded into a specific DNA sequence based on dimerization of the target proteins fused with DNA-binding domains. The interaction intensity of each target protein is quantified as the copy number of the specific DNA sequences bound by each fusion protein dimers. Using PiF, we quantitatively reveal dynamic patterns of PPIs and their correlation network in E. coli two-component systems. PMID:28338015

  16. High-Confidence Interactome for RNF41 Built on Multiple Orthogonal Assays.

    PubMed

    Masschaele, Delphine; Wauman, Joris; Vandemoortele, Giel; De Sutter, Delphine; De Ceuninck, Leentje; Eyckerman, Sven; Tavernier, Jan

    2018-04-06

    Ring finger protein 41 (RNF41) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of many proteins including ErbB3 receptors, BIRC6, and parkin. Next to this, RNF41 regulates the intracellular trafficking of certain JAK2-associated cytokine receptors by ubiquitinating and suppressing USP8, which, in turn, destabilizes the ESCRT-0 complex. To further elucidate the function of RNF41 we used different orthogonal approaches to reveal the RNF41 protein complex: affinity purification-mass spectrometry, BioID, and Virotrap. We combined these results with known data sets for RNF41 obtained with microarray MAPPIT and Y2H screens. This way, we establish a comprehensive high-resolution interactome network comprising 175 candidate protein partners. To remove potential methodological artifacts from this network, we distilled the data into a high-confidence interactome map by retaining a total of 19 protein hits identified in two or more of the orthogonal methods. AP2S1, a novel RNF41 interaction partner, was selected from this high-confidence interactome for further functional validation. We reveal a role for AP2S1 in leptin and LIF receptor signaling and show that RNF41 stabilizes and relocates AP2S1.

  17. A series of no isthmus (noi) alleles of the zebrafish pax2.1 gene reveals multiple signaling events in development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary.

    PubMed

    Lun, K; Brand, M

    1998-08-01

    Generation of cell diversity in the vertebrate central nervous system starts during gastrulation stages in the ectodermal germ layer and involves specialized cell groups, such as the organizer located at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB). Mutations in the zebrafish no isthmus (noi) gene alter development of the MHB, and affect the pax2.1 gene (formerly pax(zf-b)). Analysis of the structure of pax2.1 reveals at least 12 normal splice variants. The noi alleles can be arranged, by molecular and phenotypic criteria, into a series of five alleles of differing strength, ranging from a null allele to weak alleles. In keeping with a role in development of the MHB organizer, gene expression is already affected in the MHB primordium of the gastrula neural ectoderm in noi mutants. eng3 activation is completely and eng2 activation is strongly dependent on noi function. In contrast, onset of wnt1, fgf8 and her5 expression occurs normally in the null mutants, but is eliminated later on. Our observations suggest that three signaling pathways, involving pax2.1, wnt1 and fgf8, are activated independently in early anterior-posterior patterning of this area. In addition, analysis of the allelic series unexpectedly suggests that noi activity is also required during dorsal-ventral patterning of the MHB in somitogenesis stages, and possibly in a later eng expression phase. We propose that noi/pax2.1 participates in sequential signaling processes as a key integrator of midbrain-hindbrain boundary development.

  18. The interactome of CCT complex - A computational analysis.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Aswathy; Pullepu, Dileep; Kabir, M Anaul

    2016-10-01

    The eukaryotic chaperonin, CCT (Chaperonin Containing TCP1 or TriC-TCP-1 Ring Complex) has been subjected to physical and genetic analyses in S. cerevisiae which can be extrapolated to human CCT (hCCT), owing to its structural and functional similarities with yeast CCT (yCCT). Studies on hCCT and its interactome acquire an additional dimension, as it has been implicated in several disease conditions like neurodegeneration and cancer. We attempt to study its stress response role in general, which will be reflected in the aspects of human diseases and yeast physiology, through computational analysis of the interactome. Towards consolidating and analysing the interactome data, we prepared and compared the unique CCT-interacting protein lists for S. cerevisiae and H. sapiens, performed GO term classification and enrichment studies which provide information on the diversity in CCT interactome, in terms of protein classes in the data set. Enrichment with disease-associated proteins and pathways highlight the medical importance of CCT. Different analyses converge, suggesting the significance of WD-repeat proteins, protein kinases and cytoskeletal proteins in the interactome. The prevalence of proteasomal subunits and ribosomal proteins suggest a possible cross-talk between protein-synthesis, folding and degradation machinery. A network of chaperones and chaperonins that function in combination can also be envisaged from the CCT interactome-Hsp70 interactome analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How perfect can protein interactomes be?

    PubMed

    Levy, Emmanuel D; Landry, Christian R; Michnick, Stephen W

    2009-03-03

    Any engineered device should certainly not contain nonfunctional components, for this would be a waste of energy and money. In contrast, evolutionary theory tells us that biological systems need not be optimized and may very well accumulate nonfunctional elements. Mutational and demographic processes contribute to the cluttering of eukaryotic genomes and transcriptional networks with "junk" DNA and spurious DNA binding sites. Here, we question whether such a notion should be applied to protein interactomes-that is, whether these protein interactomes are expected to contain a fraction of nonselected, nonfunctional protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which we term "noisy." We propose a simple relationship between the fraction of noisy interactions expected in a given organism and three parameters: (i) the number of mutations needed to create and destroy interactions, (ii) the size of the proteome, and (iii) the fitness cost of noisy interactions. All three parameters suggest that noisy PPIs are expected to exist. Their existence could help to explain why PPIs determined from large-scale studies often lack functional relationships between interacting proteins, why PPIs are poorly conserved across organisms, and why the PPI space appears to be immensely large. Finally, we propose experimental strategies to estimate the fraction of evolutionary noise in PPI networks.

  20. Expanding the Interactome of TES by Exploiting TES Modules with Different Subcellular Localizations.

    PubMed

    Sala, Stefano; Van Troys, Marleen; Medves, Sandrine; Catillon, Marie; Timmerman, Evy; Staes, An; Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth; Gevaert, Kris; Ampe, Christophe

    2017-05-05

    The multimodular nature of many eukaryotic proteins underlies their temporal or spatial engagement in a range of protein cocomplexes. Using the multimodule protein testin (TES), we here report a proteomics approach to increase insight in cocomplex diversity. The LIM-domain containing and tumor suppressor protein TES is present at different actin cytoskeleton adhesion structures in cells and influences cell migration, adhesion and spreading. TES module accessibility has been proposed to vary due to conformational switching and variants of TES lacking specific domains target to different subcellular locations. By applying iMixPro AP-MS ("intelligent Mixing of Proteomes"-affinity purification-mass spectrometry) to a set of tagged-TES modular variants, we identified proteins residing in module-specific cocomplexes. The obtained distinct module-specific interactomes combine to a global TES interactome that becomes more extensive and richer in information. Applying pathway analysis to the module interactomes revealed expected actin-related canonical pathways and also less expected pathways. We validated two new TES cocomplex partners: TGFB1I1 and a short form of the glucocorticoid receptor. TES and TGFB1I1 are shown to oppositely affect cell spreading providing biological validity for their copresence in complexes since they act in similar processes.

  1. Comparative analysis of protein interactome networks prioritizes candidate genes with cancer signatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongsheng; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song

    2016-11-29

    Comprehensive understanding of human cancer mechanisms requires the identification of a thorough list of cancer-associated genes, which could serve as biomarkers for diagnoses and therapies in various types of cancer. Although substantial progress has been made in functional studies to uncover genes involved in cancer, these efforts are often time-consuming and costly. Therefore, it remains challenging to comprehensively identify cancer candidate genes. Network-based methods have accelerated this process through the analysis of complex molecular interactions in the cell. However, the extent to which various interactome networks can contribute to prediction of candidate genes responsible for cancer is still enigmatic. In this study, we evaluated different human protein-protein interactome networks and compared their application to cancer gene prioritization. Our results indicate that network analyses can increase the power to identify novel cancer genes. In particular, such predictive power can be enhanced with the use of unbiased systematic protein interaction maps for cancer gene prioritization. Functional analysis reveals that the top ranked genes from network predictions co-occur often with cancer-related terms in literature, and further, these candidate genes are indeed frequently mutated across cancers. Finally, our study suggests that integrating interactome networks with other omics datasets could provide novel insights into cancer-associated genes and underlying molecular mechanisms.

  2. The IBD interactome: an integrated view of aetiology, pathogenesis and therapy.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Heitor S P; Fiocchi, Claudio; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios

    2017-12-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are prototypical complex diseases characterized by chronic and heterogeneous manifestations, induced by interacting environmental, genomic, microbial and immunological factors. These interactions result in an overwhelming complexity that cannot be tackled by studying the totality of each pathological component (an '-ome') in isolation without consideration of the interaction among all relevant -omes that yield an overall 'network effect'. The outcome of this effect is the 'IBD interactome', defined as a disease network in which dysregulation of individual -omes causes intestinal inflammation mediated by dysfunctional molecular modules. To define the IBD interactome, new concepts and tools are needed to implement a systems approach; an unbiased data-driven integration strategy that reveals key players of the system, pinpoints the central drivers of inflammation and enables development of targeted therapies. Powerful bioinformatics tools able to query and integrate multiple -omes are available, enabling the integration of genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and microbiome information to build a comprehensive molecular map of IBD. This approach will enable identification of IBD molecular subtypes, correlations with clinical phenotypes and elucidation of the central hubs of the IBD interactome that will aid discovery of compounds that can specifically target the hubs that control the disease.

  3. Comprehensive Identification of RNA-Binding Proteins by RNA Interactome Capture.

    PubMed

    Castello, Alfredo; Horos, Rastislav; Strein, Claudia; Fischer, Bernd; Eichelbaum, Katrin; Steinmetz, Lars M; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Hentze, Matthias W

    2016-01-01

    RNA associates with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) from synthesis to decay, forming dynamic ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). In spite of the preeminent role of RBPs regulating RNA fate, the scope of cellular RBPs has remained largely unknown. We have recently developed a novel and comprehensive method to identify the repertoire of active RBPs of cultured cells, called RNA interactome capture. Using in vivo UV cross-linking on cultured cells, proteins are covalently bound to RNA if the contact between the two is direct ("zero distance"). Protein-RNA complexes are purified by poly(A) tail-dependent oligo(dT) capture and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry. Because UV irradiation is applied to living cells and purification is performed using highly stringent washes, RNA interactome capture identifies physiologic and direct protein-RNA interactions. Applied to HeLa cells, this protocol revealed the near-complete repertoire of RBPs, including hundreds of novel RNA binders. Apart from its RBP discovery capacity, quantitative and comparative RNA interactome capture can also be used to study the responses of the RBP repertoire to different physiological cues and processes, including metabolic stress, differentiation, development, or the response to drugs.

  4. The role of the interactome in the maintenance of deleterious variability in human populations.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Jiménez-Almazán, Jorge; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Vela-Boza, Alicia; Santoyo-López, Javier; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2014-09-26

    Recent genomic projects have revealed the existence of an unexpectedly large amount of deleterious variability in the human genome. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain such an apparently high mutational load. However, the mechanisms by which deleterious mutations in some genes cause a pathological effect but are apparently innocuous in other genes remain largely unknown. This study searched for deleterious variants in the 1,000 genomes populations, as well as in a newly sequenced population of 252 healthy Spanish individuals. In addition, variants causative of monogenic diseases and somatic variants from 41 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients were analysed. The deleterious variants found were analysed in the context of the interactome to understand the role of network topology in the maintenance of the observed mutational load. Our results suggest that one of the mechanisms whereby the effect of these deleterious variants on the phenotype is suppressed could be related to the configuration of the protein interaction network. Most of the deleterious variants observed in healthy individuals are concentrated in peripheral regions of the interactome, in combinations that preserve their connectivity, and have a marginal effect on interactome integrity. On the contrary, likely pathogenic cancer somatic deleterious variants tend to occur in internal regions of the interactome, often with associated structural consequences. Finally, variants causative of monogenic diseases seem to occupy an intermediate position. Our observations suggest that the real pathological potential of a variant might be more a systems property rather than an intrinsic property of individual proteins. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  5. In vivo loss of function study reveals the short stature homeobox-containing (shox) gene plays indispensable roles in early embryonic growth and bone formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Rie; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    Congenital loss of the SHOX gene is considered to be a genetic cause of short stature phenotype in Turner syndrome and Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis patients. Though SHOX expression initiates during early fetal development, little is known about the embryonic roles of SHOX. The evolutionary conservation of the zebrafish shox gene and the convenience of the early developmental stages for analyses make zebrafish a preferred model. Here, we characterized structure, expression, and developmental roles of zebrafish shox through a loss-of-function approach. We found a previously undiscovered Shox protein that has both a homeodomain and an OAR-domain in zebrafish. The shox transcript emerged during the segmentation period and it increased in later stages. The predominant domains of shox expression were mandibular arch, pectoral fin, anterior notochord, rhombencephalon, and mesencephalon, suggesting that Shox is involved in bone and neural development. Translational blockade of Shox mRNA by an antisense morpholino oligo delayed embryonic growth, which was restored by the co-overexpression of morpholino-resistant Shox mRNA. At later stages, impaired Shox expression markedly delayed the calcification process in the anterior vertebral column and craniofacial bones. Our data demonstrate evolutionarily conserved Shox plays roles in early embryonic growth and in later bone formation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. BAC Recombineering of the Agouti Loci from Spotted Gar and Zebrafish Reveals the Evolutionary Ancestry of Dorsal-Ventral Pigment Asymmetry in Fish.

    PubMed

    Cal, Laura; MegÍas, Manuel; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Postlethwait, John H; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-11-01

    Dorsoventral pigment patterning, characterized by a light ventrum and a dark dorsum, is one of the most widespread chromatic adaptations in vertebrate body coloration. In mammals, this countershading depends on differential expression of agouti-signaling protein (ASIP), which drives a switch of synthesis of one type of melanin to another within melanocytes. Teleost fish share countershading, but the pattern results from a differential distribution of multiple types of chromatophores, with black-brown melanophores most abundant in the dorsal body and reflective iridophores most abundant in the ventral body. We previously showed that Asip1 (a fish ortholog of mammalian ASIP) plays a role in patterning melanophores. This observation leads to the surprising hypothesis that agouti may control an evolutionarily conserved pigment pattern by regulating different mechanisms in mammals and fish. To test this hypothesis, we compared two ray-finned fishes: the teleost zebrafish and the nonteleost spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus). By examining the endogenous pattern of asip1 expression in gar, we demonstrate a dorsoventral-graded distribution of asip1 expression that is highest ventrally, similar to teleosts. Additionally, in the first reported experiments to generate zebrafish transgenic lines carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) from spotted gar, we show that both transgenic zebrafish lines embryos replicate the endogenous asip1 expression pattern in adult zebrafish, showing that BAC transgenes from both species contain all of the regulatory elements required for regular asip1 expression within adult ray-finned fishes. These experiments provide evidence that the mechanism leading to an environmentally important pigment pattern was likely in place before the origin of teleosts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cardiac myocyte diversity and a fibroblast network in the junctional region of the zebrafish heart revealed by transmission and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lafontant, Pascal J; Behzad, Ali R; Brown, Evelyn; Landry, Paul; Hu, Norman; Burns, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart.

  8. The ventralizing activity of Radar, a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein, reveals complex bone morphogenetic protein interactions controlling dorso-ventral patterning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Goutel, C; Kishimoto, Y; Schulte-Merker, S; Rosa, F

    2000-12-01

    In Xenopus and zebrafish, BMP2, 4 and 7 have been implicated, after the onset of zygotic expression, in inducing and maintaining ventro-lateral cell fate during early development. We provide evidence here that a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Radar, may control early ventral specification in zebrafish. We show that Radar ventralizes zebrafish embryos and induces the early expression of bmp2b and bmp4. The analysis of Radar overexpression in both swirl/bmp2b mutants and embryos expressing truncated BMP receptors shows that Radar-induced ventralization is dependent on functional BMP2/4 pathways, and may initially rely on an Alk6-related signaling pathway. Finally, we show that while radar-injected swirl embryos still exhibit a strongly dorsalized phenotype, the overexpression of Radar into swirl/bmp2b mutant embryos restores ventral marker expression, including bmp4 expression. Our results suggest that a complex regulation of different BMP pathways controls dorso-ventral (DV) patterning from early cleavage stages until somitogenesis.

  9. Simultaneous mapping of membrane voltage and calcium in zebrafish heart in vivo reveals chamber-specific developmental transitions in ionic currents

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jennifer H.; Kralj, Joel M.; Douglass, Adam D.; Engert, Florian; Cohen, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac action potential (AP) and the consequent cytosolic Ca2+ transient are key indicators of cardiac function. Natural developmental processes, as well as many drugs and pathologies change the waveform, propagation, or variability (between cells or over time) of these parameters. Here we apply a genetically encoded dual-function calcium and voltage reporter (CaViar) to study the development of the zebrafish heart in vivo between 1.5 and 4 days post fertilization (dpf). We developed a high-sensitivity spinning disk confocal microscope and associated software for simultaneous three-dimensional optical mapping of voltage and calcium. We produced a transgenic zebrafish line expressing CaViar under control of the heart-specific cmlc2 promoter, and applied ion channel blockers at a series of developmental stages to map the maturation of the action potential in vivo. Early in development, the AP initiated via a calcium current through L-type calcium channels. Between 90 and 102 h post fertilization (hpf), the ventricular AP switched to a sodium-driven upswing, while the atrial AP remained calcium driven. In the adult zebrafish heart, a sodium current drives the AP in both the atrium and ventricle. Simultaneous voltage and calcium imaging with genetically encoded reporters provides a new approach for monitoring cardiac development, and the effects of drugs on cardiac function. PMID:25309445

  10. Simultaneous mapping of membrane voltage and calcium in zebrafish heart in vivo reveals chamber-specific developmental transitions in ionic currents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jennifer H; Kralj, Joel M; Douglass, Adam D; Engert, Florian; Cohen, Adam E

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac action potential (AP) and the consequent cytosolic Ca(2+) transient are key indicators of cardiac function. Natural developmental processes, as well as many drugs and pathologies change the waveform, propagation, or variability (between cells or over time) of these parameters. Here we apply a genetically encoded dual-function calcium and voltage reporter (CaViar) to study the development of the zebrafish heart in vivo between 1.5 and 4 days post fertilization (dpf). We developed a high-sensitivity spinning disk confocal microscope and associated software for simultaneous three-dimensional optical mapping of voltage and calcium. We produced a transgenic zebrafish line expressing CaViar under control of the heart-specific cmlc2 promoter, and applied ion channel blockers at a series of developmental stages to map the maturation of the action potential in vivo. Early in development, the AP initiated via a calcium current through L-type calcium channels. Between 90 and 102 h post fertilization (hpf), the ventricular AP switched to a sodium-driven upswing, while the atrial AP remained calcium driven. In the adult zebrafish heart, a sodium current drives the AP in both the atrium and ventricle. Simultaneous voltage and calcium imaging with genetically encoded reporters provides a new approach for monitoring cardiac development, and the effects of drugs on cardiac function.

  11. A temperature-sensitive mutation in the nodal-related gene cyclops reveals that the floor plate is induced during gastrulation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Yam, Caleb; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Wang, Hui; Gore, Aniket; Sampath, Karuna

    2003-07-01

    The floor plate, a specialized group of cells in the ventral midline of the neural tube of vertebrates, plays crucial roles in patterning the central nervous system. Recent work from zebrafish, chick, chick-quail chimeras and mice to investigate the development of the floor plate have led to several models of floor-plate induction. One model suggests that the floor plate is formed by inductive signalling from the notochord to the overlying neural tube. The induction is thought to be mediated by notochord-derived Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a secreted protein, and requires direct cellular contact between the notochord and the neural tube. Another model proposes a role for the organizer in generating midline precursor cells that produce floor plate cells independent of notochord specification, and proposes that floor plate specification occurs early, during gastrulation. We describe a temperature-sensitive mutation that affects the zebrafish Nodal-related secreted signalling factor, Cyclops, and use it to address the issue of when the floor plate is induced in zebrafish. Zebrafish cyclops regulates the expression of shh in the ventral neural tube. Although null mutations in cyclops result in the lack of the medial floor plate, embryos homozygous for the temperature-sensitive mutation have floor plate cells at the permissive temperature and lack floor plate cells at the restrictive temperature. We use this mutant allele in temperature shift-up and shift-down experiments to answer a central question pertaining to the timing of vertebrate floor plate induction. Abrogation of Cyc/Nodal signalling in the temperature-sensitive mutant embryos at various stages indicates that the floor plate in zebrafish is induced early in development, during gastrulation. In addition, continuous Cyclops signalling is required through gastrulation for a complete ventral neural tube throughout the length of the neuraxis. Finally, by modulation of Nodal signalling levels in mutants and in ectopic

  12. The Topology of the Growing Human Interactome Data.

    PubMed

    Janjić, Vuk; Pržulj, Nataša

    2014-06-01

    We have long moved past the one-gene-one-function concept originally proposed by Beadle and Tatum back in 1941; but the full understanding of genotype-phenotype relations still largely relies on the analysis of static, snapshot-like, interaction data sets. Here, we look at what global patterns can be uncovered if we simply trace back the human interactome network over the last decade of protein-protein interaction (PPI) screening. We take a purely topological approach and find that as the human interactome is getting denser, it is not only gaining in structure (in terms of now being better fit by structured network models than before), but also there are patterns in the way in which it is growing: (a) newly added proteins tend to get linked to existing proteins in the interactome that are not know to interact; and (b) new proteins tend to link to already well connected proteins. Moreover, the alignment between human and yeast interactomes spanning over 40% of yeast's proteins - that are involved in regulation of transcription, RNA splicing and other cellcycle- related processes-suggests the existence of a part of the interactome which remains topologically and functionally unaffected through evolution. Furthermore, we find a small sub-network, specific to the "core" of the human interactome and involved in regulation of transcription and cancer development, whose wiring has not changed within the human interactome over the last 10 years of interacome data acquisition. Finally, we introduce a generalisation of the clustering coefficient of a network as a new measure called the cycle coefficient, and use it to show that PPI networks of human and model organisms are wired in a tight way which forbids the occurrence large cycles.

  13. The topology of the growing human interactome data.

    PubMed

    Janjić, Vuk; Pržulj, Nataša

    2014-06-23

    We have long moved past the one-gene–one-function concept originally proposed by Beadle and Tatum back in 1941; but the full understanding of genotype–phenotype relations still largely relies on the analysis of static, snapshot-like, interaction data sets. Here, we look at what global patterns can be uncovered if we simply trace back the human interactome network over the last decade of protein- protein interaction (PPI) screening. We take a purely topological approach and find that as the human interactome is getting denser, it is not only gaining in structure (in terms of now being better fit by structured network models than before), but also there are patterns in the way in which it is growing: (a) newly added proteins tend to get linked to existing proteins in the interactome that are not know to interact; and (b) new proteins tend to link to already well connected proteins. Moreover, the alignment between human and yeast interactomes spanning over 40% of yeast’s proteins — that are involved in regulation of transcription, RNA splicing and other cellcycle-related processes—suggests the existence of a part of the interactome which remains topologically and functionally unaffected through evolution. Furthermore, we find a small sub-network, specific to the “core” of the human interactome and involved in regulation of transcription and cancer development, whose wiring has not changed within the human interactome over the last 10 years of interacome data acquisition. Finally, we introduce a generalisation of the clustering coefficient of a network as a new measure called the cycle coefficient, and use it to show that PPI networks of human and model organisms are wired in a tight way which forbids the occurrence large cycles.

  14. Characterization of clinical signs in the human interactome.

    PubMed

    Chagoyen, Monica; Pazos, Florencio

    2016-06-15

    Many diseases are related by shared associated molecules and pathways, exhibiting comorbidities and common phenotypes, an indication of the continuous nature of the human pathological landscape. Although it is continuous, this landscape is always partitioned into discrete diseases when studied at the molecular level. Clinical signs are also important phenotypic descriptors that can reveal the molecular mechanisms that underlie pathological states, but have seldom been the subject of systemic research. Here, we quantify the modular nature of the clinical signs associated with genetic diseases in the human interactome. We found that clinical signs are reflected as modules at the molecular network level, to at least to the same extent as diseases. They can thus serve as a valid complementary partition of the human pathological landscape, with implications for etiology research, diagnosis and treatment. monica.chagoyen@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Transcriptional atlas of cardiogenesis maps congenital heart disease interactome.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Hartjes, Katherine A; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Olson, Timothy M; Terzic, Andre; Nelson, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian heart development is built on highly conserved molecular mechanisms with polygenetic perturbations resulting in a spectrum of congenital heart diseases (CHD). However, knowledge of cardiogenic ontogeny that regulates proper cardiogenesis remains largely based on candidate-gene approaches. Mapping the dynamic transcriptional landscape of cardiogenesis from a genomic perspective is essential to integrate the knowledge of heart development into translational applications that accelerate disease discovery efforts toward mechanistic-based treatment strategies. Herein, we designed a time-course transcriptome analysis to investigate the genome-wide dynamic expression landscape of innate murine cardiogenesis ranging from embryonic stem cells to adult cardiac structures. This comprehensive analysis generated temporal and spatial expression profiles, revealed stage-specific gene functions, and mapped the dynamic transcriptome of cardiogenesis to curated pathways. Reconciling known genetic underpinnings of CHD, we deconstructed a disease-centric dynamic interactome encoded within this cardiogenic atlas to identify stage-specific developmental disturbances clustered on regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), BMP signaling, NF-AT signaling, TGFb-dependent EMT, and Notch signaling. Collectively, this cardiogenic transcriptional landscape defines the time-dependent expression of cardiac ontogeny and prioritizes regulatory networks at the interface between health and disease. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Advanced Morphological — Behavioral Test Platform Reveals Neurodevelopmental Defects in Embryonic Zebrafish Exposed to Comprehensive Suite of Halogenated and Organophosphate Flame Retardants

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Pamela D.; Haggard, Derik E.; Gonnerman, Greg D.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of flammable plastics and electronic devices along with stricter fire safety standards has led to the heavy use of flame retardant chemicals in many consumer, commercial, and industrial products. Although flame retardant use has increased, a great deal of uncertainty surrounds their safety with some evidence showing toxicity and risk to human and environmental health. Recent efforts have focused on designing high-throughput biological platforms with nonmammalian models to evaluate and prioritize chemicals with limited hazard information. To complement these efforts, this study used a new morphological and behavioral testing platform with embryonic zebrafish to characterize the developmental toxicity of 44 halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants, including several of their known metabolites. Zebrafish were exposed to flame retardants from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) across concentrations spanning 4 orders of magnitude (eg, 6.4 nM to 64 µM). Flame retardant effects on survival and development were evaluated at 24 and 120 hpf, and neurobehavioral changes were measured using 2 photomotor response (PMR) assays. Compared to controls, 93% (41/44) of flame retardants studied elicited adverse effects among one or more of the bioassays and concentrations tested with the aryl phosphate ester (APE)-based mono-isopropylated triaryl phosphate and the brominated-bisphenol-A analog tetrabromobisphenol-A producing the greatest array of malformations. Hierarchical clustering showed that APE flame retardants with isopropyl, butyl, and cresyl substituents on phenyl rings clustered tightly and were particularly potent. Both PMR assays were highly predictive of morphological defects supporting their use as nonlethal means of evaluating teratogenicity that could allow for additional evaluations of long-term or delayed effects in older animals. Taken together, evidence presented here indicates that zebrafish neurodevelopment is highly sensitive to

  17. Zebrafish Models for the Mechanosensory Hair Cell Dysfunction in Usher Syndrome 3 Reveal That Clarin-1 Is an Essential Hair Bundle Protein.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Suhasini R; Chen, Daniel H-C; Chou, Shih-Wei; Zang, Jingjing; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Stepanyan, Ruben; McDermott, Brian M; Alagramam, Kumar N

    2015-07-15

    Usher syndrome type III (USH3) is characterized by progressive loss of hearing and vision, and varying degrees of vestibular dysfunction. It is caused by mutations that affect the human clarin-1 protein (hCLRN1), a member of the tetraspanin protein family. The missense mutation CLRN1(N48K), which affects a conserved N-glycosylation site in hCLRN1, is a common causative USH3 mutation among Ashkenazi Jews. The affected individuals hear at birth but lose that function over time. Here, we developed an animal model system using zebrafish transgenesis and gene targeting to provide an explanation for this phenotype. Immunolabeling demonstrated that Clrn1 localized to the hair cell bundles (hair bundles). The clrn1 mutants generated by zinc finger nucleases displayed aberrant hair bundle morphology with diminished function. Two transgenic zebrafish that express either hCLRN1 or hCLRN1(N48K) in hair cells were produced to examine the subcellular localization patterns of wild-type and mutant human proteins. hCLRN1 localized to the hair bundles similarly to zebrafish Clrn1; in contrast, hCLRN1(N48K) largely mislocalized to the cell body with a small amount reaching the hair bundle. We propose that this small amount of hCLRN1(N48K) in the hair bundle provides clarin-1-mediated function during the early stages of life; however, the presence of hCLRN1(N48K) in the hair bundle diminishes over time because of intracellular degradation of the mutant protein, leading to progressive loss of hair bundle integrity and hair cell function. These findings and genetic tools provide an understanding and path forward to identify therapies to mitigate hearing loss linked to the CLRN1 mutation. Mutations in the clarin-1 gene affect eye and ear function in humans. Individuals with the CLRN1(N48K) mutation are born able to hear but lose that function over time. Here, we develop an animal model system using zebrafish transgenesis and gene targeting to provide an explanation for this phenotype

  18. Multiple bio-analytical methods to reveal possible molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhihua; Wang, Qiangwei; Fu, Jie; Chen, Hongshan; Zhao, Ye; Zhou, Bingsheng; Gong, Zhiyuan; Wei, Si; Li, Jun; Liu, Hongling; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Chunsheng; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-05-01

    The flame retardant tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) is a frequently detected contaminant in the environment, wildlife and human milk. The potentially toxic effects of TBEP and their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations of TBEP from 4 hours of post-fertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf, and effects on embryonic development and global protein expression patterns examined. Our results demonstrate that treatment with TBEP (0.8-100mg/L) causes a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in embryonic survival and the hatching percentage. The median lethal concentration was 10.7 mg/L at 120 hpf. Furthermore, exposure to 150 or 800 μg/L TBEP inhibited the degradation and utilization of vitellogenins and down-regulated the expression of proteins related to cation binding, and lipid transport, uptake and metabolism, accompanied by a decrease in heart rate and body length. Exposure to TBEP (150 or 800 μg/L) also decreased the expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation and DNA repair, and led to an increased number of apoptotic cells in the tail region. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TBEP causes toxicity in the developing zebrafish by inhibiting the degradation and utilization of nutrients from the mother and inducing apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. "Fuzziness" in the celular interactome: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Welch, G Rickey

    2012-01-01

    Some historical background is given for appreciating the impact of the empirical construct known as the cellular protein-protein interactome, which is a seemingly de novo entity that has arisen of late within the context of postgenomic systems biology. The approach here builds on a generalized principle of "fuzziness" in protein behavior, proposed by Tompa and Fuxreiter.(1) Recent controversies in the analysis and interpretation of the interactome studies are rationalized historically under the auspices of this concept. There is an extensive literature on protein-protein interactions, dating to the mid-1900s, which may help clarify the "fuzziness" in the interactome picture and, also, provide a basis for understanding the physiological importance of protein-protein interactions in vivo.

  20. The distinctive cell division interactome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yinan; Li, Yan; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2017-12-12

    Bacterial cell division is an essential process driven by the formation of a Z-ring structure, as a cytoskeletal scaffold at the mid-cell, followed by the recruitment of various proteins which form the divisome. The cell division interactome reflects the complement of different interactions between all divisome proteins. To date, only two cell division interactomes have been characterized, in Escherichia coli and in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The cell divison proteins encoded by Neisseria gonorrhoeae include FtsZ, FtsA, ZipA, FtsK, FtsQ, FtsI, FtsW, and FtsN. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the cell division interactome of N. gonorrhoeae using several different methods to identify protein-protein interactions. We also characterized the specific subdomains of FtsA implicated in interactions with FtsZ, FtsQ, FtsN and FtsW. Using a combination of bacterial two-hybrid (B2H), glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), nine interactions were observed among the eight gonococcal cell division proteins tested. ZipA did not interact with any other cell division proteins. Comparisons of the N. gonorrhoeae cell division interactome with the published interactomes from E. coli and S. pneumoniae indicated that FtsA-FtsZ and FtsZ-FtsK interactions were common to all three species. FtsA-FtsW and FtsK-FtsN interactions were only present in N. gonorrhoeae. The 2A and 2B subdomains of FtsA Ng were involved in interactions with FtsQ, FtsZ, and FtsN, and the 2A subdomain was involved in interaction with FtsW. Results from this research indicate that N. gonorrhoeae has a distinctive cell division interactome as compared with other microorganisms.

  1. Next-Generation Technologies for Multiomics Approaches Including Interactome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto-Sato, Etsuko

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-speed analytical techniques such as next-generation sequencing and microarrays allows high-throughput analysis of biological information at a low cost. These techniques contribute to medical and bioscience advancements and provide new avenues for scientific research. Here, we outline a variety of new innovative techniques and discuss their use in omics research (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and interactomics). We also discuss the possible applications of these methods, including an interactome sequencing technology that we developed, in future medical and life science research. PMID:25649523

  2. Integrative Analysis of Brain Region-specific Shank3 Interactomes for Understanding the Heterogeneity of Neuronal Pathophysiology Related to SHANK3 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeunkum; Kang, Hyojin; Lee, Bokyoung; Zhang, Yinhua; Kim, Yoonhee; Kim, Shinhyun; Kim, Won-Ki; Han, Kihoon

    2017-01-01

    Recent molecular genetic studies have identified 100s of risk genes for various neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. As the number of risk genes increases, it is becoming clear that different mutations of a single gene could cause different types of disorders. One of the best examples of such a gene is SHANK3, which encodes a core scaffold protein of the neuronal excitatory post-synapse. Deletions, duplications, and point mutations of SHANK3 are associated with autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nevertheless, how the different mutations of SHANK3 can lead to such phenotypic diversity remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Shank3 could form protein complexes in a brain region-specific manner, which might contribute to the heterogeneity of neuronal pathophysiology caused by SHANK3 mutations. To test this, we generated a medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) Shank3 in vivo interactome consisting of 211 proteins, and compared this protein list with a Shank3 interactome previously generated from mixed hippocampal and striatal (HP+STR) tissues. Unexpectedly, we found that only 47 proteins (about 20%) were common between the two interactomes, while 164 and 208 proteins were specifically identified in the mPFC and HP+STR interactomes, respectively. Each of the mPFC- and HP+STR-specific Shank3 interactomes represents a highly interconnected network. Upon comparing the brain region-enriched proteomes, we found that the large difference between the mPFC and HP+STR Shank3 interactomes could not be explained by differential protein expression profiles among the brain regions. Importantly, bioinformatic pathway analysis revealed that the representative biological functions of the mPFC- and HP+STR-specific Shank3 interactomes were different, suggesting that these interactors could mediate the brain region-specific functions of Shank3. Meanwhile, the

  3. Prediction of GCRV virus-host protein interactome based on structural motif-domain interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aidi; He, Libo; Wang, Yaping

    2017-03-02

    Grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV), is the most fatal causative agent in grass carp aquaculture. Protein-protein interactions between virus and host are one avenue through which GCRV can trigger infection and induce disease. Experimental approaches for the detection of host-virus interactome have many inherent limitations, and studies on protein-protein interactions between GCRV and its host remain rare. In this study, based on known motif-domain interaction information, we systematically predicted the GCRV virus-host protein interactome by using motif-domain interaction pair searching strategy. These proteins derived from different domain families and were predicted to interact with different motif patterns in GCRV. JAM-A protein was successfully predicted to interact with motifs of GCRV Sigma1-like protein, and shared the similar binding mode compared with orthoreovirus. Differentially expressed genes during GCRV infection process were extracted and mapped to our predicted interactome, the overlapped genes displayed different tissue expression distributions on the whole, the overall expression level in intestinal is higher than that of other three tissues, which may suggest that the functions of these genes are more active in intestinal. Function annotation and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the host targets were largely involved in signaling pathway and immune pathway, such as interferon-gamma signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, EGF receptor signaling pathway, B cell activation, and T cell activation. Although the predicted PPIs may contain some false positives due to limited data resource and poor research background in non-model species, the computational method still provide reasonable amount of interactions, which can be further validated by high throughput experiments. The findings of this work will contribute to the development of system biology for GCRV infectious diseases, and help guide the

  4. Network analysis reveals stage-specific changes in zebrafish embryo development using time course whole transcriptome profiling and prior biological knowledge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Molecular networks act as the backbone of molecular activities within cells, offering a unique opportunity to better understand the mechanism of diseases. While network data usually constitute only static network maps, integrating them with time course gene expression information can provide clues to the dynamic features of these networks and unravel the mechanistic driver genes characterizing cellular responses. Time course gene expression data allow us to broadly "watch" the dynamics of the system. However, one challenge in the analysis of such data is to establish and characterize the interplay among genes that are altered at different time points in the context of a biological process or functional category. Integrative analysis of these data sources will lead us a more complete understanding of how biological entities (e.g., genes and proteins) coordinately perform their biological functions in biological systems. In this paper, we introduced a novel network-based approach to extract functional knowledge from time-dependent biological processes at a system level using time course mRNA sequencing data in zebrafish embryo development. The proposed method was applied to investigate 1α, 25(OH)2D3-altered mechanisms in zebrafish embryo development. We applied the proposed method to a public zebrafish time course mRNA-Seq dataset, containing two different treatments along four time points. We constructed networks between gene ontology biological process categories, which were enriched in differential expressed genes between consecutive time points and different conditions. The temporal propagation of 1α, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-altered transcriptional changes started from a few genes that were altered initially at earlier stage, to large groups of biological coherent genes at later stages. The most notable biological processes included neuronal and retinal development and generalized stress response. In addition, we also investigated the relationship among

  5. What is the Thalamus in Zebrafish?

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Current research on the thalamus and related structures in the zebrafish diencephalon identifies an increasing number of both neurological structures and ontogenetic processes as evolutionary conserved between teleosts and mammals. The patterning processes, for example, which during the embryonic development of zebrafish form the thalamus proper appear largely conserved. Yet also striking differences between zebrafish and other vertebrates have been observed, particularly when we look at mature and histologically differentiated brains. A case in point is the migrated preglomerular complex of zebrafish which evolved only within the lineage of ray-finned fish and has no counterpart in mammals or tetrapod vertebrates. Based on its function as a sensory relay station with projections to pallial zones, the preglomerular complex has been compared to specific thalamic nuclei in mammals. However, no thalamic projections to the zebrafish dorsal pallium, which corresponds topologically to the mammalian isocortex, have been identified. Merely one teleostean thalamic nucleus proper, the auditory nucleus, projects to a part of the dorsal telencephalon, the pallial amygdala. Studies on patterning mechanisms identify a rostral and caudal domain in the embryonic thalamus proper. In both, teleosts and mammals, the rostral domain gives rise to GABAergic neurons, whereas glutamatergic neurons originate in the caudal domain of the zebrafish thalamus. The distribution of GABAergic derivatives in the adult zebrafish brain, furthermore, revealed previously overlooked thalamic nuclei and redefined already established ones. These findings require some reconsideration regarding the topological origin of these adult structures. In what follows, I discuss how evolutionary conserved and newly acquired features of the developing and adult zebrafish thalamus can be compared to the mammalian situation. PMID:22586363

  6. Interactomic approach for evaluating nucleophosmin-binding proteins as biomarkers for Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Haga, Ayako; Ogawara, Yoko; Kubota, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Issay; Murakami, Yasufumi; Kondo, Tadashi

    2013-06-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a novel prognostic biomarker for Ewing's sarcoma. To evaluate the prognostic utility of NPM, we conducted an interactomic approach to characterize the NPM protein complex in Ewing's sarcoma cells. A gene suppression assay revealed that NPM promoted cell proliferation and the invasive properties of Ewing's sarcoma cells. FLAG-tag-based affinity purification coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 106 proteins in the NPM protein complex. The functional classification suggested that the NPM complex participates in critical biological events, including ribosome biogenesis, regulation of transcription and translation, and protein folding, that are mediated by these proteins. In addition to JAK1, a candidate prognostic biomarker for Ewing's sarcoma, the NPM complex, includes 11 proteins known as prognostic biomarkers for other malignancies. Meta-analysis of gene expression profiles of 32 patients with Ewing's sarcoma revealed that 6 of 106 were significantly and independently associated with survival period. These observations suggest a functional role as well as prognostic value of these NPM complex proteins in Ewing's sarcoma. Further, our study suggests the potential applications of interactomics in conjunction with meta-analysis for biomarker discovery. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Putative human sperm Interactome: a networks study.

    PubMed

    Ordinelli, Alessandra; Bernabò, Nicola; Orsini, Massimiliano; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2018-04-11

    For over sixty years, it has been known that mammalian spermatozoa immediately after ejaculation are virtually infertile. They became able to fertilize only after they reside for long time (hours to days) within female genital tract where they complete their functional maturation, the capacitation. This process is finely regulated by the interaction with the female environment and involves, in spermatozoa, a myriad of molecules as messengers and target of signals. Since, to date, a model able to represent the molecular interaction that characterize sperm physiology does not exist, we realized the Human Sperm Interactme Network3.0 (HSIN3.0) and its main component (HSNI3.0_MC), starting from the pathway active in male germ cells. HSIN3.0 and HSIN3.0_MC are scale free networks, adherent to the Barabasi-Albert model, and are characterised by an ultra-small world topology. We found that they are resistant to random attacks and that are designed to respond quickly and specifically to external inputs. In addition, it has been possible to identify the most connected nodes (the hubs) and the bottlenecks nodes. This result allowed us to explore the control mechanisms active in driving sperm biochemical machinery and to verify the different levels of controls: party vs. date hubs and hubs vs. bottlenecks, thanks the availability of data from KO mice. Finally, we found that several key nodes represent molecules specifically involved in function that are thought to be not present or not active in sperm cells, such as control of cell cycle, proteins synthesis, nuclear trafficking, and immune response, thus potentially open new perspectives on the study of sperm biology. For the first time we present a network representing putative human sperm interactome. This result gives very intriguing biological information and could contribute to the knowledge of spermatozoa, either in physiological or pathological conditions.

  8. Evidence for network evolution in an arabidopsis interactome map

    Plants have unique features that evolved in response to their environments and ecosystems. A full account of the complex cellular networks that underlie plant-specific functions is still missing. We describe a proteome-wide binary protein-protein interaction map for the interactome network of the pl...

  9. Towards Establishment of a Rice Stress Response Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Su; Chern, Mawsheng; Bartley, Laura E.; Han, Muho; Jung, Ki-Hong; Lee, Insuk; Walia, Harkamal; Richter, Todd; Xu, Xia; Cao, Peijian; Bai, Wei; Ramanan, Rajeshwari; Amonpant, Fawn; Arul, Loganathan; Canlas, Patrick E.; Ruan, Randy; Park, Chang-Jin; Chen, Xuewei; Hwang, Sohyun; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for more than half the world and a model for studies of monocotyledonous species, which include cereal crops and candidate bioenergy grasses. A major limitation of crop production is imposed by a suite of abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in 30%–60% yield losses globally each year. To elucidate stress response signaling networks, we constructed an interactome of 100 proteins by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays around key regulators of the rice biotic and abiotic stress responses. We validated the interactome using protein–protein interaction (PPI) assays, co-expression of transcripts, and phenotypic analyses. Using this interactome-guided prediction and phenotype validation, we identified ten novel regulators of stress tolerance, including two from protein classes not previously known to function in stress responses. Several lines of evidence support cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stress responses. The combination of focused interactome and systems analyses described here represents significant progress toward elucidating the molecular basis of traits of agronomic importance. PMID:21533176

  10. Mapping transcription factor interactome networks using HaloTag protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Junshi; Galli, Mary; Kim, Alice Y; Nito, Kazumasa; Aleman, Fernando; Chang, Katherine N; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Quan, Rosa; Nguyen, Hien; Song, Liang; Alvarez, José M; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Chen, Huaming; Ramachandran, Niroshan; Altmann, Stefan; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Hill, David E; Schroeder, Julian I; Chory, Joanne; LaBaer, Joshua; Vidal, Marc; Braun, Pascal; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-07-19

    Protein microarrays enable investigation of diverse biochemical properties for thousands of proteins in a single experiment, an unparalleled capacity. Using a high-density system called HaloTag nucleic acid programmable protein array (HaloTag-NAPPA), we created high-density protein arrays comprising 12,000 Arabidopsis ORFs. We used these arrays to query protein-protein interactions for a set of 38 transcription factors and transcriptional regulators (TFs) that function in diverse plant hormone regulatory pathways. The resulting transcription factor interactome network, TF-NAPPA, contains thousands of novel interactions. Validation in a benchmarked in vitro pull-down assay revealed that a random subset of TF-NAPPA validated at the same rate of 64% as a positive reference set of literature-curated interactions. Moreover, using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay, we confirmed in planta several interactions of biological interest and determined the interaction localizations for seven pairs. The application of HaloTag-NAPPA technology to plant hormone signaling pathways allowed the identification of many novel transcription factor-protein interactions and led to the development of a proteome-wide plant hormone TF interactome network.

  11. Characterization of the zinc-induced Shank3 interactome of mouse synaptosome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeunkum; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Yoonhee; Kim, Shinhyun; Zhang, Yinhua; Jin, Chunmei; Cho, Hyo Min; Kim, Won-Ki; Sun, Woong; Han, Kihoon

    2017-12-16

    Variants of the SHANK3 gene, which encodes a core scaffold protein of the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses, have been causally associated with numerous brain disorders. Shank3 proteins directly bind zinc ions through their C-terminal sterile α motif domain, which enhances the multimerization and synaptic localization of Shank3, to regulate excitatory synaptic strength. However, no studies have explored whether zinc affects the protein interactions of Shank3, which might contribute to the synaptic changes observed after zinc application. To examine this, we first purified Shank3 protein complexes from mouse brain synaptosomal lysates that were incubated with different concentrations of ZnCl 2 , and analyzed them with mass spectrometry. We used strict criteria to identify 71 proteins that specifically interacted with Shank3 when extra ZnCl 2 was added to the lysate. To characterize the zinc-induced Shank3 interactome, we performed various bioinformatic analyses that revealed significant associations of the interactome with subcellular compartments, including mitochondria, and brain disorders, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Together, our results showing that zinc affected the Shank3 protein interactions of in vitro mouse synaptosomes provided an additional link between zinc and core synaptic proteins that have been implicated in multiple brain disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interactome-transcriptome analysis discovers signatures complementary to GWAS Loci of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Woei; Lee, Heung-Man; Wang, Ying; Tong, Amy Hin-Yan; Yip, Kevin Y.; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Lok, Si; Ozaki, Risa; Luk, Andrea O; Kong, Alice P. S.; So, Wing-Yee; Ma, Ronald C. W.; Chan, Juliana C. N.; Chan, Ting-Fung

    2016-01-01

    Protein interactions play significant roles in complex diseases. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome using a multi-method strategy. We constructed a tissue-specific interactome (T2Di) and identified 420 molecular signatures associated with T2D-related comorbidity and symptoms, mainly implicated in inflammation, adipogenesis, protein phosphorylation and hormonal secretion. Apart from explaining the residual associations within the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) study, the T2Di signatures were enriched in pathogenic cell type-specific regulatory elements related to fetal development, immunity and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). The T2Di revealed a novel locus near a well-established GWAS loci AChE, in which SRRT interacts with JAZF1, a T2D-GWAS gene implicated in pancreatic function. The T2Di also included known anti-diabetic drug targets (e.g. PPARD, MAOB) and identified possible druggable targets (e.g. NCOR2, PDGFR). These T2Di signatures were validated by an independent computational method, and by expression data of pancreatic islet, muscle and liver with some of the signatures (CEBPB, SREBF1, MLST8, SRF, SRRT and SLC12A9) confirmed in PBMC from an independent cohort of 66 T2D and 66 control subjects. By combining prior knowledge and transcriptome analysis, we have constructed an interactome to explain the multi-layered regulatory pathways in T2D. PMID:27752041

  13. Lipidomics and H218O labeling techniques reveal increased remodeling of DHA-containing membrane phospholipids associated with abnormal locomotor responses in α-tocopherol deficient zebrafish (danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Melissa Q.; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, Jan F.; Truong, Lisa; Tanguay, Robert L.; Traber, Maret G.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is required by the developing embryonic brain to prevent depletion of highly polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6), the loss of which we predicted would underlie abnormal morphological and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we fed adult 5D zebrafish (Danio rerio) defined diets without (E−) or with added α-tocopherol (E+, 500 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) for a minimum of 80 days, and then spawned them to obtain E− and E+ embryos. The E− compared with E+ embryos were 82% less responsive (p<0.01) to a light/dark stimulus at 96 h post-fertilization (hpf), demonstrating impaired locomotor behavior, even in the absence of gross morphological defects. Evaluation of phospholipid (PL) and lysophospholipid (lyso-PL) composition using untargeted lipidomics in E− compared with E+ embryos at 24, 48, 72, and 120 hpf showed that four PLs and three lyso-PLs containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC 22:6, required for transport of DHA into the brain, p<0.001), were at lower concentrations in E− at all time-points. Additionally, H218O labeling experiments revealed enhanced turnover of LPC 22:6 (p<0.001) and three other DHA-containing PLs in the E− compared with the E+ embryos, suggesting that increased membrane remodeling is a result of PL depletion. Together, these data indicate that α-tocopherol deficiency in the zebrafish embryo causes the specific depletion and increased turnover of DHA-containing PL and lyso-PLs, which may compromise DHA delivery to the brain and thereby contribute to the functional impairments observed in E− embryos. PMID:26774753

  14. Expression of multiple slow myosin heavy chain genes reveals a diversity of zebrafish slow twitch muscle fibres with differing requirements for Hedgehog and Prdm1 activity.

    PubMed

    Elworthy, Stone; Hargrave, Murray; Knight, Robert; Mebus, Katharina; Ingham, Philip W

    2008-06-01

    The zebrafish embryo develops a series of anatomically distinct slow twitch muscle fibres that characteristically express genes encoding lineage-specific isoforms of sarcomeric proteins such as MyHC and troponin. We show here that different subsets of these slow fibres express distinct members of a tandem array of slow MyHC genes. The first slow twitch muscle fibres to differentiate, which are specified by the activity of the transcription factor Prdm1 (also called Ubo or Blimp1) in response to Hedgehog (Hh) signalling, express the smyhc1 gene. Subsequently, secondary slow twitch fibres differentiate in most cases independently of Hh activity. We find that although some of these later-forming fibres also express smyhc1, others express smyhc2 or smyhc3. We show that the smyhc1-positive fibres express the ubo (prdm1) gene and adopt fast twitch fibre characteristics in the absence of Prdm1 activity, whereas those that do not express smyhc1 can differentiate independently of Prdm1 function. Conversely, some smyhc2-expressing fibres, although independent of Prdm1 function, require Hh activity to form. The adult trunk slow fibres express smyhc2 and smyhc3, but lack smyhc1 expression. The different slow fibres in the craniofacial muscles variously express smyhc1, smyhc2 and smyhc3, and all differentiate independently of Prdm1.

  15. Zebrafish no isthmus reveals a role for pax2.1 in tubule differentiation and patterning events in the pronephric primordia.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, A; Lun, K; Brand, M; Drummond, I A

    2000-05-01

    Pax genes are important developmental regulators and function at multiple stages of vertebrate kidney organogenesis. In this report, we have used the zebrafish pax2.1 mutant no isthmus to investigate the role for pax2.1 in development of the pronephros. We demonstrate a requirement for pax2.1 in multiple aspects of pronephric development including tubule and duct epithelial differentiation and cloaca morphogenesis. Morphological analysis demonstrates that noi(- )larvae specifically lack pronephric tubules while glomerular cell differentiation is unaffected. In addition, pax2.1 expression in the lateral cells of the pronephric primordium is required to restrict the domains of Wilms' tumor suppressor (wt1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression to medial podocyte progenitors. Ectopic podocyte-specific marker expression in pronephric duct cells correlates with loss of expression of the pronephric tubule and duct-specific markers mAb 3G8 and a Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (&agr;)1 subunit. The results suggest that the failure in pronephric tubule differentiation in noi arises from a patterning defect during differentiation of the pronephric primordium and that mutually inhibitory regulatory interactions play an important role in defining the boundary between glomerular and tubule progenitors in the forming nephron.

  16. Macrophage–Microbe Interactions: Lessons from the Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Nagisa; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Mostowy, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages provide front line defense against infections. The study of macrophage–microbe interplay is thus crucial for understanding pathogenesis and infection control. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae provide a unique platform to study macrophage–microbe interactions in vivo, from the level of the single cell to the whole organism. Studies using zebrafish allow non-invasive, real-time visualization of macrophage recruitment and phagocytosis. Furthermore, the chemical and genetic tractability of zebrafish has been central to decipher the complex role of macrophages during infection. Here, we discuss the latest developments using zebrafish models of bacterial and fungal infection. We also review novel aspects of macrophage biology revealed by zebrafish, which can potentiate development of new therapeutic strategies for humans. PMID:29250076

  17. Examination of a Palatogenic Gene Program in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Mary E.; Sheehan-Rooney, Kelly; Dixon, Michael J.; Eberhart, Johann K.

    2011-01-01

    Human palatal clefting is debilitating and difficult to rectify surgically. Animal models enhance our understanding of palatogenesis and are essential in strategies designed to ameliorate palatal malformations in humans. Recent studies have shown that the zebrafish palate, or anterior neurocranium, is under similar genetic control to the amniote palatal skeleton. We extensively analyzed palatogenesis in zebrafish to determine the similarity of gene expression and function across vertebrates. By 36 hpf palatogenic cranial neural crest cells reside in homologous regions of the developing face compared to amniote species. Transcription factors and signaling molecules regulating mouse palatogenesis are expressed in similar domains during palatogenesis in zebrafish. Functional investigation of a subset of these genes, fgf10a, tgfb2, pax9 and smad5 revealed their necessity in zebrafish palatogenesis. Collectively, these results suggest that the gene regulatory networks regulating palatogenesis may be conserved across vertebrate species, demonstrating the utility of zebrafish as a model for palatogenesis. PMID:22016187

  18. Illuminating Phagocyte Biology: The View from Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong; Niethammer, Philipp

    2016-07-25

    Many phagocyte behaviors, including vascular rolling and adhesion, migration, and oxidative bursting, are better measured in seconds or minutes than hours or days. Zebrafish is ideally suited for imaging such rapid biology within the intact animal. We discuss how this model has revealed unique insights into various aspects of phagocyte physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SH3 interactome conserves general function over specific form

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiaofeng; Gfeller, David; Cheng, Jackie; Tonikian, Raffi; Sun, Lin; Guo, Ailan; Lopez, Lianet; Pavlenco, Alevtina; Akintobi, Adenrele; Zhang, Yingnan; Rual, Jean-François; Currell, Bridget; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Hao, Tong; Yang, Xinping; Shen, Yun A; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Li, Jingjing; Cheng, Aaron T; Bouamalay, Dryden; Lugari, Adrien; Hill, David E; Grimes, Mark L; Drubin, David G; Grant, Barth D; Vidal, Marc; Boone, Charles; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Bader, Gary D

    2013-01-01

    Src homology 3 (SH3) domains bind peptides to mediate protein–protein interactions that assemble and regulate dynamic biological processes. We surveyed the repertoire of SH3 binding specificity using peptide phage display in a metazoan, the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, and discovered that it structurally mirrors that of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We then mapped the worm SH3 interactome using stringent yeast two-hybrid and compared it with the equivalent map for yeast. We found that the worm SH3 interactome resembles the analogous yeast network because it is significantly enriched for proteins with roles in endocytosis. Nevertheless, orthologous SH3 domain-mediated interactions are highly rewired. Our results suggest a model of network evolution where general function of the SH3 domain network is conserved over its specific form. PMID:23549480

  20. Mapping the Small Molecule Interactome by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Flaxman, Hope A; Woo, Christina M

    2018-01-16

    Mapping small molecule interactions throughout the proteome provides the critical structural basis for functional analysis of their impact on biochemistry. However, translation of mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods to directly profile the interaction between a small molecule and the whole proteome is challenging because of the substoichiometric nature of many interactions, the diversity of covalent and noncovalent interactions involved, and the subsequent computational complexity associated with their spectral assignment. Recent advances in chemical proteomics have begun fill this gap to provide a structural basis for the breadth of small molecule-protein interactions in the whole proteome. Innovations enabling direct characterization of the small molecule interactome include faster, more sensitive instrumentation coupled to chemical conjugation, enrichment, and labeling methods that facilitate detection and assignment. These methods have started to measure molecular interaction hotspots due to inherent differences in local amino acid reactivity and binding affinity throughout the proteome. Measurement of the small molecule interactome is producing structural insights and methods for probing and engineering protein biochemistry. Direct structural characterization of the small molecule interactome is a rapidly emerging area pushing new frontiers in biochemistry at the interface of small molecules and the proteome.

  1. A predicted protein interactome identifies conserved global networks and disease resistance subnetworks in maize

    An interactome is the genome-wide roadmap of protein-protein interactions that occur within an organism. Interactomes for humans, the fruit fly, and now plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa have been generated using high throughput experimental methods. It is possible to use these ...

  2. AIM: A comprehensive Arabidopsis Interactome Module database and related interologs in plants

    Systems biology analysis of protein modules is important for understanding the functional relationships between proteins in the interactome. Here, we present a comprehensive database named AIM for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) interactome modules. The database contains almost 250,000 modules th...

  3. Interactome of the hepatitis C virus: Literature mining with ANDSystem.

    PubMed

    Saik, Olga V; Ivanisenko, Timofey V; Demenkov, Pavel S; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A

    2016-06-15

    A study of the molecular genetics mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions is of paramount importance in developing drugs against viral diseases. Currently, the literature contains a huge amount of information that describes interactions between HCV and human proteins. In addition, there are many factual databases that contain experimentally verified data on HCV-host interactions. The sources of such data are the original data along with the data manually extracted from the literature. However, the manual analysis of scientific publications is time consuming and, because of this, databases created with such an approach often do not have complete information. One of the most promising methods to provide actualisation and completeness of information is text mining. Here, with the use of a previously developed method by the authors using ANDSystem, an automated extraction of information on the interactions between HCV and human proteins was conducted. As a data source for the text mining approach, PubMed abstracts and full text articles were used. Additionally, external factual databases were analyzed. On the basis of this analysis, a special version of ANDSystem, extended with the HCV interactome, was created. The HCV interactome contains information about the interactions between 969 human and 11 HCV proteins. Among the 969 proteins, 153 'new' proteins were found not previously referred to in any external databases of protein-protein interactions for HCV-host interactions. Thus, the extended ANDSystem possesses a more comprehensive detailing of HCV-host interactions versus other existing databases. It was interesting that HCV proteins more preferably interact with human proteins that were already involved in a large number of protein-protein interactions as well as those associated with many diseases. Among human proteins of the HCV interactome, there were a large number of proteins regulated by microRNAs. It turned out that the results obtained for protein

  4. Analysis of the interactome of the Ser/Thr Protein Phosphatase type 1 in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hollin, Thomas; De Witte, Caroline; Lenne, Astrid; Pierrot, Christine; Khalife, Jamal

    2016-03-17

    Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is an enzyme essential to cell viability in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). The activity of PP1 is regulated by the binding of regulatory subunits, of which there are up to 200 in humans, but only 3 have been so far reported for the parasite. To better understand the P. falciparum PP1 (PfPP1) regulatory network, we here report the use of three strategies to characterize the PfPP1 interactome: co-affinity purified proteins identified by mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening and in silico analysis of the P. falciparum predicted proteome. Co-affinity purification followed by MS analysis identified 6 PfPP1 interacting proteins (Pips) of which 3 contained the RVxF consensus binding, 2 with a Fxx[RK]x[RK] motif, also shown to be a PP1 binding motif and one with both binding motifs. The Y2H screens identified 134 proteins of which 30 present the RVxF binding motif and 20 have the Fxx[RK]x[RK] binding motif. The in silico screen of the Pf predicted proteome using a consensus RVxF motif as template revealed the presence of 55 potential Pips. As further demonstration, 35 candidate proteins were validated as PfPP1 interacting proteins in an ELISA-based assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on PfPP1 interactome. The data reports several conserved PP1 interacting proteins as well as a high number of specific interactors to PfPP1. Their analysis indicates a high diversity of biological functions for PP1 in Plasmodium. Based on the present data and on an earlier study of the Pf interactome, a potential implication of Pips in protein folding/proteolysis, transcription and pathogenicity networks is proposed. The present work provides a starting point for further studies on the structural basis of these interactions and their functions in P. falciparum.

  5. Characterization of a Protein Interactome by Co-Immunoprecipitation and Shotgun Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Bonfiglio, Juan Jose; Silberstein, Susana; Turck, Christoph W; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the partners of a given protein (the interactome) may provide leads about the protein's function and the molecular mechanisms in which it is involved. One of the alternative strategies used to characterize protein interactomes consists of co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) followed by shotgun mass spectrometry. This enables the isolation and identification of a protein target in its native state and its interactome from cells or tissue lysates under physiological conditions. In this chapter, we describe a co-IP protocol for interactome studies that uses an antibody against a protein of interest bound to protein A/G plus agarose beads to isolate a protein complex. The interacting proteins may be further fractionated by SDS-PAGE, followed by in-gel tryptic digestion and nano liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (nLC ESI-MS/MS) for identification purposes. The computational tools, strategy for protein identification, and use of interactome databases also will be described.

  6. Zebrafish Health Conditions in the China Zebrafish Resource Center and 20 Major Chinese Zebrafish Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyue; Pan, Luyuan; Li, Kuoyu; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Zuoyan; Sun, Yonghua

    2016-07-01

    In China, the use of zebrafish as an experimental animal in the past 15 years has widely expanded. The China Zebrafish Resource Center (CZRC), which was established in 2012, is becoming one of the major resource centers in the global zebrafish community. Large-scale use and regular exchange of zebrafish resources have put forward higher requirements on zebrafish health issues in China. This article reports the current aquatic infrastructure design, animal husbandry, and health-monitoring programs in the CZRC. Meanwhile, through a survey of 20 Chinese zebrafish laboratories, we also describe the current health status of major zebrafish facilities in China. We conclude that it is of great importance to establish a widely accepted health standard and health-monitoring strategy in the Chinese zebrafish research community.

  7. A predicted protein interactome identifies conserved global networks and disease resistance subnetworks in maize

    PubMed Central

    Musungu, Bryan; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Brown, Robert L.; Fakhoury, Ahmad M.; Geisler, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Interactomes are genome-wide roadmaps of protein-protein interactions. They have been produced for humans, yeast, the fruit fly, and Arabidopsis thaliana and have become invaluable tools for generating and testing hypotheses. A predicted interactome for Zea mays (PiZeaM) is presented here as an aid to the research community for this valuable crop species. PiZeaM was built using a proven method of interologs (interacting orthologs) that were identified using both one-to-one and many-to-many orthology between genomes of maize and reference species. Where both maize orthologs occurred for an experimentally determined interaction in the reference species, we predicted a likely interaction in maize. A total of 49,026 unique interactions for 6004 maize proteins were predicted. These interactions are enriched for processes that are evolutionarily conserved, but include many otherwise poorly annotated proteins in maize. The predicted maize interactions were further analyzed by comparing annotation of interacting proteins, including different layers of ontology. A map of pairwise gene co-expression was also generated and compared to predicted interactions. Two global subnetworks were constructed for highly conserved interactions. These subnetworks showed clear clustering of proteins by function. Another subnetwork was created for disease response using a bait and prey strategy to capture interacting partners for proteins that respond to other organisms. Closer examination of this subnetwork revealed the connectivity between biotic and abiotic hormone stress pathways. We believe PiZeaM will provide a useful tool for the prediction of protein function and analysis of pathways for Z. mays researchers and is presented in this paper as a reference tool for the exploration of protein interactions in maize. PMID:26089837

  8. Zebrafish and Streptococcal Infections.

    PubMed

    Saralahti, A; Rämet, M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcal bacteria are a versatile group of gram-positive bacteria capable of infecting several host organisms, including humans and fish. Streptococcal species are common colonizers of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, but they also cause some of the most common life-threatening, invasive infections in humans and aquaculture. With its unique characteristics and efficient tools for genetic and imaging applications, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful vertebrate model for infectious diseases. Several zebrafish models introduced so far have shown that zebrafish are suitable models for both zoonotic and human-specific infections. Recently, several zebrafish models mimicking human streptococcal infections have also been developed. These models show great potential in providing novel information about the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses associated with human streptococcal infections. Here, we review the zebrafish infection models for the most relevant streptococcal species: the human-specific Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the zoonotic Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae. The recent success and the future potential of these models for the study of host-pathogen interactions in streptococcal infections are also discussed. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  9. Measuring zebrafish turning rate.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; di Bernardo, Mario; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a popular animal model in preclinical research, and zebrafish turning rate has been proposed for the analysis of activity in several domains. The turning rate is often estimated from the trajectory of the fish centroid that is output by commercial or custom-made target tracking software run on overhead videos of fish swimming. However, the accuracy of such indirect methods with respect to the turning rate associated with changes in heading during zebrafish locomotion is largely untested. Here, we compare two indirect methods for the turning rate estimation using the centroid velocity or position data, with full shape tracking for three different video sampling rates. We use tracking data from the overhead video recorded at 60, 30, and 15 frames per second of zebrafish swimming in a shallow water tank. Statistical comparisons of absolute turning rate across methods and sampling rates indicate that, while indirect methods are indistinguishable from full shape tracking, the video sampling rate significantly influences the turning rate measurement. The results of this study can aid in the selection of the video capture frame rate, an experimental design parameter in zebrafish behavioral experiments where activity is an important measure.

  10. The cell-cycle interactome: a source of growth regulators?

    PubMed

    Blomme, Jonas; Inzé, Dirk; Gonzalez, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    When plants develop, cell proliferation and cell expansion are tightly controlled in order to generate organs with a determinate final size such as leaves. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of the cell proliferation phase for leaf growth, illustrating that cell-cycle regulation is crucial for correct leaf development. A large and complex set of interacting proteins that constitute the cell-cycle interactome controls the transition from one cell-cycle phase to another. Here, we review the current knowledge on cell-cycle regulators from this interactome affecting final leaf size when their expression is altered, mainly in Arabidopsis. In addition to the description of mutants of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES (CDKs), CYCLINS (CYCs), and their transcriptional and post-translational regulators, a phenotypic analysis of gain- and loss-of-function mutants for 27 genes encoding proteins that interact with cell-cycle proteins is presented. This compilation of information shows that when cell-cycle-related genes are mis-expressed, leaf growth is often altered and that, seemingly, three main trends appear to be crucial in the regulation of final organ size by cell-cycle-related genes: (i) cellular compensation; (ii) gene dosage; and (iii) correct transition through the G2/M phase by ANAPHASE PROMOTING COMPLEX/CYCLOSOME (APC/C) activation. In conclusion, this meta-analysis shows that the cell-cycle interactome is enriched in leaf growth regulators, and illustrates the potential to identify new leaf growth regulators among putative new cell-cycle regulators. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Functional and Structural Characterization of Zebrafish ASC.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajuan; Huang, Yi; Cao, Xiaocong; Yin, Xueying; Jin, Xiangyu; Liu, Sheng; Jiang, Jiansheng; Jiang, Wei; Xiao, Tsan Sam; Zhou, Rongbin; Cai, Gang; Hu, Bing; Jin, Tengchuan

    2018-05-23

    The zebrafish genome encodes homologs for most of the proteins involved in inflammatory pathways; however, the molecular components and activation mechanisms of fish inflammasomes are largely unknown. ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD)) is the only adaptor involved in the formation of multiple types of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that zASC is also involved in inflammasome activation in zebrafish. When overexpressed in vitro and in vivo in zebrafish, both the zASC and zASC pyrin domain (PYD) proteins form speck and filament structures. Importantly, the crystal structures of the N-terminal PYD and C-terminal CARD of zebrafish ASC were determined independently as two separate entities fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP). Structure-guided mutagenesis revealed the functional relevance of the PYD hydrophilic surface found in the crystal lattice. Finally, the fish caspase-1 homolog Caspy, but not the caspase-4/11 homolog Caspy2, interacts with zASC through homotypic PYD-PYD interactions, which differ from those in mammals. These observations establish the conserved and unique structural/functional features of the zASC-dependent inflammasome pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Gnotobiotic Zebrafish to Study Vibrio anguillarum Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Oyarbide, Usua; Iturria, Iñaki; Rainieri, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the use of the gnotobiotic zebrafish system to study the effects of bacterial infection, and analyzed expression of genes involved in zebrafish innate immunity. Using a GFP-labeled strain of Vibrio anguillarum, we fluorescently monitored colonization of the zebrafish intestinal tract and used gene expression analysis to compare changes in genes involved in innate immunity between nongnotobiotic and gnotobiotic larvae. The experiments performed with the gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal new insights into V. anguillarum pathogenesis. Specifically, an alteration of the host immune system was detected through the suppression of a number of innate immune genes (NFKB, IL1B, TLR4, MPX, and TRF) during the first 3 h post infection. This immunomodulation can be indicative of a “stealth mechanism” of mucus invasion in which the pathogen found a sheltered niche, a typical trait of intracellular pathogens. PMID:25548877

  13. Time-lapse imaging of neural development: zebrafish lead the way into the fourth dimension.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Sandra; Wang, Fang; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    Time-lapse imaging is often the only way to appreciate fully the many dynamic cell movements critical to neural development. Zebrafish possess many advantages that make them the best vertebrate model organism for live imaging of dynamic development events. This review will discuss technical considerations of time-lapse imaging experiments in zebrafish, describe selected examples of imaging studies in zebrafish that revealed new features or principles of neural development, and consider the promise and challenges of future time-lapse studies of neural development in zebrafish embryos and adults. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A human XPC protein interactome--a resource.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Abigail; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Hua; White, Victoria M; Gong, Feng

    2013-12-23

    Global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) is responsible for identifying and removing bulky adducts from non-transcribed DNA that result from damaging agents such as UV radiation and cisplatin. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) is one of the essential damage recognition proteins of the GG-NER pathway and its dysfunction results in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a disorder involving photosensitivity and a predisposition to cancer. To better understand the identification of DNA damage by XPC in the context of chromatin and the role of XPC in the pathogenesis of XP, we characterized the interactome of XPC using a high throughput yeast two-hybrid screening. Our screening showed 49 novel interactors of XPC involved in DNA repair and replication, proteolysis and post-translational modifications, transcription regulation, signal transduction, and metabolism. Importantly, we validated the XPC-OTUD4 interaction by co-IP and provided evidence that OTUD4 knockdown in human cells indeed affects the levels of ubiquitinated XPC, supporting a hypothesis that the OTUD4 deubiquitinase is involved in XPC recycling by cleaving the ubiquitin moiety. This high-throughput characterization of the XPC interactome provides a resource for future exploration and suggests that XPC may have many uncharacterized cellular functions.

  15. mRNA interactome capture in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, Nicolai; Landthaler, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Throughout their entire life cycle, mRNAs are associated with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), forming ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes with highly dynamic compositions. Their interplay is one key to control gene regulatory mechanisms from mRNA synthesis to decay. To assay the global scope of RNA-protein interactions, we and others have published a method combining crosslinking with highly stringent oligo(dT) affinity purification to enrich proteins associated with polyadenylated RNA (poly(A)+ RNA). Identification of the poly(A)+ RNA-bound proteome (also: mRNA interactome capture) has by now been applied to a diversity of cell lines and model organisms, uncovering comprehensive repertoires of RBPs and hundreds of novel RBP candidates. In addition to determining the RBP catalog in a given biological system, mRNA interactome capture allows the examination of changes in protein-mRNA interactions in response to internal and external stimuli, altered cellular programs and disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. ZikaBase: An integrated ZIKV- Human Interactome Map database.

    PubMed

    Gurumayum, Sanathoi; Brahma, Rahul; Naorem, Leimarembi Devi; Muthaiyan, Mathavan; Gopal, Jeyakodi; Venkatesan, Amouda

    2018-01-15

    Re-emergence of ZIKV has caused infections in more than 1.5 million people. The molecular mechanism and pathogenesis of ZIKV is not well explored due to unavailability of adequate model and lack of publically accessible resources to provide information of ZIKV-Human protein interactome map till today. This study made an attempt to curate the ZIKV-Human interaction proteins from published literatures and RNA-Seq data. 11 direct interaction, 12 associated genes are retrieved from literatures and 3742 Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) are obtained from RNA-Seq analysis. The genes have been analyzed to construct the ZIKV-Human Interactome Map. The importance of the study has been illustrated by the enrichment analysis and observed that direct interaction and associated genes are enriched in viral entry into host cell. Also, ZIKV infection modulates 32% signal and 27% immune system pathways. The integrated database, ZikaBase has been developed to help the virology research community and accessible at https://test5.bicpu.edu.in. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dawn of the in vivo RNA structurome and interactome.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Chun Kit

    2016-10-15

    RNA is one of the most fascinating biomolecules in living systems given its structural versatility to fold into elaborate architectures for important biological functions such as gene regulation, catalysis, and information storage. Knowledge of RNA structures and interactions can provide deep insights into their functional roles in vivo For decades, RNA structural studies have been conducted on a transcript-by-transcript basis. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled the development of transcriptome-wide structural probing methods to profile the global landscape of RNA structures and interactions, also known as the RNA structurome and interactome, which transformed our understanding of the RNA structure-function relationship on a transcriptomic scale. In this review, molecular tools and NGS methods used for RNA structure probing are presented, novel insights uncovered by RNA structurome and interactome studies are highlighted, and perspectives on current challenges and potential future directions are discussed. A more complete understanding of the RNA structures and interactions in vivo will help illuminate the novel roles of RNA in gene regulation, development, and diseases. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Interactome analysis of transcriptional coactivator multiprotein bridging factor 1 unveils a yeast AP-1-like transcription factor involved in oxidation tolerance of mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xin-Ling; Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Oxidation tolerance is an important determinant to predict the virulence and biocontrol potential of Beauveria bassiana, a well-known entomopathogenic fungus. As a transcriptional coactivator, multiprotein bridging factor 1 mediates the activity of transcription factor in diverse physiological processes, and its homolog in B. bassiana (BbMBF1) contributes to fungal oxidation tolerance. In this study, the BbMBF1-interactomes under oxidative stress and normal growth condition were deciphered by mass spectrometry integrated with the immunoprecipitation. BbMBF1p factor has a broad interaction with proteins that are involved in various cellular processes, and this interaction is dynamically regulated by oxidative stress. Importantly, a B. bassiana homolog of yeast AP-1-like transcription factor (BbAP-1) was specifically associated with the BbMBF1-interactome under oxidation and significantly contributed to fungal oxidation tolerance. In addition, qPCR analysis revealed that several antioxidant genes are jointly controlled by BbAP-1 and BbMBF1. Conclusively, it is proposed that BbMBF1p protein mediates BbAP-1p factor to transcribe the downstream antioxidant genes in B. bassiana under oxidative stress. This study demonstrates for the first time a proteomic view of the MBF1-interactome in fungi, and presents an initial framework to probe the transcriptional mechanism involved in fungal response to oxidation, which will provide a new strategy to improve the biocontrol efficacy of B. bassiana.

  19. A novel positive transcriptional feedback loop in midbrain-hindbrain boundary development is revealed through analysis of the zebrafish pax2.1 promoter in transgenic lines.

    PubMed

    Picker, Alexander; Scholpp, Steffen; Böhli, Heike; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Brand, Michael

    2002-07-01

    The pax2.1 gene encodes a paired-box transcription factor that is one of the earliest genes to be specifically activated in development of the midbrain and midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), and is required for the development and organizer activity of this territory. To understand how this spatially restricted transcriptional activity of pax2.1 is achieved, we have isolated and characterized the pax2.1-promoter using a lacZ and a GFP reporter gene in transient injection assays and transgenic lines. Stable transgenic expression of this reporter gene shows that a 5.3-kb fragment of the 5' region contains most, but not all, elements required for driving pax2.1 expression. The expressing tissues include the MHB, hindbrain, spinal cord, ear and pronephros. Transgene activation in the pronephros and developing ear suggests that these pax2.1-expressing tissues are composed of independently regulated subdomains. In addition, ectopic but spatially restricted activation of the reporter genes in rhombomeres 3 and 5 and in the forebrain, which do not normally express endogenous pax2.1, demonstrates the importance of negative regulation of pax2.1. Comparison of transgene expression in wild-type and homozygous pax2.1 mutant no isthmus (noi) embryos reveals that the transgene contains control element(s) for a novel, positive transcriptional feedback loop in MHB development. Transcription of endogenous pax2.1 at the MHB is known to be initially Pax2.1 independent, during activation in late gastrulation. In contrast, transgene expression requires the endogenous Pax2.1 function. Transplantations, mRNA injections and morpholino knock-down experiments show that this feedback regulation of pax2.1 transcription occurs cell-autonomously, and that it requires eng2 and eng3 as known targets for Pax2.1 regulation. We suggest that this novel feedback loop may allow continuation of pax2.1 expression, and hence development of the MHB organizer, to become independent of the patterning

  20. Unraveling the Plant-Soil Interactome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, M. S.; Hixson, K.; Ahkami, A. H.; HaHandkumbura, P. P.; Hess, N. J.; Fang, Y.; Fortin, D.; Stanfill, B.; Yabusaki, S.; Engbrecht, K. M.; Baker, E.; Renslow, R.; Jansson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Plant photosynthesis is the primary conduit of carbon fixation from the atmosphere to the terrestrial ecosystem. While more is known about plant physiology and biochemistry, the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that govern partitioning of carbon to above- and below ground plant biomass, to microbes, to the soil, and respired to the atmosphere is not well understood holistically. To address this knowledge gap there is a need to define, study, comprehend, and model the plant ecosystem as an integrated system of integrated biotic and abiotic processes and feedbacks. Local rhizosphere conditions are an important control on plant performance but are in turn affected by plant uptake and rhizodeposition processes. C3 and C4 plants have different CO2 fixation strategies and likely have differential metabolic profiles resulting in different carbon sources exuding to the rhizosphere. In this presentation, we report on an integrated capability to better understand plant-soil interactions, including modeling tools that address the spatiotemporal hydrobiogeochemistry in the rhizosphere. Comparing Brachypodium distachyon, (Brachypodium) as our C3 representative and Setaria viridis (Setaria) as our C4 representative, we designed, highly controlled single-plant experimental ecosystems based these model grasses to enable quantitative prediction of ecosystem traits and responses as a function of plant genotype and environmental variables. A metabolomics survey of 30 Brachypodium genotypes grown under control and drought conditions revealed specific metabolites that correlated with biomass production and drought tolerance. A comparison of Brachypodium and Setaria grown with control and a future predicted elevated CO2 level revealed changes in biomass accumulation and metabolite profiles between the C3 and C4 species in both leaves and roots. Finally, we are building an mechanistic modeling capability that will contribute to a better basis for modeling plant water

  1. Mycobacteriosis in zebrafish colonies.

    PubMed

    Whipps, Christopher M; Lieggi, Christine; Wagner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial infection, has been associated with severe losses in some zebrafish facilities and low-level mortalities and unknown impacts in others. The occurrence of at least six different described species (Mycobacterium abscessus, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. haemophilum, M. marinum, M. peregrinum) from zebrafish complicates diagnosis and control because each species is unique. As a generalization, mycobacteria are often considered opportunists, but M. haemophilum and M. marinum appear to be more virulent. Background genetics of zebrafish and environmental conditions influence the susceptibility of fish and progression of disease, emphasizing the importance of regular monitoring and good husbandry practices. A combined approach to diagnostics is ultimately the most informative, with histology as a first-level screen, polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection and species identification, and culture for strain differentiation. Occurrence of identical strains of Mycobacterium in both fish and biofilms in zebrafish systems suggests transmission can occur when fish feed on infected tissues or tank detritus containing mycobacteria. Within a facility, good husbandry practices and sentinel programs are essential for minimizing the impacts of mycobacteria. In addition, quarantine and screening of animals coming into a facility is important for eliminating the introduction of the more severe pathogens. Elimination of mycobacteria from an aquatic system is likely not feasible because these species readily establish biofilms on surfaces even in extremely low nutrient conditions. Risks associated with each commonly encountered species need to be identified and informed management plans developed. Basic research on the growth characteristics, disinfection, and pathogenesis of zebrafish mycobacteria is critical moving forward.

  2. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicholas R; Laroche, Fabrice J F; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients.

  3. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicholas R.; Laroche, Fabrice J.F.; Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients. PMID:27165361

  4. Centrality in the host-pathogen interactome is associated with pathogen fitness during infection.

    PubMed

    Crua Asensio, Núria; Muñoz Giner, Elisabet; de Groot, Natalia Sánchez; Torrent Burgas, Marc

    2017-01-16

    To perform their functions proteins must interact with each other, but how these interactions influence bacterial infection remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that connectivity in the host-pathogen interactome is directly related to pathogen fitness during infection. Using Y. pestis as a model organism, we show that the centrality-lethality rule holds for pathogen fitness during infection but only when the host-pathogen interactome is considered. Our results suggest that the importance of pathogen proteins during infection is directly related to their number of interactions with the host. We also show that pathogen proteins causing an extensive rewiring of the host interactome have a higher impact in pathogen fitness during infection. Hence, we conclude that hubs in the host-pathogen interactome should be explored as promising targets for antimicrobial drug design.

  5. Emerging role of the Jun N-terminal kinase interactome in human health.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; An, Su; Yang, Yang; Liu, Ying; Hao, Qian; Tang, Tao; Xu, Tian-Rui

    2018-02-08

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are located downstream of Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase signaling cascades. More than 20 years of study has shown that JNKs control cell fate and many cellular functions. JNKs and their interacting proteins form a complicated network with diverse biological functions and physiological effects. Members of the JNK interactome include Jun, amyloid precursor protein, and insulin receptor substrate. Recent studies have shown that the JNK interactome is involved in tumorigenesis, neuron development, and insulin resistance. In this review, we summarize the features of the JNK interactome and classify its members into three groups: upstream regulators, downstream effectors, and scaffold partners. We also highlight the unique cellular signaling mechanisms of JNKs and provide more insights into the roles of the JNK interactome in human diseases. © 2018 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  6. Centrality in the host-pathogen interactome is associated with pathogen fitness during infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crua Asensio, Núria; Muñoz Giner, Elisabet; de Groot, Natalia Sánchez; Torrent Burgas, Marc

    2017-01-01

    To perform their functions proteins must interact with each other, but how these interactions influence bacterial infection remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that connectivity in the host-pathogen interactome is directly related to pathogen fitness during infection. Using Y. pestis as a model organism, we show that the centrality-lethality rule holds for pathogen fitness during infection but only when the host-pathogen interactome is considered. Our results suggest that the importance of pathogen proteins during infection is directly related to their number of interactions with the host. We also show that pathogen proteins causing an extensive rewiring of the host interactome have a higher impact in pathogen fitness during infection. Hence, we conclude that hubs in the host-pathogen interactome should be explored as promising targets for antimicrobial drug design.

  7. Functional proteomic and interactome analysis of proteins associated with beef tenderness in angus cattle

    Beef is a source of high quality protein for the human population, and beef tenderness has significant influence on beef palatability, consumer expectation and industry profitability. To further elucidate the factors affecting beef tenderness, functional proteomics and bioinformatics interactome ana...

  8. Photoreactive Stapled BH3 Peptides to Dissect the BCL-2 Family Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Craig R.; Mintseris, Julian; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Bird, Gregory H.; Gygi, Steven P.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Defining protein interactions forms the basis for discovery of biological pathways, disease mechanisms, and opportunities for therapeutic intervention. To harness the robust binding affinity and selectivity of structured peptides for interactome discovery, we engineered photoreactive stapled BH3 peptide helices that covalently capture their physiologic BCL-2 family targets. The crosslinking α-helices covalently trap both static and dynamic protein interactors, and enable rapid identification of interaction sites, providing a critical link between interactome discovery and targeted drug design. PMID:21168768

  9. Anesthesia and euthanasia in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Monte; Varga, Zoltán M

    2012-01-01

    Because of the relative ease of embryonic manipulation and observation, the ability to produce a great number of genetic mutations, efficient screening methods, and the continued advance of molecular genetic tools, such as the progress in sequencing and mapping of the zebrafish genome, the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a biomedical model organism continues to expand. However, studies involving zebrafish husbandry and veterinary care struggle to keep pace with scientific progress. This article outlines some of the current, acceptable methods for providing anesthesia and euthanasia and provides some examples of how performance-based approaches can be used to advance the relatively limited number of anesthetic and euthanizing techniques available for zebrafish.

  10. The structure and timescales of heat perception in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Haesemeyer, Martin; Robson, Drew N; Li, Jennifer M; Schier, Alexander F; Engert, Florian

    2015-11-25

    Avoiding temperatures outside the physiological range is critical for animal survival, but how temperature dynamics are transformed into behavioral output is largely not understood. Here, we used an infrared laser to challenge freely swimming larval zebrafish with "white-noise" heat stimuli and built quantitative models relating external sensory information and internal state to behavioral output. These models revealed that larval zebrafish integrate temperature information over a time-window of 400 ms preceding a swimbout and that swimming is suppressed right after the end of a bout. Our results suggest that larval zebrafish compute both an integral and a derivative across heat in time to guide their next movement. Our models put important constraints on the type of computations that occur in the nervous system and reveal principles of how somatosensory temperature information is processed to guide behavioral decisions such as sensitivity to both absolute levels and changes in stimulation.

  11. Contextual Fear Conditioning in Zebrafish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Justin W.; Scott, Ian C.; Josselyn, Sheena A.; Frankland, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development…

  12. Social dominance modulates eavesdropping in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Abril-de-Abreu, Rodrigo; Cruz, Ana S.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2015-01-01

    Group living animals may eavesdrop on signalling interactions between conspecifics and integrate it with their own past social experience in order to optimize the use of relevant information from others. However, little is known about this interplay between public (eavesdropped) and private social information. To investigate it, we first manipulated the dominance status of bystander zebrafish. Next, we either allowed or prevented bystanders from observing a fight. Finally, we assessed their behaviour towards the winners and losers of the interaction, using a custom-made video-tracking system and directional analysis. We found that only dominant bystanders who had seen the fight revealed a significant increase in directional focus (a measure of attention) towards the losers of the fights. Furthermore, our results indicate that information about the fighters' acquired status was collected from the signalling interaction itself and not from post-interaction status cues, which implies the existence of individual recognition in zebrafish. Thus, we show for the first time that zebrafish, a highly social model organism, eavesdrop on conspecific agonistic interactions and that this process is modulated by the eavesdroppers' dominance status. We suggest that this type of integration of public and private information may be ubiquitous in social learning processes. PMID:26361550

  13. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemokine interactome mapping enables tailored intervention in acute and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    von Hundelshausen, Philipp; Agten, Stijn M; Eckardt, Veit; Blanchet, Xavier; Schmitt, Martin M; Ippel, Hans; Neideck, Carlos; Bidzhekov, Kiril; Leberzammer, Julian; Wichapong, Kanin; Faussner, Alexander; Drechsler, Maik; Grommes, Jochen; van Geffen, Johanna P; Li, He; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Megens, Remco T A; Naumann, Ronald; Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Döring, Yvonne; Soehnlein, Oliver; Lutgens, Esther; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Koenen, Rory R; Mayo, Kevin H; Hackeng, Tilman M; Weber, Christian

    2017-04-05

    Chemokines orchestrate leukocyte trafficking and function in health and disease. Heterophilic interactions between chemokines in a given microenvironment may amplify, inhibit, or modulate their activity; however, a systematic evaluation of the chemokine interactome has not been performed. We used immunoligand blotting and surface plasmon resonance to obtain a comprehensive map of chemokine-chemokine interactions and to confirm their specificity. Structure-function analyses revealed that chemokine activity can be enhanced by CC-type heterodimers but inhibited by CXC-type heterodimers. Functional synergism was achieved through receptor heteromerization induced by CCL5-CCL17 or receptor retention at the cell surface via auxiliary proteoglycan binding of CCL5-CXCL4. In contrast, inhibitory activity relied on conformational changes (in CXCL12), affecting receptor signaling. Obligate CC-type heterodimers showed high efficacy and potency and drove acute lung injury and atherosclerosis, processes abrogated by specific CCL5-derived peptide inhibitors or knock-in of an interaction-deficient CXCL4 variant. Atheroprotective effects of CCL17 deficiency were phenocopied by a CCL5-derived peptide disrupting CCL5-CCL17 heterodimers, whereas a CCL5 α-helix peptide mimicked inhibitory effects on CXCL12-driven platelet aggregation. Thus, formation of specific chemokine heterodimers differentially dictates functional activity and can be exploited for therapeutic targeting. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Identification of LMO2 transcriptome and interactome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Cubedo, Elena; Gentles, Andrew J.; Huang, Chuanxin; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bhatt, Shruti; Lu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Freud, Aharon; Zhao, Shuchun; Bacchi, Carlos E.; Martínez-Climent, Jose A.; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Melnick, Ari

    2012-01-01

    LMO2 regulates gene expression by facilitating the formation of multipartite DNA-binding complexes. In B cells, LMO2 is specifically up-regulated in the germinal center (GC) and is expressed in GC-derived non-Hodgkin lymphomas. LMO2 is one of the most powerful prognostic indicators in diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) patients. However, its function in GC B cells and DLBCL is currently unknown. In this study, we characterized the LMO2 transcriptome and transcriptional complex in DLBCL cells. LMO2 regulates genes implicated in kinetochore function, chromosome assembly, and mitosis. Overexpression of LMO2 in DLBCL cell lines results in centrosome amplification. In DLBCL, the LMO2 complex contains some of the traditional partners, such as LDB1, E2A, HEB, Lyl1, ETO2, and SP1, but not TAL1 or GATA proteins. Furthermore, we identified novel LMO2 interacting partners: ELK1, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor1 (LEF1) proteins. Reporter assays revealed that LMO2 increases transcriptional activity of NFATc1 and decreases transcriptional activity of LEF1 proteins. Overall, our studies identified a novel LMO2 transcriptome and interactome in DLBCL and provides a platform for future elucidation of LMO2 function in GC B cells and DLBCL pathogenesis. PMID:22517897

  16. A computational interactome for prioritizing genes associated with complex agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yihui; Zhao, Jiawei; Cai, Shitao; Qian, Hongmei; Zuo, Kaijing; Zhao, Lingxia; Zhang, Lida

    2017-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important staple foods for more than half of the global population. Many rice traits are quantitative, complex and controlled by multiple interacting genes. Thus, a full understanding of genetic relationships will be critical to systematically identify genes controlling agronomic traits. We developed a genome-wide rice protein-protein interaction network (RicePPINet, http://netbio.sjtu.edu.cn/riceppinet) using machine learning with structural relationship and functional information. RicePPINet contained 708 819 predicted interactions for 16 895 non-transposable element related proteins. The power of the network for discovering novel protein interactions was demonstrated through comparison with other publicly available protein-protein interaction (PPI) prediction methods, and by experimentally determined PPI data sets. Furthermore, global analysis of domain-mediated interactions revealed RicePPINet accurately reflects PPIs at the domain level. Our studies showed the efficiency of the RicePPINet-based method in prioritizing candidate genes involved in complex agronomic traits, such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, was approximately 2-11 times better than random prediction. RicePPINet provides an expanded landscape of computational interactome for the genetic dissection of agronomically important traits in rice. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Factors affecting interactome-based prediction of human genes associated with clinical signs.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Sara; Pazos, Florencio; Chagoyen, Mónica

    2017-07-17

    Clinical signs are a fundamental aspect of human pathologies. While disease diagnosis is problematic or impossible in many cases, signs are easier to perceive and categorize. Clinical signs are increasingly used, together with molecular networks, to prioritize detected variants in clinical genomics pipelines, even if the patient is still undiagnosed. Here we analyze the ability of these network-based methods to predict genes that underlie clinical signs from the human interactome. Our analysis reveals that these approaches can locate genes associated with clinical signs with variable performance that depends on the sign and associated disease. We analyzed several clinical and biological factors that explain these variable results, including number of genes involved (mono- vs. oligogenic diseases), mode of inheritance, type of clinical sign and gene product function. Our results indicate that the characteristics of the clinical signs and their related diseases should be considered for interpreting the results of network-prediction methods, such as those aimed at discovering disease-related genes and variants. These results are important due the increasing use of clinical signs as an alternative to diseases for studying the molecular basis of human pathologies.

  18. The ontogeny of sleep-wake cycles in zebrafish: a comparison to humans

    PubMed Central

    Sorribes, Amanda; Þorsteinsson, Haraldur; Arnardóttir, Hrönn; Jóhannesdóttir, Ingibjörg Þ.; Sigurgeirsson, Benjamín; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.; Karlsson, Karl Æ.

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used extensively in sleep research; both to further understanding of sleep in general and also as a model of human sleep. To date, sleep studies have been performed in larval and adult zebrafish but no efforts have been made to document the ontogeny of zebrafish sleep–wake cycles. Because sleep differs across phylogeny and ontogeny it is important to validate the use of zebrafish in elucidating the neural substrates of sleep. Here we describe the development of sleep and wake across the zebrafish lifespan and how it compares to humans. We find power-law distributions to best fit wake bout data but demonstrate that exponential distributions, previously used to describe sleep bout distributions, fail to adequately account for the data in either species. Regardless, the data reveal remarkable similarities in the ontogeny of sleep cycles in zebrafish and humans. Moreover, as seen in other organisms, zebrafish sleep levels are highest early in ontogeny and sleep and wake bouts gradually consolidate to form the adult sleep pattern. Finally, sleep percentage, bout duration, bout number, and sleep fragmentation are shown to allow for meaningful comparisons between zebrafish and human sleep. PMID:24312015

  19. Understanding behavioral and physiological phenotypes of stress and anxiety in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Egan, Rupert J; Bergner, Carisa L; Hart, Peter C; Cachat, Jonathan M; Canavello, Peter R; Elegante, Marco F; Elkhayat, Salem I; Bartels, Brett K; Tien, Anna K; Tien, David H; Mohnot, Sopan; Beeson, Esther; Glasgow, Eric; Amri, Hakima; Zukowska, Zofia; Kalueff, Allan V

    2009-12-14

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is emerging as a promising model organism for experimental studies of stress and anxiety. Here we further validate zebrafish models of stress by analyzing how environmental and pharmacological manipulations affect their behavioral and physiological phenotypes. Experimental manipulations included exposure to alarm pheromone, chronic exposure to fluoxetine, acute exposure to caffeine, as well as acute and chronic exposure to ethanol. Acute (but not chronic) alarm pheromone and acute caffeine produced robust anxiogenic effects, including reduced exploration, increased erratic movements and freezing behavior in zebrafish tested in the novel tank diving test. In contrast, ethanol and fluoxetine had robust anxiolytic effects, including increased exploration and reduced erratic movements. The behavior of several zebrafish strains was also quantified to ascertain differences in their behavioral profiles, revealing high-anxiety (leopard, albino) and low-anxiety (wild type) strains. We also used LocoScan (CleverSys Inc.) video-tracking tool to quantify anxiety-related behaviors in zebrafish, and dissect anxiety-related phenotypes from locomotor activity. Finally, we developed a simple and effective method of measuring zebrafish physiological stress responses (based on a human salivary cortisol assay), and showed that alterations in whole-body cortisol levels in zebrafish parallel behavioral indices of anxiety. Collectively, our results confirm zebrafish as a valid, reliable, and high-throughput model of stress and affective disorders.

  20. Molecular characterization and interactome analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi tryparedoxin II.

    PubMed

    Arias, Diego G; Piñeyro, María Dolores; Iglesias, Alberto A; Guerrero, Sergio A; Robello, Carlos

    2015-04-29

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, possesses two tryparedoxins (TcTXNI and TcTXNII), belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily. TXNs are oxidoreductases which mediate electron transfer between trypanothione and peroxiredoxins. This constitutes a difference with the host cells, in which these activities are mediated by thioredoxins. These differences make TXNs an attractive target for drug development. In a previous work we characterized TcTXNI, including the redox interactome. In this work we extend the study to TcTXNII. We demonstrate that TcTXNII is a transmembrane protein anchored to the surface of the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, with a cytoplasmatic orientation of the redox domain. It would be expressed during the metacyclogenesis process. In order to continue with the characterization of the redox interactome of T. cruzi, we designed an active site mutant TcTXNII lacking the resolving cysteine, and through the expression of this mutant protein and incubation with T. cruzi proteins, heterodisulfide complexes were isolated by affinity chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. This allowed us to identify sixteen TcTXNII interacting proteins, which are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, indicating the relevance of TcTXNII, and contributing to our understanding of the redox interactome of T. cruzi. T. cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, constitutes a major sanitary problem in Latin America. The number of estimated infected persons is ca. 8 million, 28 million people are at risk of infection and ~20,000 deaths occur per year in endemic regions. No vaccines are available at present, and most drugs currently in use were developed decades ago and show variable efficacy with undesirable side effects. The parasite is able to live and prolipherate inside macrophage phagosomes, where it is exposed to cytotoxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, derived from macrophage activation. Therefore, T. cruzi

  1. Automatic zebrafish heartbeat detection and analysis for zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Pylatiuk, Christian; Sanchez, Daniela; Mikut, Ralf; Alshut, Rüdiger; Reischl, Markus; Hirth, Sofia; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Just, Steffen

    2014-08-01

    A fully automatic detection and analysis method of heartbeats in videos of nonfixed and nonanesthetized zebrafish embryos is presented. This method reduces the manual workload and time needed for preparation and imaging of the zebrafish embryos, as well as for evaluating heartbeat parameters such as frequency, beat-to-beat intervals, and arrhythmicity. The method is validated by a comparison of the results from automatic and manual detection of the heart rates of wild-type zebrafish embryos 36-120 h postfertilization and of embryonic hearts with bradycardia and pauses in the cardiac contraction.

  2. CASTIN: a system for comprehensive analysis of cancer-stromal interactome.

    PubMed

    Komura, Daisuke; Isagawa, Takayuki; Kishi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Ryohei; Sato, Reiko; Tanaka, Mariko; Katoh, Hiroto; Yamamoto, Shogo; Tatsuno, Kenji; Fukayama, Masashi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Shumpei

    2016-11-09

    Cancer microenvironment plays a vital role in cancer development and progression, and cancer-stromal interactions have been recognized as important targets for cancer therapy. However, identifying relevant and druggable cancer-stromal interactions is challenging due to the lack of quantitative methods to analyze whole cancer-stromal interactome. We present CASTIN (CAncer-STromal INteractome analysis), a novel framework for the evaluation of cancer-stromal interactome from RNA-Seq data using cancer xenograft models. For each ligand-receptor interaction which is derived from curated protein-protein interaction database, CASTIN summarizes gene expression profiles of cancer and stroma into three evaluation indices. These indices provide quantitative evaluation and comprehensive visualization of interactome, and thus enable to identify critical cancer-microenvironment interactions, which would be potential drug targets. We applied CASTIN to the dataset of pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma, and successfully characterized the individual cancer in terms of cancer-stromal relationships, and identified both well-known and less-characterized druggable interactions. CASTIN provides comprehensive view of cancer-stromal interactome and is useful to identify critical interactions which may serve as potential drug targets in cancer-microenvironment. CASTIN is available at: http://github.com/tmd-gpat/CASTIN .

  3. A TRPV2 interactome-based signature for prognosis in glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Doñate-Macián, Pau; Gómez, Antonio; Dégano, Irene R; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex

    2018-04-06

    Proteomics aids to the discovery and expansion of protein-protein interaction networks, which are key to understand molecular mechanisms in physiology and physiopathology, but also to infer protein function in a guilt-by-association fashion. In this study we use a systematic protein-protein interaction membrane yeast two-hybrid method to expand the interactome of TRPV2, a cation channel related to nervous system development. After validation of the interactome in silico , we define a TRPV2-interactome signature combining proteomics with the available physio-pathological data in Disgenet to find interactome-disease associations, highlighting nervous system disorders and neoplasms. The TRPV2-interactome signature against available experimental data is capable of discriminating overall risk in glioblastoma multiforme prognosis, progression, recurrence, and chemotherapy resistance. Beyond the impact on glioblastoma physiopathology, this study shows that combining systematic proteomics with in silico methods and available experimental data is key to open new perspectives to define novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics in disease.

  4. A TRPV2 interactome-based signature for prognosis in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Dégano, Irene R.; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Proteomics aids to the discovery and expansion of protein-protein interaction networks, which are key to understand molecular mechanisms in physiology and physiopathology, but also to infer protein function in a guilt-by-association fashion. In this study we use a systematic protein-protein interaction membrane yeast two-hybrid method to expand the interactome of TRPV2, a cation channel related to nervous system development. After validation of the interactome in silico, we define a TRPV2-interactome signature combining proteomics with the available physio-pathological data in Disgenet to find interactome-disease associations, highlighting nervous system disorders and neoplasms. The TRPV2-interactome signature against available experimental data is capable of discriminating overall risk in glioblastoma multiforme prognosis, progression, recurrence, and chemotherapy resistance. Beyond the impact on glioblastoma physiopathology, this study shows that combining systematic proteomics with in silico methods and available experimental data is key to open new perspectives to define novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics in disease. PMID:29719613

  5. Grading and quantification of dental fluorosis in zebrafish larva.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yutao; Zhang, Yanli; Zheng, Xueni; Xu, Rongchen; He, Huiming; Duan, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary teeth are different from permanent teeth. Previous animal models of dental fluorosis mainly focus on juvenile rats, mice and zebrafish. Our experiment aims to set a dental fluorosis model using zebrafish larva and explore the characteristics of the first generation teeth by fluoride treatment. After the zebrafish eggs were laid, they were exposed to excess fluoride (19ppm, 38ppm and 76ppm) for five days. The morphological characteristics of first generation teeth were examined by H&E staining, whole-mount alizarin red and alcian blue staining, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. With whole-mount alizarin red and alcian blue staining, the tooth cusps presented red in normal control. 19ppm and 38ppmm fluoride resulted in extensive red staining from tooth cusps to the lower 1/3 of teeth. 76ppm fluoride caused malformed teeth with uneven red staining. H&E staining showed that excess fluoride caused cystic-like changes in 38ppm and 76ppm groups. SEM revealed the dose dependent pathological changes in zebrafish enameloid with fluoride treatment. Based on SEM findings, we set 0-4 dental fluorosis index (DFI) score to label the severity of dental fluorosis. Excess fluoride presented a dose dependent fluorosis changes in the teeth of zebrafish larva. The DFI scores in our experiment reflect dose dependent fluorosis changes in a good way and will benefit the future research of dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Retinoid regulation of the zebrafish cyp26a1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Tian, Miao; Bao, Jie; Xing, Guangdong; Gu, Xingxing; Gao, Xiang; Linney, Elwood; Zhao, Qingshun

    2008-12-01

    Cyp26A1 is a major enzyme that controls retinoic acid (RA) homeostasis by metabolizing RA into bio-inactive metabolites. Previous research revealed that the mouse Cyp26A1 promoter has two canonical RA response elements (RAREs) that underlie the regulation of the gene by RA. Analyzing the 2,533-base pairs (2.5 k) genomic sequence upstream of zebrafish cyp26a1 start codon, we report that the two RAREs are conserved in zebrafish cyp26a1 promoter. Mutagenesis demonstrated that the two RAREs work synergistically in RA inducibility of cyp26a1. Fusing the 2.5 k (kilobase pairs) fragment to the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene, we have generated two transgenic lines of zebrafish [Tg(cyp26a1:eYFP)]. The transgenic zebrafish display expression patterns similar to that of cyp26a1 gene in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro results, the reporter activity is RA inducible in embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the 2.5 k fragment underlies the regulation of the zebrafish cyp26a1 gene by RA. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Global De Novo Protein-Protein Interactome Elucidates Interactions of Drought-Responsive Proteins in Horse Gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum).

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Gangwar, Indu; Panzade, Ganesh; Shankar, Ravi; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2016-06-03

    Inspired by the availability of de novo transcriptome of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) and recent developments in systems biology studies, the first ever global protein-protein interactome (PPI) map was constructed for this highly drought-tolerant legume. Large-scale studies of PPIs and the constructed database would provide rationale behind the interplay at cascading translational levels for drought stress-adaptive mechanisms in horse gram. Using a bidirectional approach (interolog and domain-based), a high-confidence interactome map and database for horse gram was constructed. Available transcriptomic information for shoot and root tissues of a sensitive (M-191; genotype 1) and a drought-tolerant (M-249; genotype 2) genotype of horse gram was utilized to draw comparative PPI subnetworks under drought stress. High-confidence 6804 interactions were predicted among 1812 proteins covering about one-fourth of the horse gram proteome. The highest number of interactions (33.86%) in horse gram interactome matched with Arabidopsis PPI data. The top five hub nodes mostly included ubiquitin and heat-shock-related proteins. Higher numbers of PPIs were found to be responsive in shoot tissue (416) and root tissue (2228) of genotype 2 compared with shoot tissue (136) and root tissue (579) of genotype 1. Characterization of PPIs using gene ontology analysis revealed that kinase and transferase activities involved in signal transduction, cellular processes, nucleocytoplasmic transport, protein ubiquitination, and localization of molecules were most responsive to drought stress. Hence, these could be framed in stress adaptive mechanisms of horse gram. Being the first legume global PPI map, it would provide new insights into gene and protein regulatory networks for drought stress tolerance mechanisms in horse gram. Information compiled in the form of database (MauPIR) will provide the much needed high-confidence systems biology information for horse gram genes, proteins, and

  8. Zebrafish pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Tiso, Natascia; Moro, Enrico; Argenton, Francesco

    2009-11-27

    An accurate understanding of the molecular events governing pancreas development can have an impact on clinical medicine related to diabetes, obesity and pancreatic cancer, diseases with a high impact in public health. Until 1996, the main animal models in which pancreas formation and differentiation could be studied were mouse and, for some instances related to early development, chicken and Xenopus. Zebrafish has penetrated this field very rapidly offering a new model of investigation; by joining functional genomics, genetics and in vivo whole mount visualization, Danio rerio has allowed large scale and fine multidimensional analysis of gene functions during pancreas formation and differentiation.

  9. Advancements in zebrafish applications for 21st century toxicology.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gloria R; Noyes, Pamela D; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish model is the only available high-throughput vertebrate assessment system, and it is uniquely suited for studies of in vivo cell biology. A sequenced and annotated genome has revealed a large degree of evolutionary conservation in comparison to the human genome. Due to our shared evolutionary history, the anatomical and physiological features of fish are highly homologous to humans, which facilitates studies relevant to human health. In addition, zebrafish provide a very unique vertebrate data stream that allows researchers to anchor hypotheses at the biochemical, genetic, and cellular levels to observations at the structural, functional, and behavioral level in a high-throughput format. In this review, we will draw heavily from toxicological studies to highlight advances in zebrafish high-throughput systems. Breakthroughs in transgenic/reporter lines and methods for genetic manipulation, such as the CRISPR-Cas9 system, will be comprised of reports across diverse disciplines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Advancements in zebrafish applications for 21st century toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gloria R.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish model is the only available high-throughput vertebrate assessment system, and it is uniquely suited for studies of in vivo cell biology. A sequenced and annotated genome has revealed a large degree of evolutionary conservation in comparison to the human genome. Due to our shared evolutionary history, the anatomical and physiological features of fish are highly homologous to humans, which facilitates studies relevant to human health. In addition, zebrafish provide a very unique vertebrate data stream that allows researchers to anchor hypotheses at the biochemical, genetic, and cellular levels to observations at the structural, functional, and behavioral level in a high-throughput format. In this review, we will draw heavily from toxicological studies to highlight advances in zebrafish high-throughput systems. Breakthroughs in transgenic/reporter lines and methods for genetic manipulation, such as the CRISPR-Cas9 system, will be comprised of reports across diverse disciplines. PMID:27016469

  11. The neurogenetic frontier--lessons from misbehaving zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Harold A; Granato, Michael

    2008-11-01

    One of the central questions in neuroscience is how refined patterns of connectivity in the brain generate and monitor behavior. Genetic mutations can influence neural circuits by disrupting differentiation or maintenance of component neuronal cells or by altering functional patterns of nervous system connectivity. Mutagenesis screens therefore have the potential to reveal not only the molecular underpinnings of brain development and function, but to illuminate the cellular basis of behavior. Practical considerations make the zebrafish an organism of choice for undertaking forward genetic analysis of behavior. The powerful array of experimental tools at the disposal of the zebrafish researcher makes it possible to link molecular function to neuronal properties that underlie behavior. This review focuses on specific challenges to isolating and analyzing behavioral mutants in zebrafish.

  12. The neurogenetic frontier—lessons from misbehaving zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Granato, Michael

    2008-01-01

    One of the central questions in neuroscience is how refined patterns of connectivity in the brain generate and monitor behavior. Genetic mutations can influence neural circuits by disrupting differentiation or maintenance of component neuronal cells or by altering functional patterns of nervous system connectivity. Mutagenesis screens therefore have the potential to reveal not only the molecular underpinnings of brain development and function, but to illuminate the cellular basis of behavior. Practical considerations make the zebrafish an organism of choice for undertaking forward genetic analysis of behavior. The powerful array of experimental tools at the disposal of the zebrafish researcher makes it possible to link molecular function to neuronal properties that underlie behavior. This review focuses on specific challenges to isolating and analyzing behavioral mutants in zebrafish. PMID:18836206

  13. SInCRe—structural interactome computational resource for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Metri, Rahul; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Anand, Praveen; Raghavender, Upadhyayula S.; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Higueruelo, Alicia P.; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Chandra, Nagasuma R.; Blundell, Tom L.; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an integrated database for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb) that collates information on protein sequences, domain assignments, functional annotation and 3D structural information along with protein–protein and protein–small molecule interactions. SInCRe (Structural Interactome Computational Resource) is developed out of CamBan (Cambridge and Bangalore) collaboration. The motivation for development of this database is to provide an integrated platform to allow easily access and interpretation of data and results obtained by all the groups in CamBan in the field of Mtb informatics. In-house algorithms and databases developed independently by various academic groups in CamBan are used to generate Mtb-specific datasets and are integrated in this database to provide a structural dimension to studies on tuberculosis. The SInCRe database readily provides information on identification of functional domains, genome-scale modelling of structures of Mtb proteins and characterization of the small-molecule binding sites within Mtb. The resource also provides structure-based function annotation, information on small-molecule binders including FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drugs, protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and natural compounds that bind to pathogen proteins potentially and result in weakening or elimination of host–pathogen protein–protein interactions. Together they provide prerequisites for identification of off-target binding. Database URL: http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/sincre PMID:26130660

  14. Examining the Interactome of Huperzine A by Magnetic Biopanning

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Liu, Shupeng; Peng, Jinliang; Wei, Xiaohui; Sun, Ye; Qiu, Yangsheng; Gao, Guangwei; Wang, Peng; Xu, Yuhong

    2012-01-01

    Huperzine A is a bioactive compound derived from traditional Chinese medicine plant Qian Ceng Ta (Huperzia serrata), and was found to have multiple neuroprotective effects. In addition to being a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, it was thought to act through other mechanisms such as antioxidation, antiapoptosis, etc. However, the molecular targets involved with these mechanisms were not identified. In this study, we attempted to exam the interactome of Huperzine A using a cDNA phage display library and also mammalian brain tissue extracts. The drugs were chemically linked on the surface of magnetic particles and the interactive phages or proteins were collected and analyzed. Among the various cDNA expressing phages selected, one was identified to encode the mitochondria NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1. Specific bindings between the drug and the target phages and target proteins were confirmed. Another enriched phage clone was identified as mitochondria ATP synthase, which was also panned out from the proteome of mouse brain tissue lysate. These data indicated the possible involvement of mitochondrial respiratory chain matrix enzymes in Huperzine A's pharmacological effects. Such involvement had been suggested by previous studies based on enzyme activity changes. Our data supported the new mechanism. Overall we demonstrated the feasibility of using magnetic biopanning as a simple and viable method for investigating the complex molecular mechanisms of bioactive molecules. PMID:22615909

  15. Competing endogenous RNA and interactome bioinformatic analyses on human telomerase.

    PubMed

    Arancio, Walter; Pizzolanti, Giuseppe; Genovese, Swonild Ilenia; Baiamonte, Concetta; Giordano, Carla

    2014-04-01

    We present a classic interactome bioinformatic analysis and a study on competing endogenous (ce) RNAs for hTERT. The hTERT gene codes for the catalytic subunit and limiting component of the human telomerase complex. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is essential for the integrity of telomeres. Telomere dysfunctions have been widely reported to be involved in aging, cancer, and cellular senescence. The hTERT gene network has been analyzed using the BioGRID interaction database (http://thebiogrid.org/) and related analysis tools such as Osprey (http://biodata.mshri.on.ca/osprey/servlet/Index) and GeneMANIA (http://genemania.org/). The network of interaction of hTERT transcripts has been further analyzed following the competing endogenous (ce) RNA hypotheses (messenger [m] RNAs cross-talk via micro [mi] RNAs) using the miRWalk database and tools (www.ma.uni-heidelberg.de/apps/zmf/mirwalk/). These analyses suggest a role for Akt, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), p70/p80 autoantigen, 14-3-3 proteins, and dynein in telomere functions. Roles for histone acetylation/deacetylation and proteoglycan metabolism are also proposed.

  16. RISE: a database of RNA interactome from sequencing experiments

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Shao, Di; Xu, Kui

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We present RISE (http://rise.zhanglab.net), a database of RNA Interactome from Sequencing Experiments. RNA-RNA interactions (RRIs) are essential for RNA regulation and function. RISE provides a comprehensive collection of RRIs that mainly come from recent transcriptome-wide sequencing-based experiments like PARIS, SPLASH, LIGR-seq, and MARIO, as well as targeted studies like RIA-seq, RAP-RNA and CLASH. It also includes interactions aggregated from other primary databases and publications. The RISE database currently contains 328,811 RNA-RNA interactions mainly in human, mouse and yeast. While most existing RNA databases mainly contain interactions of miRNA targeting, notably, more than half of the RRIs in RISE are among mRNA and long non-coding RNAs. We compared different RRI datasets in RISE and found limited overlaps in interactions resolved by different techniques and in different cell lines. It may suggest technology preference and also dynamic natures of RRIs. We also analyzed the basic features of the human and mouse RRI networks and found that they tend to be scale-free, small-world, hierarchical and modular. The analysis may nominate important RNAs or RRIs for further investigation. Finally, RISE provides a Circos plot and several table views for integrative visualization, with extensive molecular and functional annotations to facilitate exploration of biological functions for any RRI of interest. PMID:29040625

  17. Proteomic Analysis of the Mediator Complex Interactome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Uthe, Henriette; Vanselow, Jens T.; Schlosser, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Here we present the most comprehensive analysis of the yeast Mediator complex interactome to date. Particularly gentle cell lysis and co-immunopurification conditions allowed us to preserve even transient protein-protein interactions and to comprehensively probe the molecular environment of the Mediator complex in the cell. Metabolic 15N-labeling thereby enabled stringent discrimination between bona fide interaction partners and nonspecifically captured proteins. Our data indicates a functional role for Mediator beyond transcription initiation. We identified a large number of Mediator-interacting proteins and protein complexes, such as RNA polymerase II, general transcription factors, a large number of transcriptional activators, the SAGA complex, chromatin remodeling complexes, histone chaperones, highly acetylated histones, as well as proteins playing a role in co-transcriptional processes, such as splicing, mRNA decapping and mRNA decay. Moreover, our data provides clear evidence, that the Mediator complex interacts not only with RNA polymerase II, but also with RNA polymerases I and III, and indicates a functional role of the Mediator complex in rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. PMID:28240253

  18. Proteomic Analysis of the Mediator Complex Interactome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Uthe, Henriette; Vanselow, Jens T; Schlosser, Andreas

    2017-02-27

    Here we present the most comprehensive analysis of the yeast Mediator complex interactome to date. Particularly gentle cell lysis and co-immunopurification conditions allowed us to preserve even transient protein-protein interactions and to comprehensively probe the molecular environment of the Mediator complex in the cell. Metabolic 15 N-labeling thereby enabled stringent discrimination between bona fide interaction partners and nonspecifically captured proteins. Our data indicates a functional role for Mediator beyond transcription initiation. We identified a large number of Mediator-interacting proteins and protein complexes, such as RNA polymerase II, general transcription factors, a large number of transcriptional activators, the SAGA complex, chromatin remodeling complexes, histone chaperones, highly acetylated histones, as well as proteins playing a role in co-transcriptional processes, such as splicing, mRNA decapping and mRNA decay. Moreover, our data provides clear evidence, that the Mediator complex interacts not only with RNA polymerase II, but also with RNA polymerases I and III, and indicates a functional role of the Mediator complex in rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis.

  19. The nuclear DEK interactome supports multi-functionality.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eric A; Krumpelbeck, Eric F; Jegga, Anil G; Prell, Malte; Matrka, Marie M; Kappes, Ferdinand; Greis, Kenneth D; Ali, Abdullah M; Meetei, Amom R; Wells, Susanne I

    2018-01-01

    DEK is an oncoprotein that is overexpressed in many forms of cancer and participates in numerous cellular pathways. Of these different pathways, relevant interacting partners and functions of DEK are well described in regard to the regulation of chromatin structure, epigenetic marks, and transcription. Most of this understanding was derived by investigating DNA-binding and chromatin processing capabilities of the oncoprotein. To facilitate the generation of mechanism-driven hypotheses regarding DEK activities in underexplored areas, we have developed the first DEK interactome model using tandem-affinity purification and mass spectrometry. With this approach, we identify IMPDH2, DDX21, and RPL7a as novel DEK binding partners, hinting at new roles for the oncogene in de novo nucleotide biosynthesis and ribosome formation. Additionally, a hydroxyurea-specific interaction with replication protein A (RPA) was observed, suggesting that a DEK-RPA complex may form in response to DNA replication fork stalling. Taken together, these findings highlight diverse activities for DEK across cellular pathways and support a model wherein this molecule performs a plethora of functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Disease networks. Uncovering disease-disease relationships through the incomplete interactome.

    PubMed

    Menche, Jörg; Sharma, Amitabh; Kitsak, Maksim; Ghiassian, Susan Dina; Vidal, Marc; Loscalzo, Joseph; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-02-20

    According to the disease module hypothesis, the cellular components associated with a disease segregate in the same neighborhood of the human interactome, the map of biologically relevant molecular interactions. Yet, given the incompleteness of the interactome and the limited knowledge of disease-associated genes, it is not obvious if the available data have sufficient coverage to map out modules associated with each disease. Here we derive mathematical conditions for the identifiability of disease modules and show that the network-based location of each disease module determines its pathobiological relationship to other diseases. For example, diseases with overlapping network modules show significant coexpression patterns, symptom similarity, and comorbidity, whereas diseases residing in separated network neighborhoods are phenotypically distinct. These tools represent an interactome-based platform to predict molecular commonalities between phenotypically related diseases, even if they do not share primary disease genes. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. RNA-Binding Proteins Revisited - The Emerging Arabidopsis mRNA Interactome.

    PubMed

    Köster, Tino; Marondedze, Claudius; Meyer, Katja; Staiger, Dorothee

    2017-06-01

    RNA-protein interaction is an important checkpoint to tune gene expression at the RNA level. Global identification of proteins binding in vivo to mRNA has been possible through interactome capture - where proteins are fixed to target RNAs by UV crosslinking and purified through affinity capture of polyadenylated RNA. In Arabidopsis over 500 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) enriched in UV-crosslinked samples have been identified. As in mammals and yeast, the mRNA interactomes came with a few surprises. For example, a plethora of the proteins caught on RNA had not previously been linked to RNA-mediated processes, for example proteins of intermediary metabolism. Thus, the studies provide unprecedented insights into the composition of the mRNA interactome, highlighting the complexity of RNA-mediated processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zebrafish Pronephros Development.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Richard W; Qubisi, Sarah S; Davidson, Alan J

    The pronephros is the first kidney type to form in vertebrate embryos. The first step of pronephrogenesis in the zebrafish is the formation of the intermediate mesoderm during gastrulation, which occurs in response to secreted morphogens such as BMPs and Nodals. Patterning of the intermediate mesoderm into proximal and distal cell fates is induced by retinoic acid signaling with downstream transcription factors including wt1a, pax2a, pax8, hnf1b, sim1a, mecom, and irx3b. In the anterior intermediate mesoderm, progenitors of the glomerular blood filter migrate and fuse at the midline and recruit a blood supply. More posteriorly localized tubule progenitors undergo epithelialization and fuse with the cloaca. The Notch signaling pathway regulates the formation of multi-ciliated cells in the tubules and these cells help propel the filtrate to the cloaca. The lumenal sheer stress caused by flow down the tubule activates anterior collective migration of the proximal tubules and induces stretching and proliferation of the more distal segments. Ultimately these processes create a simple two-nephron kidney that is capable of reabsorbing and secreting solutes and expelling excess water-processes that are critical to the homeostasis of the body fluids. The zebrafish pronephric kidney provides a simple, yet powerful, model system to better understand the conserved molecular and cellular progresses that drive nephron formation, structure, and function.

  3. Zebrafish as tools for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Calum A; Peterson, Randall T

    2015-10-01

    The zebrafish has become a prominent vertebrate model for disease and has already contributed to several examples of successful phenotype-based drug discovery. For the zebrafish to become useful in drug development more broadly, key hurdles must be overcome, including a more comprehensive elucidation of the similarities and differences between human and zebrafish biology. Recent studies have begun to establish the capabilities and limitations of zebrafish for disease modelling, drug screening, target identification, pharmacology, and toxicology. As our understanding increases and as the technologies for manipulating zebrafish improve, it is hoped that the zebrafish will have a key role in accelerating the emergence of precision medicine.

  4. Host cell interactome of PA protein of H5N1 influenza A virus in chicken cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao; Li, Qinghe; Liu, Ranran; Zheng, Maiqing; Wen, Jie; Zhao, Guiping

    2016-03-16

    Influenza A virus (IAV) heavily depends on viral-host protein interactions in order to replicate and spread. Identification of host factors that interact with viral proteins plays crucial roles in understanding the mechanism of IAV infection. Here we report the interaction landscape of H5N1 IAV PA protein in chicken cells through the use of affinity purification and mass spectrometry. PA protein was expressed in chicken cells and PA interacting complexes were captured by co-immunoprecipitation and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 134 proteins were identified as PA-host interacting factors. Protein complexes including the minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM), 26S proteasome and the coat protein I (COPI) complex associated with PA in chicken cells, indicating the essential roles of these functional protein complexes during the course of IAV infection. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis both showed strong enrichment of PA interacting proteins in the category of DNA replication, covering genes such as PCNA, MCM2, MCM3, MCM4, MCM5 and MCM7. This study has uncovered the comprehensive interactome of H5N1 IAV PA protein in its chicken host and helps to establish the foundation for further investigation into the newly identified viral-host interactions. Influenza A virus (IAV) is a great threat to public health and avian production. However, the manner in which avian IAV recruits the host cellular machinery for replication and how the host antagonizes the IAV infection was previously poorly understood. Here we present the viral-host interactome of the H5N1 IAV PA protein and reveal the comprehensive association of host factors with PA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactome of Obesity: Obesidome : Genetic Obesity, Stress Induced Obesity, Pathogenic Obesity Interaction.

    PubMed

    Geronikolou, Styliani A; Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Cokkinos, Dennis; Chrousos, George

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease of increasing prevalence reaching epidemic proportions. Genetic defects as well as epigenetic effects contribute to the obesity phenotype. Investigating gene (e.g. MC4R defects)-environment (behavior, infectious agents, stress) interactions is a relative new field of great research interest. In this study, we have made an effort to create an interactome (henceforth referred to as "obesidome"), where extrinsic stressors response, intrinsic predisposition, immunity response to inflammation and autonomous nervous system implications are integrated. These pathways are presented in one interactome network for the first time. In our study, obesity-related genes/gene products were found to form a complex interactions network.

  6. Immunostaining of dissected zebrafish embryonic heart.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingchun; Xu, Xiaolei

    2012-01-10

    Zebrafish embryo becomes a popular in vivo vertebrate model for studying cardiac development and human heart diseases due to its advantageous embryology and genetics. About 100-200 embryos are readily available every week from a single pair of adult fish. The transparent embryos that develop ex utero make them ideal for assessing cardiac defects. The expression of any gene can be manipulated via morpholino technology or RNA injection. Moreover, forward genetic screens have already generated a list of mutants that affect different perspectives of cardiogenesis. Whole mount immunostaining is an important technique in this animal model to reveal the expression pattern of the targeted protein to a particular tissue. However, high resolution images that can reveal cellular or subcellular structures have been difficult, mainly due to the physical location of the heart and the poor penetration of the antibodies. Here, we present a method to address these bottlenecks by dissecting heart first and then conducting the staining process on the surface of a microscope slide. To prevent the loss of small heart samples and to facilitate solution handling, we restricted the heart samples within a circle on the surface of the microscope slides drawn by an immEdge pen. After the staining, the fluorescence signals can be directly observed by a compound microscope. Our new method significantly improves the penetration for antibodies, since a heart from an embryonic fish only consists of few cell layers. High quality images from intact hearts can be obtained within a much reduced procession time for zebrafish embryos aged from day 2 to day 6. Our method can be potentially extended to stain other organs dissected from either zebrafish or other small animals. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Visualized Experiments

  7. Expression of sall4 in taste buds of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robyn; Braubach, Oliver R; Bilkey, Jessica; Zhang, Jing; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée; Fine, Alan; Croll, Roger P; Jonz, Michael G

    2013-07-01

    We characterized the expression of sall4, a gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor involved in the maintenance of embryonic stem cells, in taste buds of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Using an enhancer trap line (ET5), we detected enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in developing and adult transgenic zebrafish in regions containing taste buds: the lips, branchial arches, and the nasal and maxillary barbels. Localization of EGFP to taste cells of the branchial arches and lips was confirmed by co-immunolabeling with antibodies against calretinin and serotonin, and a zebrafish-derived neuronal marker (zn-12). Transgenic insertion of the ET construct into the zebrafish genome was evaluated and mapped to chromosome 23 in proximity (i.e. 23 kb) to the sall4 gene. In situ hybridization and expression analysis between 24 and 96 h post-fertilization (hpf) demonstrated that transgenic egfp expression in ET5 zebrafish was correlated with the spatial and temporal pattern of expression of sall4 in the wild-type. Expression was first observed in the central nervous system and branchial arches at 24 hpf. At 48 hpf, sall4 and egfp expression was observed in taste bud primordia surrounding the mouth and branchial arches. At 72 and 96 hpf, expression was detected in the upper and lower lips and branchial arches. Double fluorescence in situ hybridization at 3 and 10 dpf confirmed colocalization of sall4 and egfp in the lips and branchial arches. These studies reveal sall4 expression in chemosensory cells and implicate this transcription factor in the development and renewal of taste epithelia in zebrafish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Multiple zebrafish atoh1 genes specify a diversity of neuronal types in the zebrafish cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Chelsea U; Su, Chen-Ying; Hibi, Masahiko; Moens, Cecilia B

    2018-06-01

    A single Atoh1 basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor specifies multiple neuron types in the mammalian cerebellum and anterior hindbrain. The zebrafish genome encodes three paralagous atoh1 genes whose functions in cerebellum and anterior hindbrain development we explore here. With use of a transgenic reporter, we report that zebrafish atoh1c-expressing cells are organized in two distinct domains that are separated both by space and developmental time. An early isthmic expression domain gives rise to an extracerebellar population in rhombomere 1 and an upper rhombic lip domain gives rise to granule cell progenitors that migrate to populate all four granule cell territories of the fish cerebellum. Using genetic mutants we find that of the three zebrafish atoh1 paralogs, atoh1c and atoh1a are required for the full complement of granule neurons. Surprisingly, the two genes are expressed in non-overlapping granule cell progenitor populations, indicating that fish use duplicate atoh1 genes to generate granule cell diversity that is not detected in mammals. Finally, live imaging of granule cell migration in wildtype and atoh1c mutant embryos reveals that while atoh1c is not required for granule cell specification per se, it is required for granule cells to delaminate and migrate away from the rhombic lip. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alkbh4 and Atrn Act Maternally to Regulate Zebrafish Epiboly

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qingrui; Liu, Xingfeng; Gong, Bo; Wu, Di; Meng, Anming; Jia, Shunji

    2017-01-01

    During embryonic gastrulation, coordinated cell movements occur to bring cells to their correct position. Among them, epiboly produces the first distinct morphological changes, which is essential for the early development of zebrafish. Despite its fundamental importance, little is known to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. By generating maternal mutant lines with CRISPR/Cas9 technology and using morpholino knockdown strategy, we showed that maternal Alkbh4 depletion leads to severe epiboly defects in zebrafish. Immunofluorescence assays revealed that Alkbh4 promotes zebrafish embryonic epiboly through regulating actomyosin contractile ring formation, which is composed of Actin and non-muscular myosin II (NMII). To further investigate this process, yeast two hybridization assay was performed and Atrn was identified as a binding partner of Alkbh4. Combining with the functional results of Alkbh4, we found that maternal Atrn plays a similar role in zebrafish embryonic morphogenesis by regulating actomyosin formation. On the molecular level, our data revealed that Atrn prefers to interact with the active form of Alkbh4 and functions together with it to regulate the demethylation of Actin, the actomyosin formation, and subsequently the embryonic epiboly. PMID:28924386

  10. Strain differences in the collective behaviour of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in heterogeneous environment

    PubMed Central

    Collignon, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show differences in individual motion and shoaling tendency between strains of the same species. Here, we analyse collective motion and response to visual stimuli in two morphologically different strains (TL and AB) of zebrafish. For both strains, we observed 10 groups of 5 and 10 zebrafish swimming freely in a large experimental tank with two identical landmarks (cylinders or discs) for 1 h. We tracked the positions of the fish by an automated tracking method and compute several metrics at the group level. First, the probability of the presence shows that both strains avoid free space and are more likely to swim in the vicinity of the walls of the tank and the landmarks. Second, the analysis of landmarks occupancy shows that AB zebrafish are more present in their vicinity than TL ones and that both strains regularly transit from one to the other one with no preference on the long duration. Finally, TL zebrafish show a higher cohesion than AB zebrafish. Thus, environmental heterogeneity and duration of the trials allow to reveal individual and collective behavioural variabilities among different strains of zebrafish. These results provide a new insight into the need to take into account individual variability of zebrafish strains for studying collective behaviour. PMID:27853558

  11. Understanding spatio-temporal strategies of adult zebrafish exploration in the open field test.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kyzar, Evan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-04-27

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a useful model organism for neuroscience research. Mounting evidence suggests that various traditional rodent paradigms may be adapted for testing zebrafish behavior. The open field test is a popular rodent test of novelty exploration, recently applied to zebrafish research. To better understand fish novelty behavior, we exposed adult zebrafish to two different open field arenas for 30 min, assessing the amount and temporal patterning of their exploration. While (similar to rodents) zebrafish scale their locomotory activity depending on the size of the tank, the temporal patterning of their activity was independent of arena size. These observations strikingly parallel similar rodent behaviors, suggesting that spatio-temporal strategies of animal exploration may be evolutionarily conserved across vertebrate species. In addition, we found interesting oscillations in zebrafish exploration, with the per-minute distribution of their horizontal activity demonstrating sinusoidal-like patterns. While such patterning is not reported for rodents and other higher vertebrates, a nonlinear regression analysis confirmed the oscillation patterning of all assessed zebrafish behavioral endpoints in both open field arenas, revealing a potentially important aspect of novelty exploration in lower vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection

    SciT

    Xu Xiaopeng; Zhang Lichun; Weng Shaoping

    2008-06-20

    Zebrafish is a model animal for studies of genetics, development, toxicology, oncology, and immunology. In this study, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) was used to establish an infection in zebrafish, and the experimental conditions were established and characterized. Mortality of adult zebrafish infected with ISKNV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection exceeded 60%. ISKNV can be passed stably in zebrafish for over ten passages. The ailing zebrafish displayed petechial hemorrhaging and scale protrusion. Histological analysis of moribund fish revealed necrosis of tissue and enlarged cells in kidney and spleen. The real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA level confirmed that ISKNV wasmore » replicated in zebrafish. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses further confirmed the presence of ISKNV-infected cells in almost all organs of the infected fish. Electron microscope analyses showed that the ISKNV particle was present in the infected tissues. The establishment of zebrafish infection model of ISKNV can offer a valuable tool for studying the interactions between ISKNV and its host.« less

  13. Lxr regulates lipid metabolic and visual perception pathways during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Caroline Lucia; Kalasekar, Sharanya Maanasi; McCollum, Catherine W; Riu, Anne; Jonsson, Philip; Lopez, Justin; Swindell, Eric C; Bouhlatouf, Abdel; Balaguer, Patrick; Bondesson, Maria; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-05

    The Liver X Receptors (LXRs) play important roles in multiple metabolic pathways, including fatty acid, cholesterol, carbohydrate and energy metabolism. To expand the knowledge of the functions of LXR signaling during embryonic development, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis of Lxr target genes in zebrafish larvae treated with either one of the synthetic LXR ligands T0901317 or GW3965. Assessment of the biological processes enriched by differentially expressed genes revealed a prime role for Lxr in regulating lipid metabolic processes, similarly to the function of LXR in mammals. In addition, exposure to the Lxr ligands induced changes in expression of genes in the neural retina and lens of the zebrafish eye, including the photoreceptor guanylate cyclase activators and lens gamma crystallins, suggesting a potential novel role for Lxr in modulating the transcription of genes associated with visual function in zebrafish. The regulation of expression of metabolic genes was phenotypically reflected in an increased absorption of yolk in the zebrafish larvae, and changes in the expression of genes involved in visual perception were associated with morphological alterations in the retina and lens of the developing zebrafish eye. The regulation of expression of both lipid metabolic and eye specific genes was sustained in 1 month old fish. The transcriptional networks demonstrated several conserved effects of LXR activation between zebrafish and mammals, and also identified potential novel functions of Lxr, supporting zebrafish as a promising model for investigating the role of Lxr during development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lxr regulates lipid metabolic and visual perception pathways during zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Caroline Lucia; Kalasekar, Sharanya Maanasi; McCollum, Catherine W.; Riu, Anne; Jonsson, Philip; Lopez, Justin; Swindell, Eric; Bouhlatouf, Abdel; Balaguer, Patrick; Bondesson, Maria; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-01-01

    The Liver X Receptors (LXRs) play important roles in multiple metabolic pathways, including fatty acid, cholesterol, carbohydrate and energy metabolism. To expand the knowledge of the functions of LXR signaling during embryonic development, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis of Lxr target genes in zebrafish larvae treated with either one of the synthetic LXR ligands T0901317 or GW3965. Assessment of the biological processes enriched by differentially expressed genes revealed a prime role for Lxr in regulating lipid metabolic processes, similarly to the function of LXR in mammals. In addition, exposure to the Lxr ligands induced changes in expression of genes in the neural retina and lens of the zebrafish eye, including the photoreceptor guanylate cyclase activators and lens gamma crystallins, suggesting a potential novel role for Lxr in modulating the transcription of genes associated with visual function in zebrafish. The regulation of expression of metabolic genes was phenotypically reflected in an increased absorption of yolk in the zebrafish larvae, and changes in the expression of genes involved in visual perception were associated with morphological alterations in the retina and lens of the developing zebrafish eye. The regulation of expression of both lipid metabolic and eye specific genes was sustained in 1 month old fish. The transcriptional networks demonstrated several conserved effects of LXR activation between zebrafish and mammals, and also identified potential novel functions of Lxr, supporting zebrafish as a promising model for investigating the role of Lxr during development. PMID:26427652

  15. Correlation between photoreceptor injury-regeneration and behavior in a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Jie; Cai, Shi-Jiao; Cui, Jian-Lin; Chen, Yang; Tang, Xin; Li, Yu-Hao

    2017-05-01

    Direct exposure to intensive visible light can lead to solar retinopathy, including macular injury. The signs and symptoms include central scotoma, metamorphopsia, and decreased vision. However, there have been few studies examining retinal injury due to intensive light stimulation at the cellular level. Neural network arrangements and gene expression patterns in zebrafish photoreceptors are similar to those observed in humans, and photoreceptor injury in zebrafish can induce stem cell-based cellular regeneration. Therefore, the zebrafish retina is considered a useful model for studying photoreceptor injury in humans. In the current study, the central retinal photoreceptors of zebrafish were selectively ablated by stimulation with high-intensity light. Retinal injury, cell proliferation and regeneration of cones and rods were assessed at 1, 3 and 7 days post lesion with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Additionally, a light/dark box test was used to assess zebrafish behavior. The results revealed that photoreceptors were regenerated by 7 days after the light-induced injury. However, the regenerated cells showed a disrupted arrangement at the lesion site. During the injury-regeneration process, the zebrafish exhibited reduced locomotor capacity, weakened phototaxis and increased movement angular velocity. These behaviors matched the morphological changes of retinal injury and regeneration in a number of ways. This study demonstrates that the zebrafish retina has a robust capacity for regeneration. Visual impairment and stress responses following high-intensity light stimulation appear to contribute to the alteration of behaviors.

  16. INDUCED AND SPONTANEOUS NEOPLASIA IN ZEBRAFISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To address the potential of zebrafish as a cancer model, it is important to determine the susceptibility of zebrafish to tumors, and to compare zebrafish tumors with human tumors. To determine whether the commonly-used germ line mutagen, ethylnitrosourea (ENU) induces tumors, we ...

  17. Embryonic senescence and laminopathies in a progeroid zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Eriko; Imamura, Shintaro; Qi, Jie; Toure, Jamal; Valdez, Delgado M; Carr, Christopher E; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Kishi, Shuji

    2011-03-30

    Mutations that disrupt the conversion of prelamin A to mature lamin A cause the rare genetic disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and a group of laminopathies. Our understanding of how A-type lamins function in vivo during early vertebrate development through aging remains limited, and would benefit from a suitable experimental model. The zebrafish has proven to be a tractable model organism for studying both development and aging at the molecular genetic level. Zebrafish show an array of senescence symptoms resembling those in humans, which can be targeted to specific aging pathways conserved in vertebrates. However, no zebrafish models bearing human premature senescence currently exist. We describe the induction of embryonic senescence and laminopathies in zebrafish harboring disturbed expressions of the lamin A gene (LMNA). Impairments in these fish arise in the skin, muscle and adipose tissue, and sometimes in the cartilage. Reduced function of lamin A/C by translational blocking of the LMNA gene induced apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and craniofacial abnormalities/cartilage defects. By contrast, induced cryptic splicing of LMNA, which generates the deletion of 8 amino acid residues lamin A (zlamin A-Δ8), showed embryonic senescence and S-phase accumulation/arrest. Interestingly, the abnormal muscle and lipodystrophic phenotypes were common in both cases. Hence, both decrease-of-function of lamin A/C and gain-of-function of aberrant lamin A protein induced laminopathies that are associated with mesenchymal cell lineages during zebrafish early development. Visualization of individual cells expressing zebrafish progerin (zProgerin/zlamin A-Δ37) fused to green fluorescent protein further revealed misshapen nuclear membrane. A farnesyltransferase inhibitor reduced these nuclear abnormalities and significantly prevented embryonic senescence and muscle fiber damage induced by zProgerin. Importantly, the adult Progerin fish survived and remained fertile with

  18. Anticancer activity of galactoxyloglucan polysaccharide-conjugated doxorubicin nanoparticles: Mechanistic insights and interactome analysis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Manu M; Aravind, S R; George, Suraj K; Raveendran Pillai, K; Mini, S; Sreelekha, T T

    2015-06-01

    Toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic drugs such as doxorubicin (Dox), is one of the major obstacles that is currently affecting patients. PST-Dox (Galactoxyloglucan, PST001-conjugated Dox) nanoparticles were synthesized by encapsulating Dox with polysaccharide PST001, isolated from Tamarindus indica (Ti) by ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate (TPP). Herein, we demonstrate a detailed mechanistic and interactome network analysis that is specific to PST-Dox action in cancer cells and normal lymphocytes. Our results show that PST-Dox is superior to its parental counterparts, exhibiting a greater cytotoxicity by the induction of apoptosis against a wide variety of cancers by enhanced cellular uptake of Dox from the nanoparticle conjugates. Also, PST-Dox nanoparticles were non-toxic to normal lymphocytes with limited immunostimulatory effects up to certain doses. Elucidation of molecular mechanism by whole genome microarray in cancer cells and lymphocytes revealed that a large number of genes were dysregulated specifically in cancer cells. Specifically, a unique target gene EGR1, contextually determined translational activation of P53 in the cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Most of the key downregulated genes were tyrosine kinases, indicating the potential inhibitory action of PST-Dox on tyrosine kinase oncogenic pathways. Western blotting of proteins corresponding to the genes that were altered at the genomic level was very well correlated in the majority of them, except in a few that demonstrated post-transcriptional modifications. The important findings and highly disciplined approaches highlighted in the present study will speed up the therapeutic potential of this augmented nanoparticle formulation for more robust clinical studies and testing in several cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A highly efficient approach to protein interactome mapping based on collaborative filtering framework.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; You, Zhuhong; Zhou, Mengchu; Li, Shuai; Leung, Hareton; Xia, Yunni; Zhu, Qingsheng

    2015-01-09

    The comprehensive mapping of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is highly desired for one to gain deep insights into both fundamental cell biology processes and the pathology of diseases. Finely-set small-scale experiments are not only very expensive but also inefficient to identify numerous interactomes despite their high accuracy. High-throughput screening techniques enable efficient identification of PPIs; yet the desire to further extract useful knowledge from these data leads to the problem of binary interactome mapping. Network topology-based approaches prove to be highly efficient in addressing this problem; however, their performance deteriorates significantly on sparse putative PPI networks. Motivated by the success of collaborative filtering (CF)-based approaches to the problem of personalized-recommendation on large, sparse rating matrices, this work aims at implementing a highly efficient CF-based approach to binary interactome mapping. To achieve this, we first propose a CF framework for it. Under this framework, we model the given data into an interactome weight matrix, where the feature-vectors of involved proteins are extracted. With them, we design the rescaled cosine coefficient to model the inter-neighborhood similarity among involved proteins, for taking the mapping process. Experimental results on three large, sparse datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms several sophisticated topology-based approaches significantly.

  20. A Highly Efficient Approach to Protein Interactome Mapping Based on Collaborative Filtering Framework

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; You, Zhuhong; Zhou, Mengchu; Li, Shuai; Leung, Hareton; Xia, Yunni; Zhu, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive mapping of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is highly desired for one to gain deep insights into both fundamental cell biology processes and the pathology of diseases. Finely-set small-scale experiments are not only very expensive but also inefficient to identify numerous interactomes despite their high accuracy. High-throughput screening techniques enable efficient identification of PPIs; yet the desire to further extract useful knowledge from these data leads to the problem of binary interactome mapping. Network topology-based approaches prove to be highly efficient in addressing this problem; however, their performance deteriorates significantly on sparse putative PPI networks. Motivated by the success of collaborative filtering (CF)-based approaches to the problem of personalized-recommendation on large, sparse rating matrices, this work aims at implementing a highly efficient CF-based approach to binary interactome mapping. To achieve this, we first propose a CF framework for it. Under this framework, we model the given data into an interactome weight matrix, where the feature-vectors of involved proteins are extracted. With them, we design the rescaled cosine coefficient to model the inter-neighborhood similarity among involved proteins, for taking the mapping process. Experimental results on three large, sparse datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms several sophisticated topology-based approaches significantly. PMID:25572661

  1. Deriving Heterospecific Self-Assembling Protein-Protein Interactions Using a Computational Interactome Screen.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Richard O; Baxter, Daniel; Panek, Anna S; Lubben, Anneke T; Mason, Jody M

    2016-01-29

    Interactions between naturally occurring proteins are highly specific, with protein-network imbalances associated with numerous diseases. For designed protein-protein interactions (PPIs), required specificity can be notoriously difficult to engineer. To accelerate this process, we have derived peptides that form heterospecific PPIs when combined. This is achieved using software that generates large virtual libraries of peptide sequences and searches within the resulting interactome for preferentially interacting peptides. To demonstrate feasibility, we have (i) generated 1536 peptide sequences based on the parallel dimeric coiled-coil motif and varied residues known to be important for stability and specificity, (ii) screened the 1,180,416 member interactome for predicted Tm values and (iii) used predicted Tm cutoff points to isolate eight peptides that form four heterospecific PPIs when combined. This required that all 32 hypothetical off-target interactions within the eight-peptide interactome be disfavoured and that the four desired interactions pair correctly. Lastly, we have verified the approach by characterising all 36 pairs within the interactome. In analysing the output, we hypothesised that several sequences are capable of adopting antiparallel orientations. We subsequently improved the software by removing sequences where doing so led to fully complementary electrostatic pairings. Our approach can be used to derive increasingly large and therefore complex sets of heterospecific PPIs with a wide range of potential downstream applications from disease modulation to the design of biomaterials and peptides in synthetic biology. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. ∆F508 CFTR interactome remodelling promotes rescue of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pankow, Sandra; Bamberger, Casimir; Calzolari, Diego; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Balch, William E; Yates, John R

    2015-12-24

    Deletion of phenylalanine 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (∆F508 CFTR) is the major cause of cystic fibrosis, one of the most common inherited childhood diseases. The mutated CFTR anion channel is not fully glycosylated and shows minimal activity in bronchial epithelial cells of patients with cystic fibrosis. Low temperature or inhibition of histone deacetylases can partly rescue ∆F508 CFTR cellular processing defects and function. A favourable change of ∆F508 CFTR protein-protein interactions was proposed as a mechanism of rescue; however, CFTR interactome dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases are unknown. Here we report the first comprehensive analysis of the CFTR and ∆F508 CFTR interactome and its dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases. By using a novel deep proteomic analysis method, we identify 638 individual high-confidence CFTR interactors and discover a ∆F508 deletion-specific interactome, which is extensively remodelled upon rescue. Detailed analysis of the interactome remodelling identifies key novel interactors, whose loss promote ∆F508 CFTR channel function in primary cystic fibrosis epithelia or which are critical for CFTR biogenesis. Our results demonstrate that global remodelling of ∆F508 CFTR interactions is crucial for rescue, and provide comprehensive insight into the molecular disease mechanisms of cystic fibrosis caused by deletion of F508.

  3. A Highly Efficient Approach to Protein Interactome Mapping Based on Collaborative Filtering Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; You, Zhuhong; Zhou, Mengchu; Li, Shuai; Leung, Hareton; Xia, Yunni; Zhu, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive mapping of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is highly desired for one to gain deep insights into both fundamental cell biology processes and the pathology of diseases. Finely-set small-scale experiments are not only very expensive but also inefficient to identify numerous interactomes despite their high accuracy. High-throughput screening techniques enable efficient identification of PPIs; yet the desire to further extract useful knowledge from these data leads to the problem of binary interactome mapping. Network topology-based approaches prove to be highly efficient in addressing this problem; however, their performance deteriorates significantly on sparse putative PPI networks. Motivated by the success of collaborative filtering (CF)-based approaches to the problem of personalized-recommendation on large, sparse rating matrices, this work aims at implementing a highly efficient CF-based approach to binary interactome mapping. To achieve this, we first propose a CF framework for it. Under this framework, we model the given data into an interactome weight matrix, where the feature-vectors of involved proteins are extracted. With them, we design the rescaled cosine coefficient to model the inter-neighborhood similarity among involved proteins, for taking the mapping process. Experimental results on three large, sparse datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms several sophisticated topology-based approaches significantly.

  4. Maintenance of Zebrafish Lines at the European Zebrafish Resource Center.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Robert; Borel, Nadine; Ferg, Marco; Maier, Jana Viktoria; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    We have established a European Zebrafish Resource Center (EZRC) at the KIT. This center not only maintains and distributes a large number of existing mutant and transgenic zebrafish lines but also gives zebrafish researchers access to screening services and technologies such as imaging and high-throughput sequencing, provided by the Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG). The EZRC maintains and distributes the stock collection of the Nüsslein-Volhard laboratory, comprising over 2000 publicly released mutations, as frozen sperm samples. Within the framework of the ZF-HEALTH EU project, the EZRC distributes over 10,000 knockout mutations from the Sanger Institute (United Kingdom), as well as over 100 mutant and transgenic lines from other sources. In this article, we detail the measures we have taken to ensure the health of our fish, including hygiene, quarantine, and veterinary inspections.

  5. A "candidate-interactome" aggregate analysis of genome-wide association data in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mechelli, Rosella; Umeton, Renato; Policano, Claudia; Annibali, Viviana; Coarelli, Giulia; Ricigliano, Vito A G; Vittori, Danila; Fornasiero, Arianna; Buscarinu, Maria Chiara; Romano, Silvia; Salvetti, Marco; Ristori, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Though difficult, the study of gene-environment interactions in multifactorial diseases is crucial for interpreting the relevance of non-heritable factors and prevents from overlooking genetic associations with small but measurable effects. We propose a "candidate interactome" (i.e. a group of genes whose products are known to physically interact with environmental factors that may be relevant for disease pathogenesis) analysis of genome-wide association data in multiple sclerosis. We looked for statistical enrichment of associations among interactomes that, at the current state of knowledge, may be representative of gene-environment interactions of potential, uncertain or unlikely relevance for multiple sclerosis pathogenesis: Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus, HHV8-Kaposi sarcoma, H1N1-influenza, JC virus, human innate immunity interactome for type I interferon, autoimmune regulator, vitamin D receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor and a panel of proteins targeted by 70 innate immune-modulating viral open reading frames from 30 viral species. Interactomes were either obtained from the literature or were manually curated. The P values of all single nucleotide polymorphism mapping to a given interactome were obtained from the last genome-wide association study of the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium & the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, 2. The interaction between genotype and Epstein Barr virus emerges as relevant for multiple sclerosis etiology. However, in line with recent data on the coexistence of common and unique strategies used by viruses to perturb the human molecular system, also other viruses have a similar potential, though probably less relevant in epidemiological terms.

  6. Rare disruptive variants in the DISC1 Interactome and Regulome: association with cognitive ability and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Teng, S; Thomson, P A; McCarthy, S; Kramer, M; Muller, S; Lihm, J; Morris, S; Soares, D C; Hennah, W; Harris, S; Camargo, L M; Malkov, V; McIntosh, A M; Millar, J K; Blackwood, D H; Evans, K L; Deary, I J; Porteous, D J; McCombie, W R

    2018-05-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are common psychiatric illnesses. All have been associated with lower cognitive ability, and show evidence of genetic overlap and substantial evidence of pleiotropy with cognitive function and neuroticism. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein directly interacts with a large set of proteins (DISC1 Interactome) that are involved in brain development and signaling. Modulation of DISC1 expression alters the expression of a circumscribed set of genes (DISC1 Regulome) that are also implicated in brain biology and disorder. Here we report targeted sequencing of 59 DISC1 Interactome genes and 154 Regulome genes in 654 psychiatric patients and 889 cognitively-phenotyped control subjects, on whom we previously reported evidence for trait association from complete sequencing of the DISC1 locus. Burden analyses of rare and singleton variants predicted to be damaging were performed for psychiatric disorders, cognitive variables and personality traits. The DISC1 Interactome and Regulome showed differential association across the phenotypes tested. After family-wise error correction across all traits (FWER across ), an increased burden of singleton disruptive variants in the Regulome was associated with SCZ (FWER across P=0.0339). The burden of singleton disruptive variants in the DISC1 Interactome was associated with low cognitive ability at age 11 (FWER across P=0.0043). These results identify altered regulation of schizophrenia candidate genes by DISC1 and its core Interactome as an alternate pathway for schizophrenia risk, consistent with the emerging effects of rare copy number variants associated with intellectual disability.

  7. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MET Interactome and Neurodevelopmental Disorder Partners at the Developing Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhihui; Li, Jing; Baker, Jonathan; Eagleson, Kathie L.; Coba, Marcelo P.; Levitt, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Background Atypical synapse development and plasticity are implicated in many neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). NDD-associated, high confidence risk genes have been identified, yet little is known about functional relationships at the level of protein-protein interactions, which are the dominant molecular bases responsible for mediating circuit development. Methods Proteomics in three independent developing neocortical synaptosomal preparations identified putative interacting proteins of the ligand-activated MET receptor tyrosine kinase, an autism risk gene that mediates synapse development. The candidates were translated into interactome networks and analyzed bioinformatically. Additionally, three independent quantitative proximity ligation assays (PLA) in cultured neurons and four independent immunoprecipitation analyses of synaptosomes validated protein interactions. Results Approximately 11% (8/72) of MET-interacting proteins, including SHANK3, SYNGAP1 and GRIN2B, are associated with NDDs. Proteins in the MET interactome were translated into a novel MET interactome network based on human protein-protein interaction databases. High confidence genes from different NDD datasets that encode synaptosomal proteins were analyzed for being enriched in MET interactome proteins. This was found for autism, but not schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder or attentional deficit hyperactivity disorder. There is correlated gene expression between MET and its interactive partners in developing human temporal and visual neocortices, but not with highly expressed genes that are not in the interactome. PLA and biochemical analyses demonstrate that MET-protein partner interactions are dynamically regulated by receptor activation. Conclusions The results provide a novel molecular framework for deciphering the functional relations of key regulators of synaptogenesis that contribute to both typical cortical development and to NDDs. PMID:27086544

  8. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MET Interactome and Neurodevelopmental Disorder Partners at the Developing Synapse.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhihui; Li, Jing; Baker, Jonathan; Eagleson, Kathie L; Coba, Marcelo P; Levitt, Pat

    2016-12-15

    Atypical synapse development and plasticity are implicated in many neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). NDD-associated, high-confidence risk genes have been identified, yet little is known about functional relationships at the level of protein-protein interactions, which are the dominant molecular bases responsible for mediating circuit development. Proteomics in three independent developing neocortical synaptosomal preparations identified putative interacting proteins of the ligand-activated MET receptor tyrosine kinase, an autism risk gene that mediates synapse development. The candidates were translated into interactome networks and analyzed bioinformatically. Additionally, three independent quantitative proximity ligation assays in cultured neurons and four independent immunoprecipitation analyses of synaptosomes validated protein interactions. Approximately 11% (8/72) of MET-interacting proteins, including SHANK3, SYNGAP1, and GRIN2B, are associated with NDDs. Proteins in the MET interactome were translated into a novel MET interactome network based on human protein-protein interaction databases. High-confidence genes from different NDD datasets that encode synaptosomal proteins were analyzed for being enriched in MET interactome proteins. This was found for autism but not schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. There is correlated gene expression between MET and its interactive partners in developing human temporal and visual neocortices but not with highly expressed genes that are not in the interactome. Proximity ligation assays and biochemical analyses demonstrate that MET-protein partner interactions are dynamically regulated by receptor activation. The results provide a novel molecular framework for deciphering the functional relations of key regulators of synaptogenesis that contribute to both typical cortical development and to NDDs. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry

  9. Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Amar Jamil, Mohd Fadzly; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Chong Shu-Chien, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  10. Recording the adult zebrafish cerebral field potential during pentylenetetrazole seizures

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Ricardo; Beattie, Christine E.; Hall, Charles W.

    2017-01-01

    Although the zebrafish is increasingly used as a model organism to study epilepsy, no standard electrophysiological technique for recording electrographic seizures in adult fish exists. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a readily implementable technique for recording pentylenetetrazole seizures in the adult zebrafish. We find that we can consistently record a high quality field potential over the zebrafish cerebrum using an amplification of 5000 V/V and bandpass filtering at corner frequencies of 1.6 and 16 Hz. The cerebral field potential recordings show consistent features in the baseline, pre-seizure, seizure and post-seizure time periods that can be easily recognized by visual inspection as is the case with human and rodent electroencephalogram. Furthermore, numerical analysis of the field potential at the time of seizure onset reveals an increase in the total power, bandwidth and peak frequency in the power spectrum, as is also the case with human and rodent electroencephalogram. The techniques presented herein stand to advance the utility of the adult zebrafish in the study of epilepsy by affording an equivalent to the electroencephalogram used in mammalian models and human patients. PMID:21689682

  11. Zebrafish AID is capable of deaminating methylated deoxycytidines

    PubMed Central

    Abdouni, Hala; King, Justin J.; Suliman, Mussa; Quinlan, Matthew; Fifield, Heather; Larijani, Mani

    2013-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deaminates deoxycytidine (dC) to deoxyuracil (dU) at immunoglobulin loci in B lymphocytes to mediate secondary antibody diversification. Recently, AID has been proposed to also mediate epigenetic reprogramming by demethylating methylated cytidines (mC) possibly through deamination. AID overexpression in zebrafish embryos was shown to promote genome demethylation through G:T lesions, implicating a deamination-dependent mechanism. We and others have previously shown that mC is a poor substrate for human AID. Here, we examined the ability of bony fish AID to deaminate mC. We report that zebrafish AID was unique among all orthologs in that it efficiently deaminates mC. Analysis of domain-swapped and mutant AID revealed that mC specificity is independent of the overall high-catalytic efficiency of zebrafish AID. Structural modeling with or without bound DNA suggests that efficient deamination of mC by zebrafish AID is likely not due to a larger catalytic pocket allowing for better fit of mC, but rather because of subtle differences in the flexibility of its structure. PMID:23585279

  12. Redundant roles of PRDM family members in zebrafish craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hai-Lei; Clouthier, David E; Artinger, Kristin B

    2013-01-01

    PRDM proteins are evolutionary conserved Zn-Finger transcription factors that share a characteristic protein domain organization. Previous studies have shown that prdm1a is required for the specification and differentiation of neural crest cells in the zebrafish. Here we examine other members of this family, specifically prdm3, 5, and 16, in the differentiation of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. prdm3 and prdm16 are strongly expressed in the pharyngeal arches, while prdm5 is expressed specifically in the area of the forming neurocranium. Knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 results in a reduction in the neural crest markers dlx2a and barx1 and defects in both the viscerocranium and the neurocranium. The knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 in combination is additive in the neurocranium, but not in the viscerocranium. Injection of sub-optimal doses of prdm1a with prdm3 or prdm16 Morpholinos together leads to more severe phenotypes in the viscerocranium and neurocranium. prdm5 mutants have defects in the neurocranium and prdm1a and prdm5 double mutants also show more severe phenotypes. Overall, our data reveal that prdm3, 5, and 16 are involved in the zebrafish craniofacial development and that prdm1a may interact with prdm3, 5, and 16 in the formation of the craniofacial skeleton in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Redundant Roles of PRDM Family Members in Zebrafish Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hai-Lei; Clouthier, David E.; Artinger, Kristin B.

    2014-01-01

    Background PRDM proteins are evolutionary conserved Zn-Finger transcription factors that share a characteristic protein domain organization. Previous studies have shown that prdm1a is required for the specification and differentiation of neural crest cells in the zebrafish. Results Here we examine other members of this family, specifically prdm3, 5, and 16, in the differentiation of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. prdm3 and prdm16 are strongly expressed in the pharyngeal arches, while prdm5 is expressed specifically in the area of the forming neurocranium. Knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 results in a reduction in the neural crest markers dlx2a and barx1 and defects in both the viscerocranium and the neurocranium. The knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 in combination is additive in the neurocranium, but not in the viscerocranium. Injection of sub-optimal doses of prdm1a with prdm3 or prdm16 Morpholinos together leads to more severe phenotypes in the viscerocranium and neurocranium. prdm5 mutants have defects in the neurocranium and prdm1a and prdm5 double mutants also show more severe phenotypes. Conclusions Overall, our data reveal that prdm3, 5, and 16 are involved in the zebrafish craniofacial development and that prdm1a may interact with prdm3, 5, and 16 in the formation of the craniofacial skeleton in zebrafish. PMID:23109401

  14. Neurochemical measurements in the zebrafish brain

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lauren J.; McCutcheon, James E.; Young, Andrew M. J.; Norton, William H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is an ideal model organism for behavioral genetics and neuroscience. The high conservation of genes and neurotransmitter pathways between zebrafish and other vertebrates permits the translation of research between species. Zebrafish behavior can be studied at both larval and adult stages and recent research has begun to establish zebrafish models for human disease. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique that permits the detection of neurotransmitter release and reuptake. In this study we have used in vitro FSCV to measure the release of analytes in the adult zebrafish telencephalon. We compare different stimulation methods and present a characterization of neurochemical changes in the wild-type zebrafish brain. This study represents the first FSCV recordings in zebrafish, thus paving the way for neurochemical analysis of the fish brain. PMID:26441575

  15. Osteoblast Production by Reserved Progenitor Cells in Zebrafish Bone Regeneration and Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kazunori; Shibata, Eri; Hans, Stefan; Brand, Michael; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-12-04

    Mammals cannot re-form heavily damaged bones as in large fracture gaps, whereas zebrafish efficiently regenerate bones even after amputation of appendages. However, the source of osteoblasts that mediate appendage regeneration is controversial. Several studies in zebrafish have shown that osteoblasts are generated by dedifferentiation of existing osteoblasts at injured sites, but other observations suggest that de novo production of osteoblasts also occurs. In this study, we found from cell-lineage tracing and ablation experiments that a group of cells reserved in niches serves as osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) and has a significant role in fin ray regeneration. Besides regeneration, OPCs also supply osteoblasts for normal bone maintenance. We further showed that OPCs are derived from embryonic somites, as is the case with embryonic osteoblasts, and are replenished from mesenchymal precursors in adult zebrafish. Our findings reveal that reserved progenitors are a significant and complementary source of osteoblasts for zebrafish bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dampened Hedgehog signaling but normal Wnt signaling in zebrafish without cilia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peng; Schier, Alexander F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cilia have been implicated in Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt signaling in mouse but not in Drosophila. To determine whether the role of cilia is conserved in zebrafish, we generated maternal-zygotic (MZ) oval (ovl; ift88) mutants that lack all cilia. MZovl mutants display normal canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling but show defects in Hh signaling. As in mouse, zebrafish cilia are required to mediate the activities of Hh, Ptc, Smo and PKA. However, in contrast to mouse Ift88 mutants, which show a dramatic reduction in Hh signaling, zebrafish MZovl mutants display dampened, but expanded, Hh pathway activity. This activity is largely due to gli1, the expression of which is fully dependent on Hh signaling in mouse but not in zebrafish. These results reveal a conserved requirement for cilia in transducing the activity of upstream regulators of Hh signaling but distinct phenotypic effects due to differential regulation and differing roles of transcriptional mediators. PMID:19700616

  17. Genomic Approaches to Zebrafish Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model for studying cancer biology. Identification of DNA, RNA and chromatin abnormalities can give profound insight into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the there are many techniques for analyzing the genomes of these tumors. Here, I present an overview of the available technologies for analyzing tumor genomes in the zebrafish, including array based methods as well as next-generation sequencing technologies. I also discuss the ways in which zebrafish tumor genomes can be compared to human genomes using cross-species oncogenomics, which act to filter genomic noise and ultimately uncover central drivers of malignancy. Finally, I discuss downstream analytic tools, including network analysis, that can help to organize the alterations into coherent biological frameworks that can then be investigated further. PMID:27165352

  18. New frontiers for zebrafish management.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a preeminent model organism with a wide and expanding utility for numerous scientific disciplines. The same features that once endeared this small freshwater minnow to developmental biologists combined with its relatively high genetic similarity to mammals and the advent of new, more efficient methods for genome editing are now helping to spur expanded growth in its usage in various fields, including toxicology, drug discovery, transplant biology, disease modeling, and even aquaculture. Continued maturation and adoption of the zebrafish model system in these and other fields of science will require that methods and approaches for husbandry and management of these fish in controlled settings be refined and improved to the extent that, ultimately, zebrafish research becomes more reproducible, defined, cost-effective, and accessible to the masses. Knowledge and technology transfer from laboratory animal science and commercial aquaculture will be a necessary part of this development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mayo Clinic Zebrafish Facility Overview.

    PubMed

    Leveque, Ryan E; Clark, Karl J; Ekker, Stephen C

    2016-07-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a premier nonmammalian vertebrate model organism. This small aquatic fish is utilized in multiple disciplines in the Mayo Clinic community and by many laboratories around the world because of its biological similarity to humans, its advanced molecular genetics, the elucidation of its genome sequence, and the ever-expanding and outstanding new biological tools now available to the zebrafish researcher. The Mayo Clinic Zebrafish Facility (MCZF) houses ∼2,000 tanks annotated using an in-house, Internet cloud-based bar-coding system tied to our established zfishbook.org web infrastructure. Paramecia are the primary food source for larval fish rearing, using a simplified culture protocol described herein. The MCZF supports the specific ongoing research in a variety of laboratories, while also serving as a local hub for new scientists as they learn to tap into the potential of this model system for understanding normal development, disease, and as models of health.

  20. Chevron formation of the zebrafish muscle segments

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Fabian; Eugster, Christina; Schröter, Christian; Oates, Andrew C.; Brusch, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The muscle segments of fish have a folded shape, termed a chevron, which is thought to be optimal for the undulating body movements of swimming. However, the mechanism shaping the chevron during embryogenesis is not understood. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy of developing zebrafish embryos spanning the entire somitogenesis period to quantify the dynamics of chevron shape development. By comparing such time courses with the start of movements in wildtype zebrafish and analysing immobile mutants, we show that the previously implicated body movements do not play a role in chevron formation. Further, the monotonic increase of chevron angle along the anteroposterior axis revealed by our data constrains or rules out possible contributions by previously proposed mechanisms. In particular, we found that muscle pioneers are not required for chevron formation. We put forward a tension-and-resistance mechanism involving interactions between intra-segmental tension and segment boundaries. To evaluate this mechanism, we derived and analysed a mechanical model of a chain of contractile and resisting elements. The predictions of this model were verified by comparison with experimental data. Altogether, our results support the notion that a simple physical mechanism suffices to self-organize the observed spatiotemporal pattern in chevron formation. PMID:25267843

  1. Chevron formation of the zebrafish muscle segments.

    PubMed

    Rost, Fabian; Eugster, Christina; Schröter, Christian; Oates, Andrew C; Brusch, Lutz

    2014-11-01

    The muscle segments of fish have a folded shape, termed a chevron, which is thought to be optimal for the undulating body movements of swimming. However, the mechanism shaping the chevron during embryogenesis is not understood. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy of developing zebrafish embryos spanning the entire somitogenesis period to quantify the dynamics of chevron shape development. By comparing such time courses with the start of movements in wildtype zebrafish and analysing immobile mutants, we show that the previously implicated body movements do not play a role in chevron formation. Further, the monotonic increase of chevron angle along the anteroposterior axis revealed by our data constrains or rules out possible contributions by previously proposed mechanisms. In particular, we found that muscle pioneers are not required for chevron formation. We put forward a tension-and-resistance mechanism involving interactions between intra-segmental tension and segment boundaries. To evaluate this mechanism, we derived and analysed a mechanical model of a chain of contractile and resisting elements. The predictions of this model were verified by comparison with experimental data. Altogether, our results support the notion that a simple physical mechanism suffices to self-organize the observed spatiotemporal pattern in chevron formation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Rearrangement of the Protein Phosphatase 1 Interactome During Heart Failure Progression.

    PubMed

    Chiang, David Y; Alsina, Katherina M; Corradini, Eleonora; Fitzpatrick, Martin; Ni, Li; Lahiri, Satadru K; Reynolds, Julia; Pan, Xiaolu; Scott, Larry; Heck, Albert J R; Wehrens, Xander H

    2018-04-18

    Background -Heart failure (HF) is a complex disease with a rising prevalence despite advances in treatment. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has long been implicated in HF pathogenesis but its exact role is both unclear and controversial. Most previous studies measured only the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) without investigating its diverse set of interactors, which confer localization and substrate specificity to the holoenzyme. In this study we define the PP1 interactome in cardiac tissue and test the hypothesis that this interactome becomes rearranged during HF progression at the level of specific PP1c interactors. Methods -Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction and grouped based on ejection fraction (EF) into sham, hypertrophy, moderate HF (EF 30-40%), and severe HF (EF<30%). Cardiac lysates were subjected to affinity-purification using anti-PP1c antibodies followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Ppp1r7 was knocked down in mouse cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells using adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) and siRNA, respectively. Calcium imaging was performed on isolated ventricular myocytes. Results -Seventy-one and 98 PP1c interactors were quantified from mouse cardiac and HeLa lysates, respectively, including many novel interactors and protein complexes. This represents the largest reproducible PP1 interactome dataset ever captured from any tissue, including both primary and secondary/tertiary interactors. Nine PP1c interactors with changes in their binding to PP1c were strongly associated with HF progression including two known (Ppp1r7, Ppp1r18) and 7 novel interactors. Within the entire cardiac PP1 interactome, Ppp1r7 had the highest binding to PP1c. Cardiac-specific knockdown in mice led to cardiac dysfunction and disruption of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Conclusions -PP1 is best studied at the level of its interactome, which undergoes significant rearrangement during HF progression. The nine key interactors that are

  3. Circadian rhythmicity and light sensitivity of the zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen A; Whitmore, David

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, circadian clocks have been thought of as a neurobiological phenomenon. This view changed somewhat over recent years with the discovery of peripheral tissue circadian oscillators. In mammals, however, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus still retains the critical role of a central synchronizer of biological timing. Zebrafish, in contrast, have always reflected a more highly decentralized level of clock organization, as individual cells and tissues contain directly light responsive circadian pacemakers. As a consequence, clock function in the zebrafish brain has remained largely unexplored, and the precise organization of rhythmic and light-sensitive neurons within the brain is unknown. To address this issue, we used the period3 (per3)-luciferase transgenic zebrafish to confirm that multiple brain regions contain endogenous circadian oscillators that are directly light responsive. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed localised neural expression of several rhythmic and light responsive clock genes, including per3, cryptochrome1a (cry1a) and per2. Adult brain nuclei showing significant clock gene expression include the teleost equivalent of the SCN, as well as numerous hypothalamic nuclei, the periventricular grey zone (PGZ) of the optic tectum, and granular cells of the rhombencephalon. To further investigate the light sensitive properties of neurons, expression of c-fos, a marker for neuronal activity, was examined. c-fos mRNA was upregulated in response to changing light conditions in different nuclei within the zebrafish brain. Furthermore, under constant dark (DD) conditions, c-fos shows a significant circadian oscillation. Taken together, these results show that there are numerous areas of the zebrafish central nervous system, which contain deep brain photoreceptors and directly light-entrainable circadian pacemakers. However, there are also multiple brain nuclei, which possess neither, demonstrating a degree of pacemaker

  4. Circadian Rhythmicity and Light Sensitivity of the Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Helen A.; Whitmore, David

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, circadian clocks have been thought of as a neurobiological phenomenon. This view changed somewhat over recent years with the discovery of peripheral tissue circadian oscillators. In mammals, however, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus still retains the critical role of a central synchronizer of biological timing. Zebrafish, in contrast, have always reflected a more highly decentralized level of clock organization, as individual cells and tissues contain directly light responsive circadian pacemakers. As a consequence, clock function in the zebrafish brain has remained largely unexplored, and the precise organization of rhythmic and light-sensitive neurons within the brain is unknown. To address this issue, we used the period3 (per3)-luciferase transgenic zebrafish to confirm that multiple brain regions contain endogenous circadian oscillators that are directly light responsive. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed localised neural expression of several rhythmic and light responsive clock genes, including per3, cryptochrome1a (cry1a) and per2. Adult brain nuclei showing significant clock gene expression include the teleost equivalent of the SCN, as well as numerous hypothalamic nuclei, the periventricular grey zone (PGZ) of the optic tectum, and granular cells of the rhombencephalon. To further investigate the light sensitive properties of neurons, expression of c-fos, a marker for neuronal activity, was examined. c-fos mRNA was upregulated in response to changing light conditions in different nuclei within the zebrafish brain. Furthermore, under constant dark (DD) conditions, c-fos shows a significant circadian oscillation. Taken together, these results show that there are numerous areas of the zebrafish central nervous system, which contain deep brain photoreceptors and directly light-entrainable circadian pacemakers. However, there are also multiple brain nuclei, which possess neither, demonstrating a degree of pacemaker

  5. Production of Zebrafish Offspring from Cultured Female Germline Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ten-Tsao; Tesfamichael, Abraham; Collodi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish female germline stem cell (FGSC) cultures were generated from a transgenic line of fish that expresses Neo and DsRed under the control of the germ cell specific promoter, ziwi [Tg(ziwi:neo);Tg(ziwi:DsRed)]. Homogeneous FGSC cultures were established by G418 selection and continued to express ziwi for more than 6 weeks along with the germ cell markers nanos3, dnd, dazl and vasa. A key component of the cell culture system was the use of a feeder cell line that was initiated from ovaries of a transgenic line of fish [Tg(gsdf:neo)] that expresses Neo controlled by the zebrafish gonadal soma derived factor (gsdf) promoter. The feeder cell line was selected in G418 and engineered to express zebrafish leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif), basic fibroblast growth factor (Fgf2) and glial-cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf). These factors were shown to significantly enhance FGSC growth, survival and germline competency in culture. Results from cell transplantation experiments revealed that the cultured FGSCs were able to successfully colonize the gonad of sterile recipient fish and generate functional gametes. Up to 20% of surviving recipient fish that were injected with the cultured FGSCs were fertile and generated multiple batches of normal offspring for at least 6 months. The FGSC cultures will provide an in vitro system for studies of zebrafish germ cell growth and differentiation and their high frequency of germline transmission following transplantation could form the basis of a stem cell-mediated strategy for gene transfer and manipulation of the zebrafish genome. PMID:23671620

  6. HCV IRES-Mediated Core Expression in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Pu; Hu, Zhan-Ying; Tong, Jun-Wei; Ding, Cun-Bao; Peng, Zong-Gen; Zhao, Li-Xun; Song, Dan-Qing; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2013-01-01

    The lack of small animal models for hepatitis C virus has impeded the discovery and development of anti-HCV drugs. HCV-IRES plays an important role in HCV gene expression, and is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. In this study, we report a zebrafish model with a biscistron expression construct that can co-transcribe GFP and HCV-core genes by human hepatic lipase promoter and zebrafish liver fatty acid binding protein enhancer. HCV core translation was designed mediated by HCV-IRES sequence and gfp was by a canonical cap-dependent mechanism. Results of fluorescence image and in situ hybridization indicate that expression of HCV core and GFP is liver-specific; RT-PCR and Western blotting show that both core and gfp expression are elevated in a time-dependent manner for both transcription and translation. It means that the HCV-IRES exerted its role in this zebrafish model. Furthermore, the liver-pathological impact associated with HCV-infection was detected by examination of gene markers and some of them were elevated, such as adiponectin receptor, heparanase, TGF-β, PDGF-α, etc. The model was used to evaluate three clinical drugs, ribavirin, IFNα-2b and vitamin B12. The results show that vitamin B12 inhibited core expression in mRNA and protein levels in dose-dependent manner, but failed to impact gfp expression. Also VB12 down-regulated some gene transcriptions involved in fat liver, liver fibrosis and HCV-associated pathological process in the larvae. It reveals that HCV-IRES responds to vitamin B12 sensitively in the zebrafish model. Ribavirin did not disturb core expression, hinting that HCV-IRES is not a target site of ribavirin. IFNα-2b was not active, which maybe resulted from its degradation in vivo for the long time. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the zebrafish model for screening of anti-HCV drugs targeting to HCV-IRES. The zebrafish system provides a novel evidence of using zebrafish as a HCV model organism. PMID:23469178

  7. Elucidating the mechanism of action of tributyltin (TBT) in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Courtney L; Crivello, Joseph F

    2011-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an antifouling agent, has been implicated in the masculinization of fish species worldwide, but the masculinizing mechanism is not fully understood. We have examined the actions of TBT as an endocrine disruptor in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In HeLa cells transiently co-transfected with plasmid constructs containing the zebrafish estrogen receptors (zfERα, zfERβ(1) and zfERβ(2)) and the zebrafish estrogen response element (zfERE-tk-luc), ethinyl estradiol (EE2) induced luciferase activity 4 to 6-fold and was inhibited by TBT. In HeLa cells transiently co-transfected with the zebrafish androgen receptor (zfAR) and the murine androgen receptor response element (ARE-slp-luc), testosterone induced luciferase activity was not inhibited by TBT. In HeLa cells co-transfected with zfERα, zfERβ(1) and zfERβ(2) and a plasmid containing zebrafish aromatase (zfCyp19b-luc), TBT inhibited luciferase activity. In zebrafish exposed to 1mg/kg and 5mg/kg TBT in vivo, there was a increase in liver sulfotransferase and a decrease acyl-CoA testosterone acyltransferase activity. Real-time PCR analysis of sexual differentiation markers in fish exposed to TBT in vivo revealed a tissue-specific response. In brain there was increased production of Sox9, Dax1, and SF1 mRNA, an androgenizing effect, while in the liver there was increased production of Dax1, Cyp19a and zfERβ(1) mRNA but decreased production of Sox9 mRNA, a feminizing effect. In the gonads there was increased production of zfERα and zfCyp19a mRNA, again a feminizing effect. TBT has an overall masculinizing effect but the masculinizing effect is tempered by a feminizing effect on gene transcription in certain tissues. These results are discussed in the context of TBT as an endocrine disruptor in zebrafish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Activation-Induced Assembly of an RNA/Protein Interactome Centered on the Splicing Factor U2AF2 Regulates Gene Expression in Human CD4 T Cells.

    PubMed

    Whisenant, Thomas C; Peralta, Eigen R; Aarreberg, Lauren D; Gao, Nina J; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Williamson, Jamie R; Salomon, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Activation of CD4 T cells is a reaction to challenges such as microbial pathogens, cancer and toxins that defines adaptive immune responses. The roles of T cell receptor crosslinking, intracellular signaling, and transcription factor activation are well described, but the importance of post-transcriptional regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) has not been considered in depth. We describe a new model expanding and activating primary human CD4 T cells and applied this to characterizing activation-induced assembly of splicing factors centered on U2AF2. We immunoprecipitated U2AF2 to identify what mRNA transcripts were bound as a function of activation by TCR crosslinking and costimulation. In parallel, mass spectrometry revealed the proteins incorporated into the U2AF2-centered RNA/protein interactome. Molecules that retained interaction with the U2AF2 complex after RNAse treatment were designated as "central" interactome members (CIMs). Mass spectrometry also identified a second class of activation-induced proteins, "peripheral" interactome members (PIMs), that bound to the same transcripts but were not in physical association with U2AF2 or its partners. siRNA knockdown of two CIMs and two PIMs caused changes in activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and gene expression that were unique to each protein and mapped to pathways associated with key aspects of T cell activation. While knocking down the PIM, SYNCRIP, impacts a limited but immunologically important set of U2AF2-bound transcripts, knockdown of U2AF1 significantly impairs assembly of the majority of protein and mRNA components in the activation-induced interactome. These results demonstrated that CIMs and PIMs, either directly or indirectly through RNA, assembled into activation-induced U2AF2 complexes and play roles in post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to cytokine secretion. These data suggest an additional layer of regulation mediated by the activation-induced assembly of RNA

  9. The Activation-Induced Assembly of an RNA/Protein Interactome Centered on the Splicing Factor U2AF2 Regulates Gene Expression in Human CD4 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aarreberg, Lauren D.; Gao, Nina J.; Head, Steven R.; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Williamson, Jamie R.; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of CD4 T cells is a reaction to challenges such as microbial pathogens, cancer and toxins that defines adaptive immune responses. The roles of T cell receptor crosslinking, intracellular signaling, and transcription factor activation are well described, but the importance of post-transcriptional regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) has not been considered in depth. We describe a new model expanding and activating primary human CD4 T cells and applied this to characterizing activation-induced assembly of splicing factors centered on U2AF2. We immunoprecipitated U2AF2 to identify what mRNA transcripts were bound as a function of activation by TCR crosslinking and costimulation. In parallel, mass spectrometry revealed the proteins incorporated into the U2AF2-centered RNA/protein interactome. Molecules that retained interaction with the U2AF2 complex after RNAse treatment were designated as “central” interactome members (CIMs). Mass spectrometry also identified a second class of activation-induced proteins, “peripheral” interactome members (PIMs), that bound to the same transcripts but were not in physical association with U2AF2 or its partners. siRNA knockdown of two CIMs and two PIMs caused changes in activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and gene expression that were unique to each protein and mapped to pathways associated with key aspects of T cell activation. While knocking down the PIM, SYNCRIP, impacts a limited but immunologically important set of U2AF2-bound transcripts, knockdown of U2AF1 significantly impairs assembly of the majority of protein and mRNA components in the activation-induced interactome. These results demonstrated that CIMs and PIMs, either directly or indirectly through RNA, assembled into activation-induced U2AF2 complexes and play roles in post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to cytokine secretion. These data suggest an additional layer of regulation mediated by the activation-induced assembly

  10. Zebrafish sex: a complicated affair

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Woei Chang

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we provide a detailed overview of studies on the elusive sex determination (SD) and gonad differentiation mechanisms of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We show that the data obtained from most studies are compatible with polygenic sex determination (PSD), where the decision is made by the allelic combinations of several loci. These loci are typically dispersed throughout the genome, but in some teleost species a few of them might be located on a preferential pair of (sex) chromosomes. The PSD system has a much higher level of variation of SD genotypes both at the level of gametes and the sexual genotype of individuals, than that of the chromosomal sex determination systems. The early sexual development of zebrafish males is a complicated process, as they first develop a ‘juvenile ovary’, that later undergoes a transformation to give way to a testis. To date, three major developmental pathways were shown to be involved with gonad differentiation through the modulation of programmed cell death. In our opinion, there are more pathways participating in the regulation of zebrafish gonad differentiation/transformation. Introduction of additional powerful large-scale genomic approaches into the analysis of zebrafish reproduction will result in further deepening of our knowledge as well as identification of additional pathways and genes associated with these processes in the near future. PMID:24148942

  11. Knockdown of prothrombin in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Day, Kenneth; Krishnegowda, Naveen; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2004-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease generated from its zymogen, prothrombin, and plays a central role in the coagulation cascade. It is also important for mammalian development. The zebrafish has now been established as an excellent genetic model for studies on mammalian hemostasis and development. In this report, we used prothrombin-specific antisense morpholinos to knock down the levels of prothrombin to characterize the effects of prothrombin deficiency in the zebrafish embryo. Prothrombin morpholino-injected zebrafish embryos yielded an early phenotype exhibiting severe abnormalities that later showed occasional bleeding. In a second late phenotype, the embryos had no observable morphological abnormalities in early stages, but showed occasional bleeding at later stages. These phenotypes resembled characteristics shown by prothrombin knockout mice. Laser-induced vascular injury on some of the normal appearing phenotypic larvae showed a prolonged time to occlusion, and recombinant zebrafish prothrombin injected into these larvae restored a normal time to occlusion thus showing the specificity of the morpholino effect. The system developed here should be useful for investigation of the role of thrombin in vertebrate development.

  12. Contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Justin W; Scott, Ian C; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intensity, prevented by an established amnestic agent (MK-801), lasts at least 14 d, and exhibits extinction. Furthermore, fish of various background strains (AB, Tu, and TL) are able to acquire fear conditioning, but differ in fear extinction rates. Taken together, we find that contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish shares many similarities with the widely used contextual fear conditioning paradigm in rodents. Combined with the amenability of genetic manipulation in zebrafish, we anticipate that our paradigm will prove to be a useful complementary system in which to examine the molecular basis of vertebrate learning and memory. © 2017 Kenney et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Insights into the polerovirus-plant interactome revealed by co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry

    The identification of host proteins that interact with virus proteins is a major challenge for the field of virology. Phloem-limited viruses pose extraordinary challenges for in vivo protein interaction experiments because these viruses are localized in very few and highly specialized host cells. ...

  14. Insights into the polerovirus-plant interactome revealed by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Johnson, Richard; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Karasev, Alexander; Gray, Stewart M; MacCoss, Michael J; Cilia, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Identification of host proteins interacting with the aphidborne Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) from the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae, is a critical step toward understanding how PLRV and related viruses infect plants. However, the tight spatial distribution of PLRV to phloem tissues poses challenges. A polyclonal antibody raised against purified PLRV virions was used to coimmunoprecipitate virus-host protein complexes from Nicotiana benthamiana tissue inoculated with an infectious PLRV cDNA clone using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A. tumefaciens-mediated delivery of PLRV enabled infection and production of assembled, insect-transmissible virus in most leaf cells, overcoming the dynamic range constraint posed by a systemically infected host. Isolated protein complexes were characterized using high-resolution mass spectrometry and consisted of host proteins interacting directly or indirectly with virions, as well as the nonincorporated readthrough protein (RTP) and three phosphorylated positional isomers of the RTP. A bioinformatics analysis using ClueGO and STRING showed that plant proteins in the PLRV protein interaction network regulate key biochemical processes, including carbon fixation, amino acid biosynthesis, ion transport, protein folding, and trafficking.

  15. The interactomic analysis reveals pathogenic protein networks in Phomopsis longicolla underlying seed decay of soybean

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. This disease causes poor seed quality and is one of the most economically important diseases in soybean. The objectives of this study were to perform ...

  16. Behavioural fever in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sonia; Moiche, Visila; Boltaña, Sebastian; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Behavioural fever has been reported in different species of mobile ectotherms including the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in response to exogenous pyrogens. In this study we report, to our knowledge for the first time, upon the ontogenic onset of behavioural fever in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. For this, zebrafish larvae (from first feeding to juveniles) were placed in a continuous thermal gradient providing the opportunity to select their preferred temperature. The novel thermal preference aquarium was based upon a continuous vertical column system and allows for non-invasive observation of larvae vertical distribution under isothermal (T R at 28 °C) and thermal gradient conditions (T CH : 28-32 °C). Larval thermal preference was assessed under both conditions with or without an immersion challenge, in order to detect the onset of the behavioural fever response. Our results defined the onset of the dsRNA induced behavioural fever at 18-20 days post fertilization (dpf). Significant differences were observed in dsRNA challenged larvae, which prefer higher temperatures (1-4 °C increase) throughout the experimental period as compared to non-challenged larvae. In parallel we measured the abundance of antiviral transcripts; viperin, gig2, irf7, trim25 and Mxb mRNAs in dsRNA challenged larvae under both thermal regimes: T R and T Ch . Significant increases in the abundance of all measured transcripts were recorded under thermal choice conditions signifying that thermo-coupling and the resultant enhancement of the immune response to dsRNA challenge occurs from 18 dpf onwards in the zebrafish. The results are of importance as they identify a key developmental stage where the neuro-immune interface matures in the zebrafish likely providing increased resistance to viral infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep–wake regulation and hypocretin–melatonin interaction in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Lior; Wang, Gordon X.; Maro, Geraldine S.; Mori, Rotem; Tovin, Adi; Marin, Wilfredo; Yokogawa, Tohei; Kawakami, Koichi; Smith, Stephen J.; Gothilf, Yoav; Mignot, Emmanuel; Mourrain, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuropeptides are important sleep–wake regulators and HCRT deficiency causes narcolepsy. In addition to fragmented wakefulness, narcoleptic mammals also display sleep fragmentation, a less understood phenotype recapitulated in the zebrafish HCRT receptor mutant (hcrtr−/−). We therefore used zebrafish to study the potential mediators of HCRT-mediated sleep consolidation. Similar to mammals, zebrafish HCRT neurons express vesicular glutamate transporters indicating conservation of the excitatory phenotype. Visualization of the entire HCRT circuit in zebrafish stably expressing hcrt:EGFP revealed parallels with established mammalian HCRT neuroanatomy, including projections to the pineal gland, where hcrtr mRNA is expressed. As pineal-produced melatonin is a major sleep-inducing hormone in zebrafish, we further studied how the HCRT and melatonin systems interact functionally. mRNA level of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT2), a key enzyme of melatonin synthesis, is reduced in hcrtr−/− pineal gland during the night. Moreover, HCRT perfusion of cultured zebrafish pineal glands induces melatonin release. Together these data indicate that HCRT can modulate melatonin production at night. Furthermore, hcrtr−/− fish are hypersensitive to melatonin, but not other hypnotic compounds. Subthreshold doses of melatonin increased the amount of sleep and consolidated sleep in hcrtr−/− fish, but not in the wild-type siblings. These results demonstrate the existence of a functional HCRT neurons-pineal gland circuit able to modulate melatonin production and sleep consolidation. PMID:19966231

  18. Fish from Head to Tail: The 9th European Zebrafish Meeting in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gareth; Müller, Ferenc; Ledin, Johan; Patton, E Elizabeth; Gjøen, Tor; Lobert, Viola Hélène; Winther-Larsen, Hanne Cecilie; Mullins, Mary; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Press, Charles McLean; Aleström, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The 9th European Zebrafish Meeting took place recently in Oslo (June 28-July 2, 2015). A total of 650 participants came to hear the latest research news focused on the zebrafish, Danio rerio, and to its distant evolutionary relative medaka, Oryzias latipes. The packed program included keynote and plenary talks, short oral presentations and poster sessions, workshops, and strategic discussions. The meeting was a great success and revealed dramatically how important the zebrafish in particular has become as a model system for topics, such as developmental biology, functional genomics, biomedicine, toxicology, and drug development. A new emphasis was given to its potential as a model for aquaculture, a topic of great economic interest to the host country Norway and for the future global food supply in general. Zebrafish husbandry as well as its use in teaching were also covered in separate workshops. As has become a tradition in these meetings, there was a well-attended Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and ZFIN workshop focused on Zebrafish Genome Resources on the first day. The full EZM 2015 program with abstracts can be read and downloaded from the EZM 2015 Web site zebrafish2015.org .

  19. Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17 kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5 Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish. PMID:22715948

  20. Serum Amyloid P Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria; Enghild, Jan J

    2017-02-14

    The pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) is secreted by the liver and found in plasma at a concentration of approximately 30 mg/L. SAP is a 25 kDa homopentamer known to bind both protein and nonprotein ligands, all in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of SAP is unclear but likely involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to bind to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect them against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma containing the physiological Ca 2+ concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins, of which 24 were direct or indirect interaction partners not previously reported. The SAP interactome can be divided into categories that include apolipoproteins, the complement system, coagulation, and proteolytic regulation.

  1. Towards Personalized Medicine Mediated by in Vitro Virus-Based Interactome Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto-Sato, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a simple in vitro virus (IVV) selection system based on cell-free co-translation, using a highly stable and efficient mRNA display method. The IVV system is applicable to the high-throughput and comprehensive analysis of proteins and protein–ligand interactions. Huge amounts of genomic sequence data have been generated over the last decade. The accumulated genetic alterations and the interactome networks identified within cells represent a universal feature of a disease, and knowledge of these aspects can help to determine the optimal therapy for the disease. The concept of the “integrome” has been developed as a means of integrating large amounts of data. We have developed an interactome analysis method aimed at providing individually-targeted health care. We also consider future prospects for this system. PMID:24756093

  2. Identification of the Interactome of a Palmitoylated Membrane Protein, Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Type II Alpha.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Avanti; Ryder, Pearl V; Zlatic, Stephanie A; Faundez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4K) are enzymes responsible for the production of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphates, important intermediates in several cell signaling pathways. PI4KIIα is the most abundant membrane-associated kinase in mammalian cells and is involved in a variety of essential cellular functions. However, the precise role(s) of PI4KIIα in the cell is not yet completely deciphered. Here we present an experimental protocol that uses a chemical cross-linker, DSP, combined with immunoprecipitation and immunoaffinity purification to identify novel PI4KIIα interactors. As predicted, PI4KIIα participates in transient, low-affinity interactions that are stabilized by the use of DSP. Using this optimized protocol we have successfully identified actin cytoskeleton regulators-the WASH complex and RhoGEF1, as major novel interactors of PI4KIIα. While this chapter focuses on the PI4KIIα interactome, this protocol can and has been used to generate other membrane interactome networks.

  3. Preparation of Gap Junctions in Membrane Microdomains for Immunoprecipitation and Mass Spectrometry Interactome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie; Akins, Mark; Bennett, Steffany A L

    2016-01-01

    Protein interaction networks at gap junction plaques are increasingly implicated in a variety of intracellular signaling cascades. Identifying protein interactions of integral membrane proteins is a valuable tool for determining channel function. However, several technical challenges exist. Subcellular fractionation of the bait protein matrix is usually required to identify less abundant proteins in complex homogenates. Sufficient solvation of the lipid environment without perturbation of the protein interactome must also be achieved. The present chapter describes the flotation of light and heavy liver tissue membrane microdomains to facilitate the identification and analysis of endogenous gap junction proteins and includes technical notes for translation to other integral membrane proteins, tissues, or cell culture models. These procedures are valuable tools for the enrichment of gap junction membrane compartments and for the identification of gap junction signaling interactomes.

  4. Expression of DISC1-interactome members correlates with cognitive phenotypes related to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Antonio; Walker, Rosie May; Torrance, Helen Scott; Anderson, Susan Maguire; Fazio, Leonardo; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Taurisano, Paolo; Gelao, Barbara; Romano, Raffaella; Masellis, Rita; Ursini, Gianluca; Caforio, Grazia; Blasi, Giuseppe; Millar, J Kirsty; Porteous, David John; Thomson, Pippa Ann; Bertolino, Alessandro; Evans, Kathryn Louise

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is central to the schizophrenia phenotype. Genetic and functional studies have implicated Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a leading candidate gene for schizophrenia and related psychiatric conditions, in cognitive function. Altered expression of DISC1 and DISC1-interactors has been identified in schizophrenia. Dysregulated expression of DISC1-interactome genes might, therefore, contribute to schizophrenia susceptibility via disruption of molecular systems required for normal cognitive function. Here, the blood RNA expression levels of DISC1 and DISC1-interacting proteins were measured in 63 control subjects. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychiatric tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the activity of prefrontal cortical regions during the N-back working memory task, which is abnormal in schizophrenia. Pairwise correlations between gene expression levels and the relationship between gene expression levels and cognitive function and N-back-elicited brain activity were assessed. Finally, the expression levels of DISC1, AKAP9, FEZ1, NDEL1 and PCM1 were compared between 63 controls and 69 schizophrenic subjects. We found that DISC1-interactome genes showed correlated expression in the blood of healthy individuals. The expression levels of several interactome members were correlated with cognitive performance and N-back-elicited activity in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, DISC1 and NDEL1 showed decreased expression in schizophrenic subjects compared to healthy controls. Our findings highlight the importance of the coordinated expression of DISC1-interactome genes for normal cognitive function and suggest that dysregulated DISC1 and NDEL1 expression might, in part, contribute to susceptibility for schizophrenia via disruption of prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive functions.

  5. Expression of DISC1-Interactome Members Correlates with Cognitive Phenotypes Related to Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rampino, Antonio; Walker, Rosie May; Torrance, Helen Scott; Anderson, Susan Maguire; Fazio, Leonardo; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Taurisano, Paolo; Gelao, Barbara; Romano, Raffaella; Masellis, Rita; Ursini, Gianluca; Caforio, Grazia; Blasi, Giuseppe; Millar, J. Kirsty; Porteous, David John; Thomson, Pippa Ann; Bertolino, Alessandro; Evans, Kathryn Louise

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is central to the schizophrenia phenotype. Genetic and functional studies have implicated Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a leading candidate gene for schizophrenia and related psychiatric conditions, in cognitive function. Altered expression of DISC1 and DISC1-interactors has been identified in schizophrenia. Dysregulated expression of DISC1-interactome genes might, therefore, contribute to schizophrenia susceptibility via disruption of molecular systems required for normal cognitive function. Here, the blood RNA expression levels of DISC1 and DISC1-interacting proteins were measured in 63 control subjects. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychiatric tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the activity of prefrontal cortical regions during the N-back working memory task, which is abnormal in schizophrenia. Pairwise correlations between gene expression levels and the relationship between gene expression levels and cognitive function and N-back-elicited brain activity were assessed. Finally, the expression levels of DISC1, AKAP9, FEZ1, NDEL1 and PCM1 were compared between 63 controls and 69 schizophrenic subjects. We found that DISC1-interactome genes showed correlated expression in the blood of healthy individuals. The expression levels of several interactome members were correlated with cognitive performance and N-back-elicited activity in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, DISC1 and NDEL1 showed decreased expression in schizophrenic subjects compared to healthy controls. Our findings highlight the importance of the coordinated expression of DISC1-interactome genes for normal cognitive function and suggest that dysregulated DISC1 and NDEL1 expression might, in part, contribute to susceptibility for schizophrenia via disruption of prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive functions. PMID:24940743

  6. Next Generation Protein Interactomes for Plant Systems Biology and Biomass Feedstock Research

    SciT

    Ecker, Joseph Robert; Trigg, Shelly; Garza, Renee

    Biofuel crop cultivation is a necessary step in heading towards a sustainable future, making their genomic studies a priority. While technology platforms that currently exist for studying non-model crop species, like switch-grass or sorghum, have yielded large quantities of genomic and expression data, still a large gap exists between molecular mechanism and phenotype. The aspect of molecular activity at the level of protein-protein interactions has recently begun to bridge this gap, providing a more global perspective. Interactome analysis has defined more specific functional roles of proteins based on their interaction partners, neighborhoods, and other network features, making it possible tomore » distinguish unique modules of immune response to different plant pathogens(Jiang, Dong, and Zhang 2016). As we work towards cultivating heartier biofuel crops, interactome data will lead to uncovering crop-specific defense and development networks. However, the collection of protein interaction data has been limited to expensive, time-consuming, hard-to-scale assays that mostly require cloned ORF collections. For these reasons, we have successfully developed a highly scalable, economical, and sensitive yeast two-hybrid assay, ProCREate, that can be universally applied to generate proteome-wide primary interactome data. ProCREate enables en masse pooling and massively paralleled sequencing for the identification of interacting proteins by exploiting Cre-lox recombination. ProCREate can be used to screen ORF/cDNA libraries from feedstock plant tissues. The interactome data generated will yield deeper insight into many molecular processes and pathways that can be used to guide improvement of feedstock productivity and sustainability.« less

  7. Rewiring of the inferred protein interactome during blood development studied with the tool PPICompare.

    PubMed

    Will, Thorsten; Helms, Volkhard

    2017-04-04

    Differential analysis of cellular conditions is a key approach towards understanding the consequences and driving causes behind biological processes such as developmental transitions or diseases. The progress of whole-genome expression profiling enabled to conveniently capture the state of a cell's transcriptome and to detect the characteristic features that distinguish cells in specific conditions. In contrast, mapping the physical protein interactome for many samples is experimentally infeasible at the moment. For the understanding of the whole system, however, it is equally important how the interactions of proteins are rewired between cellular states. To overcome this deficiency, we recently showed how condition-specific protein interaction networks that even consider alternative splicing can be inferred from transcript expression data. Here, we present the differential network analysis tool PPICompare that was specifically designed for isoform-sensitive protein interaction networks. Besides detecting significant rewiring events between the interactomes of grouped samples, PPICompare infers which alterations to the transcriptome caused each rewiring event and what is the minimal set of alterations necessary to explain all between-group changes. When applied to the development of blood cells, we verified that a reasonable amount of rewiring events were reported by the tool and found that differential gene expression was the major determinant of cellular adjustments to the interactome. Alternative splicing events were consistently necessary in each developmental step to explain all significant alterations and were especially important for rewiring in the context of transcriptional control. Applying PPICompare enabled us to investigate the dynamics of the human protein interactome during developmental transitions. A platform-independent implementation of the tool PPICompare is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/ppicompare/ .

  8. Novel candidate genes of the PARK7 interactome as mediators of apoptosis and acetylation in multiple sclerosis: An in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Vavougios, George D; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Mitsikostas, Dimos Dimitrios; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    currently only 4 studies have explored the potential role of PARK7's dysregulation in MS pathophysiology Currently, no study has evaluated the potential role of the PARK7 interactome in MS. The aim of our study was to assess the differential expression of PARK7 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclears (PBMCs) donated from MS versus healthy patients using data mining techniques. The PARK7 interactome data from the GDS3920 profile were scrutinized for differentially expressed genes (DEGs); Gene Enrichment Analysis (GEA) was used to detect significantly enriched biological functions. 27 differentially expressed genes in the MS dataset were detected; 12 of these (NDUFA4, UBA2, TDP2, NPM1, NDUFS3, SUMO1, PIAS2, KIAA0101, RBBP4, NONO, RBBP7 AND HSPA4) are reported for the first time in MS. Stepwise Linear Discriminant Function Analysis constructed a predictive model (Wilk's λ = 0.176, χ 2 = 45.204, p = 1.5275e -10 ) with 2 variables (TIDP2, RBBP4) that achieved 96.6% accuracy when discriminating between patients and controls. Gene Enrichment Analysis revealed that induction and regulation of programmed / intrinsic cell death represented the most salient Gene Ontology annotations. Cross-validation on systemic lupus erythematosus and ischemic stroke datasets revealed that these functions are unique to the MS dataset. Based on our results, novel potential target genes are revealed; these differentially expressed genes regulate epigenetic and apoptotic pathways that may further elucidate underlying mechanisms of autorreactivity in MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inborn errors of metabolism and the human interactome: a systems medicine approach.

    PubMed

    Woidy, Mathias; Muntau, Ania C; Gersting, Søren W

    2018-02-05

    The group of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) displays a marked heterogeneity and IEM can affect virtually all functions and organs of the human organism; however, IEM share that their associated proteins function in metabolism. Most proteins carry out cellular functions by interacting with other proteins, and thus are organized in biological networks. Therefore, diseases are rarely the consequence of single gene mutations but of the perturbations caused in the related cellular network. Systematic approaches that integrate multi-omics and database information into biological networks have successfully expanded our knowledge of complex disorders but network-based strategies have been rarely applied to study IEM. We analyzed IEM on a proteome scale and found that IEM-associated proteins are organized as a network of linked modules within the human interactome of protein interactions, the IEM interactome. Certain IEM disease groups formed self-contained disease modules, which were highly interlinked. On the other hand, we observed disease modules consisting of proteins from many different disease groups in the IEM interactome. Moreover, we explored the overlap between IEM and non-IEM disease genes and applied network medicine approaches to investigate shared biological pathways, clinical signs and symptoms, and links to drug targets. The provided resources may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying new IEM, to uncover the significance of disease-associated mutations, to identify new biomarkers, and to develop novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. SPRINT: ultrafast protein-protein interaction prediction of the entire human interactome.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwei; Ilie, Lucian

    2017-11-15

    Proteins perform their functions usually by interacting with other proteins. Predicting which proteins interact is a fundamental problem. Experimental methods are slow, expensive, and have a high rate of error. Many computational methods have been proposed among which sequence-based ones are very promising. However, so far no such method is able to predict effectively the entire human interactome: they require too much time or memory. We present SPRINT (Scoring PRotein INTeractions), a new sequence-based algorithm and tool for predicting protein-protein interactions. We comprehensively compare SPRINT with state-of-the-art programs on seven most reliable human PPI datasets and show that it is more accurate while running orders of magnitude faster and using very little memory. SPRINT is the only sequence-based program that can effectively predict the entire human interactome: it requires between 15 and 100 min, depending on the dataset. Our goal is to transform the very challenging problem of predicting the entire human interactome into a routine task. The source code of SPRINT is freely available from https://github.com/lucian-ilie/SPRINT/ and the datasets and predicted PPIs from www.csd.uwo.ca/faculty/ilie/SPRINT/ .

  11. Inferring the Brassica rapa Interactome Using Protein–Protein Interaction Data from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianhua; Osman, Kim; Iqbal, Mudassar; Stekel, Dov J.; Luo, Zewei; Armstrong, Susan J.; Franklin, F. Chris H.

    2013-01-01

    Following successful completion of the Brassica rapa sequencing project, the next step is to investigate functions of individual genes/proteins. For Arabidopsis thaliana, large amounts of protein–protein interaction (PPI) data are available from the major PPI databases (DBs). It is known that Brassica crop species are closely related to A. thaliana. This provides an opportunity to infer the B. rapa interactome using PPI data available from A. thaliana. In this paper, we present an inferred B. rapa interactome that is based on the A. thaliana PPI data from two resources: (i) A. thaliana PPI data from three major DBs, BioGRID, IntAct, and TAIR. (ii) ortholog-based A. thaliana PPI predictions. Linking between B. rapa and A. thaliana was accomplished in three complementary ways: (i) ortholog predictions, (ii) identification of gene duplication based on synteny and collinearity, and (iii) BLAST sequence similarity search. A complementary approach was also applied, which used known/predicted domain–domain interaction data. Specifically, since the two species are closely related, we used PPI data from A. thaliana to predict interacting domains that might be conserved between the two species. The predicted interactome was investigated for the component that contains known A. thaliana meiotic proteins to demonstrate its usability. PMID:23293649

  12. Comprehensive Identification of mRNA-Binding Proteins of Leishmania donovani by Interactome Capture.

    PubMed

    Nandan, Devki; Thomas, Sneha A; Nguyen, Anne; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J; Reiner, Neil E

    2017-01-01

    Leishmania are unicellular eukaryotes responsible for leishmaniasis in humans. Like other trypanosomatids, leishmania regulate protein coding gene expression almost exclusively at the post-transcriptional level with the help of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). Due to the presence of polycystronic transcription units, leishmania do not regulate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription initiation. Recent evidence suggests that the main control points in gene expression are mRNA degradation and translation. Protein-RNA interactions are involved in every aspect of RNA biology, such as mRNA splicing, polyadenylation, localization, degradation, and translation. A detailed picture of these interactions would likely prove to be highly informative in understanding leishmania biology and virulence. We developed a strategy involving covalent UV cross-linking of RBPs to mRNA in vivo, followed by interactome capture using oligo(dT) magnetic beads to define comprehensively the mRNA interactome of growing L. donovani amastigotes. The protein mass spectrometry analysis of captured proteins identified 79 mRNA interacting proteins which withstood very stringent washing conditions. Strikingly, we found that 49 of these mRNA interacting proteins had no orthologs or homologs in the human genome. Consequently, these may represent high quality candidates for selective drug targeting leading to novel therapeutics. These results show that this unbiased, systematic strategy has the promise to be applicable to study the mRNA interactome during various biological settings such as metabolic changes, stress (low pH environment, oxidative stress and nutrient deprivation) or drug treatment.

  13. A Viral-Human Interactome Based on Structural Motif-Domain Interactions Captures the Human Infectome

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xianwu; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.

    2013-01-01

    Protein interactions between a pathogen and its host are fundamental in the establishment of the pathogen and underline the infection mechanism. In the present work, we developed a single predictive model for building a host-viral interactome based on the identification of structural descriptors from motif-domain interactions of protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The structural descriptors were used for searching, in a database of protein sequences of human and five clinically important viruses; therefore, viral and human proteins sharing a descriptor were predicted as interacting proteins. The analysis of the host-viral interactome allowed to identify a set of new interactions that further explain molecular mechanism associated with viral infections and showed that it was able to capture human proteins already associated to viral infections (human infectome) and non-infectious diseases (human diseasome). The analysis of human proteins targeted by viral proteins in the context of a human interactome showed that their neighbors are enriched in proteins reported with differential expression under infection and disease conditions. It is expected that the findings of this work will contribute to the development of systems biology for infectious diseases, and help guide the rational identification and prioritization of novel drug targets. PMID:23951184

  14. Perturbation of the mutated EGFR interactome identifies vulnerabilities and resistance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiannong; Bennett, Keiryn; Stukalov, Alexey; Fang, Bin; Zhang, Guolin; Yoshida, Takeshi; Okamoto, Isamu; Kim, Jae-Young; Song, Lanxi; Bai, Yun; Qian, Xiaoning; Rawal, Bhupendra; Schell, Michael; Grebien, Florian; Winter, Georg; Rix, Uwe; Eschrich, Steven; Colinge, Jacques; Koomen, John; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Haura, Eric B

    2013-11-05

    We hypothesized that elucidating the interactome of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) forms that are mutated in lung cancer, via global analysis of protein-protein interactions, phosphorylation, and systematically perturbing the ensuing network nodes, should offer a new, more systems-level perspective of the molecular etiology. Here, we describe an EGFR interactome of 263 proteins and offer a 14-protein core network critical to the viability of multiple EGFR-mutated lung cancer cells. Cells with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) had differential dependence of the core network proteins based on the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance. Of the 14 proteins, 9 are shown to be specifically associated with survival of EGFR-mutated lung cancer cell lines. This included EGFR, GRB2, MK12, SHC1, ARAF, CD11B, ARHG5, GLU2B, and CD11A. With the use of a drug network associated with the core network proteins, we identified two compounds, midostaurin and lestaurtinib, that could overcome drug resistance through direct EGFR inhibition when combined with erlotinib. Our results, enabled by interactome mapping, suggest new targets and combination therapies that could circumvent EGFR TKI resistance.

  15. AIM: a comprehensive Arabidopsis interactome module database and related interologs in plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Thilmony, Roger; Zhao, Yunjun; Chen, Guoping; Gu, Yong Q

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology analysis of protein modules is important for understanding the functional relationships between proteins in the interactome. Here, we present a comprehensive database named AIM for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) interactome modules. The database contains almost 250,000 modules that were generated using multiple analysis methods and integration of microarray expression data. All the modules in AIM are well annotated using multiple gene function knowledge databases. AIM provides a user-friendly interface for different types of searches and offers a powerful graphical viewer for displaying module networks linked to the enrichment annotation terms. Both interactive Venn diagram and power graph viewer are integrated into the database for easy comparison of modules. In addition, predicted interologs from other plant species (homologous proteins from different species that share a conserved interaction module) are available for each Arabidopsis module. AIM is a powerful systems biology platform for obtaining valuable insights into the function of proteins in Arabidopsis and other plants using the modules of the Arabidopsis interactome. Database URL:http://probes.pw.usda.gov/AIM Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Mining protein interactomes to improve their reliability and support the advancement of network medicine.

    PubMed

    Alanis-Lobato, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput detection of protein interactions has had a major impact in our understanding of the intricate molecular machinery underlying the living cell, and has permitted the construction of very large protein interactomes. The protein networks that are currently available are incomplete and a significant percentage of their interactions are false positives. Fortunately, the structural properties observed in good quality social or technological networks are also present in biological systems. This has encouraged the development of tools, to improve the reliability of protein networks and predict new interactions based merely on the topological characteristics of their components. Since diseases are rarely caused by the malfunction of a single protein, having a more complete and reliable interactome is crucial in order to identify groups of inter-related proteins involved in disease etiology. These system components can then be targeted with minimal collateral damage. In this article, an important number of network mining tools is reviewed, together with resources from which reliable protein interactomes can be constructed. In addition to the review, a few representative examples of how molecular and clinical data can be integrated to deepen our understanding of pathogenesis are discussed.

  17. Characterization of glutathione-S-transferases in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Glisic, Branka; Mihaljevic, Ivan; Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Loncar, Jovica; Fent, Karl; Kovacevic, Radmila; Smital, Tvrtko

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are one of the key enzymes that mediate phase II of cellular detoxification. The aim of our study was a comprehensive characterization of GSTs in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an important vertebrate model species frequently used in environmental research. A detailed phylogenetic analysis of GST superfamily revealed 27 zebrafish gst genes. Further insights into the orthology relationships between human and zebrafish GSTs/Gsts were obtained by the conserved synteny analysis. Expression of gst genes in six tissues (liver, kidney, gills, intestine, brain and gonads) of adult male and female zebrafish was determined using qRT-PCR. Functional characterization was performed on 9 cytosolic Gst enzymes after overexpression in E. coli and subsequent protein purification. Enzyme kinetics was measured for GSH and a series of model substrates. Our data revealed ubiquitously high expression of gstp, gstm (except in liver), gstr1, mgst3a and mgst3b, high expression of gsto2 in gills and ovaries, gsta in intestine and testes, gstt1a in liver, and gstz1 in liver, kidney and brain. All zebrafish Gsts catalyzed the conjugation of GSH to model GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and monochlorobimane (MCB), apart from Gsto2 and Gstz1 that catalyzed GSH conjugation to dehydroascorbate (DHA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA), respectively. Affinity toward CDNB varied from 0.28 mM (Gstp2) to 3.69 mM (Gstm3), while affinity toward MCB was in the range of 5 μM (Gstt1a) to 250 μM (Gstp1). Affinity toward GSH varied from 0.27 mM (Gstz1) to 4.45 mM (Gstt1a). Turnover number for CDNB varied from 5.25s(-1) (Gstt1a) to 112s(-1) (Gstp2). Only Gst Pi enzymes utilized ethacrynic acid (ETA). We suggest that Gstp1, Gstp2, Gstt1a, Gstz1, Gstr1, Mgst3a and Mgst3b have important role in the biotransformation of xenobiotics, while Gst Alpha, Mu, Pi, Zeta and Rho classes are involved in the crucial physiological processes. In summary, this study provides the

  18. New insights into protein-protein interaction data lead to increased estimates of the S. cerevisiae interactome size.

    PubMed

    Sambourg, Laure; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas

    2010-12-21

    As protein interactions mediate most cellular mechanisms, protein-protein interaction networks are essential in the study of cellular processes. Consequently, several large-scale interactome mapping projects have been undertaken, and protein-protein interactions are being distilled into databases through literature curation; yet protein-protein interaction data are still far from comprehensive, even in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Estimating the interactome size is important for evaluating the completeness of current datasets, in order to measure the remaining efforts that are required. We examined the yeast interactome from a new perspective, by taking into account how thoroughly proteins have been studied. We discovered that the set of literature-curated protein-protein interactions is qualitatively different when restricted to proteins that have received extensive attention from the scientific community. In particular, these interactions are less often supported by yeast two-hybrid, and more often by more complex experiments such as biochemical activity assays. Our analysis showed that high-throughput and literature-curated interactome datasets are more correlated than commonly assumed, but that this bias can be corrected for by focusing on well-studied proteins. We thus propose a simple and reliable method to estimate the size of an interactome, combining literature-curated data involving well-studied proteins with high-throughput data. It yields an estimate of at least 37, 600 direct physical protein-protein interactions in S. cerevisiae. Our method leads to higher and more accurate estimates of the interactome size, as it accounts for interactions that are genuine yet difficult to detect with commonly-used experimental assays. This shows that we are even further from completing the yeast interactome map than previously expected.

  19. Frontotemporal dysregulation of the SNARE protein interactome is associated with faster cognitive decline in old age.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Miguel, Alfredo; Jones, Andrea A; Sawada, Ken; Barr, Alasdair M; Bayer, Thomas A; Falkai, Peter; Leurgans, Sue E; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A; Honer, William G

    2018-06-01

    The molecular underpinnings associated with cognitive reserve remain poorly understood. Because animal models fail to fully recapitulate the complexity of human brain aging, postmortem studies from well-designed cohorts are crucial to unmask mechanisms conferring cognitive resistance against cumulative neuropathologies. We tested the hypothesis that functionality of the SNARE protein interactome might be an important resilience factor preserving cognitive abilities in old age. Cognition was assessed annually in participants from the Rush "Memory and Aging Project" (MAP), a community-dwelling cohort representative of the overall aging population. Associations between cognition and postmortem neurochemical data were evaluated in functional assays quantifying various species of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) machinery in samples from the inferior temporal (IT, n = 154) and middle-frontal (MF, n = 174) gyri. Using blue-native gel electrophoresis, we isolated and quantified several types of complexes containing the three SNARE proteins (syntaxin-1, SNAP25, VAMP), as well as the GABAergic/glutamatergic selectively expressed complexins-I/II (CPLX1/2), in brain tissue homogenates and reconstitution assays with recombinant proteins. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between IT and MF neurochemical data (SNARE proteins and/or complexes), and multiple age-related neuropathologies, as well as with multiple cognitive domains of MAP participants. Controlling for demographic variables, neuropathologic indices and total synapse density, we found that temporal 150-kDa SNARE species (representative of pan-synaptic functionality) and frontal CPLX1/CPLX2 ratio of 500-kDa heteromeric species (representative of inhibitory/excitatory input functionality) were, among all the immunocharacterized complexes, the strongest predictors of cognitive function nearest death. Interestingly, these two neurochemical

  20. TCTEX1D4 Interactome in Human Testis: Unraveling the Function of Dynein Light Chain in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Maria João; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Morais-Santos, Filipa; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Studies were designed to identify the TCTEX1D4 interactome in human testis, with the purpose of unraveling putative protein complexes essential to male reproduction and thus novel TCTEX1D4 functions. TCTEX1D4 is a dynein light chain that belongs to the DYNT1/TCTEX1 family. In spermatozoa, it appears to be important to sperm motility, intraflagellar transport, and acrosome reaction. To contribute to the knowledge on TCTEX1D4 function in testis and spermatozoa, a yeast two-hybrid assay was performed in testis, which allowed the identification of 40 novel TCTEX1D4 interactors. Curiously, another dynein light chain, TCTEX1D2, was identified and its existence demonstrated for the first time in human spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence studies proved that TCTEX1D2 is an intra-acrosomal protein also present in the midpiece, suggesting a role in cargo movement in human spermatozoa. Further, an in silico profile of TCTEX1D4 revealed that most TCTEX1D4 interacting proteins were not previously characterized and the ones described present a very broad nature. This reinforces TCTEX1D4 as a dynein light chain that is capable of interacting with a variety of functionally different proteins. These observations collectively contribute to a deeper molecular understanding of the human spermatozoa function. PMID:24606217

  1. The Two-pore channel (TPC) interactome unmasks isoform-specific roles for TPCs in endolysosomal morphology and cell pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Moshier, Yaping; Keebler, Michael V.; Hooper, Robert; Boulware, Michael J.; Liu, Xiaolong; Churamani, Dev; Abood, Mary E.; Walseth, Timothy F.; Brailoiu, Eugen; Patel, Sandip; Marchant, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    The two-pore channels (TPC1 and TPC2) belong to an ancient family of intracellular ion channels expressed in the endolysosomal system. Little is known about how regulatory inputs converge to modulate TPC activity, and proposed activation mechanisms are controversial. Here, we compiled a proteomic characterization of the human TPC interactome, which revealed that TPCs complex with many proteins involved in Ca2+ homeostasis, trafficking, and membrane organization. Among these interactors, TPCs were resolved to scaffold Rab GTPases and regulate endomembrane dynamics in an isoform-specific manner. TPC2, but not TPC1, caused a proliferation of endolysosomal structures, dysregulating intracellular trafficking, and cellular pigmentation. These outcomes required both TPC2 and Rab activity, as well as their interactivity, because TPC2 mutants that were inactive, or rerouted away from their endogenous expression locale, or deficient in Rab binding, failed to replicate these outcomes. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-evoked Ca2+ release was also impaired using either a Rab binding-defective TPC2 mutant or a Rab inhibitor. These data suggest a fundamental role for the ancient TPC complex in trafficking that holds relevance for lysosomal proliferative scenarios observed in disease. PMID:25157141

  2. The Two-pore channel (TPC) interactome unmasks isoform-specific roles for TPCs in endolysosomal morphology and cell pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Lin-Moshier, Yaping; Keebler, Michael V; Hooper, Robert; Boulware, Michael J; Liu, Xiaolong; Churamani, Dev; Abood, Mary E; Walseth, Timothy F; Brailoiu, Eugen; Patel, Sandip; Marchant, Jonathan S

    2014-09-09

    The two-pore channels (TPC1 and TPC2) belong to an ancient family of intracellular ion channels expressed in the endolysosomal system. Little is known about how regulatory inputs converge to modulate TPC activity, and proposed activation mechanisms are controversial. Here, we compiled a proteomic characterization of the human TPC interactome, which revealed that TPCs complex with many proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis, trafficking, and membrane organization. Among these interactors, TPCs were resolved to scaffold Rab GTPases and regulate endomembrane dynamics in an isoform-specific manner. TPC2, but not TPC1, caused a proliferation of endolysosomal structures, dysregulating intracellular trafficking, and cellular pigmentation. These outcomes required both TPC2 and Rab activity, as well as their interactivity, because TPC2 mutants that were inactive, or rerouted away from their endogenous expression locale, or deficient in Rab binding, failed to replicate these outcomes. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-evoked Ca(2+) release was also impaired using either a Rab binding-defective TPC2 mutant or a Rab inhibitor. These data suggest a fundamental role for the ancient TPC complex in trafficking that holds relevance for lysosomal proliferative scenarios observed in disease.

  3. “Stop Ne(c)king around”: How interactomics contributes to functionally characterize Nek family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Gabriela Vaz; Perez, Arina Marina; de Souza, Edmárcia Elisa; Basei, Fernanda Luisa; Papa, Priscila Ferreira; Melo Hanchuk, Talita Diniz; Cardoso, Vanessa Bomfim; Kobarg, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Aside from Polo and Aurora, a third but less studied kinase family involved in mitosis regulation is the never in mitosis-gene A (NIMA)-related kinases (Neks). The founding member of this family is the sole member NIMA of Aspergillus nidulans, which is crucial for the initiation of mitosis in that organism. All 11 human Neks have been functionally assigned to one of the three core functions established for this family in mammals: (1) centrioles/mitosis; (2) primary ciliary function/ciliopathies; and (3) DNA damage response (DDR). Recent findings, especially on Nek 1 and 8, showed however, that several Neks participate in parallel in at least two of these contexts: primary ciliary function and DDR. In the core section of this in-depth review, we report the current detailed functional knowledge on each of the 11 Neks. In the discussion, we return to the cross-connections among Neks and point out how our and other groups’ functional and interactomics studies revealed that most Neks interact with protein partners associated with two if not all three of the functional contexts. We then raise the hypothesis that Neks may be the connecting regulatory elements that allow the cell to fine tune and synchronize the cellular events associated with these three core functions. The new and exciting findings on the Nek family open new perspectives and should allow the Neks to finally claim the attention they deserve in the field of kinases and cell cycle biology. PMID:24921005

  4. Abnormal cerebellar development and ataxia in CARP VIII morphant zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Aspatwar, Ashok; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Jokitalo, Eija; Parikka, Mataleena; Ortutay, Csaba; Harjula, Sanna-Kaisa E; Rämet, Mika; Vihinen, Mauno; Parkkila, Seppo

    2013-02-01

    Congenital ataxia and mental retardation are mainly caused by variations in the genes that affect brain development. Recent reports have shown that mutations in the CA8 gene are associated with mental retardation and ataxia in humans and ataxia in mice. The gene product, carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARP VIII), is predominantly present in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where it interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, a calcium channel. In this study, we investigated the effects of the loss of function of CARP VIII during embryonic development in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against the CA8 gene. Knockdown of CA8 in zebrafish larvae resulted in a curved body axis, pericardial edema and abnormal movement patterns. Histologic examination revealed gross morphologic defects in the cerebellar region and in the muscle. Electron microscopy studies showed increased neuronal cell death in developing larvae injected with CA8 antisense morpholinos. These data suggest a pivotal role for CARP VIII during embryonic development. Furthermore, suppression of CA8 expression leads to defects in motor and coordination functions, mimicking the ataxic human phenotype. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of CARP VIII in brain development and introduces a novel zebrafish model in which to investigate the mechanisms of CARP VIII-related ataxia and mental retardation in humans.

  5. Nested Expression Domains for Odorant Receptors in Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weth, Franco; Nadler, Walter; Korsching, Sigrun

    1996-11-01

    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system.

  6. TNF signaling and macrophages govern fin regeneration in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Chi, Mai; Laplace-Builhé, Béryl; Travnickova, Jana; Luz-Crawford, Patricia; Tejedor, Gautier; Lutfalla, Georges; Kissa, Karima; Jorgensen, Christian; Djouad, Farida

    2017-08-10

    Macrophages are essential for appendage regeneration after amputation in regenerative species. The molecular mechanisms through which macrophages orchestrate blastema formation and regeneration are still unclear. Here, we use the genetically tractable and transparent zebrafish larvae to study the functions of polarized macrophage subsets during caudal fin regeneration. After caudal fin amputation, we show an early and transient accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages concomitant with the accumulation of non-inflammatory macrophages which, in contrast to pro-inflammatory macrophages, remain associated to the fin until the end of the regeneration. Chemical and genetic depletion of macrophages suggested that early recruited macrophages that express TNFα are critical for blastema formation. Combining parabiosis and morpholino knockdown strategies, we show that TNFα/TNFR1 signaling pathway is required for the fin regeneration. Our study reveals that TNFR1 has a necessary and direct role in blastema cell activation suggesting that macrophage subset balance provides the accurate TNFα signal to prime regeneration in zebrafish.

  7. Proteomics profiling of interactome dynamics by colocalisation analysis (COLA)† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6mb00701e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sailem, Heba Z.; Kümper, Sandra; Tape, Christopher J.; McCully, Ryan R.; Paul, Angela; Anjomani-Virmouni, Sara; Jørgensen, Claus; Poulogiannis, George; Marshall, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Localisation and protein function are intimately linked in eukaryotes, as proteins are localised to specific compartments where they come into proximity of other functionally relevant proteins. Significant co-localisation of two proteins can therefore be indicative of their functional association. We here present COLA, a proteomics based strategy coupled with a bioinformatics framework to detect protein–protein co-localisations on a global scale. COLA reveals functional interactions by matching proteins with significant similarity in their subcellular localisation signatures. The rapid nature of COLA allows mapping of interactome dynamics across different conditions or treatments with high precision. PMID:27824369

  8. Fgf signaling is required for zebrafish tooth development.

    PubMed

    Jackman, William R; Draper, Bruce W; Stock, David W

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during the development of the zebrafish pharyngeal dentition with the goal of uncovering novel roles for FGFs in tooth development as well as phylogenetic and topographic diversity in the tooth developmental pathway. We found that the tooth-related expression of several zebrafish genes is similar to that of their mouse orthologs, including both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Additionally, significant differences in gene expression between zebrafish and mouse teeth are indicated by the apparent lack of fgf8 and pax9 expression in zebrafish tooth germs. FGF receptor inhibition with SU5402 at 32 h blocked dental epithelial morphogenesis and tooth mineralization. While the pharyngeal epithelium remained intact as judged by normal pitx2 expression, not only was the mesenchymal expression of lhx6 and lhx7 eliminated as expected from mouse studies, but the epithelial expression of dlx2a, dlx2b, fgf3, and fgf4 was as well. This latter result provides novel evidence that the dental epithelium is a target of FGF signaling. However, the failure of SU5402 to block localized expression of pitx2 suggests that the earliest steps of tooth initiation are FGF-independent. Investigations of specific FGF ligands with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides revealed only a mild tooth shape phenotype following fgf4 knockdown, while fgf8 inhibition revealed only a subtle down-regulation of dental dlx2b expression with no apparent effect on tooth morphology. Our results suggest redundant FGF signals target the dental epithelium and together are required for dental morphogenesis. Further work will be required to elucidate the nature of these signals, particularly with respect to their origins and whether they act through the mesenchyme.

  9. Humanizing the zebrafish liver shifts drug metabolic profiles and improves pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 substrates.

    PubMed

    Poon, Kar Lai; Wang, Xingang; Ng, Ashley S; Goh, Wei Huang; McGinnis, Claudia; Fowler, Stephen; Carney, Tom J; Wang, Haishan; Ingham, Phillip W

    2017-03-01

    Understanding and predicting whether new drug candidates will be safe in the clinic is a critical hurdle in pharmaceutical development, that relies in part on absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology studies in vivo. Zebrafish is a relatively new model system for drug metabolism and toxicity studies, offering whole organism screening coupled with small size and potential for high-throughput screening. Through toxicity and absorption analyses of a number of drugs, we find that zebrafish is generally predictive of drug toxicity, although assay outcomes are influenced by drug lipophilicity which alters drug uptake. In addition, liver microsome assays reveal specific differences in metabolism of compounds between human and zebrafish livers, likely resulting from the divergence of the cytochrome P450 superfamily between species. To reflect human metabolism more accurately, we generated a transgenic "humanized" zebrafish line that expresses the major human phase I detoxifying enzyme, CYP3A4, in the liver. Here, we show that this humanized line shows an elevated metabolism of CYP3A4-specific substrates compared to wild-type zebrafish. The generation of this first described humanized zebrafish liver suggests such approaches can enhance the accuracy of the zebrafish model for toxicity prediction.

  10. Columbia University: Computational Human High-grade Glioblastoma Multiforme Interactome - miRNA (Post-transcriptional) Layer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The Human High-Grade Glioma Interactome (HGi) contains a genome-wide complement of molecular interactions that are Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)-specific. HGi v3 contains the post-transcriptional layer of the HGi, which includes the miRNA-target (RNA-RNA) layer of the interactome. Read the Abstract

  11. Maternal nodal and zebrafish embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James T; Stickney, Heather L; Choi, Wen-Yee; Ciruna, Brian; Talbot, William S; Schier, Alexander F

    2007-11-08

    In fish and amphibians, the dorsal axis is specified by the asymmetric localization of maternally provided components of the Wnt signalling pathway. Gore et al. suggest that the Nodal signal Squint (Sqt) is required as a maternally provided dorsal determinant in zebrafish. Here we test their proposal and show that the maternal activities of sqt and the related Nodal gene cyclops (cyc) are not required for dorsoventral patterning.

  12. Development of the zebrafish mesonephros.

    PubMed

    Diep, Cuong Q; Peng, Zhenzhen; Ukah, Tobechukwu K; Kelly, Paul M; Daigle, Renee V; Davidson, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate kidney plays an essential role in removing metabolic waste and balancing water and salt. This is carried out by nephrons, which comprise a blood filter attached to an epithelial tubule with proximal and distal segments. In zebrafish, two nephrons are first formed as part of the embryonic kidney (pronephros) and hundreds are formed later to make up the adult kidney (mesonephros). Previous studies have focused on the development of the pronephros while considerably less is known about how the mesonephros is formed. Here, we characterize mesonephros development in zebrafish and examine the nephrons that form during larval metamorphosis. These nephrons, arising from proliferating progenitor cells that express the renal transcription factor genes wt1b, pax2a, and lhx1a, form on top of the pronephric tubules and develop a segmentation pattern similar to pronephric nephrons. We find that the pronephros acts as a scaffold for the mesonephros, where new nephrons fuse with the distal segments of the pronephric tubules to form the final branching network that characterizes the adult zebrafish kidney. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Development of the zebrafish mesonephros

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cuong Q.; Peng, Zhenzhen; Ukah, Tobechukwu K.; Kelly, Paul M.; Daigle, Renee V.; Davidson, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate kidney plays an essential role in removing metabolic waste and balancing water and salt. This is carried out by nephrons, which comprise a blood filter attached to an epithelial tubule with proximal and distal segments. In zebrafish, two nephrons are first formed as part of the embryonic kidney (pronephros) and hundreds are formed later to make up the adult kidney (mesonephros). Previous studies have focused on the development of the pronephros while considerably less is known about how the mesonephros is formed. Here, we characterize mesonephros development in zebrafish and examine the nephrons that form during larval metamorphosis. These nephrons, arising from proliferating progenitor cells that express the renal transcription factor genes wt1b, pax2a, and lhx1a, form on top of the pronephric tubules and develop a segmentation pattern similar to pronephric nephrons. We find that the pronephros acts as a scaffold for the mesonephros, where new nephrons fuse with the distal segments of the pronephric tubules to form the final branching network that characterizes the adult zebrafish kidney. PMID:25677367

  14. Zebrafish Discoveries in Cancer Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Chernyavskaya, Yelena; Kent, Brandon; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2016-01-01

    The cancer epigenome is fundamentally different than that of normal cells. How these differences arise in and contribute to carcinogenesis is not known, and studies using model organisms such as zebrafish provide an opportunity to address these important questions. Modifications of histones and DNA comprise the complex epigenome, and these influence chromatin structure, genome stability and gene expression, all of which are fundamental to the cellular changes that cause cancer. The cancer genome atlas covers the wide spectrum of genetic changes associated with nearly every cancer type, however, this catalog is currently uni-dimensional. As the pattern of epigenetic marks and chromatin structure in cancer cells is described and overlaid on the mutational landscape, the map of the cancer genome becomes multi-dimensional and highly complex. Two major questions remain in the field: (1) how the epigenome becomes repatterned in cancer and (2) which of these changes are cancer-causing. Zebrafish provide a tractable in vivo system to monitor the epigenome during transformation and to identify epigenetic drivers of cancer. In this chapter, we review principles of cancer epigenetics and discuss recent work using zebrafish whereby epigenetic modifiers were established as cancer driver genes, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming in cancer.

  15. Essential role for fibrillin-2 in zebrafish notochord and vascular morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gansner, John M; Madsen, Erik C; Mecham, Robert P; Gitlin, Jonathan D

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that lysyl oxidase cuproenzymes are critical for zebrafish notochord formation, but the molecular mechanisms of copper-dependent notochord morphogenesis are incompletely understood. We, therefore, conducted a forward genetic screen for zebrafish mutants that exhibit notochord sensitivity to lysyl oxidase inhibition, yielding a mutant with defects in notochord and vascular morphogenesis, puff daddygw1 (pfdgw1). Meiotic mapping and cloning reveal that the pfdgw1 phenotype results from disruption of the gene encoding the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin-2, and the spatiotemporal expression of fibrillin-2 is consistent with the pfdgw1 phenotype. Furthermore, each aspect of the pfdgw1 phenotype is recapitulated by morpholino knockdown of fibrillin-2. Taken together, the data reveal a genetic interaction between fibrillin-2 and the lysyl oxidases in notochord formation and demonstrate the importance of fibrillin-2 in specific early developmental processes in zebrafish. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. First report of Fusarium oxysporum species complex infection in zebrafish culturing system.

    PubMed

    Kulatunga, D C M; Dananjaya, S H S; Park, B K; Kim, C-H; Lee, J; De Zoysa, M

    2017-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a highly diverse fungus. Recently, F. oxysporum infection was identified from zebrafish (Danio rerio) culturing system in Korea. Initially, a rapid whitish smudge was appeared in the water with the fungal blooming on walls of fish tanks. Microscopic studies were conducted on fungal hyphae, colony pigmentation and chlamydospore formation and the presence of macro- and microspores confirmed that the isolated fungus as F. oxysporum. Furthermore, isolated F. oxysporum was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer sequencing which matched (100%) to nine F. oxysporum sequences available in GenBank. Experimental hypodermic injection of F. oxysporum into adult zebrafish showed the development of fungal mycelium and pathogenicity similar to signs observed. Histopathologic results revealed a presence of F. oxysporum hyphae in zebrafish muscle. Fusarium oxysporum growth was increased with sea salt in a concentration-dependent manner. Antifungal susceptibility results revealed that F. oxysporum is resistant to copper sulphate (up to 200 μg mL -1 ) and sensitive to nystatin (up to 40 μg mL -1 ). This is the first report of FOSC from zebrafish culture system, suggesting it appears as an emerging pathogen, thus posing a significant risk on zebrafish facilities in the world. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Transvection Arising from Transgene Interactions in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Matthew D; Bonkowsky, Joshua L

    2017-02-01

    There has been a rapid expansion in use of transgenic technologies in zebrafish. We report a novel example of transinteractions of genetic elements, or transvection. This interaction led to a novel expression pattern and illustrates a precautionary example regarding use of transgenes in zebrafish.

  18. Omics strategies for revealing Yersinia pestis virulence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Cui, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Omics has remarkably changed the way we investigate and understand life. Omics differs from traditional hypothesis-driven research because it is a discovery-driven approach. Mass datasets produced from omics-based studies require experts from different fields to reveal the salient features behind these data. In this review, we summarize omics-driven studies to reveal the virulence features of Yersinia pestis through genomics, trascriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, etc. These studies serve as foundations for further hypothesis-driven research and help us gain insight into Y. pestis pathogenesis. PMID:23248778

  19. Comparative toxicity of several metal oxide nanoparticle aqueous suspensions to Zebrafish (Danio rerio) early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Lin; Duan, Zhenghua; Qi, Ruiqi; Li, Yan; Lang, Yupeng

    2008-02-15

    With the emergence of manufactured nanomaterials, it is urgent to carry out researches on their potential environmental impacts and biological effects. To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impacts of metal oxide nanoparticles released to aquatic environments, the zebrafish 96-h embryo-larval bioassay was used to assess and compare the developmental toxicities of nanoscale zinc oxide (nZnO), titanium dioxide (nTiO(2)) and alumina (nAl(2)O(3)) aqueous suspensions. Toxicological endpoints such as zebrafish embryos or larvae survival, hatching rate and malformation were noted and described within 96 h of exposure. Meanwhile, a comparative experiment with their bulk counterparts (i.e., ZnO/bulk, TiO(2)/bulk and Al(2)O(3)/bulk) was conducted to understand the effect of particle size on their toxicities. The results showed that: (i) both nZnO and ZnO/bulk aqueous suspensions delayed zebrafish embryo and larva development, decreased their survival and hatching rates, and caused tissue damage. The 96-h LC(50) of nZnO and ZnO/bulk aqueous suspensions on the zebrafish survival are 1.793 mg/L and 1.550 mg/L respectively; and the 84-h EC(50) on the zebrafish embryo hatching rate are 2.065 mg/L and 2.066 mg/L respectively. Serious tissue ulceration was found on zebrafish larvae exposed to nZnO and ZnO/bulk aqueous suspensions. (ii) In contrast, neither nTiO(2) and TiO(2)/bulk nor nAl(2)O(3) and Al(2)O(3)/bulk showed any toxicity to zebrafish embryos and larvae under the same experimental condition. It revealed that the metal oxide nanoparticles with different chemical composition have different zebrafish developmental toxicities. (iii) Exposures of nTiO(2), nZnO and nAl(2)O(3) produced toxic effects on zebrafish embryos and larvae, which was not different from the effects caused by exposing to their bulk counterparts. This is the first study about the developmental toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, and the results demonstrate that nZnO is very toxic to

  20. Application of Zebrafish Model to Environmental Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a tropical freshwater fish, the zebrafish, has been generally used as a useful model organism in various fields of life science worldwide. The zebrafish model has also been applied to environmental toxicology; however, in Japan, it has not yet become widely used. In this review, we will introduce the biological and historical backgrounds of zebrafish as an animal model and their breeding. We then present the current status of toxicological experiments using zebrafish that were treated with some important environmental contaminants, including cadmium, organic mercury, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and tributyltin. Finally, the future possible application of genetically modified zebrafish to the study of environmental toxicology is discussed.

  1. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    SciT

    Kwon, Hye-Joo; Biology Department, Princess Nourah University, Riyadh 11671

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effectmore » on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.« less

  2. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-09-16

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Localization of BDNF expression in the developing brain of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    De Felice, E; Porreca, I; Alleva, E; De Girolamo, P; Ambrosino, C; Ciriaco, E; Germanà, A; Sordino, P

    2014-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is expressed in differentiating and post-mitotic neurons of the zebrafish embryo, where it has been implicated in Huntington's disease. Little is known, however, about the full complement of neuronal cell types that express BDNF in this important vertebrate model. Here, we further explored the transcriptional profiles during the first week of development using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). RT-qPCR results revealed a high level of maternal contribution followed by a steady increase of zygotic transcription, consistent with the notion of a prominent role of BDNF in neuronal maturation and maintenance. Based on WISH, we demonstrate for the first time that BDNF expression in the developing brain of zebrafish is structure specific. Anatomical criteria and co-staining with genetic markers (shh, pax2a, emx1, krox20, lhx2b and lhx9) visualized major topological domains of BDNF-positive cells in the pallium, hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum and optic tectum. Moreover, the relative timing of BDNF transcription in the eye and tectum may illustrate a mechanism for coordinated development of the retinotectal system. Taken together, our results are compatible with a local delivery and early role of BDNF in the developing brain of zebrafish, adding basic knowledge to the study of neurotrophin functions in neural development and disease. PMID:24588510

  4. Localization of BDNF expression in the developing brain of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    De Felice, E; Porreca, I; Alleva, E; De Girolamo, P; Ambrosino, C; Ciriaco, E; Germanà, A; Sordino, P

    2014-05-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is expressed in differentiating and post-mitotic neurons of the zebrafish embryo, where it has been implicated in Huntington's disease. Little is known, however, about the full complement of neuronal cell types that express BDNF in this important vertebrate model. Here, we further explored the transcriptional profiles during the first week of development using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). RT-qPCR results revealed a high level of maternal contribution followed by a steady increase of zygotic transcription, consistent with the notion of a prominent role of BDNF in neuronal maturation and maintenance. Based on WISH, we demonstrate for the first time that BDNF expression in the developing brain of zebrafish is structure specific. Anatomical criteria and co-staining with genetic markers (shh, pax2a, emx1, krox20, lhx2b and lhx9) visualized major topological domains of BDNF-positive cells in the pallium, hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum and optic tectum. Moreover, the relative timing of BDNF transcription in the eye and tectum may illustrate a mechanism for coordinated development of the retinotectal system. Taken together, our results are compatible with a local delivery and early role of BDNF in the developing brain of zebrafish, adding basic knowledge to the study of neurotrophin functions in neural development and disease. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  5. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-01-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  6. Coordinating cell and tissue behavior during zebrafish neural tube morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Araya, Claudio; Ward, Laura C; Girdler, Gemma C; Miranda, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    The development of a vertebrate neural epithelium with well-organized apico-basal polarity and a central lumen is essential for its proper function. However, how this polarity is established during embryonic development and the potential influence of surrounding signals and tissues on such organization has remained less understood. In recent years the combined superior transparency and genetics of the zebrafish embryo has allowed for in vivo visualization and quantification of the cellular and molecular dynamics that govern neural tube structure. Here, we discuss recent studies revealing how co-ordinated cell-cell interactions coupled with adjacent tissue dynamics are critical to regulate final neural tissue architecture. Furthermore, new findings show how the spatial regulation and timing of orientated cell division is key in defining precise lumen formation at the tissue midline. In addition, we compare zebrafish neurulation with that of amniotes and amphibians in an attempt to understand the conserved cellular mechanisms driving neurulation and resolve the apparent differences among animals. Zebrafish neurulation not only offers fundamental insights into early vertebrate brain development but also the opportunity to explore in vivo cell and tissue dynamics during complex three-dimensional animal morphogenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Blockade of lipid accumulation by silibinin in adipocytes and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyung Joo; Cho, So Young; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2015-02-05

    Silibinin is a compound present mainly in milk thistle. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which silibinin suppresses adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, and evaluated the anti-adipogenic effect of silibinin in zebrafish. Silibinin reduced lipid accumulation by downregulating adipogenic factors, such as, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). The reduction of these adipogenic protein levels was associated with the regulation of early adipogenic factors, such as, C/EBPβ and Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), and was reflected in downregulation of lipid synthetic enzymes. Silibinin arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by downregulation of cyclins and upregulation of p27, a cell cycle inhibitor. These results correlated with the finding of deactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT, a serine/threonine-specific kinase. In addition, silibinin activated AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) to inhibit fatty acid synthesis. As observed in 3T3-L1 cells, silibinin inhibited lipid accumulation in zebrafish with the reduction of adipogenic factors and triglyceride levels. Our data revealed that silibinin inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and zebrafish, and this inhibitory effect was associated with abrogation of early adipogenesis via regulation of cell cycle and AMPKα signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetically Blocking the Zebrafish Pineal Clock Affects Circadian Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe Livne, Zohar; Alon, Shahar; Vallone, Daniela; Bayleyen, Yared; Tovin, Adi; Shainer, Inbal; Nisembaum, Laura G; Aviram, Idit; Smadja-Storz, Sima; Fuentes, Michael; Falcón, Jack; Eisenberg, Eli; Klein, David C; Burgess, Harold A; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2016-11-01

    The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted. Moreover, transcriptome analysis revealed that the circadian expression pattern of the majority of clock-controlled genes in the adult pineal gland is abolished. Importantly, circadian rhythms of behavior in zebrafish larvae were affected: rhythms of place preference under constant darkness were eliminated, and rhythms of locomotor activity under constant dark and constant dim light conditions were markedly attenuated. On the other hand, global peripheral molecular oscillators, as measured in whole larvae, were unaffected in this model. In conclusion, characterization of this novel transgenic model provides evidence that the molecular clock in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland plays a key role, possibly as part of a multiple pacemaker system, in modulating circadian rhythms of behavior.

  9. Smoc2 modulates embryonic myelopoiesis during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Mommaerts, Hendrik; Esguerra, Camila V; Hartmann, Ursula; Luyten, Frank P; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2014-11-01

    SMOC2 is a member of the BM-40 (SPARC) family of matricellular proteins, reported to influence signaling in the extracellular compartment. In mice, Smoc2 is expressed in many different tissues and was shown to enhance the response to angiogenic growth factors, mediate cell adhesion, keratinocyte migration, and metastasis. Additionally, SMOC2 is associated with vitiligo and craniofacial and dental defects. The function of Smoc2 during early zebrafish development has not been determined to date. In pregastrula zebrafish embryos, smoc2 is expressed ubiquitously. As development progresses, the expression pattern becomes more anteriorly restricted. At the onset of blood cell circulation, smoc2 morphants presented a mild ventralization of posterior structures. Molecular analysis of the smoc2 morphants indicated myelopoietic defects in the rostral blood islands during segmentation stages. Hemangioblast development and further specification of the myeloid progenitor cells were shown to be impaired. Additional experiments indicated that Bmp target genes were down-regulated in smoc2 morphants. Our findings reveal that Smoc2 is an essential player in the development of myeloid cells of the anterior lateral plate mesoderm during embryonic zebrafish development. Furthermore, our data show that Smoc2 affects the transcription of Bmp target genes without affecting initial dorsoventral patterning or mesoderm development. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Zebrafish as a systems toxicology model for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Sasagawa, Shota; Umemoto, Noriko; Shimada, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The developing brain is extremely sensitive to many chemicals. Exposure to neurotoxicants during development has been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Although rodents have been widely used for developmental neurotoxicity testing, experiments using large numbers of rodents are time-consuming, expensive, and raise ethical concerns. Using alternative non-mammalian animal models may relieve some of these pressures by allowing testing of large numbers of subjects while reducing expenses and minimizing the use of mammalian subjects. In this review, we discuss some of the advantages of using zebrafish in developmental neurotoxicity testing, focusing on central nervous system development, neurobehavior, toxicokinetics, and toxicodynamics in this species. We also describe some important examples of developmental neurotoxicity testing using zebrafish combined with gene expression profiling, neuroimaging, or neurobehavioral assessment. Zebrafish may be a systems toxicology model that has the potential to reveal the pathways of developmental neurotoxicity and to provide a sound basis for human risk assessments. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  11. Genetically Blocking the Zebrafish Pineal Clock Affects Circadian Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Alon, Shahar; Vallone, Daniela; Tovin, Adi; Shainer, Inbal; Nisembaum, Laura G.; Aviram, Idit; Smadja-Storz, Sima; Fuentes, Michael; Falcón, Jack; Eisenberg, Eli; Klein, David C.; Burgess, Harold A.; Foulkes, Nicholas S.; Gothilf, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted. Moreover, transcriptome analysis revealed that the circadian expression pattern of the majority of clock-controlled genes in the adult pineal gland is abolished. Importantly, circadian rhythms of behavior in zebrafish larvae were affected: rhythms of place preference under constant darkness were eliminated, and rhythms of locomotor activity under constant dark and constant dim light conditions were markedly attenuated. On the other hand, global peripheral molecular oscillators, as measured in whole larvae, were unaffected in this model. In conclusion, characterization of this novel transgenic model provides evidence that the molecular clock in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland plays a key role, possibly as part of a multiple pacemaker system, in modulating circadian rhythms of behavior. PMID:27870848

  12. Neuropeptidergic Signaling Partitions Arousal Behaviors in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Schoppik, David; Shi, Veronica J.; Zimmerman, Steven; Coleman, Haley A.; Greenwood, Joel; Soucy, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Animals modulate their arousal state to ensure that their sensory responsiveness and locomotor activity match environmental demands. Neuropeptides can regulate arousal, but studies of their roles in vertebrates have been constrained by the vast array of neuropeptides and their pleiotropic effects. To overcome these limitations, we systematically dissected the neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal in larval zebrafish. We quantified spontaneous locomotor activity and responsiveness to sensory stimuli after genetically induced expression of seven evolutionarily conserved neuropeptides, including adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1b (adcyap1b), cocaine-related and amphetamine-related transcript (cart), cholecystokinin (cck), calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp), galanin, hypocretin, and nociceptin. Our study reveals that arousal behaviors are dissociable: neuropeptide expression uncoupled spontaneous activity from sensory responsiveness, and uncovered modality-specific effects upon sensory responsiveness. Principal components analysis and phenotypic clustering revealed both shared and divergent features of neuropeptidergic functions: hypocretin and cgrp stimulated spontaneous locomotor activity, whereas galanin and nociceptin attenuated these behaviors. In contrast, cart and adcyap1b enhanced sensory responsiveness yet had minimal impacts on spontaneous activity, and cck expression induced the opposite effects. Furthermore, hypocretin and nociceptin induced modality-specific differences in responsiveness to changes in illumination. Our study provides the first systematic and high-throughput analysis of neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal, demonstrates that arousal can be partitioned into independent behavioral components, and reveals novel and conserved functions of neuropeptides in regulating arousal. PMID:24573274

  13. Transcriptomic characterization of cold acclimation in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Temperature is one of key environmental parameters that affect the whole life of fishes and an increasing number of studies have been directed towards understanding the mechanisms of cold acclimation in fish. However, the adaptation of larvae to cold stress and the cold-specific transcriptional alterations in fish larvae remain largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the development of cold-tolerance in zebrafish larvae and investigated the transcriptional profiles under cold stress using RNA-seq. Results Pre-exposure of 96 hpf zebrafish larvae to cold stress (16°C) for 24 h significantly increased their survival rates under severe cold stress (12°C). RNA-seq generated 272 million raw reads from six sequencing libraries and about 92% of the processed reads were mapped to the reference genome of zebrafish. Differential expression analysis identified 1,431 up- and 399 down-regulated genes. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of cold-induced genes revealed that RNA splicing, ribosome biogenesis and protein catabolic process were the most highly overrepresented biological processes. Spliceosome, proteasome, eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis and RNA transport were the most highly enriched pathways for genes up-regulated by cold stress. Moreover, alternative splicing of 197 genes and promoter switching of 64 genes were found to be regulated by cold stress. A shorter isoform of stk16 that lacks 67 amino acids at the N-terminus was specifically generated by skipping the second exon in cold-treated larvae. Alternative promoter usage was detected for per3 gene under cold stress, which leading to a highly up-regulated transcript encoding a truncated protein lacking the C-terminal domains. Conclusions These findings indicate that zebrafish larvae possess the ability to build cold-tolerance under mild low temperature and transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations are extensively involved in this acclimation process. PMID:24024969

  14. Oncoprotein AEG-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum RNA-binding protein whose interactome is enriched in organelle resident protein-encoding mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jack C-C; Reid, David W; Hoffman, Alyson M; Sarkar, Devanand; Nicchitta, Christopher V

    2018-05-01

    Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), an oncogene whose overexpression promotes tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and enhanced chemoresistance, is thought to function primarily as a scaffolding protein, regulating PI3K/Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Here we report that AEG-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident integral membrane RNA-binding protein (RBP). Examination of the AEG-1 RNA interactome by HITS-CLIP and PAR-CLIP methodologies revealed a high enrichment for endomembrane organelle-encoding transcripts, most prominently those encoding ER resident proteins, and within this cohort, for integral membrane protein-encoding RNAs. Cluster mapping of the AEG-1/RNA interaction sites demonstrated a normalized rank order interaction of coding sequence >5' untranslated region, with 3' untranslated region interactions only weakly represented. Intriguingly, AEG-1/membrane protein mRNA interaction sites clustered downstream from encoded transmembrane domains, suggestive of a role in membrane protein biogenesis. Secretory and cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs were also represented in the AEG-1 RNA interactome, with the latter category notably enriched in genes functioning in mRNA localization, translational regulation, and RNA quality control. Bioinformatic analyses of RNA-binding motifs and predicted secondary structure characteristics indicate that AEG-1 lacks established RNA-binding sites though shares the property of high intrinsic disorder commonly seen in RBPs. These data implicate AEG-1 in the localization and regulation of secretory and membrane protein-encoding mRNAs and provide a framework for understanding AEG-1 function in health and disease. © 2018 Hsu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. TSH Receptor Function Is Required for Normal Thyroid Differentiation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Robert; Maquet, Emilie; Zoenen, Maxime; Dadhich, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    TSH is the primary physiological regulator of thyroid gland function. The effects of TSH on thyroid cells are mediated via activation of its membrane receptor [TSH receptor (TSHR)]. In this study, we examined functional thyroid differentiation in zebrafish and characterized the role of TSHR signaling during thyroid organogenesis. Cloning of a cDNA encoding zebrafish Tshr showed conservation of primary structure and functional properties between zebrafish and mammalian TSHR. In situ hybridization confirmed that the thyroid is the major site of tshr expression during zebrafish development. In addition, we identified tpo, iyd, duox, and duoxa as novel thyroid differentiation markers in zebrafish. Temporal analyses of differentiation marker expression demonstrated the induction of an early thyroid differentiation program along with thyroid budding, followed by a delayed onset of duox and duoxa expression coincident with thyroid hormone synthesis. Furthermore, comparative analyses in mouse and zebrafish revealed for the first time a thyroid-enriched expression of cell death regulators of the B-cell lymphoma 2 family during early thyroid morphogenesis. Knockdown of tshr function by morpholino microinjection into embryos did not affect early thyroid morphogenesis but caused defects in later functional differentiation. The thyroid phenotype observed in tshr morphants at later stages comprised a reduction in number and size of functional follicles, down-regulation of differentiation markers, as well as reduced thyroid transcription factor expression. A comparison of our results with phenotypes observed in mouse models of defective TSHR and cAMP signaling highlights the value of zebrafish as a model to enhance the understanding of functional differentiation in the vertebrate thyroid. PMID:21737742

  16. Exposure to tributyltin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato

    2013-10-15

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a major marine contaminant and causes endocrine disruption, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully elucidated. We examined whether exposure to TBT induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in zebrafish, a model organism. Zebrafish-derived BRF41 fibroblast cells were exposed to 0.5 or 1 μM TBT for 0.5-16 h and subsequently lysed and immunoblotted to detect ER stress-related proteins. Zebrafish embryos, grown until 32 h post fertilization (hpf), were exposed to 1 μM TBT for 16 h and used in whole mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to visualize the expression of ER chaperones and an ER stress-related apoptosis factor. Exposure of the BRF41 cells to TBT caused phosphorylation of the zebrafish homolog of protein kinase RNA-activated-like ER kinase (PERK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), characteristic splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA, and enhanced expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) protein. In TBT-exposed zebrafish embryos, ectopic expression of the gene encoding zebrafish homolog of the 78 kDa glucose-regulating protein (GRP78) and gene encoding CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) was detected in the precursors of the neuromast, which is a sensory organ for detecting water flow and vibration. Our in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that exposure of zebrafish to TBT induces the ER stress response via activation of both the PERK-eIF2α and IRE1-XBP1 pathways of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in an organ-specific manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ImmunemiR - A Database of Prioritized Immune miRNA Disease Associations and its Interactome.

    PubMed

    Prabahar, Archana; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are the key regulators of gene expression and their abnormal expression in the immune system may be associated with several human diseases such as inflammation, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Elucidation of miRNA disease association through the interactome will deepen the understanding of its disease mechanisms. A specialized database for immune miRNAs is highly desirable to demonstrate the immune miRNA disease associations in the interactome. miRNAs specific to immune related diseases were retrieved from curated databases such as HMDD, miR2disease and PubMed literature based on MeSH classification of immune system diseases. The additional data such as miRNA target genes, genes coding protein-protein interaction information were compiled from related resources. Further, miRNAs were prioritized to specific immune diseases using random walk ranking algorithm. In total 245 immune miRNAs associated with 92 OMIM disease categories were identified from external databases. The resultant data were compiled as ImmunemiR, a database of prioritized immune miRNA disease associations. This database provides both text based annotation information and network visualization of its interactome. To our knowledge, ImmunemiR is the first available database to provide a comprehensive repository of human immune disease associated miRNAs with network visualization options of its target genes, protein-protein interactions (PPI) and its disease associations. It is freely available at http://www.biominingbu.org/immunemir/. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Protein Inference from the Integration of Tandem MS Data and Interactome Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jiancheng; Wang, Jianxing; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Min; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Pan, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Since proteins are digested into a mixture of peptides in the preprocessing step of tandem mass spectrometry (MS), it is difficult to determine which specific protein a shared peptide belongs to. In recent studies, besides tandem MS data and peptide identification information, some other information is exploited to infer proteins. Different from the methods which first use only tandem MS data to infer proteins and then use network information to refine them, this study proposes a protein inference method named TMSIN, which uses interactome networks directly. As two interacting proteins should co-exist, it is reasonable to assume that if one of the interacting proteins is confidently inferred in a sample, its interacting partners should have a high probability in the same sample, too. Therefore, we can use the neighborhood information of a protein in an interactome network to adjust the probability that the shared peptide belongs to the protein. In TMSIN, a multi-weighted graph is constructed by incorporating the bipartite graph with interactome network information, where the bipartite graph is built with the peptide identification information. Based on multi-weighted graphs, TMSIN adopts an iterative workflow to infer proteins. At each iterative step, the probability that a shared peptide belongs to a specific protein is calculated by using the Bayes' law based on the neighbor protein support scores of each protein which are mapped by the shared peptides. We carried out experiments on yeast data and human data to evaluate the performance of TMSIN in terms of ROC, q-value, and accuracy. The experimental results show that AUC scores yielded by TMSIN are 0.742 and 0.874 in yeast dataset and human dataset, respectively, and TMSIN yields the maximum number of true positives when q-value less than or equal to 0.05. The overlap analysis shows that TMSIN is an effective complementary approach for protein inference.

  19. Lubricin: A Principal Modulator of the Psychoneuroendocrine - Osteoimmune Interactome - Implications for Novel Treatments of Osteoarthritic Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Khakshooy, Allen; Balenton, Nicole; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lubricin is a synovial glycoprotein that contributes to joint lubrication. We propose the hypothesis that lubricin is a key modulator of the psychoneuroendocrine-osteoimmune interactome, with important clinical relevance for osteoarthritic pathologies. We consider a variety of neuroendocrine-immune factors, including inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that may contribute to the modulation of lubricin in rheumatic complications. Based on our preliminary immunocytochemistry and fractal analysis data, and in the context of translational research of modern healthcare, we propose that molecular lubricin gene expression modification by means of the novel CRISPR/Cas system be considered for osteoarthritic therapies.

  20. Reconstruction of the experimentally supported human protein interactome: what can we learn?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the topology and dynamics of the human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network will significantly contribute to biomedical research, therefore its systematic reconstruction is required. Several meta-databases integrate source PPI datasets, but the protein node sets of their networks vary depending on the PPI data combined. Due to this inherent heterogeneity, the way in which the human PPI network expands via multiple dataset integration has not been comprehensively analyzed. We aim at assembling the human interactome in a global structured way and exploring it to gain insights of biological relevance. Results First, we defined the UniProtKB manually reviewed human “complete” proteome as the reference protein-node set and then we mined five major source PPI datasets for direct PPIs exclusively between the reference proteins. We updated the protein and publication identifiers and normalized all PPIs to the UniProt identifier level. The reconstructed interactome covers approximately 60% of the human proteome and has a scale-free structure. No apparent differentiating gene functional classification characteristics were identified for the unrepresented proteins. The source dataset integration augments the network mainly in PPIs. Polyubiquitin emerged as the highest-degree node, but the inclusion of most of its identified PPIs may be reconsidered. The high number (>300) of connections of the subsequent fifteen proteins correlates well with their essential biological role. According to the power-law network structure, the unrepresented proteins should mainly have up to four connections with equally poorly-connected interactors. Conclusions Reconstructing the human interactome based on the a priori definition of the protein nodes enabled us to identify the currently included part of the human “complete” proteome, and discuss the role of the proteins within the network topology with respect to their function. As the network expansion has

  1. Reconstruction of the experimentally supported human protein interactome: what can we learn?

    PubMed

    Klapa, Maria I; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Theodoridis, Evangelos; Tsakalidis, Athanasios; Moschonas, Nicholas K

    2013-10-02

    Understanding the topology and dynamics of the human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network will significantly contribute to biomedical research, therefore its systematic reconstruction is required. Several meta-databases integrate source PPI datasets, but the protein node sets of their networks vary depending on the PPI data combined. Due to this inherent heterogeneity, the way in which the human PPI network expands via multiple dataset integration has not been comprehensively analyzed. We aim at assembling the human interactome in a global structured way and exploring it to gain insights of biological relevance. First, we defined the UniProtKB manually reviewed human "complete" proteome as the reference protein-node set and then we mined five major source PPI datasets for direct PPIs exclusively between the reference proteins. We updated the protein and publication identifiers and normalized all PPIs to the UniProt identifier level. The reconstructed interactome covers approximately 60% of the human proteome and has a scale-free structure. No apparent differentiating gene functional classification characteristics were identified for the unrepresented proteins. The source dataset integration augments the network mainly in PPIs. Polyubiquitin emerged as the highest-degree node, but the inclusion of most of its identified PPIs may be reconsidered. The high number (>300) of connections of the subsequent fifteen proteins correlates well with their essential biological role. According to the power-law network structure, the unrepresented proteins should mainly have up to four connections with equally poorly-connected interactors. Reconstructing the human interactome based on the a priori definition of the protein nodes enabled us to identify the currently included part of the human "complete" proteome, and discuss the role of the proteins within the network topology with respect to their function. As the network expansion has to comply with the scale-free theory, we

  2. Myotonia congenita-associated mutations in chloride channel-1 affect zebrafish body wave swimming kinematics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Tian, Jing; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Hunziker, Walter; Eng, How-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Myotonia congenita is a human muscle disorder caused by mutations in CLCN1, which encodes human chloride channel 1 (CLCN1). Zebrafish is becoming an increasingly useful model for human diseases, including muscle disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing, under the control of a muscle specific promoter, human CLCN1 carrying mutations that have been identified in human patients suffering from myotonia congenita. We developed video analytic tools that are able to provide precise quantitative measurements of movement abnormalities in order to analyse the effect of these CLCN1 mutations on adult transgenic zebrafish swimming. Two new parameters for body-wave kinematics of swimming reveal changes in body curvature and tail offset in transgenic zebrafish expressing the disease-associated CLCN1 mutants, presumably due to their effect on muscle function. The capability of the developed video analytic tool to distinguish wild-type from transgenic zebrafish could provide a useful asset to screen for compounds that reverse the disease phenotype, and may be applicable to other movement disorders besides myotonia congenita.

  3. Zebrafish globin switching occurs in two developmental stages and is controlled by the LCR.

    PubMed

    Ganis, Jared J; Hsia, Nelson; Trompouki, Eirini; de Jong, Jill L O; DiBiase, Anthony; Lambert, Janelle S; Jia, Zhiying; Sabo, Peter J; Weaver, Molly; Sandstrom, Richard; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I

    2012-06-15

    Globin gene switching is a complex, highly regulated process allowing expression of distinct globin genes at specific developmental stages. Here, for the first time, we have characterized all of the zebrafish globins based on the completed genomic sequence. Two distinct chromosomal loci, termed major (chromosome 3) and minor (chromosome 12), harbor the globin genes containing α/β pairs in a 5'-3' to 3'-5' orientation. Both these loci share synteny with the mammalian α-globin locus. Zebrafish globin expression was assayed during development and demonstrated two globin switches, similar to human development. A conserved regulatory element, the locus control region (LCR), was revealed by analyzing DNase I hypersensitive sites, H3K4 trimethylation marks and GATA1 binding sites. Surprisingly, the position of these sites with relation to the globin genes is evolutionarily conserved, despite a lack of overall sequence conservation. Motifs within the zebrafish LCR include CACCC, GATA, and NFE2 sites, suggesting functional interactions with known transcription factors but not the same LCR architecture. Functional homology to the mammalian α-LCR MCS-R2 region was confirmed by robust and specific reporter expression in erythrocytes of transgenic zebrafish. Our studies provide a comprehensive characterization of the zebrafish globin loci and clarify the regulation of globin switching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Limb regeneration is impaired in an adult zebrafish model of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ansgar S; Sarras, Michael P; Intine, Robert V

    2010-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for the study of developmental processes, human disease, and tissue regeneration. We report that limb regeneration is severely impaired in our newly developed adult zebrafish model of type I diabetes mellitus. Intraperitoneal streptozocin injection of adult, wild-type zebrafish results in a sustained hyperglycemic state as determined by elevated fasting blood glucose values and increased glycation of serum protein. Serum insulin levels are also decreased and pancreas immunohistochemisty revealed a decreased amount of insulin signal in hyperglycemic fish. Additionally, the diabetic complications of retinal thinning and glomerular basement membrane thickening (early signs of retinopathy and nephropathy) resulting from the hyperglycemic state were evident in streptozocin-injected fish at 3 weeks. Most significantly, limb regeneration, following caudal fin amputation, is severely impaired in diabetic zebrafish and nonspecific toxic effects outside the pancreas were not found to contribute to impaired limb regeneration. This experimental system using adult zebrafish facilitates a broad spectrum of genetic and molecular approaches to study regeneration in the diabetic background. © 2010 by the Wound Healing Society.

  5. Tensile properties of craniofacial tendons in the mature and aged zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rishita R.; Nerurkar, Nandan L.; Wang, Calvin; Galloway, Jenna L.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish Danio rerio is a powerful model for the study of development, regenerative biology, and human disease. However, the analysis of load-bearing tissues such as tendons and ligaments has been limited in this system. This is largely due to technical limitations that preclude accurate measurement of their mechanical properties. Here, we present a custom tensile testing system that applies nano-Newton scale forces to zebrafish tendons as small as 1 mm in length. Tendon properties were remarkably similar to mammalian tendons, including stress-strain nonlinearity and a linear modulus (515±152 MPa) that aligned closely with mammalian data. Additionally, a simple exponential constitutive law used to describe tendon mechanics was successfully fit to zebrafish tendons; the associated material constants agreed with literature values for mammalian tendons. Finally, mature and aged zebrafish comparisons revealed a significant decline in mechanical function with age. Based on the exponential constitutive model, age related changes were primarily caused by a reduction in nonlinearity (e.g. changes in collagen crimp or fiber recruitment). These findings demonstrate the utility of zebrafish as a model to study tendon biomechanics in health and disease. Moreover, these findings suggest that tendon mechanical behavior is highly conserved across vertebrates. PMID:25665155

  6. Bioactive Molecule from Streptomyces sp. Mitigates MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae in Zebrafish Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheepurupalli, Lalitha; Raman, Thiagarajan; Rathore, Sudarshan S.; Ramakrishnan, Jayapradha

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) especially carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major emerging threat to public health, leading to excess in mortality rate as high as 50–86%. MDR K. pneumoniae manifests all broad mechanisms of drug resistance, hence development of new drugs to treat MDR K. pneumoniae infection has become a more relevant question in the scientific community. In the present study a potential Streptomyces sp. ASK2 was isolated from rhizosphere soil of medicinal plant. The multistep HPLC purification identified the active principle exhibiting antagonistic activity against MDR K. pneumoniae. The purified compound was found to be an aromatic compound with aliphatic side chain molecule having a molecular weight of 444.43 Da. FT-IR showed the presence of OH and C=O as functional groups. The bioactive compound was further evaluated for drug induced toxicity and efficacy in adult zebrafish infection model. As this is the first study on K. pneumoniae – zebrafish model, the infectious doses to manifest sub-clinical and clinical infection were optimized. Furthermore, the virulence of K. pneumoniae in planktonic and biofilm state was studied in zebrafish. The MTT assay of ex vivo culture of zebrafish liver reveals non-toxic nature of the proposed ASK2 compound at an effective dose. Moreover, significant increase in survival rate of infected zebrafish suggests that ASK2 compound from a new strain of Streptomyces sp. was potent in mitigating MDR K. pneumoniae infection. PMID:28446900

  7. 4-dimensional functional profiling in the convulsant-treated larval zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew J; Windell, Dylan; Metz, Jeremy; Matthews, Peter; Pinion, Joe; Brown, Jonathan T; Hetheridge, Malcolm J; Ball, Jonathan S; Owen, Stewart F; Redfern, Will S; Moger, Julian; Randall, Andrew D; Tyler, Charles R

    2017-07-26

    Functional neuroimaging, using genetically-encoded Ca 2+ sensors in larval zebrafish, offers a powerful combination of high spatiotemporal resolution and higher vertebrate relevance for quantitative neuropharmacological profiling. Here we use zebrafish larvae with pan-neuronal expression of GCaMP6s, combined with light sheet microscopy and a novel image processing pipeline, for the 4D profiling of chemoconvulsant action in multiple brain regions. In untreated larvae, regions associated with autonomic functionality, sensory processing and stress-responsiveness, consistently exhibited elevated spontaneous activity. The application of drugs targeting different convulsant mechanisms (4-Aminopyridine, Pentylenetetrazole, Pilocarpine and Strychnine) resulted in distinct spatiotemporal patterns of activity. These activity patterns showed some interesting parallels with what is known of the distribution of their respective molecular targets, but crucially also revealed system-wide neural circuit responses to stimulation or suppression. Drug concentration-response curves of neural activity were identified in a number of anatomically-defined zebrafish brain regions, and in vivo larval electrophysiology, also conducted in 4dpf larvae, provided additional measures of neural activity. Our quantification of network-wide chemoconvulsant drug activity in the whole zebrafish brain illustrates the power of this approach for neuropharmacological profiling in applications ranging from accelerating studies of drug safety and efficacy, to identifying pharmacologically-altered networks in zebrafish models of human neurological disorders.

  8. Comparison of toxicity values across zebrafish early life stages and mammalian studies: Implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Nicole A; Reif, David M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    With the high cost and slow pace of toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a tractable model organism for high throughput toxicity testing. We present here a meta-analysis of 600 chemicals tested for toxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Nineteen aggregated and 57 individual toxicity endpoints were recorded from published studies yielding 2695 unique data points. These data points were compared to lethality and reproductive toxicology endpoints analyzed in rodents and rabbits and to exposure values for humans. We show that although many zebrafish endpoints did not correlate to rodent or rabbit acute toxicity data, zebrafish could be used to accurately predict relative acute toxicity through the rat inhalation, rabbit dermal, and rat oral exposure routes. Ranking of the chemicals based on toxicity and teratogenicity in zebrafish, as well as human exposure levels, revealed that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene, and chlorpyrifos ranked in the top nine of all chemicals for these three categories, and as such should be considered high priority chemicals for testing in higher vertebrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Myotonia Congenita-Associated Mutations in Chloride Channel-1 Affect Zebrafish Body Wave Swimming Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Tian, Jing; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Hunziker, Walter; Eng, How-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Myotonia congenita is a human muscle disorder caused by mutations in CLCN1, which encodes human chloride channel 1 (CLCN1). Zebrafish is becoming an increasingly useful model for human diseases, including muscle disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing, under the control of a muscle specific promoter, human CLCN1 carrying mutations that have been identified in human patients suffering from myotonia congenita. We developed video analytic tools that are able to provide precise quantitative measurements of movement abnormalities in order to analyse the effect of these CLCN1 mutations on adult transgenic zebrafish swimming. Two new parameters for body-wave kinematics of swimming reveal changes in body curvature and tail offset in transgenic zebrafish expressing the disease-associated CLCN1 mutants, presumably due to their effect on muscle function. The capability of the developed video analytic tool to distinguish wild-type from transgenic zebrafish could provide a useful asset to screen for compounds that reverse the disease phenotype, and may be applicable to other movement disorders besides myotonia congenita. PMID:25083883

  10. Zebrafish Model Systems for Developmental Neurobehavioral Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jordan; Oliveri, Anthony; Levin, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish offer many advantages that complement classic mammalian models for the study of normal development as well as for the teratogenic effects of exposure to hazardous compounds. The clear chorion and embryo of the zebrafish allow for continuous visualization of the anatomical changes associated with development, which, along with short maturation times and the capability of complex behavior, makes this model particularly useful for measuring changes to the developing nervous system. Moreover, the rich array of developmental, behavioral, and molecular benefits offered by the zebrafish have contributed to an increasing demand for the use of zebrafish in behavioral teratology. Essential for this endeavor has been the development of a battery of tests to evaluate a spectrum of behavior in zebrafish. Measures of sensorimotor plasticity, emotional function, cognition and social interaction have been used to characterize the persisting adverse effects of developmental exposure to a variety of chemicals including therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse and environmental toxicants. In this review, we present and discuss such tests and data from a range of developmental neurobehavioral toxicology studies using zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish provide a key intermediate model between high throughput in vitro screens and the classic mammalian models as they have the accessibility of in vitro models and the complex functional capabilities of mammalian models. PMID:23723169

  11. The importance of Zebrafish in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Bárbara; Santos Lopes, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal model organism for the study of vertebrate development. This is due to the large clutches that each couple produces, with up to 200 embryos every 7 days, and to the fact that the embryos and larvae are small, transparent and undergo rapid external development. Using scientific literature research tools available online and the keywords Zebrafish, biomedical research, human disease, and drug screening, we reviewed original studies and reviews indexed in PubMed. In this review we summarized work conducted with this model for the advancement of our knowledge related to several human diseases. We also focused on the biomedical research being performed in Portugal with the zebrafish model. Powerful live imaging and genetic tools are currently available for zebrafish making it a valuable model in biomedical research. The combination of these properties with the optimization of automated systems for drug screening has transformed the zebrafish into "a top model" in biomedical research, drug discovery and toxicity testing. Furthermore, with the optimization of xenografts technology it will be possible to use zebrafish to aide in the choice of the best therapy for each patient. Zebrafish is an excellent model organism in biomedical research, drug development and in clinical therapy.

  12. Zebrafish model systems for developmental neurobehavioral toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jordan; Oliveri, Anthony; Levin, Edward D

    2013-03-01

    Zebrafish offer many advantages that complement classic mammalian models for the study of normal development as well as for the teratogenic effects of exposure to hazardous compounds. The clear chorion and embryo of the zebrafish allow for continuous visualization of the anatomical changes associated with development, which, along with short maturation times and the capability of complex behavior, makes this model particularly useful for measuring changes to the developing nervous system. Moreover, the rich array of developmental, behavioral, and molecular benefits offered by the zebrafish have contributed to an increasing demand for the use of zebrafish in behavioral teratology. Essential for this endeavor has been the development of a battery of tests to evaluate a spectrum of behavior in zebrafish. Measures of sensorimotor plasticity, emotional function, cognition and social interaction have been used to characterize the persisting adverse effects of developmental exposure to a variety of chemicals including therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse and environmental toxicants. In this review, we present and discuss such tests and data from a range of developmental neurobehavioral toxicology studies using zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish provide a key intermediate model between high throughput in vitro screens and the classic mammalian models as they have the accessibility of in vitro models and the complex functional capabilities of mammalian models. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 2017 Midwest Zebrafish Meeting Report.

    PubMed

    Sandquist, Elizabeth; Petersen, Sarah C; Smith, Cody J

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 Midwest Zebrafish meeting was held from June 16 to 18 at the University of Cincinnati, sponsored by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Divisions of Developmental Biology, Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, and Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. The meeting, organized by Saulius Sumanas, Joshua Waxman, and Chunyue Yin, hosted >130 attendees from 16 different states. Scientific sessions were focused on morphogenesis, neural development, novel technologies, and disease models, with Steve Ekker, Stephen Potter, and Lila Solnica-Krezel presenting keynote talks. In this article, we highlight the results and emerging themes from the meeting.

  14. Label-free imaging of developing vasculature in zebrafish with phase variance optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Trinh, Le A.; Fraser, Scott E.

    2016-03-01

    A phase variance optical coherence microscope (pvOCM) has been created to visualize blood flow in the vasculature of zebrafish embryos, without using exogenous labels. The pvOCM imaging system has axial and lateral resolutions of 2 μm in tissue, and imaging depth of more than 100 μm. Imaging of 2-5 days post-fertilization zebrafish embryos identified the detailed structures of somites, spinal cord, gut and notochord based on intensity contrast. Visualization of the blood flow in the aorta, veins and intersegmental vessels was achieved with phase variance contrast. The pvOCM vasculature images were confirmed with corresponding fluorescence microscopy of a zebrafish transgene that labels the vasculature with green fluorescent protein. The pvOCM images also revealed functional information of the blood flow activities that is crucial for the study of vascular development.

  15. Probiotic modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and behaviour in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Luca; Aceto, Serena; Agnisola, Claudio; De Paolo, Sofia; Dipineto, Ludovico; Stilling, Roman M; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Menna, Lucia F; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2016-07-15

    The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the bi-directional gut-brain axis, a communication that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities. Animal studies reveal that gut bacteria influence behaviour, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels and serotonin metabolism. In the present study, we report for the first time an analysis of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in zebrafish (Danio rerio). After 28 days of dietary administration with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501, we found differences in shoaling behaviour, brain expression levels of bdnf and of genes involved in serotonin signalling/metabolism between control and treated zebrafish group. In addition, in microbiota we found a significant increase of Firmicutes and a trending reduction of Proteobacteria. This study demonstrates that selected microbes can be used to modulate endogenous neuroactive molecules in zebrafish.

  16. Injury-induced ctgfa directs glial bridging and spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Patra, Chinmoy; Dickson, Amy L.; Endo, Toyokazu; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish efficiently regenerate functional nervous system tissue after major spinal cord injury. Whereas glial scarring presents a roadblock for mammalian spinal cord repair, glial cells in zebrafish form a bridge across severed spinal cord tissue and facilitate regeneration, a relatively unexplored process. Here, we performed a genome-wide profiling screen for secreted factors that are upregulated during zebrafish spinal cord regeneration. We find that connective tissue growth factor a (ctgfa) is induced in and around glial cells that participate in initial bridging events. Mutations in ctgfa disrupt spinal cord repair, while transgenic ctgfa overexpression and local human CTGF recombinant protein delivery accelerate bridging and functional regeneration. Our study reveals that CTGF is necessary and sufficient to stimulate glial bridging and natural spinal cord regeneration. PMID:27811277

  17. Sprouting Buds of Zebrafish Research in Malaysia: First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish is gaining prominence as an important vertebrate model for investigating various human diseases. Zebrafish provides unique advantages such as optical clarity of embryos, high fecundity rate, and low cost of maintenance, making it a perfect complement to the murine model equivalent in biomedical research. Due to these advantages, researchers in Malaysia are starting to take notice and incorporate the zebrafish model into their research activities. However, zebrafish research in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage and many researchers still remain unaware of the full potential of the zebrafish model or have limited access to related tools and techniques that are widely utilized in many zebrafish laboratories worldwide. To overcome this, we organized the First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop in Malaysia that took place on 11th and 12th of November 2015. In this workshop, we showcased how the zebrafish model is being utilized in the biomedical field in international settings as well as in Malaysia. For this, notable international speakers and those from local universities known to be carrying out impactful research using zebrafish were invited to share some of the cutting edge techniques that are used in their laboratories that may one day be incorporated in the Malaysian scientific community.

  18. Automated measurement of zebrafish larval movement

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Clinton L; Farrell, Thomas C; Milanese, Chiara; Burton, Edward A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish is a powerful vertebrate model that is readily amenable to genetic, pharmacological and environmental manipulations to elucidate the molecular and cellular basis of movement and behaviour. We report software enabling automated analysis of zebrafish movement from video recordings captured with cameras ranging from a basic camcorder to more specialized equipment. The software, which is provided as open-source MATLAB functions, can be freely modified and distributed, and is compatible with multiwell plates under a wide range of experimental conditions. Automated measurement of zebrafish movement using this technique will be useful for multiple applications in neuroscience, pharmacology and neuropsychiatry. PMID:21646414

  19. Zebrafish tracking using convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiping; Cheng, Xi En

    2017-02-17

    Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans. This work will make further behaviour analysis more reliable.

  20. Automated measurement of zebrafish larval movement.

    PubMed

    Cario, Clinton L; Farrell, Thomas C; Milanese, Chiara; Burton, Edward A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish is a powerful vertebrate model that is readily amenable to genetic, pharmacological and environmental manipulations to elucidate the molecular and cellular basis of movement and behaviour. We report software enabling automated analysis of zebrafish movement from video recordings captured with cameras ranging from a basic camcorder to more specialized equipment. The software, which is provided as open-source MATLAB functions, can be freely modified and distributed, and is compatible with multiwell plates under a wide range of experimental conditions. Automated measurement of zebrafish movement using this technique will be useful for multiple applications in neuroscience, pharmacology and neuropsychiatry.

  1. Zebrafish tracking using convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiping; Cheng, Xi En

    2017-02-01

    Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans. This work will make further behaviour analysis more reliable.

  2. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  3. Systematic approaches to toxicology in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Randall T; Macrae, Calum A

    2012-01-01

    As the current paradigms of drug discovery evolve, it has become clear that a more comprehensive understanding of the interactions between small molecules and organismal biology will be vital. The zebrafish is emerging as a complement to existing in vitro technologies and established preclinical in vivo models that can be scaled for high-throughput. In this review, we highlight the current status of zebrafish toxicology studies, identify potential future niches for the model in the drug development pipeline, and define the hurdles that must be overcome as zebrafish technologies are refined for systematic toxicology.

  4. A review of monoaminergic neuropsychopharmacology in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Maximino, Caio; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2010-12-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters are the major regulatory mechanisms in the vertebrate brain, involved in the adjustment of motivation, emotion, and cognition. The chemical anatomy of these systems is thought to be highly conserved in the brain of all vertebrates, including zebrafish. Recently, the development of behavioral assays in zebrafish allowed the neuropsychopharmacological investigation of these circuits and its functions. Here we review neuroanatomical, genetic, neurochemical, and psychopharmacological evidence regarding the roles of histaminergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and melatonergic systems in this species. We conclude that, in spite of species differences, zebrafish are suitable for the investigation of neuropsychopharmacology of drugs that affect theses systems; nonetheless, more thorough validation of behavioral methods is still needed.

  5. Interactomes, manufacturomes and relational biology: analogies between systems biology and manufacturing systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We review and extend the work of Rosen and Casti who discuss category theory with regards to systems biology and manufacturing systems, respectively. Results We describe anticipatory systems, or long-range feed-forward chemical reaction chains, and compare them to open-loop manufacturing processes. We then close the loop by discussing metabolism-repair systems and describe the rationality of the self-referential equation f = f (f). This relationship is derived from some boundary conditions that, in molecular systems biology, can be stated as the cardinality of the following molecular sets must be about equal: metabolome, genome, proteome. We show that this conjecture is not likely correct so the problem of self-referential mappings for describing the boundary between living and nonliving systems remains an open question. We calculate a lower and upper bound for the number of edges in the molecular interaction network (the interactome) for two cellular organisms and for two manufacturomes for CMOS integrated circuit manufacturing. Conclusions We show that the relevant mapping relations may not be Abelian, and that these problems cannot yet be resolved because the interactomes and manufacturomes are incomplete. PMID:21689427

  6. Predicted Arabidopsis Interactome Resource and Gene Set Linkage Analysis: A Transcriptomic Analysis Resource.

    PubMed

    Yao, Heng; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Pengcheng; Hai, Ling; Jin, Kang; Yao, Lixia; Mao, Chuanzao; Chen, Xin

    2018-05-01

    An advanced functional understanding of omics data is important for elucidating the design logic of physiological processes in plants and effectively controlling desired traits in plants. We present the latest versions of the Predicted Arabidopsis Interactome Resource (PAIR) and of the gene set linkage analysis (GSLA) tool, which enable the interpretation of an observed transcriptomic change (differentially expressed genes [DEGs]) in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) with respect to its functional impact for biological processes. PAIR version 5.0 integrates functional association data between genes in multiple forms and infers 335,301 putative functional interactions. GSLA relies on this high-confidence inferred functional association network to expand our perception of the functional impacts of an observed transcriptomic change. GSLA then interprets the biological significance of the observed DEGs using established biological concepts (annotation terms), describing not only the DEGs themselves but also their potential functional impacts. This unique analytical capability can help researchers gain deeper insights into their experimental results and highlight prospective directions for further investigation. We demonstrate the utility of GSLA with two case studies in which GSLA uncovered how molecular events may have caused physiological changes through their collective functional influence on biological processes. Furthermore, we showed that typical annotation-enrichment tools were unable to produce similar insights to PAIR/GSLA. The PAIR version 5.0-inferred interactome and GSLA Web tool both can be accessed at http://public.synergylab.cn/pair/. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The extraction of drug-disease correlations based on module distance in incomplete human interactome.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang; Wang, Bingbo; Ma, Xiaoke; Gao, Lin

    2016-12-23

    Extracting drug-disease correlations is crucial in unveiling disease mechanisms, as well as discovering new indications of available drugs, or drug repositioning. Both the interactome and the knowledge of disease-associated and drug-associated genes remain incomplete. We present a new method to predict the associations between drugs and diseases. Our method is based on a module distance, which is originally proposed to calculate distances between modules in incomplete human interactome. We first map all the disease genes and drug genes to a combined protein interaction network. Then based on the module distance, we calculate the distances between drug gene sets and disease gene sets, and take the distances as the relationships of drug-disease pairs. We also filter possible false positive drug-disease correlations by p-value. Finally, we validate the top-100 drug-disease associations related to six drugs in the predicted results. The overlapping between our predicted correlations with those reported in Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) and literatures, and their enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways demonstrate our approach can not only effectively identify new drug indications, but also provide new insight into drug-disease discovery.

  8. Crowd Sourcing a New Paradigm for Interactome Driven Drug Target Identification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rohira, Harsha; Bhat, Ashwini G.; Passi, Anurag; Mukherjee, Keya; Choudhary, Kumari Sonal; Kumar, Vikas; Arora, Anshula; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Subramanian, Ahalyaa; Venkatachalam, Aparna; S, Gayathri; Raj, Sweety; Chitra, Vijaya; Verma, Kaveri; Zaheer, Salman; J, Balaganesh; Gurusamy, Malarvizhi; Razeeth, Mohammed; Raja, Ilamathi; Thandapani, Madhumohan; Mevada, Vishal; Soni, Raviraj; Rana, Shruti; Ramanna, Girish Muthagadhalli; Raghavan, Swetha; Subramanya, Sunil N.; Kholia, Trupti; Patel, Rajesh; Bhavnani, Varsha; Chiranjeevi, Lakavath; Sengupta, Soumi; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Atray, Naresh; Gandhi, Swati; Avasthi, Tiruvayipati Suma; Nisthar, Shefin; Anurag, Meenakshi; Sharma, Pratibha; Hasija, Yasha; Dash, Debasis; Sharma, Arun; Scaria, Vinod; Thomas, Zakir; Chandra, Nagasuma; Brahmachari, Samir K.; Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2012-01-01

    A decade since the availability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome sequence, no promising drug has seen the light of the day. This not only indicates the challenges in discovering new drugs but also suggests a gap in our current understanding of Mtb biology. We attempt to bridge this gap by carrying out extensive re-annotation and constructing a systems level protein interaction map of Mtb with an objective of finding novel drug target candidates. Towards this, we synergized crowd sourcing and social networking methods through an initiative ‘Connect to Decode’ (C2D) to generate the first and largest manually curated interactome of Mtb termed ‘interactome pathway’ (IPW), encompassing a total of 1434 proteins connected through 2575 functional relationships. Interactions leading to gene regulation, signal transduction, metabolism, structural complex formation have been catalogued. In the process, we have functionally annotated 87% of the Mtb genome in context of gene products. We further combine IPW with STRING based network to report central proteins, which may be assessed as potential drug targets for development of drugs with least possible side effects. The fact that five of the 17 predicted drug targets are already experimentally validated either genetically or biochemically lends credence to our unique approach. PMID:22808064

  9. Interactome Mapping Guided by Tissue-Specific Phosphorylation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sripathi, Srinivas R.; He, Weilue; Prigge, Cameron L.; Sylvester, O’Donnell; Um, Ji-Yeon; Powell, Folami L.; Neksumi, Musa; Bernstein, Paul S.; Choo, Dong-Won; Bartoli, Manuela; Gutsaeva, Diana R.; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to determine the molecular mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using the phosphorylation network. Specifically, we examined novel biomarkers for oxidative stress by protein interaction mapping using in vitro and in vivo models that mimic the complex and progressive characteristics of AMD. We hypothesized that the early apoptotic reactions could be initiated by protein phosphorylation in region-dependent (peripheral retina vs. macular) and tissue-dependent (retinal pigment epithelium vs. retina) manner under chronic oxidative stress. The analysis of protein interactome and oxidative biomarkers showed the presence of tissue- and region-specific post-translational mechanisms that contribute to AMD progression and suggested new therapeutic targets that include ubiquitin, erythropoietin, vitronectin, MMP2, crystalline, nitric oxide, and prohibitin. Phosphorylation of specific target proteins in RPE cells is a central regulatory mechanism as a survival tool under chronic oxidative imbalance. The current interactome map demonstrates a positive correlation between oxidative stress-mediated phosphorylation and AMD progression and provides a basis for understanding oxidative stress-induced cytoskeletal changes and the mechanism of aggregate formation induced by protein phosphorylation. This information could provide an effective therapeutic approach to treat age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:28580316

  10. Interactome Mapping Guided by Tissue-Specific Phosphorylation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sripathi, Srinivas R; He, Weilue; Prigge, Cameron L; Sylvester, O'Donnell; Um, Ji-Yeon; Powell, Folami L; Neksumi, Musa; Bernstein, Paul S; Choo, Dong-Won; Bartoli, Manuela; Gutsaeva, Diana R; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2017-02-01

    The current study aims to determine the molecular mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using the phosphorylation network. Specifically, we examined novel biomarkers for oxidative stress by protein interaction mapping using in vitro and in vivo models that mimic the complex and progressive characteristics of AMD. We hypothesized that the early apoptotic reactions could be initiated by protein phosphorylation in region-dependent (peripheral retina vs. macular) and tissue-dependent (retinal pigment epithelium vs. retina) manner under chronic oxidative stress. The analysis of protein interactome and oxidative biomarkers showed the presence of tissue- and region-specific post-translational mechanisms that contribute to AMD progression and suggested new therapeutic targets that include ubiquitin, erythropoietin, vitronectin, MMP2, crystalline, nitric oxide, and prohibitin. Phosphorylation of specific target proteins in RPE cells is a central regulatory mechanism as a survival tool under chronic oxidative imbalance. The current interactome map demonstrates a positive correlation between oxidative stress-mediated phosphorylation and AMD progression and provides a basis for understanding oxidative stress-induced cytoskeletal changes and the mechanism of aggregate formation induced by protein phosphorylation. This information could provide an effective therapeutic approach to treat age-related neurodegeneration.

  11. Epigenetic Drug Repositioning for Alzheimer's Disease Based on Epigenetic Targets in Human Interactome.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Paulami; Roy, Debjani; Rathi, Nitin

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetics has emerged as an important field in drug discovery. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading neurodegenerative disorder throughout the world, is shown to have an epigenetic basis. Currently, there are very few effective epigenetic drugs available for AD. In this work, for the first time we have proposed 14 AD repositioning epigenetic drugs and identified their targets from extensive human interactome. Interacting partners of the AD epigenetic proteins were identified from the extensive human interactome to construct Epigenetic Protein-Protein Interaction Network (EP-PPIN). Epigenetic Drug-Target Network (EP-DTN) was constructed with the drugs associated with the proteins of EP-PPIN. Regulation of non-coding RNAs associated with the target proteins of these drugs was also studied. AD related target proteins, epigenetic targets, enriched pathways, and functional categories of the proposed repositioning drugs were also studied. The proposed 14 AD epigenetic repositioning drugs have overlapping targets and miRs with known AD epigenetic targets and miRs. Furthermore, several shared functional categories and enriched pathways were obtained for these drugs with FDA approved epigenetic drugs and known AD drugs. The findings of our work might provide insight into future AD epigenetic-therapeutics.

  12. Shifted Transversal Design smart-pooling for high coverage interactome mapping

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiaofeng; Rual, Jean-François; Hirozane-Kishikawa, Tomoko; Hill, David E.; Vidal, Marc; Boone, Charles; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    “Smart-pooling,” in which test reagents are multiplexed in a highly redundant manner, is a promising strategy for achieving high efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity in systems-level projects. However, previous applications relied on low redundancy designs that do not leverage the full potential of smart-pooling, and more powerful theoretical constructions, such as the Shifted Transversal Design (STD), lack experimental validation. Here we evaluate STD smart-pooling in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interactome mapping. We employed two STD designs and two established methods to perform ORFeome-wide Y2H screens with 12 baits. We found that STD pooling achieves similar levels of sensitivity and specificity as one-on-one array-based Y2H, while the costs and workloads are divided by three. The screening-sequencing approach is the most cost- and labor-efficient, yet STD identifies about twofold more interactions. Screening-sequencing remains an appropriate method for quickly producing low-coverage interactomes, while STD pooling appears as the method of choice for obtaining maps with higher coverage. PMID:19447967

  13. Exploring the interactome: microfluidic isolation of proteins and interacting partners for quantitative analysis by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Giss, Dominic; Kemmerling, Simon; Dandey, Venkata; Stahlberg, Henning; Braun, Thomas

    2014-05-20

    Multimolecular protein complexes are important for many cellular processes. However, the stochastic nature of the cellular interactome makes the experimental detection of complex protein assemblies difficult and quantitative analysis at the single molecule level essential. Here, we present a fast and simple microfluidic method for (i) the quantitative isolation of endogenous levels of untagged protein complexes from minute volumes of cell lysates under close to physiological conditions and (ii) the labeling of specific components constituting these complexes. The method presented uses specific antibodies that are conjugated via a photocleavable linker to magnetic beads that are trapped in microcapillaries to immobilize the target proteins. Proteins are released by photocleavage, eluted, and subsequently analyzed by quantitative transmission electron microscopy at the single molecule level. Additionally, before photocleavage, immunogold can be employed to label proteins that interact with the primary target protein. Thus, the presented method provides a new way to study the interactome and, in combination with single molecule transmission electron microscopy, to structurally characterize the large, dynamic, heterogeneous multimolecular protein complexes formed.

  14. Caspofungin exposure alters the core septin AspB interactome of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Muñiz, José M; Renshaw, Hilary; Waitt, Greg; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Palmer, Jonathan M; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Keller, Nancy P; Steinbach, William J

    2017-04-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, the main etiological agent of invasive aspergillosis, is a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Septins, a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins, serve as scaffolding proteins to recruit enzymes and key regulators to different cellular compartments. Deletion of the A. fumigatus septin aspB increases susceptibility to the echinocandin antifungal caspofungin. However, how AspB mediates this response to caspofungin is unknown. Here, we characterized the AspB interactome under basal conditions and after exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of caspofungin. While A. fumigatus AspB interacted with 334 proteins, including kinases, cell cycle regulators, and cell wall synthesis-related proteins under basal growth conditions, caspofungin exposure altered AspB interactions. A total of 69 of the basal interactants did not interact with AspB after exposure to caspofungin, and 54 new interactants were identified following caspofungin exposure. We generated A. fumigatus deletion strains for 3 proteins (ArpB, Cyp4, and PpoA) that only interacted with AspB following exposure to caspofungin that were previously annotated as induced after exposure to antifungal agents, yet only PpoA was implicated in the response to caspofungin. Taken together, we defined how the septin AspB interactome is altered in the presence of a clinically relevant antifungal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influenza A virus infection in zebrafish recapitulates mammalian infection and sensitivity to anti-influenza drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Kristin A; Goody, Michelle F; Mowel, Walter K; Breitbach, Meghan E; Gratacap, Remi L; Witten, P Eckhard; Kim, Carol H

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal influenza virus infections cause annual epidemics and sporadic pandemics. These present a global health concern, resulting in substantial morbidity, mortality and economic burdens. Prevention and treatment of influenza illness is difficult due to the high mutation rate of the virus, the emergence of new virus strains and increasing antiviral resistance. Animal models of influenza infection are crucial to our gaining a better understanding of the pathogenesis of and host response to influenza infection, and for screening antiviral compounds. However, the current animal models used for influenza research are not amenable to visualization of host-pathogen interactions or high-throughput drug screening. The zebrafish is widely recognized as a valuable model system for infectious disease research and therapeutic drug testing. Here, we describe a zebrafish model for human influenza A virus (IAV) infection and show that zebrafish embryos are susceptible to challenge with both influenza A strains APR8 and X-31 (Aichi). Influenza-infected zebrafish show an increase in viral burden and mortality over time. The expression of innate antiviral genes, the gross pathology and the histopathology in infected zebrafish recapitulate clinical symptoms of influenza infections in humans. This is the first time that zebrafish embryos have been infected with a fluorescent IAV in order to visualize infection in a live vertebrate host, revealing a pattern of vascular endothelial infection. Treatment of infected zebrafish with a known anti-influenza compound, Zanamivir, reduced mortality and the expression of a fluorescent viral gene product, demonstrating the validity of this model to screen for potential antiviral drugs. The zebrafish model system has provided invaluable insights into host-pathogen interactions for a range of infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate a novel use of this species for IAV research. This model has great potential to advance our understanding of

  16. Morphologic analysis of the zebrafish digestive system.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Andrew J; Parslow, Adam C; Heath, Joan K

    2009-01-01

    The zebrafish provides an ideal model for the study of vertebrate organogenesis, including the formation of the digestive tract and its associated organs. Despite optical transparency of embryos, the internal position of the developing digestive system and its close juxtaposition with the yolk initially made morphological analysis relatively challenging, particularly during the first 3 d of development. However, methodologies have been successfully developed to address these problems and comprehensive morphologic analysis of the developing digestive system has now been achieved using a combination of light and fluorescence microscope approaches-including confocal analysis-to visualize wholemount and histological preparations of zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, the expanding number of antibodies that cross-react with zebrafish proteins and the generation of tissue-specific transgenic green fluorescent protein reporter lines that mark specific cell and tissue compartments have greatly enhanced our ability to successfully image the developing zebrafish digestive system.

  17. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  18. Episodic-like memory in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trevor J; Myggland, Allison; Duperreault, Erika; May, Zacnicte; Gallup, Joshua; Powell, Russell A; Schalomon, Melike; Digweed, Shannon M

    2016-11-01

    Episodic-like memory tests often aid in determining an animal's ability to recall the what, where, and which (context) of an event. To date, this type of memory has been demonstrated in humans, wild chacma baboons, corvids (Scrub jays), humming birds, mice, rats, Yucatan minipigs, and cuttlefish. The potential for this type of memory in zebrafish remains unexplored even though they are quickly becoming an essential model organism for the study of a variety of human cognitive and mental disorders. Here we explore the episodic-like capabilities of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a previously established mammalian memory paradigm. We demonstrate that when zebrafish were presented with a familiar object in a familiar context but a novel location within that context, they spend more time in the novel quadrant. Thus, zebrafish display episodic-like memory as they remember what object they saw, where they saw it (quadrant location), and on which occasion (yellow or blue walls) it was presented.

  19. Polygenic Sex Determination System in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Woei Chang; Bartfai, Richard; Lim, Zijie; Sreenivasan, Rajini; Siegfried, Kellee R.; Orban, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of zebrafish as a research model, its sex determination (SD) mechanism is still unknown. Most cytogenetic studies failed to find dimorphic sex chromosomes and no primary sex determining switch has been identified even though the assembly of zebrafish genome sequence is near to completion and a high resolution genetic map is available. Recent publications suggest that environmental factors within the natural range have minimal impact on sex ratios of zebrafish populations. The primary aim of this study is to find out more about how sex is determined in zebrafish. Methodology/Principal Findings Using classical breeding experiments, we found that sex ratios across families were wide ranging (4.8% to 97.3% males). On the other hand, repeated single pair crossings produced broods of very similar sex ratios, indicating that parental genotypes have a role in the sex ratio of the offspring. Variation among family sex ratios was reduced after selection for breeding pairs with predominantly male or female offspring, another indication that zebrafish sex is regulated genetically. Further examinations by a PCR-based “blind assay" and array comparative genomic hybridization both failed to find universal sex-linked differences between the male and female genomes. Together with the ability to increase the sex bias of lines by selective breeding, these data suggest that zebrafish is unlikely to utilize a chromosomal sex determination (CSD) system. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our study suggests that zebrafish sex is genetically determined with limited, secondary influences from the environment. As we have not found any sign for CSD in the species, we propose that the zebrafish has a polygenic sex determination system. PMID:22506019

  20. Physical and in silico approaches identify DNA-PK in a Tax DNA-damage response interactome

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Emad; Ward, Michael; Guo, Xin; Durkin, Sarah S; Sawyer, Adam; Vilela, Marcelo; Osgood, Christopher; Pothen, Alex; Semmes, Oliver J

    2008-01-01

    Background We have initiated an effort to exhaustively map interactions between HTLV-1 Tax and host cellular proteins. The resulting Tax interactome will have significant utility toward defining new and understanding known activities of this important viral protein. In addition, the completion of a full Tax interactome will also help shed light upon the functional consequences of these myriad Tax activities. The physical mapping process involved the affinity isolation of Tax complexes followed by sequence identification using tandem mass spectrometry. To date we have mapped 250 cellular components within this interactome. Here we present our approach to prioritizing these interactions via an in silico culling process. Results We first constructed an in silico Tax interactome comprised of 46 literature-confirmed protein-protein interactions. This number was then reduced to four Tax-interactions suspected to play a role in DNA damage response (Rad51, TOP1, Chk2, 53BP1). The first-neighbor and second-neighbor interactions of these four proteins were assembled from available human protein interaction databases. Through an analysis of betweenness and closeness centrality measures, and numbers of interactions, we ranked proteins in the first neighborhood. When this rank list was compared to the list of physical Tax-binding proteins, DNA-PK was the highest ranked protein common to both lists. An overlapping clustering of the Tax-specific second-neighborhood protein network showed DNA-PK to be one of three bridge proteins that link multiple clusters in the DNA damage response network. Conclusion The interaction of Tax with DNA-PK represents an important biological paradigm as suggested via consensus findings in vivo and in silico. We present this methodology as an approach to discovery and as a means of validating components of a consensus Tax interactome. PMID:18922151

  1. Grouping annotations on the subcellular layered interactome demonstrates enhanced autophagy activity in a recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis T cell line.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiuzhi; Li, Jingbo; Shi, Dejing; Zhao, Yu; Dong, Yucui; Ju, Huanyu; Yang, Jinfeng; Sun, Jianhua; Li, Xia; Ren, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Human uveitis is a type of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that often shows relapse-remitting courses affecting multiple biological processes. As a cytoplasmic process, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to cell death and survival, yet the link between autophagy and T cell-mediated autoimmunity is not certain. In this study, based on the differentially expressed genes (GSE19652) between the recurrent versus monophasic T cell lines, whose adoptive transfer to susceptible animals may result in respective recurrent or monophasic uveitis, we proposed grouping annotations on a subcellular layered interactome framework to analyze the specific bioprocesses that are linked to the recurrence of T cell autoimmunity. That is, the subcellular layered interactome was established by the Cytoscape and Cerebral plugin based on differential expression, global interactome, and subcellular localization information. Then, the layered interactomes were grouping annotated by the ClueGO plugin based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. The analysis showed that significant bioprocesses with autophagy were orchestrated in the cytoplasmic layered interactome and that mTOR may have a regulatory role in it. Furthermore, by setting up recurrent and monophasic uveitis in Lewis rats, we confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that, in comparison to the monophasic disease, recurrent uveitis in vivo showed significantly increased autophagy activity and extended lymphocyte infiltration to the affected retina. In summary, our framework methodology is a useful tool to disclose specific bioprocesses and molecular targets that can be attributed to a certain disease. Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of autophagy pathways may perturb the recurrence of uveitis.

  2. Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Seo, Juyi; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Although many artificial sweeteners (AS) have safety issues, the AS have been widely used in industry. To determine the physiologic effect of AS in the presence of hyperlipidemia, zebrafish were fed aspartame or saccharin with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). After 12 days, 30% of zebrafish, which consumed aspartame and HCD, died with exhibiting swimming defects. The aspartame group had 65% survivability, while the control and saccharin groups had 100% survivability. Under HCD, the saccharin-fed groups had the highest increase in the serum cholesterol level (599 mg/dL). Aspartame-fed group showed a remarkable increase in serum glucose (up to 125 mg/dL), which was 58% greater than the increase in the HCD alone group. The saccharin and HCD groups had the highest cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity (52% CE-transfer), while the HCD alone group had 42% CE-transfer. Histologic analysis revealed that the aspartame and HCD groups showed more infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain and liver sections. Conclusively, under presence of hyperlipidemia, aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibited acute swimming defects with an increase in brain inflammation. Saccharin-fed zebrafish had an increased atherogenic serum lipid profile with elevation of CETP activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Retinoic Acid Metabolic Genes, Meiosis, and Gonadal Sex Differentiation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Cañestro, Cristian; BreMiller, Ruth A.; Catchen, Julian M.; Yan, Yi-Lin; Postlethwait, John H.

    2013-01-01

    To help understand the elusive mechanisms of zebrafish sex determination, we studied the genetic machinery regulating production and breakdown of retinoic acid (RA) during the onset of meiosis in gonadogenesis. Results uncovered unexpected mechanistic differences between zebrafish and mammals. Conserved synteny and expression analyses revealed that cyp26a1 in zebrafish and its paralog Cyp26b1 in tetrapods independently became the primary genes encoding enzymes available for gonadal RA-degradation, showing lineage-specific subfunctionalization of vertebrate genome duplication (VGD) paralogs. Experiments showed that zebrafish express aldh1a2, which encodes an RA-synthesizing enzyme, in the gonad rather than in the mesonephros as in mouse. Germ cells in bipotential gonads of all zebrafish analyzed were labeled by the early meiotic marker sycp3, suggesting that in zebrafish, the onset of meiosis is not sexually dimorphic as it is in mouse and is independent of Stra8, which is required in mouse but was lost in teleosts. Analysis of dead-end knockdown zebrafish depleted of germ cells revealed the germ cell-independent onset and maintenance of gonadal aldh1a2 and cyp26a1 expression. After meiosis initiated, somatic cell expression of cyp26a1 became sexually dimorphic: up-regulated in testes but not ovaries. Meiotic germ cells expressing the synaptonemal complex gene sycp3 occupied islands of somatic cells that lacked cyp26a1 expression, as predicted by the hypothesis that Cyp26a1 acts as a meiosis-inhibiting factor. Consistent with this hypothesis, females up-regulated cyp26a1 in oocytes that entered prophase-I meiotic arrest, and down-regulated cyp26a1 in oocytes resuming meiosis. Co-expression of cyp26a1 and the pluripotent germ cell stem cell marker pou5f1(oct4) in meiotically arrested oocytes was consistent with roles in mouse to promote germ cell survival and to prevent apoptosis, mechanisms that are central for tipping the sexual fate of gonads towards the female

  4. Specification of epibranchial placodes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nechiporuk, Alexei; Linbo, Tor; Poss, Kenneth D; Raible, David W

    2007-02-01

    In all vertebrates, the neurogenic placodes are transient ectodermal thickenings that give rise to sensory neurons of the cranial ganglia. Epibranchial (EB) placodes generate neurons of the distal facial, glossopharyngeal and vagal ganglia, which convey sensation from the viscera, including pharyngeal endoderm structures, to the CNS. Recent studies have implicated signals from pharyngeal endoderm in the initiation of neurogenesis from EB placodes; however, the signals underlying the formation of placodes are unknown. Here, we show that zebrafish embryos mutant for fgf3 and fgf8 do not express early EB placode markers, including foxi1 and pax2a. Mosaic analysis demonstrates that placodal cells must directly receive Fgf signals during a specific crucial period of development. Transplantation experiments and mutant analysis reveal that cephalic mesoderm is the source of Fgf signals. Finally, both Fgf3 and Fgf8 are sufficient to induce foxi1-positive placodal precursors in wild-type as well as Fgf3-plus Fgf8-depleted embryos. We propose a model in which mesoderm-derived Fgf3 and Fgf8 signals establish both the EB placodes and the development of the pharyngeal endoderm, the subsequent interaction of which promotes neurogenesis. The coordinated interplay between craniofacial tissues would thus assure proper spatial and temporal interactions in the shaping of the vertebrate head.

  5. Zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Homechaudhuri, Sumit; Stewart, Adam Michael; Collier, Adam D; Kaluyeva, Aleksandra A; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Yingcong; Chen, Peirong; Wang, JiaJia; Yang, Lei; Mitra, Anisa; Pal, Subharthi; Chaudhuri, Adwitiya; Roy, Anwesha; Biswas, Missidona; Roy, Dola; Podder, Anupam; Poudel, Manoj K; Katare, Deepshikha P; Mani, Ruchi J; Kyzar, Evan J; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as an important model organism for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research. The behavioral/phenotypic complexity of zebrafish allows for thorough dissection of complex human brain disorders and drug-evoked pathological states. As numerous zebrafish models become available with a wide spectrum of behavioral, genetic, and environmental methods to test novel drugs, here we discuss recent zebrafish phenomics methods to facilitate drug discovery, particularly in the field of biological psychiatry. Additionally, behavioral, neurological, and endocrine endpoints are becoming increasingly well-characterized in zebrafish, making them an inexpensive, robust and effective model for toxicology research and pharmacological screening. We also discuss zebrafish behavioral phenotypes, experimental considerations, pharmacological candidates and relevance of zebrafish neurophenomics to other 'omics' (e.g., genomic, proteomic) approaches. Finally, we critically evaluate the limitations of utilizing this model organism, and outline future strategies of research in the field of zebrafish phenomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can Zebrafish be used to Identify Developmentally Neurotoxic Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Can Zebrafish be Used to Identify Developmentally Neurotoxic Chemicals? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. We are exploring behavioral methods using zebrafish by desig...

  7. Dissecting the chromatin interactome of microRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dijun; Fu, Liang-Yu; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Guoliang; Zhang, Hang; Jiang, Li; Harrison, Andrew P; Shanahan, Hugh P; Klukas, Christian; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Ruan, Yijun; Chen, Ling-Ling; Chen, Ming

    2014-03-01

    Our knowledge of the role of higher-order chromatin structures in transcription of microRNA genes (MIRs) is evolving rapidly. Here we investigate the effect of 3D architecture of chromatin on the transcriptional regulation of MIRs. We demonstrate that MIRs have transcriptional features that are similar to protein-coding genes. RNA polymerase II-associated ChIA-PET data reveal that many groups of MIRs and protein-coding genes are organized into functionally compartmentalized chromatin communities and undergo coordinated expression when their genomic loci are spatially colocated. We observe that MIRs display widespread communication in those transcriptionally active communities. Moreover, miRNA-target interactions are significantly enriched among communities with functional homogeneity while depleted from the same community from which they originated, suggesting MIRs coordinating function-related pathways at posttranscriptional level. Further investigation demonstrates the existence of spatial MIR-MIR chromatin interacting networks. We show that groups of spatially coordinated MIRs are frequently from the same family and involved in the same disease category. The spatial interaction network possesses both common and cell-specific subnetwork modules that result from the spatial organization of chromatin within different cell types. Together, our study unveils an entirely unexplored layer of MIR regulation throughout the human genome that links the spatial coordination of MIRs to their co-expression and function.

  8. The functional interactome landscape of the human histone deacetylase family

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Preeti; Greco, Todd M; Guise, Amanda J; Luo, Yang; Yu, Fang; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Cristea, Ileana M

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a diverse family of essential transcriptional regulatory enzymes, that function through the spatial and temporal recruitment of protein complexes. As the composition and regulation of HDAC complexes are only partially characterized, we built the first global protein interaction network for all 11 human HDACs in T cells. Integrating fluorescence microscopy, immunoaffinity purifications, quantitative mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, we identified over 200 unreported interactions for both well-characterized and lesser-studied HDACs, a subset of which were validated by orthogonal approaches. We establish HDAC11 as a member of the survival of motor neuron complex and pinpoint a functional role in mRNA splicing. We designed a complementary label-free and metabolic-labeling mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy for profiling interaction stability among different HDAC classes, revealing that HDAC1 interactions within chromatin-remodeling complexes are largely stable, while transcription factors preferentially exist in rapid equilibrium. Overall, this study represents a valuable resource for investigating HDAC functions in health and disease, encompassing emerging themes of HDAC regulation in cell cycle and RNA processing and a deeper functional understanding of HDAC complex stability. PMID:23752268

  9. Characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana 2-Cys peroxiredoxin interactome.

    PubMed

    Cerveau, Delphine; Kraut, Alexandra; Stotz, Henrik U; Mueller, Martin J; Couté, Yohann; Rey, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-dependent peroxidases for which chaperone and signaling roles have been reported in various types of organisms in recent years. In plants, the peroxidase function of the two typical plastidial 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys PRX A and B) has been highlighted while the other functions, particularly in ROS-dependent signaling pathways, are still elusive notably due to the lack of knowledge of interacting partners. Using an ex vivo approach based on co-immunoprecipitation of leaf extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and mutant plants lacking 2-Cys PRX expression followed by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, 158 proteins were found associated with 2-Cys PRXs. Already known partners like thioredoxin-related electron donors (Chloroplastic Drought-induced Stress Protein of 32kDa, Atypical Cysteine Histidine-rich Thioredoxin 2) and enzymes involved in chlorophyll synthesis (Protochlorophyllide OxidoReductase B) or carbon metabolism (Fructose-1,6-BisPhosphatase) were identified, validating the relevance of the approach. Bioinformatic and bibliographic analyses allowed the functional classification of the identified proteins and revealed that more than 40% are localized in plastids. The possible roles of plant 2-Cys PRXs in redox signaling pathways are discussed in relation with the functions of the potential partners notably those involved in redox homeostasis, carbon and amino acid metabolisms as well as chlorophyll biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Light signaling to the zebrafish circadian clock by Cryptochrome 1a

    PubMed Central

    Tamai, T. Katherine; Young, Lucy C.; Whitmore, David

    2007-01-01

    Zebrafish tissues and cells have the unusual feature of not only containing a circadian clock, but also being directly light-responsive. Several zebrafish genes are induced by light, but little is known about their role in clock resetting or the mechanism by which this might occur. Here we show that Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) plays a key role in light entrainment of the zebrafish clock. Intensity and phase response curves reveal a strong correlation between light induction of Cry1a and clock resetting. Overexpression studies show that Cry1a acts as a potent repressor of clock function and mimics the effect of constant light to “stop” the circadian oscillator. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrates that the Cry1a protein interacts directly with specific regions of core clock components, CLOCK and BMAL, blocking their ability to fully dimerize and transactivate downstream targets, providing a likely mechanism for clock resetting. A comparison of entrainment of zebrafish cells to complete versus skeleton photoperiods reveals that clock phase is identical under these two conditions. However, the amplitude of the core clock oscillation is much higher on a complete photoperiod, as are the levels of light-induced Cry1a. We believe that Cry1a acts on the core clock machinery in both a continuous and discrete fashion, leading not only to entrainment, but also to the establishment of a high-amplitude rhythm and even stopping of the clock under long photoperiods. PMID:17785416

  11. Analysis of a Gene Regulatory Cascade Mediating Circadian Rhythm in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haifang; Du, Jiulin; Yan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the study of circadian rhythms, it has been a puzzle how a limited number of circadian clock genes can control diverse aspects of physiology. Here we investigate circadian gene expression genome-wide using larval zebrafish as a model system. We made use of a spatial gene expression atlas to investigate the expression of circadian genes in various tissues and cell types. Comparison of genome-wide circadian gene expression data between zebrafish and mouse revealed a nearly anti-phase relationship and allowed us to detect novel evolutionarily conserved circadian genes in vertebrates. We identified three groups of zebrafish genes with distinct responses to light entrainment: fast light-induced genes, slow light-induced genes, and dark-induced genes. Our computational analysis of the circadian gene regulatory network revealed several transcription factors (TFs) involved in diverse aspects of circadian physiology through transcriptional cascade. Of these, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor a (mitfa), a dark-induced TF, mediates a circadian rhythm of melanin synthesis, which may be involved in zebrafish's adaptation to daily light cycling. Our study describes a systematic method to discover previously unidentified TFs involved in circadian physiology in complex organisms. PMID:23468616

  12. Mixtures, Metabolites, and Mechanisms: Understanding Toxicology Using Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gamse, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For more than 60 years, zebrafish have been used in toxicological studies. Due to their transparency, genetic tractability, and compatibility with high-throughput screens, zebrafish embryos are uniquely suited to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental insults on embryonic development, organ formation and function, and reproductive success. This special issue of Zebrafish highlights the ways zebrafish are used to investigate the toxic effects of endocrine disruptors, pesticides, and heavy metals. PMID:27618129

  13. Mixtures, Metabolites, and Mechanisms: Understanding Toxicology Using Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gamse, Joshua T; Gorelick, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    For more than 60 years, zebrafish have been used in toxicological studies. Due to their transparency, genetic tractability, and compatibility with high-throughput screens, zebrafish embryos are uniquely suited to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental insults on embryonic development, organ formation and function, and reproductive success. This special issue of Zebrafish highlights the ways zebrafish are used to investigate the toxic effects of endocrine disruptors, pesticides, and heavy metals.

  14. Analysis of the STAT3 interactome using in-situ biotinylation and SILAC.

    PubMed

    Blumert, Conny; Kalkhof, Stefan; Brocke-Heidrich, Katja; Kohajda, Tibor; von Bergen, Martin; Horn, Friedemann

    2013-12-06

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated by a variety of cytokines and growth factors. To generate a comprehensive data set of proteins interacting specifically with STAT3, we applied stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). For high-affinity pull-down using streptavidin, we fused STAT3 with a short peptide tag allowing biotinylation in situ (bio-tag), which did not affect STAT3 functions. By this approach, 3642 coprecipitated proteins were detected in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Filtering using statistical and functional criteria finally extracted 136 proteins as putative interaction partners of STAT3. Both, a physical interaction network analysis and the enrichment of known and predicted interaction partners suggested that our filtering criteria successfully enriched true STAT3 interactors. Our approach identified numerous novel interactors, including ones previously predicted to associate with STAT3. By reciprocal coprecipitation, we were able to verify the physical association between STAT3 and selected interactors, including the novel interaction with TOX4, a member of the TOX high mobility group box family. Applying the same method, we next investigated the activation-dependency of the STAT3 interactome. Again, we identified both known and novel interactions. Thus, our approach allows to study protein-protein interaction effectively and comprehensively. The location, activity, function, degradation, and synthesis of proteins are significantly regulated by interactions of proteins with other proteins, biopolymers and small molecules. Thus, the comprehensive characterization of interactions of proteins in a given proteome is the next milestone on the path to understanding the biochemistry of the cell. In order to generate a comprehensive interactome dataset of proteins specifically interacting with a selected bait protein, we fused our bait protein STAT3 with a short peptide tag allowing

  15. Modeling Leukemogenesis in the Zebrafish Using Genetic and Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Vinothkumar; Dellaire, Graham; Berman, Jason N

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish is a widely accepted model to study leukemia. The major advantage of studying leukemogenesis in zebrafish is attributed to its short life cycle and superior imaging capacity. This chapter highlights using transgenic- and xenograft-based models in zebrafish to study a specific leukemogenic mutation and analyze therapeutic responses in vivo.

  16. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  17. Developmental Toxicity of Dextromethorphan in Zebrafish Embryos/Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheng; Williams, Frederick E.; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2012-01-01

    Dextromethorphan is widely used in over-the-counter cough and cold medications. Its efficacy and safety for infants and young children remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to use the zebrafish as a model to investigate the potential toxicity of dextromethorphan during the embryonic and larval development. Three sets of zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to dextromethorphan at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), 48 hpf, and 72 hpf, respectively, during the embryonic/larval development. Compared with the 48 and 72 hpf exposure sets, the embryos/larvae in the 24 hpf exposure set showed much higher mortality rates which increased in a dose-dependent manner. Bradycardia and reduced blood flow were observed for the embryos/larvae treated with increasing concentrations of dextromethorphan. Morphological effects of dextromethorphan exposure, including yolk sac and cardiac edema, craniofacial malformation, lordosis, non-inflated swim bladder, and missing gill, were also more frequent and severe among zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to dextromethorphan at 24 hpf. Whether the more frequent and severe developmental toxicity of dextromethorphan observed among the embryos/larvae in the 24 hpf exposure set, as compared with the 48 and 72 hpf exposure sets, is due to the developmental expression of the Phase I and Phase II enzymes involved in the metabolism of dextromethorphan remains to be clarified. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, nevertheless, revealed developmental stage-dependent expression of mRNAs encoding SULT3 ST1 and SULT3 ST3, two enzymes previously shown to be capable of sulfating dextrorphan, an active metabolite of dextromethorphan. PMID:20737414

  18. Developmental toxicity of dextromethorphan in zebrafish embryos/larvae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Williams, Frederick E; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2011-03-01

    Dextromethorphan is widely used in over-the-counter cough and cold medications. Its efficacy and safety for infants and young children remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to use zebrafish as a model to investigate the potential toxicity of dextromethorphan during embryonic and larval development. Three sets of zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to dextromethorphan at 24, 48 and 72 h post fertilization (hpf), respectively, during the embryonic/larval development. Compared with the 48 and 72 hpf exposure sets, the embryos/larvae in the 24 hpf exposure set showed much higher mortality rates which increased in a dose-dependent manner. Bradycardia and reduced blood flow were observed for the embryos/larvae treated with increasing concentrations of dextromethorphan. Morphological effects of dextromethorphan exposure, including yolk sac and cardiac edema, craniofacial malformation, lordosis, non-inflated swim bladder and missing gill, were also more frequent and severe among zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to dextromethorphan at 24 hpf. Whether the more frequent and severe developmental toxicity of dextromethorphan observed among the embryos/larvae in the 24 hpf exposure set, as compared with the 48 and 72 hpf exposure sets, is due to the developmental expression of the phase I and phase II enzymes involved in the metabolism of dextromethorphan remains to be clarified. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, nevertheless, revealed developmental stage-dependent expression of mRNAs encoding SULT3 ST1 and SULT3 ST3, two enzymes previously shown to be capable of sulfating dextrorphan, an active metabolite of dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Anatomy and ontogeny of a novel hemodynamic organ in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Binelli, Erica A; Luna, Alejandra N; LeClair, Elizabeth E

    2014-12-01

    The zebrafish maxillary barbel can protract and retract in response to stimuli, and appears connected to a prominent blood sinus on the lateral aspect of the maxillary bone. However, the mechanism of barbel movement is not described. Using whole-mount phalloidin staining of the sinus region, we observed long filamentous actin cables, suggesting highly organized vascular smooth muscle cells, surrounding an endothelial chamber. Although the chamber is variably filled by erythrocytes in vivo, cardiac injection of fluorescent dextrans shows that it consistently contains plasma. Full-thickness confocal imaging of dextran-injected adults containing EGFP(+) endothelial cells revealed a vascular complex with three compartments, here named the distal bulb, central chamber, and accessory chamber. The early ontogeny of all three compartments was confirmed in a whole-mount series of Tg(fli1a:EGFP) juveniles. In wild type adults, the fine structure of each chamber was studied using paraffin- and plastic-section histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The distal bulb and central chamber have smooth muscle coats with luminally-elongated septa, forming semi-detached blood-filled lacunae. The central chamber walls and septa are extensively innervated by small, unmyelinated axons, as confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of acetylated tubulin, a component of axonal cytoplasm. The accessory chamber appears neither innervated nor muscularized, but is an endothelial cul-de-sac with a thickened elastic adventitia, suggesting an extensible fluid reservoir. We propose that we have identified a new organ in zebrafish, the maxillary barbel blood sinus, whose neurovascular specializations may contribute to zebrafish sensory biology and appendage control. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A zebrafish model of diabetes mellitus and metabolic memory.

    PubMed

    Intine, Robert V; Olsen, Ansgar S; Sarras, Michael P

    2013-02-28

    Diabetes mellitus currently affects 346 million individuals and this is projected to increase to 400 million by 2030. Evidence from both the laboratory and large scale clinical trials has revealed that diabetic complications progress unimpeded via the phenomenon of metabolic memory even when glycemic control is pharmaceutically achieved. Gene expression can be stably altered through epigenetic changes which not only allow cells and organisms to quickly respond to changing environmental stimuli but also confer the ability of the cell to "memorize" these encounters once the stimulus is removed. As such, the roles that these mechanisms play in the metabolic memory phenomenon are currently being examined. We have recently reported the development of a zebrafish model of type I diabetes mellitus and characterized this model to show that diabetic zebrafish not only display the known secondary complications including the changes associated with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and impaired wound healing but also exhibit impaired caudal fin regeneration. This model is unique in that the zebrafish is capable to regenerate its damaged pancreas and restore a euglycemic state similar to what would be expected in post-transplant human patients. Moreover, multiple rounds of caudal fin amputation allow for the separation and study of pure epigenetic effects in an in vivo system without potential complicating factors from the previous diabetic state. Although euglycemia is achieved following pancreatic regeneration, the diabetic secondary complication of fin regeneration and skin wound healing persists indefinitely. In the case of impaired fin regeneration, this pathology is retained even after multiple rounds of fin regeneration in the daughter fin tissues. These observations point to an underlying epigenetic process existing in the metabolic memory state. Here we present the methods needed to successfully generate the diabetic and metabolic memory groups of fish and

  1. The NRF2-related interactome and regulome contain multifunctional proteins and fine-tuned autoregulatory loops.

    PubMed

    Papp, Diána; Lenti, Katalin; Módos, Dezső; Fazekas, Dávid; Dúl, Zoltán; Türei, Dénes; Földvári-Nagy, László; Nussinov, Ruth; Csermely, Péter; Korcsmáros, Tamás

    2012-06-21

    NRF2 is a well-known, master transcription factor (TF) of oxidative and xenobiotic stress responses. Recent studies uncovered an even wider regulatory role of NRF2 influencing carcinogenesis, inflammation and neurodegeneration. Prompted by these advances here we present a systems-level resource for NRF2 interactome and regulome that includes 289 protein-protein, 7469 TF-DNA and 85 miRNA interactions. As systems-level examples of NRF2-related signaling we identified regulatory loops of NRF2 interacting proteins (e.g., JNK1 and CBP) and a fine-tuned regulatory system, where 35 TFs regulated by NRF2 influence 63 miRNAs that down-regulate NRF2. The presented network and the uncovered regulatory loops may facilitate the development of efficient, NRF2-based therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent Progress in CFTR Interactome Mapping and Its Importance for Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sang Hyun; Legere, Elizabeth-Ann; Snider, Jamie; Stagljar, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel found in secretory epithelia with a plethora of known interacting proteins. Mutations in the CFTR gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease that leads to progressive respiratory illness and other complications of phenotypic variance resulting from perturbations of this protein interaction network. Studying the collection of CFTR interacting proteins and the differences between the interactomes of mutant and wild type CFTR provides insight into the molecular machinery of the disease and highlights possible therapeutic targets. This mini review focuses on functional genomics and proteomics approaches used for systematic, high-throughput identification of CFTR-interacting proteins to provide comprehensive insight into CFTR regulation and function.

  3. Ocean plankton. Determinants of community structure in the global plankton interactome.

    PubMed

    Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Faust, Karoline; Henry, Nicolas; Decelle, Johan; Colin, Sébastien; Carcillo, Fabrizio; Chaffron, Samuel; Ignacio-Espinosa, J Cesar; Roux, Simon; Vincent, Flora; Bittner, Lucie; Darzi, Youssef; Wang, Jun; Audic, Stéphane; Berline, Léo; Bontempi, Gianluca; Cabello, Ana M; Coppola, Laurent; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; d'Ovidio, Francesco; De Meester, Luc; Ferrera, Isabel; Garet-Delmas, Marie-José; Guidi, Lionel; Lara, Elena; Pesant, Stéphane; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Salazar, Guillem; Sánchez, Pablo; Sebastian, Marta; Souffreau, Caroline; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Gorsky, Gabriel; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Acinas, Silvia G; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Bork, Peer; Sullivan, Matthew B; Karsenti, Eric; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-05-22

    Species interaction networks are shaped by abiotic and biotic factors. Here, as part of the Tara Oceans project, we studied the photic zone interactome using environmental factors and organismal abundance profiles and found that environmental factors are incomplete predictors of community structure. We found associations across plankton functional types and phylogenetic groups to be nonrandomly distributed on the network and driven by both local and global patterns. We identified interactions among grazers, primary producers, viruses, and (mainly parasitic) symbionts and validated network-generated hypotheses using microscopy to confirm symbiotic relationships. We have thus provided a resource to support further research on ocean food webs and integrating biological components into ocean models. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Interactome analysis of longitudinal pharyngeal infection of cynomolgus macaques by group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Shea, Patrick R; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Kupko, John J; Porcella, Stephen F; Barry, William T; Wright, Fred A; Kobayashi, Scott D; Carmody, Aaron; Ireland, Robin M; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Ricklefs, Stacy M; Babar, Imran; Johnson, Claire A; Graham, Morag R; Gardner, Donald J; Bailey, John R; Parnell, Michael J; Deleo, Frank R; Musser, James M

    2010-03-09

    Relatively little is understood about the dynamics of global host-pathogen transcriptome changes that occur during bacterial infection of mucosal surfaces. To test the hypothesis that group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection of the oropharynx provokes a distinct host transcriptome response, we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis using a nonhuman primate model of experimental pharyngitis. We also identified host and pathogen biological processes and individual host and pathogen gene pairs with correlated patterns of expression, suggesting interaction. For this study, 509 host genes and seven biological pathways were differentially expressed throughout the entire 32-day infection cycle. GAS infection produced an initial widespread significant decrease in expression of many host genes, including those involved in cytokine production, vesicle formation, metabolism, and signal transduction. This repression lasted until day 4, at which time a large increase in expression of host genes was observed, including those involved in protein translation, antigen presentation, and GTP-mediated signaling. The interactome analysis identified 73 host and pathogen gene pairs with correlated expression levels. We discovered significant correlations between transcripts of GAS genes involved in hyaluronic capsule production and host endocytic vesicle formation, GAS GTPases and host fibrinolytic genes, and GAS response to interaction with neutrophils. We also identified a strong signal, suggesting interaction between host gammadelta T cells and genes in the GAS mevalonic acid synthesis pathway responsible for production of isopentenyl-pyrophosphate, a short-chain phospholipid that stimulates these T cells. Taken together, our results are unique in providing a comprehensive understanding of the host-pathogen interactome during mucosal infection by a bacterial pathogen.

  5. A comparative study of disease genes and drug targets in the human protein interactome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Disease genes cause or contribute genetically to the development of the most complex diseases. Drugs are the major approaches to treat the complex disease through interacting with their targets. Thus, drug targets are critical for treatment efficacy. However, the interrelationship between the disease genes and drug targets is not clear. Results In this study, we comprehensively compared the network properties of disease genes and drug targets for five major disease categories (cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system disease, metabolic disease, and nervous system disease). We first collected disease genes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for five disease categories and collected their corresponding drugs based on drugs' Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Then, we obtained the drug targets for these five different disease categories. We found that, though the intersections between disease genes and drug targets were small, disease genes were significantly enriched in targets compared to their enrichment in human protein-coding genes. We further compared network properties of the proteins encoded by disease genes and drug targets in human protein-protein interaction networks (interactome). The results showed that the drug targets tended to have higher degree, higher betweenness, and lower clustering coefficient in cancer Furthermore, we observed a clear fraction increase of disease proteins or drug targets in the near neighborhood compared with the randomized genes. Conclusions The study presents the first comprehensive comparison of the disease genes and drug targets in the context of interactome. The results provide some foundational network characteristics for further designing computational strategies to predict novel drug targets and drug repurposing. PMID:25861037

  6. A comparative study of disease genes and drug targets in the human protein interactome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Zhu, Kevin; Zheng, W; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Disease genes cause or contribute genetically to the development of the most complex diseases. Drugs are the major approaches to treat the complex disease through interacting with their targets. Thus, drug targets are critical for treatment efficacy. However, the interrelationship between the disease genes and drug targets is not clear. In this study, we comprehensively compared the network properties of disease genes and drug targets for five major disease categories (cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system disease, metabolic disease, and nervous system disease). We first collected disease genes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for five disease categories and collected their corresponding drugs based on drugs' Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Then, we obtained the drug targets for these five different disease categories. We found that, though the intersections between disease genes and drug targets were small, disease genes were significantly enriched in targets compared to their enrichment in human protein-coding genes. We further compared network properties of the proteins encoded by disease genes and drug targets in human protein-protein interaction networks (interactome). The results showed that the drug targets tended to have higher degree, higher betweenness, and lower clustering coefficient in cancer Furthermore, we observed a clear fraction increase of disease proteins or drug targets in the near neighborhood compared with the randomized genes. The study presents the first comprehensive comparison of the disease genes and drug targets in the context of interactome. The results provide some foundational network characteristics for further designing computational strategies to predict novel drug targets and drug repurposing.

  7. Identification of Human Disease Genes from Interactome Network Using Graphlet Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lun; Wei, Dong-Qing; Qi, Ying-Xin; Jiang, Zong-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Identifying genes related to human diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, etc., is an important task in biomedical research because of its applications in disease diagnosis and treatment. Interactome networks, especially protein-protein interaction networks, had been used to disease genes identification based on the hypothesis that strong candidate genes tend to closely relate to each other in some kinds of measure on the network. We proposed a new measure to analyze the relationship between network nodes which was called graphlet interaction. The graphlet interaction contained 28 different isomers. The results showed that the numbers of the graphlet interaction isomers between disease genes in interactome networks were significantly larger than random picked genes, while graphlet signatures were not. Then, we designed a new type of score, based on the network properties, to identify disease genes using graphlet interaction. The genes with higher scores were more likely to be disease genes, and all candidate genes were ranked according to their scores. Then the approach was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The precision of the current approach achieved 90% at about 10% recall, which was apparently higher than the previous three predominant algorithms, random walk, Endeavour and neighborhood based method. Finally, the approach was applied to predict new disease genes related to 4 common diseases, most of which were identified by other independent experimental researches. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the graphlet interaction is an effective tool to analyze the network properties of disease genes, and the scores calculated by graphlet interaction is more precise in identifying disease genes. PMID:24465923

  8. Altered Protein Interactions of the Endogenous Interactome of PTPIP51 towards MAPK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brobeil, Alexander; Chehab, Rajaa; Dietel, Eric; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Wimmer, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions play a pivotal role in normal cellular functions as well as in carcinogenesis. The protein–protein interactions form functional clusters during signal transduction. To elucidate the fine calibration of the protein–protein interactions of protein tyrosine phosphatase interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51) a small molecule drug, namely LDC-3, directly targeting PTPIP51 is now available. Therefore, LDC-3 allows for the studying of the regulation of the endogenous interactome by modulating PTPIP51 binding capacity. Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) experiments show that the modification in PTPIP51 binding capacity is induced by LDC-3. Application of LDC-3 annuls the known regulatory phosphorylation mechanisms for PTPIP51 and consequently, significantly alters the assembly of the PTPIP51 associated protein complexes. The treatment of human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) with LDC-3 induces an altered protein–protein interaction profile of the endogenous interactome of PTPIP51. In addition, LDC-3 stabilizes PTPIP51 within a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) complex composed of Raf-1 and the scaffold protein 14-3-3, independent of the phosphorylation status of PTPIP51. Of note, under LDC-3 treatment the regulatory function of the PTP1B on PTPIP51 fails to impact the PTPIP51 interaction characteristics, as reported for the HaCaT cell line. In summary, LDC-3 gives the unique opportunity to directly modulate PTPIP51 in malignant cells, thus targeting potential dysregulated signal transduction pathways such as the MAPK cascade. The provided data give critical insights in the therapeutic potential of PTPIP51 protein interactions and thus are basic for possible targeted therapy regimens. PMID:28754031

  9. Expression and activity profiling of the steroidogenic enzymes of glucocorticoid biosynthesis and the fdx1 co-factors in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Weger, M; Diotel, N; Weger, B D; Beil, T; Zaucker, A; Eachus, H L; Oakes, J A; do Rego, J L; Storbeck, K-H; Gut, P; Strähle, U; Rastegar, S; Müller, F; Krone, N

    2018-04-01

    The spatial and temporal expression of steroidogenic genes in zebrafish has not been fully characterised. Because zebrafish are increasingly employed in endocrine and stress research, a better characterisation of steroidogenic pathways is required to target specific steps in the biosynthetic pathways. In the present study, we have systematically defined the temporal and spatial expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in glucocorticoid biosynthesis (cyp21a2, cyp11c1, cyp11a1, cyp11a2, cyp17a1, cyp17a2, hsd3b1, hsd3b2), as well as the mitochondrial electron-providing ferredoxin co-factors (fdx1, fdx1b), during zebrafish development. Our studies showed an early expression of all these genes during embryogenesis. In larvae, expression of cyp11a2, cyp11c1, cyp17a2, cyp21a2, hsd3b1 and fdx1b can be detected in the interrenal gland, which is the zebrafish counterpart of the mammalian adrenal gland, whereas the fdx1 transcript is mainly found in the digestive system. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridisation in the adult zebrafish brain revealed a wide expression of these genes throughout the encephalon, including neurogenic regions. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to demonstrate the presence of the glucocorticoid cortisol in the adult zebrafish brain. Moreover, we demonstrate de novo biosynthesis of cortisol and the neurosteroid tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone in the adult zebrafish brain from radiolabelled pregnenolone. Taken together, the present study comprises a comprehensive characterisation of the steroidogenic genes and the fdx co-factors facilitating glucocorticoid biosynthesis in zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide additional evidence of de novo neurosteroid biosynthesising in the brain of adult zebrafish facilitated by enzymes involved in glucocorticoid biosynthesis. Our study provides a valuable source for establishing the zebrafish as a

  10. Production of Androgenetic Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Corley-Smith, G. E.; Lim, C. J.; Brandhorst, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    To help investigate the evolutionary origin of the imprinting (parent-of-origin mono-allelic expression) of paternal genes observed in mammals, we constructed haploid and diploid androgenetic zebrafish (Danio rerio). Haploid androgenotes were produced by fertilizing eggs that had been X-ray irradiated to eliminate the maternal genome. Subsequent inhibition of the first mitotic division of haploid androgenotes by heat shock produced diploid androgenotes. The lack of inheritance of maternal-specific DNA markers (RAPD and SSR) by putative diploid and haploid androgenotes confirmed the androgenetic origin of their genomes. Marker analysis was performed on 18 putative androgenotes (five diploids and 13 haploids) from six families. None of 157 maternal-specific RAPD markers analyzed, some of which were apparently homozygous, were passed on to any of these putative androgenotes. A mean of 7.7 maternal-specific markers were assessed per family. The survival of androgenetic zebrafish suggests that if paternal imprinting occurs in zebrafish, it does not result in essential genes being inactivated when their expression is required for development. Production of haploid androgenotes can be used to determine the meiotic recombination rate in male zebrafish. Androgenesis may also provide useful information about the mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish. PMID:8846903

  11. The zebrafish genome: a review and msx gene case study.

    PubMed

    Postlethwait, J H

    2006-01-01

    Zebrafish is one of several important teleost models for understanding principles of vertebrate developmental, molecular, organismal, genetic, evolutionary, and genomic biology. Efficient investigation of the molecular genetic basis of induced mutations depends on knowledge of the zebrafish genome. Principles of zebrafish genomic analysis, including gene mapping, ortholog identification, conservation of syntenies, genome duplication, and evolution of duplicate gene function are discussed here using as a case study the zebrafish msxa, msxb, msxc, msxd, and msxe genes, which together constitute zebrafish orthologs of tetrapod Msx1, Msx2, and Msx3. Genomic analysis suggests orthologs for this difficult to understand group of paralogs.

  12. Growth differentiation factor 9 and its spatiotemporal expression and regulation in the zebrafish ovary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Ge, Wei

    2007-02-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily. As an oocyte-specific growth factor, GDF9 plays critical roles in controlling folliculogenesis in mammals. In the present study, we cloned a 2.1-kb cDNA of the zebrafish GDF9 homolog (Gdf9, gdf9), which shares approximately 60% homology with that of mammals in the mature region. RT-PCR analysis showed that zebrafish gdf9 expression was present only in the gonads and Northern blot analysis revealed a single transcript of about 2.0 kb in the ovary. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that gdf9 expression was highest in primary growth (PG, stage I) follicles and gradually decreased during follicular development, with the lowest level being found in fully grown (FG) follicles. The expression of gdf9 was maintained through fertilization and early embryonic development until gastrulation, at which point the expression level dramatically decreased. Expression was barely detectable after the late gastrula stage. Within the follicle, gdf9 mRNA was localized exclusively in the oocytes, as demonstrated by RT-PCR of denuded oocytes and freshly isolated follicle layers as well as by in situ hybridization. Interestingly, when amplified for high numbers of cycles, the expression of gdf9 was detected in cultured zebrafish follicular cells that were free of oocytes. The expression of gdf9 was downregulated by hCG in both ovarian fragments and isolated follicles in dose- and time-dependent manners, and this inhibition appeared to be stage-dependent, with the strongest inhibition observed for the FG follicles and no effect seen for the PG follicles. This correlates well with the expression profile of the LH receptor (lhcgr) in zebrafish follicles. In conclusion, as an oocyte-derived growth factor, GDF9 is highly conserved across vertebrates. With its biological advantages, zebrafish provides an alternative model for studying gene function and regulation.

  13. Using Zebrafish Models of Human Influenza A Virus Infections to Screen Antiviral Drugs and Characterize Host Immune Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Con; Jurcyzszak, Denise; Goody, Michelle F; Gabor, Kristin A; Longfellow, Jacob R; Millard, Paul J; Kim, Carol H

    2017-01-20

    Each year, seasonal influenza outbreaks profoundly affect societies worldwide. In spite of global efforts, influenza remains an intractable healthcare burden. The principle strategy to curtail infections is yearly vaccination. In individuals who have contracted influenza, antiviral drugs can mitigate symptoms. There is a clear and unmet need to develop alternative strategies to combat influenza. Several animal models have been created to model host-influenza interactions. Here, protocols for generating zebrafish models for systemic and localized human influenza A virus (IAV) infection are described. Using a systemic IAV infection model, small molecules with potential antiviral activity can be screened. As a proof-of-principle, a protocol that demonstrates the efficacy of the antiviral drug Zanamivir in IAV-infected zebrafish is described. It shows how disease phenotypes can be quantified to score the relative efficacy of potential antivirals in IAV-infected zebrafish. In recent years, there has been increased appreciation for the critical role neutrophils play in the human host response to influenza infection. The zebrafish has proven to be an indispensable model for the study of neutrophil biology, with direct impacts on human medicine. A protocol to generate a localized IAV infection in the Tg(mpx:mCherry) zebrafish line to study neutrophil biology in the context of a localized viral infection is described. Neutrophil recruitment to localized infection sites provides an additional quantifiable phenotype for assessing experimental manipulations that may have therapeutic applications. Both zebrafish protocols described faithfully recapitulate aspects of human IAV infection. The zebrafish model possesses numerous inherent advantages, including high fecundity, optical clarity, amenability to drug screening, and availability of transgenic lines, including those in which immune cells such as neutrophils are labeled with fluorescent proteins. The protocols detailed here

  14. Distinct interactions of Sox5 and Sox10 in fate specification of pigment cells in medaka and zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Yusuke; Takada, Hiroyuki; Miyadai, Motohiro; Adachi, Tomoko; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Hara, Ikuyo; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Hibi, Masahiko

    2018-01-01

    Mechanisms generating diverse cell types from multipotent progenitors are fundamental for normal development. Pigment cells are derived from multipotent neural crest cells and their diversity in teleosts provides an excellent model for studying mechanisms controlling fate specification of distinct cell types. Zebrafish have three types of pigment cells (melanocytes, iridophores and xanthophores) while medaka have four (three shared with zebrafish, plus leucophores), raising questions about how conserved mechanisms of fate specification of each pigment cell type are in these fish. We have previously shown that the Sry-related transcription factor Sox10 is crucial for fate specification of pigment cells in zebrafish, and that Sox5 promotes xanthophores and represses leucophores in a shared xanthophore/leucophore progenitor in medaka. Employing TILLING, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, we generated medaka and zebrafish sox5 and sox10 mutants and conducted comparative analyses of their compound mutant phenotypes. We show that specification of all pigment cells, except leucophores, is dependent on Sox10. Loss of Sox5 in Sox10-defective fish partially rescued the formation of all pigment cells in zebrafish, and melanocytes and iridophores in medaka, suggesting that Sox5 represses Sox10-dependent formation of these pigment cells, similar to their interaction in mammalian melanocyte specification. In contrast, in medaka, loss of Sox10 acts cooperatively with Sox5, enhancing both xanthophore reduction and leucophore increase in sox5 mutants. Misexpression of Sox5 in the xanthophore/leucophore progenitors increased xanthophores and reduced leucophores in medaka. Thus, the mode of Sox5 function in xanthophore specification differs between medaka (promoting) and zebrafish (repressing), which is also the case in adult fish. Our findings reveal surprising diversity in even the mode of the interactions between Sox5 and Sox10 governing specification of pigment cell types in

  15. Zebrafish collagen XII is present in embryonic connective tissue sheaths (fascia) and basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Bader, Hannah L; Keene, Douglas R; Charvet, Benjamin; Veit, Guido; Driever, Wolfgang; Koch, Manuel; Ruggiero, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Connective tissues ensure the cohesion of the tissues of the body, but also form specialized structures such as tendon and bone. Collagen XII may enhance the stability of connective tissues by bridging collagen fibrils, but its function is still unclear. Here, we used the zebrafish model to visualize its expression pattern in the whole organism. The zebrafish col12a1 gene is homologous to the small isoform of the tetrapod col12a1 gene. In agreement with the biochemical data reported for the small isoform, the zebrafish collagen XII alpha1 chain was characterized as a collagenase sensitive band migrating at approximately 200 kDa. Using newly generated polyclonal antibodies and anti-sense probes, we performed a comprehensive analysis of its expression in developing zebrafish. Collagen XII exhibited a much broader expression pattern than previously thought: it was ubiquitously expressed in the connective tissue sheaths (fascia) that encase the tissues and organs of the body. For example, it was found in sclera, meninges, epimysia and horizontal and vertical myosepta. Collagen XII was also detected in head mesenchyme, pharyngeal arches and within the spinal cord, where it was first expressed within and then at the lateral borders of the floor plate and at the dorsal midline. Furthermore, double immunofluorescence staining with laminin and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that collagen XII is associated with basement membranes. These data suggest that collagen XII is implicated in tissue cohesion by stabilizing fascia and by linking fascia to basement membranes.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the early developmental stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Praveen Kumar, M K; Shyama, S K; Kashif, Shamim; Dubey, S K; Avelyno, D'costa; Sonaye, B H; Kadam Samit, B; Chaubey, R C

    2017-08-01

    The zebrafish is gaining importance as a popular vertebrate model organism and is widely employed in ecotoxicological studies, especially for the biomonitoring of pollution in water bodies. There is limited data on the genetic mechanisms governing the adverse health effects in regards to an early developmental exposure to gamma radiation. In the present study zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10Gy of gamma radiation at 3h post fertilization (hpf). Different developmental toxicity endpoints were investigated. Further, expression of genes associated with the development and DNA damage i.e. (sox2 sox19a and p53) were evaluated using Quantitative PCR (qPCR). The significant changes in the expression of sox2 sox19a and p53 genes were observed. This data was supported the developmental defects observed in the zebrafish embryo exposed to gamma radiation such as i.e. increased DNA damage, decreased hatching rate, increase in median hatching time, decreased body length, increased mortality rate, increased morphological deformities. Further, study shows that the potential ecotoxicological threat of gamma radiation on the early developmental stages of zebrafish. Further, it revealed that the above parameters can be used as predictive biomarkers of gamma radiation exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Disruption of Epithalamic Left-Right Asymmetry Increases Anxiety in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Facchin, Lucilla; Duboué, Erik R; Halpern, Marnie E

    2015-12-02

    Differences between the left and right sides of the brain are found throughout the animal kingdom, but the consequences of altered neural asymmetry are not well understood. In the zebrafish epithalamus, the parapineal is located on the left side of the brain where it influences development of the adjacent dorsal habenular (dHb) nucleus, causing the left and right dHb to differ in their organization, gene expression, and connectivity. Left-right (L-R) reversal of parapineal position and dHb asymmetry occurs spontaneously in a small percentage of the population, whereas the dHb develop symmetrically following experimental ablation of the parapineal. The habenular region was previously implicated in modulating fear in both mice and zebrafish, but the relevance of its L-R asymmetry is unclear. We now demonstrate that disrupting directionality of the zebrafish epithalamus causes reduced exploratory behavior and increased cortisol levels, indicative of enhanced anxiety. Accordingly, exposure to buspirone, an anxiolytic agent, significantly suppresses atypical behavior. Axonal projections from the parapineal to the dHb are more variable when it is located on the right side of the brain, revealing that L-R reversals do not necessarily represent a neuroanatomical mirror image. The results highlight the importance of directional asymmetry of the epithalamus in the regulation of stress responses in zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515847-13$15.00/0.

  18. Using Zebrafish to Test the Genetic Basis of Human Craniofacial Diseases.

    PubMed

    Machado, R Grecco; Eames, B Frank

    2017-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) opened an innovative and productive avenue to investigate the molecular basis of human craniofacial disease. However, GWASs identify candidate genes only; they do not prove that any particular one is the functional villain underlying disease or just an unlucky genomic bystander. Genetic manipulation of animal models is the best approach to reveal which genetic loci identified from human GWASs are functionally related to specific diseases. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential of zebrafish to resolve which candidate genetic loci are mechanistic drivers of craniofacial diseases. Many anatomic, embryonic, and genetic features of craniofacial development are conserved among zebrafish and mammals, making zebrafish a good model of craniofacial diseases. Also, the ability to manipulate gene function in zebrafish was greatly expanded over the past 20 y, enabling systems such as Gateway Tol2 and CRISPR-Cas9 to test gain- and loss-of-function alleles identified from human GWASs in coding and noncoding regions of DNA. With the optimization of genetic editing methods, large numbers of candidate genes can be efficiently interrogated. Finding the functional villains that underlie diseases will permit new treatments and prevention strategies and will increase understanding of how gene pathways operate during normal development.

  19. Seeing the whole picture: A comprehensive imaging approach to functional mapping of circuits in behaving zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Feierstein, C E; Portugues, R; Orger, M B

    2015-06-18

    In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as an appealing model system to tackle questions relating to the neural circuit basis of behavior. This can be attributed not just to the growing use of genetically tractable model organisms, but also in large part to the rapid advances in optical techniques for neuroscience, which are ideally suited for application to the small, transparent brain of the larval fish. Many characteristic features of vertebrate brains, from gross anatomy down to particular circuit motifs and cell-types, as well as conserved behaviors, can be found in zebrafish even just a few days post fertilization, and, at this early stage, the physical size of the brain makes it possible to analyze neural activity in a comprehensive fashion. In a recent study, we used a systematic and unbiased imaging method to record the pattern of activity dynamics throughout the whole brain of larval zebrafish during a simple visual behavior, the optokinetic response (OKR). This approach revealed the broadly distributed network of neurons that were active during the behavior and provided insights into the fine-scale functional architecture in the brain, inter-individual variability, and the spatial distribution of behaviorally relevant signals. Combined with mapping anatomical and functional connectivity, targeted electrophysiological recordings, and genetic labeling of specific populations, this comprehensive approach in zebrafish provides an unparalleled opportunity to study complete circuits in a behaving vertebrate animal. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. High-Resolution Tissue Doppler Imaging of the Zebrafish Heart During Its Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Han; Shih, Cho-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The human heart cannot regenerate after injury, whereas the adult zebrafish can fully regenerate its heart even after 20% of the ventricle is amputated. Many studies have begun to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this regenerative process, which have exciting implications for human cardiac diseases. However, the dynamic functions of the zebrafish heart during regeneration are not yet understood. This study established a high-resolution echocardiography for tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the zebrafish heart to explore the cardiac functions during different regeneration phases. Experiments were performed on AB-line adult zebrafish (n=40) in which 15% of the ventricle was surgically removed. An 80-MHz ultrasound TDI based on color M-mode imaging technology was employed. The cardiac flow velocities and patterns from both the ventricular chamber and myocardium were measured at different regeneration phases relative to the day of amputation. The peak velocities of early diastolic inflow, early diastolic myocardial motion, late diastolic myocardial motion, early diastolic deceleration slope, and heart rate were increased at 3 days after the myocardium amputation, but these parameters gradually returned to close to their baseline values for the normal heart at 7 days after amputation. The peak velocities of late diastolic inflow, ventricular systolic outflow, and systolic myocardial motion did not significantly differ during the heart regeneration. PMID:25517185

  1. Screening for angiogenic inhibitors in zebrafish to evaluate a predictive model for developmental vascular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tal, Tamara; Kilty, Claire; Smith, Andrew; LaLone, Carlie; Kennedy, Brendán; Tennant, Alan; McCollum, Catherine W; Bondesson, Maria; Knudsen, Thomas; Padilla, Stephanie; Kleinstreuer, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Chemically-induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development may cause a wide range of adverse effects. To identify putative vascular disrupting chemicals (pVDCs), a predictive pVDC signature was constructed from 124 U.S. EPA ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) assays and used to rank 1060 chemicals for their potential to disrupt vascular development. Thirty-seven compounds were selected for targeted testing in transgenic Tg(kdrl:EGFP) and Tg(fli1:EGFP) zebrafish embryos to identify chemicals that impair developmental angiogenesis. We hypothesized that zebrafish angiogenesis toxicity data would correlate with human cell-based and cell-free in vitro HTS ToxCast data. Univariate statistical associations used to filter HTS data based on correlations with zebrafish angiogenic inhibition in vivo revealed 132 total significant associations, 33 of which were already captured in the pVDC signature, and 689 non-significant assay associations. Correlated assays were enriched in cytokine and extracellular matrix pathways. Taken together, the findings indicate the utility of zebrafish assays to evaluate an HTS-based predictive toxicity signature and also provide an experimental basis for expansion of the pVDC signature with novel HTS assays. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. DNA Damage Response Is Involved in the Developmental Toxicity of Mebendazole in Zebrafish Retina

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Shota; Nishimura, Yuhei; Kon, Tetsuo; Yamanaka, Yukiko; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Okabe, Shiko; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal helminths cause iron-deficiency anemia in pregnant women, associated with premature delivery, low birth weight, maternal ill health, and maternal death. Although benzimidazole compounds such as mebendazole (MBZ) are highly efficacious against helminths, there are limited data on its use during pregnancy. In this study, we performed in vivo imaging of the retinas of zebrafish larvae exposed to MBZ, and found that exposure to MBZ during 2 and 3 days post-fertilization caused malformation of the retinal layers. To identify the molecular mechanism underlying the developmental toxicity of MBZ, we performed transcriptome analysis of zebrafish eyes. The analysis revealed that the DNA damage response was involved in the developmental toxicity of MBZ. We were also able to demonstrate that inhibition of ATM significantly attenuated the apoptosis induced by MBZ in the zebrafish retina. These results suggest that MBZ causes developmental toxicity in the zebrafish retina at least partly by activating the DNA damage response, including ATM signaling, providing a potential adverse outcome pathway in the developmental toxicity of MBZ in mammals. PMID:27014071

  3. Analyzing notochord segmentation and intervertebral disc formation using the twhh:gfp transgenic zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yutaka; Dominique, Vincent J; Du, Shao Jun

    2009-10-01

    To characterize the process of vertebral segmentation and disc formation in living animals, we analyzed tiggy-winkle hedgehog (twhh):green fluorescent protein (gfp) and sonic hedgehog (shh):gfp transgenic zebrafish models that display notochord-specific GFP expression. We found that they showed distinct patterns of expression in the intervertebral discs of late stage fish larvae and adult zebrafish. A segmented pattern of GFP expression was detected in the intervertebral disc of twhh:gfp transgenic fish. In contrast, little GFP expression was found in the intervertebral disc of shh:gfp transgenic fish. Treating twhh:gfp transgenic zebrafish larvae with exogenous retinoic acid (RA), a teratogenic factor on normal development, resulted in disruption of notochord segmentation and formation of oversized vertebrae. Histological analysis revealed that the oversized vertebrae are likely due to vertebral fusion. These studies demonstrate that the twhh:gfp transgenic zebrafish is a useful model for studying vertebral segmentation and disc formation, and moreover, that RA signaling may play a role in this process.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling pathway regulates liver homeostasis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Mei; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Wen-Pin

    2013-04-01

    In mammals, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling controls liver specification and regulates the metabolism of lipids, cholesterol, and bile acids. FGF signaling also promotes hepatocyte proliferation, and helps detoxify hepatotoxin during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. However, the function of Fgf in zebrafish liver is not yet well understood, specifically for postnatal homeostasis. The current study analyzed the expression of fgf receptors (fgfrs) in the liver of zebrafish. We then investigated the function of Fgf signaling in the zebrafish liver by expressing a dominant-negative Fgf receptor in hepatocytes (lfabp:dnfgfr1-egfp, lf:dnfr). Histological analysis showed that our genetic intervention resulted in a small liver size with defected medial expansion of developing livers in transgenic (Tg) larvae. Morphologically, the liver lobe of lf:dnfr adult fish was shorter than that of control. Ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes was observed in fish as young as 3 months. Further examination revealed the development of hepatic steatosis and cholestasis. In adult Tg fish, we unexpectedly observed increased liver-to-body-weight ratios, with higher percentages of proliferating hepatocytes. Considering all these findings, we concluded that as in mammals, in adult zebrafish the metabolism of lipid and bile acids in the liver are regulated by Fgf signaling. Disruption of the Fgf signal-mediated metabolism might indirectly affect hepatocyte proliferation.

  5. Zebrafish Cardiac Muscle Thick Filaments: Isolation Technique and Three-Dimensional Structure

    PubMed Central

    González-Solá, Maryví; AL-Khayat, Hind A.; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. PMID:24739166

  6. Zebrafish cardiac muscle thick filaments: isolation technique and three-dimensional structure.

    PubMed

    González-Solá, Maryví; Al-Khayat, Hind A; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W

    2014-04-15

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An in vivo proteomic analysis of the Me31B interactome in Drosophila germ granules.

    PubMed

    DeHaan, Hunter; McCambridge, Aidan; Armstrong, Brittany; Cruse, Carlie; Solanki, Dhruv; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Arkov, Alexey L; Gao, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Drosophila Me31B is a conserved protein of germ granules, ribonucleoprotein complexes essential for germ cell development. Me31B post-transcriptionally regulates mRNAs by interacting with other germ granule proteins. However, a Me31B interactome is lacking. Here, we use an in vivo proteomics approach to show that the Me31B interactome contains polypeptides from four functional groups: RNA regulatory proteins, glycolytic enzymes, cytoskeleton/motor proteins, and germ plasm components. We further show that Me31B likely colocalizes with the germ plasm components Tudor (Tud), Vasa, and Aubergine in the nuage and germ plasm and provide evidence that Me31B may directly bind to Tud in a symmetrically dimethylated arginine-dependent manner. Our study supports the role of Me31B in RNA regulation and suggests its novel roles in germ granule assembly and function. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Zebrafish heart failure models: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingjuan; Chen, Ru; Zhang, Yu; Yun, Junghwa; Brand-Arzamendi, Koroboshka; Liu, Xiangdong; Wen, Xiao-Yan

    2018-05-03

    Heart failure is a complex pathophysiological syndrome of pumping functional failure that results from injury, infection or toxin-induced damage on the myocardium, as well as genetic influence. Gene mutations associated with cardiomyopathies can lead to various pathologies of heart failure. In recent years, zebrafish, Danio rerio, has emerged as an excellent model to study human cardiovascular diseases such as congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and preclinical development of drugs targeting these diseases. In this review, we will first summarize zebrafish genetic models of heart failure arose from cardiomyopathy, which is caused by mutations in sarcomere, calcium or mitochondrial-associated genes. Moreover, we outline zebrafish heart failure models triggered by chemical compounds. Elucidation of these models will improve the understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis and provide potential targets for novel therapies.

  9. Midline signals regulate retinal neurogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Masai, I; Stemple, D L; Okamoto, H; Wilson, S W

    2000-08-01

    In zebrafish, neuronal differentiation progresses across the retina in a pattern that is reminiscent of the neurogenic wave that sweeps across the developing eye in Drosophila. We show that expression of a zebrafish homolog of Drosophila atonal, ath5, sweeps across the eye predicting the wave of neuronal differentiation. By analyzing the regulation of ath5 expression, we have elucidated the mechanisms that regulate initiation and spread of neurogenesis in the retina. ath5 expression is lost in Nodal pathway mutant embryos lacking axial tissues that include the prechordal plate. A likely role for axial tissue is to induce optic stalk cells that subsequently regulate ath5 expression. Our results suggest that a series of inductive events, initiated from the prechordal plate and progressing from the optic stalks, regulates the spread of neuronal differentiation across the zebrafish retina.

  10. Tributyltin and Zebrafish: Swimming in Dangerous Water

    PubMed Central

    Berto-Júnior, Clemilson; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Soares, Paula; Miranda-Alves, Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Zebrafish has been established as a reliable biological model with important insertion in academy (morphologic, biochemical, and pathophysiological studies) and pharmaceutical industry (toxicology and drug development) due to its molecular complexity and similar systems biology that recapitulate those from other organisms. Considering the toxicological aspects, many efforts using zebrafish models are being done in order to elucidate the effects of endocrine disruptors, and some of them are focused on tributyltin (TBT) and its mechanism of action. TBT is an antifouling agent applied in ship’s hull that is constantly released into the water and absorbed by marine organisms, leading to bioaccumulation and biomagnification effects. Thus, several findings of malformations and changes in the normal biochemical and physiologic aspects of these marine animals have been related to TBT contamination. In the present review, we have compiled the most significant studies related to TBT effects in zebrafish, also taking into consideration the effects found in other study models. PMID:29692757

  11. 15 years of zebrafish chemical screening

    PubMed Central

    Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the first chemical screen using living zebrafish in a multi-well plate was reported. Since then, more than 60 additional screens have been published describing whole-organism drug and pathway discovery projects in zebrafish. To investigate the scope of the work reported in the last 14 years and to identify trends in the field, we analyzed the discovery strategies of 64 primary research articles from the literature. We found that zebrafish screens have expanded beyond the use of developmental phenotypes to include behavioral, cardiac, metabolic, proliferative and regenerative endpoints. Additionally, many creative strategies have been used to uncover the mechanisms of action of new small molecules including chemical phenocopy, genetic phenocopy, mutant rescue, and spatial localization strategies. PMID:25461724

  12. Distinct myocardial lineages break atrial symmetry during cardiogenesis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Oliver; Arnaout, Rima; Guenther, Stefan; Ahuja, Suchit; Uribe, Verónica; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Stainier, Didier YR

    2018-01-01

    The ultimate formation of a four-chambered heart allowing the separation of the pulmonary and systemic circuits was key for the evolutionary success of tetrapods. Complex processes of cell diversification and tissue morphogenesis allow the left and right cardiac compartments to become distinct but remain poorly understood. Here, we describe an unexpected laterality in the single zebrafish atrium analogous to that of the two atria in amniotes, including mammals. This laterality appears to derive from an embryonic antero-posterior asymmetry revealed by the expression of the transcription factor gene meis2b. In adult zebrafish hearts, meis2b expression is restricted to the left side of the atrium where it controls the expression of pitx2c, a regulator of left atrial identity in mammals. Altogether, our studies suggest that the multi-chambered atrium in amniotes arose from a molecular blueprint present before the evolutionary emergence of cardiac septation and provide insights into the establishment of atrial asymmetry. PMID:29762122

  13. Developmental defects in zebrafish for classification of EGF pathway inhibitors

    SciT

    Pruvot, Benoist; Curé, Yoann; Djiotsa, Joachim

    2014-01-15

    One of the major challenges when testing drug candidates targeted at a specific pathway in whole animals is the discrimination between specific effects and unwanted, off-target effects. Here we used the zebrafish to define several developmental defects caused by impairment of Egf signaling, a major pathway of interest in tumor biology. We inactivated Egf signaling by genetically blocking Egf expression or using specific inhibitors of the Egf receptor function. We show that the combined occurrence of defects in cartilage formation, disturbance of blood flow in the trunk and a decrease of myelin basic protein expression represent good indicators for impairmentmore » of Egf signaling. Finally, we present a classification of known tyrosine kinase inhibitors according to their specificity for the Egf pathway. In conclusion, we show that developmental indicators can help to discriminate between specific effects on the target pathway from off-target effects in molecularly targeted drug screening experiments in whole animal systems. - Highlights: • We analyze the functions of Egf signaling on