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Sample records for zebrafish period2 expression

  1. Light directs zebrafish period2 expression via conserved D and E boxes.

    PubMed

    Vatine, Gad; Vallone, Daniela; Appelbaum, Lior; Mracek, Philipp; Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Lahiri, Kajori; Gothilf, Yoav; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2009-10-01

    For most species, light represents the principal environmental signal for entraining the endogenous circadian clock. The zebrafish is a fascinating vertebrate model for studying this process since unlike mammals, direct exposure of most of its tissues to light leads to local clock entrainment. Importantly, light induces the expression of a set of genes including certain clock genes in most zebrafish cell types in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanism linking light to gene expression remains poorly understood. To elucidate this key mechanism, here we focus on how light regulates transcription of the zebrafish period2 (per2) gene. Using transgenic fish and stably transfected cell line-based assays, we define a Light Responsive Module (LRM) within the per2 promoter. The LRM lies proximal to the transcription start site and is both necessary and sufficient for light-driven gene expression and also for a light-dependent circadian clock regulation. Curiously, the LRM sequence is strongly conserved in other vertebrate per2 genes, even in species lacking directly light-sensitive peripheral clocks. Furthermore, we reveal that the human LRM can substitute for the zebrafish LRM to confer light-regulated transcription in zebrafish cells. The LRM contains E- and D-box elements that are critical for its function. While the E-box directs circadian clock regulation by mediating BMAL/CLOCK activity, the D-box confers light-driven expression. The zebrafish homolog of the thyrotroph embryonic factor binds efficiently to the LRM D-box and transactivates expression. We demonstrate that tef mRNA levels are light inducible and that knock-down of tef expression attenuates light-driven transcription from the per2 promoter in vivo. Together, our results support a model where a light-dependent crosstalk between E- and D-box binding factors is a central determinant of per2 expression. These findings extend the general understanding of the mechanism whereby the clock is entrained by light

  2. Expression of Glycosaminoglycan Epitopes During Zebrafish Skeletogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Anthony J; Mitchell, Ruth E; Bashford, Andrew; Reynolds, Scott; Caterson, Bruce; Hammond, Chrissy L

    2013-01-01

    Background: The zebrafish is an important developmental model. Surprisingly, there are few studies that describe the glycosaminoglycan composition of its extracellular matrix during skeletogenesis. Glycosaminoglycans on proteoglycans contribute to the material properties of musculo skeletal connective tissues, and are important in regulating signalling events during morphogenesis. Sulfation motifs within the chain structure of glycosaminoglycans on cell-associated and extracellular matrix proteoglycans allow them to bind and regulate the sequestration/presentation of bioactive signalling molecules important in musculo-skeletal development. Results: We describe the spatio-temporal expression of different glycosaminoglycan moieties during zebrafish skeletogenesis with antibodies recognising (1) native sulfation motifs within chondroitin and keratan sulfate chains, and (2) enzyme-generated neoepitope sequences within the chain structure of chondroitin sulfate (i.e., 0-, 4-, and 6-sulfated isoforms) and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. We show that all the glycosaminoglycan moieties investigated are expressed within the developing skeletal tissues of larval zebrafish. However, subtle changes in their patterns of spatio-temporal expression over the period examined suggest that their expression is tightly and dynamically controlled during development. Conclusions: The subtle differences observed in the domains of expression between different glycosaminoglycan moieties suggest differences in their functional roles during establishment of the primitive analogues of the skeleton. Developmental Dynamics 242:778–789, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Key Findings The developing zebrafish skeleton expresses many different glycosaminoglycan modifications. Multiple different glycosaminoglycan epitopes are dynamically expressed in the craniofacial skeleton. Expression of chondroitin sulfate moieties are dynamically expressed in the vertebral column and precede

  3. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay D; Parnaik, Veena K

    2017-07-01

    Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans. Expression of zlamin A mutations Q291P and M368K in the heart was driven by the zebrafish cardiac troponin T2 promoter. Homozygous mutant embryos displayed nuclear abnormalities in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Expression analysis showed the upregulation of genes involved in heart regeneration in transgenic mutant embryos and a cell proliferation marker was increased in adult heart tissue. At the physiological level, there was deviation of up to 20% from normal heart rate in transgenic embryos expressing mutant lamins. Adult homozygous zebrafish were fertile and did not show signs of early mortality. Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Neuronal expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rohs, Patricia; Ebert, Alicia M; Zuba, Ania; McFarlane, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is important for a host of developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, tissue patterning, and morphogenesis. In vertebrates, FGFs signal through a family of four fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR 1-4), one of which is duplicated in zebrafish (FGFR1). Here we report the mRNA expression of the five known zebrafish fibroblast growth factor receptors at five developmental time points (24, 36, 48, 60, and 72h postfertilization), focusing on expression within the central nervous system. We show that the receptors have distinct and dynamic expression in the developing zebrafish brain, eye, inner ear, lateral line, and pharynx. In many cases, the expression patterns are similar to those of homologous FGFRs in mouse, chicken, amphibians, and other teleosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of sall4 in taste buds of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robyn; Braubach, Oliver R; Bilkey, Jessica; Zhang, Jing; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée; Fine, Alan; Croll, Roger P; Jonz, Michael G

    2013-07-01

    We characterized the expression of sall4, a gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor involved in the maintenance of embryonic stem cells, in taste buds of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Using an enhancer trap line (ET5), we detected enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in developing and adult transgenic zebrafish in regions containing taste buds: the lips, branchial arches, and the nasal and maxillary barbels. Localization of EGFP to taste cells of the branchial arches and lips was confirmed by co-immunolabeling with antibodies against calretinin and serotonin, and a zebrafish-derived neuronal marker (zn-12). Transgenic insertion of the ET construct into the zebrafish genome was evaluated and mapped to chromosome 23 in proximity (i.e. 23 kb) to the sall4 gene. In situ hybridization and expression analysis between 24 and 96 h post-fertilization (hpf) demonstrated that transgenic egfp expression in ET5 zebrafish was correlated with the spatial and temporal pattern of expression of sall4 in the wild-type. Expression was first observed in the central nervous system and branchial arches at 24 hpf. At 48 hpf, sall4 and egfp expression was observed in taste bud primordia surrounding the mouth and branchial arches. At 72 and 96 hpf, expression was detected in the upper and lower lips and branchial arches. Double fluorescence in situ hybridization at 3 and 10 dpf confirmed colocalization of sall4 and egfp in the lips and branchial arches. These studies reveal sall4 expression in chemosensory cells and implicate this transcription factor in the development and renewal of taste epithelia in zebrafish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Chamber Specific Gene Expression Landscape of the Zebrafish Heart

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Angom Ramcharan; Sivadas, Ambily; Sabharwal, Ankit; Vellarikal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Jayarajan, Rijith; Verma, Ankit; Kapoor, Shruti; Joshi, Adita; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    The organization of structure and function of cardiac chambers in vertebrates is defined by chamber-specific distinct gene expression. This peculiarity and uniqueness of the genetic signatures demonstrates functional resolution attributed to the different chambers of the heart. Altered expression of the cardiac chamber genes can lead to individual chamber related dysfunctions and disease patho-physiologies. Information on transcriptional repertoire of cardiac compartments is important to understand the spectrum of chamber specific anomalies. We have carried out a genome wide transcriptome profiling study of the three cardiac chambers in the zebrafish heart using RNA sequencing. We have captured the gene expression patterns of 13,396 protein coding genes in the three cardiac chambers—atrium, ventricle and bulbus arteriosus. Of these, 7,260 known protein coding genes are highly expressed (≥10 FPKM) in the zebrafish heart. Thus, this study represents nearly an all-inclusive information on the zebrafish cardiac transcriptome. In this study, a total of 96 differentially expressed genes across the three cardiac chambers in zebrafish were identified. The atrium, ventricle and bulbus arteriosus displayed 20, 32 and 44 uniquely expressing genes respectively. We validated the expression of predicted chamber-restricted genes using independent semi-quantitative and qualitative experimental techniques. In addition, we identified 23 putative novel protein coding genes that are specifically restricted to the ventricle and not in the atrium or bulbus arteriosus. In our knowledge, these 23 novel genes have either not been investigated in detail or are sparsely studied. The transcriptome identified in this study includes 68 differentially expressing zebrafish cardiac chamber genes that have a human ortholog. We also carried out spatiotemporal gene expression profiling of the 96 differentially expressed genes throughout the three cardiac chambers in 11 developmental stages and 6

  7. HCV IRES-Mediated Core Expression in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Pu; Hu, Zhan-Ying; Tong, Jun-Wei; Ding, Cun-Bao; Peng, Zong-Gen; Zhao, Li-Xun; Song, Dan-Qing; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2013-01-01

    The lack of small animal models for hepatitis C virus has impeded the discovery and development of anti-HCV drugs. HCV-IRES plays an important role in HCV gene expression, and is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. In this study, we report a zebrafish model with a biscistron expression construct that can co-transcribe GFP and HCV-core genes by human hepatic lipase promoter and zebrafish liver fatty acid binding protein enhancer. HCV core translation was designed mediated by HCV-IRES sequence and gfp was by a canonical cap-dependent mechanism. Results of fluorescence image and in situ hybridization indicate that expression of HCV core and GFP is liver-specific; RT-PCR and Western blotting show that both core and gfp expression are elevated in a time-dependent manner for both transcription and translation. It means that the HCV-IRES exerted its role in this zebrafish model. Furthermore, the liver-pathological impact associated with HCV-infection was detected by examination of gene markers and some of them were elevated, such as adiponectin receptor, heparanase, TGF-β, PDGF-α, etc. The model was used to evaluate three clinical drugs, ribavirin, IFNα-2b and vitamin B12. The results show that vitamin B12 inhibited core expression in mRNA and protein levels in dose-dependent manner, but failed to impact gfp expression. Also VB12 down-regulated some gene transcriptions involved in fat liver, liver fibrosis and HCV-associated pathological process in the larvae. It reveals that HCV-IRES responds to vitamin B12 sensitively in the zebrafish model. Ribavirin did not disturb core expression, hinting that HCV-IRES is not a target site of ribavirin. IFNα-2b was not active, which maybe resulted from its degradation in vivo for the long time. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the zebrafish model for screening of anti-HCV drugs targeting to HCV-IRES. The zebrafish system provides a novel evidence of using zebrafish as a HCV model organism. PMID:23469178

  8. Nested Expression Domains for Odorant Receptors in Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weth, Franco; Nadler, Walter; Korsching, Sigrun

    1996-11-01

    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system.

  9. Localization of BDNF expression in the developing brain of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    De Felice, E; Porreca, I; Alleva, E; De Girolamo, P; Ambrosino, C; Ciriaco, E; Germanà, A; Sordino, P

    2014-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is expressed in differentiating and post-mitotic neurons of the zebrafish embryo, where it has been implicated in Huntington's disease. Little is known, however, about the full complement of neuronal cell types that express BDNF in this important vertebrate model. Here, we further explored the transcriptional profiles during the first week of development using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). RT-qPCR results revealed a high level of maternal contribution followed by a steady increase of zygotic transcription, consistent with the notion of a prominent role of BDNF in neuronal maturation and maintenance. Based on WISH, we demonstrate for the first time that BDNF expression in the developing brain of zebrafish is structure specific. Anatomical criteria and co-staining with genetic markers (shh, pax2a, emx1, krox20, lhx2b and lhx9) visualized major topological domains of BDNF-positive cells in the pallium, hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum and optic tectum. Moreover, the relative timing of BDNF transcription in the eye and tectum may illustrate a mechanism for coordinated development of the retinotectal system. Taken together, our results are compatible with a local delivery and early role of BDNF in the developing brain of zebrafish, adding basic knowledge to the study of neurotrophin functions in neural development and disease. PMID:24588510

  10. Localization of BDNF expression in the developing brain of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    De Felice, E; Porreca, I; Alleva, E; De Girolamo, P; Ambrosino, C; Ciriaco, E; Germanà, A; Sordino, P

    2014-05-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is expressed in differentiating and post-mitotic neurons of the zebrafish embryo, where it has been implicated in Huntington's disease. Little is known, however, about the full complement of neuronal cell types that express BDNF in this important vertebrate model. Here, we further explored the transcriptional profiles during the first week of development using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). RT-qPCR results revealed a high level of maternal contribution followed by a steady increase of zygotic transcription, consistent with the notion of a prominent role of BDNF in neuronal maturation and maintenance. Based on WISH, we demonstrate for the first time that BDNF expression in the developing brain of zebrafish is structure specific. Anatomical criteria and co-staining with genetic markers (shh, pax2a, emx1, krox20, lhx2b and lhx9) visualized major topological domains of BDNF-positive cells in the pallium, hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum and optic tectum. Moreover, the relative timing of BDNF transcription in the eye and tectum may illustrate a mechanism for coordinated development of the retinotectal system. Taken together, our results are compatible with a local delivery and early role of BDNF in the developing brain of zebrafish, adding basic knowledge to the study of neurotrophin functions in neural development and disease. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  11. Genome-wide Gene Expression Profiling of Acute Metal Exposures in Male Zebrafish

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-23

    Data in Brief Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish Christine E. Baer a,⁎, Danielle L. Ippolito b, Naissan... Zebrafish Whole organism Nickel Chromium Cobalt Toxicogenomics To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal...toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human

  12. Differential expression of neuroligin genes in the nervous system of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Davey, Crystal; Tallafuss, Alexandra; Washbourne, Philip

    2010-02-01

    The establishment and maturation of appropriate synaptic connections is crucial in the development of neuronal circuits. Cellular adhesion is believed to play a central role in this process. Neuroligins are neuronal cell adhesion molecules that are hypothesized to act in the initial formation and maturation of synaptic connections. In order to establish the zebrafish as a model to investigate the in vivo role of Neuroligin proteins in nervous system development, we identified the zebrafish orthologs of neuroligin family members and characterized their expression. Zebrafish possess seven neuroligin genes. Synteny analysis and sequence comparisons show that NLGN2, NLGN3, and NLGN4X are duplicated in zebrafish, but NLGN1 has a single zebrafish ortholog. All seven zebrafish neuroligins are expressed in complex patterns in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of these genes suggest that they occupy a role in nervous system development and maintenance.

  13. Identification and expression analysis of zebrafish glypicans during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mansi; Brand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPG) are ubiquitous molecules with indispensable functions in various biological processes. Glypicans are a family of HSPG's, characterized by a Gpi-anchor which directs them to the cell surface and/or extracellular matrix where they regulate growth factor signaling during development and disease. We report the identification and expression pattern of glypican genes from zebrafish. The zebrafish genome contains 10 glypican homologs, as opposed to six in mammals, which are highly conserved and are phylogenetically related to the mammalian genes. Some of the fish glypicans like Gpc1a, Gpc3, Gpc4, Gpc6a and Gpc6b show conserved synteny with their mammalian cognate genes. Many glypicans are expressed during the gastrulation stage, but their expression becomes more tissue specific and defined during somitogenesis stages, particularly in the developing central nervous system. Existence of multiple glypican orthologs in fish with diverse expression pattern suggests highly specialized and/or redundant function of these genes during embryonic development.

  14. Expression of a Mutant kcnj2 Gene Transcript in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Ivone U. S.; Skinner, Jonathan R.; Shelling, Andrew N.; Love, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Long QT 7 syndrome (LQT7, also known as Andersen-Tawil syndrome) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder that causes cardiac arrhythmias, periodic paralysis, and dysmorphic features. Mutations in the human KCNJ2 gene, which encodes for the subunit of the potassium inwardly-rectifying channel (IK1), have been associated with the disorder. The majority of mutations are considered to be dominant-negative as mutant proteins interact to limit the function of wild type KCNJ2 proteins. Several LQT7 syndrome mouse models have been created that vary in the physiological similarity to the human disease. To complement the LQT7 mouse models, we investigated the usefulness of the zebrafish as an alternative model via a transient approach. Initial bioinformatic analysis identified the zebrafish orthologue of the human KCNJ2 gene, together with a spatial expression profile that was similar to that of human. The expression of a kcnj2-12 transcript carrying an in-frame deletion of critical amino acids identified in human studies resulted in embryos that exhibited defects in muscle development, thereby affecting movement, a decrease in jaw size, pupil-pupil distance, and signs of scoliosis. These defects correspond to some phenotypes expressed by human LQT7 patients. PMID:27335675

  15. Glutathione S-Transferase Protein Expression in Different Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Tierbach, Alena; Groh, Ksenia J; Schönenberger, René; Schirmer, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish is a widely used animal model in biomedical sciences and toxicology. Although evidence for the presence of phases I and II xenobiotic defense mechanisms in zebrafish exists on the transcriptional and enzyme activity level, little is known about the protein expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Given the important role of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in phase II biotransformation, we analyzed cytosolic GST proteins in zebrafish early life stages and different organs of adult male and female fish, using a targeted proteomics approach. The established multiple reaction monitoring-based assays enable the measurement of the relative abundance of specific GST isoenzymes and GST classes in zebrafish through a combination of proteotypic peptides and peptides shared within the same class. GSTs of the classes alpha, mu, pi and rho are expressed in zebrafish embryo as early as 4 h postfertilization (hpf). The majority of GST enzymes are present at 72 hpf followed by a continuous increase in expression thereafter. In adult zebrafish, GST expression is organ dependent, with most of the GST classes showing the highest expression in the liver. The expression of a wide range of cytosolic GST isoenzymes and classes in zebrafish early life stages and adulthood supports the use of zebrafish as a model organism in chemical-related investigations. PMID:29361160

  16. Temporal and Spatial Expression of CCN Genes in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Carol A; Conrad, Patricia A; Bartels, Cynthia F; Marques, Tomas; To, Michael; Balow, Stephanie A; Nakamura, Yukio; Warman, Matthew L

    2010-01-01

    The six mammalian CCN genes (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov, WISP1, WISP2, WISP3) encode a family of secreted, cysteine-rich, multimodular proteins having roles in cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and differentiation during embryogenesis, wound healing, and angiogenesis. We used bioinformatics to identify 9 CCN genes in zebrafish (zCCNs), 6 of which have not been previously described. When compared with mammalian CCN family members, 3 were paralogs of Cyr61, 2 of CTGF, 2 of WISP1, 1 of WISP2, and 1 of WISP3. No paralog of Nov was found. In situ hybridization was performed to characterize the sites of expression of the zCCNs during early zebrafish development. zCCNs demonstrated both unique and overlapping patterns of expression, suggesting potential division of labor between orthologous genes and providing an alternate approach to gene function studies that will complement studies in mammalian models. Developmental Dynamics 239:1755–1767, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20503371

  17. BMP signaling modulates hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos independent of hemojuvelin.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Yann; Lattanzi, Victoria J; Zhen, Aileen W; Vedder, Lea; Brunet, Frédéric; Faasse, Sarah A; Babitt, Jodie L; Lin, Herbert Y; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Fraenkel, Paula G

    2011-01-21

    Hemojuvelin (Hjv), a member of the repulsive-guidance molecule (RGM) family, upregulates transcription of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin by activating the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in mammalian cells. Mammalian models have identified furin, neogenin, and matriptase-2 as modifiers of Hjv's function. Using the zebrafish model, we evaluated the effects of hjv and its interacting proteins on hepcidin expression during embryonic development. We found that hjv is strongly expressed in the notochord and somites of the zebrafish embryo and that morpholino knockdown of hjv impaired the development of these structures. Knockdown of hjv or other hjv-related genes, including zebrafish orthologs of furin or neogenin, however, failed to decrease hepcidin expression relative to liver size. In contrast, overexpression of bmp2b or knockdown of matriptase-2 enhanced the intensity and extent of hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos, but this occurred in an hjv-independent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that zebrafish hjv can activate the human hepcidin promoter and enhance BMP responsive gene expression in vitro, but is expressed at low levels in the zebrafish embryonic liver. Taken together, these data support an alternative mechanism for hepcidin regulation during zebrafish embryonic development, which is independent of hjv.

  18. The essential role of endogenous ghrelin in growth hormone expression during zebrafish adenohypophysis development.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; He, Jiangyan; Hu, Wei; Yin, Zhan

    2009-06-01

    Ghrelin, a multifunctional hormone, including potent GH stimulation activity, has been suggested to be important during embryonic development. Expression of ghrelin has been confirmed in the zebrafish pancreas during embryonic stages. Interfering with ghrelin function using two specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides causes defects during zebrafish embryonic development. In ghrelin morphants the expression of GH was abolished in zebrafish somatotropes, whereas the expression patterns of the other key molecules involved in hypothalamic-pituitary development and distinct pituitary hormones genes remain largely intact at the appropriate time during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. Effective rescue of the ghrelin morphants with exogenous ghrelin mRNA showed that the correct gene had been targeted. Moreover, by analyzing the efficiencies of the ghrelin morphants rescue experiments with various forms of exogenous mutant ghrelin mRNAs, we also demonstrated the essentiality of the form acyl-ghrelin on GH stimulation during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. Our in vivo experiments, for the first time, also provided evidence of the existence of functional obestatin in the C-terminal part of zebrafish proghrelin peptides. Our research here has demonstrated that zebrafish is a unique model for functional studies of endogenous ghrelin, especially during embryonic development.

  19. Pre-gastrula expression of zebrafish extraembryonic genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many species form extraembryonic tissues during embryogenesis, such as the placenta of humans and other viviparous mammals. Extraembryonic tissues have various roles in protecting, nourishing and patterning embryos. Prior to gastrulation in zebrafish, the yolk syncytial layer - an extraembryonic nuclear syncytium - produces signals that induce mesoderm and endoderm formation. Mesoderm and endoderm precursor cells are situated in the embryonic margin, an external ring of cells along the embryo-yolk interface. The yolk syncytial layer initially forms below the margin, in a domain called the external yolk syncytial layer (E-YSL). Results We hypothesize that key components of the yolk syncytial layer's mesoderm and endoderm inducing activity are expressed as mRNAs in the E-YSL. To identify genes expressed in the E-YSL, we used microarrays to compare the transcription profiles of intact pre-gastrula embryos with pre-gastrula embryonic cells that we had separated from the yolk and yolk syncytial layer. This identified a cohort of genes with enriched expression in intact embryos. Here we describe our whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of sixty-eight of them. This includes ten genes with E-YSL expression (camsap1l1, gata3, znf503, hnf1ba, slc26a1, slc40a1, gata6, gpr137bb, otop1 and cebpa), four genes with expression in the enveloping layer (EVL), a superficial epithelium that protects the embryo (zgc:136817, zgc:152778, slc14a2 and elovl6l), three EVL genes whose expression is transiently confined to the animal pole (elovl6l, zgc:136359 and clica), and six genes with transient maternal expression (mtf1, wu:fj59f04, mospd2, rftn2, arrdc1a and pho). We also assessed the requirement of Nodal signaling for the expression of selected genes in the E-YSL, EVL and margin. Margin expression was Nodal dependent for all genes we tested, including the concentrated margin expression of an EVL gene: zgc:110712. All other instances of EVL and E-YSL expression that we

  20. Comprehensive Expression Map of Transcription Regulators in the Adult Zebrafish Telencephalon Reveals Distinct Neurogenic Niches

    PubMed Central

    Diotel, Nicolas; Rodriguez Viales, Rebecca; Armant, Olivier; März, Martin; Ferg, Marco; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish has become a model to study adult vertebrate neurogenesis. In particular, the adult telencephalon has been an intensely studied structure in the zebrafish brain. Differential expression of transcriptional regulators (TRs) is a key feature of development and tissue homeostasis. Here we report an expression map of 1,202 TR genes in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish. Our results are summarized in a database with search and clustering functions to identify genes expressed in particular regions of the telencephalon. We classified 562 genes into 13 distinct patterns, including genes expressed in the proliferative zone. The remaining 640 genes displayed unique and complex patterns of expression and could thus not be grouped into distinct classes. The neurogenic ventricular regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes, suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic niches in the telencephalon. In summary, the small telencephalon of the zebrafish shows a remarkable complexity in TR gene expression. The adult zebrafish telencephalon has become a model to study neurogenesis. We established the expression pattern of more than 1200 transcription regulators (TR) in the adult telencephalon. The neurogenic regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic potential. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1202–1221, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25556858

  1. Comprehensive expression map of transcription regulators in the adult zebrafish telencephalon reveals distinct neurogenic niches.

    PubMed

    Diotel, Nicolas; Rodriguez Viales, Rebecca; Armant, Olivier; März, Martin; Ferg, Marco; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-06-01

    The zebrafish has become a model to study adult vertebrate neurogenesis. In particular, the adult telencephalon has been an intensely studied structure in the zebrafish brain. Differential expression of transcriptional regulators (TRs) is a key feature of development and tissue homeostasis. Here we report an expression map of 1,202 TR genes in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish. Our results are summarized in a database with search and clustering functions to identify genes expressed in particular regions of the telencephalon. We classified 562 genes into 13 distinct patterns, including genes expressed in the proliferative zone. The remaining 640 genes displayed unique and complex patterns of expression and could thus not be grouped into distinct classes. The neurogenic ventricular regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes, suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic niches in the telencephalon. In summary, the small telencephalon of the zebrafish shows a remarkable complexity in TR gene expression. The adult zebrafish telencephalon has become a model to study neurogenesis. We established the expression pattern of more than 1200 transcription regulators (TR) in the adult telencephalon. The neurogenic regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic potential. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Expression of CALR mutants causes mpl-dependent thrombocytosis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lim, K-H; Chang, Y-C; Chiang, Y-H; Lin, H-C; Chang, C-Y; Lin, C-S; Huang, L; Wang, W-T; Gon-Shen Chen, C; Chou, W-C; Kuo, Y-Y

    2016-10-07

    CALR mutations are identified in about 30% of JAK2/MPL-unmutated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis. Although the molecular pathogenesis of CALR mutations leading to MPNs has been studied using in vitro cell lines models, how mutant CALR may affect developmental hematopoiesis remains unknown. Here we took advantage of the zebrafish model to examine the effects of mutant CALR on early hematopoiesis and model human CALR-mutated MPNs. We identified three zebrafish genes orthologous to human CALR, referred to as calr, calr3a and calr3b. The expression of CALR-del52 and CALR-ins5 mutants caused an increase in the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells followed by thrombocytosis without affecting normal angiogenesis. The expression of CALR mutants also perturbed early developmental hematopoiesis in zebrafish. Importantly, morpholino knockdown of mpl but not epor or csf3r could significantly attenuate the effects of mutant CALR. Furthermore, the expression of mutant CALR caused jak-stat signaling activation in zebrafish that could be blocked by JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib and fedratinib). These findings showed that mutant CALR activates jak-stat signaling through an mpl-dependent mechanism to mediate pathogenic thrombopoiesis in zebrafish, and illustrated that the signaling machinery related to mutant CALR tumorigenesis are conserved between human and zebrafish.

  3. Rhodopsin expression in the zebrafish pineal gland from larval to adult stage.

    PubMed

    Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Laurà, Rosaria; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; Campo, Salvatore; de Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-09

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays an important role in different physiological functions including the regulation of the circadian clock. In the fish pineal gland the pinealocytes are made up of different segments: outer segment, inner segment and basal pole. Particularly, in the outer segment the rhodopsin participates in the external environment light reception that represents the first biochemical step in the melatonin production. It is well known that the rhodopsin in the adult zebrafish is well expressed in the pineal gland but both the expression and the cellular localization of this protein during development remain still unclear. In this study using qRT-PCR, sequencing and immunohistochemistry the expression as well as the protein localization of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish from larval (10 dpf) to adult stage (90 dpf) were demonstrated. The rhodopsin mRNA expression presents a peak of expression at 10 dpf, a further reduction to 50 dpf before increasing again in the adult stage. Moreover, the cellular localization of the rhodopsin-like protein was always localized in the pinealocyte at all ages examined. Our results demonstrated the involvement of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish pineal gland physiology particularly in the light capture during the zebrafish lifespan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gene and protein expression biomarkers in fungicide exposed zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, the impact of prochloraz (PCZ) on reproductively mature male and female zebrafish was examined following up to 96 h continuous exposure to a flow-through system to control (water only), low (100 ug/l) and high (500 ug/l) PCZ dose. An imidazole fungicide used to rpo...

  5. Cloning of zebrafish Mustn1 orthologs and their expression during early development.

    PubMed

    Camarata, Troy; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Hadjiargyrou, Michael

    2016-11-15

    Mustn1 is a small nuclear protein that is involved in the development and regeneration of the musculoskeletal system. Previous work established a role for Mustn1 in myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, recent evidence suggests a potential role for Mustn1 in cilia function in zebrafish. A detailed study of Mustn1 expression has yet to be conducted in zebrafish. As such, we report herein the cloning of the zebrafish Mustn1 orthologs, mustn1a and mustn1b, and their expression during zebrafish embryonic and larval development. Results indicate a 44% nucleotide identity between the two paralogs. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the Mustn1a and 1b predicted proteins were highly related to other vertebrate members of the Mustn1 protein family. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed expression of both mustn1a and 1b at the 7-somite stage through 72hpf in structures such as Kupffer's vesicle, segmental mesoderm, head structures, and otic vesicle. Additionally, in 5day old larva, mustn1a and 1b expression is detected in the neurocranium, otic capsule, and the gut. Although both were expressed in the neurocranium, mustn1a was localized in the hypophyseal fenestra whereas mustn1b was found near the posterior basicapsular commissure. mustn1b also displayed expression in the ceratohyal and ceratobranchial elements of the pharyngeal skeleton. These expression patterns were verified temporally by q-PCR analysis. Taken together, we conclude that Mustn1 expression is conserved in vertebrates and that the variations in expression of the two zebrafish paralogs suggest different modes of molecular regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Fanconi anemia/BRCA gene network in zebrafish: embryonic expression and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Titus, Tom A; Yan, Yi-Lin; Wilson, Catherine; Starks, Amber M; Frohnmayer, Jonathan D; Bremiller, Ruth A; Cañestro, Cristian; Rodriguez-Mari, Adriana; He, Xinjun; Postlethwait, John H

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease resulting in bone marrow failure, high cancer risks, and infertility, and developmental anomalies including microphthalmia, microcephaly, hypoplastic radius and thumb. Here we present cDNA sequences, genetic mapping, and genomic analyses for the four previously undescribed zebrafish FA genes (fanci, fancj, fancm, and fancn), and show that they reverted to single copy after the teleost genome duplication. We tested the hypothesis that FA genes are expressed during embryonic development in tissues that are disrupted in human patients by investigating fanc gene expression patterns. We found fanc gene maternal message, which can provide Fanc proteins to repair DNA damage encountered in rapid cleavage divisions. Zygotic expression was broad but especially strong in eyes, central nervous system and hematopoietic tissues. In the pectoral fin bud at hatching, fanc genes were expressed specifically in the apical ectodermal ridge, a signaling center for fin/limb development that may be relevant to the radius/thumb anomaly of FA patients. Hatching embryos expressed fanc genes strongly in the oral epithelium, a site of squamous cell carcinomas in FA patients. Larval and adult zebrafish expressed fanc genes in proliferative regions of the brain, which may be related to microcephaly in FA. Mature ovaries and testes expressed fanc genes in specific stages of oocyte and spermatocyte development, which may be related to DNA repair during homologous recombination in meiosis and to infertility in human patients. The intestine strongly expressed some fanc genes specifically in proliferative zones. Our results show that zebrafish has a complete complement of fanc genes in single copy and that these genes are expressed in zebrafish embryos and adults in proliferative tissues that are often affected in FA patients. These results support the notion that zebrafish offers an attractive experimental system to help unravel mechanisms relevant not only

  7. The Fanconi anemia/BRCA gene network in zebrafish: Embryonic expression and comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Titus, Tom A.; Yan, Yi-Lin; Wilson, Catherine; Starks, Amber M.; Frohnmayer, Jonathan D.; Canestro, Cristian; Rodriguez-Mari, Adriana; He, Xinjun; Postlethwait, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genic disease resulting in bone marrow failure, high cancer risks, and infertility, and developmental anomalies including microphthalmia, microcephaly, hypoplastic radius and thumb. Here we present cDNA sequences, genetic mapping, and genomic analyses for the four previously undescribed zebrafish FA genes (fanci, fancj, fancm, and fancn, and show that they reverted to single copy after the teleost genome duplication. We tested the hypothesis that FA genes are expressed during embryonic development in tissues that are disrupted in human patients by investigating fanc gene expression patterns. We found fanc gene maternal message, which can provide Fanc proteins to repair DNA damage encountered in rapid cleavage divisions. Zygotic expression was broad but especially strong in eyes, central nervous system and hematopoietic tissues. In the pectoral fin bud at hatching, fanc genes were expressed specifically in the apical ectodermal ridge, a signaling center for fin/limb development that may be relevant to the radius/thumb anomaly of FA patients. Hatching embryos expressed fanc genes strongly in the oral epithelium, a site of squamous cell carcinomas in FA patients. Larval and adult zebrafish expressed fanc genes in proliferative regions of the brain, which may be related to microcephaly in FA. Mature ovaries and testes expressed fanc genes in specific stages of oocyte and spermatocyte development, which may be related to DNA repair during homologous recombination in meiosis and to infertility in human patients. The intestine strongly expressed some fanc genes specifically in proliferative zones. Our results show that zebrafish has a complete complement of fanc genes in single copy and that these genes are expressed in zebrafish embryos and adults in proliferative tissues that are often affected in FA patients. These results support the notion that zebrafish offers an attractive experimental system to help unravel mechanisms relevant not only to

  8. Dissociation between diurnal cycles in locomotor activity, feeding behavior and hepatic PERIOD2 expression in chronic alcohol-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Werner, John H.; Lee, Donghoon; Sheppard, Aaron D.; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Duffield, Giles E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption contributes to fatty liver disease. Our studies revealed that the hepatic circadian clock is disturbed in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis, and effects of chronic alcohol administration upon the clock itself may contribute to steatosis. We extended these findings to explore the effects of chronic alcohol treatment on daily feeding and locomotor activity patterns. Mice were chronically pair-fed ad libitum for 4 weeks using the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet, with calorie-controlled liquid and standard chow diets as control groups. Locomotor activity, feeding activity, and real-time bioluminescence recording of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE expression in tissue explants were measured. Mice on liquid control and chow diets exhibited normal profiles of locomotor activity, with a ratio of 22:78% day/night activity and a peak during early night. This pattern was dramatically altered in alcohol-fed mice, marked by a 49:51% ratio and the absence of a distinct peak. While chow-diet fed mice had a normal 24:76% ratio of feeding activity, with a peak in the early night, this pattern was dramatically altered in both liquid-diet groups: mice had a 43:57% ratio, and an absence of a distinct peak. Temporal differences were also observed between the two liquid-diet groups during late day. Cosinor analysis revealed a ~4-h and ~6-h shift in the alcohol-fed group feeding and locomotor activity rhythms, respectively. Analysis of hepatic PER2 expression revealed that the molecular clock in alcohol-fed and control liquid-diet mice was shifted by ~11 h and ~6 h, respectively. No differences were observed in suprachiasmatic nucleus explants, suggesting that changes in circadian phase in the liver were generated independently from the central clock. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption and a liquid diet can differentially modulate the daily rhythmicity of locomotor and feeding behaviors, aspects that might contribute to disturbances in the circadian timing

  9. Growth differentiation factor 9 and its spatiotemporal expression and regulation in the zebrafish ovary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Ge, Wei

    2007-02-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily. As an oocyte-specific growth factor, GDF9 plays critical roles in controlling folliculogenesis in mammals. In the present study, we cloned a 2.1-kb cDNA of the zebrafish GDF9 homolog (Gdf9, gdf9), which shares approximately 60% homology with that of mammals in the mature region. RT-PCR analysis showed that zebrafish gdf9 expression was present only in the gonads and Northern blot analysis revealed a single transcript of about 2.0 kb in the ovary. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that gdf9 expression was highest in primary growth (PG, stage I) follicles and gradually decreased during follicular development, with the lowest level being found in fully grown (FG) follicles. The expression of gdf9 was maintained through fertilization and early embryonic development until gastrulation, at which point the expression level dramatically decreased. Expression was barely detectable after the late gastrula stage. Within the follicle, gdf9 mRNA was localized exclusively in the oocytes, as demonstrated by RT-PCR of denuded oocytes and freshly isolated follicle layers as well as by in situ hybridization. Interestingly, when amplified for high numbers of cycles, the expression of gdf9 was detected in cultured zebrafish follicular cells that were free of oocytes. The expression of gdf9 was downregulated by hCG in both ovarian fragments and isolated follicles in dose- and time-dependent manners, and this inhibition appeared to be stage-dependent, with the strongest inhibition observed for the FG follicles and no effect seen for the PG follicles. This correlates well with the expression profile of the LH receptor (lhcgr) in zebrafish follicles. In conclusion, as an oocyte-derived growth factor, GDF9 is highly conserved across vertebrates. With its biological advantages, zebrafish provides an alternative model for studying gene function and regulation.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of coding-lncRNA gene co-expression network uncovers conserved functional lncRNAs in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Jing; Huang, Shulan; Xiang, Shuanglin; Hu, Xiang; Liu, Changning

    2018-05-09

    Zebrafish is a full-developed model system for studying development processes and human disease. Recent studies of deep sequencing had discovered a large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in zebrafish. However, only few of them had been functionally characterized. Therefore, how to take advantage of the mature zebrafish system to deeply investigate the lncRNAs' function and conservation is really intriguing. We systematically collected and analyzed a series of zebrafish RNA-seq data, then combined them with resources from known database and literatures. As a result, we obtained by far the most complete dataset of zebrafish lncRNAs, containing 13,604 lncRNA genes (21,128 transcripts) in total. Based on that, a co-expression network upon zebrafish coding and lncRNA genes was constructed and analyzed, and used to predict the Gene Ontology (GO) and the KEGG annotation of lncRNA. Meanwhile, we made a conservation analysis on zebrafish lncRNA, identifying 1828 conserved zebrafish lncRNA genes (1890 transcripts) that have their putative mammalian orthologs. We also found that zebrafish lncRNAs play important roles in regulation of the development and function of nervous system; these conserved lncRNAs present a significant sequential and functional conservation, with their mammalian counterparts. By integrative data analysis and construction of coding-lncRNA gene co-expression network, we gained the most comprehensive dataset of zebrafish lncRNAs up to present, as well as their systematic annotations and comprehensive analyses on function and conservation. Our study provides a reliable zebrafish-based platform to deeply explore lncRNA function and mechanism, as well as the lncRNA commonality between zebrafish and human.

  11. Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/regucalcin (RGN) expression decreases with aging, acute liver injuries and tumors in zebrafish

    SciT

    Fujisawa, Koichi; Terai, Shuji, E-mail: terais@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Hirose, Yoshikazu

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Zebrafish SMP30/RGN mRNA expression decreases with aging. {yields} Decreased expression was observed in liver tumors as compared to the surrounding area. {yields} SMP30/RGN is important for liver proliferation and tumorigenesis. -- Abstract: Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/regucalcin (RGN) is known to be related to aging, hepatocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis. However, expression and function of non-mammalian SMP30/RGN is poorly understood. We found that zebrafish SMP30/RGN mRNA expression decreases with aging, partial hepatectomy and thioacetamide-induced acute liver injury. SMP30/RGN expression was also greatly decreased in a zebrafish liver cell line. In addition, we induced liver tumors in adult zebrafish bymore » administering diethylnitrosamine. Decreased expression was observed in foci, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocellular carcinomas and mixed tumors as compared to the surrounding area. We thus showed the importance of SMP30/RGN in liver proliferation and tumorigenesis.« less

  12. Effects of cadmium, manganese, and lead on locomotor activity and neurexin 2a expression in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hongwei; Fan, Chengji; Chen, Xiaohui; Liu, Jiaxian; Wang, Bin; Huang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yiyue; Meng, Xiaojing; Zou, Fei

    2017-08-01

    The synaptic adhesion protein Neurexin 2a (Nrxn2a) plays a key role in neuronal development and is associated with cognitive functioning and locomotor behavior. Although low-level metal exposure poses a potential risk to the human nervous system, especially during the developmental stages, little is known about the effects of metal exposures on nrxn2a expression during embryonic development. We therefore exposed wild-type zebrafish embryos/larvae to cadmium (CdCl 2 ), manganese (MnCl 2 ), and lead ([CH 3 COO] 2 Pb), to determine their effect on mortality, malformation, and hatching rate. Concentrations of these metals in zebrafish were detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Locomotor activity of zebrafish larvae was analyzed using a video-track tracking system. Expression of nrxn2a was assessed by in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that mortality, malformation, and bioaccumulation increased as the exposure dosages and duration increased. Developmental exposure to these metals significantly reduced larval swim distance and velocity. The nrxn2aa and nrxn2ab genes were expressed in the central nervous system and downregulated by almost all of the 3 metals, especially Pb. These data demonstrate that exposure to metals downregulates nrxn2a in the zebrafish model system, and this is likely linked to concurrent developmental processes. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2147-2154. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. The Prx1 limb enhancers: targeted gene expression in developing zebrafish pectoral fins.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vega, Amayra; Minguillón, Carolina

    2011-08-01

    Limbs represent an excellent model to study the induction, growth, and patterning of several organs. A breakthrough to study gene function in various tissues has been the characterization of regulatory elements that allow tissue-specific interference of gene function. The mouse Prx1 promoter has been used to generate limb-specific mutants and overexpress genes in tetrapod limbs. Although zebrafish possess advantages that favor their use to study limb morphogenesis, there is no driver described suitable for specifically interfering with gene function in developing fins. We report the generation of zebrafish lines that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by the mouse Prx1 enhancer in developing pectoral fins. We also describe the expression pattern of the zebrafish prrx1 genes and identify three conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) that we use to generate fin-specific EGFP reporter lines. Finally, we show that the mouse and zebrafish regulatory elements may be used to modify gene function in pectoral fins. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A zebrafish model of chordoma initiated by notochord-driven expression of HRASV12

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Alexa; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Tomar, Ritu; Selig, Martin K.; Nielsen, G. Petur; Peterson, Randall T.; Drummond, Iain A.; Haber, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Chordoma is a malignant tumor thought to arise from remnants of the embryonic notochord, with its origin in the bones of the axial skeleton. Surgical resection is the standard treatment, usually in combination with radiation therapy, but neither chemotherapeutic nor targeted therapeutic approaches have demonstrated success. No animal model and only few chordoma cell lines are available for preclinical drug testing, and, although no druggable genetic drivers have been identified, activation of EGFR and downstream AKT-PI3K pathways have been described. Here, we report a zebrafish model of chordoma, based on stable transgene-driven expression of HRASV12 in notochord cells during development. Extensive intra-notochordal tumor formation is evident within days of transgene expression, ultimately leading to larval death. The zebrafish tumors share characteristics of human chordoma as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin, which has some demonstrated activity in a chordoma cell line, delays the onset of tumor formation in our zebrafish model, and improves survival of tumor-bearing fish. Consequently, the HRASV12-driven zebrafish model of chordoma could enable high-throughput screening of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of this refractory cancer. PMID:24311731

  15. A zebrafish model of chordoma initiated by notochord-driven expression of HRASV12.

    PubMed

    Burger, Alexa; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Tomar, Ritu; Selig, Martin K; Nielsen, G Petur; Peterson, Randall T; Drummond, Iain A; Haber, Daniel A

    2014-07-01

    Chordoma is a malignant tumor thought to arise from remnants of the embryonic notochord, with its origin in the bones of the axial skeleton. Surgical resection is the standard treatment, usually in combination with radiation therapy, but neither chemotherapeutic nor targeted therapeutic approaches have demonstrated success. No animal model and only few chordoma cell lines are available for preclinical drug testing, and, although no druggable genetic drivers have been identified, activation of EGFR and downstream AKT-PI3K pathways have been described. Here, we report a zebrafish model of chordoma, based on stable transgene-driven expression of HRASV12 in notochord cells during development. Extensive intra-notochordal tumor formation is evident within days of transgene expression, ultimately leading to larval death. The zebrafish tumors share characteristics of human chordoma as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin, which has some demonstrated activity in a chordoma cell line, delays the onset of tumor formation in our zebrafish model, and improves survival of tumor-bearing fish. Consequently, the HRASV12-driven zebrafish model of chordoma could enable high-throughput screening of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of this refractory cancer. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Expression and characterization of a brain-specific protein kinase BSK146 from zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yi-Chung; Lee, Ming-Ting; Chen, Gen-Der; Lu, I-Ching; Chen, Shui-Tsung; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2006-02-17

    We have previously identified a novel protein kinase, pk146, in the brain of Tetraodon. In the present study, we cloned the homologous protein kinase gene encoding a protein of 385 amino acid residues from zebrafish. The overall amino acid sequence and the kinase domain of zebrafish BSK146 shows 48% and 69% identity to that of rat sbk, a SH3-containing serine/threonine protein kinase. By whole-mount in situ hybridization and RT-PCR, the expression of bsk146 mRNA was mainly in the brain. To explore the in vivo function of BSK146 during zebrafish development, we used morpholino knockdown approach and found that BSK146 morphants displayed enlarged hindbrain ventricle and smaller eyes. Whole-mount in situ hybridization was further performed to analyze the brain defects in BSK146-MO-injected embryos. The expression of brain-specific markers, such as otx2, pax2.1, and krox20, was found normal in morphant embryos at 24hpf, while expression of pax2.1 exerted changes in midbrain-hindbrain boundary and hindbrain in morphant embryos at 48hpf. These data suggest that BSK146 may play an important role in later ventricle expansion in zebrafish brain development. Although the recombinant BSK146 protein produced in insect cells was active and could phosphorylate both histone H1 and histone 2B, the endogenous substrate of BSK146 in the embryonic brain of zebrafish is not clear at the present time and needs further investigation.

  17. Zebrafish E-cadherin: expression during early embryogenesis and regulation during brain development.

    PubMed

    Babb, S G; Barnett, J; Doedens, A L; Cobb, N; Liu, Q; Sorkin, B C; Yelick, P C; Raymond, P A; Marrs, J A

    2001-06-01

    Zebrafish E-cadherin (cdh1) cell adhesion molecule cDNAs were cloned. We investigated spatial and temporal expression of cdh1 during early embryogenesis. Expression was observed in blastomeres, the anterior mesoderm during gastrulation, and developing epithelial structures. In the developing nervous system, cdh1 was detected at the pharyngula stage (24 hpf) in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB). Developmental regulation of MHB formation involves wnt1 and pax2.1. wnt1 expression preceded cdh1 expression during MHB formation, and cdh1 expression in the MHB was dependent on normal development of this structure. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Identification of differentially expressed genes in the zebrafish hypothalamus - pituitary axis

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Sabrina; Wegner, Jeremy; Muller, Marc; Westerfield, Monte; Varga, Zoltan M.

    2009-01-01

    The vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HP) is the main link between the central nervous system and endocrine system. Although several signal pathways and regulatory genes have been implicated in adenohypophysis ontogenesis, little is known about hypothalamic and neurohypophysial development or when the HP matures and becomes functional. To identify markers of the HP, we constructed subtractive cDNA libraries between adult zebrafish hypothalamus and pituitary. We identified previously published genes and ESTs and novel zebrafish genes, some of which were predicted by genomic database analysis. We also analyzed expression patterns of these genes and found that several are expressed in the embryonic and larval hypothalamus, neurohypophysis, and/or adenohypophysis. Expression at these stages makes these genes useful markers to study HP maturation and function. PMID:19166982

  19. Hcfc1b, a zebrafish ortholog of HCFC1, regulates craniofacial development by modulating mmachc expression.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Anita M; Geiger, Elizabeth A; Achilly, Nate; Rosenblatt, David S; Maclean, Kenneth N; Stabler, Sally P; Artinger, Kristin B; Appel, Bruce; Shaikh, Tamim H

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in HCFC1 (MIM300019), have been recently associated with cblX (MIM309541), an X-linked, recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including craniofacial abnormalities. HCFC1 is a transcriptional co-regulator that modulates the expression of numerous downstream target genes including MMACHC, but it is not clear how these HCFC1 targets play a role in the clinical manifestations of cblX. To begin to elucidate the mechanism by which HCFC1 modulates disease phenotypes, we have carried out loss of function analyses in the developing zebrafish. Of the two HCFC1 orthologs in zebrafish, hcfc1a and hcfc1b, the loss of hcfc1b specifically results in defects in craniofacial development. Subsequent analysis revealed that hcfc1b regulates cranial neural crest cell differentiation and proliferation within the posterior pharyngeal arches. Further, the hcfc1b-mediated craniofacial abnormalities were rescued by expression of human MMACHC, a downstream target of HCFC1 that is aberrantly expressed in cblX. Furthermore, we tested distinct human HCFC1 mutations for their role in craniofacial development and demonstrated variable effects on MMACHC expression in humans and craniofacial development in zebrafish. Notably, several individuals with mutations in either HCFC1 or MMACHC have been reported to have mild to moderate facial dysmorphia. Thus, our data demonstrates that HCFC1 plays a role in craniofacial development, which is in part mediated through the regulation of MMACHC expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transgenic expression of omega-3 PUFA synthesis genes improves zebrafish survival during Vibrio vulnificus infection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Lun; Huang, Shin-Jie; Wu, Chih-Lu; Gong, Hong-Yi; Ken, Chuian-Fu; Hu, Shao-Yang; Wu, Jen-Leih

    2015-11-17

    Highly desaturated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are synthesized by desaturases and elongase. They exert hepatoprotective effects to prevent alcoholic fatty liver syndrome or cholestatic liver injury. However, it is unclear how n-3 PUFAs improve immune function in liver. Vibrio vulnificus, a gram-negative bacterial pathogen, causes high mortality of aquaculture fishes upon infection. Humans can become infected with V. vulnificus through open wounds or by eating raw seafood, and such infections may result in systemic septicemia. Moreover, patients with liver diseases are vulnerable to infection, and are more likely than healthy persons to present with liver inflammation following infection. This study quantified n-3 PUFAs and their anti-bacterial effects in Fadsd6 and Elvol5a transgenic zebrafish. Two transgenic zebrafish strains with strong liver specific expression of Fadsd6 and Elvol5a (driven by the zebrafish Fabp10 promoter) were established using the Tol2 system. Synthesis of n-3 PUFAs in these strains were increased by 2.5-fold as compared to wild type (Wt) fish. The survival rate in 24 h following challenge with V. vulnificus was 20 % in Wt, but 70 % in the transgenic strains. In addition, the bacteria counts in transgenic fish strains were significantly decreased. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory genes, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-κB, were suppressed between 9 and 12 h after challenge. This study confirms the anti-bacterial function of n-3 PUFAs in a transgenic zebrafish model. Fadsd6 and Elvol5a transgenic zebrafish are more resistant to V. vulnificus infection, and enhance survival by diminishing the attendant inflammatory response.

  1. The Zebrafish Model Organism Database: new support for human disease models, mutation details, gene expression phenotypes and searching

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Douglas G.; Bradford, Yvonne M.; Eagle, Anne; Fashena, David; Frazer, Ken; Kalita, Patrick; Mani, Prita; Martin, Ryan; Moxon, Sierra Taylor; Paddock, Holly; Pich, Christian; Ramachandran, Sridhar; Ruzicka, Leyla; Schaper, Kevin; Shao, Xiang; Singer, Amy; Toro, Sabrina; Van Slyke, Ceri; Westerfield, Monte

    2017-01-01

    The Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN; http://zfin.org) is the central resource for zebrafish (Danio rerio) genetic, genomic, phenotypic and developmental data. ZFIN curators provide expert manual curation and integration of comprehensive data involving zebrafish genes, mutants, transgenic constructs and lines, phenotypes, genotypes, gene expressions, morpholinos, TALENs, CRISPRs, antibodies, anatomical structures, models of human disease and publications. We integrate curated, directly submitted, and collaboratively generated data, making these available to zebrafish research community. Among the vertebrate model organisms, zebrafish are superbly suited for rapid generation of sequence-targeted mutant lines, characterization of phenotypes including gene expression patterns, and generation of human disease models. The recent rapid adoption of zebrafish as human disease models is making management of these data particularly important to both the research and clinical communities. Here, we describe recent enhancements to ZFIN including use of the zebrafish experimental conditions ontology, ‘Fish’ records in the ZFIN database, support for gene expression phenotypes, models of human disease, mutation details at the DNA, RNA and protein levels, and updates to the ZFIN single box search. PMID:27899582

  2. Embryo Microinjection of Selenomethionine Reduces Hatchability and Modifies Oxidant Responsive Gene Expression in Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. K.; Janz, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we demonstrated that exposure to selenomethionine (SeMet) causes developmental toxicities in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The objectives of this study were to establish a dose-response relationship for developmental toxicities in zebrafish after embryo microinjection of Se (8, 16 or 32 μg/g dry mass of eggs) in the form of SeMet, and to investigate potential underlying mechanism(s) of SeMet-induced developmental toxicities. A dose-dependent increase in frequencies of mortality and total deformities, and reduced hatchability were observed in zebrafish exposed to excess Se via embryo microinjection. The egg Se concentration causing 20% mortality was then used to investigate transcript abundance of proteins involved in antioxidant protection and methylation. Excess Se exposure modified gene expression of oxidant-responsive transcription factors (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor nrf2a and nrf2b), and enzymes involved in cellular methylation (methionine adenosyltransferase mat1a and mat2ab) in zebrafish larvae. Notably, excess Se exposure up-regulated transcript abundance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (ahr2), a signalling pathway involved in the toxicity of dioxin-related compounds. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress or modification of methylation, or a combination of these mechanisms, might be responsible for Se-induced developmental toxicities in fishes.

  3. BDNF Expression in Larval and Adult Zebrafish Brain: Distribution and Cell Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cacialli, Pietro; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Coumailleau, Pascal; D’Angelo, Livia; Kah, Olivier; Lucini, Carla; Pellegrini, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has emerged as an active mediator in many essential functions in the central nervous system of mammals. BDNF plays significant roles in neurogenesis, neuronal maturation and/or synaptic plasticity and is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Despite the vast literature present in mammals, studies devoted to BDNF in the brain of other animal models are scarse. Zebrafish is a teleost fish widely known for developmental genetic studies and is emerging as model for translational neuroscience research. In addition, its brain shows many sites of adult neurogenesis allowing higher regenerative properties after traumatic injuries. To add further knowledge on neurotrophic factors in vertebrate brain models, we decided to determine the distribution of bdnf mRNAs in the larval and adult zebrafish brain and to characterize the phenotype of cells expressing bdnf mRNAs by means of double staining studies. Our results showed that bdnf mRNAs were widely expressed in the brain of 7 days old larvae and throughout the whole brain of mature female and male zebrafish. In adults, bdnf mRNAs were mainly observed in the dorsal telencephalon, preoptic area, dorsal thalamus, posterior tuberculum, hypothalamus, synencephalon, optic tectum and medulla oblongata. By combining immunohistochemistry with in situ hybridization, we showed that bdnf mRNAs were never expressed by radial glial cells or proliferating cells. By contrast, bdnf transcripts were expressed in cells with neuronal phenotype in all brain regions investigated. Our results provide the first demonstration that the brain of zebrafish expresses bdnf mRNAs in neurons and open new fields of research on the role of the BDNF factor in brain mechanisms in normal and brain repairs situations. PMID:27336917

  4. Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine exposure on motor activity and biochemical expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chien-Wei; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Shi-Ying; Hung, Han-Chun; Chen, Chun-Hong; Yang, San-Nan; Chen, Nan-Fu; Wang, Hui-Min; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Chen, Wu-Fu

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. However, current treatments for PD are mainly palliative. Recently, researchers discovered that neurotoxins can induce Parkinsonian-like symptoms in zebrafish. No study to date has investigated the characteristics of PD, such as neuroinflammation factors, oxidative stress, or ubiquitin dysfunction, in this model. Therefore, the current study was aimed at utilizing commonly used clinical drugs, minocycline, vitamin E, and Sinemet, to test the usefulness of this model. Previous studies had indicated that DA cell loss was greater with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) than with other neurotoxins. Thus, we first challenged zebrafish with 6-OHDA immersion and found a significant reduction in zebrafish locomotor activity; we then reversed the locomotor disruptions by treatment with vitamin E, Sinemet, or minocycline. The present study also analyzed the mRNA expression of parkin, pink1, and cd-11b, because the expression of these molecular targets has been shown to result in attenuation in mammalian models of PD. Vitamin E, Sinemet, and minocycline significantly reversed 6-OHDA-induced changes of parkin, pink1, and cd-11b mRNA expression in zebrafish. Moreover, we assessed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to confirm the therapeutic effects of vitamin E tested on this PD model and established that vitamin E reversed the 6-OHDA-induced damage on TH expression. Our results provide some support for the validity of this in vivo Parkinson's model, and we hope that this model will be more widely used in the future.

  5. Discovery, characterization and expression of a novel zebrafish gene, znfr, important for notochord formation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zou, Peng; Liu, Yao; Deng, Fengjiao

    2010-06-01

    Genes specifically expressed in the notochord may be crucial for proper notochord development. Using the digital differential display program offered by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, we identified a novel EST sequence from a zebrafish ovary library (No. XM_701450). The full-length cDNA of this transcript was cloned by performing 3' and 5'-RACE and was further confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The resulting 614 bp gene was found to encode a novel 94 amino acid protein that did not share significant homology with any other known protein. Characterization of the genomic sequence revealed that the gene spanned 4.9 kb and was composed of four exons and three introns. RT-PCR gene expression analysis revealed that our gene of interest was expressed in ovary, kidney, brain, mature oocytes and during the early stages of embryogenesis. During embryonic development, znfr mRNA was found to be expressed in the embryonic shield, chordamesoderm and the vacuolated notochord cells by in situ hybridization. Based on this information, we hypothesize that this novel gene is an important maternal factor required for zebrafish notochord formation during early embryonic development. We have thus named this gene znfr (zebrafish notochord formation related).

  6. Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads.

    PubMed

    Martinović-Weigelt, Dalma; Wang, Rong-Lin; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Bencic, David C; Lazorchak, Jim; Ankley, Gerald T

    2011-01-25

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4×44K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Olfactory imprinting is correlated with changes in gene expression in the olfactory epithelia of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Harden, Maegan V; Newton, Lucy A; Lloyd, Russell C; Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2006-11-01

    Odors experienced as juveniles can have significant effects on the behavior of mature organisms. A dramatic example of this occurs in salmon, where the odors experienced by developing fish determine the river to which they return as adults. Further examples of olfactory memories are found in many animals including vertebrates and invertebrates. Yet, the cellular and molecular bases underlying the formation of olfactory memory are poorly understood. We have devised a series of experiments to determine whether zebrafish can form olfactory memories much like those observed in salmonids. Here we show for the first time that zebrafish form and retain olfactory memories of an artificial odorant, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), experienced as juveniles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to PEA results in changes in gene expression within the olfactory sensory system. These changes are evident by in situ hybridization in the olfactory epithelium of the developing zebrafish. Strikingly, our analysis by in situ hybridization demonstrates that the transcription factor, otx2, is up regulated in the olfactory sensory epithelia in response to PEA. This increase is evident at 2-3 days postfertilization and is maintained in the adult animals. We propose that the changes in otx2 gene expression are manifest as an increase in the number of neuronal precursors in the cells olfactory epithelium of the odor-exposed fish. Thus, our results reveal a role for the environment in controlling gene expression in the developing peripheral nervous system. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cannabinoid modulation of zebrafish fear learning and its functional analysis investigated by c-Fos expression.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Tim; Zeymer, Malou; von der Emde, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    It has been shown that zebrafish fear learning proceeds in the same way as reported for rodents. However, in zebrafish fear learning it is possible to substitute the use of electric shocks as unconditioned stimulus and utilize the inborn fear responses to the alarm substance Schreckstoff, instead. The skin extract Schreckstoff elicits typical fear reactions such as preferred bottom dwelling, swimming in a tighter shoal, erratic movements and freezing. This natural fear behavior can be transferred from Schreckstoff to any other sensory stimulus by associative conditioning (fear learning). We presented Schreckstoff simultaneously with a red light stimulus and tested the effectiveness of fear learning during memory retrieval. The two brain regions known to be relevant for learning in zebrafish are the medial and the lateral pallium of the dorsal telencephalon, both containing rich expressions of the endocannabinoid receptor CB1. To test the influence of the zebrafish endocannabinoid system on fear acquisition learning, an experimental group of ten fish was pretreated with the CB1 receptor agonist THC (Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol; 100nM for 1h). We found that CB1 activation significantly inhibited acquisition of fear learning, possibly by impairing stimulus encoding processes in pallial areas. This was supported by analyzes of c-Fos expression in the brains of experimental animals. Schreckstoff exposure during fear acquisition learning and memory retrieval during red light presentation increased the number of labelled cells in pallial structures, but in no other brain region investigated (e.g. striatum, thalamus, and habenula). THC administration before fear conditioning significantly decreased c-Fos expression in these structures to a level similar to the control group without Schreckstoff experience, suggesting that Schreckstoff induced fear learning requires brain circuits restricted mainly to pallial regions of the dorsal telencephalon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  9. Znrg, a novel gene expressed mainly in the developing notochord of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yaping; Xu, Yan; Li, Jianzhen; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Zhe; Deng, Fengjiao

    2010-06-01

    The notochord, a defining characteristic of the chordate embryo is a critical midline structure required for axial skeletal formation in vertebrates, and acts as a signaling center throughout embryonic development. We utilized the digital differential display program of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, and identified a contig of expressed sequence tags (no. Dr. 83747) from the zebrafish ovary library in Genbank. Full-length cDNA of the identified gene was cloned by 5'- and 3'- RACE, and the resulting sequence was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The cDNA clone contains 2,505 base pairs and encodes a novel protein of 707 amino acids that shares no significant homology with any known proteins. This gene was expressed in mature oocytes and at the one-cell stage, and persisted until the 5th day of development, as determined by RT-PCR. Transcripts were detected by whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization from the two-cell stage to 72 h of embryonic development. This gene was uniformly distributed from the cleavage stage up to the blastula stage. During early gastrulation, it was present in the dorsal region, and became restricted to the notochord and pectoral fin at 48 and 72 h of embryonic development. Based on its abundance in the notochord, we hypothesized that the novel gene may play an important role in notochord development in zebrafish; we named this gene, zebrafish notochord-related gene, or znrg.

  10. Molecular cloning and developmental expression of Tlx (Hox11) genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Langenau, D M; Palomero, T; Kanki, J P; Ferrando, A A; Zhou, Y; Zon, L I; Look, A T

    2002-09-01

    Tlx (Hox11) genes are orphan homeobox genes that play critical roles in the regulation of early developmental processes in vertebrates. Here, we report the identification and expression patterns of three members of the zebrafish Tlx family. These genes share similar, but not identical, expression patterns with other vertebrate Tlx-1 and Tlx-3 genes. Tlx-1 is expressed early in the developing hindbrain and pharyngeal arches, and later in the putative splenic primordium. However, unlike its orthologues, zebrafish Tlx-1 is not expressed in the cranial sensory ganglia or spinal cord. Two homologues of Tlx-3 were identified: Tlx-3a and Tlx-3b, which are both expressed in discrete regions of the developing nervous system, including the cranial sensory ganglia and Rohon-Beard neurons. However, only Tlx-3a is expressed in the statoacoustic cranial ganglia, enteric neurons and non-neural tissues such as the fin bud and pharyngeal arches and Tlx-3b is only expressed in the dorsal root ganglia. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  11. Expression and activity profiling of the steroidogenic enzymes of glucocorticoid biosynthesis and the fdx1 co-factors in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Weger, M; Diotel, N; Weger, B D; Beil, T; Zaucker, A; Eachus, H L; Oakes, J A; do Rego, J L; Storbeck, K-H; Gut, P; Strähle, U; Rastegar, S; Müller, F; Krone, N

    2018-04-01

    The spatial and temporal expression of steroidogenic genes in zebrafish has not been fully characterised. Because zebrafish are increasingly employed in endocrine and stress research, a better characterisation of steroidogenic pathways is required to target specific steps in the biosynthetic pathways. In the present study, we have systematically defined the temporal and spatial expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in glucocorticoid biosynthesis (cyp21a2, cyp11c1, cyp11a1, cyp11a2, cyp17a1, cyp17a2, hsd3b1, hsd3b2), as well as the mitochondrial electron-providing ferredoxin co-factors (fdx1, fdx1b), during zebrafish development. Our studies showed an early expression of all these genes during embryogenesis. In larvae, expression of cyp11a2, cyp11c1, cyp17a2, cyp21a2, hsd3b1 and fdx1b can be detected in the interrenal gland, which is the zebrafish counterpart of the mammalian adrenal gland, whereas the fdx1 transcript is mainly found in the digestive system. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridisation in the adult zebrafish brain revealed a wide expression of these genes throughout the encephalon, including neurogenic regions. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to demonstrate the presence of the glucocorticoid cortisol in the adult zebrafish brain. Moreover, we demonstrate de novo biosynthesis of cortisol and the neurosteroid tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone in the adult zebrafish brain from radiolabelled pregnenolone. Taken together, the present study comprises a comprehensive characterisation of the steroidogenic genes and the fdx co-factors facilitating glucocorticoid biosynthesis in zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide additional evidence of de novo neurosteroid biosynthesising in the brain of adult zebrafish facilitated by enzymes involved in glucocorticoid biosynthesis. Our study provides a valuable source for establishing the zebrafish as a

  12. A Systematic Survey of Expression and Function of Zebrafish frizzled Genes

    PubMed Central

    Nikaido, Masataka; Law, Edward W. P.; Kelsh, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Wnt signaling is crucial for the regulation of numerous processes in development. Consistent with this, the gene families for both the ligands (Wnts) and receptors (Frizzleds) are very large. Surprisingly, while we have a reasonable understanding of the Wnt ligands likely to mediate specific Wnt-dependent processes, the corresponding receptors usually remain to be elucidated. Taking advantage of the zebrafish model's excellent genomic and genetic properties, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the expression patterns of frizzled (fzd) genes in zebrafish. To explore their functions, we focused on testing their requirement in several developmental events known to be regulated by Wnt signaling, convergent extension movements of gastrulation, neural crest induction, and melanocyte specification. We found fourteen distinct fzd genes in the zebrafish genome. Systematic analysis of their expression patterns between 1-somite and 30 hours post-fertilization revealed complex, dynamic and overlapping expression patterns. This analysis demonstrated that only fzd3a, fzd9b, and fzd10 are expressed in the dorsal neural tube at stages corresponding to the timing of melanocyte specification. Surprisingly, however, morpholino knockdown of these, alone or in combination, gave no indication of reduction of melanocytes, suggesting the important involvement of untested fzds or another type of Wnt receptor in this process. Likewise, we found only fzd7b and fzd10 expressed at the border of the neural plate at stages appropriate for neural crest induction. However, neural crest markers were not reduced by knockdown of these receptors. Instead, these morpholino knockdown studies showed that fzd7a and fzd7b work co-operatively to regulate convergent extension movement during gastrulation. Furthermore, we show that the two fzd7 genes function together with fzd10 to regulate epiboly movements and mesoderm differentiation. PMID:23349976

  13. Three enhancer regions regulate gbx2 gene expression in the isthmic region during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Ekramul; Kikuta, Hiroshi; Inoue, Fumitaka; Kanai, Maiko; Kawakami, Atsushi; Parvin, Mst Shahnaj; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Yamasu, Kyo

    2006-12-01

    In vertebrate embryos, positioning of the boundary between the midbrain and hindbrain (MHB) and subsequent isthmus formation are dependent upon the interaction between the Otx2 and Gbx genes. In zebrafish, sequential expression of gbx1 and gbx2 in the anterior hindbrain contributes to this process, whereas in mouse embryos, a single Gbx gene (Gbx2) is responsible for MHB development. In the present study, to investigate the regulatory mechanism of gbx2 in the MHB/isthmic region of zebrafish embryos, we cloned the gene and showed that its organization is conserved among different vertebrates. Promoter analyses revealed three enhancers that direct reporter gene expression after the end of epiboly in the anterior-most hindbrain, which is a feature of the zebrafish gbx2 gene. One of the enhancers is located upstream of gbx2 (AMH1), while the other two enhancers are located downstream of gbx2 (AMH2 and AMH3). Detailed analysis of the AMH1 enhancer showed that it directs expression in the rhombomere 1 (r1) region and the dorsal thalamus, as has been shown for gbx2, whereas no expression was induced by the AMH1 enhancer in other embryonic regions in which gbx2 is expressed. The AMH1 enhancer is composed of multiple regulatory subregions that share the same spatial specificity. The most active of the regulatory subregions is a 291-bp region that contains at least two Pax2-binding sites, both of which are necessary for the function of the main component (PB1-A region) of the AMH1 enhancer. In accordance with these results, enhancer activity in the PB1-A region, as well as gbx2 expression in r1, was missing in no isthmus mutant embryos that lacked functional pax2a. In addition, we identified an upstream conserved sequence of 227bp that suppresses the enhancer activity of AMH1. Taken together, these findings suggest that gbx2 expression during the somitogenesis stage in zebrafish is regulated by a complex mechanism involving Pax2 as well as activators and suppressors in the

  14. Embryonic expression of zebrafish MiT family genes tfe3b, tfeb, and tfec.

    PubMed

    Lister, James A; Lane, Brandon M; Nguyen, Anhthu; Lunney, Katherine

    2011-11-01

    The MiT family comprises four genes in mammals: Mitf, Tfe3, Tfeb, and Tfec, which encode transcription factors of the basic-helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper class. Mitf is well-known for its essential role in the development of melanocytes, however the functions of the other members of this family, and of interactions between them, are less well understood. We have now characterized the complete set of MiT genes from zebrafish, which totals six instead of four. The zebrafish genome contain two mitf (mitfa and mitfb), two tfe3 (tfe3a and tfe3b), and single tfeb and tfec genes; this distribution is shared with other teleosts. We present here the sequence and embryonic expression patterns for the zebrafish tfe3b, tfeb, and tfec genes, and identify a new isoform of tfe3a. These findings will assist in elucidating the roles of the MiT gene family over the course of vertebrate evolution. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Development of a transgenic zebrafish model expressing GFP in the notochord, somite and liver directed by the hfe2 gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yue-Hong; Xu, Cheng; Li, Junling; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Hongwei; Du, Shao Jun

    2011-08-01

    Hemojuvelin, also known as RGMc, is encoded by hfe2 gene that plays an important role in iron homeostasis. hfe2 is specifically expressed in the notochord, developing somite and skeletal muscles during development. The molecular regulation of hfe2 expression is, however, not clear. We reported here the characterization of hfe2 gene expression and the regulation of its tissue-specific expression in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrated that the 6 kb 5'-flanking sequence upstream of the ATG start codon in the zebrafish hfe2 gene could direct GFP specific expression in the notochord, somites, and skeletal muscle of zebrafish embryos, recapitulating the expression pattern of the endogenous gene. However, the Tg(hfe2:gfp) transgene is also expressed in the liver of fish embryos, which did not mimic the expression of the endogenous hfe2 at the early stage. Nevertheless, the Tg(hfe2:gfp) transgenic zebrafish provides a useful model to study liver development. Treating Tg(hfe2:gfp) transgenic zebrafish embryos with valproic acid, a liver development inhibitor, significantly inhibited GFP expression in zebrafish. Together, these data indicate that the tissue specific expression of hfe2 in the notochord, somites and muscles is regulated by regulatory elements within the 6 kb 5'-flanking sequence of the hfe2 gene. Moreover, the Tg(hfe2:gfp) transgenic zebrafish line provides a useful model system for analyzing liver development in zebrafish.

  16. Notch Receptor Expression in Neurogenic Regions of the Adult Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira-Carlos, Vanessa; Ganz, Julia; Hans, Stefan; Kaslin, Jan; Brand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches. PMID:24039926

  17. The zebrafish lysozyme C promoter drives myeloid-specific expression in transgenic fish

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Chris; Flores, Maria Vega; Storm, Thilo; Crosier, Kathy; Crosier, Phil

    2007-01-01

    Background How different immune cell compartments contribute to a successful immune response is central to fully understanding the mechanisms behind normal processes such as tissue repair and the pathology of inflammatory diseases. However, the ability to observe and characterize such interactions, in real-time, within a living vertebrate has proved elusive. Recently, the zebrafish has been exploited to model aspects of human disease and to study specific immune cell compartments using fluorescent reporter transgenic lines. A number of blood-specific lines have provided a means to exploit the exquisite optical clarity that this vertebrate system offers and provide a level of insight into dynamic inflammatory processes previously unavailable. Results We used regulatory regions of the zebrafish lysozyme C (lysC) gene to drive enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and DsRED2 expression in a manner that completely recapitulated the endogenous expression profile of lysC. Labeled cells were shown by co-expression studies and FACS analysis to represent a subset of macrophages and likely also granulocytes. Functional assays within transgenic larvae proved that these marked cells possess hallmark traits of myelomonocytic cells, including the ability to migrate to inflammatory sources and phagocytose bacteria. Conclusion These reporter lines will have utility in dissecting the genetic determinants of commitment to the myeloid lineage and in further defining how lysozyme-expressing cells participate during inflammation. PMID:17477879

  18. Gene-expression analysis of hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Linjia; Romero-Carvajal, Andres; Haug, Jeff S.; Seidel, Christopher W.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Deafness caused by the terminal loss of inner ear hair cells is one of the most common sensory diseases. However, nonmammalian animals (e.g., birds, amphibians, and fish) regenerate damaged hair cells. To understand better the reasons underpinning such disparities in regeneration among vertebrates, we set out to define at high resolution the changes in gene expression associated with the regeneration of hair cells in the zebrafish lateral line. We performed RNA-Seq analyses on regenerating support cells purified by FACS. The resulting expression data were subjected to pathway enrichment analyses, and the differentially expressed genes were validated in vivo via whole-mount in situ hybridizations. We discovered that cell cycle regulators are expressed hours before the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling following hair cell death. We propose that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not involved in regulating the onset of proliferation but governs proliferation at later stages of regeneration. In addition, and in marked contrast to mammals, our data clearly indicate that the Notch pathway is significantly down-regulated shortly after injury, thus uncovering a key difference between the zebrafish and mammalian responses to hair cell injury. Taken together, our findings lay the foundation for identifying differences in signaling pathway regulation that could be exploited as potential therapeutic targets to promote either sensory epithelium or hair cell regeneration in mammals. PMID:24706903

  19. Comparison of molecular marker expression in early zebrafish brain development following chronic ethanol or morpholino treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjin; Boa-Amponsem, Oswald; Cole, Gregory J

    2017-08-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain whether defined markers of early zebrafish brain development are affected by chronic ethanol exposure or morpholino knockdown of agrin, sonic hedgehog, retinoic acid, and fibroblast growth factors, four signaling molecules that are suggested to be ethanol sensitive. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 2% ethanol from 6 to 24 hpf or injected with agrin, shha, aldh1a3, or fgf8a morpholinos. In situ hybridization was employed to analyze otx2, pax6a, epha4a, krx20, pax2a, fgf8a, wnt1, and eng2b expression during early brain development. Our results showed that pax6a mRNA expression was decreased in eye, forebrain, and hindbrain of both chronic ethanol exposed and select MO treatments. Epha4a expression in rhombomere R1 boundary was decreased in chronic ethanol exposure and aldh1a3 morphants, lost in fgf8a morphants, but largely unaffected in agrin and shha morphants. Ectopic pax6a and epha4a expression in midbrain was only found in fgf8a morphants. These results suggest that while chronic ethanol induces obvious morphological change in brain architecture, many molecular markers of these brain structures are relatively unaffected by ethanol exposure.

  20. PhotoMorphs™: A Novel Light-Activated Reagent for Controlling Gene Expression in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Amber J.; Schuler, Aaron D.; Zebala, John A.; Mayer, Alan N.

    2009-01-01

    Manipulating gene expression in zebrafish is critical for exploiting the full potential of this vertebrate model organism. Morpholino oligos are the most commonly employed antisense technology for knocking down gene expression. However, morpholinos suffer from a lack of control over the timing and location of knockdown. In this report, we describe a novel light-activatable knockdown reagent called PhotoMorph™. PhotoMorphs can be generated from existing morpholinos by hybridization with a complementary caging strand containing a photocleavable linkage. The caging strand neutralizes the morpholino activity until irradiation of the PhotoMorph with UV light releases the morpholino. We generated PhotoMorphs to target genes encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), No tail, and E-cadherin to illustrate the utility of this approach. Temporal control of gene expression with PhotoMorphs permitted us to circumvent the early lethal phenotype of E-cadherin knockdown. A splice-blocking PhotoMorph directed to the rheb gene showed light-dependent gene knockdown up to 72 hpf. PhotoMorphs thus offer a new class of laboratory reagents suitable for the spatiotemporal control of gene expression in the zebrafish. PMID:19644983

  1. Gene expression changes in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain in response to acute exposure to methylmercury

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 h) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5(mu or u)g MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000-feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of pexpression in response to MeHg exposure implicate effects on glutathione metabolism in the mechanism of MeHg neurotoxicity. Gene ontology (GO) terms significantly enriched among altered genes included protein folding, cell redox homeostasis, and steroid biosynthetic process. The most affected biological functions were related to nervous system development and function, as well as lipid metabolism and molecular transport. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress and effects on protein structure in the mechanism of action of MeHg in the female brain. Future studies will compare the gene expression profile induced in response to MeHg with that induced by other toxicants and will investigate responsive genes as potential biomarkers of MeHg exposure.

  2. Dietary sodium propionate affects mucosal immune parameters, growth and appetite related genes expression: Insights from zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Safari, Roghieh; Dadar, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    Propionate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that improves physiological and pathophysiological properties. However, there is limited information available about the effects of SCFAs on mucosal immune parameters as well as growth and appetite related genes expression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sodium propionate (SP) intake on the mucosal immune parameters, growth and appetite related genes expression using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as model organism. Zebrafish fed control or diet supplemented with different levels (0.5, 1 and 2%) of SP for 8weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the expression of the key genes related to growth and appetite (GH, IGF1, MYSTN and Ghrl) was evaluated. Also, mucosal immune parameters (Total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity) were studied in skin mucus of zebrafish. The results showed that dietary administration of SP significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated the expression of GH, IGF1 and down-regulated MYSTN gene. Also, feeding zebrafish with SP supplemented diet significantly increased appetite related gene expression (P<0.05) with a more pronounced effect in higher inclusion levels. Compared with control group, the expression of appetite related gene (Ghrl) was remarkably (P<0.05) higher in SP fed zebrafish. Also, elevated mucosal immune parameters was observed in zebrafish fed SP supplemented diet. The present results revealed beneficial effects of dietary SP on mucosal immune response and growth and appetite related genes expression. These results also highlighted the potential use of SP as additive in human diets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Construction and expression analysis of the zebrafish heart-specific transgenetic vector based on Tol2 transposable element].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingfang; Luo, Na; Xie, Huaping; Wu, Xiushan; Deng, Yun

    2010-02-01

    In an effort to generate a desired expression construct for making heart-specific expression transgenic zebrafish, a Tol2 plasmid, which can drive EGFP reporter gene specifically expressed in the heart, was modified using subcloning technology. An IRES fragment bearing multiple cloning site (MCS) was amplified directly from pIRES2-EGFP plasmid and was inserted between the CMLC2 promoter and EGFP fragment of the pDestTol2CG vector. This recombinant expression plasmid pTol2-CMLC2-IRES-EGFP can drive any interested gene specifically expressed in the zebrafish heart along with EGFP reporter gene. To test the effectiveness of this new expression plasmid, we constructed pTol2-CMLC2-RED-IRES-EGFP plasmid by inserting another reporter gene DsRed-Monome into MCS downstream of the CMLC2 promoter and injected this transgenic recombinant plasmid into one-cell stage embryos of zebrafish. Under fluorescence microscope, both the red fluorescence and the green fluorescence produced by pTol2-CMLC2-RED-IRES-EGFP were detected specifically in the heart tissue in the same expression pattern. This novel expression construct pTol2-CMLC2-IRES-EGFP will become an important tool for our research on identifying heart development candidate genes' function using zebrafish as a model.

  4. Regulatory gene expression patterns reveal transverse and longitudinal subdivisions of the embryonic zebrafish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, G; Gerster, T

    2000-03-01

    To shed light on the organization of the rostral embryonic brain of a lower vertebrate, we have directly compared the expression patterns of dlx, fgf, hh, hlx, otx, pax, POU, winged helix and wnt gene family members in the fore- and midbrain of the zebrafish. We show that the analyzed genes are expressed in distinct transverse and longitudinal domains and share expression boundaries at stereotypic positions within the fore- and midbrain. Some of these shared expression boundaries coincide with morphological landmarks like the pathways of primary axon tracts. We identified a series of eight transverse diencephalic domains suggestive of neuromeric subdivisions within the rostral brain. In addition, we identified four molecularly distinct longitudinal subdivisions and provide evidence for a strong bending of the longitudinal rostral brain axis at the cephalic flexure. Our data suggest a strong conservation of early forebrain organization between lower and higher vertebrates.

  5. The Presence or Absence of Intestinal Microbiota Affects Lipid Deposition and Related Genes Expression in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yi; Ren, Hui; Limbu, Samwel M; Sun, Yuhong; Qiao, Fang; Zhai, Wanying; Du, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Meiling

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how intestinal microbiota alters energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism is a critical process in energy balance and health. However, the exact role of intestinal microbiota in the regulation of lipid metabolism in fish remains unclear. Here, we used two zebrafish models (germ-free and antibiotics-treated zebrafish) to identify the role of intestinal microbiota in lipid metabolism. Conventional and germ-free zebrafish larvae were fed with egg yolk. Transmission electron microscopy was used to detect the presence of lipid droplets in the intestinal epithelium. The results showed that, microbiota increased lipid accumulation in the intestinal epithelium. The mRNA sequencing technology was used to assess genes expression level. We found majority of the differentially expressed genes were related to lipid metabolism. Due to the limitation of germ-free zebrafish larvae, antibiotics-treated zebrafish were also used to identify the relationship between the gut microbiota and the host lipid metabolism. Oil-red staining showed antibiotics-treated zebrafish had less intestinal lipid accumulation than control group. The mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in liver and intestine was also quantified by using real-time PCR. The results indicated that apoa4 , hsl , cox15 , slc2a1a , and lss were more related to intestinal bacteria in fish, while the influence of intestinal microbiota on the activity of fabp6 , acsl5 , cd36 , and gpat2 was different between the liver and intestine. This study identified several genes regulated by intestinal microbiota. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of each model have been discussed. This study provides valuable information for exploring host-microbiota interactions in zebrafish in future.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis in the developing zebrafish embryo after compound exposure: Individual gene expression and pathway regulation

    SciT

    Hermsen, Sanne A.B., E-mail: Sanne.Hermsen@rivm.nl; Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht; Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences

    2013-10-01

    The zebrafish embryotoxicity test is a promising alternative assay for developmental toxicity. Classically, morphological assessment of the embryos is applied to evaluate the effects of compound exposure. However, by applying differential gene expression analysis the sensitivity and predictability of the test may be increased. For defining gene expression signatures of developmental toxicity, we explored the possibility of using gene expression signatures of compound exposures based on commonly expressed individual genes as well as based on regulated gene pathways. Four developmental toxic compounds were tested in concentration-response design, caffeine, carbamazepine, retinoic acid and valproic acid, and two non-embryotoxic compounds, D-mannitol andmore » saccharin, were included. With transcriptomic analyses we were able to identify commonly expressed genes, which were mostly development related, after exposure to the embryotoxicants. We also identified gene pathways regulated by the embryotoxicants, suggestive of their modes of action. Furthermore, whereas pathways may be regulated by all compounds, individual gene expression within these pathways can differ for each compound. Overall, the present study suggests that the use of individual gene expression signatures as well as pathway regulation may be useful starting points for defining gene biomarkers for predicting embryotoxicity. - Highlights: • The zebrafish embryotoxicity test in combination with transcriptomics was used. • We explored two approaches of defining gene biomarkers for developmental toxicity. • Four compounds in concentration-response design were tested. • We identified commonly expressed individual genes as well as regulated gene pathways. • Both approaches seem suitable starting points for defining gene biomarkers.« less

  7. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for catalase from zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ken, C F; Lin, C T; Wu, J L; Shaw, J F

    2000-06-01

    A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding a catalase was amplified by the rapid amplication of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) technique from zebrafish (Danio rerio) mRNA. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this cDNA clone revealed that it comprised a complete open reading frame coding for 526 amino acid residues and that it had a molecular mass of 59 654 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity with the sequences of catalase from swine (86.9%), mouse (85.8%), rat (85%), human (83.7%), fruit fly (75.6%), nematode (71.1%), and yeast (58.6%). The amino acid residues for secondary structures are apparently conserved as they are present in other mammal species. Furthermore, the coding region of zebrafish catalase was introduced into an expression vector, pET-20b(+), and transformed into Escherichia coli expression host BL21(DE3)pLysS. A 60-kDa active catalase protein was expressed and detected by Coomassie blue staining as well as activity staining on polyacrylamide gel followed electrophoresis.

  8. Biosynthesis and expression of ependymin homologous sequences in zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Sterrer, S; Königstorfer, A; Hoffmann, W

    1990-01-01

    Ependymins are unique, brain specific glycoproteins, which are major constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid. Originally, they were discovered in goldfish and are thought to be involved in synaptic plasticity. In the present study two transcripts were characterized in Brachydanio rerio originating from a single gene possibly by alternative splicing. These transcripts differ only in the length of their 3'-non-coding-regions and the encoded protein shares 90 and 88% homology with the two corresponding goldfish proteins, respectively. In situ hybridization revealed the expression of ependymins exclusively in the leptomeninx including its invaginations but not at all in the ependymal layer surrounding the ventricles. An initial developmental profile showed that ependymins first appear before hatching, i.e. between 48 and 72 h postfertilization.

  9. Progenitor potential of nkx6.1-expressing cells throughout zebrafish life and during beta cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ghaye, Aurélie P; Bergemann, David; Tarifeño-Saldivia, Estefania; Flasse, Lydie C; Von Berg, Virginie; Peers, Bernard; Voz, Marianne L; Manfroid, Isabelle

    2015-09-02

    In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and the differences with mammals will be fundamental to discovering molecules able to stimulate the regeneration process in mammals. To identify the pancreatic cells able to give rise to new beta cells in the zebrafish, we generated new transgenic lines allowing the tracing of multipotent pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. Using novel bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic nkx6.1 and ascl1b reporter lines, we established that nkx6.1-positive cells give rise to all the pancreatic cell types and ascl1b-positive cells give rise to all the endocrine cell types in the zebrafish embryo. These two genes are initially co-expressed in the pancreatic primordium and their domains segregate, not as a result of mutual repression, but through the opposite effects of Notch signaling, maintaining nkx6.1 expression while repressing ascl1b in progenitors. In the adult zebrafish, nkx6.1 expression persists exclusively in the ductal tree at the tip of which its expression coincides with Notch active signaling in centroacinar/terminal end duct cells. Tracing these cells reveals that they are able to differentiate into other ductal cells and into insulin-expressing cells in normal (non-diabetic) animals. This capacity of ductal cells to generate endocrine cells is supported by the detection of ascl1b in the nkx6.1:GFP ductal cell transcriptome. This transcriptome also reveals, besides actors of the Notch and Wnt pathways, several novel markers such as id2a. Finally, we show that beta cell ablation in the adult zebrafish triggers proliferation of ductal cells and their differentiation into insulin-expressing cells. We have shown that, in the zebrafish embryo, nkx6.1+ cells are bona fide multipotent pancreatic progenitors, while ascl1b+ cells represent committed endocrine precursors. In

  10. Expression pattern of cdkl5 during zebrafish early development: implications for use as model for atypical Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vitorino, Marta; Cunha, Nídia; Conceição, Natércia; Cancela, M Leonor

    2018-05-11

    Atypical Rett syndrome is a child neurodevelopmental disorder induced by mutations in CDKL5 gene and characterized by a progressive regression in development with loss of purposeful use of the hands, slowed brain and head growth, problems with walking, seizures, and intellectual disability. At the moment, there is no cure for this pathology and little information is available concerning animal models capable of mimicking its phenotypes, thus the development of additional animal models should be of interest to gain more knowledge about the disease. Zebrafish has been used successfully as model organism for many human genetic diseases; however, no information is available concerning the spatial and temporal expression of cdkl5 orthologous in this organism. In the present study, we identified the developmental expression patterns of cdkl5 in zebrafish by quantitative PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization. cdkl5 is expressed maternally at low levels during the first 24 h of development. After that the expression of the gene increases significantly and it starts to be expressed mainly in the nervous system and in several brain structures, such as telencephalon, mesencephalon and diencephalon. The expression patterns of cdkl5 in zebrafish is in accordance with the tissues known to be affected in humans and associated to symptoms and deficits observed in Rett syndrome patients thus providing the first evidence that zebrafish could be an alternative model to study the molecular pathways of this disease as well as to test possible therapeutic approaches capable of rescuing the phenotype.

  11. Brain selective transgene expression in zebrafish using an NRSE derived motif

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Sadie A.; Hannan, Markus C.; Codore, Hiba; Fero, Kandice; Li, Grace H.; Moak, Zachary; Yokogawa, Tohei; Burgess, Harold A.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic technologies enable the manipulation and observation of circuits controlling behavior by permitting expression of genetically encoded reporter genes in neurons. Frequently though, neuronal expression is accompanied by transgene expression in non-neuronal tissues, which may preclude key experimental manipulations, including assessment of the contribution of neurons to behavior by ablation. To better restrict transgene expression to the nervous system in zebrafish larvae, we have used DNA sequences derived from the neuron-restrictive silencing element (NRSE). We find that one such sequence, REx2, when used in conjunction with several basal promoters, robustly suppresses transgene expression in non-neuronal tissues. Both in transient transgenic experiments and in stable enhancer trap lines, suppression is achieved without compromising expression within the nervous system. Furthermore, in REx2 enhancer trap lines non-neuronal expression can be de-repressed by knocking down expression of the NRSE binding protein RE1-silencing transcription factor (Rest). In one line, we show that the resulting pattern of reporter gene expression coincides with that of the adjacent endogenous gene, hapln3. We demonstrate that three common basal promoters are susceptible to the effects of the REx2 element, suggesting that this method may be useful for confining expression from many other promoters to the nervous system. This technique enables neural specific targeting of reporter genes and thus will facilitate the use of transgenic methods to manipulate circuit function in freely behaving larvae. PMID:23293587

  12. Circadian expression of clock and putative clock-controlled genes in skeletal muscle of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ian P G; Johnston, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    To identify circadian patterns of gene expression in skeletal muscle, adult male zebrafish were acclimated for 2 wk to a 12:12-h light-dark photoperiod and then exposed to continuous darkness for 86 h with ad libitum feeding. The increase in gut food content associated with the subjective light period was much diminished by the third cycle, enabling feeding and circadian rhythms to be distinguished. Expression of zebrafish paralogs of mammalian transcriptional activators of the circadian mechanism (bmal1, clock1, and rora) followed a rhythmic pattern with a ∼24-h periodicity. Peak expression of rora paralogs occurred at the beginning of the subjective light period [Zeitgeber time (ZT)07 and ZT02 for roraa and rorab], whereas the highest expression of bmal1 and clock paralogs occurred 12 h later (ZT13-15 and ZT16 for bmal and clock paralogs). Expression of the transcriptional repressors cry1a, per1a/1b, per2, per3, nr1d2a/2b, and nr1d1 also followed a circadian pattern with peak expression at ZT0-02. Expression of the two paralogs of cry2 occurred in phase with clock1a/1b. Duplicated genes had a high correlation of expression except for paralogs of clock1, nr1d2, and per1, with cry1b showing no circadian pattern. The highest expression difference was 9.2-fold for the activator bmal1b and 51.7-fold for the repressor per1a. Out of 32 candidate clock-controlled genes, only myf6, igfbp3, igfbp5b, and hsf2 showed circadian expression patterns. Igfbp3, igfbp5b, and myf6 were expressed in phase with clock1a/1b and had an average of twofold change in expression from peak to trough, whereas hsf2 transcripts were expressed in phase with cry1a and had a 7.2-fold-change in expression. The changes in expression of clock and clock-controlled genes observed during continuous darkness were also observed at similar ZTs in fish exposed to a normal photoperiod in a separate control experiment. The role of circadian clocks in regulating muscle maintenance and growth are discussed.

  13. Spontaneous Seizures and Altered Gene Expression in GABA Signaling Pathways in a mind bomb Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hortopan, Gabriela A.; Dinday, Matthew T.; Baraban, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Disruption of E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in immature zebrafish mind bomb mutants, leads to a failure in Notch signaling, excessive numbers of neurons, and depletion of neural progenitor cells. This neurogenic phenotype is associated with defects in neural patterning and brain development. Because developmental brain abnormalities are recognized as an important feature of childhood neurological disorders such as epilepsy and autism, we determined whether zebrafish mutants with grossly abnormal brain structure exhibit spontaneous electrical activity that resembles the long-duration, high-amplitude multi-spike discharges reported in immature zebrafish exposed to convulsant drugs. Electrophysiological recordings from agar immobilized mind bomb mutants at three days postfertilization (dpf) confirmed the occurrence of electrographic seizure activity; seizure-like behaviors were also noted during locomotion video tracking of freely behaving mutants. To identify genes differentially expressed in the mind bomb mutant and provide insight into molecular pathways that may mediate these epileptic phenotypes, a transcriptome analysis was performed using microarray. Interesting candidate genes were further analyzed using conventional reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), as well as whole-mount in situ hybridization. Approximately 150 genes, some implicated in development, transcription, cell metabolism and signal transduction, are differentially regulated including down-regulation of several genes necessary for GABA-mediated signaling. These findings identify a collection of gene transcripts that may be responsible for the abnormal electrical discharge and epileptic activities observed in a mind bomb zebrafish mutant. This work may have important implications for neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with mutations in ubiquitin ligase activity. Notch is an essential component of an evolutionarily

  14. Gene expression changes in a zebrafish model of drug dependency suggest conservation of neuro-adaptation pathways.

    PubMed

    Kily, Layla J M; Cowe, Yuka C M; Hussain, Osman; Patel, Salma; McElwaine, Suzanne; Cotter, Finbarr E; Brennan, Caroline H

    2008-05-01

    Addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder considered to be a disease of the brain's natural reward reinforcement system. Repeated stimulation of the 'reward' pathway leads to adaptive changes in gene expression and synaptic organization that reinforce drug taking and underlie long-term changes in behaviour. The primitive nature of reward reinforcement pathways and the near universal ability of abused drugs to target the same system allow drug-associated reward and reinforcement to be studied in non-mammalian species. Zebrafish have proved to be a valuable model system for the study of vertebrate development and disease. Here we demonstrate that adult zebrafish show a dose-dependent acute conditioned place preference (CPP) reinforcement response to ethanol or nicotine. Repeated exposure of adult zebrafish to either nicotine or ethanol leads to a robust CPP response that persists following 3 weeks of abstinence and in the face of adverse stimuli, a behavioural indicator of the establishment of dependence. Microarray analysis using whole brain samples from drug-treated and control zebrafish identified 1362 genes that show a significant change in expression between control and treated individuals. Of these genes, 153 are common to both ethanol- and nicotine-treated animals. These genes include members of pathways and processes implicated in drug dependence in mammalian models, revealing conservation of neuro-adaptation pathways between zebrafish and mammals.

  15. Exercise-Induced Hypertrophic and Oxidative Signaling Pathways and Myokine Expression in Fast Muscle of Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Mireia; Arrey, Gerard; Planas, Josep V.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that undergoes cellular and metabolic adaptations under conditions of increased contractile activity such as exercise. Using adult zebrafish as an exercise model, we previously demonstrated that swimming training stimulates hypertrophy and vascularization of fast muscle fibers, consistent with the known muscle growth-promoting effects of exercise and with the resulting increased aerobic capacity of this tissue. Here we investigated the potential involvement of factors and signaling mechanisms that could be responsible for exercise-induced fast muscle remodeling in adult zebrafish. By subjecting zebrafish to swimming-induced exercise, we observed an increase in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Mef2 protein levels in fast muscle. We also observed an increase in the protein levels of the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 that correlated with an increase in the protein expression levels of Pax7, a satellite-like cell marker. Furthermore, the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was also increased by exercise, in parallel with an increase in the mRNA expression levels of pgc1α and also of pparda, a β-oxidation marker. Changes in the mRNA expression levels of slow and fast myosin markers further supported the notion of an exercise-induced aerobic phenotype in zebrafish fast muscle. The mRNA expression levels of il6, il6r, apln, aplnra and aplnrb, sparc, decorin and igf1, myokines known in mammals to be produced in response to exercise and to signal through mTOR/AMPK pathways, among others, were increased in fast muscle of exercised zebrafish. These results support the notion that exercise increases skeletal muscle growth and myogenesis in adult zebrafish through the coordinated activation of the mTOR-MEF2 and AMPK-PGC1α signaling pathways. These results, coupled with altered expression of markers for oxidative metabolism and fast-to-slow fiber-type switch, also suggest improved aerobic

  16. Developmental Deltamethrin Exposure Causes Persistent Changes in Dopaminergic Gene Expression, Neurochemistry, and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kung, Tiffany S; Richardson, Jason R; Cooper, Keith R; White, Lori A

    2015-08-01

    Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides that are considered to pose little risk to human health. However, there is an increasing concern that children are more susceptible to the adverse effects of pesticides. We used the zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that developmental exposure to low doses of the pyrethroid deltamethrin results in persistent alterations in dopaminergic gene expression, neurochemistry, and locomotor activity. Zebrafish embryos were treated with deltamethrin (0.25-0.50 μg/l), at concentrations below the LOAEL, during the embryonic period [3-72 h postfertilization (hpf)], after which transferred to fresh water until the larval stage (2-weeks postfertilization). Deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased transcript levels of the D1 dopamine (DA) receptor (drd1) and increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase at 72 hpf. The reduction in drd1 transcripts persisted to the larval stage and was associated with decreased D2 dopamine receptor transcripts. Larval fish, exposed developmentally to deltamethrin, had increased levels of homovanillic acid, a DA metabolite. Since the DA system is involved in locomotor activity, we measured the swim activity of larval fish following a transition to darkness. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin significantly increased larval swim activity which was attenuated by concomitant knockdown of the DA transporter. Acute exposure to methylphenidate, a DA transporter inhibitor, increased swim activity in control larva, while reducing swim activity in larva developmentally exposed to deltamethrin. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin causes locomotor deficits in larval zebrafish, which is likely mediated by dopaminergic dysfunction. This highlights the need to understand the persistent effects of low-dose neurotoxicant exposure during development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Developmental Deltamethrin Exposure Causes Persistent Changes in Dopaminergic Gene Expression, Neurochemistry, and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Tiffany S.; Richardson, Jason R.; Cooper, Keith R.; White, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides that are considered to pose little risk to human health. However, there is an increasing concern that children are more susceptible to the adverse effects of pesticides. We used the zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that developmental exposure to low doses of the pyrethroid deltamethrin results in persistent alterations in dopaminergic gene expression, neurochemistry, and locomotor activity. Zebrafish embryos were treated with deltamethrin (0.25–0.50 μg/l), at concentrations below the LOAEL, during the embryonic period [3–72 h postfertilization (hpf)], after which transferred to fresh water until the larval stage (2-weeks postfertilization). Deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased transcript levels of the D1 dopamine (DA) receptor (drd1) and increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase at 72 hpf. The reduction in drd1 transcripts persisted to the larval stage and was associated with decreased D2 dopamine receptor transcripts. Larval fish, exposed developmentally to deltamethrin, had increased levels of homovanillic acid, a DA metabolite. Since the DA system is involved in locomotor activity, we measured the swim activity of larval fish following a transition to darkness. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin significantly increased larval swim activity which was attenuated by concomitant knockdown of the DA transporter. Acute exposure to methylphenidate, a DA transporter inhibitor, increased swim activity in control larva, while reducing swim activity in larva developmentally exposed to deltamethrin. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin causes locomotor deficits in larval zebrafish, which is likely mediated by dopaminergic dysfunction. This highlights the need to understand the persistent effects of low-dose neurotoxicant exposure during development. PMID:25912032

  18. Multiple PAR and E4BP4 bZIP transcription factors in zebrafish: diverse spatial and temporal expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Vatine, Gad; Alon, Shahar; Tovin, Adi; Mracek, Philipp; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2010-09-01

    Circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are generated by an autonomous circadian oscillator that is synchronized daily with the environment, mainly by light input. The PAR subfamily of transcriptional activators and the related E4BP4 repressor belonging to the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family are clock-controlled genes that are suggested to mediate downstream circadian clock processes and to feedback onto the core oscillator. Here, the authors report the characterization of these genes in the zebrafish, an increasingly important model in the field of chronobiology. Five novel PAR and six novel e4bp4 zebrafish homolog genes were identified using bioinformatic tools and their coding sequences were cloned. Based on their evolutionary relationships, these genes were annotated as ztef2, zhlf1 and zhlf2, zdbp1 and zdbp2, and ze4bp4-1 to -6. The spatial and temporal mRNA expression pattern of each of these factors was characterized in zebrafish embryos in the context of a functional circadian clock and regulation by light. Nine of the factors exhibited augmented and rhythmic expression in the pineal gland, a central clock organ in zebrafish. Moreover, these genes were found to be regulated, to variable extents, by the circadian clock and/or by light. Differential expression patterns of multiple paralogs in zebrafish suggest multiple roles for these factors within the vertebrate circadian clock. This study, in the genetically accessible zebrafish model, lays the foundation for further research regarding the involvement and specific roles of PAR and E4BP4 transcription factors in the vertebrate circadian clock mechanism.

  19. Developmental toxicity and alteration of gene expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to PFOS

    SciT

    Shi Xiongjie; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039; Du Yongbing

    2008-07-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, the potential toxicity of which is causing great concern. In the present study, we employed zebrafish embryos to investigate the developmental toxicity of this compound. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS. Hatching was delayed and hatching rates as well as larval survivorship were significantly reduced after the embryos were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS until 132 hpf. The fry displayed gross developmental malformations, including epiboly deformities, hypopigmentation, yolk sac edema, tail and heart malformations and spinal curvature upon exposure tomore » PFOS concentrations of 1 mg/L or greater. Growth (body length) was significantly reduced in the 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS-treated groups. To test whether developmental malformation was mediated via apoptosis, flow cytometry analysis of DNA content, acridine orange staining and TUNEL assay was used. These techniques indicated that more apoptotic cells were present in the PFOS-treated embryos than in the control embryos. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis, p53 and Bax, were both significantly up-regulated upon exposure to all the concentrations tested. In addition, we investigated the effects of PFOS on marker genes related to early thyroid development (hhex and pax8) and genes regulating the balance of androgens and estrogens (cyp19a and cyp19b). For thyroid development, the expression of hhex was significantly up-regulated at all concentrations tested, whereas pax8 expression was significantly up-regulated only upon exposure to lower concentrations of PFOS (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/L). The expression of cyp19a and of cyp19b was significantly down-regulated at all exposure concentrations. The overall results indicated that zebrafish embryos constitute a reliable model for testing the developmental toxicity of PFOS, and the gene expression patterns in the embryos were able to reveal some

  20. Analysis of the dynamic co-expression network of heart regeneration in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rodius, Sophie; Androsova, Ganna; Götz, Lou; Liechti, Robin; Crespo, Isaac; Merz, Susanne; Nazarov, Petr V.; de Klein, Niek; Jeanty, Céline; González-Rosa, Juan M.; Muller, Arnaud; Bernardin, Francois; Niclou, Simone P.; Vallar, Laurent; Mercader, Nadia; Ibberson, Mark; Xenarios, Ioannis; Azuaje, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish has the capacity to regenerate its heart after severe injury. While the function of a few genes during this process has been studied, we are far from fully understanding how genes interact to coordinate heart regeneration. To enable systematic insights into this phenomenon, we generated and integrated a dynamic co-expression network of heart regeneration in the zebrafish and linked systems-level properties to the underlying molecular events. Across multiple post-injury time points, the network displays topological attributes of biological relevance. We show that regeneration steps are mediated by modules of transcriptionally coordinated genes, and by genes acting as network hubs. We also established direct associations between hubs and validated drivers of heart regeneration with murine and human orthologs. The resulting models and interactive analysis tools are available at http://infused.vital-it.ch. Using a worked example, we demonstrate the usefulness of this unique open resource for hypothesis generation and in silico screening for genes involved in heart regeneration. PMID:27241320

  1. Esco2 regulates cx43 expression during skeletal regeneration in the zebrafish fin.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Rajeswari; Eble, Diane M; Iovine, M Kathryn; Skibbens, Robert V

    2016-01-01

    Roberts syndrome (RBS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, limb malformation, and often severe mental retardation. RBS arises from mutations in ESCO2 that encodes an acetyltransferase and modifies the cohesin subunit SMC3. Mutations in SCC2/NIPBL (encodes a cohesin loader), SMC3 or other cohesin genes (SMC1, RAD21/MCD1) give rise to a related developmental malady termed Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). RBS and CdLS exhibit overlapping phenotypes, but RBS is thought to arise through mitotic failure and limited progenitor cell proliferation while CdLS arises through transcriptional dysregulation. Here, we use the zebrafish regenerating fin model to test the mechanism through which RBS-type phenotypes arise. esco2 is up-regulated during fin regeneration and specifically within the blastema. esco2 knockdown adversely affects both tissue and bone growth in regenerating fins-consistent with a role in skeletal morphogenesis. esco2-knockdown significantly diminishes cx43/gja1 expression which encodes the gap junction connexin subunit required for cell-cell communication. cx43 mutations cause the short fin (sof(b123) ) phenotype in zebrafish and oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) in humans. Importantly, miR-133-dependent cx43 overexpression rescues esco2-dependent growth defects. These results conceptually link ODDD to cohesinopathies and provide evidence that ESCO2 may play a transcriptional role critical for human development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Analysis of the dynamic co-expression network of heart regeneration in the zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodius, Sophie; Androsova, Ganna; Götz, Lou; Liechti, Robin; Crespo, Isaac; Merz, Susanne; Nazarov, Petr V.; de Klein, Niek; Jeanty, Céline; González-Rosa, Juan M.; Muller, Arnaud; Bernardin, Francois; Niclou, Simone P.; Vallar, Laurent; Mercader, Nadia; Ibberson, Mark; Xenarios, Ioannis; Azuaje, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish has the capacity to regenerate its heart after severe injury. While the function of a few genes during this process has been studied, we are far from fully understanding how genes interact to coordinate heart regeneration. To enable systematic insights into this phenomenon, we generated and integrated a dynamic co-expression network of heart regeneration in the zebrafish and linked systems-level properties to the underlying molecular events. Across multiple post-injury time points, the network displays topological attributes of biological relevance. We show that regeneration steps are mediated by modules of transcriptionally coordinated genes, and by genes acting as network hubs. We also established direct associations between hubs and validated drivers of heart regeneration with murine and human orthologs. The resulting models and interactive analysis tools are available at http://infused.vital-it.ch. Using a worked example, we demonstrate the usefulness of this unique open resource for hypothesis generation and in silico screening for genes involved in heart regeneration.

  3. Development of a transient expression assay for detecting environmental oestrogens in zebrafish and medaka embryos

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oestrogenic contaminants are widespread in the aquatic environment and have been shown to induce adverse effects in both wildlife (most notably in fish) and humans, raising international concern. Available detecting and testing systems are limited in their capacity to elucidate oestrogen signalling pathways and physiological impacts. Here we developed a transient expression assay to investigate the effects of oestrogenic chemicals in fish early life stages and to identify target organs for oestrogenic effects. To enhance the response sensitivity to oestrogen, we adopted the use of multiple tandem oestrogen responsive elements (EREc38) in a Tol2 transposon mediated Gal4ff-UAS system. The plasmid constructed (pTol2_ERE-TATA-Gal4ff), contains three copies of oestrogen response elements (3ERE) that on exposure to oestrogen induces expression of Gal4ff which this in turn binds Gal4-responsive Upstream Activated Sequence (UAS) elements, driving the expression of a second reporter gene, EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein). Results The response of our construct to oestrogen exposure in zebrafish embryos was examined using a transient expression assay. The two plasmids were injected into 1–2 cell staged zebrafish embryos, and the embryos were exposed to various oestrogens including the natural steroid oestrogen 17ß-oestradiol (E2), the synthetic oestrogen 17α- ethinyloestradiol (EE2), and the relatively weak environmental oestrogen nonylphenol (NP), and GFP expression was examined in the subsequent embryos using fluorescent microscopy. There was no GFP expression detected in unexposed embryos, but specific and mosaic expression of GFP was detected in the liver, heart, somite muscle and some other tissue cells for exposures to steroid oestrogen treatments (EE2; 10 ng/L, E2; 100 ng/L, after 72 h exposures). For the NP exposures, GFP expression was observed at 10 μg NP/L after 72 h (100 μg NP/L was toxic to the fish). We also demonstrate that

  4. Effects of BPF on steroid hormone homeostasis and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yang, Xianhai; Liu, Jining; Ren, Wenjuan; Chen, Yingwen; Shen, Shubao

    2017-09-01

    Bisphenol F (BPF) has been frequently detected in various environmental compartments, and previous studies found that BPF exhibits similar estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects on the mammalian endocrine system to those of bisphenol A (BPA). However, the potential disrupting effects of BPF on aquatic organisms and the underling disrupting mechanisms have not been investigated. In this study, the potential disrupting mechanisms of BPF on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and liver were probed by employing the OECD 21-day short-term fecundity assay in zebrafish. The results show that BPF exposure (1 mg/L) impaired the reproductive function of zebrafish, as exemplified by alterations to testicular and ovarian histology of the treated zebrafish. Homogenate testosterone (T) levels in male zebrafish decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels increased significantly when fish were exposed to 0.1 and 1 mg/L BPF. The real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine gene expression in the HPG axis and liver. Hepatic vitellogenin expression was significantly upregulated in males, suggesting that BPF possesses estrogenic activity. The disturbed hormone balance was enhanced by the significant changes in gene expression along the HPG axis. These alterations suggest that BPF leads to adverse effects on the endocrine system of teleost fish, and that these effects were more prominent in males than in females.

  5. Expression pattern of zebrafish rxfp2 homologue genes during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Donizetti, Aldo; Fiengo, Marcella; Del Gaudio, Rosanna; Iazzetti, Giovanni; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Aniello, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    RXFP2 is one of the 4 receptors for relaxin insulin-like peptides, in particular it binds with high affinity the INSL3 peptide. INSL3/RXFP2 pair is essential for testicular descent during placental mammalian development. The evolutionary history of this ligand/receptor pair has received much attention, since its function in vertebrate species lacking testicular descent, such as the fishes, remains elusive. Herein, we analyzed the expression pattern of three rxfp2 homologue genes in zebrafish embryonic development. For all the three rxfp2 genes (rxfp2a, rxfp2b, and rxfp2-like) we showed the presence of maternally derived transcripts. Later in the development, rxfp2a is only expressed at larval stage, whereas rxfp2b is expressed in all the analyzed stage with highest level in the larvae. The rxfp2-like gene is expressed in all the analyzed stage with a transcript level that increased starting at early pharyngula stage. The spatial localization analysis of rxfp2-like gene showed that it is expressed in many cell clusters in the developing brain. In addition, other rxfp2-like-expressing cells were identified in the retina and oral epithelium. This analysis provides new insights to elucidate the evolution of rxfp2 genes in vertebrate lineage and lays the foundations to study their role in vertebrate embryonic development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Expression of voltage-activated calcium channels in the early zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Dayán; Montoya, Andro; Sierralta, Jimena; Kukuljan, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    Increases in cytosolic calcium concentrations regulate many cellular processes, including aspects of early development. Calcium release from intracellular stores and calcium entry through non-voltage-gated channels account for signalling in non-excitable cells, whereas voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) are important in excitable cells. We report the expression of multiple transcripts of CaV, identified by its homology to other species, in the early embryo of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, at stages prior to the differentiation of excitable cells. CaV mRNAs and proteins were detected as early as the 2-cell stages, which indicate that they arise from both maternal and zygotic transcription. Exposure of embryos to pharmacological blockers of CaV does not perturb early development significantly, although late effects are appreciable. These results suggest that CaV may have a role in calcium homeostasis and control of cellular process during early embryonic development.

  7. Zebrafish zic2a patterns the forebrain through modulation of Hedgehog-activated gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sanek, Nicholas A.; Taylor, Aaron A.; Nyholm, Molly K.; Grinblat, Yevgenya

    2009-01-01

    Summary Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common congenital malformation of the forebrain in human. Several genes with essential roles during forebrain development have been identified because they cause HPE when mutated. Among these are genes that encode the secreted growth factor Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and the transcription factors Six3 and Zic2. In the mouse, Six3 and Shh activate each other's transcription, but a role for Zic2 in this interaction has not been tested. We demonstrate that in zebrafish, as in mouse, Hh signaling activates transcription of six3b in the developing forebrain. zic2a is also activated by Hh signaling, and represses six3b non-cell-autonomously, i.e. outside of its own expression domain, probably through limiting Hh signaling. Zic2a repression of six3b is essential for the correct formation of the prethalamus. The diencephalon-derived optic stalk (OS) and neural retina are also patterned in response to Hh signaling. We show that zebrafish Zic2a limits transcription of the Hh targets pax2a and fgf8a in the OS and retina. The effects of Zic2a depletion in the forebrain and in the OS and retina are rescued by blocking Hh signaling or by increasing levels of the Hh antagonist Hhip, suggesting that in both tissues Zic2a acts to attenuate the effects of Hh signaling. These data uncover a novel, essential role for Zic2a as a modulator of Hh-activated gene expression in the developing forebrain and advance our understanding of a key gene regulatory network that, when disrupted, causes HPE. PMID:19855021

  8. Zebrafish zic2a patterns the forebrain through modulation of Hedgehog-activated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sanek, Nicholas A; Taylor, Aaron A; Nyholm, Molly K; Grinblat, Yevgenya

    2009-11-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common congenital malformation of the forebrain in human. Several genes with essential roles during forebrain development have been identified because they cause HPE when mutated. Among these are genes that encode the secreted growth factor Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and the transcription factors Six3 and Zic2. In the mouse, Six3 and Shh activate each other's transcription, but a role for Zic2 in this interaction has not been tested. We demonstrate that in zebrafish, as in mouse, Hh signaling activates transcription of six3b in the developing forebrain. zic2a is also activated by Hh signaling, and represses six3b non-cell-autonomously, i.e. outside of its own expression domain, probably through limiting Hh signaling. Zic2a repression of six3b is essential for the correct formation of the prethalamus. The diencephalon-derived optic stalk (OS) and neural retina are also patterned in response to Hh signaling. We show that zebrafish Zic2a limits transcription of the Hh targets pax2a and fgf8a in the OS and retina. The effects of Zic2a depletion in the forebrain and in the OS and retina are rescued by blocking Hh signaling or by increasing levels of the Hh antagonist Hhip, suggesting that in both tissues Zic2a acts to attenuate the effects of Hh signaling. These data uncover a novel, essential role for Zic2a as a modulator of Hh-activated gene expression in the developing forebrain and advance our understanding of a key gene regulatory network that, when disrupted, causes HPE.

  9. Differential gene expression associated with dietary methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Basu, Niladri; Goetz, Giles; Jiang, Nan; Hutz, Reinhold J.; Tonellato, Peter J.; Carvan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate conserved biomarkers that could be used in most species of teleost fish at most life-stages. We investigated the effects of sublethal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on developing rainbow trout and zebrafish. Juvenile rainbow trout and young adult zebrafish were fed food with MeHg added at 0, 0.5, 5 and 50 ppm. Atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to measure whole body total Hg levels, and pathologic analysis was performed to identify MeHg-induced toxicity. Fish at six weeks were sampled from each group for microarray analysis using RNA from whole fish. MeHg-exposed trout and zebrafish did not show overt signs of toxicity or pathology, nor were significant differences seen in mortality, length, mass, or condition factor. The accumulation of MeHg in trout and zebrafish exhibited dose- and time-dependent patterns during six weeks, and zebrafish exhibited greater assimilation of total Hg than rainbow trout. The dysregulated genes in MeHg-treated fish have multiple functional annotations, such as iron ion homeostasis, glutathione transferase activity, regulation of muscle contraction, troponin I binding and calcium-dependent protein binding. Genes were selected as biomarker candidates based on their microarray data and their expression was evaluated by QPCR. Unfortunately, these genes are not good consistent biomarkers for both rainbow trout and zebrafish from QPCR evaluation using individual fish. Our conclusion is that biomarker analysis for aquatic toxicant assessment using fish needs to be based on tissue-, sex- and species-specific consideration. PMID:23529582

  10. A gene trap transposon eliminates haematopoietic expression of zebrafish Gfi1aa, but does not interfere with haematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Thambyrajah, Roshana; Ucanok, Deniz; Jalali, Maryam; Hough, Yasmin; Wilkinson, Robert Neil; McMahon, Kathryn; Moore, Chris; Gering, Martin

    2016-09-01

    A transposon-mediated gene trap screen identified the zebrafish line qmc551 that expresses a GFP reporter in primitive erythrocytes and also in haemogenic endothelial cells, which give rise to haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that seed sites of larval and adult haematopoiesis. The transposon that mediates this GFP expression is located in intron 1 of the gfi1aa gene, one of three zebrafish paralogs that encode transcriptional repressors homologous to mammalian Gfi1 and Gfi1b proteins. In qmc551 transgenics, GFP expression is under the control of the endogenous gfi1aa promoter, recapitulates early gfi1aa expression and allows live observation of gfi1aa promoter activity. While the transposon integration interferes with the expression of gfi1aa mRNA in haematopoietic cells, homozygous qmc551 fish are viable and fertile, and display normal primitive and definitive haematopoiesis. Retained expression of Gfi1b in primitive erythrocytes and up-regulation of Gfi1ab at the onset of definitive haematopoiesis in homozygous qmc551 carriers, are sufficient to allow normal haematopoiesis. This finding contradicts previously published morpholino data that suggested an essential role for zebrafish Gfi1aa in primitive erythropoiesis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sequence analysis of zebrafish chondromodulin-1 and expression profile in the notochord and chondrogenic regions during cartilage morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, S W; Dietz, U H; Oshima, Y; Lang, M R; Knapik, E W; Hiraki, Y; Shukunami, C

    2001-07-01

    Chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) is suggested in higher vertebrate systems to function as a key regulatory protein for cartilage development. To further understand the process of chondrogenesis and the function of ChM-I, we have cloned the zebrafish cDNA for chondromodulin-1 (chm1) and have mapped the chm1 gene locus. The expression profile of chm1 was determined during zebrafish embryonic development and compared to that of type II collagen (col2a1). Maternal chm1 transcripts were detected before midblastula transition and zygotic expression of chm1 was first observed in the notochord at the 10-somite stage. At later developmental stages, chm1 expression was detected in areas surrounding the otic vesicles, in the developing craniofacial cartilage elements, and in the chondrogenic region of the pectoral fins.

  12. Effect of chilling and cryopreservation on expression of Pax genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and blastomeres.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Spikings, E; Zhang, T; Rawson, D M

    2009-08-01

    Cryopreservation is now common practice in the fields of aquaculture, conservation and biomedicine. However, there is a lack of information on the effect of chilling and cryopreservation at the molecular level. In the present study, we used real-time RT-PCR analysis to determine the effect of chilling and cryopreservation on expression of Pax2a, Pax2b, Pax5 and Pax8 which constitute one subgroup of the Pax gene family. As intact embryos of zebrafish have not yet been successfully cryopreserved, we have used two alternatives: chilling of intact embryos and cryopreservation of isolated blastomeres. Cryopreservation was found to affect the normal pattern of gene expression in zebrafish embryonic blastomeres. The trends, profile changes, in expression of Pax2a and Pax5 occurred to a lesser extent in frozen-thawed blastomeres than in fresh blastomeres whilst the opposite was true for Pax8. The trends in expression of Pax2b were delayed in frozen-thawed blastomeres compared to fresh blastomeres. Cryopreservation can therefore disrupt normal gene expression patterns in zebrafish embryonic blastomeres which could have a detrimental effect on embryo development.

  13. Molecular aspect of silver nanoparticles regulated embryonic development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) by Oct-4 expression.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biplab; Verma, Suresh K; Akhtar, Javed; Netam, Surya Prakash; Gupta, Sanjay Kr; Panda, Pritam Kumar; Mukherjee, Koel

    2018-09-01

    With the enhancement of commercial manifestation of silver nanoparticles, concerned has risen on their accumulation in aquatic system and consequent effects on fish development and metabolism. In this study, experiments were conducted to assess the impacts of silver nanoparticles on early life cycles of fish considering Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as experimental model. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized through chemical reduction method and characterized through UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and HR-TEM. Different sub lethal doses of nanosilver were applied (13.6, 21.6, 42.4, 64, and 128 μgL -1 ) to post-fertilization phases of Zebrafish embryos and their interaction effects were monitored up to six days period. No significant morphological variations were observed at 13.6, 21.6, 42.4 μgL -1 dose of silver nanoparticles, whereas 64 and 128 μgL -1 exposure dose exhibited bending in myotome, deformity in tail region, somites, notochord and swelling in anterior and posterior region of embryos and larva. Hatching performances analysis elicited highest hatching success in 13.6 and 21.6 μgL -1 doses of silver nanoparticles followed by positive and negative control, whereas exposure dose of 64 and 128 μgL -1 exhibited comparatively lower success. Western blot analysis were conducted on developing hatchlings with Oct4 antibody and at 13.6 and 21.6 μgL -1 dose,it showed over expression elucidating stimulatory role of nanosilver in these mentioned doses. In silico analysis depicted a firm interaction of nanosilver with Oct4 revealing their key role in growth stimulation of developing embryos. The study demonstrates the function of nanosilver as a growth promoter rather only as a toxicant in fish metabolic system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression profiling identifies novel Hh/Gli regulated genes in developing zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Sadie A.; Milla, Luis A.; Villegas, Rosario; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Burgess, Shawn M.; Allende, Miguel L.; Karlstrom, Rolf O.; Palma, Verónica

    2008-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays critical instructional roles during embryonic development. Mis-regulation of Hh/Gli signaling is a major causative factor in human congenital disorders and in a variety of cancers. The zebrafish is a powerful genetic model for the study of Hh signaling during embryogenesis, as a large number of mutants have been identified affecting different components of the Hh/Gli signaling system. By performing global profiling of gene expression in different Hh/Gli gain- and loss-of-function scenarios we identified several known (e.g. ptc1 and nkx2.2a) as well as a large number of novel Hh regulated genes that are differentially expressed in embryos with altered Hh/Gli signaling function. By uncovering changes in tissue specific gene expression, we revealed new embryological processes that are influenced by Hh signaling. We thus provide a comprehensive survey of Hh/Gli regulated genes during embryogenesis and we identify new Hh-regulated genes that may be targets of mis-regulation during tumorogenesis. PMID:18055165

  15. Heritable Transmission of Diabetic Metabolic Memory in Zebrafish Correlates With DNA Hypomethylation and Aberrant Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ansgar S.; Sarras, Michael P.; Leontovich, Alexey; Intine, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic memory (MM) is the phenomenon whereby diabetes complications persist and progress after glycemic recovery is achieved. Here, we present data showing that MM is heritable and that the transmission correlates with hyperglycemia-induced DNA hypomethylation and aberrant gene expression. Streptozocin was used to induce hyperglycemia in adult zebrafish, and then, following streptozocin withdrawal, a recovery phase was allowed to reestablish a euglycemic state. Blood glucose and serum insulin returned to physiological levels during the first 2 weeks of the recovery phase as a result of pancreatic β-cell regeneration. In contrast, caudal fin regeneration and skin wound healing remained impaired to the same extent as in diabetic fish, and this impairment was transmissible to daughter cell tissue. Daughter tissue that was never exposed to hyperglycemia, but was derived from tissue that was, did not accumulate AGEs or exhibit increased levels of oxidative stress. However, CpG island methylation and genome-wide microarray expression analyses revealed the persistence of hyperglycemia-induced global DNA hypomethylation that correlated with aberrant gene expression for a subset of loci in this daughter tissue. Collectively, the data presented here implicate the epigenetic mechanism of DNA methylation as a potential contributor to the MM phenomenon. PMID:22228713

  16. Conservation, expression, and knockdown of zebrafish plxnb2a and plxnb2b.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Nina; Peitsaro, Nina; Sundvik, Maria; Koivula, Henri; Sainio, Kirsi; Sariola, Hannu; Panula, Pertti; Immonen, Tiina

    2010-10-01

    In mice lacking Plexin B2, a receptor of the axon guidance molecules Semaphorin 4C and Semaphorin 4D, the closure of the neural tube and structural organization of the cerebellum are severely impaired. We cloned two Plexin B2 orthologs, plxnb2a and plxnb2b, in zebrafish, which is a widely used model for the development of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). The predicted proteins, Plexin B2a and Plexin B2b, contain all the conserved and functional domains of the plexin B-subfamily. During embryonic development, plxnb2a is expressed, e.g., in pharyngeal arches while plxnb2b expression is more confined to neuronal structures like the cerebellum. However, both plxnb2a and plxnb2b are expressed at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary, in the otic vesicles, facial ganglia, and pectoral fins. Knockdown of both plxnb2a and plxnb2b simultaneously (>95% and 45%, respectively) resulted in normal CNS structure, axon guidance and swimming performance of the morphants.

  17. Progesterone and norgestrel alter transcriptional expression of genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryos-larvae.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan-Qiu; Huang, Guo-Yong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Liu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of progestins on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in the early stage of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to progesterone (P4) or norgestrel (NGT) at 5, 50 and 100 ng L(-1) for 144 h post fertilization (hpf), and the transcriptional levels of target genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis were determined daily. The results showed that P4 had only minor effects on the mRNA expression of thyroglobulin (Tg), iodothyronine deiodinase type Ι (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β (Thrb) genes. Similarly, the effects of NGT on transcripts of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh), Dio1, iodothyronine deiodinase type II (Dio2) and thyroid hormone receptor α (Thra) genes were generally low. In addition, NGT resulted in some alterations of Tg and Thrb transcripts at different time points. However, a strong induction of Nis mRNA by P4 and NGT was observed in zebrafish embryos-larvae. The overall results showed that besides Nis no effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis are observed following exposure to P4 and NGT, which imply that both P4 and NGT have potential effects on the thyroid endocrine system by inducing transcript of Nis gene during the early stage of zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on methamphetamine-dependent zebrafish are related with the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Liu, Wei; Luo, Chaohua; Liu, Yi; Li, Chan; Fang, Miao; Lin, Yingbo; Ou, Jinying; Chen, Minting; Zhu, Daoqi; Yung, Ken Kin-Lam; Mo, Zhixian

    2017-03-01

    In this study, to study the effect of rhynchophylline on TH in midbrain of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) adult zebrafish, place preference adult zebrafish models were established by methamphetamine (40μg/g) and the expression of TH was observed by immunohistochemistry technique and Western blot. Ketamine (150μg/g), high dose of rhynchophylline (100μg/g) group can significantly reduce the place preference; immunohistochemistry results showed that the number of TH-positive neurons in midbrain was increased in the methamphetamine model group, whereas less TH-positive neurons were found in the ketamine group and high dosage rhynchophylline group. Western blot results showed that the expression of TH protein was significantly increased in the model group, whereas less expression was found in the ketamine group, high dosage rhynchophylline group. Our data pointed out that TH plays an important role in the formation of methamphetamine-induced place preference in adult zebrafish. Rhynchophylline reversed the expression of TH in the midbrain demonstrates the potential effect of mediates methamphetamine induced rewarding effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Basal expression and response to pro-oxidant exposures

    SciT

    Holowiecki, Andrew

    While heme is an important cofactor for numerous proteins, it is highly toxic in its unbound form and can perpetuate the formation of reactive oxygen species. Heme oxygenase enzymes (HMOX1 and HMOX2) degrade heme into biliverdin and carbon monoxide, with biliverdin subsequently being converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase (BVRa or BVRb). As a result of the teleost-specific genome duplication event, zebrafish have paralogs of hmox1 (hmox1a and hmox1b) and hmox2 (hmox2a and hmox2b). Expression of all four hmox paralogs and two bvr isoforms were measured in adult tissues (gill, brain and liver) and sexually dimorphic differences were observed, mostmore » notably in the basal expression of hmox1a, hmox2a, hmox2b and bvrb in liver samples. hmox1a, hmox2a and hmox2b were significantly induced in male liver tissues in response to 96 h cadmium exposure (20 μM). hmox2a and hmox2b were significantly induced in male brain samples, but only hmox2a was significantly reduced in male gill samples in response to the 96 h cadmium exposure. hmox paralogs displayed significantly different levels of basal expression in most adult tissues, as well as during zebrafish development (24 to 120 hpf). Furthermore, hmox1a, hmox1b and bvrb were significantly induced in zebrafish eleutheroembryos in response to multiple pro-oxidants (cadmium, hemin and tert-butylhydroquinone). Knockdown of Nrf2a, a transcriptional regulator of hmox1a, was demonstrated to inhibit the Cd-mediated induction of hmox1b and bvrb. These results demonstrate distinct mechanisms of hmox and bvr transcriptional regulation in zebrafish, providing initial evidence of the partitioning of function of the hmox paralogs. - Highlights: • hmox1a, hmox2a, hmox2b and bvrb are sexually dimorphic in expression. • hmox paralogs were induced in adult tissues by cadmium exposure. • hmox1a, hmox1b and bvrb were induced by multiple pro-oxidants zebrafish embryos. • Differential expression of zebrafish hmox paralogs

  20. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates.

  1. Characterization, molecular modelling and developmental expression of zebrafish manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Tsai; Tseng, Wen-Chung; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Chang, Hsiao-Huang; Ken, Chuian-Fu

    2009-08-01

    A 977 bp cDNA containing an open reading frame encoding 224 amino acid residues of manganese superoxide dismutase was cloned from zebrafish (zMn-SOD). The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity with the sequences of Mn-SODs from human (85.1%) to nematode (61.6%). The 3-D structure model was superimposed on the relative domains of human Mn-SOD with the root mean square (rms) deviation of 0.0919 A. The recombinant mature zMn-SOD with enzyme activity was purified using His-tag technique. The half-life of the enzyme is approximately 48 min and its thermal inactivation rate constant k(d) is 0.0154 min(-1)at 70 degrees C. The enzyme was active under a broad pH (2.2-11.2) and in the presence of up to 4% SDS. Real-time RT-PCR assay was used to detect the zMn-SOD mRNA expression during the developmental stages following a challenge with paraquat. A high level expression of Mn-SOD mRNA was detected at the cleavage stage, but decreased significantly under paraquat treatment. The results indicated that Mn-SOD plays an important role during embryonic development.

  2. Behavioral, morphometric, and gene expression effects in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonically exposed to PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA.

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Carrie E; Annunziato, Kate M; Cooper, Keith R

    2016-11-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) are a class of persistent anthropogenic chemicals that have been detected worldwide. PFASs consist of fluorinated carbon chains of varying length, terminal groups, and have a number of industrial uses. A previous zebrafish study from our laboratory showed that acute (3-120h post fertilization, 0.02-2.0μM), waterborne embryonic exposure to these chemicals resulted in chemical specific alterations at 5days post fertilization (dpf), and some effects persisted up to 14 dpf. Using a gene battery consisting of 100 transcripts identified several genes that were up or down regulated. This current study looks at the long-term impacts of PFASs in adult zebrafish using the same exposure regimen. It was hypothesized that sub-lethal exposure of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) in embryonic zebrafish (3-120 hpf) would result in permanent morphometric, gene expression, and behavioral changes in adult fish similar to those observed at 5 and 14 dpf. Zebrafish were exposed to PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA (Control 0μM, 2.0μM) for the first five days post fertilization. At six months post fertilization, no PFAS treatment resulted in a significant change in total body length or weight. In terms of behavior, PFNA males showed a reduction in total distance traveled and time of immobility, and an increase in thigmotaxis behavior, aggressive attacks, and preference for the bright section of the tank. PFOS treated males had a reduced aggression behavior, and PFOA females preferred the dark section of the tank. Gene expression of slco2b1, slco1d1, and tgfb1a were analyzed because these transcripts were previously found to be affected by PFAS exposure in 5dpf and 14 dpf zebrafish and resulted in: significant decrease in expression of slco2b1 for both sexes in PFNA and PFOS treated groups, significant decrease of slco1d1 in all treatment groups for females and PFOS and PFOA exposed males

  3. Identification and expression analysis of zebrafish polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase Y-subfamily genes during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Naosuke; Kawai, Tamiko; Kaneda, Eiichi; Takahashi, Yui; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Kurosaka, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Mucin-type glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications of secretory and membrane proteins and has diverse physiological functions. The initial biosynthesis of mucin-type carbohydrates is catalyzed by UDP-GalNAc: polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) encoded by GALNT genes. Among these, GalNAc-T8, -T9, -T17, and -T18 form a characteristic subfamily called "Y-subfamily" and have no or very low in vitro transferase activities when assayed with typical mucin peptides as acceptor substrates. Although the Y-subfamily isozymes have been reported to be possibly involved in various diseases, their in vivo functions have not been reported. Here, we isolated zebrafish Y-subfamily galnt genes, and determined their spatial and temporal expressions during the early development of zebrafish. Our study demonstrated that all the Y-subfamily isozymes were well conserved in zebrafish with GalNAc-T18 having two orthologs, galnt18a and galnt18b, and with the other three isozymes each having a corresponding ortholog, galnt8, galnt9, and galnt17. The galnt8 was expressed in the cephalic mesoderm and hatching gland during early developmental stages, and differently expressed in the head, somatic muscles, and liver in the later stages. The other three orthologs also exhibited the characteristic expression patterns, although their expressions were generally strong in the nervous systems. In addition to the expression in the brain, galnt17 and galnt18a were expressed in the somitic muscles, and galnt18a and galnt18b in the notochord. These expression patterns may contribute to the functional analysis of the Y-subfamily, whose physiological roles still remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of chronic perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at low concentration on morphometrics, gene expression, and fecundity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Carrie E; Toor, Fatima; Annunziato, Kate A; Cooper, Keith R

    2017-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent, toxic, anthropogenic chemical recalcitrant to biodegradation. Based on previous studies in lower and higher vertebrates, it was hypothesized that chronic, sub-lethal, embryonic exposure to PFOA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) would adversely impact fish development, survival, and fecundity. Zebrafish embryo/sac-fry were water exposed to 2.0 or 0nM PFOA from 3 to 120hpf, and juvenile to adult cohorts were fed spiked food (8 pM) until 6 months. After chronic exposure, PFOA exposed fish were significantly smaller in total weight and length. Gene expression analysis found a significant decrease of transporters slco2b1, slco4a1, slco3a1 and tgfb1a, and a significant increase of slco1d1 expression. PFOA exposed fish produced significantly fewer eggs with reduced viability and developmental stage delay in F 1 . Chronic, low-dose exposure of zebrafish to PFOA significantly altered normal development, survival and fecundity and would likely impact wild fish population fitness in watersheds chronically exposed to PFOA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Macrophage-expressed perforins mpeg1 and mpeg1.2 have an anti-bacterial function in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Benard, Erica L; Racz, Peter I; Rougeot, Julien; Nezhinsky, Alexander E; Verbeek, Fons J; Spaink, Herman P; Meijer, Annemarie H

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage-expressed gene 1 (MPEG1) encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein with a predicted membrane attack complex/perforin domain associated with host defence against invading pathogens. In vertebrates, MPEG1/perforin-2 is an integral membrane protein of macrophages, suspected to be involved in the killing of intracellular bacteria by pore-forming activity. Zebrafish have 3 copies of MPEG1; 2 are expressed in macrophages, whereas the third could be a pseudogene. The mpeg1 and mpeg1.2 genes show differential regulation during infection of zebrafish embryos with the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium marinum and Salmonella typhimurium. While mpeg1 is downregulated during infection with both pathogens, mpeg1.2 is infection inducible. Upregulation of mpeg1.2 is partially dependent on the presence of functional Mpeg1 and requires the Toll-like receptor adaptor molecule MyD88 and the transcription factor NFκB. Knockdown of mpeg1 alters the immune response to M. marinum infection and results in an increased bacterial burden. In Salmonella typhimurium infection, both mpeg1 and mpeg1.2 knockdown increase the bacterial burdens, but mpeg1 morphants show increased survival times. The combined results of these two in vivo infection models support the anti-bacterial function of the MPEG1/perforin-2 family and indicate that the intricate cross-regulation of the two mpeg1 copies aids the zebrafish host in combatting infection of various pathogens. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Gene Expression Changes in Developing Zebrafish as Potential Markers for Rapid Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sparse information exists on many chemicals to guide developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessments. As DNT testing using rodents is laborious and expensive, alternative species such as zebrafish are being adapted for toxicity screening. Assessing the DNT potential of chem...

  7. Expression of nitric oxide synthase in the developing eye of Zebrafish Danio rerio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Shicui; Sawant, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the developing eye of zebrafish was studied by NADPH-diaphorase staining technique. NOS activity was first observed in the optic primordium and the lens placode at 5-somite stage, and remained basically unchanged up to the prim-5 stage. Upon hatching, NOS activity was nearly equally detected in the gangalion cell layer and the photoreceptor layer in the developing retina. However, it began declining in the inner plexiform layer and the inner nuclear layer at this stage. NOS activity disappeared in the lens although the anterior lens epithelium was strongly stained. Two days after hatching, NOS activity was still strong in the photoreceptor layer, but decreased markedly in the gangalion cell layer, the inner plexiform layer and the inner nuclear layer with the retinal patterning. These suggested that nitric oxide (NO), the product of NOS, is not only involved in the modulation of patterning and differentiation of the retinal cells but also in the regulation of proliferation, and differentiation of the lens fibrocytes.

  8. Assessment of microplastic-sorbed contaminant bioavailability through analysis of biomarker gene expression in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sleight, Victoria A; Bakir, Adil; Thompson, Richard C; Henry, Theodore B

    2017-03-15

    Microplastics (MPs) are prevalent in marine ecosystems. Because toxicants (termed here "co-contaminants") can sorb to MPs, there is potential for MPs to alter co-contaminant bioavailability. Our objective was to demonstrate sorption of two co-contaminants with different physicochemistries [phenanthrene (Phe), log 10 K ow =4.57; and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), log 10 K ow =3.67] to MPs; and assess whether co-contaminant bioavailability was increased after MP settlement. Bioavailability was indicated by gene expression in larval zebrafish. Both Phe and EE2 sorbed to MPs, which reduced bioavailability by a maximum of 33% and 48% respectively. Sorption occurred, but was not consistent with predictions based on co-contaminant physicochemistry (Phe having higher log 10 K ow was expected to have higher sorption). Contaminated MPs settled to the bottom of the exposures did not lead to increased bioavailability of Phe or EE2. Phe was 48% more bioavailable than predicted by a linear sorption model, organism-based measurements therefore contribute unique insight into MP co-contaminant bioavailability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Copper-induced deregulation of microRNA expression in the zebrafish olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2016-01-01

    Although environmental trace metals, such as copper (Cu), can disrupt normal olfactory function in fish, the underlying molecular mechanisms of metal-induced olfactory injury have not been elucidated. Current research has suggested the involvement of epigenetic modifications. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed microRNA (miRNA) profiles in the olfactory system of Cu-exposed zebrafish. Our data revealed 2, 10, and 28 differentially expressed miRNAs in a dose-response manner corresponding to three increasing Cu concentrations. Numerous deregulated miRNAs were involved in neurogenesis (e.g. let-7, miR-7a, miR-128 and miR-138), indicating a role for Cu-mediated toxicity via interference with neurogenesis processes. Putative gene targets of deregulated miRNAs were identified when interrogating our previously published microarray database, including those involved in cell growth and proliferation, cell death, and cell morphology. Moreover, several miRNAs (e.g. miR-203a, miR-199*, miR-16a, miR-16c, and miR-25) may contribute to decreased mRNA levels of their host genes involved in olfactory signal transduction pathways and other critical neurological processes via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Our findings provide novel insight into the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of metal-induced neurotoxicity of the fish olfactory system, and identify novel miRNA biomarkers of metal exposures. PMID:23745839

  10. Zebrafish mab21l2 is specifically expressed in the presumptive eye and tectum from early somitogenesis onwards.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, T; Dawid, I B

    2001-11-01

    Random screening for tissue specific genes in zebrafish by in situ hybridization led us to isolate a gene which showed highly restricted expression in the developing eyes and midbrain at somitogenesis stages. This gene was very similar to mouse and human mab21l2. The characteristic expression pattern of mab21l2 facilitates a detailed description of the morphogenesis of the eyes and midbrain in the zebrafish. In the eye field, mab21l2 expression illustrates the transformation of the eye field to form two separate eyes in the anterior neural plate. Mab21l2 staining in the cyclopic mutants, cyc and oep, exhibited incomplete splitting of the eye primodium. In the midbrain, mab21l2 is expressed in the tectum, and its expression follows the expansion of the tectal region. In mutants affecting the mid-hindbrain boundary (MHB), mab21l2 expression is affected differentially. In the noi/pax2.1 mutant, mab21l2 is down-regulated and the size of the tectum remains small, whereas in the ace/fgf8 mutant, mab21l2 expression persists although the shape of the tectum is altered.

  11. Inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on zebrafish methamphetamine dependence are associated with amelioration of neurotransmitters content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingjin; Chen, Yifei; Li, Chan; Peng, Qiuxian; Fang, Miao; Liu, Wei; Kang, Qunzhao; Lin, Yingbo; Yung, Ken Kin Lam; Mo, Zhixian

    2016-07-04

    Others and we have reported that rhynchophylline reverses amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) effect which may be partly mediated by amelioration of central neurotransmitters and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) levels in the rat brains. The current study investigated the inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on methamphetamine-induced (METH-induced) CPP in adult zebrafish and METH-induced locomotor activity in tyrosine hydroxylase-green fluorescent protein (TH-GFP) transgenic zebrafish larvae and attempted to confirm the hypothesis that these effects were mediated via regulation of neurotransmitters and dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. After baseline preference test (on days 1-3), zebrafish were injected intraperitoneally METH (on days 4, 6 and 8) or the same volume of fish physiological saline (on days 5 and 7) and were immediately conditioned. Rhynchophylline was administered at 12h after injection of METH. On day 9, zebrafish were tested for METH-induced CPP. Results revealed that rhynchophylline (100mg/kg) significantly inhibited the acquisition of METH-induced CPP, reduced the content of dopamine and glutamate and down-regulated the expression of TH and NR2B in the CPP zebrafish brains. Furthermore, the influence of rhynchophylline on METH-induced locomotor activity was also observed in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Results showed that rhynchophylline (50mg/L) treatment led to a significant reduction on the locomotor activity and TH expression in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Taken together, these data indicate that the inhibition of the formation of METH dependence by rhynchophylline in zebrafish is associated with amelioration of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation of p53 and met expression by Krüppel-like factor 8 regulates zebrafish cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Yuan; Lu, Yu-Fen; Liu, Yu-Hsiu; Lien, Huang-Wei; Huang, Chang-Jen; Wu, Jen-Leih; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L

    2015-09-01

    Krüppel-like factor 8 (Klf8) is a zinc-finger transcription factor implicated in cell proliferation, and cancer cell survival and invasion; however, little is known about its role in normal embryonic development. Here, we show that Klf8 is required for normal cerebellar development in zebrafish embryos. Morpholino knockdown of klf8 resulted in abnormal cerebellar primordium morphology and the induction of p53 in the brain region at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf). Both p53-dependent reduction of cell proliferation and augmentation of apoptosis were observed in the cerebellar anlage of 24 hpf-klf8 morphants. In klf8 morphants, expression of ptf1a in the ventricular zone was decreased from 48 to 72 hpf; on the other hand, expression of atohla in the upper rhombic lip was unaffected. Consistent with this finding, Purkinje cell development was perturbed and granule cell number was reduced in 72 hpf-klf8 morphants; co-injection of p53 MO(sp) or klf8 mRNA substantially rescued development of cerebellar Purkinje cells in klf8 morphants. Hepatocyte growth factor/Met signaling is known to regulate cerebellar development in zebrafish and mouse. We observed decreased met expression in the tectum and rhombomere 1 of 24 hpf-klf8 morphants, which was largely rescued by co-injection with klf8 mRNA. Moreover, co-injection of met mRNA substantially rescued formation of Purkinje cells in klf8 morphants at 72 hpf. Together, these results demonstrate that Klf8 modulates expression of p53 and met to maintain ptf1a-expressing neuronal progenitors, which are required for the appropriate development of cerebellar Purkinje and granule cells in zebrafish embryos. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Gene expression analysis in zebrafish embryos: a potential approach to predict effect concentrations in the fish early life stage test.

    PubMed

    Weil, Mirco; Scholz, Stefan; Zimmer, Michaela; Sacher, Frank; Duis, Karen

    2009-09-01

    Based on the hypothesis that analysis of gene expression could be used to predict chronic fish toxicity, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test (DarT), developed as a replacement method for the acute fish test, was expanded to a gene expression D. rerio embryo test (Gene-DarT). The effects of 14 substances on lethal and sublethal endpoints of the DarT and on expression of potential marker genes were investigated: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2, cytochrome P450 1A (cypla), heat shock protein 70, fizzy-related protein 1, the transcription factors v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein g (avian) 1 and NF-E2-p45-related factor, and heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1). After exposure of zebrafish embryos for 48 h, differential gene expression was evaluated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis, and densitometric analysis of the gels. All tested compounds significantly affected the expression of at least one potential marker gene, with cyp1a and hmox1 being most sensitive. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOECs) for gene expression were below concentrations resulting in 10% lethal effects in the DarT. For 10 (3,4- and 3,5-dichloroaniline, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 2,4-dinitrophenol, atrazine, parathion-ethyl, chlorotoluron, genistein, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, and cadmium) out of the 14 tested substances, LOEC values derived with the Gene-DarT differ by a factor of less than 10 from LOEC values of fish early life stage tests with zebrafish. For pentachloroaniline and pentachlorobenzene, the Gene-DarT showed a 23- and 153-fold higher sensitivity, respectively, while for lindane, it showed a 13-fold lower sensitivity. For ivermectin, the Gene-DarT was by a factor of more than 1,000 less sensitive than the acute fish test. The results of the present study indicate that gene expression analysis in zebrafish embryos could principally be used to predict effect concentrations in the fish early life stage test.

  14. Alternative Splicing of sept9a and sept9b in Zebrafish Produces Multiple mRNA Transcripts Expressed Throughout Development

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Mark C.; Kimelman, David

    2010-01-01

    Background Septins are involved in a number of cellular processes including cytokinesis and organization of the cytoskeleton. Alterations in human septin-9 (SEPT9) levels have been linked to multiple cancers, whereas mutations in SEPT9 cause the episodic neuropathy, hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA). Despite its important function in human health, the in vivo role of SEPT9 is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we utilize zebrafish to study the role of SEPT9 in early development. We show that zebrafish possess two genes, sept9a and sept9b that, like humans, express multiple transcripts. Knockdown or overexpression of sept9a transcripts results in specific developmental alterations including circulation defects and aberrant epidermal development. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that sept9 plays an important role in zebrafish development, and establishes zebrafish as a valuable model organism for the study of SEPT9. PMID:20502708

  15. The deafness gene dfna5 is crucial for ugdh expression and HA production in the developing ear in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth; Söllner, Christian; Roehl, Henry; Nicolson, Teresa

    2004-02-01

    Over 30 genes responsible for human hereditary hearing loss have been identified during the last 10 years. The proteins encoded by these genes play roles in a diverse set of cellular functions ranging from transcriptional regulation to K(+) recycling. In a few cases, the genes are novel and do not give much insight into the cellular or molecular cause for the hearing loss. Among these poorly understood deafness genes is DFNA5. How the truncation of the encoded protein DFNA5 leads to an autosomal dominant form of hearing loss is not clear. In order to understand the biological role of Dfna5, we took a reversegenetic approach in zebrafish. Here we show that morpholino antisense nucleotide knock-down of dfna5 function in zebrafish leads to disorganization of the developing semicircular canals and reduction of pharyngeal cartilage. This phenotype closely resembles previously isolated zebrafish craniofacial mutants including the mutant jekyll. jekyll encodes Ugdh [uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose dehydrogenase], an enzyme that is crucial for production of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronic acid (HA). In dfna5 morphants, expression of ugdh is absent in the developing ear and pharyngeal arches, and HA levels are strongly reduced in the outgrowing protrusions of the developing semicircular canals. Previous studies suggest that HA is essential for differentiating cartilage and directed outgrowth of the epithelial protrusions in the developing ear. We hypothesize that the reduction of HA production leads to uncoordinated outgrowth of the canal columns and impaired facial cartilage differentiation.

  16. Cloning and characterization of full length of a novel zebrafish gene Zsrg abundantly expressed in the germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Daoyuan; Song, Ping; Chen, Yungui; Gong, Wuming; Mo, Saijun

    2005-04-08

    Using the digital differential display program of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, we identified a contig of expression sequence tags (ESTs) (Accession No. BM316936), which came from zebrafish ovary and testis libraries. The full-length cDNA of this transcript was cloned and further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The full-length cDNA of the novel gene is 807bp and encodes a novel protein of 187 amino acids, which shares no significant homology with any other known proteins. Characterization of genomic sequences of the gene revealed that it spans 6kb on the linkage group 3 and is composed of five exons and four introns. RT-PCR analysis showed that it was expressed in mature oocytes and one-cell stage, and persisted until 24h of development. RT-PCR also revealed that it is expressed in gonad and kidney, with the highest level of expression in the testis. The expression sites of the novel gene in adult gonad were further localized by in situ hybridization to oogonia and growing oocytes in ovary and to spermatogonia, spermatocytes but not to spermatids in testis. Based on its abundance in testis and the germline stem cell-spermatogonia and oogonia, we hypothesize that it may function as a testicular development and gametogenesis related gene that plays important roles in spermatogenesis, and named it Zsrg (zebrafish testis spermatogenesis related gene, Zsrg).

  17. Changes in gravitational force induce alterations in gene expression that can be monitored in the live, developing zebrafish heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette-Ferguson, I.; Ferguson, D. G.; Poss, K. D.; Moorman, S. J.

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about the effect of microgravity on gene expression, particularly in vivo during embryonic development. Using transgenic zebrafish that express the gfp gene under the influence of a β-actin promoter, we examined the affect of simulated-microgravity on GFP expression in the heart. Zebrafish embryos, at the 18-20 somite-stage, were exposed to simulated-microgravity for 24 hours. The intensity of GFP fluorescence associated with the heart was then determined using fluorescence microscopy. Our measurements indicated that simulated-microgravity induced a 23.9% increase in GFP-associated fluorescence in the heart. In contrast, the caudal notochord showed a 17.5% increase and the embryo as a whole showed only an 8.5% increase in GFP-associated fluorescence. This suggests that there are specific effects on the heart causing the more dramatic increase. These studies indicate that microgravity can influence gene expression and demonstrate the usefulness of this in vivo model of "reporter-gene" expression for studying the effects of microgravity.

  18. Zebrafish vitamin K epoxide reductases: expression in vivo, along extracellular matrix mineralization and under phylloquinone and warfarin in vitro exposure.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ignacio; Vijayakumar, Parameswaran; Marques, Carlos; Cancela, M Leonor; Gavaia, Paulo J; Laizé, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin K (VK) acts as a cofactor driving the biological activation of VK-dependent proteins and conferring calcium-binding properties to them. As a result, VK is converted into VK epoxide, which must be recycled by VK epoxide reductases (Vkors) before it can be reused. Although VK has been shown to play a central role in fish development, particularly during skeletogenesis, pathways underlying VK actions are poorly understood, while good and reliable molecular markers for VK cycle/homeostasis are still lacking in fish. In the present work, expression of 2 zebrafish vkor genes was characterized along larval development and in adult tissues through qPCR analysis. Zebrafish cell line ZFB1 was used to evaluate in vitro regulation of vkors and other VK cycle-related genes during mineralization and upon 24 h exposure to 0.16 and 0.8 µM phylloquinone (VK1), 0.032 µM warfarin, or a combination of both molecules. Results showed that zebrafish vkors are differentially expressed during larval development, in adult tissues, and during cell differentiation/mineralization processes. Further, several VK cycle intermediates were differentially expressed in ZFB1 cells exposed to VK1 and/or warfarin. Present work provides data identifying different developmental stages and adult tissues where VK recycling is probably highly required, and shows how genes involved in VK cycle respond to VK nutritional status in skeletal cells. Expression of vkor genes can represent a reliable indicator to infer VK nutritional status in fish, while ZFB1 cells could represent a suitable in vitro tool to get insights into the mechanisms underlying VK action on fish bone.

  19. DNA methylation regulates gabrb2 mRNA expression: developmental variations and disruptions in l-methionine-induced zebrafish with schizophrenia-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Jiang, W; Lin, Q; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C

    2016-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor β 2 subunit gene (GABRB2) have been associated with schizophrenia and quantitatively correlated with mRNA expression in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. l-Methionine (MET) administration has been reported to cause a recrudescence of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, and similar symptoms have been generated in MET-induced mice. In this study, a zebrafish animal model was used to evaluate the relationship between the gabrb2 mRNA expression and its promoter DNA methylation in developmental and MET-induced schizophrenia-like zebrafish. The results indicated developmental increases in global DNA methylation and decreases in gabrb2 promoter methylation in zebrafish. A significant increase in gabrb2 mRNA levels was observed after GABA was synthesized. Additionally, the MET-triggered schizophrenia-like symptoms in adult zebrafish, involving social withdrawal and cognitive dysfunction analyzed with social interaction and T-maze behavioral tests, were accompanied by significantly increased DNA methylation levels in the global genome and the gabrb2 promoter. Furthermore, the significant correlation between gabrb2 mRNA expression and gabrb2 promoter methylation observed in the developmental stages became non-significant in MET-triggered adult zebrafish. These findings demonstrate that gabrb2 mRNA expression is associated with DNA methylation varies by developmental stage and show that these epigenetic association mechanisms are disrupted in MET-triggered adult zebrafish with schizophrenia-like symptoms. In conclusion, these results provide plausible epigenetic evidence of the GABA A receptor β 2 subunit involvement in the schizophrenia-like behaviors and demonstrate the potential use of zebrafish models in neuropsychiatric research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  20. Paraquat affects mitochondrial bioenergetics, dopamine system expression, and locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao H; Souders, Christopher L; Zhao, Yuan H; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    The dipyridyl herbicide paraquat induces oxidative stress in cells and is implicated in adult neurodegenerative diseases. However, less is known about paraquat toxicity in early stages of vertebrate development. To address this gap, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μM paraquat for 96 h. Paraquat did not induce significant mortality nor deformity in embryos and larvae, but it did accelerate time to hatch. To evaluate whether mitochondrial respiration was related to earlier hatch times, oxygen consumption rate was measured in whole embryos. Maximal respiration of embryos exposed to 100 μM paraquat for 24 h was reduced by more than 70%, suggesting that paraquat negatively impacts mitochondrial bioenergetics in early development. Based upon this evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional responses of oxidative stress- and apoptosis-related genes were measured. Fish exposed to 1 μM paraquat showed higher expression levels of superoxide dismutase 2, heat shock protein 70, Bcl-2-associated X protein, and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2a compared to control fish. No differences among groups were detected in larvae exposed to 10 and 100 μM paraquat, suggesting a non-monotonic response. We also measured endpoints related to larval behavior and dopaminergic signaling as paraquat is associated with degeneration of dopamine neurons. Locomotor activity was stimulated with 100 μM paraquat and dopamine transporter and dopamine receptor 3 mRNA levels were increased in larvae exposed to 1 μM paraquat, interpreted to be a compensatory response at lower concentrations. This study improves mechanistic understanding into the toxic actions of paraquat on early developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Disruption of zebrafish cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) function impairs the expression of Notch-dependent genes during neurogenesis and causes defects in neuronal development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The J-domain-containing protein auxilin, a critical regulator in clathrin-mediated transport, has been implicated in Drosophila Notch signaling. To ask if this role of auxilin is conserved and whether auxilin has additional roles in development, we have investigated the functions of auxilin orthologs in zebrafish. Results Like mammals, zebrafish has two distinct auxilin-like molecules, auxilin and cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK), differing in their domain structures and expression patterns. Both zebrafish auxilin and GAK can functionally substitute for the Drosophila auxilin, suggesting that they have overlapping molecular functions. Still, they are not completely redundant, as morpholino-mediated knockdown of the ubiquitously expressed GAK alone can increase the specification of neuronal cells, a known Notch-dependent process, and decrease the expression of Her4, a Notch target gene. Furthermore, inhibition of GAK function caused an elevated level of apoptosis in neural tissues, resulting in severe degeneration of neural structures. Conclusion In support of the notion that endocytosis plays important roles in Notch signaling, inhibition of zebrafish GAK function affects embryonic neuronal cell specification and Her4 expression. In addition, our analysis suggests that zebrafish GAK has at least two functions during the development of neural tissues: an early Notch-dependent role in neuronal patterning and a late role in maintaining the survival of neural cells. PMID:20082716

  2. Cocaine Modulates the Expression of Opioid Receptors and miR-let-7d in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    López-Bellido, Roger; Barreto-Valer, Katherine; Sánchez-Simón, Fátima Macho; Rodríguez, Raquel E.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to cocaine, in mammals, has been shown to interfere with the expression of opioid receptors, which can have repercussions in its activity. Likewise, microRNAs, such as let-7, have been shown to regulate the expression of opioid receptors and hence their functions in mammals and in vitro experiments. In light of this, using the zebrafish embryos as a model our aim here was to evaluate the actions of cocaine in the expression of opioid receptors and let-7d miRNA during embryogenesis. In order to determine the effects produced by cocaine on the opioid receptors (zfmor, zfdor1 and zfdor2) and let-7d miRNA (dre-let-7d) and its precursors (dre-let-7d-1 and dre-let-7d-2), embryos were exposed to 1.5 µM cocaine hydrochloride (HCl). Our results revealed that cocaine upregulated dre-let-7d and its precursors, and also increased the expression of zfmor, zfdor1 and zfdor2 during early developmental stages and decreased them in late embryonic stages. The changes observed in the expression of opioid receptors might occur through dre-let-7d, since DNA sequences and the morpholinos of opioid receptors microinjections altered the expression of dre-let-7d and its precursors. Likewise, opioid receptors and dre-let-7d showed similar distributions in the central nervous system (CNS) and at the periphery, pointing to a possible interrelationship between them. In conclusion, the silencing and overexpression of opioid receptors altered the expression of dre-let-7d, which points to the notion that cocaine via dre-let-7 can modulate the expression of opioid receptors. Our study provides new insights into the actions of cocaine during zebrafish embryogenesis, indicating a role of miRNAs, let-7d, in development and its relationship with gene expression of opioid receptors, related to pain and addiction process. PMID:23226419

  3. Dynamic and differential expression of the gonadal aromatase during the process of sexual differentiation in a novel transgenic cyp19a1a-eGFP zebrafish line.

    PubMed

    Hinfray, Nathalie; Sohm, Frédéric; Caulier, Morgane; Chadili, Edith; Piccini, Benjamin; Torchy, Camille; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Guiguen, Yann; Brion, François

    2018-05-15

    In zebrafish, there exists a clear need for new tools to study sex differentiation dynamic and its perturbation by endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this context, we developed and characterized a novel transgenic zebrafish line expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1a (gonadal aromatase) promoter. In most gonochoristic fish species including zebrafish, cyp19a1a, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens, has been shown to play a critical role in the processes of reproduction and sexual differentiation. This novel cyp19a1a-eGFP transgenic line allowed a deeper characterization of expression and localization of cyp19a1a gene in zebrafish gonads both at the adult stage and during development. At the adult stage, GFP expression was higher in ovaries than in testis. We showed a perfect co-expression of GFP and endogenous Cyp19a1a protein in gonads that was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of peri-follicular cells in the ovary and of Leydig and germ cells in the testis. During development, GFP was expressed in all immature gonads of 20 dpf-old zebrafish. Then, GFP expression increased in early differentiated female at 30 and 35dpf to reach a high GFP intensity in well-differentiated ovaries at 40dpf. On the contrary, males consistently displayed low GFP expression as compared to female whatever their stage of development, resulting in a clear dimorphic expression between both sexes. Interestingly, fish that undergoes ovary-to-testis transition (35 and 40dpf) presented GFP levels similar to males or intermediate between females and males. In this transgenic line our results confirm that cyp19a1a is expressed early during development, before the histological differentiation of the gonads, and that the down-regulation of cyp19a1a expression is likely responsible for the testicular differentiation. Moreover, we show that although cyp19a1a expression exhibits a clear dimorphic expression pattern in gonads during

  4. Impaired tissue regeneration corresponds with altered expression of developmental genes that persists in the metabolic memory state of diabetic zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sarras, Michael P.; Leontovich, Alexey A.; Olsen, Ansgar S.; Intine, Robert V.

    2013-01-01

    As previously reported by our lab streptozocin-induced Diabetes mellitus (DM) in adult zebrafish results in an impairment of tissue regeneration as monitored by caudal fin regeneration. Following streptozocin withdrawal, a recovery phase occurs to re-establish euglycemia, via pancreatic beta-cell regeneration. However, DM-associated impaired fin regeneration continues indefinitely in the metabolic memory state (MM) allowing for subsequent molecular analysis of the underlying mechanisms of MM. This study focuses on elucidating the molecular basis that explains the DM-associated impaired fin regeneration and why it persists into the MM state with the aim of better understanding MM. Using a combination of microarray analysis and bioinformatics approaches our study found that of the 14,900 transcripts analyzed, aberrant expression of 71 genes relating to tissue developmental and regeneration processes were identified in DM fish and the altered expression of these 71 genes persisted in MM fish. Key regulatory genes of major development, and signal transduction pathways were identified among this group of 71. The aberrant expression of key regulatory genes in the DM state that persist into the MM state provides a plausible explanation for how hyperglycemia induced impaired fin regeneration in the adult zebrafish DM/MM model. PMID:23438205

  5. Gene Expression Profiling of Androgen Receptor Antagonists Flutamide and Vinclozolin in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Gonads

    EPA Science Inventory

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of genomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research of the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of acti...

  6. Early life stage trimethyltin exposure induces ADP-ribosylation factor expression and perturbs the vascular system in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangfei; Huang, Changjiang; Truong, Lisa; La Du, Jane; Tilton, Susan C; Waters, Katrina M; Lin, Kuanfei; Tanguay, Robert L; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2012-12-16

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is an organotin contaminant, widely detected in aqueous environments, posing potential human and environmental risks. In this study, we utilized the zebrafish model to investigate the impact of transient TMT exposure on developmental progression, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular development. Embryos were waterborne exposed to a wide TMT concentration range from 8 to 96 h post fertilization (hpf). The TMT concentration that led to mortality in 50% of the embryos (LC(50)) at 96 hpf was 8.2 μM; malformations in 50% of the embryos (EC(50)) was 2.8 μM. The predominant response observed in surviving embryos was pericardial edema. Additionally, using the Tg (fli1a: EGFP) y1 transgenic zebrafish line to non-invasively monitor vascular development, TMT exposure led to distinct disarrangements in the vascular system. The most susceptible developmental stage to TMT exposure was between 48 and 72 hpf. High density whole genome microarrays were used to identify the early transcriptional changes following TMT exposure from 48 to 60 hpf or 72 hpf. In total, 459 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold (P<0.05) by TMT compared to control. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tools, it was revealed that the transcripts misregulated by TMT exposure were clustered in numerous categories including metabolic and cardiovascular disease, cellular function, cell death, molecular transport, and physiological development. In situ localization of highly elevated transcripts revealed intense staining of ADP-ribosylation factors arf3 and arf5 in the head, trunk, and tail regions. When arf5 expression was blocked by morpholinos, the zebrafish did not display the prototypical TMT-induced vascular deficits, indicating that the induction of arf5 was necessary for TMT-induced vascular toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel galanin receptor 1a gene in zebrafish: tissue distribution, developmental expression roles in nutrition regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Linfang; Wei, Shulei; Huang, Qiaoyan; Feng, Dong; Zhang, Shicui; Liu, Zhenhui

    2013-03-01

    Galanin (Gal), a 29 (30 in human) amino acid neuropeptide, exerts its biological activities through three different G protein-coupled receptors, namely GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3. However, we previously found that only GalR1 and GalR2 exist in fish, and fish GalR1 has two genes (GalR1a and GalR1b), with GalR1a possibly representing the primitive gene form during fish evolution. To uncover the functions of GalR1a in fish, here the tissue distribution, developmental expression and the role in nutrition regulation of GalR1a were investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Interestingly, the expression of GalR1a mRNA was restricted to the intestine and brain in adult zebrafish, while GalR1b mRNA was present in all tissues tested. During embryogenesis, GalR1a mRNA was abundant at 1hpf (hour past fertilization) and decreased gradually in abundance from 3 hpf to 10 hpf; then a significant increase in the amount of GalR1a transcripts was observed at 35 hpf, and this high level was maintained until 5 dpf (day past fertilization). In situ hybridization of embryos and larvae, expression pattern of GalR1a was mainly restricted to the intestine, pectoral fin, branchial arches and head, indicating a role of GalR1a during zebrafish embryogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR assay suggested that fasting, high fat feeding or linoleic acid (LA) all could significantly induce up-regulation of GalR1a both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting roles of GalR1a in control of nutrition intake, especially to fat. In addition, a potential role of zebrafish GalR1a in accumulation of lipid droplets in cells was also demonstrated. Our study lays a foundation for further investigation of GalR1a function and evolution in fish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivities of Two Zebrafish TRPA1 Paralogs to Chemical and Thermal Stimuli Analyzed in Heterologous Expression Systems.

    PubMed

    Oda, Mai; Kurogi, Mako; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is the only member of the mouse, chick, and frog TRPA family, whereas 2 paralogs (zTRPA1a and zTRPA1b) are present in zebrafish. We herein investigated functional differences in the 2 zebrafish TRPA1s. HEK293T cells were used as heterologous expression systems, and the sensitivities of these cells to 4 chemical irritants (allyl isothiocyanate [AITC], caffeine, auto-oxidized epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG], and hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]) were compared with Ca(2+) imaging techniques. Sensitivities to the activators for AITC, oxidized EGCG, and H2O2 were higher in cells expressing zTRPA1a than in those expressing zTRPA1b, whereas caffeine appeared to activate both cells equally. We also characterized the thermal sensitivity of Xenopus oocytes expressing each TRPA1 electrophysiologically using a 2-electrode voltage clamp. Although endogenous currents induced by a cold stimulation were observed in control oocytes in some batches, oocytes expressing zTRPA1b showed significantly stronger cold- and heat-induced responses. However, significant thermal activation was not observed in oocytes expressing zTRPA1a. The results obtained using in vitro expression systems suggest that zTRPA1a is specialized for chemical sensing, whereas zTRPA1b responds to thermal stimuli. Furthermore, characterization of the chimeric molecule of TRPA1a and 1b revealed the importance of the N-terminal region in chemical and thermal sensing by zTRPA1s. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Waterborne fluoride exposure changed the structure and the expressions of steroidogenic-related genes in gonads of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Li, MeiYan; Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Song, Jie; Zhou, Bingrui; Feng, Cuiping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has been demonstrated to have adverse effects on reproductive system in humans and mammals, while the most vulnerable aquatic organisms were ignored. In this study, the effects of waterborne fluoride on growth performance, sex steroid hormone, histological structure, and the transcriptional profiles of sex steroid related genes were examined in both female and male zebrafish exposed to different concentrations of 0.79, 18.60, 36.83 mg L(-1) of fluoride for 30 and 60 d to investigate the effects of fluoride on reproductive system and the underlying toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results showed that the body weight was remarkably decreased, the structure of ovary and testis were serious injured, and the T and E2 levels were significantly reduced in male zebrafish. The transcriptional profiles of steroidogenic related genes displayed phenomenal alterations, the expressions of pgr and cyp19a1a were significantly up-regulated, while the transcriptional levels of er, ar and hsd3β were decreased both in the ovary and testis, and hsd17β8 were down-regulated just in males. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fluoride could significantly inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and notably affect the reproductive system in both sex zebrafish by impairing the structure of ovary and testis, altering steroid hormone levels and steroidogenic genes expression related to the synthesis of sex hormones in zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. cDNA nucleotide sequence coding for stearoyl-CoA desaturase and its expression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S L; Liu, R W; Wu, C H; Cheng, W T; Kuo, Ching-Ming

    2003-12-01

    A cDNA sequence of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was determined from zebrafish (Danio rerio) and compared to the corresponding genes in several teleosts. Zebrafish SCD cDNA has a size of 1,061 bp, encodes a polypeptide of 325 amino acids, and shares 88, 85, 84, and 83% similarities with tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and milkfish (Chanos chanos), respectively. This 1,061 bp sequence specifies a protein that, in common with other fatty acid desaturases, contains three histidine boxes, believed to be involved in catalysis. These observations suggested that SCD genes are highly conserved. In addition, an oligonucleotide probe complementary to zebrafish SCD mRNA was hybridized to mRNA of approximately 396 bases with Northern blot analysis. The Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the SCD mRNA was expressed predominantly in the liver, intestine, gill, and muscle, while a lower level was found in the brain. Furthermore, we utilized whole-mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative RT-PCR to identify expression of the zebrafish SCD gene at five different stages of development. This revealed that very high levels of transcripts were found in zebrafish at all stages during embryogenesis and early development. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. In vivo spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography imaging of a far red fluorescent protein expressed in the exocrine pancreas of adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengyang; Schmitner, Nicole; Sandrian, Michelle G.; Zabihian, Behrooz; Hermann, Boris; Salvenmoser, Willi; Meyer, Dirk; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins brought a revolution in life sciences and biological research in that they make a powerful tool for researchers to study not only the structural and morphological information, but also dynamic and functional information in living cells and organisms. While green fluorescent proteins (GFP) have become a common labeling tool, red-shifted or even near infrared fluorescent proteins are becoming the research focus due to the fact that longer excitation wavelengths are more suitable for deep tissue imaging. In this study, E2-Crimson, a far red fluorescent protein whose excitation wavelength is 611 nm, was genetically expressed in the exocrine pancreas of adult zebrafish. Using spectroscopic all optical detection photoacoustic tomography, we mapped the distribution of E2-Crimson in 3D after imaging the transgenic zebrafish in vivo using two different wavelengths. With complementary morphological information provided by imaging the same fish using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system, the E2-Crimson distribution acquired from spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography was confirmed in 2D by epifluorescence microscopy and in 3D by histology. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time a far red fluorescent protein is imaged in vivo by spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography. Due to the regeneration feature of zebrafish pancreas, this work preludes the longitudinal studies of animal models of diseases such as pancreatitis by spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography. Since the effective penetration depth of photoacoustic tomography is beyond the transport mean free path length, other E2-Crimson labeled inner organs will also be able to be studied dynamically using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography.

  12. Effects of specific and prolonged expression of zebrafish growth factors, Fgf2 and Lif in primordial germ cells in vivo

    SciT

    Wong, Ten-Tsao, E-mail: wong20@purdue.edu; Collodi, Paul

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discovered that nanos3 3 Prime UTR prolonged PGC-specific protein expression up to 26 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Fgf2 in PGCs significantly increased PGC number at later developmental stages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Lif in PGCs resulted in a significant disruption of PGC migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lif illicited its effect on PGC migration through Lif receptor a. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our approach could be used to achieve prolonged PGC-specific expression of other proteins. -- Abstract: Primordial germ cells (PGCs), specified early in development, proliferate and migrate to the developing gonad before sexual differentiation occurs in the embryo and eventually give rise tomore » spermatogonia or oogonia. In this study, we discovered that nanos3 3 Prime UTR, a common method used to label PGCs, not only directed PGC-specific expression of DsRed but also prolonged this expression up to 26 days post fertilization (dpf) when DsRed-nanos3 3 Prime UTR hybrid mRNAs were introduced into 1- to 2-cell-stage embryos. As such, we employed this knowledge to express zebrafish leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif), basic fibroblast growth factor (Fgf2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the PGCs and evaluate their effects on PGC development in vivo for over a period of 3 weeks. The results show that expression of Fgf2 significantly increased PGC number at 14- and 21-dpf while Bmp4 resulted in severe ventralization and death of the embryos by 3 days. Expression of Lif resulted in a significant disruption of PGC migration. Mopholino knockdown experiments indicated that Lif illicited its effect on PGC migration through Lif receptor a (Lifra) but not Lifrb. The general approach described in this study could be used to achieve prolonged PGC-specific expression of other proteins to investigate their roles in germ cell and gonad development. The results also indicate that zebrafish

  13. A targeted gene expression platform allows for rapid analysis of chemical-induced antioxidant mRNA expression in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Mills, Margaret G; Gallagher, Evan P

    2017-01-01

    Chemical-induced oxidative stress and the biochemical pathways that protect against oxidative damage are of particular interest in the field of toxicology. To rapidly identify oxidative stress-responsive gene expression changes in zebrafish, we developed a targeted panel of antioxidant genes using the Affymetrix QuantiGene Plex (QGP) platform. The genes contained in our panel include eight putative Nrf2 (Nfe2l2a)-dependent antioxidant genes (hmox1a, gstp1, gclc, nqo1, prdx1, gpx1a, sod1, sod2), a stress response gene (hsp70), an inducible DNA damage repair gene (gadd45bb), and three reference genes (actb1, gapdh, hprt1). We tested this platform on larval zebrafish exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) and cadmium (Cd), two model oxidative stressors with different modes of action, and compared our results with those obtained using the more common quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. Both methods showed that exposure to tBHP and Cd induced expression of prdx1, gstp1, and hmox1a (2- to 12-fold increase via QGP), indicative of an activated Nrf2 response in larval zebrafish. Both compounds also elicited a general stress response as reflected by elevation of hsp70 and gadd45bb, with Cd being the more potent inducer. Transient changes were observed in sod2 and gpx1a expression, whereas nqo1, an Nrf2-responsive gene in mammalian cells, was minimally affected by either tBHP or Cd chemical exposures. Developmental expression analysis of the target genes by QGP revealed marked upregulation of sod2 between 0-96hpf, and to a lesser extent, of sod1 and gstp1. Once optimized, QGP analysis of these experiments was accomplished more rapidly, using far less tissue, and at lower total costs than qPCR analysis. In summary, the QGP platform as applied to higher-throughput zebrafish studies provides a reasonable cost-effective alternative to qPCR or more comprehensive transcriptomics approaches to rapidly assess the potential for chemicals to elicit oxidative stress as a mechanism of

  14. The effect of excess expression of GFP in a novel heart-specific green fluorescence zebrafish regulated by nppa enhancer at early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Deng, Yun; Dong, Wei; Yuan, Wuzhou; Wan, Yongqi; Mo, Xiaoyan; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Zequn; Wang, Yuequn; Ocorr, Karen; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Shuo; Wu, Xiushan

    2011-02-01

    In order to study the impalpable effect of GFP in homozygous heart-specific GFP-positive zebrafish during the early stage, the researchers analyzed the heart function of morphology and physiology at the first 3 days after fertilization. This zebrafish line was produced by a large-scale Tol2 transposon mediated enhancer trap screen that generated a transgenic zebrafish with a heart-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged under control of the nppa enhancer. In situ hybridization experiments showed that the nppa:GFP line faithfully recapitulated both the spatial and temporal expressions of the endogenous nppa. Green fluorescence was intensively and specifically expressed in the myocardial cells located both in the heart chambers and in the atrioventricular canal. The embryonic heart of nppa:GFP line developed normally compared with those in the wild type. There was no difference between the nappa:GFP and wild type lines with respect to heart rate, overall size, ejection volume, and fractional shortening. Thus the excess expression of GFP in this transgenic line seemed to exert no detrimental effects on zebrafish hearts during the early stages.

  15. Sex differences in DNA methylation and expression in zebrafish brain: a test of an extended 'male sex drive' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Rodger, Euan J; Zhen, Li; Stockwell, Peter A; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Horsfield, Julia A; Jeyakani, Justin; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ozaki, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-09-30

    The sex drive hypothesis predicts that stronger selection on male traits has resulted in masculinization of the genome. Here we test whether such masculinizing effects can be detected at the level of the transcriptome and methylome in the adult zebrafish brain. Although methylation is globally similar, we identified 914 specific differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) between males and females (435 were hypermethylated and 479 were hypomethylated in males compared to females). These DMCs were prevalent in gene body, intergenic regions and CpG island shores. We also discovered 15 distinct CpG clusters with striking sex-specific DNA methylation differences. In contrast, at transcriptome level, more female-biased genes than male-biased genes were expressed, giving little support for the male sex drive hypothesis. Our study provides genome-wide methylome and transcriptome assessment and sheds light on sex-specific epigenetic patterns and in zebrafish for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Overlapping but distinct topology for zebrafish V2R-like olfactory receptors reminiscent of odorant receptor spatial expression zones.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Reichel, Vera; Kowatschew, Daniel; Syed, Adnan S; Kotagiri, Aswani Kumar; Oka, Yuichiro; Weth, Franco; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2018-05-23

    The sense of smell is unrivaled in terms of molecular complexity of its input channels. Even zebrafish, a model vertebrate system in many research fields including olfaction, possesses several hundred different olfactory receptor genes, organized in four different gene families. For one of these families, the initially discovered odorant receptors proper, segregation of expression into distinct spatial subdomains within a common sensory surface has been observed both in teleost fish and in mammals. However, for the remaining three families, little to nothing was known about their spatial coding logic. Here we wished to investigate, whether the principle of spatial segregation observed for odorant receptors extends to another olfactory receptor family, the V2R-related OlfC genes. Furthermore we thought to examine, how expression of OlfC genes is integrated into expression zones of odorant receptor genes, which in fish share a single sensory surface with OlfC genes. To select representative genes, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic study of the zebrafish OlfC family, which identified a novel OlfC gene, reduced the number of pseudogenes to 1, and brought the total family size to 60 intact OlfC receptors. We analyzed the spatial pattern of OlfC-expressing cells for seven representative receptors in three dimensions (height within the epithelial layer, horizontal distance from the center of the olfactory organ, and height within the olfactory organ). We report non-random distributions of labeled neurons for all OlfC genes analysed. Distributions for sparsely expressed OlfC genes are significantly different from each other in nearly all cases, broad overlap notwithstanding. For two of the three coordinates analyzed, OlfC expression zones are intercalated with those of odorant receptor zones, whereas in the third dimension some segregation is observed. Our results show that V2R-related OlfC genes follow the same spatial logic of expression as odorant receptors and

  17. In Vivo Imaging of Transgenic Gene Expression in Individual Retinal Progenitors in Chimeric Zebrafish Embryos to Study Cell Nonautonomous Influences.

    PubMed

    Dudczig, Stefanie; Currie, Peter D; Poggi, Lucia; Jusuf, Patricia R

    2017-03-22

    The genetic and technical strengths have made the zebrafish vertebrate a key model organism in which the consequences of gene manipulations can be traced in vivo throughout the rapid developmental period. Multiple processes can be studied including cell proliferation, gene expression, cell migration and morphogenesis. Importantly, the generation of chimeras through transplantations can be easily performed, allowing mosaic labeling and tracking of individual cells under the influence of the host environment. For example, by combining functional gene manipulations of the host embryo (e.g., through morpholino microinjection) and live imaging, the effects of extrinsic, cell nonautonomous signals (provided by the genetically modified environment) on individual transplanted donor cells can be assessed. Here we demonstrate how this approach is used to compare the onset of fluorescent transgene expression as a proxy for the timing of cell fate determination in different genetic host environments. In this article, we provide the protocol for microinjecting zebrafish embryos to mark donor cells and to cause gene knockdown in host embryos, a description of the transplantation technique used to generate chimeric embryos, and the protocol for preparing and running in vivo time-lapse confocal imaging of multiple embryos. In particular, performing multiposition imaging is crucial when comparing timing of events such as the onset of gene expression. This requires data collection from multiple control and experimental embryos processed simultaneously. Such an approach can easily be extended for studies of extrinsic influences in any organ or tissue of choice accessible to live imaging, provided that transplantations can be targeted easily according to established embryonic fate maps.

  18. Pineal-specific expression of green fluorescent protein under the control of the serotonin-N-acetyltransferase gene regulatory regions in transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gothilf, Yoav; Toyama, Reiko; Coon, Steven L; Du, Shao-Jun; Dawid, Igor B; Klein, David C

    2002-11-01

    Zebrafish serotonin-N-acetyltransferase-2 (zfAANAT-2) mRNA is exclusively expressed in the pineal gland (epiphysis) at the embryonic stage. Here, we have initiated an effort to study the mechanisms underlying tissue-specific expression of this gene. DNA constructs were prepared in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by regulatory regions of the zfAANAT-2 gene. In vivo transient expression analysis in zebrafish embryos indicated that in addition to the 5'-flanking region, a regulatory sequence in the 3'-flanking region is required for pineal-specific expression. This finding led to an effort to produce transgenic lines expressing GFP under the control of the 5' and 3' regulatory regions of the zfAANAT-2 gene. Embryos transiently expressing GFP were raised to maturity and tested for germ cell transmission of the transgene. Three transgenic lines were produced in which GFP fluorescence in the pineal was detected starting 1 to 2 days after fertilization. One line was crossed with mindbomb and floating head mutants that cause abnormal development of the pineal and an elevation or reduction of zfAANAT-2 mRNA levels, respectively. Homozygous mutant transgenic embryos exhibited similar effects on GFP expression in the pineal gland. These observations indicate that the transgenic lines described here will be useful in studying the development of the pineal gland and the mechanisms that determine pineal-specific gene expression in the zebrafish. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. tortuga refines Notch pathway gene expression in the zebrafish presomitic mesoderm at the post-transcriptional level.

    PubMed

    Dill, Kariena K; Amacher, Sharon L

    2005-11-15

    We have identified the zebrafish tortuga (tor) gene by an ENU-induced mutation that disrupts the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) expression of Notch pathway genes. In tor mutants, Notch pathway gene expression persists in regions of the PSM where expression is normally off in wild type embryos. The expression of hairy/Enhancer of split-related 1 (her1) is affected first, followed by the delta genes deltaC and deltaD, and finally, by another hairy/Enhancer of split-related gene, her7. In situ hybridization with intron-specific probes for her1 and deltaC indicates that transcriptional bursts of expression are normal in tor mutants, suggesting that tor normally functions to refine her1 and deltaC message levels downstream of transcription. Despite the striking defects in Notch pathway gene expression, somite boundaries form normally in tor mutant embryos, although somitic mesoderm defects are apparent later, when cells mature to form muscle fibers. Thus, while the function of Notch pathway genes is required for proper somite formation, the tor mutant phenotype suggests that precise oscillations of Notch pathway transcripts are not essential for establishing segmental pattern in the presomitic mesoderm.

  20. Comprehensive gene and microRNA expression profiling on cardiovascular system in zebrafish co-exposured of SiNPs and MeHg.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hejing; Shi, Yanfeng; Zhang, Yannan; Wu, Jing; Asweto, Collins Otieno; Feng, Lin; Yang, Xiaozhe; Duan, Junchao; Sun, Zhiwei

    2017-12-31

    Air pollution has been shown to increase cardiovascular diseases. However, little attention has been paid to the combined effects of PM and air pollutants on the cardiovascular system. To explore this, a high-throughput sequencing technology was used to determine combined effects of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and MeHg in zebrafish. Our study demonstrated that SiNPs and MeHg co-exposure could cause significant changes in mRNA and miRNA expression patterns in zebrafish. The differentially expressed (DE) genes in profiles 17 and 26 of STC analysis suggest that SiNPs and MeHg co-exposure had more proinflammatory and cardiovascular toxicity in zebrafish than single exposure. Major gene functions associated with cardiovascular system in the co-exposed zebrafish were discerned from the dynamic-gene-network, including stxbp1a, celf4, ahr1b and bai2. In addition, the prominently expressed pathway of cardiac muscle contraction was targeted by 3 DE miRNAs identified by the miRNA-pathway-network (dre-miR-7147, dre-miR-26a and dre-miR-375), which included 23 DE genes. This study presents a global view of the combined SiNPs and MeHg toxicity on the dynamic expression of both mRNAs and miRNAs in zebrafish, and could serve as fundamental research clues for future studies, especially on cardiovascular system toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ectopic expression of hoxb2 after retinoic acid treatment or mRNA injection: disruption of hindbrain and craniofacial morphogenesis in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y L; Jowett, T; Postlethwait, J H

    1998-12-01

    To investigate pattern formation in the vertebrate hindbrain, we isolated a full length hoxb2 cDNA clone from zebrafish. In a gene phylogeny, zebrafish hoxb2 clusters with human HOXB2, and it maps on linkage group 3 along with several other loci whose orthologues are syntenic with human HOXB2. In the hindbrain, hoxb2 is expressed at high levels in rhombomere 3 (r3), lower levels in r4, still lower in r5, and at undetectable levels in r6. In r7, r8, and the rostral spinal cord, hoxb2 is expressed at a lower level than in r5. Lateral cells appearing to emanate from r4 express both hoxb2 and dlx2, suggesting that they are neural crest. Overexpression of hoxb2 by mRNA injections into early cleavage stage embryos resulted in abnormal morphogenesis of the midbrain and rostral hindbrain, abnormal patterning in r4, fusion of cartilage elements arising from pharyngeal arches 1 and 2, and ectopic expression of krx20 and valentino (but not pax2, rtk1, or hoxb1) in the rostral hindbrain, midbrain, and, surprisingly, the eye. Treatments with retinoic acid produced a phenotype similar to that of ectopic hoxb2 expression, including ectopic krx20 (but not valentino) expression in the eye, and fusion of cartilages from pharyngeal arches 1 and 2. The results suggest that hoxb2 plays an important role in the patterning of hindbrain and pharyngeal arches in the zebrafish.

  2. The ventralizing activity of Radar, a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein, reveals complex bone morphogenetic protein interactions controlling dorso-ventral patterning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Goutel, C; Kishimoto, Y; Schulte-Merker, S; Rosa, F

    2000-12-01

    In Xenopus and zebrafish, BMP2, 4 and 7 have been implicated, after the onset of zygotic expression, in inducing and maintaining ventro-lateral cell fate during early development. We provide evidence here that a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Radar, may control early ventral specification in zebrafish. We show that Radar ventralizes zebrafish embryos and induces the early expression of bmp2b and bmp4. The analysis of Radar overexpression in both swirl/bmp2b mutants and embryos expressing truncated BMP receptors shows that Radar-induced ventralization is dependent on functional BMP2/4 pathways, and may initially rely on an Alk6-related signaling pathway. Finally, we show that while radar-injected swirl embryos still exhibit a strongly dorsalized phenotype, the overexpression of Radar into swirl/bmp2b mutant embryos restores ventral marker expression, including bmp4 expression. Our results suggest that a complex regulation of different BMP pathways controls dorso-ventral (DV) patterning from early cleavage stages until somitogenesis.

  3. Eye-Specific Gene Expression following Embryonic Ethanol Exposure in Zebrafish: Roles for Heat Shock Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Bhavani; Pegorsch, Laurel; Frey, Ruth A.; Sun, Chi; Shelden, Eric A.; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms through which ethanol exposure results in developmental defects remain unclear. We used the zebrafish model to elucidate eye-specific mechanisms that underlie ethanol-mediated microphthalmia (reduced eye size), through time-series microarray analysis of gene expression within eyes of embryos exposed to 1.5% ethanol. 62 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in ethanol-treated as compared to control eyes sampled during retinal neurogenesis (24-48 hours post-fertilization). The EDGE (extraction of differential gene expression) algorithm identified >3000 genes DE over developmental time in ethanol-exposed eyes as compared to controls. The DE lists included several genes indicating a mis-regulated cellular stress response due to ethanol exposure. Combined treatment with sub-threshold levels of ethanol and a morpholino targeting heat shock factor 1 mRNA resulted in microphthalmia, suggesting convergent molecular pathways. Thermal preconditioning partially prevented ethanol-mediated microphthalmia while maintaining Hsf-1 expression. These data suggest roles for reduced Hsf-1 in mediating microphthalmic effects of embryonic ethanol exposure. PMID:24355176

  4. Cobalt-induced genotoxicity in male zebrafish (Danio rerio), with implications for reproduction and expression of DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Reinardy, Helena C; Syrett, James R; Jeffree, Ross A; Henry, Theodore B; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2013-01-15

    Although cobalt (Co) is an environmental contaminant of surface waters in both radioactive (e.g. (60)Co) and non-radioactive forms, there is relatively little information about Co toxicity in fishes. The objective of this study was to investigate acute and chronic toxicity of Co in zebrafish, with emphasis on male genotoxicity and implications for reproductive success. The lethal concentration for 50% mortality (LC(50)) in larval zebrafish exposed (96 h) to 0-50 mg l(-1) Co was 35.3 ± 1.1 (95%C.I.) mg l(-1) Co. Adult zebrafish were exposed (13 d) to sub-lethal (0-25 mg l(-1)) Co and allowed to spawn every 4 d and embryos were collected. After 12-d exposure, fertilisation rate was reduced (6% total eggs fertilised, 25 mg l(-1)) and embryo survival to hatching decreased (60% fertilised eggs survived, 25 mg l(-1)). A concentration-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks was detected in sperm from males exposed (13 d) to Co, and DNA damage in sperm returned to control levels after males recovered for 6 d in clean water. Induction of DNA repair genes (rad51, xrcc5, and xrcc6) in testes was complex and not directly related to Co concentration, although there was significant induction in fish exposed to 15 and 25 mg l(-1) Co relative to controls. Induction of 4.0 ± 0.9, 2.5 ± 0.7, and 3.1 ± 0.7-fold change (mean ± S.E.M. for rad51, xrcc5, and xrcc6, respectively) was observed in testes at the highest Co concentration (25 mg l(-1)). Expression of these genes was not altered in offspring (larvae) spawned after 12-d exposure. Chronic exposure to Co resulted in DNA damage in sperm, induction of DNA repair genes in testes, and indications of reduced reproductive success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of thyroid endocrine manipulation on sex-related gene expression and population sex ratios in Zebrafish

    Sharma, Prakash; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone reportedly induces masculinization of genetic females and goitrogen treatment delays testicular differentiation (ovary-to-testis transformation) in genetic males of Zebrafish. This study explored potential molecular mechanisms of these phenomena. Zebrafish were treated with thyroxine (T4, 2 nM), goitrogen [methimazole (MZ), 0.15 mM], MZ (0.15 mM) and T4 (2 nM) (rescue treatment), or reconstituted water (control) from 3 to 33 days postfertilization (dpf) and maintained in control water until 45 dpf. Whole fish were collected during early (25 dpf) and late (45 dpf) testicular differentiation for transcript abundance analysis of selected male (dmrt1, amh, ar) and female (cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, esr2b) sex-related genes by quantitative RT-PCR, and fold-changes relative to control values were determined. Additional fish were sampled at 45 dpf for histological assessment of gonadal sex. The T4 and rescue treatments caused male-biased populations, and T4 alone induced precocious puberty in ∼50% of males. Male-biased sex ratios were accompanied by increased expression of amh and ar and reduced expression of cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, and esr2b at 25 and 45 dpf and, unexpectedly, reduced expression of dmrt1 at 45 dpf. Goitrogen exposure increased the proportion of individuals with ovaries (per previous studies interpreted as delay in testicular differentiation of genetic males), and at 25 and 45 dpf reduced the expression of amh and ar and increased the expression of esr1 (only at 25 dpf), esr2a, and esr2b. Notably, cyp19a1a transcript was reduced but via non-thyroidal pathways (not restored by rescue treatment). In conclusion, the masculinizing activity of T4 at the population level may be due to its ability to inhibit female and stimulate male sex-related genes in larvae, while the inability of MZ to induce cyp19a1a, which is necessary for ovarian differentiation, may explain why its “feminizing” activity on gonadal

  6. Effects of thyroid endocrine manipulation on sex-related gene expression and population sex ratios in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prakash; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid hormone reportedly induces masculinization of genetic females and goitrogen treatment delays testicular differentiation (ovary-to-testis transformation) in genetic males of Zebrafish. This study explored potential molecular mechanisms of these phenomena. Zebrafish were treated with thyroxine (T4, 2nM), goitrogen [methimazole (MZ), 0.15mM], MZ (0.15mM) and T4 (2nM) (rescue treatment), or reconstituted water (control) from 3 to 33days postfertilization (dpf) and maintained in control water until 45dpf. Whole fish were collected during early (25dpf) and late (45dpf) testicular differentiation for transcript abundance analysis of selected male (dmrt1, amh, ar) and female (cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, esr2b) sex-related genes by quantitative RT-PCR, and fold-changes relative to control values were determined. Additional fish were sampled at 45dpf for histological assessment of gonadal sex. The T4 and rescue treatments caused male-biased populations, and T4 alone induced precocious puberty in ∼50% of males. Male-biased sex ratios were accompanied by increased expression of amh and ar and reduced expression of cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, and esr2b at 25 and 45dpf and, unexpectedly, reduced expression of dmrt1 at 45dpf. Goitrogen exposure increased the proportion of individuals with ovaries (per previous studies interpreted as delay in testicular differentiation of genetic males), and at 25 and 45dpf reduced the expression of amh and ar and increased the expression of esr1 (only at 25dpf), esr2a, and esr2b. Notably, cyp19a1a transcript was reduced but via non-thyroidal pathways (not restored by rescue treatment). In conclusion, the masculinizing activity of T4 at the population level may be due to its ability to inhibit female and stimulate male sex-related genes in larvae, while the inability of MZ to induce cyp19a1a, which is necessary for ovarian differentiation, may explain why its "feminizing" activity on gonadal sex is not permanent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Early exposure to caffeine affects gene expression of adenosine receptors, DARPP-32 and BDNF without affecting sensibility and morphology of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Nazario, Luiza Reali; Pohlmann, Julhana Bianchini; de Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Fazenda, Lidiane; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine receptors are the most important biochemical targets of caffeine, a common trimethylxanthine found in food and beverages. Adenosine plays modulatory action during the development through adenosine receptors and their intracellular pathways activation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if caffeine gave to zebrafish in the very first steps of development is able to affect its direct targets, through the adenosine receptors mRNA expression evaluation, and latter indirect targets, through evaluation of the pattern of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression. Here, we demonstrate that zebrafish express adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A1, A2A2 and A2B) since 24h post-fertilization (hpf) and that caffeine exposure is able to affect the expression of these receptors. Caffeine exposure from 1 hpf is able to increase A1 expression at 72-96 hpf and A2A1 expression at 72 hpf. No alterations occurred in A2A2 and A2B expression after caffeine treatment. DARPP-32, a phosphoprotein involved in adenosine intracellular pathway is also expressed since 24 hpf and early exposure to caffeine increased DARPP-32 expression at 168 hpf. We also evaluate the expression of BDNF as one of the targets of adenosine intracellular pathway activation. BDNF was also expressed since 24 hpf and caffeine treatment increased its expression at 48 and 72 hpf. No morphological alterations induced by caffeine treatment were registered by the check of general body features and total body length. Assessment of tactile sensibility also demonstrated no alterations by caffeine treatment. Altogether, these results suggest that caffeine is able to affect expression of its cellular targets since early phases of development in zebrafish without affect visible features. The up-regulation of direct and indirect targets of caffeine presents as a compensatory mechanism of maintenance of adenosinergic modulation during the developmental phase

  8. PFOS, PFNA, and PFOA Sub-Lethal Exposure to Embryonic Zebrafish Have Different Toxicity Profiles in Terms of Morphometrics, Behavior and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jantzen, Carrie E.; Annunziato, Kate A.; Bugel, Sean M.; Cooper, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a class of anthropogenic, persistent and toxic chemicals. PFCs are detected worldwide and consist of fluorinated carbon chains of varying length, terminal groups, and industrial uses. Previous zebrafish studies in the literature as well as our own studies have shown that exposure to these chemicals at a low range of concentrations (0.02 µM – 2.0 µM; 20–2000 ppb) resulted in chemical specific developmental defects and reduced post hatch survival. It was hypothesized that sub-lethal embryonic exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) would result in different responses with regard to morphometric, behavior, and gene expression in both yolk sac fry and larval zebrafish. Zebrafish were exposed to PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA (0.02, 0.2, 2.0 µM) for the first five days post fertilization (dpf) and analyzed for morphometrics (5 dpf, 14 dpf), targeted gene expression (5 dpf, 14 dpf), and locomotive behavior (14 dpf). All three PFCs commonly resulted in a decrease in total body length, increased tfc3a (muscle development) expression and decreased ap1s (protein transport) expression at 5dpf, and hyperactive locomotor activity 14 dpf. All other endpoints measured at both life-stage time points varied between each of the PFCs. PFOS, PFNA, and PFOA exposure resulted in significantly altered responses in terms of morphometric, locomotion, and gene expression endpoints, which could be manifested in field exposed teleosts. PMID:27058923

  9. Effects of postprandial starvation on mRNA expression of endocrine-, amino acid and peptide transporter-, and metabolic enzyme-related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Tian, Juan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Liu, Chengdong

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to systematically evaluate the molecular activities of endocrine-, amino acid and peptide transporters-, and metabolic enzyme-related genes in 35-day-old mixed-sex zebrafish (Danio rerio) after feeding . Zebrafish with initial body weights ranging from 9 to 11 mg were fasted for 384 h in a controlled indoor environment. Fish were sampled at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, and 384 h after fed. Overall, the present study results show that the regulatory mechanism that insulin-like growth factor I negative feedback regulated growth hormone is conserved in zebrafish, as it is in mammals, but that regulation of growth hormone receptors is highly intricate. Leptin and cholecystokinin are time-dependent negative feedback signals, and neuropeptide Y may be an important positive neuropeptide for food intake in zebrafish. The amino acid/carnitine transporters B(0,+) (ATB(0,+)) and broad neutral (0) amino acid transporter 1(B(0)AT1) mRNA levels measured in our study suggest that protein may be utilized during 24-96 h of fasting in zebrafish. Glutamine synthetase mRNA levels were downregulated, and glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, and trypsin mRNA levels were upregulated after longtime fasting in this study. The mRNA expression levels of fatty acid synthetase decreased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas those of lipoprotein lipase rapidly increased after 96 h of fasting. Fasting activated the expression of glucose synthesis genes when fasting for short periods of time; when fasting is prolonged, the mRNA levels of glucose breakdown enzymes and pentose phosphate shunt genes decreased.

  10. Methylparaben induces malformations and alterations on apoptosis, oxidant-antioxidant status, ccnd1 and myca expressions in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Perihan Seda; Ünal, İsmail; Üstündağ, Ünsal Veli; Alturfan, Ahmet Ata; Yiğitbaşı, Türkan; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru

    2018-03-01

    Methylparabens (MP) are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, pharmacy, and food industry. Although acute toxicity studies in animals indicated that parabens are not significantly toxic, the effects of chronic exposure under sublethal doses are still unknown and the number of related studies is limited. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of MP on the development of zebrafish embryos focusing on development, locomotor activity, oxidant-antioxidant status, apoptosis, and ccnd1 and myca expressions. The expressions of ccnd1 and myca were determined by RT-PCR. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Apoptosis was determined using acridine orange staining. Locomotor activity was measured using touch-evoked movement test. MP exposure increased malformations, LPO, apoptosis, ccnd1 and myca expressions, and decreased GST activities and NO levels compared with the control group. Our findings will lead to further understanding of the mechanism of MP toxicity, and merit further research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The paired domain-containing nuclear factor pax[b] is expressed in specific commissural interneurons in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, I; Fjose, A; Kuwada, J Y; Wilson, S; Guddal, P H; Krauss, S

    1992-10-01

    The zebrafish paired box (Pax) genes are expressed in the early neural tube and are thought to be transcription factors that regulate the differentiation of cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The protein product of one of these Pax genes, pax[b], is detectable as a nuclear antigen in all the regions of the embryo that transcribe the gene including the posterior midbrain, the nephritic primordium, the Wolffian duct, the optic stalk, and, in specific neurons, in the hindbrain and spinal cord. The timing and pattern of axonal outgrowth by the early pax[b]-positive neurons suggest that they are the commissural secondary ascending (CoSA) interneurons in the spinal cord; the primary commissural interneurons (MiD2c and MiD3c) in hindbrain rhombomeres mi2 and mi3; and a previously unclassified set of commissural interneurons that we termed the commissural caudalrhombomere ascending (CoCaA) interneurons in the caudal hindbrain. In contrast, the Mauthner interneurons do not express pax[b] early in development. Shortly after the appearance of the first pax[b]-positive interneurons, additional nuclei adjacent to the first pax[b]-positive interneurons become pax[b] positive. This pattern of expression suggests that the pax[b] protein may be involved in determining the identity of specific commissural interneurons.

  12. Changes in ultrastructure and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in ovaries of zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Armiliato, Neide; Ammar, Dib; Nezzi, Luciane; Straliotto, Marcos; Muller, Yara M R; Nazari, Evelise M

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum organophosphate (OP) herbicide, highly soluble in water, and when applied in terrestrial systems it penetrates into soil, eventually reaching the aquatic community and affecting nontarget organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of glyphosate on ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ovaries (n = 18 per triplicate) were exposed to 65 μg/L of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] for 15 d. This concentration was determined according to Resolution 357/2005/CONAMA/Brazil, which establishes the permissible concentration of glyphosate in Brazilian inland waters. Nonexposed ovaries (n = 18 per triplicate) were used as control. Subsequently, morphology and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) of exposed and nonexposed ovaries was determined. No apparent changes were noted in general morphology of exposed and nonexposed ovaries. However, a significant increase in diameter of oocytes was observed after exposure to glyphosate. When ovarian ultrastructure was examined the presence of concentric membranes, appearing as myelin-like structures, associated with the external membranes of mitochondria and with yolk granules was found. After glyphosate exposure, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting revealed greater expression of SF-1 in the oocytes, which suggests a relationship between oocyte growth and SF-1 expression. These subtle adverse effects of glyphosate on oocytes raised a potential concern for fish reproduction. These results contribute to understanding glyphosate-induced toxicity to nontarget organisms, showing subcellular and molecular impairments that may affect reproduction in +female fish.

  13. Integration of zebrafish fin regeneration genes with expression data of human tumors in silico uncovers potential novel melanoma markers.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Martin; Siegfried, Géraldine; Hooks, Katarzyna B; Khatib, Abdel-Majid

    2016-11-01

    Tissue regeneration requires expression of a large, unknown number of genes to initiate and maintain cellular processes such as proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, differentiation and migration. A unique model to simulate this process in a controlled manner is the re-growth of the caudal fin of zebrafish after amputation. Within this tissue stem cells differentiate into fibroblasts, epithelial and endothelial cells as well as melanocytes. Many genes implicated in the regeneration process are deregulated in cancer. We therefore undertook a systematic gene expression study to identify genes upregulated during the re-growth of caudal fin tissue. By applying a high stringency cut-off value of 4-fold change, we identified 54 annotated genes significantly overexpressed in regenerating blastema. Further bioinformatics data mining studies showed that 22 out of the 54 regeneration genes where overexpressed in melanoma compared to normal skin or other cancers. Whereas the role of TNC (tenascin C) and FN1 (fibronectin 1) in melanoma development is well documented, implication of MARCKS, RCN3, BAMBI, PEA3/ETV4 and the FK506 family members FKBP7, FKBP10 and FKBP11 in melanoma progression is unclear. Corresponding proteins were detected in melanoma tissue but not in normal skin. High expression of FKBP7, DPYSL5 and MDK was significantly associated with poor survival. We discuss a potential role of these novel melanoma genes, which have promising potential as new therapeutic targets or diagnostic markers.

  14. Identification of Zebrafish Fxyd11a Protein that is Highly Expressed in Ion-Transporting Epithelium of the Gill and Skin and its Possible Role in Ion Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kaori; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Ito, Yusuke; Hoshijima, Kazuyuki; Esaki, Masahiro; Zhao, Boqiang; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2010-01-01

    FXYD proteins, small single-transmembrane proteins, have been proposed to be auxiliary regulatory subunits of Na+–K+-ATPase and have recently been implied in ion osmoregulation of teleost fish. In freshwater (FW) fish, numerous ions are actively taken up through mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) of the gill and skin epithelia, using the Na+ electrochemical gradient generated by Na+–K+-ATPase. In the present study, to understand the molecular mechanism for the regulation of Na+–K+-ATPase in MRCs of FW fish, we sought to identify FXYD proteins expressed in MRCs of zebrafish. Reverse-transcriptase PCR studies of adult zebrafish tissues revealed that, out of eight fxyd genes found in zebrafish database, only zebrafish fxyd11 (zfxyd11) mRNA exhibited a gill-specific expression. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that zFxyd11 is abundantly expressed in MRCs rich in Na+–K+-ATPase (NaK-MRCs) but not in those rich in vacuolar-type H+-transporting ATPase. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated its close association with Na+–K+-ATPase in NaK-MRCs. The zfxyd11 mRNA expression was detectable at 1 day postfertilization, and its expression levels in the whole larvae and adult gills were regulated in response to changes in environmental ionic concentrations. Furthermore, knockdown of zFxyd11 resulted in a significant increase in the number of Na+–K+-ATPase–positive cells in the larval skin. These results suggest that zFxyd11 may regulate the transport ability of NaK-MRCs by modulating Na+–K+-ATPase activity, and may be involved in the regulation of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. PMID:21423371

  15. Erk-Creb pathway suppresses glutathione-S-transferase pi expression under basal and oxidative stress conditions in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Andric, Nebojsa

    2016-01-05

    Transcriptional activation of phase II enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase pi class (Gst Pi) is important for redox regulation and defense from xenobiotics. The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and protein kinase B (Akt) in regulation of Gst Pi expression has been described using adult mammalian cells. Whether these signaling pathways contribute to Gst Pi expression during embryogenesis is unknown. Using zebrafish embryo model, we provide novel evidence that Erk signaling acts as a specific suppressor of gstp1-2 mRNA during early embryogenesis. Addition of Erk inhibitor U0126 enhanced gstp1-2 mRNA expression during transition from blastula to the segmentation stage and from pharyngula until the hatching stage. Basal Erk activity did not affect gstp1-2 expression in tert-butylhydroquinone-exposed embryos. Addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased Erk activity leading to suppression of gstp1-2 mRNA. Activation of cAMP/Creb pathway by forskolin prevented gstp1-2 expression, whereas U0126 suppressed Creb phosphorylation, thus setting up Creb as a proximal transmitter of Erk inhibitory effect. Collectively, these findings suggest that Erk-Creb pathway exerts suppressive effect on gstp1-2 mRNA in a narrow developmental window. This study also provides a novel link between Erk and gstp1-2 expression, setting apart a possible differential regulation of gstp1-2 in adult and embryonic cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial localization of EGF family ligands and receptors in the zebrafish ovarian follicle and their expression profiles during folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tse, Anna Chung-Kwan; Ge, Wei

    2010-07-01

    The roles of epidermal growth factor (EGF) family in the ovary have received increasing attention recently. Despite this, the production sites of EGF family members in the ovarian follicle still remain controversial. Using zebrafish as the model, the present study investigated spatial distribution of several EGF family ligands and receptors in the follicle as well as their temporal expression profiles during folliculogenesis. RT-PCR analysis on the somatic follicle layer and oocyte revealed that all EGF family ligands examined (egf, tgfa, btc and hbegf) were mostly or exclusively expressed in the oocyte. In contrast, their common receptor (egfr) was expressed exclusively in the follicle layer. By comparison, members of activin family showed an opposite pattern of distribution. Activin subunits (inhbaa and inhbb) were both expressed exclusively in the follicle layer whereas activin receptors and follistatin were abundantly present in the oocyte. During folliculogenesis, egf, tgfa and hbegf increased their expression together with egfr in the fast secondary growth phase. The developmental profiles of EGF family during embryogenesis appeared to argue for an important role for EGF family in folliculogenesis rather than embryogenesis as maternal molecules. The present study provided clear evidence for the existence of two paracrine pathways in the follicle, the oocyte-derived EGF family ligands and follicle cell-derived activins, which may mediate oocyte-to-follicle cell and follicle cell-to-oocyte communications, respectively. The functional relationship between these two signaling systems in the follicle is suggested by the observation that all four EGFR ligands examined significantly stimulated activin subunit expression in cultured follicle cells. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Zebrafish as a model for apolipoprotein biology: comprehensive expression analysis and a role for ApoA-IV in regulating food intake.

    PubMed

    Otis, Jessica P; Zeituni, Erin M; Thierer, James H; Anderson, Jennifer L; Brown, Alexandria C; Boehm, Erica D; Cerchione, Derek M; Ceasrine, Alexis M; Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Tempelhof, Hanoch; Yaniv, Karina; Farber, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Improved understanding of lipoproteins, particles that transport lipids throughout the circulation, is vital to developing new treatments for the dyslipidemias associated with metabolic syndrome. Apolipoproteins are a key component of lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are proteins that structure lipoproteins and regulate lipid metabolism through control of cellular lipid exchange. Constraints of cell culture and mouse models mean that there is a need for a complementary model that can replicate the complex in vivo milieu that regulates apolipoprotein and lipoprotein biology. Here, we further establish the utility of the genetically tractable and optically clear larval zebrafish as a model of apolipoprotein biology. Gene ancestry analyses were implemented to determine the closest human orthologs of the zebrafish apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, apoE and apoA-IV genes and therefore ensure that they have been correctly named. Their expression patterns throughout development were also analyzed, by whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH). The ISH results emphasized the importance of apolipoproteins in transporting yolk and dietary lipids: mRNA expression of all apolipoproteins was observed in the yolk syncytial layer, and intestinal and liver expression was observed from 4-6 days post-fertilization (dpf). Furthermore, real-time PCR confirmed that transcription of three of the four zebrafish apoA-IV genes was increased 4 hours after the onset of a 1-hour high-fat feed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that zebrafish ApoA-IV performs a conserved role to that in rat in the regulation of food intake by transiently overexpressing ApoA-IVb.1 in transgenic larvae and quantifying ingestion of co-fed fluorescently labeled fatty acid during a high-fat meal as an indicator of food intake. Indeed, ApoA-IVb.1 overexpression decreased food intake by approximately one-third. This study comprehensively describes the expression and function of eleven zebrafish apolipoproteins and

  18. A medium-chain fatty acid receptor Gpr84 in zebrafish: expression pattern and roles in immune regulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiaoyan; Feng, Dong; Liu, Kai; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Hongyan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shicui; Liu, Zhenhui

    2014-08-01

    Gpr84 was recently identified as a receptor for medium-chain fatty acids, but its functions remain to be clarified. We reported the identification of a zebrafish Gpr84 homologue (zGpr84), which has a higher gene expression in the tissues of intestine, heart and liver. During embryogenesis, zGpr84 is maternally expressed and a significant increase is observed at segmentation period, and it is mainly restricted to the head region, pectoral fins, branchial arches, intestine and lateral line neuromast. Fasting or treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce significant up-regulation of zGpr84. We further demonstrated that zGpr84 is involved in the accumulation of lipid droplets in cells. Moreover, undecanoic acid (UA) can amplify LPS induced production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 p40 through zGpr84, supporting the proposal that Gpr84 may play a role in directly linking fatty acid metabolism to immunological regulation. The resulting data in fish lay a foundation for a comprehensive exploration of the functions and evolution of Gpr84. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of a cis-acting element involved in cell-specific expression of the zebrafish brain aromatase gene.

    PubMed

    Le Page, Yann; Menuet, Arnaud; Kah, Olivier; Pakdel, Farzad

    2008-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 Aromatase is the key enzyme catalyzing the conversion of androgens into estrogens. In zebrafish, the brain aromatase is encoded by cyp19b. Expression of cyp19b is restricted to radial glial cells bordering forebrain ventricles and is strongly stimulated by estrogens during development. At the promoter level, we have previously shown that an estrogen responsive element (ERE) is required for induction by estrogens. Here, we investigated the role of ERE flanking regions in the control of cell-specific expression. First, we show that a 20 bp length motif, named G x RE (glial x responsive element), acts in synergy with the ERE to mediate the estrogenic induction specifically in glial cells. Second, we demonstrate that, in vitro, this sequence binds factors exclusively present in glial or neuro-glial cells and is able to confer a glial specificity to an artificial estrogen-dependent gene. Taken together, these results contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms allowing cyp19b regulation by estrogens and allowed to identify a promoter sequence involved in the strong estrogen inducibility of cyp19b which is specific for glial cells. The exceptional aromatase activity measured in the brain of teleost fish could rely on such mechanisms.

  20. Changes of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in zebrafish on early life stage exposure to triadimefon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoying; Chang, Juhua; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Guonian

    2011-11-01

    In this study, zebrafish was exposed to triadimefon. Thyroid hormones levels and the expression of related genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta), deiodinases (dio1 and dio2) and the thyroid hormone receptor (thraa and thrb) were evaluated. After triadimefon exposure, increased T4 can be explained by increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta). The conversion of T4 to T3 (deiodinase type I-dio1) was decreased, which reduced the T3 level. Thyroid hormone receptor beta (thrb) mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated, possibly as a response to the decreased T3 levels. The overall results indicated that triadimefon exposure could alter gene expression in the HPT axis and that mechanisms of disruption of thyroid status by triadimefon could occur at several steps in the synthesis, regulation, and action of thyroid hormones. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genomic, cDNA and embryonic expression analysis of zebrafish IRF6, the gene mutated in the human oral clefting disorders Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ben, Jin; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Chong, Samuel S

    2005-06-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) and popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) are autosomal dominant clefting disorders recently discovered to be caused by mutations in the IRF6 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 6) gene. The IRF gene family consists of nine members encoding transcription factors that share a highly conserved helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and a less conserved protein-binding domain. Most IRFs regulate the expression of interferon-alpha and -beta after viral infection, but the function of IRF6 remains unknown. We have isolated a full-length zebrafish irf6 cDNA, which encodes a 492 amino acid protein that contains a Smad-IRF interaction motif and a DNA-binding domain. The zebrafish irf6 gene consists of eight exons and maps to linkage group 22 closest to marker unp1375. By in situ hybridization analysis of embryo whole-mounts and cryosections, we demonstrate that irf6 is first expressed as a maternal transcript. During gastrulation, irf6 expression was concentrated in the forerunner cells. From the bud stage to the 3-somite stage, irf6 expression was observed in the Kupffer's vesicle. No expression could be detected at the 6-somite and 10-somite stages. At the 14-somite stage, expression was detected in the otic placode. At the 17-somite stage, strong expression was also observed in the cloaca. During the pharyngula, hatch and larva periods up to 5 days post-fertilization, irf6 was expressed in the pharyngeal arches, olfactory and otic placodes, and in the epithelial cells of endoderm derived tissues. The latter tissues include the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, endodermal lining of swim bladder, liver, exocrine pancreas, and associated ducts. Overall, the zebrafish expression data are consistent with the observations of lip pits in VWS patients, as well as more recent reports of alae nasi, otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss documented in some patients.

  2. Indomethacin treatment prior to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures downregulates the expression of il1b and cox2 and decreases seizure-like behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Patrícia Gonçalves; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Maurer-Morelli, Claudia Vianna

    2016-03-09

    It has been demonstrated that the zebrafish model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-evoked seizures and the well-established rodent models of epilepsy are similar pertaining to behavior, electrographic features, and c-fos expression. Although this zebrafish model is suitable for studying seizures, to date, inflammatory response after seizures has not been investigated using this model. Because a relationship between epilepsy and inflammation has been established, in the present study we investigated the transcript levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (il1b) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2a and cox2b) after PTZ-induced seizures in the brain of zebrafish 7 days post fertilization. Furthermore, we exposed the fish to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin prior to PTZ, and we measured its effect on seizure latency, number of seizure behaviors, and mRNA expression of il1b, cox2b, and c-fos. We used quantitative real-time PCR to assess the mRNA expression of il1b, cox2a, cox2b, and c-fos, and visual inspection was used to monitor seizure latency and the number of seizure-like behaviors. We found a short-term upregulation of il1b, and we revealed that cox2b, but not cox2a, was induced after seizures. Indomethacin treatment prior to PTZ-induced seizures downregulated the mRNA expression of il1b, cox2b, and c-fos. Moreover, we observed that in larvae exposed to indomethacin, seizure latency increased and the number of seizure-like behaviors decreased. This is the first study showing that il1b and cox-2 transcripts are upregulated following PTZ-induced seizures in zebrafish. In addition, we demonstrated the anticonvulsant effect of indomethacin based on (1) the inhibition of PTZ-induced c-fos transcription, (2) increase in seizure latency, and (3) decrease in the number of seizure-like behaviors. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect of indomethacin is clearly demonstrated by the downregulation of the mRNA expression of il1b and cox2b. Our results

  3. A novel keratin18 promoter that drives reporter gene expression in the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary system allows isolation of cell-type specific transcripts from zebrafish liver

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Gong, Weilong; Pack, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Heritable and acquired biliary disorders are an important cause of acute and chronic human liver disease. Biliary development and physiology have been studied extensively in rodent models and more recently, zebrafish have been used to uncover pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapies for these conditions. Here we report development of novel transgenic lines labeling the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary system of zebrafish larvae that can be used for lineage tracing and isolation of biliary-specific RNAs from mixed populations of liver cells. We show that GFP expression driven by a 4.4 kilobase promoter fragment from the zebrafish keratin18 (krt18) gene allows visualization of all components of the developing biliary system as early as 3 days post-fertilization. In addition, expression of a ribosomal fusion protein (EGFP-Rpl10a) in krt18:TRAP transgenic fish allows for enrichment of translated biliary cell mRNAs via translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP). Future studies utilizing these reagents will enhance our understanding of the morphologic and molecular processes involved in biliary development and disease. PMID:24394404

  4. Ectopic expression of cone-specific G-protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK7 in zebrafish rods leads to lower photosensitivity and altered responses

    PubMed Central

    Vogalis, F; Shiraki, T; Kojima, D; Wada, Y; Nishiwaki, Y; Jarvinen, J L P; Sugiyama, J; Kawakami, K; Masai, I; Kawamura, S; Fukada, Y; Lamb, T D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the roles of G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) in the light responses of vertebrate photoreceptors, we generated transgenic zebrafish lines, the rods of which express either cone GRK (GRK7) or rod GRK (GRK1) in addition to the endogenous GRK1, and we then measured the electrophysiological characteristics of single-cell responses and the behavioural responses of intact animals. Our study establishes the zebrafish expression system as a convenient platform for the investigation of specific components of the phototransduction cascade. The addition of GRK1 led to minor changes in rod responses. However, exogenous GRK7 in GRK7-tg animals led to lowered rod sensitivity, as occurs in cones, but surprisingly to slower response kinetics. Examination of responses to long series of very dim flashes suggested the possibility that the GRK7-tg rods generated two classes of single-photon response, perhaps corresponding to the interaction of activated rhodopsin with GRK1 (giving a standard response) or with GRK7 (giving a very small response). Behavioural measurement of optokinetic responses (OKR) in intact GRK7-tg zebrafish larvae showed that the overall rod visual pathway was less sensitive, in accord with the lowered sensitivity of the rods. These results help provide an understanding for the molecular basis of the electrophysiological differences between cones and rods. PMID:21486791

  5. Pou5f1-dependent EGF expression controls E-cad endocytosis, cell adhesion, and zebrafish epiboly movements

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sungmin; Eckerle, Stephanie; Onichtchouk, Daria; Marrs, James A.; Nitschke, Roland; Driever, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Initiation of motile cell behavior in embryonic development occurs during late blastula stages when gastrulation begins. At this stage, the strong adhesion of blastomeres has to be modulated to enable dynamic behavior, similar to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions. We show that in zebrafish MZspg embryos mutant for the stem cell transcription factor Pou5f1/Oct4, which are severely delayed in the epiboly gastrulation movement, all blastomeres are defective in E-cad endosomal trafficking and E-cad accumulates at the plasma membrane. We find that Pou5f1-dependent control of EGF expression regulates endosomal E-cad trafficking. EGFR may act via modulation of p120 activity. Loss of E-cad dynamics reduces cohesion of cells in reaggregation assays. Quantitative analysis of cell behavior indicates that dynamic E-cad endosomal trafficking is required for epiboly cell movements. We hypothesize that dynamic control of E-cad trafficking is essential to effectively generate new adhesion sites when cells move relative to each other. PMID:23484854

  6. Functional Investigation of a Non-coding Variant Associated with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in Zebrafish: Elevated Expression of the Ladybird Homeobox Gene Causes Body Axis Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Long; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kou, Ikuyo; Takimoto, Aki; Meguro-Horike, Makiko; Horike, Shin-ichi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Miura, Shigenori; Adachi, Taiji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ikegawa, Shiro; Hiraki, Yuji; Shukunami, Chisa

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we identified an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis susceptibility locus near human ladybird homeobox 1 (LBX1) and FLJ41350 by a genome-wide association study. Here, we characterized the associated non-coding variant and investigated the function of these genes. A chromosome conformation capture assay revealed that the genome region with the most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (rs11190870) physically interacted with the promoter region of LBX1-FLJ41350. The promoter in the direction of LBX1, combined with a 590-bp region including rs11190870, had higher transcriptional activity with the risk allele than that with the non-risk allele in HEK 293T cells. The ubiquitous overexpression of human LBX1 or either of the zebrafish lbx genes (lbx1a, lbx1b, and lbx2), but not FLJ41350, in zebrafish embryos caused body curvature followed by death prior to vertebral column formation. Such body axis deformation was not observed in transcription activator-like effector nucleases mediated knockout zebrafish of lbx1b or lbx2. Mosaic expression of lbx1b driven by the GATA2 minimal promoter and the lbx1b enhancer in zebrafish significantly alleviated the embryonic lethal phenotype to allow observation of the later onset of the spinal curvature with or without vertebral malformation. Deformation of the embryonic body axis by lbx1b overexpression was associated with defects in convergent extension, which is a component of the main axis-elongation machinery in gastrulating embryos. In embryos overexpressing lbx1b, wnt5b, a ligand of the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, was significantly downregulated. Injection of mRNA for wnt5b or RhoA, a key downstream effector of Wnt/PCP signaling, rescued the defective convergent extension phenotype and attenuated the lbx1b-induced curvature of the body axis. Thus, our study presents a novel pathological feature of LBX1 and its zebrafish homologs in body axis deformation at various stages of

  7. Zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) and Sox9a regulate synuclein-γ2 (sncgb) expression in the developing notochord of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Liao, Yung-Feng; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-12-13

    Zebrafish synuclein-γ2 (sncgb) has been reported to be expressed specifically in the notochord. However, the mechanism by which the sncgb gene promoter is regulated has not been described. In this paper, we demonstrate that Zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) and sox9a are involved in the regulation of sncgb gene expression. Furthermore, we observed that over-expression of both ZNF219L and Sox9a resulted in increased sncgb expression. In addition, ZNF219L is physically associated with Sox9a, and simultaneous morpholino knockdown of znf219L and sox9a caused a synergistic decrease of sncgb expression in the notochord. Taken together, our results reveal that coordination of ZNF219L with Sox9a is involved in the regulation of notochord-specific expression of sncgb. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo alternative assessment of the chemicals that interfere with anterior pituitary POMC expression and interrenal steroidogenesis in POMC: EGFP transgenic zebrafish

    SciT

    Sun Lingli; Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, 430072; Xu Wei

    2010-11-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) has been considered a classic adrenocorticotropic hormone and the key pituitary-derived peptide controlling steroidogenesis in the adult adrenal. ACTH is encoded by the propiomelanocortin (POMC) gene, and its active form is mainly synthesized and processed from the POMC-encoded multihormone precursor in the anterior pituitary. The ACTH level has always been precisely controlled in the signaling cascade of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis due to its central role. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the transgenic zebrafish line with EGFP driven by the POMC promoter can be used as a surrogate marker to detect the interference effectsmore » on anterior pituitary POMC expression caused by chemicals in teleost. The Tg (POMC:EGFP) fish treated for 4 days with the known adrenergic agents, dexamethasone (Dex) or aminoglutethimide (AG), exhibited altered levels of EGFP and POMC expression in the anterior domain of pituitary corticotrophs. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed impaired patterns of expression of the zebrafish ftz-fl gene (ff1b), a key molecular marker for early interrenal development. Next, several chemicals and six commonly used organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were tested for their effects on anterior pituitary POMC expression and early interrenal development. Our preliminary screening analyses indicated that simazine and 3,3',4,4'5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) could interfere with anterior pituitary POMC expression and interrenal development in fish. In summary, our results demonstrated that the Tg (POMC:EGFP) zebrafish line might be employed as a specific and reproductive in vivo assessment model for the effects of endocrine disruption on HPA signaling.« less

  9. BMP, Wnt and FGF signals are integrated through evolutionarily conserved enhancers to achieve robust expression of Pax3 and Zic genes at the zebrafish neural plate border

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Aaron T.; Square, Tyler A.; Medeiros, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Neural crest cells generate a range of cells and tissues in the vertebrate head and trunk, including peripheral neurons, pigment cells, and cartilage. Neural crest cells arise from the edges of the nascent central nervous system, a domain called the neural plate border (NPB). NPB induction is known to involve the BMP, Wnt and FGF signaling pathways. However, little is known about how these signals are integrated to achieve temporally and spatially specific expression of genes in NPB cells. Furthermore, the timing and relative importance of these signals in NPB formation appears to differ between vertebrate species. Here, we use heat-shock overexpression and chemical inhibitors to determine whether, and when, BMP, Wnt and FGF signaling are needed for expression of the NPB specifiers pax3a and zic3 in zebrafish. We then identify four evolutionarily conserved enhancers from the pax3a and zic3 loci and test their response to BMP, Wnt and FGF perturbations. We find that all three signaling pathways are required during gastrulation for the proper expression of pax3a and zic3 in the zebrafish NPB. We also find that, although the expression patterns driven by the pax3a and zic3 enhancers largely overlap, they respond to different combinations of BMP, Wnt and FGF signals. Finally, we show that the combination of the two pax3a enhancers is less susceptible to signaling perturbations than either enhancer alone. Taken together, our results reveal how BMPs, FGFs and Wnts act cooperatively and redundantly through partially redundant enhancers to achieve robust, specific gene expression in the zebrafish NPB. PMID:23034628

  10. Effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug(NSAID) naproxen on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Stancová, V; Ziková, A; Svobodová, Z; Kloas, W

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of naproxen on the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in adult zebrafish. Surprisingly, after 2 weeks exposure no significant effect on the mRNA expression of the target genes was found in the liver. However, mRNA levels of three genes were altered significantly in the intestine. The expression of Ucp-2 decreased at the environmental concentration of 1μg/L while mRNA expression of GST p2 increased at the concentration of 100μg/L. The mRNA level for the antioxidant enzyme CAT was up-regulated significantly at both the concentrations used. Exposure to naproxen caused only moderate effects on the expression of antioxidant genes in the intestine rather than in the liver, which demonstrates that the intestine is more sensitive to waterborne naproxen exposure than the liver. Interestingly, the adverse side effects of NSAIDs occur in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has focused on transcriptional effects of naproxen on zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The zebrafish orphan nuclear receptor genes nr2e1 and nr2e3 are expressed in developing eye and forebrain.

    PubMed

    Kitambi, Satish Srinivas; Hauptmann, Giselbert

    2007-02-01

    Mammalian Nr2e1 (Tailless, Mtll or Tlx) and Nr2e3 (photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor, Pnr) are highly related orphan nuclear receptors, that are expressed in eye and forebrain-derived structures. In this study, we analyzed the developmental expression patterns of zebrafish nr2e1 and nr2e3. RT-PCR analysis showed that nr2e1 and nr2e3 are both expressed during embryonic and post-embryonic development. To examine the spatial distribution of nr2e1 and nr2e3 during development whole-mount in situ hybridization was performed. At tailbud stage, initial nr2e1 expression was localized to the rostral brain rudiment anterior to pax2.1 and eng2 expression at the prospective midbrain-hindbrain boundary. During subsequent stages, nr2e1 became widely expressed in fore- and midbrain primordia, eye and olfactory placodes. At 24hpf, strong nr2e1 expression was detected in telencephalon, hypothalamus, dorsal thalamus, pretectum, midbrain tectum, and retina. At 2dpf, the initially widespread nr2e1 expression became more restricted to distinct regions within the fore- and midbrain and to the retinal ciliary margin, the germinal zone which gives rise to retina and presumptive iris. Expression of nr2e3 was exclusively found in the developing retina and epiphysis. In both structures, nr2e3 expression was found in photoreceptor cells. The developmental expression profile of zebrafish nr2e1 and nr2e3 is consistent with evolutionary conserved functions in eye and rostral brain structures.

  12. Global gene expression analysis reveals pathway differences between teratogenic and non-teratogenic exposure concentrations of bisphenol A and 17β-estradiol in embryonic zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Saili, Katerine S.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Transient developmental exposure to 0.1 μM bisphenol A (BPA) results in larval zebrafish hyperactivity and learning impairments in the adult, while exposure to 80 μM BPA results in teratogenic responses, including craniofacial abnormalities and edema. The mode of action underlying these effects is unclear. We used global gene expression analysis to identify candidate genes and signaling pathways that mediate BPA’s developmental toxicity in zebrafish. Exposure concentrations were selected and anchored to the positive control, 17β-estradiol (E2), based on previously determined behavioral or teratogenic phenotypes. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed distinct expression profiles at 24 hours post fertilization for 0.1 versus 80 μM BPA and 0.1 versus 15 μM E2 exposure, identification of prothrombin activation as a top canonical pathway impacted by both 0.1 μM BPA and 0.1 μM E2 exposure, and suppressed expression of several genes involved in nervous system development and function following 0.1 μM BPAexposure. PMID:23557687

  13. Cold-induced ependymin expression in zebrafish and carp brain: implications for cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Tang, S J; Sun, K H; Sun, G H; Lin, G; Lin, W W; Chuang, M J

    1999-10-01

    Cold acclimation has been suggested to be mediated by alternations in the gene expression pattern in the cold-adapted fish. To investigate the mechanism of cold acclimation in fish brain at the molecular level, relevant subsets of differentially expressed genes of interest were identified and cloned by the PCR-based subtraction suppression hybridization. Characterization of the selected cold-induced cDNA clones revealed one encoding ependymin. This gene was shown to be brain-specific. The expression of ependymin was induced by a temperature shift from 25 degrees C to 6 degrees C in Cyprinus carpio or 12 degrees C in Danio rerio. Activation of ependymin was detected 2 h after cold exposure and peaked at more than 10-fold at 12 h. This peak level remains unchanged until the temperature returns to 25 degrees C. Although the amount of soluble ependymin protein in brain was not changed by cold treatment, its level in the fibrous insoluble polymers increased 2-fold after exposure to low temperature. These findings indicate that the increase in ependymin expression is an early event that may play an important role in the cold acclimation of fish.

  14. TALE factors use two distinct functional modes to control an essential zebrafish gene expression program.

    PubMed

    Ladam, Franck; Stanney, William; Donaldson, Ian J; Yildiz, Ozge; Bobola, Nicoletta; Sagerström, Charles G

    2018-06-18

    TALE factors are broadly expressed embryonically and known to function in complexes with transcription factors (TFs) like Hox proteins at gastrula/segmentation stages, but it is unclear if such generally expressed factors act by the same mechanism throughout embryogenesis. We identify a TALE-dependent gene regulatory network (GRN) required for anterior development and detect TALE occupancy associated with this GRN throughout embryogenesis. At blastula stages, we uncover a novel functional mode for TALE factors, where they occupy genomic DECA motifs with nearby NF-Y sites. We demonstrate that TALE and NF-Y form complexes and regulate chromatin state at genes of this GRN. At segmentation stages, GRN-associated TALE occupancy expands to include HEXA motifs near PBX:HOX sites. Hence, TALE factors control a key GRN, but utilize distinct DNA motifs and protein partners at different stages - a strategy that may also explain their oncogenic potential and may be employed by other broadly expressed TFs. © 2018, Ladam et al.

  15. Molecular phenotype of zebrafish ovarian follicle by serial analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiling, and comparison with the transcriptomes of other animals

    PubMed Central

    Knoll-Gellida, Anja; André, Michèle; Gattegno, Tamar; Forgue, Jean; Admon, Arie; Babin, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    Background The ability of an oocyte to develop into a viable embryo depends on the accumulation of specific maternal information and molecules, such as RNAs and proteins. A serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was carried out in parallel with proteomic analysis on fully-grown ovarian follicles from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The data obtained were compared with ovary/follicle/egg molecular phenotypes of other animals, published or available in public sequence databases. Results Sequencing of 27,486 SAGE tags identified 11,399 different ones, including 3,329 tags with an occurrence superior to one. Fifty-eight genes were expressed at over 0.15% of the total population and represented 17.34% of the mRNA population identified. The three most expressed transcripts were a rhamnose-binding lectin, beta-actin 2, and a transcribed locus similar to the H2B histone family. Comparison with the large-scale expressed sequence tags sequencing approach revealed highly expressed transcripts that were not previously known to be expressed at high levels in fish ovaries, like the short-sized polarized metallothionein 2 transcript. A higher sensitivity for the detection of transcripts with a characterized maternal genetic contribution was also demonstrated compared to large-scale sequencing of cDNA libraries. Ferritin heavy polypeptide 1, heat shock protein 90-beta, lactate dehydrogenase B4, beta-actin isoforms, tubulin beta 2, ATP synthase subunit 9, together with 40 S ribosomal protein S27a, were common highly-expressed transcripts of vertebrate ovary/unfertilized egg. Comparison of transcriptome and proteome data revealed that transcript levels provide little predictive value with respect to the extent of protein abundance. All the proteins identified by proteomic analysis of fully-grown zebrafish follicles had at least one transcript counterpart, with two exceptions: eosinophil chemotactic cytokine and nothepsin. Conclusion This study provides a complete sequence data set of

  16. A Mixture of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid Induces Similar Behavioural Responses, but Different Gene Expression Profiles in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Khezri, Abdolrahman; Fraser, Thomas W. K.; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Berg, Vidar; Zimmer, Karin E.; Ropstad, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread in the environment and some may be neurotoxic. As we are exposed to complex mixtures of POPs, we aimed to investigate how a POP mixture based on Scandinavian human blood data affects behaviour and neurodevelopment during early life in zebrafish. Embryos/larvae were exposed to a series of sub-lethal doses and behaviour was examined at 96 h post fertilization (hpf). In order to determine the sensitivity window to the POP mixture, exposure models of 6 to 48 and 48 to 96 hpf were used. The expression of genes related to neurological development was also assessed. Results indicate that the POP mixture increases the swimming speed of larval zebrafish following exposure between 48 to 96 hpf. This behavioural effect was associated with the perfluorinated compounds, and more specifically with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). The expression of genes related to the stress response, GABAergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, serotoninergic, cholinergic systems and neuronal maintenance, were altered. However, there was little overlap in those genes that were significantly altered by the POP mixture and PFOS. Our findings show that the POP mixture and PFOS can have a similar effect on behaviour, yet alter the expression of genes relevant to neurological development differently. PMID:28146072

  17. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    SciT

    Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se; Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543; Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependencemore » of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1

  18. The PBDE metabolite 6-OH-BDE 47 affects melanin pigmentation and THRβ MRNA expression in the eye of zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wu; Macaulay, Laura J; Kwok, Kevin WH; Hinton, David E; Ferguson, P Lee; Stapleton, Heather M

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxyl-metabolites (OH-BDEs) are commonly detected contaminants in human serum in the US population. They are also considered to be endocrine disruptors, and are specifically known to affect thyroid hormone regulation. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of a PBDE and its OH-BDE metabolite on developmental pathways regulated by thyroid hormones using zebrafish as a model. Exposure to 6-OHBDE 47 (10–100 nM), but not BDE 47 (1–50 μM), led to decreased melanin pigmentation and increased apoptosis in the retina of zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner in short-term exposures (4 – 30 hours). Six-OH-BDE 47 exposure also significantly decreased thyroid hormone receptor β (THRβ) mRNA expression, which was confirmed using both RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (whole mount and paraffin- section). Interestingly, exposure to the native thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3) also led to similar responses: decreased THRβ mRNA expression, decreased melanin pigmentation and increased apoptosis, suggesting that 6-OH-BDE 47 may be acting as a T3 mimic. To further investigate short-term effects that may be regulated by THRβ, experiments using a morpholino gene knock down and THRβ mRNA over expression were conducted. Knock down of THRβ led to decreases in melanin pigmentation and increases in apoptotic cells in the eye of zebrafish embryos, similar to exposure to T3 and 6-OH-BDE 47, but THRβ mRNA overexpression rescued these effects. Histological analysis of eyes at 22 hpf from each group revealed that exposure to T3 or to 6-OH-BDE 47 was associated with a decrease of melanin and diminished proliferation of cells in layers of retina near the choroid. This study suggests that 6-OH-BDE 47 disrupts the activity of THRβ in early life stages of zebrafish, and warrants further studies on effects in developing humans. PMID:25767823

  19. Expression of multiple slow myosin heavy chain genes reveals a diversity of zebrafish slow twitch muscle fibres with differing requirements for Hedgehog and Prdm1 activity.

    PubMed

    Elworthy, Stone; Hargrave, Murray; Knight, Robert; Mebus, Katharina; Ingham, Philip W

    2008-06-01

    The zebrafish embryo develops a series of anatomically distinct slow twitch muscle fibres that characteristically express genes encoding lineage-specific isoforms of sarcomeric proteins such as MyHC and troponin. We show here that different subsets of these slow fibres express distinct members of a tandem array of slow MyHC genes. The first slow twitch muscle fibres to differentiate, which are specified by the activity of the transcription factor Prdm1 (also called Ubo or Blimp1) in response to Hedgehog (Hh) signalling, express the smyhc1 gene. Subsequently, secondary slow twitch fibres differentiate in most cases independently of Hh activity. We find that although some of these later-forming fibres also express smyhc1, others express smyhc2 or smyhc3. We show that the smyhc1-positive fibres express the ubo (prdm1) gene and adopt fast twitch fibre characteristics in the absence of Prdm1 activity, whereas those that do not express smyhc1 can differentiate independently of Prdm1 function. Conversely, some smyhc2-expressing fibres, although independent of Prdm1 function, require Hh activity to form. The adult trunk slow fibres express smyhc2 and smyhc3, but lack smyhc1 expression. The different slow fibres in the craniofacial muscles variously express smyhc1, smyhc2 and smyhc3, and all differentiate independently of Prdm1.

  20. Evidence for Gating Roles of Protein Kinase A and Protein Kinase C in Estradiol-Induced Luteinizing Hormone Receptor (lhcgr) Expression in Zebrafish Ovarian Follicle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ka-Cheuk; Ge, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) stimulates luteinizing hormone receptor (lhcgr) expression in zebrafish follicle cells via nuclear estrogen receptors (nERs) that are likely expressed on the membrane, and lhcgr responds to E2 in a biphasic manner during 24-h treatment. These observations raise an interesting question on the signaling mechanism underlying E2 regulation, in particular the biphasic response of lhcgr expression. In the present study, we demonstrated that E2 regulation of lhcgr was significantly influenced by the activity of cAMP-PKA pathway. Activation of cAMP-PKA pathway by forskolin or db-cAMP suppressed E2-stimulated lhcgr expression in short-term (3 h) but enhanced its effect in long-term (24 h), suggesting differential roles of PKA at these two phases of lhcgr response. PKA inhibitor H89 showed reversed effects. In contrast, PKC pathway had consistent permissive effect on E2-induced lhcgr expression as evidenced by strong inhibition of E2 effect by PKC inhibitors GF109203X and Ro-31-8220 at both 3 and 24 h. One of the mechanisms by which PKA and PKC gated E2 effect might be through regulating nERs, particularly esr2a. Despite the strong influence of PKA and PKC, our data did not suggest direct mediating roles for these two pathways in E2 stimulation of lhcgr expression; yet they likely play critical gating roles in E2 signal transduction. As a follow-up study to our previous report on E2 regulation of gonadotropin receptors in the zebrafish ovary, the present study provides further evidence for the involvement of classical intracellular signal transduction pathways in E2 stimulation of lhcgr expression in the follicle cells. PMID:23658740

  1. Lineage tracing of dlx1a/2a and dlx5a/6a expressing cells in the developing zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Solek, Cynthia M; Feng, Shengrui; Perin, Sofia; Weinschutz Mendes, Hellen; Ekker, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Lineage tracing of specific populations of progenitor cells provides crucial information about developmental programs. Four members of the Dlx homeobox gene family, Dlx1,2, 5 and 6, are involved in the specification of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons in the vertebrate forebrain. Orthologous genes in mammals and teleost show similarities in expression patterns and transcriptional regulation mechanisms. We have used lineage tracing to permanently label dlx-expressing cells in the zebrafish and have characterized the progeny of these cells in the larva and in the juvenile and adult brain. We have found that dlx1a/2a and dlx5a/6a expressing progenitors give rise, for the most part, to small populations of cells which constitute only a small proportion of GABAergic cells in the adult brain tissue. Moreover, some of the cells do not acquire a neuronal phenotype suggesting that, regardless of the time a cell expresses dlx genes in the brain, it can potentially give rise to cells other than neurons. In some instances, labeling larval dlx5a/6a-expressing cells, but not dlx1a/2a-expressing cells, results in massively expanding, widespread clonal expansion throughout the adult brain. Our data provide a detailed lineage analysis of the dlx1a/2a and dlx5a/6a expressing progenitors in the zebrafish brain and lays the foundation for further characterization of the role of these transcription factors beyond the specification of GABAergic neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Zebrafish Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Charles K

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma skin cancer is a potentially deadly disease in humans and has remained extremely difficult to treat once it has metastasized. In just the last 10 years, a number of models of melanoma have been developed in the zebrafish that are biologically faithful to the human disease and have already yielded important insights into the fundamental biology of melanoma and offered new potential avenues for treatment. With the diversity and breadth of the molecular genetic tools available in the zebrafish, these melanoma models will continue to be refined and expanded upon to keep pace with the rapidly evolving field of melanoma biology.

  3. Transvection Arising from Transgene Interactions in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Matthew D; Bonkowsky, Joshua L

    2017-02-01

    There has been a rapid expansion in use of transgenic technologies in zebrafish. We report a novel example of transinteractions of genetic elements, or transvection. This interaction led to a novel expression pattern and illustrates a precautionary example regarding use of transgenes in zebrafish.

  4. TET1 and TET3 are essential in induction of Th2-type immunity partly through regulation of IL-4/13A expression in zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Li, Zhuo; Kang, Wei; Tian, Yu; Yan, Yuzhu; Chen, Wei

    2016-10-10

    It has been considered that epigenetic modulation can affect a diverse array of cellular activities, in which ten eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenase family members refer to a group of fundamental components involved in catalyzation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and modification of gene expression. Even though the function of TET proteins has been gradually revealed, their roles in immune regulation are still largely unknown. Recent studies provided clues that TET2 could regulate several innate immune-related inflammatory mediators in mammals. This study sought to explore the function of TET family members in potential T-helper (Th) cell differentiation involved in adaptive immunity by utilizing a zebrafish model. As shown by results, soluble antigens could induce expression of zebrafish IL-4/13A (i.e. a pivotal Th2-type cytokine essential in Th2 cell differentiation and functions), and further trigger the expression of Th1- and Th2-related genes. It is noteworthy that this response was accompanied by the up-regulation of two TET family members (TET1 and TET3) both in immune organs (spleen and kidney) and cells (peripheral lymphocytes). Knocking-down of TET1 and TET3 will give rise to the decreased responses of IL-4/13A induction against exogenous soluble antigen stimulation, and further restrain the expression of Th2-related genes, which indicates a restrained Th2 cell differentiation. Nonetheless, TET2 did not exhibit effect on the modification of Th1/Th2 related gene expression. Hence, these data showed that TET1 and TET3 might be two significant epigenetic regulators involved in Th2 differentiation through regulation of IL-4/13A expression. This is the first report to show that TET family members play indispensable roles in Th2-type immunity, indicating an epigenetic modulation manner involved in adaptive immune regulations and responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modulatory effect of resveratrol on SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT4, PGC1α and NAMPT gene expression profiles in wild-type adult zebrafish liver.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Helena; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Bonan, Carla Denise; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Souto, André Arigony

    2012-03-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that catalyze the hydrolysis of acetyl-lysine residues. They play an important role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as the regulation of lifespan and the prevention of metabolic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the effect of resveratrol on the gene expression levels of SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT4, PGC1α, and NAMPT, as well as its effect on NAD(+) and NADH levels, in the liver of non stressed or non impaired wild-type zebrafish. Semiquantative RT-PCR assays showed that resveratrol did not change the mRNA levels of SIRT1 and PGC1α but decreased the expression levels of the SIRT3, SIRT4, and NAMPT genes. The decrease in NAMPT mRNA levels was accompanied by an increase in NADH levels, thereby decreasing the NAD(+)/H ratio. Taken together, our results suggest that resveratrol plays a modulatory role in the transcription of the NAMPT, SIRT3, and SIRT4 genes. Zebrafish is an interesting tool that can be used to understand the mechanisms of SIRTs and NAMPT metabolism and to help develop therapeutic compounds. However, further investigations using healthy experimental animals are required to study the modulation of the SIRT and NAMPT genes by resveratrol before it is used as a nutraceutical compound in healthy humans.

  6. Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities of zebrafish NHE3b expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yusuke; Kato, Akira; Hirata, Taku; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish Na+/H+ exchanger 3b (zNHE3b) is highly expressed in the apical membrane of ionocytes where Na+ is absorbed from ion-poor fresh water against a concentration gradient. Much in vivo data indicated that zNHE3b is involved in Na+ absorption but not leakage. However, zNHE3b-mediated Na+ absorption has not been thermodynamically explained, and zNHE3b activity has not been measured. To address this issue, we overexpressed zNHE3b in Xenopus oocytes and characterized its activity by electrophysiology. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to Na+-free media resulted in significant decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) and intracellular Na+ activity (aNai). aNai increased significantly when the cytoplasm was acidified by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. Activity of zNHE3b was inhibited by amiloride or 5-ethylisopropyl amiloride (EIPA). Although the activity was accompanied by a large hyperpolarization of ∼50 mV, voltage-clamp experiments showed that Na+/H+ exchange activity of zNHE3b is electroneutral. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to medium containing NH3/NH4+ resulted in significant decreases in pHi and aNai and significant increase in intracellular NH4+ activity, indicating that zNHE3b mediates the Na+/NH4+ exchange. In low-Na+ (0.5 mM) media, zNHE3b oocytes maintained aNai of 1.3 mM, and Na+-influx was observed when pHi was decreased by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. These results provide thermodynamic evidence that zNHE3b mediates Na+ absorption from ion-poor fresh water by its Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities. PMID:24401990

  7. The zebrafish buttonhead-like factor Bts1 is an early regulator of pax2.1 expression during mid-hindbrain development.

    PubMed

    Tallafuss, A; Wilm, T P; Crozatier, M; Pfeffer, P; Wassef, M; Bally-Cuif, L

    2001-10-01

    Little is known about the factors that control the specification of the mid-hindbrain domain (MHD) within the vertebrate embryonic neural plate. Because the head-trunk junction of the Drosophila embryo and the MHD have patterning similarities, we have searched for vertebrate genes related to the Drosophila head gap gene buttonhead (btd), which in the fly specifies the head-trunk junction. We report here the identification of a zebrafish gene which, like btd, encodes a zinc-finger transcriptional activator of the Sp-1 family (hence its name, bts1 for btd/Sp-related-1) and shows a restricted expression in the head. During zebrafish gastrulation, bts1 is transcribed in the posterior epiblast including the presumptive MHD, and precedes in this area the expression of other MHD markers such as her5, pax2.1 and wnt1. Ectopic expression of bts1 combined to knock-down experiments demonstrate that Bts1 is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of pax2.1 within the anterior neural plate, but is not involved in regulating her5, wnt1 or fgf8 expression. Our results confirm that early MHD development involves several genetic cascades that independently lead to the induction of MHD markers, and identify Bts1 as a crucial upstream component of the pathway selectively leading to pax2.1 induction. In addition, they imply that flies and vertebrates, to control the development of a boundary embryonic region, have probably co-opted a similar strategy: the restriction to this territory of the expression of a Btd/Sp-like factor.

  8. A second visual rhodopsin gene, rh1-2, is expressed in zebrafish photoreceptors and found in other ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Morrow, James M; Lazic, Savo; Dixon Fox, Monica; Kuo, Claire; Schott, Ryan K; de A Gutierrez, Eduardo; Santini, Francesco; Tropepe, Vincent; Chang, Belinda S W

    2017-01-15

    Rhodopsin (rh1) is the visual pigment expressed in rod photoreceptors of vertebrates that is responsible for initiating the critical first step of dim-light vision. Rhodopsin is usually a single copy gene; however, we previously discovered a novel rhodopsin-like gene expressed in the zebrafish retina, rh1-2, which we identified as a functional photosensitive pigment that binds 11-cis retinal and activates in response to light. Here, we localized expression of rh1-2 in the zebrafish retina to a subset of peripheral photoreceptor cells, which indicates a partially overlapping expression pattern with rh1 We also expressed, purified and characterized Rh1-2, including investigation of the stability of the biologically active intermediate. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we found the half-life of the rate of retinal release of Rh1-2 following photoactivation to be more similar to that of the visual pigment rhodopsin than to the non-visual pigment exo-rhodopsin (exorh), which releases retinal around 5 times faster. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses show that rh1-2 has ancient origins within teleost fishes, is under similar selective pressure to rh1, and likely experienced a burst of positive selection following its duplication and divergence from rh1 These findings indicate that rh1-2 is another functional visual rhodopsin gene, which contradicts the prevailing notion that visual rhodopsin is primarily found as a single copy gene within ray-finned fishes. The reasons for retention of this duplicate gene, as well as possible functional consequences for the visual system, are discussed. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Glucose metabolism and gene expression in juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) challenged with a high carbohydrate diet: effects of an acute glucose stimulus during late embryonic life.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Filipa; Dias, Jorge; Engrola, Sofia; Gavaia, Paulo; Geurden, Inge; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Panserat, Stephane

    2015-02-14

    Knowledge on the role of early nutritional stimuli as triggers of metabolic pathways in fish is extremely scarce. The objective of the present study was to assess the long-term effects of glucose injection in the yolk (early stimulus) on carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation in zebrafish juveniles challenged with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HC) diet. Eggs were microinjected at 1 d post-fertilisation (dpf) with either glucose (2 M) or saline solutions. Up to 25 dpf, fish were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein (LC) control diet, which was followed by a challenge with the HC diet. Survival and growth of 35 dpf juveniles were not affected by injection or the HC diet. Glucose stimulus induced some long-term metabolic changes in the juveniles, as shown by the altered expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. On glycolysis, the expression levels of hexokinase 1 (HK1) and phosphofructokinase-6 (6PFK) were up-regulated in the visceral and muscle tissues, respectively, of juveniles exposed to the glucose stimulus, indicating a possible improvement in glucose oxidation. On gluconeogenesis, the inhibition of the expression levels of PEPCK in fish injected with glucose suggested lower production of hepatic glucose. Unexpectedly, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP) expression was induced and 6PFK expression reduced by glucose stimulus, leaving the possibility of a specific regulation of the FBP-6PFK metabolic cycle. Glucose metabolism in juveniles was estimated using a [¹⁴C]glucose tracer; fish previously exposed to the stimulus showed lower retention of [¹⁴C]glucose in visceral tissue (but not in muscle tissue) and, accordingly, higher glucose catabolism, in comparison with the saline group. Globally, our data suggest that glucose stimulus at embryo stage has the potential to alter particular steps of glucose metabolism in zebrafish juveniles.

  10. Developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters DNA methyltransferase (dnmt) expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciT

    Aluru, Neelakanteswar, E-mail: naluru@whoi.edu; Kuo, Elaine; Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305

    2015-04-15

    DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic modifications involved in the regulation of gene expression. The DNA methylation reaction is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Recent studies have demonstrated that toxicants can affect normal development by altering DNA methylation patterns, but the mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to TCDD affects dnmt gene expression patterns. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 5 nM TCDD for 1 h from 4 to 5 h post-fertilization (hpf) and sampled at 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hpf to determine dnmt gene expression and DNAmore » methylation patterns. We performed a detailed analysis of zebrafish dnmt gene expression during development and in adult tissues. Our results demonstrate that dnmt3b genes are highly expressed in early stages of development, and dnmt3a genes are more abundant in later stages. TCDD exposure upregulated dnmt1 and dnmt3b2 expression, whereas dnmt3a1, 3b1, and 3b4 are downregulated following exposure. We did not observe any TCDD-induced differences in global methylation or hydroxymethylation levels, but the promoter methylation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) target genes was altered. In TCDD-exposed embryos, AHR repressor a (ahrra) and c-fos promoters were differentially methylated. To characterize the TCDD effects on DNMTs, we cloned the dnmt promoters with xenobiotic response elements and conducted AHR transactivation assays using a luciferase reporter system. Our results suggest that ahr2 can regulate dnmt3a1, dnmt3a2, and dnmt3b2 expression. Overall, we demonstrate that developmental exposure to TCDD alters dnmt expression and DNA methylation patterns. - Highlights: • TCDD altered the dnmt expression in a gene and developmental time-specific manner. • TCDD hypermethylated ahrra and hypomethylated c-fos proximal promoter regions. • Functional analysis suggests that ahr2 can regulate dnmt3a1, 3a2, and 3b2 expression

  11. Antagonistic interactions in the zebrafish midline prior to the emergence of asymmetric gene expression are important for left–right patterning

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Left–right (L-R) asymmetry of the internal organs of vertebrates is presaged by domains of asymmetric gene expression in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) during somitogenesis. Ciliated L-R coordinators (LRCs) are critical for biasing the initiation of asymmetrically expressed genes, such as nodal and pitx2, to the left LPM. Other midline structures, including the notochord and floorplate, are then required to maintain these asymmetries. Here we report an unexpected role for the zebrafish EGF-CFC gene one-eyed pinhead (oep) in the midline to promote pitx2 expression in the LPM. Late zygotic oep (LZoep) mutants have strongly reduced or absent pitx2 expression in the LPM, but this expression can be rescued to strong levels by restoring oep in midline structures only. Furthermore, removing midline structures from LZoep embryos can rescue pitx2 expression in the LPM, suggesting the midline is a source of an LPM pitx2 repressor that is itself inhibited by oep. Reducing lefty1 activity in LZoep embryos mimics removal of the midline, implicating lefty1 in the midline-derived repression. Together, this suggests a model where Oep in the midline functions to overcome a midline-derived repressor, involving lefty1, to allow for the expression of left side-specific genes in the LPM. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821532

  12. A novel zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) is involved in the regulation of collagen type 2 alpha 1a (col2a1a) gene expression in zebrafish notochord.

    PubMed

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Hung, Chin-Chun; Liao, Wei-Hao; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The notochord is required for body plan patterning in vertebrates, and defects in notochord development during embryogenesis can lead to diseases affecting the adult. It is therefore important to elucidate the gene regulatory mechanism underlying notochord formation. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish zinc finger 219-like (ZNF219L) based on mammalian ZNF219, which contains nine C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we found that znf219L mRNA is mainly expressed in the zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary, hindbrain, and notochord during development. The znf219L morpholino knockdown caused partial abnormal notochord phenotype and reduced expression of endogenous col2a1a in the notochord specifically. In addition, ZNF219L could recognize binding sites with GGGGG motifs and trigger augmented activity of the col2a1a promoter in a luciferase assay. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments revealed that ZNF219L recognizes the GGGGG motifs in the promoter region of the zebrafish col2a1a gene through its sixth and ninth zinc finger domains. Taken together, our results reveal that ZNF219L is involved in regulating the expression of col2a1a in zebrafish notochord specifically.

  13. A Novel Zinc Finger Protein 219-like (ZNF219L) is Involved in the Regulation of Collagen Type 2 Alpha 1a (col2a1a) Gene Expression in Zebrafish Notochord

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Hung, Chin-Chun; Liao, Wei-Hao; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The notochord is required for body plan patterning in vertebrates, and defects in notochord development during embryogenesis can lead to diseases affecting the adult. It is therefore important to elucidate the gene regulatory mechanism underlying notochord formation. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish zinc finger 219-like (ZNF219L) based on mammalian ZNF219, which contains nine C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we found that znf219L mRNA is mainly expressed in the zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary, hindbrain, and notochord during development. The znf219L morpholino knockdown caused partial abnormal notochord phenotype and reduced expression of endogenous col2a1a in the notochord specifically. In addition, ZNF219L could recognize binding sites with GGGGG motifs and trigger augmented activity of the col2a1a promoter in a luciferase assay. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments revealed that ZNF219L recognizes the GGGGG motifs in the promoter region of the zebrafish col2a1a gene through its sixth and ninth zinc finger domains. Taken together, our results reveal that ZNF219L is involved in regulating the expression of col2a1a in zebrafish notochord specifically. PMID:24155663

  14. Ahr2-dependance of PCB126 effects on the swimbladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The teleost swimbladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swimbladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swimbladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swimbladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependance of the effect of PCB126 on swimbladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swimbladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC50 values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swimbladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swimbladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos2 failed to inflate the swimbladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swimbladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swimbladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swimbladder cells. PMID:23036320

  15. The oxidized state of the nanocomposite Carbo-Iron® causes no adverse effects on growth, survival and differential gene expression in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Weil, Mirco; Meißner, Tobias; Busch, Wibke; Springer, Armin; Kühnel, Dana; Schulz, Ralf; Duis, Karen

    2015-10-15

    For degradation of halogenated chemicals in groundwater Carbo-Iron®, a composite of activated carbon and nano-sized Fe(0), was developed (Mackenzie et al., 2012). Potential effects of this nanocomposite on fish were assessed. Beyond the contaminated zone Fe(0) can be expected to have oxidized and Carbo-Iron was used in its oxidized form in ecotoxicological tests. Potential effects of Carbo Iron in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were investigated using a 48 h embryo toxicity test under static conditions, a 96 h acute test with adult fish under semi-static conditions and a 34 d fish early life stage test (FELST) in a flow-through system. Particle diameters in test suspensions were determined via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ranged from 266 to 497 nm. Particle concentrations were measured weekly in samples from the FELST using a method based on the count rate in DLS. Additionally, uptake of particles into test organisms was investigated using microscopic methods. Furthermore, effects of Carbo-Iron on gene expression were investigated by microarray analysis in zebrafish embryos. In all tests performed, no significant lethal effects were observed. Furthermore, Carbo-Iron had no significant influence on weight and length of fish as determined in the FELST. In the embryo test and the early life stage test, growth of fungi on the chorion was observed at Carbo-Iron concentrations between 6.3 and 25mg/L. Fungal growth did not affect survival, hatching success and growth. In the embryo test, no passage of Carbo-Iron particles into the perivitelline space or the embryo was observed. In juvenile and adult fish, Carbo-Iron was detected in the gut at the end of exposure. In juvenile fish exposed to Carbo-Iron for 29 d and subsequently kept for 5d in control water, Carbo-Iron was no longer detectable in the gut. Global gene expression in zebrafish embryos was not significantly influenced by Carbo-Iron. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Convenient In Vivo Hepatotoxin Assay Using a Transgenic Zebrafish Line with Liver-Specific DsRed Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Caixia; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have developed a transgenic zebrafish line (LiPan) with liver-specific red fluorescent protein (DsRed) expression under the fabp10a promoter. Since red fluorescence in the liver greatly facilitates the observation of liver in live LiPan fry, we envision that the LiPan zebrafish may provide a useful tool in analyses of hepatotoxicity based on changes of liver red fluorescence intensity and size. In this study, we first tested four well-established hepatotoxins (acetaminophen, aspirin, isoniazid and phenylbutazone) in LiPan fry and demonstrated that these hepatotoxins could significantly reduce both liver red fluorescence and liver size in a dosage-dependent manner, thus the two measurable parameters could be used as indicators of hepatotoxicity. We then tested the LiPan fry with nine other chemicals including environmental toxicants and human drugs. Three (mefenamic acid, lindane, and arsenate) behave like hepatotoxins in reduction of liver red fluorescence, while three others (17β-estradiol, TCDD [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin] and NDMA [N-nitrosodimethylamine]) caused increase of liver red fluorescence and the liver size. Ethanol and two other chemicals, amoxicillin (antibiotics) and chlorphenamine (pain killer) did not resulted in significant changes of liver red fluorescence and liver size. By quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we found that the changes of red fluorescence intensity caused by different chemicals correlated to the changes of endogenous fabp10a RNA expression, indicating that the measured hepatotoxicity was related to fatty acid transportation and metabolism. Finally we tested a mixture of four hepatotoxins and observed a significant reduction of red fluorescence in the liver at concentrations below the lowest effective concentrations of individual hepatotoxins, suggesting that the transgenic zebrafish assay is capable of reporting compound hepatotoxicity effect from chemical mixtures. Thus, the LiPan transgenic fry provide a rapid

  17. How the expression of green fluorescent protein and human cardiac actin in the heart influences cardiac function and aerobic performance in zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Avey, S R; Ojehomon, M; Dawson, J F; Gillis, T E

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined how the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and human cardiac actin (ACTC) in zebrafish Danio rerio influences embryonic heart rate (R H ) and the swim performance and metabolic rate of adult fish. Experiments with the adults involved determining the critical swimming speed (U crit , the highest speed sustainable and measure of aerobic capacity) while measuring oxygen consumption. Two different transgenic D. rerio lines were examined: one expressed eGFP in the heart (tg(cmlc:egfp)), while the second expressed ACTC in the heart and eGFP throughout the body (tg(cmlc:actc,ba:egfp)). It was found that R H was significantly lower in the tg(cmlc:actc,ba:egfp) embryos 4 days post-fertilization compared to wild-type (WT) and tg(cmlc:egfp). The swim experiments demonstrated that there was no significant difference in U crit between the transgenic lines and the wild-type fish, but metabolic rate and cost of transport (oxygen used to travel a set distance) was nearly two-fold higher in the tg(cmlc:actc,ba:egfp) fish compared to WT at their respective U crit . These results suggest that the expression of ACTC in the D. rerio heart and the expression of eGFP throughout the animal, alters cardiac function in the embryo and reduces the aerobic efficiency of the animal at high levels of activity. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Altered gene expression in the brain and ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole: microarray analysis and hypothesis generation.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, L; Wang, Rong-Lin; Bencic, David C; Biales, Adam D; Martinović, Dalma; Lazorchak, James M; Toth, Gregory; Ankley, Gerald T

    2009-08-01

    As part of a research effort examining system-wide responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in fish to endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 25 or 100 microg/L of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole for 24, 48, or 96 h. Global transcriptional response in brain and ovarian tissue of fish exposed to 25 microg/L of fadrozole was compared to that in control fish using a commercially available, 22,000-gene oligonucleotide microarray. Transcripts altered in brain were functionally linked to differentiation, development, DNA replication, and cell cycle. Additionally, multiple genes associated with the one-carbon pool by folate pathway (KEGG 00670) were significantly up-regulated. Transcripts altered in ovary were functionally linked to cell-cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, vasculogenesis, and development. Promoter motif analysis identified GATA-binding factor 2, Ikaros 2, alcohol dehydrogenase gene regulator 1, myoblast-determining factor, and several heat shock factors as being associated with coexpressed gene clusters that were differentially expressed following exposure to fadrozole. Based on the transcriptional changes observed, it was hypothesized that fadrozole elicits neurodegenerative stress in brain tissue and that fish cope with this stress through proliferation of radial glial cells. Additionally, it was hypothesized that changes of gene expression in the ovary of fadrozole-exposed zebrafish reflect disruption of oocyte maturation and ovulation because of impaired vitellogenesis. These hypotheses and others derived from the microarray results provide a foundation for future studies aimed at understanding responses of the HPG axis to EACs and other chemical stressors.

  19. Control of her1 expression during zebrafish somitogenesis by a Delta-dependent oscillator and an independent wave-front activity

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Scott A.; Geisler, Robert; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2000-01-01

    Somitogenesis has been linked both to a molecular clock that controls the oscillation of gene expression in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and to Notch pathway signaling. The oscillator, or clock, is thought to create a prepattern of stripes of gene expression that regulates the activity of the Notch pathway that subsequently directs somite border formation. Here, we report that the zebrafish gene after eight (aei) that is required for both somitogenesis and neurogenesis encodes the Notch ligand DeltaD. Additional analysis revealed that stripes of her1 expression oscillate within the PSM and that aei/DeltaD signaling is required for this oscillation. aei/DeltaD expression does not oscillate, indicating that the activity of the Notch pathway upstream of her1 may function within the oscillator itself. Moreover, we found that her1 stripes are expressed in the anlage of consecutive somites, indicating that its expression pattern is not pair-rule. Analysis of her1 expression in aei/DeltaD, fused somites (fss), and aei;fss embryos uncovered a wave-front activity that is capable of continually inducing her1 expression de novo in the anterior PSM in the absence of the oscillation of her1. The wave-front activity, in reference to the clock and wave-front model, is defined as such because it interacts with the oscillator-derived pattern in the anterior PSM and is required for somite morphogenesis. This wave-front activity is blocked in embryos mutant for fss but not aei/DeltaD. Thus, our analysis indicates that the smooth sequence of formation, refinement, and fading of her1 stripes in the PSM is governed by two separate activities. PMID:10887161

  20. Sodium fluoride affects zebrafish behaviour and alters mRNA expressions of biomarker genes in the brain: Role of Nrf2/Keap1.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Debdip; Priya, Pooja; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2015-09-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF), used as pesticides and for industrial purposes are deposited in the water bodies and therefore affects its biota. Zebrafish exposed to NaF in laboratory condition showed hyperactivity and frequent surfacing activity, somersaulting and vertical swimming pattern as compared to the control group. Reactive oxygen species level was elevated and glutathione level was depleted along with increased malondialdehyde content in the brain. Levels of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase were also elevated in the treatment groups. Expression of mRNA of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its inhibitor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) during stress condition were observed along with Gst, Cat, NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1(Nqo1) and p38. Except Keap1, all other genes exhibited elevated expression. Nrf2/Keap1 proteins had similar expression pattern as their corresponding mRNA. The findings in this study might help to understand the molecular mechanism of fluoride induced neurotoxicity in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. RNA sequencing to study gene expression and SNP variations associated with growth in zebrafish fed a plant protein-based diet.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Pilar E; Rincón, Gonzalo; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Araneda, Cristian; Iturra, Patricia; Neira, Roberto; Medrano, Juan F

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure gene expression in zebrafish and then identify SNP to be used as potential markers in a growth association study. We developed an approach where muscle samples collected from low- and high-growth fish were analyzed using RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq), and SNP were chosen from the genes that were differentially expressed between the low and high groups. A population of 24 families was fed a plant protein-based diet from the larval to adult stages. From a total of 440 males, 5 % of the fish from both tails of the weight gain distribution were selected. Total RNA was extracted from individual muscle of 8 low-growth and 8 high-growth fish. Two pooled RNA-Seq libraries were prepared for each phenotype using 4 fish per library. Libraries were sequenced using the Illumina GAII Sequencer and analyzed using the CLCBio genomic workbench software. One hundred and twenty-four genes were differentially expressed between phenotypes (p value < 0.05 and FDR < 0.2). From these genes, 164 SNP were selected and genotyped in 240 fish samples. Marker-trait analysis revealed 5 SNP associated with growth in key genes (Nars, Lmod2b, Cuzd1, Acta1b, and Plac8l1). These genes are good candidates for further growth studies in fish and to consider for identification of potential SNPs associated with different growth rates in response to a plant protein-based diet.

  2. Moonlight affects nocturnal Period2 transcript levels in the pineal gland of the reef fish Siganus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Sugama, Nozomi; Park, Ji-Gweon; Park, Yong-Ju; Takeuchi, Yuki; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro

    2008-09-01

    The golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus is a reef fish with a restricted lunar-synchronized spawning cycle. It is not known how the fish recognizes cues from the moon and exerts moon-related activities. In order to evaluate the perception and utilization of moonlight by the fish, the present study aimed to clone and characterize Period2 (Per2), a light-inducible clock gene in lower vertebrates, and to examine daily variations in rabbitfish Per2 (rfPer2) expression as well as the effect of light and moonlight on its expression in the pineal gland. The partially-cloned rfPer2 cDNA (2933 bp) was highly homologous (72%) to zebrafish Per2. The rfPer2 levels increased at ZT6 and decreased at ZT18 in the whole brain and several peripheral organs. The rfPer2 expression in the pineal gland exhibited a daily variation with an increase during daytime. Exposing the fish to light during nighttime resulted in a rapid increase of its expression in the pineal gland, while the level was decreased by intercepting light during daytime. Two hours after exposing the fish to moonlight at the full moon period, the rfPer2 expression was upregulated. These results suggest that rfPer2 is a light-inducible clock gene and that its expression is affected not only by daylight but also by moonlight. Since the rfPer2 expression level during the full moon period was higher than that during the new moon period, the monthly variation in the rfPer2 expression is likely to occur with the change in amplitude between the full and new moon periods.

  3. Genome-wide identification of suitable zebrafish Danio rerio reference genes for normalization of gene expression data by RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Li, C; Zeng, Q; Agrawal, I; Zhu, X; Gong, Z

    2016-06-01

    In this study, to systematically identify the most stably expressed genes for internal reference in zebrafish Danio rerio investigations, 37 D. rerio transcriptomic datasets (both RNA sequencing and microarray data) were collected from gene expression omnibus (GEO) database and unpublished data, and gene expression variations were analysed under three experimental conditions: tissue types, developmental stages and chemical treatments. Forty-four putative candidate genes were identified with the c.v. <0·2 from all datasets. Following clustering into different functional groups, 21 genes, in addition to four conventional housekeeping genes (eef1a1l1, b2m, hrpt1l and actb1), were selected from different functional groups for further quantitative real-time (qrt-)PCR validation using 25 RNA samples from different adult tissues, developmental stages and chemical treatments. The qrt-PCR data were then analysed using the statistical algorithm refFinder for gene expression stability. Several new candidate genes showed better expression stability than the conventional housekeeping genes in all three categories. It was found that sep15 and metap1 were the top two stable genes for tissue types, ube2a and tmem50a the top two for different developmental stages, and rpl13a and rp1p0 the top two for chemical treatments. Thus, based on the extensive transcriptomic analyses and qrt-PCR validation, these new reference genes are recommended for normalization of D. rerio qrt-PCR data respectively for the three different experimental conditions. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Mis-expression of grainyhead-like transcription factors in zebrafish leads to defects in enveloping layer (EVL) integrity, cellular morphogenesis and axial extension.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lee B; Darido, Charbel; Kaslin, Jan; Heath, Joan K; Jane, Stephen M; Dworkin, Sebastian

    2017-12-14

    The grainyhead-like (grhl) transcription factors play crucial roles in craniofacial development, epithelial morphogenesis, neural tube closure, and dorso-ventral patterning. By utilising the zebrafish to differentially regulate expression of family members grhl2b and grhl3, we show that both genes regulate epithelial migration, particularly convergence-extension (CE) type movements, during embryogenesis. Genetic deletion of grhl3 via CRISPR/Cas9 results in failure to complete epiboly and pre-gastrulation embryonic rupture, whereas morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of grhl3 signalling leads to aberrant neural tube morphogenesis at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), a phenotype likely due to a compromised overlying enveloping layer (EVL). Further disruptions of grhl3-dependent pathways (through co-knockdown of grhl3 with target genes spec1 and arhgef19) confirm significant MHB morphogenesis and neural tube closure defects. Concomitant MO-mediated disruption of both grhl2b and grhl3 results in further extensive CE-like defects in body patterning, notochord and somite morphogenesis. Interestingly, over-expression of either grhl2b or grhl3 also leads to numerous phenotypes consistent with disrupted cellular migration during gastrulation, including embryo dorsalisation, axial duplication and impaired neural tube migration leading to cyclopia. Taken together, our study ascribes novel roles to the Grhl family in the context of embryonic development and morphogenesis.

  5. Identification of a distant cis-regulatory element controlling pharyngeal arch-specific expression of zebrafish gdf6a/radar

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Nykolaus P.; Mortlock, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal formation is an essential and intricately regulated part of vertebrate development. Humans and mice deficient in Growth and Differentiation Factor 6 (Gdf6) have numerous skeletal abnormalities including joint fusions and cartilage reductions. The expression of Gdf6 is dynamic and in part regulated by distant evolutionarily conserved cis-regulatory elements. radar/gdf6a is a zebrafish ortholog of Gdf6 and has an essential role in embryonic patterning. Here we show that radar is transcribed in the cells surrounding and between the developing cartilages of the ventral pharyngeal arches, similar to mouse Gdf6. A 312 bp evolutionarily conserved region (ECR5), 122 kilobases downstream, drives expression in a pharyngeal arch-specific manner similar to endogenous radar/gdf6a. Deletion analysis identified a 78 bp region within ECR5 that is essential for transgene activity. This work illustrates that radar is regulated in the pharyngeal arches by a distant conserved element and suggests radar has similar functions in skeletal development in fish and mammals. PMID:20201106

  6. DNA methyltransferases and stress-related genes expression in zebrafish larvae after exposure to heat and copper during reprogramming of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Dorts, Jennifer; Falisse, Elodie; Schoofs, Emilie; Flamion, Enora; Kestemont, Patrick; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2016-10-12

    DNA methylation, a well-studied epigenetic mark, is important for gene regulation in adulthood and for development. Using genetic and epigenetic approaches, the present study aimed at evaluating the effects of heat stress and copper exposure during zebrafish early embryogenesis when patterns of DNA methylation are being established, a process called reprogramming. Embryos were exposed to 325 μg Cu/L from fertilization (<1 h post fertilization - hpf) to 4 hpf at either 26.5 °C or 34 °C, followed by incubation in clean water at 26.5 °C till 96 hpf. Significant increased mortality rates and delayed hatching were observed following exposure to combined high temperature and Cu. Secondly, both stressors, alone or in combination, significantly upregulated the expression of de novo DNA methyltransferase genes (dnmt3) along with no differences in global cytosine methylation level. Finally, Cu exposure significantly increased the expression of metallothionein (mt2) and heat shock protein (hsp70), the latter being also increased following exposure to high temperature. These results highlighted the sensitivity of early embryogenesis and more precisely of the reprogramming period to environmental challenges, in a realistic situation of combined stressors.

  7. Characterization of three novel members of the zebrafish Pax2/5/8 family: dependency of Pax5 and Pax8 expression on the Pax2.1 (noi) function.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, P L; Gerster, T; Lun, K; Brand, M; Busslinger, M

    1998-08-01

    The mammalian Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 genes code for highly related transcription factors, which play important roles in embryonic development and organogenesis. Here we report the characterization of all members of the zebrafish Pax2/5/8 family. These genes have arisen by duplications before or at the onset of vertebrate evolution. Due to an additional genome amplification in the fish lineage, the zebrafish contains two Pax2 genes, the previously known Pax[b] gene (here renamed as Pax2.1) and a novel Pax2.2 gene. The zebrafish Pax2.1 gene most closely resembles the mammalian Pax2 gene in its expression pattern, as it is transcribed first in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region, then in the optic stalk, otic system, pronephros and nephric ducts, and lastly in specific interneurons of the hindbrain and spinal cord. Pax2.2 differs from Pax2.1 by the absence of expression in the nephric system and by a delayed onset of transcription in other Pax2.1 expession domains. Pax8 is also expressed in the same domains as Pax2.1, but its transcription is already initiated during gastrulation in the primordia of the otic placode and pronephric anlage, thus identifying Pax8 as the earliest developmental marker of these structures. The zebrafish Pax5 gene, in contrast to its mouse orthologue, is transcribed in the otic system in addition to its prominent expression at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. The no isthmus (noi) mutation is known to inactivate the Pax2.1 gene, thereby affecting the development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region, pronephric system, optic stalk and otic region. Although the different members of the Pax2/5/8 family may potentially compensate for the loss of Pax2.1 function, we demonstrate here that only the expression of the Pax2.2 gene remains unaffected in noi mutant embryos. The expression of Pax5 and Pax8 is either not initiated at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary or is later not maintained in other expression domains. Consequently, the noi mutation

  8. Using whole mount in situ hybridization to examine thyroid hormone deiodinase expression in embryonic and larval zebrafish: a tool for examining OH-BDE toxicity to early life stages.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wu; Macaulay, Laura J; Kwok, Kevin W H; Hinton, David E; Stapleton, Heather M

    2013-05-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their oxidative metabolites (hydroxylated PBDEs; OH-BDEs) are known endocrine disrupting contaminants that have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone regulation both in mammals and in fish. The purpose of this study was to determine the precise organ and tissue locations that express genes critical to thyroid hormone regulation in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio), and to determine the effects of an OH-BDE on their expression. While RT-PCR can provide quantitative data on gene expression, it lacks spatial sensitivity to examine localized gene expression; and, isolation of organs from zebrafish embryos is technically difficult, if not impossible. For this reason, the present study used whole mount in situ hybridization to simultaneously localize and quantify gene expression in vivo. While PBDEs and OH-BDEs have been shown to inhibit the activity and expression of deiodionases, a family of enzymes that regulate thyroid hormone concentrations intracellularly, it is unclear whether or not they can affect regional expression of the different isoforms during early development. In this study we investigated deiodinase 1 (Dio1), deiodinase 2 (Dio2), and deiodinase 3 (Dio3) mRNA expression at the following life stages (2, 8, and 1k-cells; 50%-epiboly, 6 and 18-somites, 22, 24, 48, 72 hpf and/or 10 dpf) in zebrafish and found life stage specific expression of these genes that were highly localized. To demonstrate the use of this technique for investigating potential endocrine disrupting effects, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1, 10 and 100nM 6-OH-BDE-47. Significant increases in mean intensity of Dio1 and Dio3 expression in the periventricular zone of brain and pronephric duct, respectively (quantified by measuring intensity of coloration using ImageJ analysis software) were observed, suggesting localized response at the HPT axis with the possibility of impacting neurodevelopment. Our results demonstrate effects of OH-BDEs on

  9. Using Whole mount In Situ Hybridization to Examine Thyroid Hormone Deiodinase Expression in Embryonic and Larval Zebrafish: a Tool for examining OH-BDE toxicity to early life stages

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wu; Macaulay, Laura; Kwok, Kevin WH; Hinton, David E; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their oxidative metabolites (hydroxylated PBDEs; OH-BDEs) are known endocrine disrupting contaminants that have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone regulation both in mammals and in fish. The purpose of this study was to determine the precise organ and tissue locations that express genes critical to thyroid hormone regulation in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio), and to determine the effects of an OH-BDE on their expression. While RT-PCR can provide quantitative data on gene expression, it lacks spatial sensitivity to examine localized gene expression; and, isolation of organs from zebrafish embryos is technically difficult, if not impossible. For this reason, the present study used whole mount in situ hybridization to simultaneously localize and quantify gene expression in vivo. While PBDEs and OH-BDEs have been shown to inhibit the activity and expression of deiodionases, a family of enzymes that regulate thyroid hormone concentrations intracellularly, it is unclear whether or not they can affect regional expression of the different isoforms during early development. In this study we investigated deiodinase 1 (Dio1), deiodinase 2 (Dio2), and deiodinase 3 (Dio3) mRNA expression at the following life stages (2, 8, and 1k-cells; 50%-epiboly, 6 and 18-somites, 22, 24, 48, 72 hpf and/or 10 dpf) in zebrafish and found life stage specific expression of these genes that were highly localized. To demonstrate the use of this technique for investigating potential endocrine disrupting effects, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 nM 6-OH-BDE-47. Significant increases in mean intensity of Dio1 and Dio3 expression in the periventricular zone of brain and pronephric duct, respectively (quantified by measuring intensity of coloration using ImageJ analysis software) were observed, suggesting localized response at the HPT axis with the possibility of impacting neurodevelopment. Our results demonstrate effects of OH-BDEs on

  10. The cone-dominant retina and the inner ear of zebrafish express the ortholog of CLRN1, the causative gene of human Usher syndrome type 3A.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer B; Västinsalo, Hanna; Wegner, Jeremy; Clément, Aurélie; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Westerfield, Monte

    2013-12-01

    Clarin-1 (CLRN1) is the causative gene in Usher syndrome type 3A, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive vision and hearing loss. CLRN1 encodes Clarin-1, a glycoprotein with homology to the tetraspanin family of proteins. Previous cell culture studies suggest that Clarin-1 localizes to the plasma membrane and interacts with the cytoskeleton. Mouse models demonstrate a role for the protein in mechanosensory hair bundle integrity, but the function of Clarin-1 in hearing remains unclear. Even less is known of its role in vision, because the Clrn1 knockout mouse does not exhibit a retinal phenotype and expression studies in murine retinas have provided conflicting results. Here, we describe cloning and expression analysis of the zebrafish clrn1 gene, and report protein localization of Clarin-1 in auditory and visual cells from embryonic through adult stages. We detect clrn1 transcripts as early as 24h post-fertilization, and expression is maintained through adulthood. In situ hybridization experiments show clrn1 transcripts enriched in mechanosensory hair cells and supporting cells of the inner ear and lateral line organ, photoreceptors, and cells of the inner retina. In mechanosensory hair cells, Clarin-1 is polarized to the apical cell body and the synapses. In the retina, Clarin-1 localizes to lateral cell contacts between photoreceptors and is associated with the outer limiting membrane and subapical processes emanating from Müller glial cells. We also find Clarin-1 protein in the outer plexiform, inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers of the retina. Given the importance of Clarin-1 function in the human retina, it is imperative to find an animal model with a comparable requirement. Our data provide a foundation for exploring the role of Clarin-1 in retinal cell function and survival in a diurnal, cone-dominant species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of cytotoxicity and expression of metal regulatory genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells exposed to cadmium sulfate, zinc sulfate and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song; Allagadda, Vinay; Chibli, Hicham; Nadeau, Jay L; Mayer, Gregory D

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in the ability to manufacture and manipulate materials at the nanometer scale have led to increased production and use of many types of nanoparticles. Quantum dots (QDs) are small, fluorescent nanoparticles composed of a core of semiconductor material (e.g. cadmium selenide, zinc sulfide) and shells or dopants of other elements. Particle core composition, size, shell, and surface chemistry have all been found to influence toxicity in cells. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicities of ionic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and Cd- and Zn-containing QDs in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL). As expected, Cd(2+) was more toxic than Zn(2+), and the general trend of IC50-24 h values of QDs was determined to be CdTe < CdSe/ZnS or InP/ZnS, suggesting that ZnS-shelled CdSe/ZnS QDs were more cytocompatible than bare core CdTe crystals. Smaller QDs showed greater toxicity than larger QDs. Isolated mRNA from these exposures was used to measure the expression of metal response genes including metallothionein (MT), metal response element-binding transcription factor (MTF-1), divalent metal transporter (DMT-1), zrt and irt like protein (ZIP-1) and the zinc transporter, ZnT-1. CdTe exposure induced expression of these genes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of CdSO4 exposure. However, CdSe/ZnS and InP/ZnS altered gene expression of metal homeostasis genes in a manner different from that of the corresponding Cd or Zn salts. This implies that ZnS shells reduce QD toxicity attributed to the release of Cd(2+), but do not eliminate toxic effects caused by the nanoparticles themselves.

  12. Effects of Nanosilver Exposure on Cholinesterase Activities, CD41, and CDF/LIF-Like Expression in ZebraFish (Danio rerio) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Myrzakhanova, Marzhan; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Gatti, Antonietta M.; Tagliafierro, Grazia; Diaspro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Metal nanosolicoparticles are suspected to cause diseases in a number of organisms, including man. In this paper, we report the effects of nanosilver (Ag, 1–20 nm particles) on the early development of the zebrafish, a well-established vertebrate model. Embryos at the midgastrula stage were exposed to concentrations ranging from 100 to 0.001 mg/L to verify the effects on different endpoints: lethality, morphology, expression of cholinergic molecules, and development of the immune system. (1) Relative risk of mortality was exponential in the range between 0.001 and 10 mg/L. Exposure to 100 mg/L caused 100% death of embryos before reaching the tail-bud stage. (2) Developmental anomalies were present in the 72 h larvae obtained from embryos exposed to nanosilver: whole body length, decreased eye dimension, and slow response to solicitation by gentle touch with a needle tip, with a significant threshold at 0.1 mg/L. (3) Dose-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was significant among the exposures, except between 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L. (4) The distribution of CD41+ cells and of CDF/LIF-like immunoreactivity was altered according to the Ag concentration. The possible effect of nanosilver in impairing immune system differentiation through the inhibition of molecules related to the cholinergic system is discussed. PMID:23991412

  13. Midline signals regulate retinal neurogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Masai, I; Stemple, D L; Okamoto, H; Wilson, S W

    2000-08-01

    In zebrafish, neuronal differentiation progresses across the retina in a pattern that is reminiscent of the neurogenic wave that sweeps across the developing eye in Drosophila. We show that expression of a zebrafish homolog of Drosophila atonal, ath5, sweeps across the eye predicting the wave of neuronal differentiation. By analyzing the regulation of ath5 expression, we have elucidated the mechanisms that regulate initiation and spread of neurogenesis in the retina. ath5 expression is lost in Nodal pathway mutant embryos lacking axial tissues that include the prechordal plate. A likely role for axial tissue is to induce optic stalk cells that subsequently regulate ath5 expression. Our results suggest that a series of inductive events, initiated from the prechordal plate and progressing from the optic stalks, regulates the spread of neuronal differentiation across the zebrafish retina.

  14. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Regulates igfbp Gene Expression Directly or via Downstream Effectors to Modulate Igf3 Effects on Zebrafish Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Safian, Diego; van der Kant, Henk J. G.; Crespo, Diego; Bogerd, Jan; Schulz, Rüdiger W.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work showed that pharmacological inactivation of Igf-binding proteins (Igfbps), modulators of Igf activity, resulted in an excessive differentiation of type A undifferentiated (Aund) spermatogonia in zebrafish testis in tissue culture when Fsh was present in the incubation medium. Using this testis tissue culture system, we studied here the regulation of igfbp transcript levels by Fsh and two of its downstream effectors, Igf3 and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We also explored how Fsh-modulated igfbp expression affected spermatogonial proliferation by adding or removing the Igfbp inhibitor NBI-31772 at different times. Fsh (100 ng/mL) decreased the transcript levels of igfbp1a, -3, and -6a after 1 or 3 days, while increasing igfbp2a and -5b expression, but only after 5 days of incubation. Igf3 down-regulated the same igfbp transcripts as Fsh but with a delay of at least 4 days. 11-KT increased the transcripts (igfbp2a and 5b) that were elevated by Fsh and decreased those of igfbp6a, as did Fsh, while 11-KT did not change igfbp1a or -3 transcript levels. To evaluate Igfbps effects on spermatogenesis, we quantified under different conditions the mitotic indices and relative section areas occupied by the different spermatogonial generations (type Aund, type A differentiating (Adiff), or type B (B) spermatogonia). Igf3 (100 ng/mL) increased the area occupied by Adiff and B while decreasing the one for Aund. Interestingly, a concentration of Igf3 that was inactive by itself (25 ng/mL) became active in the presence of the Igfbp inhibitor NBI-31772 and mimicked the effect of 100 ng/mL Igf3 on spermatogonia. Studies exploiting the different dynamics of igfbp expression in response to Fsh and adding or removing NBI-31772 at different times showed that the quick downregulation of three igfbp as well as the delayed upregulated of two igfbps all support Igf3 bioactivity, namely the stimulation of spermatogonial differentiation. We conclude that Fsh

  15. Nppa and Nppb act redundantly during zebrafish cardiac development to confine AVC marker expression and reduce cardiac jelly volume.

    PubMed

    Grassini, Daniela R; Lagendijk, Anne K; De Angelis, Jessica E; Da Silva, Jason; Jeanes, Angela; Zettler, Nicole; Bower, Neil I; Hogan, Benjamin M; Smith, Kelly A

    2018-05-11

    Atrial natriuretic peptide ( nppa/anf ) and brain natriuretic peptide ( nppb/bnp ) form a gene cluster with expression in the chambers of the developing heart. Despite restricted expression, a function in cardiac development has not been demonstrated by mutant analysis. This is attributed to functional redundancy however their genomic location in cis has impeded formal analysis. Using genome-editing, we generated mutants for nppa and nppb and found single mutants indistinguishable from wildtype whereas nppa / nppb double mutants display heart morphogenesis defects and pericardial oedema. Analysis of atrioventricular canal (AVC) markers show expansion of bmp4 , tbx2b, has2 and versican expression into the atrium of double mutants. This expanded expression correlates with increased extracellular matrix in the atrium. Using a biosensor for Hyaluronic acid to measure the cardiac jelly (cardiac extracellular matrix), we confirm cardiac jelly expansion in nppa / nppb double mutants. Finally, bmp4 knockdown rescues the expansion of has2 expression and cardiac jelly in double mutants. This definitively shows that nppa and nppb function redundantly during cardiac development to restrict gene expression to the AVC, preventing excessive cardiac jelly synthesis in the atrial chamber. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Examination of a Palatogenic Gene Program in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Mary E.; Sheehan-Rooney, Kelly; Dixon, Michael J.; Eberhart, Johann K.

    2011-01-01

    Human palatal clefting is debilitating and difficult to rectify surgically. Animal models enhance our understanding of palatogenesis and are essential in strategies designed to ameliorate palatal malformations in humans. Recent studies have shown that the zebrafish palate, or anterior neurocranium, is under similar genetic control to the amniote palatal skeleton. We extensively analyzed palatogenesis in zebrafish to determine the similarity of gene expression and function across vertebrates. By 36 hpf palatogenic cranial neural crest cells reside in homologous regions of the developing face compared to amniote species. Transcription factors and signaling molecules regulating mouse palatogenesis are expressed in similar domains during palatogenesis in zebrafish. Functional investigation of a subset of these genes, fgf10a, tgfb2, pax9 and smad5 revealed their necessity in zebrafish palatogenesis. Collectively, these results suggest that the gene regulatory networks regulating palatogenesis may be conserved across vertebrate species, demonstrating the utility of zebrafish as a model for palatogenesis. PMID:22016187

  17. Expression of ALS/FTD-linked mutant CCNF in zebrafish leads to increased cell death in the spinal cord and an aberrant motor phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Alison L; Don, Emily K; Rayner, Stephanie L; Lee, Albert; Laird, Angela S; Watchon, Maxinne; Winnick, Claire; Tarr, Ingrid S; Morsch, Marco; Fifita, Jennifer A; Gwee, Serene S L; Formella, Isabel; Hortle, Elinor; Yuan, Kristy C; Molloy, Mark P; Williams, Kelly L; Nicholson, Garth A; Chung, Roger S; Blair, Ian P; Cole, Nicholas J

    2017-07-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Approximately 10% of cases have a known family history of ALS and disease-linked mutations in multiple genes have been identified. ALS-linked mutations in CCNF were recently reported, however the pathogenic mechanisms associated with these mutations are yet to be established. To investigate possible disease mechanisms, we developed in vitro and in vivo models based on an ALS-linked missense mutation in CCNF. Proteomic analysis of the in vitro models identified the disruption of several cellular pathways in the mutant model, including caspase-3 mediated cell death. Transient overexpression of human CCNF in zebrafish embryos supported this finding, with fish expressing the mutant protein found to have increased levels of cleaved (activated) caspase-3 and increased cell death in the spinal cord. The mutant CCNF fish also developed a motor neuron axonopathy consisting of shortened primary motor axons and increased frequency of aberrant axonal branching. Importantly, we demonstrated a significant correlation between the severity of the CCNF-induced axonopathy and a reduced motor response to a light stimulus (photomotor response). This is the first report of an ALS-linked CCNF mutation in vivo and taken together with the in vitro model identifies the disruption of cell death pathways as a significant consequence of this mutation. Additionally, this study presents a valuable new tool for use in ongoing studies investigating the pathobiology of ALS-linked CCNF mutations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Reversal of pentylenetetrazole-altered swimming and neural activity-regulated gene expression in zebrafish larvae by valproic acid and valerian extract.

    PubMed

    Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Colón, Luis R; Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torrado, Aranza; Miscalichi, Nahira; Ortíz, José G; González-Sepúlveda, Lorena; Pérez-Ríos, Naydi; Suárez-Pérez, Erick; Bradsher, John N; Behra, Martine

    2016-07-01

    Ethnopharmacology has documented hundreds of psychoactive plants awaiting exploitation for drug discovery. A robust and inexpensive in vivo system allowing systematic screening would be critical to exploiting this knowledge. The objective of this study was to establish a cheap and accurate screening method which can be used for testing psychoactive efficacy of complex mixtures of unknown composition, like plant crude extracts. We used automated recording of zebrafish larval swimming behavior during light vs. dark periods which we reproducibly altered with an anxiogenic compound, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). First, we reversed this PTZ-altered swimming by co-treatment with a well-defined synthetic anxiolytic drug, valproic acid (VPA). Next, we aimed at reversing it by adding crude root extracts of Valeriana officinalis (Val) from which VPA was originally derived. Finally, we assessed how expression of neural activity-regulated genes (c-fos, npas4a, and bdnf) known to be upregulated by PTZ treatment was affected in the presence of Val. Both VPA and Val significantly reversed the PTZ-altered swimming behaviors. Noticeably, Val at higher doses was affecting swimming independently of the presence of PTZ. A strong regulation of all three neural-activity genes was observed in Val-treated larvae which fully supported the behavioral results. We demonstrated in a combined behavioral-molecular approach the strong psychoactivity of a natural extract of unknown composition made from V. officinalis. Our results highlight the efficacy and sensitivity of such an approach, therefore offering a novel in vivo screening system amenable to high-throughput testing of promising ethnobotanical candidates.

  19. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    SciT

    Kubota, Akira; Bainy, Afonso C.D.; Departamento de Bioquímica, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900

    2013-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs.more » On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share

  20. Production of Androgenetic Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Corley-Smith, G. E.; Lim, C. J.; Brandhorst, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    To help investigate the evolutionary origin of the imprinting (parent-of-origin mono-allelic expression) of paternal genes observed in mammals, we constructed haploid and diploid androgenetic zebrafish (Danio rerio). Haploid androgenotes were produced by fertilizing eggs that had been X-ray irradiated to eliminate the maternal genome. Subsequent inhibition of the first mitotic division of haploid androgenotes by heat shock produced diploid androgenotes. The lack of inheritance of maternal-specific DNA markers (RAPD and SSR) by putative diploid and haploid androgenotes confirmed the androgenetic origin of their genomes. Marker analysis was performed on 18 putative androgenotes (five diploids and 13 haploids) from six families. None of 157 maternal-specific RAPD markers analyzed, some of which were apparently homozygous, were passed on to any of these putative androgenotes. A mean of 7.7 maternal-specific markers were assessed per family. The survival of androgenetic zebrafish suggests that if paternal imprinting occurs in zebrafish, it does not result in essential genes being inactivated when their expression is required for development. Production of haploid androgenotes can be used to determine the meiotic recombination rate in male zebrafish. Androgenesis may also provide useful information about the mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish. PMID:8846903

  1. Characterization of zebrafish dysferlin by morpholino knockdown

    SciT

    Kawahara, Genri; Serafini, Peter R.; Myers, Jennifer A.

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb). {yields} The dysferlin expression was detected in skeletal muscle, heart and eye. {yields} Injection of antisense morpholinos to dysferlin caused marked muscle disorganization. {yields} Zebrafish dysferlin expression may be involved in stabilizing muscle structures. -- Abstract: Mutations in the gene encoding dysferlin cause two distinct muscular dystrophy phenotypes: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD-2B) and Miyoshi myopathy (MM). Dysferlin is a large transmembrane protein involved in myoblast fusion and membrane resealing. Zebrafish represent an ideal animal model to use for studying muscle disease including abnormalities of dysferlin. cDNAs of zebrafishmore » dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb) and the predicted amino acid sequences, showed 68% similarity to predicted amino acid sequences of mammalian dysferlin. The expression of dysferlin was mainly in skeletal muscle, heart and eye, and the expression could be detected as early as 11 h post fertilization (hpf). Three different antisense oligonucleotide morpholinos were targeted to inhibit translation of this dysferlin mRNA and the morpholino-injected fish showed marked muscle disorganization which could be detected by birefringence assay. Western blot analysis using dysferlin antibodies showed that the expression of dysferlin was reduced in each of the three morphants. Dysferlin expression was shown to be reduced at the myosepta of zebrafish muscle using immunohistochemistry, although the expression of other muscle membrane components, dystrophin, laminin, {beta}-dystroglycan were detected normally. Our data suggest that zebrafish dysferlin expression is involved in stabilizing muscle structures and its downregulation causes muscle disorganization.« less

  2. Altered Gene Expression in the Brain and Ovaries of Zebrafish Exposed to the Aromatase Inhibitor Fadrozole: Microarray analysis and Hypothesis Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a research effort examining system-wide responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in fish to endocrine active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 25 or 100 ìg/L of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole for...

  3. Altered Gene Expression in the Brain and Ovaries of Zebrafish Exposed to the Aromatase Inhibitor Fadrosole: Microarray Analysis for Hypothesis Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A part of an overall program of research aimed at examining system-wide responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in fish to endocrine active chemicals acting through a variety of modes of action, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole ...

  4. Development of the zebrafish mesonephros.

    PubMed

    Diep, Cuong Q; Peng, Zhenzhen; Ukah, Tobechukwu K; Kelly, Paul M; Daigle, Renee V; Davidson, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate kidney plays an essential role in removing metabolic waste and balancing water and salt. This is carried out by nephrons, which comprise a blood filter attached to an epithelial tubule with proximal and distal segments. In zebrafish, two nephrons are first formed as part of the embryonic kidney (pronephros) and hundreds are formed later to make up the adult kidney (mesonephros). Previous studies have focused on the development of the pronephros while considerably less is known about how the mesonephros is formed. Here, we characterize mesonephros development in zebrafish and examine the nephrons that form during larval metamorphosis. These nephrons, arising from proliferating progenitor cells that express the renal transcription factor genes wt1b, pax2a, and lhx1a, form on top of the pronephric tubules and develop a segmentation pattern similar to pronephric nephrons. We find that the pronephros acts as a scaffold for the mesonephros, where new nephrons fuse with the distal segments of the pronephric tubules to form the final branching network that characterizes the adult zebrafish kidney. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Development of the zebrafish mesonephros

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cuong Q.; Peng, Zhenzhen; Ukah, Tobechukwu K.; Kelly, Paul M.; Daigle, Renee V.; Davidson, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate kidney plays an essential role in removing metabolic waste and balancing water and salt. This is carried out by nephrons, which comprise a blood filter attached to an epithelial tubule with proximal and distal segments. In zebrafish, two nephrons are first formed as part of the embryonic kidney (pronephros) and hundreds are formed later to make up the adult kidney (mesonephros). Previous studies have focused on the development of the pronephros while considerably less is known about how the mesonephros is formed. Here, we characterize mesonephros development in zebrafish and examine the nephrons that form during larval metamorphosis. These nephrons, arising from proliferating progenitor cells that express the renal transcription factor genes wt1b, pax2a, and lhx1a, form on top of the pronephric tubules and develop a segmentation pattern similar to pronephric nephrons. We find that the pronephros acts as a scaffold for the mesonephros, where new nephrons fuse with the distal segments of the pronephric tubules to form the final branching network that characterizes the adult zebrafish kidney. PMID:25677367

  6. Zebrafish Discoveries in Cancer Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Chernyavskaya, Yelena; Kent, Brandon; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2016-01-01

    The cancer epigenome is fundamentally different than that of normal cells. How these differences arise in and contribute to carcinogenesis is not known, and studies using model organisms such as zebrafish provide an opportunity to address these important questions. Modifications of histones and DNA comprise the complex epigenome, and these influence chromatin structure, genome stability and gene expression, all of which are fundamental to the cellular changes that cause cancer. The cancer genome atlas covers the wide spectrum of genetic changes associated with nearly every cancer type, however, this catalog is currently uni-dimensional. As the pattern of epigenetic marks and chromatin structure in cancer cells is described and overlaid on the mutational landscape, the map of the cancer genome becomes multi-dimensional and highly complex. Two major questions remain in the field: (1) how the epigenome becomes repatterned in cancer and (2) which of these changes are cancer-causing. Zebrafish provide a tractable in vivo system to monitor the epigenome during transformation and to identify epigenetic drivers of cancer. In this chapter, we review principles of cancer epigenetics and discuss recent work using zebrafish whereby epigenetic modifiers were established as cancer driver genes, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming in cancer.

  7. Effects of acute handling stress on short-term central expression of orexigenic/anorexigenic genes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Raul; Teles, Mariana; Oliveira, Miguel; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Tort, Lluis; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Physiological mechanisms driving stress response in vertebrates are evolutionarily conserved. These mechanisms involve the activation of both the hypothalamic-sympathetic-chromaffin cell (HSC) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. In fish, the reduction of food intake levels is a common feature of the behavioral response to stress but the central mechanisms coordinating the energetic response are not well understood yet. In this work, we explore the effects of acute stress on key central systems regulating food intake in fish as well as on total body cortisol and glucose levels. We show that acute stress induced a rapid increase in total body cortisol with no changes in body glucose, at the same time promoting a prompt central response by activating neuronal pathways. All three orexigenic peptides examined, i.e., neuropeptide y (npy), agouti-related protein (agrp), and ghrelin, increased their central expression level suggesting that these neuronal systems are not involved in the short-term feeding inhibitory effects of acute stress. By contrast, the anorexigenic precursors tested, i.e., cart peptides and pomc, exhibited increased expression after acute stress, suggesting their involvement in the anorexigenic effects.

  8. Computerized image analysis for quantitative neuronal phenotyping in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianming; Lu, Jianfeng; Wang, Ye; Campbell, William A; Huang, Ling; Zhu, Jinmin; Xia, Weiming; Wong, Stephen T C

    2006-06-15

    An integrated microscope image analysis pipeline is developed for automatic analysis and quantification of phenotypes in zebrafish with altered expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked genes. We hypothesize that a slight impairment of neuronal integrity in a large number of zebrafish carrying the mutant genotype can be detected through the computerized image analysis method. Key functionalities of our zebrafish image processing pipeline include quantification of neuron loss in zebrafish embryos due to knockdown of AD-linked genes, automatic detection of defective somites, and quantitative measurement of gene expression levels in zebrafish with altered expression of AD-linked genes or treatment with a chemical compound. These quantitative measurements enable the archival of analyzed results and relevant meta-data. The structured database is organized for statistical analysis and data modeling to better understand neuronal integrity and phenotypic changes of zebrafish under different perturbations. Our results show that the computerized analysis is comparable to manual counting with equivalent accuracy and improved efficacy and consistency. Development of such an automated data analysis pipeline represents a significant step forward to achieve accurate and reproducible quantification of neuronal phenotypes in large scale or high-throughput zebrafish imaging studies.

  9. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 2, marks hepatic stellate cells in zebrafish: analysis of stellate cell entry into the developing liver.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunyue; Evason, Kimberley J; Maher, Jacquelyn J; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2012-11-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are liver-specific mesenchymal cells that play vital roles in liver development and injury. Our knowledge of HSC biology is limited by the paucity of in vivo data. HSCs and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) reside in close proximity, and interactions between these two cell types are potentially critical for their development and function. Here, we introduce a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg(hand2:EGFP), that labels HSCs. We find that zebrafish HSCs share many similarities with their mammalian counterparts, including morphology, location, lipid storage, gene-expression profile, and increased proliferation and matrix production, in response to an acute hepatic insult. Using the Tg(hand2:EGFP) line, we conducted time-course analyses during development to reveal that HSCs invade the liver after SECs do. However, HSCs still enter the liver in mutants that lack most endothelial cells, including SECs, indicating that SECs are not required for HSC differentiation or their entry into the liver. In the absence of SECs, HSCs become abnormally associated with hepatic biliary cells, suggesting that SECs influence HSC localization during liver development. We analyzed factors that regulate HSC development and show that inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling significantly reduces the number of HSCs that enter the liver. We also performed a pilot chemical screen and identified two compounds that affect HSC numbers during development. Our work provides the first comprehensive description of HSC development in zebrafish and reveals the requirement of SECs in HSC localization. The Tg(hand2:EGFP) line represents a unique tool for in vivo analysis and molecular dissection of HSC behavior. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Habenular kisspeptin modulates fear in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Nathan, Fatima M.; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin, a neuropeptide encoded by the KISS1/Kiss1, and its cognate G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54 (kisspeptin receptor, Kiss-R), are critical for the control of reproduction in vertebrates. We have previously identified two kisspeptin genes (kiss1 and kiss2) in the zebrafish, of which kiss1 neurons are located in the habenula, which project to the median raphe. kiss2 neurons are located in the hypothalamic nucleus and send axonal projections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and regulate reproductive functions. However, the physiological significance of the Kiss1 expressed in the habenula remains unknown. Here we demonstrate the role of habenular Kiss1 in alarm substance (AS)-induced fear response in the zebrafish. We found that AS-evoked fear experience significantly reduces kiss1 and serotonin-related genes (plasmacytoma expressed transcript 1 and solute carrier family 6, member 4) in the zebrafish. Furthermore, Kiss1 administration suppressed the AS-evoked fear response. To further evaluate the role of Kiss1 in fear response, zebrafish Kiss1 peptide was conjugated to saporin (SAP) to selectively inactivate Kiss-R1-expressing neurons. The Kiss1-SAP injection significantly reduced Kiss1 immunoreactivity and c-fos mRNA in the habenula and the raphe compared with control. Furthermore, 3 d after Kiss1-SAP injection, the fish had a significantly reduced AS-evoked fear response. These findings provide an insight into the role of the habenular kisspeptin system in inhibiting fear. PMID:24567386

  11. Natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP) increase weight gain, advance puberty, and induce changes in gene expression associated with steroid hormones and obesity in female zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Almaas, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmental relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway: one mixture with high levels and one mixture with background levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane metabolites (DDT). The concentration of POP measured in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish from Lake Mjøsa to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations, indicating that the experimental fish were exposed to concentrations comparable with wild fish. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included earlier onset of puberty, increased male/female sex ratio, and differences in body weight at 5 mo of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling showed changes in regulation of genes involved in endocrine signaling and growth. The transcriptomics changes include key regulator genes for steroid hormone functions (ncoa3), and growth (c/ebp, ncoa3). The effects observed in the experimental zebrafish model raise the question whether chemical pollution represents a risk to reproductive health of wild fish inhabitating the freshwater system.

  12. Identification of oocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish ovary.

    PubMed

    Draper, Bruce W

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish breed year round and females are capable of producing thousands of eggs during their lifetime. This amazing fecundity is due to the fact that the adult ovary, contains premeiotic oocyte progenitor cells, called oogonia, which produce a continuous supply of new oocytes throughout adult life. Oocyte progenitor cells can be easily identified based on their expression of Vasa, and their characteristic nuclear morphology. Thus, the zebrafish ovary provides a unique and powerful system to study the genetic regulation of oocyte production in a vertebrate animal. A method is presented here for identifying oocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish ovary using whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence that is simple and accurate.

  13. Combinatorial Wnt control of zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary formation.

    PubMed

    Buckles, Gerri R; Thorpe, Christopher J; Ramel, Marie-Christine; Lekven, Arne C

    2004-05-01

    Wnt signaling is known to be required for the normal development of the vertebrate midbrain and hindbrain, but genetic loss of function analyses in the mouse and zebrafish yield differing results regarding the relative importance of specific Wnt loci. In the zebrafish, Wnt1 and Wnt10b functionally overlap in their control of gene expression in the ventral midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), but they are not required for the formation of the MHB constriction. Whether other wnt loci are involved in zebrafish MHB development is unclear, although the expression of at least two wnts, wnt3a and wnt8b, is maintained in wnt1/wnt10b mutants. In order to address the role of wnt3a in zebrafish, we have isolated a full length cDNA and examined its expression and function via knockdown by morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO)-mediated knockdown. The expression pattern of wnt3a appears to be evolutionarily conserved between zebrafish and mouse, and MO knockdown shows that Wnt3a, while not uniquely required for MHB development, is required in the absence of Wnt1 and Wnt10b for the formation of the MHB constriction. In zebrafish embryos lacking Wnt3a, Wnt1 and Wnt10b, the expression of engrailed orthologs, pax2a and fgf8 is not maintained after mid-somitogenesis. In contrast to acerebellar and no isthmus mutants, in which midbrain and hindbrain cells acquire new fates but cell number is not significantly affected until late in embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos lacking Wnt3a, Wnt1 and Wnt10b undergo extensive apoptosis in the midbrain and cerebellum anlagen beginning in mid-somitogenesis, which results in the absence of a significant portion of the midbrain and cerebellum. Thus, the requirement for Wnt signaling in forming the MHB constriction is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates and it is possible in zebrafish to dissect the relative impact of multiple Wnt loci in midbrain and hindbrain development.

  14. Use of Gnotobiotic Zebrafish to Study Vibrio anguillarum Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Oyarbide, Usua; Iturria, Iñaki; Rainieri, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the use of the gnotobiotic zebrafish system to study the effects of bacterial infection, and analyzed expression of genes involved in zebrafish innate immunity. Using a GFP-labeled strain of Vibrio anguillarum, we fluorescently monitored colonization of the zebrafish intestinal tract and used gene expression analysis to compare changes in genes involved in innate immunity between nongnotobiotic and gnotobiotic larvae. The experiments performed with the gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal new insights into V. anguillarum pathogenesis. Specifically, an alteration of the host immune system was detected through the suppression of a number of innate immune genes (NFKB, IL1B, TLR4, MPX, and TRF) during the first 3 h post infection. This immunomodulation can be indicative of a “stealth mechanism” of mucus invasion in which the pathogen found a sheltered niche, a typical trait of intracellular pathogens. PMID:25548877

  15. Comparative effects of cadmium, zinc, arsenic and chromium on olfactory-mediated neurobehavior and gene expression in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Heffern, Kevin; Tierney, Keith; Gallagher, Evan P

    2018-05-28

    Studies have shown that olfactory-mediated behaviors that are critical to survival can be disrupted by exposure to certain metals. Polluted waterways often contain elevated levels of metals, yet only a subset have been characterized for their potential to cause olfactory toxicity. A larval zebrafish behavioral assay was developed to characterize concentration-response curves for zinc (Zn), hexavalent chromium (Cr), and arsenate (As) olfaction inhibition. Cadmium (Cd), an established olfactory toxicant, was used as a positive control. As expected, following a 24-hour exposure to Cd, we observed a reduced response to taurocholic acid (TCA), a substrate for ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), thus validating the behavioral assay. Zn exposure similarly decreased the olfactory response toward TCA, (IC 50 : 36 μg/L and 76 μg/L, for Cd and Zn, respectively). The response towards a secondary odorant L-cysteine (Cys), a substrate for ciliated and microvillous OSNs, was significantly altered by both Cd and Zn exposure, although the response to Cys was not completely removed in Zn treated larvae, suggesting preferential toxicity towards ciliated OSNs. No significant changes in olfactory responses were observed following Cr and As exposures. Exposures to binary mixtures of Cd and Zn indicated that Zn had a protective effect against Cd toxicity at low Zn concentrations. QuantiGene (QDP) RNA analysis revealed Cd to be a potent inducer of metallothionein 2 (mt2) mRNA in zebrafish larvae, and Zn to be a weak mt2 inducer, suggesting a protective role of mt2 in Cd and Zn olfactory injury. By contrast, QDP analysis of eight other genes important in mitigating the effects of oxidative stress suggested an antioxidant response to Cd, but not Zn, As, and Cr suggesting that oxidative stress was not a primary mechanism of Zn-induced olfactory dysfunction. In summary, our study indicates that Zn inhibits zebrafish olfaction at environmental concentrations and may potentially

  16. Identification and characterization of the zebrafish glutathione S-transferase Pi-1.

    PubMed

    Abunnaja, Maryam S; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Mohammed, Yasir I; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Hassoun, Ezdihar A; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2017-10-01

    Zebrafish has in recent years emerged as a popular vertebrate model for use in pharmacological and toxicological studies. While there have been sporadic studies on the zebrafish glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), the zebrafish GST gene superfamily still awaits to be fully elucidated. We report here the identification of 15 zebrafish cytosolic GST genes in NCBI GenBank database and the expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of the zebrafish cytosolic GST Pi-1 (GSTP1). The cDNA encoding the zebrafish GSTP1 was cloned from a 3-month-old female zebrafish, expressed in Eschelichia coli host cells, and purified. Purified GSTP1 displayed glutathione-conjugating activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a representative substrate. The enzymatic characteristics of the zebrafish GSTP1, including pH-dependency, effects of metal cations, and kinetic parameters, were studied. Moreover, the expression of zebrafish GSTP1 at different developmental stages during embryogenesis, throughout larval development, onto maturity was examined. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Zebrafish Health Conditions in the China Zebrafish Resource Center and 20 Major Chinese Zebrafish Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyue; Pan, Luyuan; Li, Kuoyu; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Zuoyan; Sun, Yonghua

    2016-07-01

    In China, the use of zebrafish as an experimental animal in the past 15 years has widely expanded. The China Zebrafish Resource Center (CZRC), which was established in 2012, is becoming one of the major resource centers in the global zebrafish community. Large-scale use and regular exchange of zebrafish resources have put forward higher requirements on zebrafish health issues in China. This article reports the current aquatic infrastructure design, animal husbandry, and health-monitoring programs in the CZRC. Meanwhile, through a survey of 20 Chinese zebrafish laboratories, we also describe the current health status of major zebrafish facilities in China. We conclude that it is of great importance to establish a widely accepted health standard and health-monitoring strategy in the Chinese zebrafish research community.

  18. Zebrafish and Streptococcal Infections.

    PubMed

    Saralahti, A; Rämet, M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcal bacteria are a versatile group of gram-positive bacteria capable of infecting several host organisms, including humans and fish. Streptococcal species are common colonizers of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, but they also cause some of the most common life-threatening, invasive infections in humans and aquaculture. With its unique characteristics and efficient tools for genetic and imaging applications, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful vertebrate model for infectious diseases. Several zebrafish models introduced so far have shown that zebrafish are suitable models for both zoonotic and human-specific infections. Recently, several zebrafish models mimicking human streptococcal infections have also been developed. These models show great potential in providing novel information about the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses associated with human streptococcal infections. Here, we review the zebrafish infection models for the most relevant streptococcal species: the human-specific Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the zoonotic Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae. The recent success and the future potential of these models for the study of host-pathogen interactions in streptococcal infections are also discussed. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  19. Measuring zebrafish turning rate.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; di Bernardo, Mario; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a popular animal model in preclinical research, and zebrafish turning rate has been proposed for the analysis of activity in several domains. The turning rate is often estimated from the trajectory of the fish centroid that is output by commercial or custom-made target tracking software run on overhead videos of fish swimming. However, the accuracy of such indirect methods with respect to the turning rate associated with changes in heading during zebrafish locomotion is largely untested. Here, we compare two indirect methods for the turning rate estimation using the centroid velocity or position data, with full shape tracking for three different video sampling rates. We use tracking data from the overhead video recorded at 60, 30, and 15 frames per second of zebrafish swimming in a shallow water tank. Statistical comparisons of absolute turning rate across methods and sampling rates indicate that, while indirect methods are indistinguishable from full shape tracking, the video sampling rate significantly influences the turning rate measurement. The results of this study can aid in the selection of the video capture frame rate, an experimental design parameter in zebrafish behavioral experiments where activity is an important measure.

  20. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Subhra Prakash

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the present review we discuss two interrelated events—axonal damage and repair—known to occur after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the zebrafish. Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating axonal tracts and can restore full functionality after SCI. Unlike fish, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is extremely limited. As a consequence of an injury there is very little repair of disengaged axons and therefore functional deficit persists after SCI in adult mammals. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons readily regenerate following injury and hence allow functional recovery both in mammals and fish. A better mechanistic understanding of these three scenarios could provide a more comprehensive insight into the success or failure of axonal regeneration after SCI. This review summarizes the present understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of axonal regeneration, in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, and large scale gene expression analysis is used to focus on different events during regeneration. The discovery and identification of genes involved in zebrafish spinal cord regeneration and subsequent functional experimentation will provide more insight into the endogenous mechanism of myelination and remyelination. Furthermore, precise knowledge of the mechanism underlying the extraordinary axonal regeneration process in zebrafish will also allow us to unravel the potential therapeutic strategies to be implemented for enhancing regrowth and remyelination of axons in mammals. PMID:29721326

  1. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sukla; Hui, Subhra Prakash

    2018-03-01

    In the present review we discuss two interrelated events-axonal damage and repair-known to occur after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the zebrafish. Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating axonal tracts and can restore full functionality after SCI. Unlike fish, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is extremely limited. As a consequence of an injury there is very little repair of disengaged axons and therefore functional deficit persists after SCI in adult mammals. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons readily regenerate following injury and hence allow functional recovery both in mammals and fish. A better mechanistic understanding of these three scenarios could provide a more comprehensive insight into the success or failure of axonal regeneration after SCI. This review summarizes the present understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of axonal regeneration, in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, and large scale gene expression analysis is used to focus on different events during regeneration. The discovery and identification of genes involved in zebrafish spinal cord regeneration and subsequent functional experimentation will provide more insight into the endogenous mechanism of myelination and remyelination. Furthermore, precise knowledge of the mechanism underlying the extraordinary axonal regeneration process in zebrafish will also allow us to unravel the potential therapeutic strategies to be implemented for enhancing regrowth and remyelination of axons in mammals.

  2. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    SciT

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levelsmore » in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases.« less

  3. The HDAC Inhibitor TSA Ameliorates a Zebrafish Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nathan M; Farr, Gist H; Maves, Lisa

    2013-09-17

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In particular, zebrafish provide a system for rapid, easy, and low-cost screening of small molecules that can ameliorate muscle damage in dystrophic larvae. Here we identify an optimal anti-sense morpholino cocktail that robustly knocks down zebrafish Dystrophin (dmd-MO). We use two approaches, muscle birefringence and muscle actin expression, to quantify muscle damage and show that the dmd-MO dystrophic phenotype closely resembles the zebrafish dmd mutant phenotype. We then show that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor TSA, which has been shown to ameliorate the mdx mouse Duchenne model, can rescue muscle fiber damage in both dmd-MO and dmd mutant larvae. Our study identifies optimal morpholino and phenotypic scoring approaches for dystrophic zebrafish, further enhancing the zebrafish dmd model for rapid and cost-effective small molecule screening.

  4. Dihydroartemisinin promotes angiogenesis during the early embryonic development of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Qian; Duan, Juan; Tian, Jia-qiang; Wang, Zi-liang; Chen, Tao; Li, Xiao-guang; Chen, Pei-zhan; Wu, Song-jie; Xiang, Li; Li, Jing-quan; Chu, Rui-ai; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the embryotoxicity of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the main active metabolite of artemisinin, in zebrafish, and explore the corresponding mechanisms. Methods: The embryos of wild type and TG (flk1:GFP) transgenic zebrafish were exposed to DHA. Developmental phenotypes of the embryos were observed. Development of blood vessels was directly observed in living embryos of TG (flk1:GFP) transgenic zebrafish under fluorescence microscope. The expression of angiogenesis marker genes vegfa, flk1, and flt1 in the embryos was detected using real-time PCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays. Results: Exposure to DHA (1–10 mg/L) dose-dependently caused abnormal zebrafish embryonic phenotypes in the early developmental stage. Furthermore, exposure to DHA (10 mg/L) resulted in more pronounced embryonic angiogenesis in TG (flk1:GFP) zebrafish line. Exposure to DHA (10 mg/L) significantly increased the mRNA expression of vegfa, flk1, and flt1 in the embryos. Knockdown of the flk1 protein partially blocked the effects of DHA on embryogenesis. Conclusion: DHA causes abnormal embryonic phenotypes and promotes angiogenesis in zebrafish early embryonic development, demonstrating the potential embryotoxicity of DHA. PMID:23708556

  5. Zebrafish models for the functional genomics of neurogenetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Edor; Brustein, Edna; Champagne, Nathalie; Drapeau, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    In this review, we consider recent work using zebrafish to validate and study the functional consequences of mutations of human genes implicated in a broad range of degenerative and developmental disorders of the brain and spinal cord. Also we present technical considerations for those wishing to study their own genes of interest by taking advantage of this easily manipulated and clinically relevant model organism. Zebrafish permit mutational analyses of genetic function (gain or loss of function) and the rapid validation of human variants as pathological mutations. In particular, neural degeneration can be characterized at genetic, cellular, functional, and behavioral levels. Zebrafish have been used to knock down or express mutations in zebrafish homologs of human genes and to directly express human genes bearing mutations related to neurodegenerative disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy, ataxia, hereditary spastic paraplegia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), epilepsy, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, fronto-temporal dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. More recently, we have been using zebrafish to validate mutations of synaptic genes discovered by large-scale genomic approaches in developmental disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and non-syndromic mental retardation. Advances in zebrafish genetics such as multigenic analyses and chemical genetics now offer a unique potential for disease research. Thus, zebrafish hold much promise for advancing the functional genomics of human diseases, the understanding of the genetics and cell biology of degenerative and developmental disorders, and the discovery of therapeutics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Zebrafish Models of Neurological Diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effect of rhynchophylline on behaviors of methamphetamine-dependent zebrafish and the mechanism].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fei; Peng, Ju; Fang, Miao; Liu, Yi; Nie, Ling-Hui; Mo, Zhi-Xian; Zhu, Ling-Ling

    2016-11-20

    To observe the effect of rhynchophylline on methamphetamine-dependent zebrafish and explore the possible mechanism. Zebrafish were divided into control group, amphetamine group, low- (50 mg/kg) and high (100 mg/kg)-dose rhynchophylline groups, and ketamine (150 mg/kg) group. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was induced in zebrafish with methamphetamine, and the staying time in the drug box and the tracking map of the zebrafish were observed with Noldus Ethovision XT system. The protein expressions of TH, NR2B and GLUR2 in the brain of zebrafish with CPP were detected with Western blotting. Compared with the control group, zebrafish in methamphetamine group showed significant variations in the staying time and swimming distance in the drug box after conditioning (P<0.05) with obvious alterations of NR2B, TH and GLUR2 expressions in the brain (P<0.05). Treatment of methamphetamine-dependent zebrafish with high-dose rhynchophylline significantly reduced the variations in the staying time and swimming distance in the drug box (P<0.05) and in the expressions of NR2B, TH and GLUR2 in the brain (P<0.05). Rhynchophylline can inhibit methamphetamine dependence in zebrafish, the mechanism of which may involve the expressions of TH, NR2B and GLUR2 proteins in the brain.

  7. Embryonic exposure to an aqueous coal dust extract results in gene expression alterations associated with the development and function of connective tissue and the hematological system, immunological and inflammatory disease, and cancer in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Wirbisky-Hershberger, Sara E; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; de la Rosa, Jesus; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2018-03-01

    Coal mining is one of the economic activities with the greatest impact on environmental quality. At all stages contaminants are released as particulates such as coal dust. The first aim of this study was to obtain an aqueous coal dust extract and characterize its composition in terms of trace elements by ICP-MS. In addition, the developmental toxicity of the aqueous coal extract was evaluated using zebrafish (Danio rerio) after exposure to different concentrations (0-1000 ppm; μg mL -1 ) to establish acute toxicity, morphology and transcriptome changes. Trace elements within the aqueous coal dust extract present at the highest concentrations (>10 ppb) included Sr, Zn, Ba, As, Cu and Se. In addition, Cd and Pb were found in lower concentrations. No significant difference in mortality was observed (p > 0.05), but a delay in hatching was found at 0.1 and 1000 ppm (p < 0.05). No significant differences in morphological characteristics were observed in any of the treatment groups (p > 0.05). Transcriptomic results of zebrafish larvae revealed alterations in 77, 61 and 1376 genes in the 1, 10, and 100 ppm groups, respectively. Gene ontology analysis identified gene alterations associated with the development and function of connective tissue and the hematological system, as well as pathways associated with apoptosis, the cell cycle, transcription, and oxidative stress including the MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, altered genes were associated with cancer; connective tissue, muscular, and skeletal disorders; and immunological and inflammatory diseases. Overall, this is the first study to characterize gene expression alterations in response to developmental exposure to aqueous coal dust residue from coal mining with transcriptome results signifying functions and systems to target in future studies.

  8. Conserved gene regulation during acute inflammation between zebrafish and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, G.; Varela, M.; Pereiro, P.; Novoa, B.; Figueras, A.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio), largely used as a model for studying developmental processes, has also emerged as a valuable system for modelling human inflammatory diseases. However, in a context where even mice have been questioned as a valid model for these analysis, a systematic study evaluating the reproducibility of human and mammalian inflammatory diseases in zebrafish is still lacking. In this report, we characterize the transcriptomic regulation to lipopolysaccharide in adult zebrafish kidney, liver, and muscle tissues using microarrays and demonstrate how the zebrafish genomic responses can effectively reproduce the mammalian inflammatory process induced by acute endotoxin stress. We provide evidence that immune signaling pathways and single gene expression is well conserved throughout evolution and that the zebrafish and mammal acute genomic responses after lipopolysaccharide stimulation are highly correlated despite the differential susceptibility between species to that compound. Therefore, we formally confirm that zebrafish inflammatory models are suited to study the basic mechanisms of inflammation in human inflammatory diseases, with great translational impact potential. PMID:28157230

  9. Incorporating zebrafish omics into chemical biology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Sukardi, Hendrian; Ung, Choong Yong; Gong, Zhiyuan; Lam, Siew Hong

    2010-03-01

    In this communication, we describe the general aspects of omics approaches for analyses of transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, and how they can be strategically incorporated into chemical screening and perturbation studies using the zebrafish system. Pharmacological efficacy and selectivity of chemicals can be evaluated based on chemical-induced phenotypic effects; however, phenotypic observation has limitations in identifying mechanistic action of chemicals. We suggest adapting gene-expression-based high-throughput screening as a complementary strategy to zebrafish-phenotype-based screening for mechanistic insights about the mode of action and toxicity of a chemical, large-scale predictive applications and comparative analysis of chemical-induced omics signatures, which are useful to identify conserved biological responses, signaling pathways, and biomarkers. The potential mechanistic, predictive, and comparative applications of omics approaches can be implemented in the zebrafish system. Examples of these using the omics approaches in zebrafish, including data of ours and others, are presented and discussed. Omics also facilitates the translatability of zebrafish studies across species through comparison of conserved chemical-induced responses. This review is intended to update interested readers with the current omics approaches that have been applied in chemical studies on zebrafish and their potential in enhancing discovery in chemical biology.

  10. Mycobacteriosis in zebrafish colonies.

    PubMed

    Whipps, Christopher M; Lieggi, Christine; Wagner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial infection, has been associated with severe losses in some zebrafish facilities and low-level mortalities and unknown impacts in others. The occurrence of at least six different described species (Mycobacterium abscessus, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. haemophilum, M. marinum, M. peregrinum) from zebrafish complicates diagnosis and control because each species is unique. As a generalization, mycobacteria are often considered opportunists, but M. haemophilum and M. marinum appear to be more virulent. Background genetics of zebrafish and environmental conditions influence the susceptibility of fish and progression of disease, emphasizing the importance of regular monitoring and good husbandry practices. A combined approach to diagnostics is ultimately the most informative, with histology as a first-level screen, polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection and species identification, and culture for strain differentiation. Occurrence of identical strains of Mycobacterium in both fish and biofilms in zebrafish systems suggests transmission can occur when fish feed on infected tissues or tank detritus containing mycobacteria. Within a facility, good husbandry practices and sentinel programs are essential for minimizing the impacts of mycobacteria. In addition, quarantine and screening of animals coming into a facility is important for eliminating the introduction of the more severe pathogens. Elimination of mycobacteria from an aquatic system is likely not feasible because these species readily establish biofilms on surfaces even in extremely low nutrient conditions. Risks associated with each commonly encountered species need to be identified and informed management plans developed. Basic research on the growth characteristics, disinfection, and pathogenesis of zebrafish mycobacteria is critical moving forward.

  11. Myomaker mediates fusion of fast myocytes in zebrafish embryos

    SciT

    Landemaine, Aurélie; Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Gabillard, Jean-Charles, E-mail: Jean-charles.gabillard@rennes.inra.fr

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes during embryonic myogenesis. • Myomaker is essential for fast myocyte fusion in zebrafish. • The function of myomaker is conserved among Teleostomi. - Abstract: Myomaker (also called Tmem8c), a new membrane activator of myocyte fusion was recently discovered in mice. Using whole mount in situ hybridization on zebrafish embryos at different stages of embryonic development, we show that myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes forming the bulk of zebrafish myotome. Zebrafish embryos injected with morpholino targeted against myomaker were alive after yolk resorption and appeared morphologically normal, but they weremore » unable to swim, even under effect of a tactile stimulation. Confocal observations showed a marked phenotype characterized by the persistence of mononucleated muscle cells in the fast myotome at developmental stages where these cells normally fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. This indicates that myomaker is essential for myocyte fusion in zebrafish. Thus, there is an evolutionary conservation of myomaker expression and function among Teleostomi.« less

  12. Anesthesia and euthanasia in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Monte; Varga, Zoltán M

    2012-01-01

    Because of the relative ease of embryonic manipulation and observation, the ability to produce a great number of genetic mutations, efficient screening methods, and the continued advance of molecular genetic tools, such as the progress in sequencing and mapping of the zebrafish genome, the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a biomedical model organism continues to expand. However, studies involving zebrafish husbandry and veterinary care struggle to keep pace with scientific progress. This article outlines some of the current, acceptable methods for providing anesthesia and euthanasia and provides some examples of how performance-based approaches can be used to advance the relatively limited number of anesthetic and euthanizing techniques available for zebrafish.

  13. Lxr regulates lipid metabolic and visual perception pathways during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Caroline Lucia; Kalasekar, Sharanya Maanasi; McCollum, Catherine W; Riu, Anne; Jonsson, Philip; Lopez, Justin; Swindell, Eric C; Bouhlatouf, Abdel; Balaguer, Patrick; Bondesson, Maria; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-05

    The Liver X Receptors (LXRs) play important roles in multiple metabolic pathways, including fatty acid, cholesterol, carbohydrate and energy metabolism. To expand the knowledge of the functions of LXR signaling during embryonic development, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis of Lxr target genes in zebrafish larvae treated with either one of the synthetic LXR ligands T0901317 or GW3965. Assessment of the biological processes enriched by differentially expressed genes revealed a prime role for Lxr in regulating lipid metabolic processes, similarly to the function of LXR in mammals. In addition, exposure to the Lxr ligands induced changes in expression of genes in the neural retina and lens of the zebrafish eye, including the photoreceptor guanylate cyclase activators and lens gamma crystallins, suggesting a potential novel role for Lxr in modulating the transcription of genes associated with visual function in zebrafish. The regulation of expression of metabolic genes was phenotypically reflected in an increased absorption of yolk in the zebrafish larvae, and changes in the expression of genes involved in visual perception were associated with morphological alterations in the retina and lens of the developing zebrafish eye. The regulation of expression of both lipid metabolic and eye specific genes was sustained in 1 month old fish. The transcriptional networks demonstrated several conserved effects of LXR activation between zebrafish and mammals, and also identified potential novel functions of Lxr, supporting zebrafish as a promising model for investigating the role of Lxr during development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lxr regulates lipid metabolic and visual perception pathways during zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Caroline Lucia; Kalasekar, Sharanya Maanasi; McCollum, Catherine W.; Riu, Anne; Jonsson, Philip; Lopez, Justin; Swindell, Eric; Bouhlatouf, Abdel; Balaguer, Patrick; Bondesson, Maria; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-01-01

    The Liver X Receptors (LXRs) play important roles in multiple metabolic pathways, including fatty acid, cholesterol, carbohydrate and energy metabolism. To expand the knowledge of the functions of LXR signaling during embryonic development, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis of Lxr target genes in zebrafish larvae treated with either one of the synthetic LXR ligands T0901317 or GW3965. Assessment of the biological processes enriched by differentially expressed genes revealed a prime role for Lxr in regulating lipid metabolic processes, similarly to the function of LXR in mammals. In addition, exposure to the Lxr ligands induced changes in expression of genes in the neural retina and lens of the zebrafish eye, including the photoreceptor guanylate cyclase activators and lens gamma crystallins, suggesting a potential novel role for Lxr in modulating the transcription of genes associated with visual function in zebrafish. The regulation of expression of metabolic genes was phenotypically reflected in an increased absorption of yolk in the zebrafish larvae, and changes in the expression of genes involved in visual perception were associated with morphological alterations in the retina and lens of the developing zebrafish eye. The regulation of expression of both lipid metabolic and eye specific genes was sustained in 1 month old fish. The transcriptional networks demonstrated several conserved effects of LXR activation between zebrafish and mammals, and also identified potential novel functions of Lxr, supporting zebrafish as a promising model for investigating the role of Lxr during development. PMID:26427652

  15. Glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; Carneiro, Bruno; Ochs, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Glyphosate based herbicides (GBH) like Roundup(®) are used extensively in agriculture as well as in urban and rural settings as a broad spectrum herbicide. Its mechanism of action was thought to be specific only to plants and thus considered safe and non-toxic. However, mounting evidence suggests that GBHs may not be as safe as once thought as initial studies in frogs suggest that GBHs may be teratogenic. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of glyphosate exposure using technical grade glyphosate and the Roundup(®) Classic formulation. We find morphological abnormalities including cephalic and eye reductions and a loss of delineated brain ventricles. Concomitant with structural changes in the developing brain, using in situ hybridization analysis, we detect decreases in genes expressed in the eye, fore and midbrain regions of the brain including pax2, pax6, otx2 and ephA4. However, we do not detect changes in hindbrain expression domains of ephA4 nor exclusive hindbrain markers krox-20 and hoxb1a. Additionally, using a Retinoic Acid (RA) mediated reporter transgenic, we detect no alterations in the RA expression domains in the hindbrain and spinal cord, but do detect a loss of expression in the retina. We conclude that glyphosate and the Roundup(®) formulation is developmentally toxic to the forebrain and midbrain but does not affect the hindbrain after 24 h exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Morphogenesis of Cranial Sutures in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Topczewska, Jolanta M.; Shoela, Ramy A.; Tomaszewski, Joanna P.; Mirmira, Rupa B.; Gosain, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Using morphological, histological, and TEM analyses of the cranium, we provide a detailed description of bone and suture growth in zebrafish. Based on expression patterns and localization, we identified osteoblasts at different degrees of maturation. Our data confirm that, unlike in humans, zebrafish cranial sutures maintain lifelong patency to sustain skull growth. The cranial vault develops in a coordinated manner resulting in a structure that protects the brain. The zebrafish cranial roof parallels that of higher vertebrates and contains five major bones: one pair of frontal bones, one pair of parietal bones, and the supraoccipital bone. Parietal and frontal bones are formed by intramembranous ossification within a layer of mesenchyme positioned between the dermal mesenchyme and meninges surrounding the brain. The supraoccipital bone has an endochondral origin. Cranial bones are separated by connective tissue with a distinctive architecture of osteogenic cells and collagen fibrils. Here we show RNA in situ hybridization for col1a1a, col2a1a, col10a1, bglap/osteocalcin, fgfr1a, fgfr1b, fgfr2, fgfr3, foxq1, twist2, twist3, runx2a, runx2b, sp7/osterix, and spp1/ osteopontin, indicating that the expression of genes involved in suture development in mammals is preserved in zebrafish. We also present methods for examining the cranium and its sutures, which permit the study of the mechanisms involved in suture patency as well as their pathological obliteration. The model we develop has implications for the study of human disorders, including craniosynostosis, which affects 1 in 2,500 live births. PMID:27829009

  17. Genetic Disruption of 21-Hydroxylase in Zebrafish Causes Interrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Eachus, Helen; Zaucker, Andreas; Oakes, James A; Griffin, Aliesha; Weger, Meltem; Güran, Tülay; Taylor, Angela; Harris, Abigail; Greenfield, Andy; Quanson, Jonathan L; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz; Cunliffe, Vincent T; Müller, Ferenc; Krone, Nils

    2017-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of common inherited disorders leading to glucocorticoid deficiency. Most cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). The systemic consequences of imbalanced steroid hormone biosynthesis due to severe 21OHD remains poorly understood. Therefore, we developed a zebrafish model for 21OHD, which focuses on the impairment of glucocorticoid biosynthesis. A single 21-hydroxylase gene (cyp21a2) is annotated in the zebrafish genome based on sequence homology. Our in silico analysis of the 21-hydroxylase (Cyp21a2) protein sequence suggests a sufficient degree of similarity for the usage of zebrafish cyp21a2 to model aspects of human 21OHD in vivo. We determined the spatiotemporal expression patterns of cyp21a2 by whole-mount in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction throughout early development. Early cyp21a2 expression is restricted to the interrenal gland (zebrafish adrenal counterpart) and the brain. To further explore the in vivo consequences of 21OHD we created several cyp21a2 null-allele zebrafish lines by using a transcription activator-like effector nuclease genomic engineering strategy. Homozygous mutant zebrafish larvae showed an upregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis and interrenal hyperplasia. Furthermore, Cyp21a2-deficient larvae had a typical steroid profile, with reduced concentrations of cortisol and increased concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-deoxycortisol. Affected larvae showed an upregulation of the HPI axis and interrenal hyperplasia. Downregulation of the glucocorticoid-responsive genes pck1 and fkbp5 indicated systemic glucocorticoid deficiency. Our work demonstrates the crucial role of Cyp21a2 in glucocorticoid biosynthesis in zebrafish larvae and establishes an in vivo model allowing studies of systemic consequences of altered steroid hormone synthesis.

  18. Establishment and Characterization of a New Muscle Cell Line of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an In Vitro Model for Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Neha; Goswami, Mukunda; Srivastava, J K; Mishra, Akhilesh K; Lakra, W S

    2016-01-01

    A new continuous fibroblast cell line was established from the muscle tissue of healthy juvenile Danio rerio (Zebrafish) through explant method. Fish cell lines serve as useful tool for investigating basic fish biology, as a model for bioassay of environmental toxicant, toxicity ranking, and for developing molecular biomarkers. The cell line was continuously subcultured for a period of 12 months (61 passages) and maintained at 28 °C in L-15 medium supplemented with 10% FBS and 10 ng/mL of basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF) without use of antibiotics. Its growth rate was proportional to the FBS concentration, with optimum growth at 15% FBS. DNA barcoding (16SrRNA and COX1) was used to authenticate the cell line. Cells were incubated with propidium iodide and sorted via flow cytometry to calculate the DNA content to confirm the genetic stability. Significant green fluorescent protein (GFP) signals confirmed the utility of cell line in transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. In vitro assay was performed with MTT to examine the growth potential of the cell line. The muscle cell line would provide a novel invaluable in vitro model to identify important genes to understand regulatory mechanisms that govern the molecular regulation of myogenesis and should be useful in biomedical research.

  19. Determining Zebrafish Epitope Reactivity to Commercially Available Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Michael A; Biediger, Nicole M; Bonner, Natalie A; Miller, Jennifer N; Zepeda, Samantha K; Ricard, Benjamin J; García, Dana M; Lewis, Karen A

    2017-08-01

    Antibodies raised against mammalian proteins may exhibit cross-reactivity with zebrafish proteins, making these antibodies useful for fish studies. However, zebrafish may express multiple paralogues of similar sequence and size, making them difficult to distinguish by traditional Western blot analysis. To identify the zebrafish proteins that are recognized by an antimammalian antibody, we developed a system to screen putative epitopes by cloning the sequences between the yeast SUMO protein and a C-terminal 6xHis tag. The recombinant fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and analyzed by Western blot to conclusively identify epitopes that exhibit cross-reactivity with the antibodies of interest. This approach can be used to determine the species cross-reactivity and epitope specificity of a wide variety of peptide antigen-derived antibodies.

  20. Contextual Fear Conditioning in Zebrafish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Justin W.; Scott, Ian C.; Josselyn, Sheena A.; Frankland, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development…

  1. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase detoxifies lipopolysaccharide and prevents inflammation in zebrafish in response to the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jennifer M; Akerlund, Janie; Mittge, Erika; Guillemin, Karen

    2007-12-13

    Vertebrates harbor abundant lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in their gut microbiota. Alkaline phosphatases can dephosphorylate and detoxify the endotoxin component of LPS. Here, we show that expression of the zebrafish intestinal alkaline phosphatase (Iap), localized to the intestinal lumen brush border, is induced during establishment of the gut microbiota. Iap-deficient zebrafish are hypersensitive to LPS toxicity and exhibit the excessive intestinal neutrophil influx characteristic of wild-type zebrafish exposed to LPS. Both of these Iap mutant phenotypes are dependent on Myd88 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (Tnfr), proteins also involved in LPS sensitivity in mammals. When reared germ-free, the intestines of Iap-deficient zebrafish are devoid of neutrophils. Together, these findings demonstrate that the endogenous microbiota establish the normal homeostatic level of neutrophils in the zebrafish intestine through a process involving Iap, Myd88, and Tnfr. Thus, by preventing inflammatory responses, Iap plays a crucial role in promoting mucosal tolerance to resident gut bacteria.

  2. Multiple zebrafish atoh1 genes specify a diversity of neuronal types in the zebrafish cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Chelsea U; Su, Chen-Ying; Hibi, Masahiko; Moens, Cecilia B

    2018-06-01

    A single Atoh1 basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor specifies multiple neuron types in the mammalian cerebellum and anterior hindbrain. The zebrafish genome encodes three paralagous atoh1 genes whose functions in cerebellum and anterior hindbrain development we explore here. With use of a transgenic reporter, we report that zebrafish atoh1c-expressing cells are organized in two distinct domains that are separated both by space and developmental time. An early isthmic expression domain gives rise to an extracerebellar population in rhombomere 1 and an upper rhombic lip domain gives rise to granule cell progenitors that migrate to populate all four granule cell territories of the fish cerebellum. Using genetic mutants we find that of the three zebrafish atoh1 paralogs, atoh1c and atoh1a are required for the full complement of granule neurons. Surprisingly, the two genes are expressed in non-overlapping granule cell progenitor populations, indicating that fish use duplicate atoh1 genes to generate granule cell diversity that is not detected in mammals. Finally, live imaging of granule cell migration in wildtype and atoh1c mutant embryos reveals that while atoh1c is not required for granule cell specification per se, it is required for granule cells to delaminate and migrate away from the rhombic lip. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Methods to study maternal regulation of germ cell specification in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, O.H.; Marlow, F.L.

    2016-01-01

    The process by which the germ line is specified in the zebrafish embryo is under the control of maternal gene products that were produced during oogenesis. Zebrafish are highly amenable to microscopic observation of the processes governing maternal germ cell specification because early embryos are transparent, and the germ line is specified rapidly (within 4–5 h post fertilization). Advantages of zebrafish over other models used to study vertebrate germ cell formation include their genetic tractability, the large numbers of progeny, and the easily manipulable genome, all of which make zebrafish an ideal system for studying the genetic regulators and cellular basis of germ cell formation and maintenance. Classical molecular biology techniques, including expression analysis through in situ hybridization and forward genetic screens, have laid the foundation for our understanding of germ cell development in zebrafish. In this chapter, we discuss some of these classic techniques, as well as recent cutting-edge methodologies that have improved our ability to visualize the process of germ cell specification and differentiation, and the tracking of specific molecules involved in these processes. Additionally, we discuss traditional and novel technologies for manipulating the zebrafish genome to identify new components through loss-of-function studies of putative germ cell regulators. Together with the numerous aforementioned advantages of zebrafish as a genetic model for studying development, we believe these new techniques will continue to advance zebrafish to the forefront for investigation of the molecular regulators of germ cell specification and germ line biology. PMID:27312489

  4. A shifted repertoire of endocannabinoid genes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    McPartland, J M; Glass, Michelle; Matias, Isabel; Norris, Ryan W; Kilpatrick, C William

    2007-05-01

    The zebrafish has served as a model organism for developmental biology. Sequencing its genome has expanded zebrafish research into physiology and drug-development testing. Several cannabinoid pharmaceuticals are in development, but expression of endocannabinoid receptors and enzymes remains unknown in this species. We conducted a bioinformatics analysis of the zebrafish genome using 17 human endocannabinoid genes as a reference set. Putative zebrafish orthologs were identified in filtered BLAST searches as reciprocal best hits. Orthology was confirmed by three in silico methods: phylogenetic testing, synteny analysis, and functional mapping. Zebrafish expressed orthologs of cannabinoid receptor 1, transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 4, GPR55 receptor, fatty acid amide hydrolase 1, monoacylglycerol lipase, NAPE-selective phospholipase D, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 4, and diacylglycerol lipase alpha and beta; and paired paralogs of cannabinoid receptor 2, fatty acid amide hydrolase 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, and transient receptor potential cation channel subtype A1. Functional mapping suggested the orthologs of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma lack specific amino acids critical for cannabinoid ligand binding. No orthologs of N-acylethanolamine acid amidase or protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 were identified. In conclusion, the zebrafish genome expresses a shifted repertoire of endocannabinoid genes. In vitro analyses are warranted before using zebrafish for cannabinoid development testing.

  5. Using the zebrafish to understand tendon development and repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jessica W.; Galloway, Jenna L.

    2017-01-01

    Tendons are important components of our musculoskeletal system. Injuries to these tissues are very common, resulting from occupational-related injuries, sports-related trauma, and age-related degeneration. Unfortunately, there are few treatment options, and current therapies rarely restore injured tendons to their original function. An improved understanding of the pathways regulating their development and repair would have significant impact in stimulating the formulation of regenerative-based approaches for tendon injury. The zebrafish provides an ideal system in which to perform genetic and chemical screens to identify new pathways involved in tendon biology. Until recently, there had been few descriptions of tendons and ligaments in the zebrafish and their similarity to mammalian tendon tissues. In this chapter, we describe the development of the zebrafish tendon and ligament tissues in the context of their gene expression, structure, and interactions with neighboring musculoskeletal tissues. We highlight the similarities with tendon development in higher vertebrates, showing that the craniofacial tendons and ligaments in zebrafish morphologically, molecularly, and structurally resemble mammalian tendons and ligaments from embryonic to adult stages. We detail methods for fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry as an assay to examine morphological changes in the zebrafish musculoskeleton. Staining assays such as these could provide the foundation for screen-based approaches to identify new regulators of tendon development, morphogenesis, and repair. These discoveries would provide new targets and pathways to study in the context of regenerative medicine-based approaches to improve tendon healing. PMID:28129848

  6. Retinoid regulation of the zebrafish cyp26a1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Tian, Miao; Bao, Jie; Xing, Guangdong; Gu, Xingxing; Gao, Xiang; Linney, Elwood; Zhao, Qingshun

    2008-12-01

    Cyp26A1 is a major enzyme that controls retinoic acid (RA) homeostasis by metabolizing RA into bio-inactive metabolites. Previous research revealed that the mouse Cyp26A1 promoter has two canonical RA response elements (RAREs) that underlie the regulation of the gene by RA. Analyzing the 2,533-base pairs (2.5 k) genomic sequence upstream of zebrafish cyp26a1 start codon, we report that the two RAREs are conserved in zebrafish cyp26a1 promoter. Mutagenesis demonstrated that the two RAREs work synergistically in RA inducibility of cyp26a1. Fusing the 2.5 k (kilobase pairs) fragment to the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene, we have generated two transgenic lines of zebrafish [Tg(cyp26a1:eYFP)]. The transgenic zebrafish display expression patterns similar to that of cyp26a1 gene in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro results, the reporter activity is RA inducible in embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the 2.5 k fragment underlies the regulation of the zebrafish cyp26a1 gene by RA. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Behavioral effects of MDMA ('ecstasy') on adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam; Riehl, Russell; Wong, Keith; Green, Jeremy; Cosgrove, Jessica; Vollmer, Karoly; Kyzar, Evan; Hart, Peter; Allain, Alexander; Cachat, Jonathan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Hook, Molly; Rhymes, Kate; Newman, Alan; Utterback, Eli; Chang, Katie; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-06-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is a potent psychedelic drug inducing euphoria and hypersociability in humans, as well as hyperactivity and anxiety in rodents. Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a widely used species in neurobehavioral research. Here, we explore the effects of a wide range (0.25-120 mg/l) of acute MDMA doses on zebrafish behavior in the novel tank test. Although MDMA was inactive at lower doses (0.25-10 mg/l), higher doses reduced bottom swimming and immobility (40-120 mg/l) and impaired intrasession habituation (10-120 mg/l). MDMA also elevated brain c-fos expression, collectively confirming the usage of zebrafish models for screening of hallucinogenic compounds.

  8. Two-photon-based photoactivation in live zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Russek-Blum, Niva; Nabel-Rosen, Helit; Levkowitz, Gil

    2010-12-24

    Photoactivation of target compounds in a living organism has proven a valuable approach to investigate various biological processes such as embryonic development, cellular signaling and adult physiology. In this respect, the use of multi-photon microscopy enables quantitative photoactivation of a given light responsive agent in deep tissues at a single cell resolution. As zebrafish embryos are optically transparent, their development can be monitored in vivo. These traits make the zebrafish a perfect model organism for controlling the activity of a variety of chemical agents and proteins by focused light. Here we describe the use of two-photon microscopy to induce the activation of chemically caged fluorescein, which in turn allows us to follow cell's destiny in live zebrafish embryos. We use embryos expressing a live genetic landmark (GFP) to locate and precisely target any cells of interest. This procedure can be similarly used for precise light induced activation of proteins, hormones, small molecules and other caged compounds.

  9. Automatic zebrafish heartbeat detection and analysis for zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Pylatiuk, Christian; Sanchez, Daniela; Mikut, Ralf; Alshut, Rüdiger; Reischl, Markus; Hirth, Sofia; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Just, Steffen

    2014-08-01

    A fully automatic detection and analysis method of heartbeats in videos of nonfixed and nonanesthetized zebrafish embryos is presented. This method reduces the manual workload and time needed for preparation and imaging of the zebrafish embryos, as well as for evaluating heartbeat parameters such as frequency, beat-to-beat intervals, and arrhythmicity. The method is validated by a comparison of the results from automatic and manual detection of the heart rates of wild-type zebrafish embryos 36-120 h postfertilization and of embryonic hearts with bradycardia and pauses in the cardiac contraction.

  10. Zebrafish pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Tiso, Natascia; Moro, Enrico; Argenton, Francesco

    2009-11-27

    An accurate understanding of the molecular events governing pancreas development can have an impact on clinical medicine related to diabetes, obesity and pancreatic cancer, diseases with a high impact in public health. Until 1996, the main animal models in which pancreas formation and differentiation could be studied were mouse and, for some instances related to early development, chicken and Xenopus. Zebrafish has penetrated this field very rapidly offering a new model of investigation; by joining functional genomics, genetics and in vivo whole mount visualization, Danio rerio has allowed large scale and fine multidimensional analysis of gene functions during pancreas formation and differentiation.

  11. UPLC/MS MS data of testosterone metabolites in human and zebrafish liver microsomes and whole zebrafish larval microsomes.

    PubMed

    Saad, Moayad; Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Matheeussen, An; Verbueken, Evy; Pype, Casper; Casteleyn, Christophe; Van Ginneken, Chris; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Van Cruchten, Steven

    2018-02-01

    This article represents data regarding a study published in Toxicology in vitro entitled " in vitro CYP-mediated drug metabolism in the zebrafish (embryo) using human reference compounds" (Saad et al., 2017) [1]. Data were acquired with ultra-performance liquid chromatography - accurate mass mass spectrometry (UPLC-amMS). A full spectrum scan was conducted for the testosterone (TST) metabolites from the microsomal stability assay in zebrafish and humans. The microsomal proteins were extracted from adult zebrafish male (MLM) and female (FLM) livers, whole body homogenates of 96 h post fertilization larvae (EM) and a pool of human liver microsomes from 50 donors (HLM). Data are expressed as the abundance from the extracted ion chromatogram of the metabolites.

  12. Short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Cao, Fangjie; Wu, Peizhuo; Huang, Lan; Li, Hui; Qian, Le; Pang, Sen; Qiu, Lihong

    2018-05-01

    Previous study indicated that azoxystrobin had high acute toxicity to zebrafish, and larval zebrafish were more sensitive to azoxystrobin than adult zebrafish. The objective of the present study was to investigate short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish. After zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin (equal to 25, 124 and 496 nM azoxystrobin, respectively) for 8 days, the lethal effect, physiological responses, liver histology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and expression alteration of genes related to mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response were determined. The results showed that there was no significant effect on larval and adult zebrafish after exposure to 0.01 mg/L azoxystrobin. However, increased ROS, MDA concentration and il1b in larval zebrafish, as well as increased il1b, il8 and cxcl-c1c in adult zebrafish were induced after exposure to 0.05 mg/L azoxystrobin. Reduced mitochondrial complex III activity and ATP concentration, increased SOD activity, ROS and MDA concentration, decreased cytb, as well as increased sod1, sod2, cat, il1b, il8 and cxcl-c1c were observed both in larval and adult zebrafish after exposure to 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin; meanwhile, increased p53, bax, apaf1 and casp9, alteration of liver histology and mitochondrial ultrastructure in larval zebrafish, and alteration of mitochondrial ultrastructure in adult zebrafish were also induced. The results demonstrated that azoxytrobin induced short-term developmental effects on larval zebrafish and adult zebrafish, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response. Statistical analysis indicated that azoxystrobin induced more negative effects on larval zebrafish, which might be the reason for the differences of developmental toxicity between larval and adult zebrafish caused by

  13. Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Amar Jamil, Mohd Fadzly; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Chong Shu-Chien, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  14. Egfl6 is involved in zebrafish notochord development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Wei; Chai, Renjie; Liu, Dong

    2015-08-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat motif defines a superfamily of diverse protein involved in regulating a variety of cellular and physiological processes, such as cell cycle, cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, and neural development. Egfl6, an EGF protein, also named MAGE was first cloned in human tissue. Up to date, the study of zebrafish Egfl6 expression pattern and functional analysis of Egfl6 involved in embryonic development of vertebrate in vivo is thus far lacking. Here we reported that Egfl6 was involved in zebrafish notochord development. It was shown that Egfl6 mRNA was expressed in zebrafish, developing somites, fin epidermis, pharyngeal arches, and hindbrain region. Particularly the secreted Egfl6 protein was significantly accumulated in notochord. Loss of Egfl6 function in zebrafish embryos resulted in curved body with distorted notochord in the posterior trunk. It was observed that expression of all Notch ligand and receptors in notochord of 28 hpf Egfl6 morphants was not affected, except notch2, which was up-regulated. We found that inhibition of Notch signaling by DAPT efficiently rescued notochord developmental defect of Egfl6 deficiency embryos.

  15. Chemokine guided angiogenesis directs coronary vasculature formation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Michael R.M.; Bussmann, Jeroen; Huang, Ying; Zhao, Long; Osorio, Arthela; Burns, C. Geoffrey; Burns, Caroline E.; Sucov, Henry M.; Siekmann, Arndt F.; Lien, Ching-Ling

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Interruption of coronary blood supply severely impairs heart function with often-fatal consequences for heart disease patients. However the formation and maturation of these coronary vessels is not fully understood. Here we provide a detailed analysis of coronary vessel development in zebrafish. We observe that coronary vessels form in zebrafish by angiogenic sprouting of arterial cells derived from the endocardium at the atrioventricular canal. Endothelial cells express the CXC-motif chemokine receptor Cxcr4a and migrate to vascularize the ventricle under the guidance of the myocardium-expressed ligand Cxcl12b. cxcr4a mutant zebrafish fail to form a vascular network, whereas ectopic expression of Cxcl12b ligand induces coronary vessel formation. Importantly, cxcr4a mutant zebrafish fail to undergo heart regeneration following injury. Our results suggest that chemokine-signaling has an essential role in coronary vessel formation by directing migration of endocardium-derived endothelial cells. Poorly developed vasculature in cxcr4a mutants likely underlies decreased regenerative potential in adults. PMID:26017769

  16. Zebrafish Pronephros Development.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Richard W; Qubisi, Sarah S; Davidson, Alan J

    The pronephros is the first kidney type to form in vertebrate embryos. The first step of pronephrogenesis in the zebrafish is the formation of the intermediate mesoderm during gastrulation, which occurs in response to secreted morphogens such as BMPs and Nodals. Patterning of the intermediate mesoderm into proximal and distal cell fates is induced by retinoic acid signaling with downstream transcription factors including wt1a, pax2a, pax8, hnf1b, sim1a, mecom, and irx3b. In the anterior intermediate mesoderm, progenitors of the glomerular blood filter migrate and fuse at the midline and recruit a blood supply. More posteriorly localized tubule progenitors undergo epithelialization and fuse with the cloaca. The Notch signaling pathway regulates the formation of multi-ciliated cells in the tubules and these cells help propel the filtrate to the cloaca. The lumenal sheer stress caused by flow down the tubule activates anterior collective migration of the proximal tubules and induces stretching and proliferation of the more distal segments. Ultimately these processes create a simple two-nephron kidney that is capable of reabsorbing and secreting solutes and expelling excess water-processes that are critical to the homeostasis of the body fluids. The zebrafish pronephric kidney provides a simple, yet powerful, model system to better understand the conserved molecular and cellular progresses that drive nephron formation, structure, and function.

  17. Zebrafish as tools for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Calum A; Peterson, Randall T

    2015-10-01

    The zebrafish has become a prominent vertebrate model for disease and has already contributed to several examples of successful phenotype-based drug discovery. For the zebrafish to become useful in drug development more broadly, key hurdles must be overcome, including a more comprehensive elucidation of the similarities and differences between human and zebrafish biology. Recent studies have begun to establish the capabilities and limitations of zebrafish for disease modelling, drug screening, target identification, pharmacology, and toxicology. As our understanding increases and as the technologies for manipulating zebrafish improve, it is hoped that the zebrafish will have a key role in accelerating the emergence of precision medicine.

  18. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. Copyright © 2015

  19. Production of Zebrafish Offspring from Cultured Female Germline Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ten-Tsao; Tesfamichael, Abraham; Collodi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish female germline stem cell (FGSC) cultures were generated from a transgenic line of fish that expresses Neo and DsRed under the control of the germ cell specific promoter, ziwi [Tg(ziwi:neo);Tg(ziwi:DsRed)]. Homogeneous FGSC cultures were established by G418 selection and continued to express ziwi for more than 6 weeks along with the germ cell markers nanos3, dnd, dazl and vasa. A key component of the cell culture system was the use of a feeder cell line that was initiated from ovaries of a transgenic line of fish [Tg(gsdf:neo)] that expresses Neo controlled by the zebrafish gonadal soma derived factor (gsdf) promoter. The feeder cell line was selected in G418 and engineered to express zebrafish leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif), basic fibroblast growth factor (Fgf2) and glial-cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf). These factors were shown to significantly enhance FGSC growth, survival and germline competency in culture. Results from cell transplantation experiments revealed that the cultured FGSCs were able to successfully colonize the gonad of sterile recipient fish and generate functional gametes. Up to 20% of surviving recipient fish that were injected with the cultured FGSCs were fertile and generated multiple batches of normal offspring for at least 6 months. The FGSC cultures will provide an in vitro system for studies of zebrafish germ cell growth and differentiation and their high frequency of germline transmission following transplantation could form the basis of a stem cell-mediated strategy for gene transfer and manipulation of the zebrafish genome. PMID:23671620

  20. Immunostaining of dissected zebrafish embryonic heart.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingchun; Xu, Xiaolei

    2012-01-10

    Zebrafish embryo becomes a popular in vivo vertebrate model for studying cardiac development and human heart diseases due to its advantageous embryology and genetics. About 100-200 embryos are readily available every week from a single pair of adult fish. The transparent embryos that develop ex utero make them ideal for assessing cardiac defects. The expression of any gene can be manipulated via morpholino technology or RNA injection. Moreover, forward genetic screens have already generated a list of mutants that affect different perspectives of cardiogenesis. Whole mount immunostaining is an important technique in this animal model to reveal the expression pattern of the targeted protein to a particular tissue. However, high resolution images that can reveal cellular or subcellular structures have been difficult, mainly due to the physical location of the heart and the poor penetration of the antibodies. Here, we present a method to address these bottlenecks by dissecting heart first and then conducting the staining process on the surface of a microscope slide. To prevent the loss of small heart samples and to facilitate solution handling, we restricted the heart samples within a circle on the surface of the microscope slides drawn by an immEdge pen. After the staining, the fluorescence signals can be directly observed by a compound microscope. Our new method significantly improves the penetration for antibodies, since a heart from an embryonic fish only consists of few cell layers. High quality images from intact hearts can be obtained within a much reduced procession time for zebrafish embryos aged from day 2 to day 6. Our method can be potentially extended to stain other organs dissected from either zebrafish or other small animals. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Visualized Experiments

  1. Embryonic senescence and laminopathies in a progeroid zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Eriko; Imamura, Shintaro; Qi, Jie; Toure, Jamal; Valdez, Delgado M; Carr, Christopher E; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Kishi, Shuji

    2011-03-30

    Mutations that disrupt the conversion of prelamin A to mature lamin A cause the rare genetic disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and a group of laminopathies. Our understanding of how A-type lamins function in vivo during early vertebrate development through aging remains limited, and would benefit from a suitable experimental model. The zebrafish has proven to be a tractable model organism for studying both development and aging at the molecular genetic level. Zebrafish show an array of senescence symptoms resembling those in humans, which can be targeted to specific aging pathways conserved in vertebrates. However, no zebrafish models bearing human premature senescence currently exist. We describe the induction of embryonic senescence and laminopathies in zebrafish harboring disturbed expressions of the lamin A gene (LMNA). Impairments in these fish arise in the skin, muscle and adipose tissue, and sometimes in the cartilage. Reduced function of lamin A/C by translational blocking of the LMNA gene induced apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and craniofacial abnormalities/cartilage defects. By contrast, induced cryptic splicing of LMNA, which generates the deletion of 8 amino acid residues lamin A (zlamin A-Δ8), showed embryonic senescence and S-phase accumulation/arrest. Interestingly, the abnormal muscle and lipodystrophic phenotypes were common in both cases. Hence, both decrease-of-function of lamin A/C and gain-of-function of aberrant lamin A protein induced laminopathies that are associated with mesenchymal cell lineages during zebrafish early development. Visualization of individual cells expressing zebrafish progerin (zProgerin/zlamin A-Δ37) fused to green fluorescent protein further revealed misshapen nuclear membrane. A farnesyltransferase inhibitor reduced these nuclear abnormalities and significantly prevented embryonic senescence and muscle fiber damage induced by zProgerin. Importantly, the adult Progerin fish survived and remained fertile with

  2. Relationships among msx gene structure and function in zebrafish and other vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ekker, M; Akimenko, M A; Allende, M L; Smith, R; Drouin, G; Langille, R M; Weinberg, E S; Westerfield, M

    1997-10-01

    The zebrafish genome contains at least five msx homeobox genes, msxA, msxB, msxC, msxD, and the newly isolated msxE. Although these genes share structural features common to all Msx genes, phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences indicate that the msx genes from zebrafish are not orthologous to the Msx1 and Msx2 genes of mammals, birds, and amphibians. The zebrafish msxB and msxC are more closely related to each other and to the mouse Msx3. Similarly, although the combinatorial expression of the zebrafish msx genes in the embryonic dorsal neuroectoderm, visceral arches, fins, and sensory organs suggests functional similarities with the Msx genes of other vertebrates, differences in the expression patterns preclude precise assignment of orthological relationships. Distinct duplication events may have given rise to the msx genes of modern fish and other vertebrate lineages whereas many aspects of msx gene functions during embryonic development have been preserved.

  3. Cadherin-17 is required to maintain pronephric duct integrity during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Horsfield, Julia; Ramachandran, Anassuya; Reuter, Katja; LaVallie, Edward; Collins-Racie, Lisa; Crosier, Kathryn; Crosier, Philip

    2002-07-01

    We have isolated a zebrafish cadherin that is orthologous to human LI-cadherin (CDH17). Zebrafish cdh17 is expressed exclusively in the pronephric ducts during embryogenesis, and in the mesonephros during larval development and adulthood. Like its mammalian ortholog, cdh17 is also expressed in liver and intestine in adult zebrafish. We show that cdh17-positive mesodermal cells do not contribute to the hematopoietic system. Consistent with a cell adhesion role for Cdh17, depletion of Cdh17 function using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides compromised cell cohesion during pronephric duct formation. Our results indicate that Cdh17 is necessary for maintaining the integrity of the pronephric ducts during zebrafish embryogenesis. This finding contrasts with the role of mammalian CDH17, which does not appear to be involved in nephric development.

  4. Fgf signaling is required for zebrafish tooth development.

    PubMed

    Jackman, William R; Draper, Bruce W; Stock, David W

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during the development of the zebrafish pharyngeal dentition with the goal of uncovering novel roles for FGFs in tooth development as well as phylogenetic and topographic diversity in the tooth developmental pathway. We found that the tooth-related expression of several zebrafish genes is similar to that of their mouse orthologs, including both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Additionally, significant differences in gene expression between zebrafish and mouse teeth are indicated by the apparent lack of fgf8 and pax9 expression in zebrafish tooth germs. FGF receptor inhibition with SU5402 at 32 h blocked dental epithelial morphogenesis and tooth mineralization. While the pharyngeal epithelium remained intact as judged by normal pitx2 expression, not only was the mesenchymal expression of lhx6 and lhx7 eliminated as expected from mouse studies, but the epithelial expression of dlx2a, dlx2b, fgf3, and fgf4 was as well. This latter result provides novel evidence that the dental epithelium is a target of FGF signaling. However, the failure of SU5402 to block localized expression of pitx2 suggests that the earliest steps of tooth initiation are FGF-independent. Investigations of specific FGF ligands with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides revealed only a mild tooth shape phenotype following fgf4 knockdown, while fgf8 inhibition revealed only a subtle down-regulation of dental dlx2b expression with no apparent effect on tooth morphology. Our results suggest redundant FGF signals target the dental epithelium and together are required for dental morphogenesis. Further work will be required to elucidate the nature of these signals, particularly with respect to their origins and whether they act through the mesenchyme.

  5. Imaging Subcellular Structures in the Living Zebrafish Embryo.

    PubMed

    Engerer, Peter; Plucinska, Gabriela; Thong, Rachel; Trovò, Laura; Paquet, Dominik; Godinho, Leanne

    2016-04-02

    In vivo imaging provides unprecedented access to the dynamic behavior of cellular and subcellular structures in their natural context. Performing such imaging experiments in higher vertebrates such as mammals generally requires surgical access to the system under study. The optical accessibility of embryonic and larval zebrafish allows such invasive procedures to be circumvented and permits imaging in the intact organism. Indeed the zebrafish is now a well-established model to visualize dynamic cellular behaviors using in vivo microscopy in a wide range of developmental contexts from proliferation to migration and differentiation. A more recent development is the increasing use of zebrafish to study subcellular events including mitochondrial trafficking and centrosome dynamics. The relative ease with which these subcellular structures can be genetically labeled by fluorescent proteins and the use of light microscopy techniques to image them is transforming the zebrafish into an in vivo model of cell biology. Here we describe methods to generate genetic constructs that fluorescently label organelles, highlighting mitochondria and centrosomes as specific examples. We use the bipartite Gal4-UAS system in multiple configurations to restrict expression to specific cell-types and provide protocols to generate transiently expressing and stable transgenic fish. Finally, we provide guidelines for choosing light microscopy methods that are most suitable for imaging subcellular dynamics.

  6. Redundant roles of PRDM family members in zebrafish craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hai-Lei; Clouthier, David E; Artinger, Kristin B

    2013-01-01

    PRDM proteins are evolutionary conserved Zn-Finger transcription factors that share a characteristic protein domain organization. Previous studies have shown that prdm1a is required for the specification and differentiation of neural crest cells in the zebrafish. Here we examine other members of this family, specifically prdm3, 5, and 16, in the differentiation of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. prdm3 and prdm16 are strongly expressed in the pharyngeal arches, while prdm5 is expressed specifically in the area of the forming neurocranium. Knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 results in a reduction in the neural crest markers dlx2a and barx1 and defects in both the viscerocranium and the neurocranium. The knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 in combination is additive in the neurocranium, but not in the viscerocranium. Injection of sub-optimal doses of prdm1a with prdm3 or prdm16 Morpholinos together leads to more severe phenotypes in the viscerocranium and neurocranium. prdm5 mutants have defects in the neurocranium and prdm1a and prdm5 double mutants also show more severe phenotypes. Overall, our data reveal that prdm3, 5, and 16 are involved in the zebrafish craniofacial development and that prdm1a may interact with prdm3, 5, and 16 in the formation of the craniofacial skeleton in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Redundant Roles of PRDM Family Members in Zebrafish Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hai-Lei; Clouthier, David E.; Artinger, Kristin B.

    2014-01-01

    Background PRDM proteins are evolutionary conserved Zn-Finger transcription factors that share a characteristic protein domain organization. Previous studies have shown that prdm1a is required for the specification and differentiation of neural crest cells in the zebrafish. Results Here we examine other members of this family, specifically prdm3, 5, and 16, in the differentiation of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. prdm3 and prdm16 are strongly expressed in the pharyngeal arches, while prdm5 is expressed specifically in the area of the forming neurocranium. Knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 results in a reduction in the neural crest markers dlx2a and barx1 and defects in both the viscerocranium and the neurocranium. The knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 in combination is additive in the neurocranium, but not in the viscerocranium. Injection of sub-optimal doses of prdm1a with prdm3 or prdm16 Morpholinos together leads to more severe phenotypes in the viscerocranium and neurocranium. prdm5 mutants have defects in the neurocranium and prdm1a and prdm5 double mutants also show more severe phenotypes. Conclusions Overall, our data reveal that prdm3, 5, and 16 are involved in the zebrafish craniofacial development and that prdm1a may interact with prdm3, 5, and 16 in the formation of the craniofacial skeleton in zebrafish. PMID:23109401

  8. Circadian rhythmicity and light sensitivity of the zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen A; Whitmore, David

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, circadian clocks have been thought of as a neurobiological phenomenon. This view changed somewhat over recent years with the discovery of peripheral tissue circadian oscillators. In mammals, however, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus still retains the critical role of a central synchronizer of biological timing. Zebrafish, in contrast, have always reflected a more highly decentralized level of clock organization, as individual cells and tissues contain directly light responsive circadian pacemakers. As a consequence, clock function in the zebrafish brain has remained largely unexplored, and the precise organization of rhythmic and light-sensitive neurons within the brain is unknown. To address this issue, we used the period3 (per3)-luciferase transgenic zebrafish to confirm that multiple brain regions contain endogenous circadian oscillators that are directly light responsive. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed localised neural expression of several rhythmic and light responsive clock genes, including per3, cryptochrome1a (cry1a) and per2. Adult brain nuclei showing significant clock gene expression include the teleost equivalent of the SCN, as well as numerous hypothalamic nuclei, the periventricular grey zone (PGZ) of the optic tectum, and granular cells of the rhombencephalon. To further investigate the light sensitive properties of neurons, expression of c-fos, a marker for neuronal activity, was examined. c-fos mRNA was upregulated in response to changing light conditions in different nuclei within the zebrafish brain. Furthermore, under constant dark (DD) conditions, c-fos shows a significant circadian oscillation. Taken together, these results show that there are numerous areas of the zebrafish central nervous system, which contain deep brain photoreceptors and directly light-entrainable circadian pacemakers. However, there are also multiple brain nuclei, which possess neither, demonstrating a degree of pacemaker

  9. Circadian Rhythmicity and Light Sensitivity of the Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Helen A.; Whitmore, David

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, circadian clocks have been thought of as a neurobiological phenomenon. This view changed somewhat over recent years with the discovery of peripheral tissue circadian oscillators. In mammals, however, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus still retains the critical role of a central synchronizer of biological timing. Zebrafish, in contrast, have always reflected a more highly decentralized level of clock organization, as individual cells and tissues contain directly light responsive circadian pacemakers. As a consequence, clock function in the zebrafish brain has remained largely unexplored, and the precise organization of rhythmic and light-sensitive neurons within the brain is unknown. To address this issue, we used the period3 (per3)-luciferase transgenic zebrafish to confirm that multiple brain regions contain endogenous circadian oscillators that are directly light responsive. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed localised neural expression of several rhythmic and light responsive clock genes, including per3, cryptochrome1a (cry1a) and per2. Adult brain nuclei showing significant clock gene expression include the teleost equivalent of the SCN, as well as numerous hypothalamic nuclei, the periventricular grey zone (PGZ) of the optic tectum, and granular cells of the rhombencephalon. To further investigate the light sensitive properties of neurons, expression of c-fos, a marker for neuronal activity, was examined. c-fos mRNA was upregulated in response to changing light conditions in different nuclei within the zebrafish brain. Furthermore, under constant dark (DD) conditions, c-fos shows a significant circadian oscillation. Taken together, these results show that there are numerous areas of the zebrafish central nervous system, which contain deep brain photoreceptors and directly light-entrainable circadian pacemakers. However, there are also multiple brain nuclei, which possess neither, demonstrating a degree of pacemaker

  10. Transgene manipulation in zebrafish by using recombinases.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Stuart, Gary W

    2004-01-01

    Although much remains to be done, our results to date suggest that efficient and precise genome engineering in zebrafish will be possible in the future by using Cre recombinase and SB transposase in combination with their respective target sites. In this study, we provide the first evidence that Cre recombinase can mediate effective site-specific deletion of transgenes in zebrafish. We found that the efficiency of target site utilization could approach 100%, independent of whether the target site was provided transiently by injection or stably within an integrated transgene. Microinjection of Cre mRNA appeared to be slightly more effective for this purpose than microinjection of Cre-expressing plasmid DNA. Our work has not yet progressed to the point where SB-mediated mobilization of our transgene constructs would be observed. However, a recent report has demonstrated that SB can enhance transgenesis rates sixfold over conventional methods by efficiently mediating multiple single-copy insertion of transgenes into the zebrafish genome (Davidson et al., 2003). Therefore, it seems likely that a combined system should eventually allow both SB-mediated transgene mobilization and Cre-mediated transgene modification. Our goal is to validate methods for the precise reengineering of the zebrafish genome by using a combination of Cre-loxP and SB transposon systems. These methods can be used to delete, replace, or mobilize large pieces of DNA or to modify the genome only when and where required by the investigator. For example, it should be possible to deliver particular RNAi genes to well-expressed chromosomal loci and then exchange them easily with alternative RNAi genes for the specific suppression of alternative targets. As a nonviral vector for gene therapy, the transposon component allows for the possibility of highly efficient integration, whereas the Cre-loxP component can target the integration and/or exchange of foreign DNA into specific sites within the genome. The

  11. Increased cell proliferation and neural activity by physostigmine in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunkyoung; Lee, Bongkyu; Jeong, Sumin; Park, Ji-Won; Han, Inn-Oc; Lee, Chang-Joong

    2016-08-26

    Physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is known to affect the brain function in various aspects. This study was conducted to test whether physostigmine affects cell proliferation in the telencephalon of zebrafish. BrdU-labeled cells was prominently observed in the ventral zone of the ventral telencephalon of zebrafish. The increased number of BrdU- and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeled cells were shown in zebrafish treated with 200μM physostigmine, which was inhibited by pretreatment with 200μM scopolamine. iNOS mRNA expression was increased in the brain of zebrafish treated with 200μM physostigmine. Consistently, aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, attenuated the increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells by physostigmine treatment. Zebrafish also showed seizure-like locomotor activity characterized by a rapid and abrupt movement during a 30min treatment with 200μM physostigmine. Neural activity in response to an electrical stimulus was increased in the isolated telencephalon of zebrafish continuously perfused with 200μM physostigmine. None of the number of BrdU-labeled cells, neural activity, or locomotor activity was affected by treatment with 20μM physostigmine. These results suggest that 200μM physostigmine increased neural activity and induced cell proliferation via nitric oxide production in zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Translating Discovery in Zebrafish Pancreatic Development to Human Pancreatic Cancer: Biomarkers, Targets, Pathogenesis, and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Abid A.; Yee, Rosemary K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experimental studies in the zebrafish have greatly facilitated understanding of genetic regulation of the early developmental events in the pancreas. Various approaches using forward and reverse genetics, chemical genetics, and transgenesis in zebrafish have demonstrated generally conserved regulatory roles of mammalian genes and discovered novel genetic pathways in exocrine pancreatic development. Accumulating evidence has supported the use of zebrafish as a model of human malignant diseases, including pancreatic cancer. Studies have shown that the genetic regulators of exocrine pancreatic development in zebrafish can be translated into potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Transgenic zebrafish expressing oncogenic K-ras and zebrafish tumor xenograft model have emerged as valuable tools for dissecting the pathogenetic mechanisms of pancreatic cancer and for drug discovery and toxicology. Future analysis of the pancreas in zebrafish will continue to advance understanding of the genetic regulation and biological mechanisms during organogenesis. Results of those studies are expected to provide new insights into how aberrant developmental pathways contribute to formation and growth of pancreatic neoplasia, and hopefully generate valid biomarkers and targets as well as effective and safe therapeutics in pancreatic cancer. PMID:23682805

  13. Translating discovery in zebrafish pancreatic development to human pancreatic cancer: biomarkers, targets, pathogenesis, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nelson S; Kazi, Abid A; Yee, Rosemary K

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Experimental studies in the zebrafish have greatly facilitated understanding of genetic regulation of the early developmental events in the pancreas. Various approaches using forward and reverse genetics, chemical genetics, and transgenesis in zebrafish have demonstrated generally conserved regulatory roles of mammalian genes and discovered novel genetic pathways in exocrine pancreatic development. Accumulating evidence has supported the use of zebrafish as a model of human malignant diseases, including pancreatic cancer. Studies have shown that the genetic regulators of exocrine pancreatic development in zebrafish can be translated into potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Transgenic zebrafish expressing oncogenic K-ras and zebrafish tumor xenograft model have emerged as valuable tools for dissecting the pathogenetic mechanisms of pancreatic cancer and for drug discovery and toxicology. Future analysis of the pancreas in zebrafish will continue to advance understanding of the genetic regulation and biological mechanisms during organogenesis. Results of those studies are expected to provide new insights into how aberrant developmental pathways contribute to formation and growth of pancreatic neoplasia, and hopefully generate valid biomarkers and targets as well as effective and safe therapeutics in pancreatic cancer.

  14. Correlation between photoreceptor injury-regeneration and behavior in a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Jie; Cai, Shi-Jiao; Cui, Jian-Lin; Chen, Yang; Tang, Xin; Li, Yu-Hao

    2017-05-01

    Direct exposure to intensive visible light can lead to solar retinopathy, including macular injury. The signs and symptoms include central scotoma, metamorphopsia, and decreased vision. However, there have been few studies examining retinal injury due to intensive light stimulation at the cellular level. Neural network arrangements and gene expression patterns in zebrafish photoreceptors are similar to those observed in humans, and photoreceptor injury in zebrafish can induce stem cell-based cellular regeneration. Therefore, the zebrafish retina is considered a useful model for studying photoreceptor injury in humans. In the current study, the central retinal photoreceptors of zebrafish were selectively ablated by stimulation with high-intensity light. Retinal injury, cell proliferation and regeneration of cones and rods were assessed at 1, 3 and 7 days post lesion with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Additionally, a light/dark box test was used to assess zebrafish behavior. The results revealed that photoreceptors were regenerated by 7 days after the light-induced injury. However, the regenerated cells showed a disrupted arrangement at the lesion site. During the injury-regeneration process, the zebrafish exhibited reduced locomotor capacity, weakened phototaxis and increased movement angular velocity. These behaviors matched the morphological changes of retinal injury and regeneration in a number of ways. This study demonstrates that the zebrafish retina has a robust capacity for regeneration. Visual impairment and stress responses following high-intensity light stimulation appear to contribute to the alteration of behaviors.

  15. Forkhead transcription factor foxe1 regulates chondrogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Chisako; Iida, Atsumi; Tabata, Yoko; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2009-12-15

    Forkhead transcription factor (Fox) e1 is a causative gene for Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, which is characterized by hypothyroidism and cleft palate. Applying degenerate polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the conserved forkhead domain, we identified zebrafish foxe1 (foxe1). Foxe1 is expressed in the thyroid, pharynx, and pharyngeal skeleton during development; strongly expressed in the gill and weakly expressed in the brain, eye, and heart in adult zebrafish. A loss of function of foxe1 by morpholino antisense oligo (MO) exhibited abnormal craniofacial development, shortening of Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyals, and suppressed chondrycytic proliferation. However, at 27 hr post fertilization, the foxe1 MO-injected embryos showed normal dlx2, hoxa2, and hoxb2 expression, suggesting that the initial steps of pharyngeal skeletal development, including neural crest migration and specification of the pharyngeal arch occurred normally. In contrast, at 2 dpf, a severe reduction in the expression of sox9a, colIIaI, and runx2b, which play roles in chondrocytic proliferation and differentiation, was observed. Interestingly, fgfr2 was strongly upregulated in the branchial arches of the foxe1 MO-injected embryos. Unlike Foxe1-null mice, normal thyroid development in terms of morphology and thyroid-specific marker expression was observed in foxe1 MO-injected zebrafish embryos. Taken together, our results indicate that Foxe1 plays an important role in chondrogenesis during development of the pharyngeal skeleton in zebrafish, probably through regulation of fgfr2 expression. Furthermore, the roles reported for FOXE1 in mammalian thyroid development may have been acquired during evolution. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Sleep–wake regulation and hypocretin–melatonin interaction in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Lior; Wang, Gordon X.; Maro, Geraldine S.; Mori, Rotem; Tovin, Adi; Marin, Wilfredo; Yokogawa, Tohei; Kawakami, Koichi; Smith, Stephen J.; Gothilf, Yoav; Mignot, Emmanuel; Mourrain, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuropeptides are important sleep–wake regulators and HCRT deficiency causes narcolepsy. In addition to fragmented wakefulness, narcoleptic mammals also display sleep fragmentation, a less understood phenotype recapitulated in the zebrafish HCRT receptor mutant (hcrtr−/−). We therefore used zebrafish to study the potential mediators of HCRT-mediated sleep consolidation. Similar to mammals, zebrafish HCRT neurons express vesicular glutamate transporters indicating conservation of the excitatory phenotype. Visualization of the entire HCRT circuit in zebrafish stably expressing hcrt:EGFP revealed parallels with established mammalian HCRT neuroanatomy, including projections to the pineal gland, where hcrtr mRNA is expressed. As pineal-produced melatonin is a major sleep-inducing hormone in zebrafish, we further studied how the HCRT and melatonin systems interact functionally. mRNA level of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT2), a key enzyme of melatonin synthesis, is reduced in hcrtr−/− pineal gland during the night. Moreover, HCRT perfusion of cultured zebrafish pineal glands induces melatonin release. Together these data indicate that HCRT can modulate melatonin production at night. Furthermore, hcrtr−/− fish are hypersensitive to melatonin, but not other hypnotic compounds. Subthreshold doses of melatonin increased the amount of sleep and consolidated sleep in hcrtr−/− fish, but not in the wild-type siblings. These results demonstrate the existence of a functional HCRT neurons-pineal gland circuit able to modulate melatonin production and sleep consolidation. PMID:19966231

  17. Reproductive toxicity of azoxystrobin to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Cao, Fangjie; Zhu, Lizhen; Li, Hui; Yu, Song; Wang, Chengju; Qiu, Lihong

    2016-12-01

    In the past few decades, extensive application of azoxystrobin has led to great concern regarding its adverse effects on aquatic organisms. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of azoxystrobin to zebrafish. After adult zebrafish of both sexes were exposed to 2, 20 and 200 μg/L azoxystrobin for 21 days, egg production, the fertilization rate, the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI), 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations, and histological alterations in the gonads and livers were measured. Meanwhile, expression alterations of genes encoding gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors (fshb, lhb, fshr and lhr), steroid hormone receptors (era, er2b and ar), steroidogenic enzymes (cyp11a, cyp11b, cyp17, cyp19a, cyp19b, hsd3b and hsd17b) in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and vitellogenin (vtg1 and vtg2) in the livers were also investigated. The results showed that reduced egg production and fertilization rates were observed at 200 μg/L azoxystrobin. In female zebrafish, reduced E2 and Vtg concentrations, decreased GSI, increased T concentrations, and histological alterations in the ovaries and livers were observed at 200 μg/L azoxystrobin, along with significant down-regulation of lhb, cyp19b, lhr, cyp19a, vtg1 and vtg2, and up-regulation of cyp17, hsd3b and hsd17b. In male zebrafish, increased E2 and Vtg concentrations, reduced T concentration and GSI, and histological alterations in the testes and livers were observed after exposure to 20 and 200 μg/L azoxystrobin, along with significant up-regulations of cyp19b, cyp11a, cyp17, cyp19a, hsd3b and hsd17b, vtg1 and vtg2. Moreover, cyp11a, hsd3b, cyp19a, vtg1 and vtg2 in male zebrafish were significantly up-regulated after treatment with 2 μg/L azoxystrobin. The results of the present study indicate that azoxystrobin led to reproductive toxicity in zebrafish and male zebrafish were more sensitive to

  18. INDUCED AND SPONTANEOUS NEOPLASIA IN ZEBRAFISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To address the potential of zebrafish as a cancer model, it is important to determine the susceptibility of zebrafish to tumors, and to compare zebrafish tumors with human tumors. To determine whether the commonly-used germ line mutagen, ethylnitrosourea (ENU) induces tumors, we ...

  19. Production of zebrafish cardiospheres and cardiac progenitor cells in vitro and three-dimensional culture of adult zebrafish cardiac tissue in scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wendy R; Beh, Siew-Joo; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J; Doran, Pauline M

    2017-09-01

    The hearts of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are capable of complete regeneration in vivo even after major injury, making this species of particular interest for understanding the growth and differentiation processes required for cardiac tissue engineering. To date, little research has been carried out on in vitro culture of adult zebrafish cardiac cells. In this work, progenitor-rich cardiospheres suitable for cardiomyocyte differentiation and myocardial regeneration were produced from adult zebrafish hearts. The cardiospheres contained a mixed population of c-kit + and Mef2c + cells; proliferative peripheral cells of possible mesenchymal lineage were also observed. Cellular outgrowth from cardiac explants and cardiospheres was enhanced significantly using conditioned medium harvested from cultures of a rainbow trout cell line, suggesting that fish-specific trophic factors are required for zebrafish cardiac cell expansion. Three-dimensional culture of zebrafish heart cells in fibrous polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds was carried out under dynamic fluid flow conditions. High levels of cell viability and cardiomyocyte differentiation were maintained within the scaffolds. Expression of cardiac troponin T, a marker of differentiated cardiomyocytes, increased during the first 7 days of scaffold culture; after 15 days, premature disintegration of the biodegradable scaffolds led to cell detachment and a decline in differentiation status. This work expands our technical capabilities for three-dimensional zebrafish cardiac cell culture with potential applications in tissue engineering, drug and toxicology screening, and ontogeny research. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2142-2148. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Maintenance of Zebrafish Lines at the European Zebrafish Resource Center.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Robert; Borel, Nadine; Ferg, Marco; Maier, Jana Viktoria; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    We have established a European Zebrafish Resource Center (EZRC) at the KIT. This center not only maintains and distributes a large number of existing mutant and transgenic zebrafish lines but also gives zebrafish researchers access to screening services and technologies such as imaging and high-throughput sequencing, provided by the Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG). The EZRC maintains and distributes the stock collection of the Nüsslein-Volhard laboratory, comprising over 2000 publicly released mutations, as frozen sperm samples. Within the framework of the ZF-HEALTH EU project, the EZRC distributes over 10,000 knockout mutations from the Sanger Institute (United Kingdom), as well as over 100 mutant and transgenic lines from other sources. In this article, we detail the measures we have taken to ensure the health of our fish, including hygiene, quarantine, and veterinary inspections.

  1. Interordinal chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish for analyzing stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ni; Chen, Songlin; Ge, Ruowen; Song, Jianxing; Yi, Meisheng; Hong, Yunhan

    2012-08-10

    Chimera formation is a standard test for pluripotency of stem cells in vivo. Interspecific chimera formation between distantly related organisms offers also an attractive approach for propagating endangered species. Parameters influencing interspecies chimera formation have remained poorly elucidated. Here, we report interordinal chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish, which separated ∼320 million years ago and exhibit a more than 2-fold difference in developmental speed. We show that, on transplantation into zebrafish blastulae, both noncultivated blastomeres and long-term cultivated embryonic stem (ES) cells of medaka adopted the zebrafish developmental program and differentiated into physiologically functional cell types including pigment cells, blood cells, and cardiomyocytes. We also show that medaka ES cells express differentiation gene markers during chimeric embryogenesis. Therefore, the evolutionary distance and different embryogenesis speeds do not produce donor-host incompatibility to compromise chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish, and molecular markers are valuable for analyzing lineage commitment and cell differentiation in interspecific chimeric embryos.

  2. Dampened Hedgehog signaling but normal Wnt signaling in zebrafish without cilia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peng; Schier, Alexander F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cilia have been implicated in Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt signaling in mouse but not in Drosophila. To determine whether the role of cilia is conserved in zebrafish, we generated maternal-zygotic (MZ) oval (ovl; ift88) mutants that lack all cilia. MZovl mutants display normal canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling but show defects in Hh signaling. As in mouse, zebrafish cilia are required to mediate the activities of Hh, Ptc, Smo and PKA. However, in contrast to mouse Ift88 mutants, which show a dramatic reduction in Hh signaling, zebrafish MZovl mutants display dampened, but expanded, Hh pathway activity. This activity is largely due to gli1, the expression of which is fully dependent on Hh signaling in mouse but not in zebrafish. These results reveal a conserved requirement for cilia in transducing the activity of upstream regulators of Hh signaling but distinct phenotypic effects due to differential regulation and differing roles of transcriptional mediators. PMID:19700616

  3. Interordinal Chimera Formation Between Medaka and Zebrafish for Analyzing Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ni; Chen, Songlin; Ge, Ruowen; Song, Jianxing

    2012-01-01

    Chimera formation is a standard test for pluripotency of stem cells in vivo. Interspecific chimera formation between distantly related organisms offers also an attractive approach for propagating endangered species. Parameters influencing interspecies chimera formation have remained poorly elucidated. Here, we report interordinal chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish, which separated ∼320 million years ago and exhibit a more than 2-fold difference in developmental speed. We show that, on transplantation into zebrafish blastulae, both noncultivated blastomeres and long-term cultivated embryonic stem (ES) cells of medaka adopted the zebrafish developmental program and differentiated into physiologically functional cell types including pigment cells, blood cells, and cardiomyocytes. We also show that medaka ES cells express differentiation gene markers during chimeric embryogenesis. Therefore, the evolutionary distance and different embryogenesis speeds do not produce donor-host incompatibility to compromise chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish, and molecular markers are valuable for analyzing lineage commitment and cell differentiation in interspecific chimeric embryos. PMID:22204449

  4. Gene Trapping Using Gal4 in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Balciuniene, Jorune; Balciunas, Darius

    2013-01-01

    Large clutch size and external development of optically transparent embryos make zebrafish an exceptional vertebrate model system for in vivo insertional mutagenesis using fluorescent reporters to tag expression of mutated genes. Several laboratories have constructed and tested enhancer- and gene-trap vectors in zebrafish, using fluorescent proteins, Gal4- and lexA- based transcriptional activators as reporters 1-7. These vectors had two potential drawbacks: suboptimal stringency (e.g. lack of ability to differentiate between enhancer- and gene-trap events) and low mutagenicity (e.g. integrations into genes rarely produced null alleles). Gene Breaking Transposon (GBTs) were developed to address these drawbacks 8-10. We have modified one of the first GBT vectors, GBT-R15, for use with Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter and added UAS:eGFP as the secondary reporter for direct detection of gene trap events. Application of Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter provides two main advantages. First, it increases sensitivity for genes expressed at low expression levels. Second, it enables researchers to use gene trap lines as Gal4 drivers to direct expression of other transgenes in very specific tissues. This is especially pertinent for genes with non-essential or redundant functions, where gene trap integration may not result in overt phenotypes. The disadvantage of using Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter is that genes coding for proteins with N-terminal signal sequences are not amenable to trapping, as the resulting Gal4-VP16 fusion proteins are unlikely to be able to enter the nucleus and activate transcription. Importantly, the use of Gal4-VP16 does not pre-select for nuclear proteins: we recovered gene trap mutations in genes encoding proteins which function in the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. PMID:24121167

  5. The Zebrafish Xenograft Platform: Evolution of a Novel Cancer Model and Preclinical Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Wertman, Jaime; Veinotte, Chansey J; Dellaire, Graham; Berman, Jason N

    2016-01-01

    Animal xenografts of human cancers represent a key preclinical tool in the field of cancer research. While mouse xenografts have long been the gold standard, investigators have begun to use zebrafish (Danio rerio) xenotransplantation as a relatively rapid, robust and cost-effective in vivo model of human cancers. There are several important methodological considerations in the design of an informative and efficient zebrafish xenotransplantation experiment. Various transgenic fish strains have been created that facilitate microscopic observation, ranging from the completely transparent casper fish to the Tg(fli1:eGFP) fish that expresses fluorescent GFP protein in its vascular tissue. While human cancer cell lines have been used extensively in zebrafish xenotransplantation studies, several reports have also used primary patient samples as the donor material. The zebrafish is ideally suited for transplanting primary patient material by virtue of the relatively low number of cells required for each embryo (between 50 and 300 cells), the absence of an adaptive immune system in the early zebrafish embryo, and the short experimental timeframe (5-7 days). Following xenotransplantation into the fish, cells can be tracked using in vivo or ex vivo measures of cell proliferation and migration, facilitated by fluorescence or human-specific protein expression. Importantly, assays have been developed that allow for the reliable detection of in vivo human cancer cell growth or inhibition following administration of drugs of interest. The zebrafish xenotransplantation model is a unique and effective tool for the study of cancer cell biology.

  6. Satellite-like cells contribute to pax7-dependent skeletal muscle repair in adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Berberoglu, Michael A.; Gallagher, Thomas L.; Morrow, Zachary T.; Talbot, Jared C.; Hromowyk, Kimberly J.; Tenente, Inês M.; Langenau, David M.; Amacher, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Satellite cells, also known as muscle stem cells, are responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair in mammals. Pax7 and Pax3 transcription factors are established satellite cell markers required for muscle development and regeneration, and there is great interest in identifying additional factors that regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and/or skeletal muscle regeneration. Due to the powerful regenerative capacity of many zebrafish tissues, even in adults, we are exploring the regenerative potential of adult zebrafish skeletal muscle. Here, we show that adult zebrafish skeletal muscle contains cells similar to mammalian satellite cells. Adult zebrafish satellite-like cells have dense heterochromatin, express Pax7 and Pax3, proliferate in response to injury, and show peak myogenic responses 4–5 days post-injury (dpi). Furthermore, using a pax7a-driven GFP reporter, we present evidence implicating satellite-like cells as a possible source of new muscle. In lieu of central nucleation, which distinguishes regenerating myofibers in mammals, we describe several characteristics that robustly identify newly-forming myofibers from surrounding fibers in injured adult zebrafish muscle. These characteristics include partially overlapping expression in satellite cells and regenerating myofibers of two RNA-binding proteins Rbfox2 and Rbfoxl1, known to regulate embryonic muscle development and function. Finally, by analyzing pax7a; pax7b double mutant zebrafish, we show that Pax7 is required for adult skeletal muscle repair, as it is in the mouse. PMID:28279710

  7. Angiopoietin-like 3 regulates hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in zebrafish

    SciT

    Lee, So-Hyun; Department of Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon; So, Ju-Hoon

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • angptl3 is specifically expressed in the liver of developing zebrafish. • Knockdown of Angptl3 decreases liver size in developing zebrafish. • Knockdown of zebrafish Angptl3 elicits a hypocholesterolemia phenotype. - Abstract: Loss-of-function mutations in angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) cause familial hypobetalipoproteinemia type 2 (FHBL2) in humans. ANGPTL3 belongs to the angiopoietin-like family, the vascular endothelial growth factor family that is structurally similar to angiopoietins and is known for a regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, although it is unclear how mutations in ANGPTL3 lead to defect in liver development in the vertebrates. We report here that angptl3 is primarilymore » expressed in the zebrafish developing liver and that morpholino (MO) knockdown of Angptl3 reduces the size of the developing liver, which is caused by suppression of cell proliferation, but not by enhancement of apoptosis. However, MO knockdown of Angptl3 did not alter angiogenesis in the developing liver. Additionally, disruption of zebrafish Angptl3 elicits the hypocholesterolemia phenotype that is characteristic of FHBL2 in humans. Together, our findings propose a novel role for Angptl3 in liver cell proliferation and maintenance during zebrafish embryogenesis. Finally, angptl3 morphants will serve as a good model for understanding the pathophysiology of FHBL2.« less

  8. Functional Development of the Circadian Clock in the Zebrafish Pineal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Foulkes, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish constitutes a powerful model organism with unique advantages for investigating the vertebrate circadian timing system and its regulation by light. In particular, the remarkably early and rapid development of the zebrafish circadian system has facilitated exploring the factors that control the onset of circadian clock function during embryogenesis. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular basis underlying functional development of the central clock in the zebrafish pineal gland. Furthermore, we examine how the directly light-entrainable clocks in zebrafish cell lines have facilitated unravelling the general mechanisms underlying light-induced clock gene expression. Finally, we summarize how analysis of the light-induced transcriptome and miRNome of the zebrafish pineal gland has provided insight into the regulation of the circadian system by light, including the involvement of microRNAs in shaping the kinetics of light- and clock-regulated mRNA expression. The relative contributions of the pineal gland central clock and the distributed peripheral oscillators to the synchronization of circadian rhythms at the whole animal level are a crucial question that still remains to be elucidated in the zebrafish model. PMID:24839600

  9. TSH Receptor Function Is Required for Normal Thyroid Differentiation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Robert; Maquet, Emilie; Zoenen, Maxime; Dadhich, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    TSH is the primary physiological regulator of thyroid gland function. The effects of TSH on thyroid cells are mediated via activation of its membrane receptor [TSH receptor (TSHR)]. In this study, we examined functional thyroid differentiation in zebrafish and characterized the role of TSHR signaling during thyroid organogenesis. Cloning of a cDNA encoding zebrafish Tshr showed conservation of primary structure and functional properties between zebrafish and mammalian TSHR. In situ hybridization confirmed that the thyroid is the major site of tshr expression during zebrafish development. In addition, we identified tpo, iyd, duox, and duoxa as novel thyroid differentiation markers in zebrafish. Temporal analyses of differentiation marker expression demonstrated the induction of an early thyroid differentiation program along with thyroid budding, followed by a delayed onset of duox and duoxa expression coincident with thyroid hormone synthesis. Furthermore, comparative analyses in mouse and zebrafish revealed for the first time a thyroid-enriched expression of cell death regulators of the B-cell lymphoma 2 family during early thyroid morphogenesis. Knockdown of tshr function by morpholino microinjection into embryos did not affect early thyroid morphogenesis but caused defects in later functional differentiation. The thyroid phenotype observed in tshr morphants at later stages comprised a reduction in number and size of functional follicles, down-regulation of differentiation markers, as well as reduced thyroid transcription factor expression. A comparison of our results with phenotypes observed in mouse models of defective TSHR and cAMP signaling highlights the value of zebrafish as a model to enhance the understanding of functional differentiation in the vertebrate thyroid. PMID:21737742

  10. Elucidating Cannabinoid Biology in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Randall G.; Clark, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    The number of annual cannabinoid users exceeds 100,000,000 globally and an estimated 9 % of these individuals will suffer from dependency. Although exogenous cannabinoids, like those contained in marijuana, are known to exert their effects by disrupting the endocannabinoid system, a dearth of knowledge exists about the potential toxicological consequences on public health. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target for a plethora of disorders because it functions to endogenously regulate a vast repertoire of physiological functions. Accordingly, the rapidly expanding field of cannabinoid biology has sought to leverage model organisms in order to provide both toxicological and therapeutic insights about altered endocannabinoid signaling. The primary goal of this manuscript is to review the existing field of cannabinoid research in the genetically tractable zebrafish model—focusing on the cannabinoid receptor genes, cnr1 and cnr2, and the genes that produce enzymes for synthesis and degradation of the cognate ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol. Consideration is also given to research that has studied the effects of exposure to exogenous phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids that are known to interact with cannabinoid receptors. These results are considered in the context of either endocannabinoid gene expression or endocannabinoid gene function, and are integrated with findings from rodent studies. This provides the framework for a discussion of how zebrafish may be leveraged in the future to provide novel toxicological and therapeutic insights in the field of cannabinoid biology, which has become increasingly significant given recent trends in cannabis legislation. PMID:26192460

  11. Neoplasia and Neoplasm Associated Lesions in Laboratory Colonies of Zebrafish Emphasizing Key Influences of Diet and Aquaculture System Design

    PubMed Central

    Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Buhler, Donald R.; Peterson, Tracy S.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade the zebrafish has emerged as a leading model for mechanistic cancer research due to its sophisticated genetic and genomic resources, its tractability for tissue targeting of transgene expression, its efficiency for forward genetic approaches to cancer model development, and its cost-effectiveness for enhancer and suppressor screens once a cancer model is established. However, in contrast to other laboratory animal species widely used as cancer models, much basic cancer biology information is lacking in zebrafish. As yet data are not published regarding dietary influences on neoplasm incidences in zebrafish. Little information is available regarding spontaneous tumor incidences or histologic types in wild-type (wt) lines of zebrafish. So far a comprehensive database documenting the full spectrum of neoplasia in various organ systems and tissues in not available for zebrafish as it is for other intensely studied laboratory animal species. This manuscript confirms that as in other species diet and husbandry can profoundly influence tumor incidences and histologic spectra in zebrafish. We show that in many laboratory colonies wt lines of zebrafish exhibit elevated neoplasm incidences and neoplasm associated lesions such as heptocyte megalocytosis. We present experimental evidence showing that certain diet and water management regimens can result in high incidences of neoplasia and neoplasm associated lesions. We document the wide array of benign and malignant neoplasms affecting nearly every organ, tissue and cell type in zebrafish, in some cases as a spontaneous aging change, and in other cases due to carcinogen treatment or genetic manipulation. PMID:23382343

  12. Budget Period 2 Summary Report Part 2: Hywind Maine Project

    SciT

    Driscoll, Frederick; Platt, Andrew; Sirnivas, Senu

    This project was performed under the Work for Others—Funds in Agreement FIA-14-1793 between Statoil and the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, manager and operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). To support the development of a 6-MW spar-mounted offshore wind turbine, Statoil funded NREL to perform tasks in the following three categories: 1. Design and analysis 2. Wake modeling 3. Concept resource assessment. This study expands upon the work conducted in Budget Period 1 (BP1) to investigate the influence of the wake generated from an upstream turbine on a downstream turbine using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) high-fidelity modeling tool. Simulatormore » fOr Wind Farms Application (SOWFA) [1] is an NREL high fidelity modeling tool that couples OpenFOAM [2] CFD and NREL’s Aero-Elastic code Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST)[3]. In BP1 the configuration was based on Hywind-3MW at 140 m water depth in the Gulf of Maine; however this study for Budget Period 2 (BP2) the configuration investigated is based on Hywind-6MW at 220 m water depth off the coast of Boston. The objectives were to perform two-turbines One-Way Coupling (OWC), three-turbines Two-Way Coupling (TWC), and to investigate wind power plant optimization.« less

  13. Neurochemical measurements in the zebrafish brain

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lauren J.; McCutcheon, James E.; Young, Andrew M. J.; Norton, William H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is an ideal model organism for behavioral genetics and neuroscience. The high conservation of genes and neurotransmitter pathways between zebrafish and other vertebrates permits the translation of research between species. Zebrafish behavior can be studied at both larval and adult stages and recent research has begun to establish zebrafish models for human disease. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique that permits the detection of neurotransmitter release and reuptake. In this study we have used in vitro FSCV to measure the release of analytes in the adult zebrafish telencephalon. We compare different stimulation methods and present a characterization of neurochemical changes in the wild-type zebrafish brain. This study represents the first FSCV recordings in zebrafish, thus paving the way for neurochemical analysis of the fish brain. PMID:26441575

  14. Genomic Approaches to Zebrafish Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model for studying cancer biology. Identification of DNA, RNA and chromatin abnormalities can give profound insight into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the there are many techniques for analyzing the genomes of these tumors. Here, I present an overview of the available technologies for analyzing tumor genomes in the zebrafish, including array based methods as well as next-generation sequencing technologies. I also discuss the ways in which zebrafish tumor genomes can be compared to human genomes using cross-species oncogenomics, which act to filter genomic noise and ultimately uncover central drivers of malignancy. Finally, I discuss downstream analytic tools, including network analysis, that can help to organize the alterations into coherent biological frameworks that can then be investigated further. PMID:27165352

  15. New frontiers for zebrafish management.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a preeminent model organism with a wide and expanding utility for numerous scientific disciplines. The same features that once endeared this small freshwater minnow to developmental biologists combined with its relatively high genetic similarity to mammals and the advent of new, more efficient methods for genome editing are now helping to spur expanded growth in its usage in various fields, including toxicology, drug discovery, transplant biology, disease modeling, and even aquaculture. Continued maturation and adoption of the zebrafish model system in these and other fields of science will require that methods and approaches for husbandry and management of these fish in controlled settings be refined and improved to the extent that, ultimately, zebrafish research becomes more reproducible, defined, cost-effective, and accessible to the masses. Knowledge and technology transfer from laboratory animal science and commercial aquaculture will be a necessary part of this development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mayo Clinic Zebrafish Facility Overview.

    PubMed

    Leveque, Ryan E; Clark, Karl J; Ekker, Stephen C

    2016-07-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a premier nonmammalian vertebrate model organism. This small aquatic fish is utilized in multiple disciplines in the Mayo Clinic community and by many laboratories around the world because of its biological similarity to humans, its advanced molecular genetics, the elucidation of its genome sequence, and the ever-expanding and outstanding new biological tools now available to the zebrafish researcher. The Mayo Clinic Zebrafish Facility (MCZF) houses ∼2,000 tanks annotated using an in-house, Internet cloud-based bar-coding system tied to our established zfishbook.org web infrastructure. Paramecia are the primary food source for larval fish rearing, using a simplified culture protocol described herein. The MCZF supports the specific ongoing research in a variety of laboratories, while also serving as a local hub for new scientists as they learn to tap into the potential of this model system for understanding normal development, disease, and as models of health.

  17. Glucocorticoid activity detected by in vivo zebrafish assay and in vitro glucocorticoid receptor bioassay at environmental relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiyu; Jia, Ai; Snyder, Shane A; Gong, Zhiyuan; Lam, Siew Hong

    2016-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are pharmaceutical contaminants of emerging concern due to their incomplete removal during wastewater treatment, increased presence in aquatic environment and their biological potency. The zebrafish is a popular model for aquatic toxicology and environmental risk assessment. This study aimed to determine if glucocorticoids at environmental concentrations would perturb expression of selected glucocorticoid-responsive genes in zebrafish and to investigate their potentials as an in vivo zebrafish assay in complementing in vitro glucocorticoid receptor bioassay. The relative expression of eleven glucocorticoid-responsive genes in zebrafish larvae and liver of adult male zebrafish exposed to three representative glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone) was determined. The expression of pepck, baiap2 and pxr was up-regulated in zebrafish larvae and the expression of baiap2, pxr and mmp-2 was up-regulated in adult zebrafish exposed to glucocorticoids at concentrations equivalent to total glucocorticoids reported in environmental samples. The responsiveness of the specific genes were sufficiently robust in zebrafish larvae exposed to a complex environmental sample detected with in vitro glucocorticoid activity equivalent to 478 pM dexamethasone (DEX-EQ) and confirmed to contain low concentration (0.2 ng/L or less) of the targeted glucocorticoids, and possibly other glucocorticoid-active compounds. The findings provided in vivo relevance to the in vitro glucocorticoid activity and suggested that the environmental sample can perturb glucocorticoid-responsive genes in its original, or half the diluted, concentration as may be found in the environment. The study demonstrated the important complementary roles of in vivo zebrafish and in vitro bioassays coupled with analytical chemistry in monitoring environmental glucocorticoid contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioluminescence Monitoring of Neuronal Activity in Freely Moving Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Knafo, Steven; Prendergast, Andrew; Thouvenin, Olivier; Figueiredo, Sophie Nunes; Wyart, Claire

    2017-01-01

    The proof of concept for bioluminescence monitoring of neural activity in zebrafish with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GFP-aequorin has been previously described (Naumann et al., 2010) but challenges remain. First, bioluminescence signals originating from a single muscle fiber can constitute a major pitfall. Second, bioluminescence signals emanating from neurons only are very small. To improve signals while verifying specificity, we provide an optimized 4 steps protocol achieving: 1) selective expression of a zebrafish codon-optimized GFP-aequorin, 2) efficient soaking of larvae in GFP-aequorin substrate coelenterazine, 3) bioluminescence monitoring of neural activity from motor neurons in free-tailed moving animals performing acoustic escapes and 4) verification of the absence of muscle expression using immunohistochemistry. PMID:29130058

  19. Ontogeny of classical and operant learning behaviors in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Valente, André; Huang, Kuo-Hua; Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2012-03-20

    The performance of developing zebrafish in both classical and operant conditioning assays was tested with a particular focus on the emergence of these learning behaviors during development. Strategically positioned visual cues paired with electroshocks were used in two fully automated assays to investigate both learning paradigms. These allow the evaluation of the behavioral performance of zebrafish continuously throughout development, from larva to adult. We found that learning improves throughout development, starts reliably around week 3, and reaches adult performance levels at week 6. Adult fish quickly learned to perform perfectly, and the expression of the learned behavior is manifestly controlled by vision. The memory is behaviorally expressed in adults for at least 6 h and retrievable for at least 12 h.

  20. Ontogeny of classical and operant learning behaviors in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Valente, André; Huang, Kuo-Hua; Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The performance of developing zebrafish in both classical and operant conditioning assays was tested with a particular focus on the emergence of these learning behaviors during development. Strategically positioned visual cues paired with electroshocks were used in two fully automated assays to investigate both learning paradigms. These allow the evaluation of the behavioral performance of zebrafish continuously throughout development, from larva to adult. We found that learning improves throughout development, starts reliably around week 3, and reaches adult performance levels at week 6. Adult fish quickly learned to perform perfectly, and the expression of the learned behavior is manifestly controlled by vision. The memory is behaviorally expressed in adults for at least 6 h and retrievable for at least 12 h. PMID:22434824

  1. Simple, economical heat-shock devices for zebrafish housing racks.

    PubMed

    Duszynski, Robert J; Topczewski, Jacek; LeClair, Elizabeth E

    2011-12-01

    One reason for the popularity of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model vertebrate is the ability to manipulate gene expression in this organism. A common method is to induce gene expression transiently under control of a heat-shock promoter (e.g., hsp70l). By making simple mechanical adjustments to small aquarium heaters (25-50W), we were able to produce consistent and reliable heat-shock conditions within a conventional zebrafish housing system. Up to two heat-shock intervals per day (>37°C) could be maintained under conditions of continuous flow (5-25 mL/min). Temperature logging every 30 s indicated rapid warm up times, consistent heat-shock lengths, and accurate and precise peak water temperatures (mean±SD=38°C±0.2°C). The biological effects of these heat-shock treatments were confirmed by observing inducible expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and inhibition of caudal fin regeneration in a transgenic fish line expressing a dominant negative fibroblast growth factor receptor (Tg(hsp70l:dnfgfr1-EGFP)(pd1)). These devices are inexpensive, easily modified, and can be calibrated to accommodate a variety of experimental designs. After setup on a programmable timer, the heaters require no intervention to produce consistent daily heat shocks, and all other standard care protocols can be followed in the fish facility. The simplicity and stability of these devices make them suitable for long-term heat shocks at any stage of the zebrafish lifecycle (>7 days postfertilization), and useful for both laboratory and classroom experiments on transgenic zebrafish.

  2. A transgenic zebrafish model for monitoring xbp1 splicing and endoplasmic reticulum stress in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Junling; Chen, Zhiliang; Gao, Lian-Yong; Colorni, Angelo; Ucko, Michal; Fang, Shengyun; Du, Shao Jun

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers ER stress that initiates unfolded protein response (UPR). XBP1 is a transcription factor that mediates one of the key signaling pathways of UPR to cope with ER stress through regulating gene expression. Activation of XBP1 involves an unconventional mRNA splicing catalyzed by IRE1 endonuclease that removes an internal 26 nucleotides from xbp1 mRNA transcripts in the cytoplasm. Researchers have taken advantage of this unique activation mechanism to monitor XBP1 activation, thereby UPR, in cell culture and transgenic models. Here we report a Tg(ef1α:xbp1δ-gfp) transgenic zebrafish line to monitor XBP1 activation using GFP as a reporter especially in zebrafish oocytes and developing embryos. The Tg(ef1α:xbp1δ-gfp) transgene was constructed using part of the zebrafish xbp1 cDNA containing the splicing element. ER stress induced splicing results in the cDNA encoding a GFP-tagged partial XBP1 without the transactivation activation domain (XBP1Δ-GFP). The results showed that xbp1 transcripts mainly exist as the spliced active isoform in unfertilized oocytes and zebrafish embryos prior to zygotic gene activation at 3 hours post fertilization. A strong GFP expression was observed in unfertilized oocytes, eyes, brain and skeletal muscle in addition to a weak expression in the hatching gland. Incubation of transgenic zebrafish embryos with (dithiothreitol) DTT significantly induced XBP1Δ-GFP expression. Collectively, these studies unveil the presence of maternal xbp1 splicing in zebrafish oocytes, fertilized eggs and early stage embryos. The Tg(ef1α:xbp1δ-gfp) transgenic zebrafish provides a useful model for in vivo monitoring xbp1 splicing during development and under ER stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid in a zebrafish model

    SciT

    Ding, Yu-Ju; Chen, Yau-Hung, E-mail: yauhung@mail.tku.edu.tw

    2012-05-15

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a component of Aristolochia plant extracts which is used as a treatment for different pathologies and their toxicological effects have not been sufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate AA-induced nephrotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. After soaking zebrafish embryos in AA, the embryos displayed malformed kidney phenotypes, such as curved, cystic pronephric tubes, pronephric ducts, and cases of atrophic glomeruli. The percentages of embryos with malformed kidney phenotypes increased as the exposure dosages of AA increased. Furthermore, AA-treated embryos exhibited significantly reduced glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) in comparison with mock-control littermates (mock-control: 100 ±more » 2.24% vs. 10 ppm AA treatment for 3–5 h: 71.48 ± 18.84% ∼ 39.41 ± 15.88%), indicating that AA treatment not only caused morphological kidney changes but also induced renal failure. In addition to kidney malformations, AA-treated zebrafish embryos also exhibited deformed hearts, swollen pericardiums, impaired blood circulation and the accumulation(s) of red blood cells. Whole-mount in situ hybridization studies using cmlc2 and wt1b as riboprobes indicated that the kidney is more sensitive than the heart to AA damage. Real-time PCR showed that AA can up-regulate the expression of proinflammatory genes like TNFα, cox2 and mpo. These results support the following conclusions: (1) AA-induced renal failure is mediated by inflammation, which causes circulation dysfunction followed by serious heart malformation; and (2) the kidney is more sensitive than the heart to AA injury. -- Highlights: ► Zebrafish were used to evaluate aristolochic acid (AA)-induced nephrotoxicity. ► AA-treated zebrafish embryos exhibited deformed heart as well as malformed kidney. ► Kidney is more sensitive to AA injury than the heart.« less

  4. Smoc2 modulates embryonic myelopoiesis during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Mommaerts, Hendrik; Esguerra, Camila V; Hartmann, Ursula; Luyten, Frank P; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2014-11-01

    SMOC2 is a member of the BM-40 (SPARC) family of matricellular proteins, reported to influence signaling in the extracellular compartment. In mice, Smoc2 is expressed in many different tissues and was shown to enhance the response to angiogenic growth factors, mediate cell adhesion, keratinocyte migration, and metastasis. Additionally, SMOC2 is associated with vitiligo and craniofacial and dental defects. The function of Smoc2 during early zebrafish development has not been determined to date. In pregastrula zebrafish embryos, smoc2 is expressed ubiquitously. As development progresses, the expression pattern becomes more anteriorly restricted. At the onset of blood cell circulation, smoc2 morphants presented a mild ventralization of posterior structures. Molecular analysis of the smoc2 morphants indicated myelopoietic defects in the rostral blood islands during segmentation stages. Hemangioblast development and further specification of the myeloid progenitor cells were shown to be impaired. Additional experiments indicated that Bmp target genes were down-regulated in smoc2 morphants. Our findings reveal that Smoc2 is an essential player in the development of myeloid cells of the anterior lateral plate mesoderm during embryonic zebrafish development. Furthermore, our data show that Smoc2 affects the transcription of Bmp target genes without affecting initial dorsoventral patterning or mesoderm development. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Characterization of glutathione-S-transferases in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Glisic, Branka; Mihaljevic, Ivan; Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Loncar, Jovica; Fent, Karl; Kovacevic, Radmila; Smital, Tvrtko

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are one of the key enzymes that mediate phase II of cellular detoxification. The aim of our study was a comprehensive characterization of GSTs in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an important vertebrate model species frequently used in environmental research. A detailed phylogenetic analysis of GST superfamily revealed 27 zebrafish gst genes. Further insights into the orthology relationships between human and zebrafish GSTs/Gsts were obtained by the conserved synteny analysis. Expression of gst genes in six tissues (liver, kidney, gills, intestine, brain and gonads) of adult male and female zebrafish was determined using qRT-PCR. Functional characterization was performed on 9 cytosolic Gst enzymes after overexpression in E. coli and subsequent protein purification. Enzyme kinetics was measured for GSH and a series of model substrates. Our data revealed ubiquitously high expression of gstp, gstm (except in liver), gstr1, mgst3a and mgst3b, high expression of gsto2 in gills and ovaries, gsta in intestine and testes, gstt1a in liver, and gstz1 in liver, kidney and brain. All zebrafish Gsts catalyzed the conjugation of GSH to model GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and monochlorobimane (MCB), apart from Gsto2 and Gstz1 that catalyzed GSH conjugation to dehydroascorbate (DHA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA), respectively. Affinity toward CDNB varied from 0.28 mM (Gstp2) to 3.69 mM (Gstm3), while affinity toward MCB was in the range of 5 μM (Gstt1a) to 250 μM (Gstp1). Affinity toward GSH varied from 0.27 mM (Gstz1) to 4.45 mM (Gstt1a). Turnover number for CDNB varied from 5.25s(-1) (Gstt1a) to 112s(-1) (Gstp2). Only Gst Pi enzymes utilized ethacrynic acid (ETA). We suggest that Gstp1, Gstp2, Gstt1a, Gstz1, Gstr1, Mgst3a and Mgst3b have important role in the biotransformation of xenobiotics, while Gst Alpha, Mu, Pi, Zeta and Rho classes are involved in the crucial physiological processes. In summary, this study provides the

  6. Zebrafish sex: a complicated affair

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Woei Chang

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we provide a detailed overview of studies on the elusive sex determination (SD) and gonad differentiation mechanisms of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We show that the data obtained from most studies are compatible with polygenic sex determination (PSD), where the decision is made by the allelic combinations of several loci. These loci are typically dispersed throughout the genome, but in some teleost species a few of them might be located on a preferential pair of (sex) chromosomes. The PSD system has a much higher level of variation of SD genotypes both at the level of gametes and the sexual genotype of individuals, than that of the chromosomal sex determination systems. The early sexual development of zebrafish males is a complicated process, as they first develop a ‘juvenile ovary’, that later undergoes a transformation to give way to a testis. To date, three major developmental pathways were shown to be involved with gonad differentiation through the modulation of programmed cell death. In our opinion, there are more pathways participating in the regulation of zebrafish gonad differentiation/transformation. Introduction of additional powerful large-scale genomic approaches into the analysis of zebrafish reproduction will result in further deepening of our knowledge as well as identification of additional pathways and genes associated with these processes in the near future. PMID:24148942

  7. Knockdown of prothrombin in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Day, Kenneth; Krishnegowda, Naveen; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2004-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease generated from its zymogen, prothrombin, and plays a central role in the coagulation cascade. It is also important for mammalian development. The zebrafish has now been established as an excellent genetic model for studies on mammalian hemostasis and development. In this report, we used prothrombin-specific antisense morpholinos to knock down the levels of prothrombin to characterize the effects of prothrombin deficiency in the zebrafish embryo. Prothrombin morpholino-injected zebrafish embryos yielded an early phenotype exhibiting severe abnormalities that later showed occasional bleeding. In a second late phenotype, the embryos had no observable morphological abnormalities in early stages, but showed occasional bleeding at later stages. These phenotypes resembled characteristics shown by prothrombin knockout mice. Laser-induced vascular injury on some of the normal appearing phenotypic larvae showed a prolonged time to occlusion, and recombinant zebrafish prothrombin injected into these larvae restored a normal time to occlusion thus showing the specificity of the morpholino effect. The system developed here should be useful for investigation of the role of thrombin in vertebrate development.

  8. Contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Justin W; Scott, Ian C; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intensity, prevented by an established amnestic agent (MK-801), lasts at least 14 d, and exhibits extinction. Furthermore, fish of various background strains (AB, Tu, and TL) are able to acquire fear conditioning, but differ in fear extinction rates. Taken together, we find that contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish shares many similarities with the widely used contextual fear conditioning paradigm in rodents. Combined with the amenability of genetic manipulation in zebrafish, we anticipate that our paradigm will prove to be a useful complementary system in which to examine the molecular basis of vertebrate learning and memory. © 2017 Kenney et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. High-throughput imaging of adult fluorescent zebrafish with an LED fluorescence macroscope

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jessica S; Liu, Sali; Raimondi, Aubrey R; Ignatius, Myron S; Salthouse, Christopher D; Langenau, David M

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish are a useful vertebrate model for the study of development, behavior, disease and cancer. A major advantage of zebrafish is that large numbers of animals can be economically used for experimentation; however, high-throughput methods for imaging live adult zebrafish had not been developed. Here, we describe protocols for building a light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence macroscope and for using it to simultaneously image up to 30 adult animals that transgenically express a fluorescent protein, are transplanted with fluorescently labeled tumor cells or are tagged with fluorescent elastomers. These protocols show that the LED fluorescence macroscope is capable of distinguishing five fluorescent proteins and can image unanesthetized swimming adult zebrafish in multiple fluorescent channels simultaneously. The macroscope can be built and used for imaging within 1 day, whereas creating fluorescently labeled adult zebrafish requires 1 hour to several months, depending on the method chosen. The LED fluorescence macroscope provides a low-cost, high-throughput method to rapidly screen adult fluorescent zebrafish and it will be useful for imaging transgenic animals, screening for tumor engraftment, and tagging individual fish for long-term analysis. PMID:21293462

  10. Distinct structure and activity of monoamine oxidase in the brain of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Anichtchik, Oleg; Sallinen, Ville; Peitsaro, Nina; Panula, Pertti

    2006-10-10

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein involved in the metabolism of, e.g., aminergic neurotransmitters and the parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We have reported earlier MPTP-related alterations of brain catecholaminergic system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Here we describe the structural and functional properties of zebrafish MAO and the distribution of MAO mRNA and activity in zebrafish brain. The gene is located in chromosome 9 and consists of 15 exons. The amino acid composition of the active center resembles both human MAO-A and MAO-B. The enzyme displayed the highest substrate specificity for tyramine, followed by serotonin, phenylethylamine, MPTP, and dopamine; isoform-specific antagonists blocked the activity of the enzyme with equal potency. Zebrafish MAO mRNA, which was present in several tissues, and enzyme displayed differential distribution in the brain; dopaminergic cell clusters had low to moderate levels of MAO activity, whereas the highest levels of MAO activity were detected in noradrenergic and serotonergic cell groups and the habenulointerpeduncular pathway, including its caudal projection to the medial ventral rhombencephalon. The results of this study confirm the presence of functionally active MAO in zebrafish brain and other tissues and characterize the neural systems that express MAO and areas of intense activity in the brain. They also suggest that MPTP toxicity not related to MAO may affect the zebrafish brain.

  11. The photoreceptive cells of the pineal gland in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Laurà, Rosaria; Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; De Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm through the melatonin secretion. The pinealocytes, also called photoreceptive cells, are considered the morphofunctional unit of pineal gland. In literature, the anatomical features, the cellular characteristics, and the pinealocytes morphology of zebrafish pineal gland have not been previously described in detail. Therefore, this study was undertaken to analyze the structure and ultrastructure, as well as the immunohistochemical profile of the zebrafish pineal gland with particular reference to the pinealocytes. Here, we demonstrated, using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, the expression of the mRNA for rhodopsin in the pineal gland of zebrafish, as well as its cellular localization exclusively in the pinealocytes of adult zebrafish. Moreover, the ultrastructural observations demonstrated that the pinealocytes were constituted by an outer segment with numerous lamellar membranes, an inner segment with many mitochondria, and a basal pole with the synapses. Our results taken together demonstrated a central role of zebrafish pinealocytes in the control of pineal gland functions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Behavioral and Molecular Analysis of Nicotine-Conditioned Place Preference in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kedikian, Ximena; Faillace, Maria Paula; Bernabeu, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Studies using mice and rats have demonstrated that nicotine induces a conditioned place preference (CPP), with more effective results obtained by using biased procedures. Zebrafish have also been used as a model system to identify factors influencing nicotine-associated reward by using an unbiased design. Here, we report that zebrafish exhibited putative nicotine biased CPP to an initially aversive compartment (nicotine-paired group). A counterbalanced nicotine-exposed control group did not show a significant preference shift, providing evidence that the preference shift in the nicotine-paired group was not due to a reduction of aversion for this compartment. Zebrafish preference was corroborated by behavioral analysis of several indicators of drug preference, such as time spent in the drug-paired side, number of entries to the drug-paired side, and distance traveled. These results provided strong evidence that zebrafish may actually develop a preference for nicotine, although the drug was administrated in an aversive place for the fish, which was further supported by molecular studies. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR analysis depicted a significant increase in the expression of α7 and α6 but not α4 and β2 subunits of the nicotinic receptor in nicotine-paired zebrafish brains. In contrast, zebrafish brains from the counterbalanced nicotine group showed no significant changes. Moreover, CREB phosphorylation, an indicator of neural activity, accompanied the acquisition of nicotine-CPP. Our studies offered an incremental value to the drug addiction field, because they further describe behavioral features of CPP to nicotine in zebrafish. The results suggested that zebrafish exposed to nicotine in an unfriendly environment can develop a preference for that initially aversive place, which is likely due to the rewarding effect of nicotine. Therefore, this model can be used to screen exogenous and endogenous molecules involved in nicotine

  13. Exposure to tributyltin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato

    2013-10-15

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a major marine contaminant and causes endocrine disruption, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully elucidated. We examined whether exposure to TBT induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in zebrafish, a model organism. Zebrafish-derived BRF41 fibroblast cells were exposed to 0.5 or 1 μM TBT for 0.5-16 h and subsequently lysed and immunoblotted to detect ER stress-related proteins. Zebrafish embryos, grown until 32 h post fertilization (hpf), were exposed to 1 μM TBT for 16 h and used in whole mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to visualize the expression of ER chaperones and an ER stress-related apoptosis factor. Exposure of the BRF41 cells to TBT caused phosphorylation of the zebrafish homolog of protein kinase RNA-activated-like ER kinase (PERK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), characteristic splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA, and enhanced expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) protein. In TBT-exposed zebrafish embryos, ectopic expression of the gene encoding zebrafish homolog of the 78 kDa glucose-regulating protein (GRP78) and gene encoding CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) was detected in the precursors of the neuromast, which is a sensory organ for detecting water flow and vibration. Our in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that exposure of zebrafish to TBT induces the ER stress response via activation of both the PERK-eIF2α and IRE1-XBP1 pathways of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in an organ-specific manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavioural fever in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sonia; Moiche, Visila; Boltaña, Sebastian; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Behavioural fever has been reported in different species of mobile ectotherms including the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in response to exogenous pyrogens. In this study we report, to our knowledge for the first time, upon the ontogenic onset of behavioural fever in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. For this, zebrafish larvae (from first feeding to juveniles) were placed in a continuous thermal gradient providing the opportunity to select their preferred temperature. The novel thermal preference aquarium was based upon a continuous vertical column system and allows for non-invasive observation of larvae vertical distribution under isothermal (T R at 28 °C) and thermal gradient conditions (T CH : 28-32 °C). Larval thermal preference was assessed under both conditions with or without an immersion challenge, in order to detect the onset of the behavioural fever response. Our results defined the onset of the dsRNA induced behavioural fever at 18-20 days post fertilization (dpf). Significant differences were observed in dsRNA challenged larvae, which prefer higher temperatures (1-4 °C increase) throughout the experimental period as compared to non-challenged larvae. In parallel we measured the abundance of antiviral transcripts; viperin, gig2, irf7, trim25 and Mxb mRNAs in dsRNA challenged larvae under both thermal regimes: T R and T Ch . Significant increases in the abundance of all measured transcripts were recorded under thermal choice conditions signifying that thermo-coupling and the resultant enhancement of the immune response to dsRNA challenge occurs from 18 dpf onwards in the zebrafish. The results are of importance as they identify a key developmental stage where the neuro-immune interface matures in the zebrafish likely providing increased resistance to viral infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel TRIM family member, Trim69, regulates zebrafish development through p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruiqin; Zhao, Qing; Zong, Shudong; Miao, Shiying; Song, Wei; Wang, Linfang

    2016-05-01

    Trim69 contains the hallmark domains of a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, including a Ring-finger domain, B-box domain, and coiled-coil domain. Trim69 is structurally and evolutionarily conserved in zebrafish, mouse, rat, human, and chimpanzee. The role of this protein is unclear, however, so we investigated its function in zebrafish development. Trim69 is extensively expressed in zebrafish adults and developing embryos-particularly in the testis, brain, ovary, and heart-and its expression decreases in a time- and stage-dependent manner. Loss of trim69 in zebrafish induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis-related processes; indeed, the tp53 pathway was up-regulated in response to the knockdown. Expression of human trim69 rescued the apoptotic phenotype, while overexpression of trim69 does not increase cellular apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that trim69 participates in tp53-mediated apoptosis during zebrafish development. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 442-454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Zebrafish globin switching occurs in two developmental stages and is controlled by the LCR.

    PubMed

    Ganis, Jared J; Hsia, Nelson; Trompouki, Eirini; de Jong, Jill L O; DiBiase, Anthony; Lambert, Janelle S; Jia, Zhiying; Sabo, Peter J; Weaver, Molly; Sandstrom, Richard; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I

    2012-06-15

    Globin gene switching is a complex, highly regulated process allowing expression of distinct globin genes at specific developmental stages. Here, for the first time, we have characterized all of the zebrafish globins based on the completed genomic sequence. Two distinct chromosomal loci, termed major (chromosome 3) and minor (chromosome 12), harbor the globin genes containing α/β pairs in a 5'-3' to 3'-5' orientation. Both these loci share synteny with the mammalian α-globin locus. Zebrafish globin expression was assayed during development and demonstrated two globin switches, similar to human development. A conserved regulatory element, the locus control region (LCR), was revealed by analyzing DNase I hypersensitive sites, H3K4 trimethylation marks and GATA1 binding sites. Surprisingly, the position of these sites with relation to the globin genes is evolutionarily conserved, despite a lack of overall sequence conservation. Motifs within the zebrafish LCR include CACCC, GATA, and NFE2 sites, suggesting functional interactions with known transcription factors but not the same LCR architecture. Functional homology to the mammalian α-LCR MCS-R2 region was confirmed by robust and specific reporter expression in erythrocytes of transgenic zebrafish. Our studies provide a comprehensive characterization of the zebrafish globin loci and clarify the regulation of globin switching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trimethyltin chloride inhibits neuronal cell differentiation in zebrafish embryo neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin; Kim, C-Yoon; Song, Juha; Oh, Hanseul; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Park, Jae-Hak

    2016-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a neurotoxicant widely present in the aquatic environment, primarily from effluents of the plastic industry. It is known to cause acute neuronal death in the limbic-cerebellar system, particularly in the hippocampus. However, relatively few studies have estimated the effects of TMT toxicity on neurodevelopment. In this study, we confirmed the dose-dependent effects of TMT on neurodevelopmental stages through analysis of morphological changes and fluorescence assays using HuC-GFP and olig2-dsRed transgenic zebrafish embryos. In addition, we analyzed the expression of genes and proteins related to neurodevelopment. Exposure of embryos to TMT for 4 days post fertilization (dpf) elicited a concentration-related decrease in body length and increase in axial malformation. TMT affected the fluorescent CNS structure by decreasing pattern of HuC-GFP and olig2-dsRed transgenic zebrafish. In addition, it significantly modulated the expression patterns of Sonic hedgehog a (Shha), Neurogenin1 (Ngn1), Embryonic lethal abnormal vision like protein 3 (Elavl3), and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap). The overexpression of Shha and Ngn1, and downregulation of Elavl3 and Gfap, indicate repression of proneural cell differentiation. Our study demonstrates that TMT inhibits specific neurodevelopmental stages in zebrafish embryos and suggests a possible mechanism for the toxicity of TMT in vertebrate neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepassocin is required for hepatic outgrowth during zebrafish hepatogenesis

    SciT

    Gao, Ming; Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850; Yan, Hui

    2015-07-31

    Background & aims: Hepassocin (HPS) is a hepatotrophic growth factor that specifically stimulates hepatocyte proliferation and promotes liver regeneration after liver damage. In this paper, zebrafish were used to investigate the role of HPS in liver development. Methods and results: During zebrafish development, HPS expression is enriched in liver throughout hepatogenesis. Knockdown of HPS using its specific morpholino leads to a smaller liver phenotype. Further results showed that the HPS knockdown has no effect on the expression of the early endoderm marker gata6 and early hepatic marker hhex. In addition, results showed that the smaller-liver phenotype in HPS morphants wasmore » caused by suppression of cell proliferation, not induction of cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Current findings indicated that HPS is essential to the later stages of development in vertebrate liver organogenesis. - Highlights: • HPS is enriched in zebrafish liver and has strong similarities with other species. • Knocking down HPS with MOs results in small liver phenotype. • HPS depletion regulates liver outgrowth but not liver specification and budding. • HPS depletion causes hepatocyte proliferation arrest but not apoptosis induction.« less

  19. Modelling Delta-Notch perturbations during zebrafish somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Murray, Philip J; Maini, Philip K; Baker, Ruth E

    2013-01-15

    The discovery over the last 15 years of molecular clocks and gradients in the pre-somitic mesoderm of numerous vertebrate species has added significant weight to Cooke and Zeeman's 'clock and wavefront' model of somitogenesis, in which a travelling wavefront determines the spatial position of somite formation and the somitogenesis clock controls periodicity (Cooke and Zeeman, 1976). However, recent high-throughput measurements of spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression in different zebrafish mutant backgrounds allow further quantitative evaluation of the clock and wavefront hypothesis. In this study we describe how our recently proposed model, in which oscillator coupling drives the propagation of an emergent wavefront, can be used to provide mechanistic and testable explanations for the following observed phenomena in zebrafish embryos: (a) the variation in somite measurements across a number of zebrafish mutants; (b) the delayed formation of somites and the formation of 'salt and pepper' patterns of gene expression upon disruption of oscillator coupling; and (c) spatial correlations in the 'salt and pepper' patterns in Delta-Notch mutants. In light of our results, we propose a number of plausible experiments that could be used to further test the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. When aging meets microgravity: whole genome promoters and enchancers transcription landscape in zebrafish onboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshanovskii, Kirill; Gusev, Oleg; Sychev, Vladimir; Poddubko, Svetlana; Deviatiiarov, Ruslan

    2016-07-01

    In order to gen new insights of gene regulation changes under conditions of real spaceflight, we have conducted whole-genome analysis of dynamic of promotes and enhancers transcriptional changes in zebrafish during prolonged exposure to real spaceflight. In the frame of Russia-Japan joint experiments "Aquatic Habitat"-"Aquarium" we have conducted Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) assay of zebrafish in the rage from 7 to 40 days of real spaceflight onboard ISS. The analysis showed that both gene expression patterns and architecture of shapes and types of the promoters are affected by spaceflight environment.

  1. Boldness predicts social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Dahlbom, S Josefin; Lagman, David; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Sundström, L Fredrik; Winberg, Svante

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance.

  2. Boldness Predicts Social Status in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Dahlbom, S. Josefin; Lagman, David; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Winberg, Svante

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance. PMID:21858168

  3. Regenerative response following stab injury in the adult zebrafish telencephalon.

    PubMed

    März, Martin; Schmidt, Rebecca; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2011-09-01

    In contrast to mammals, the brain of the adult zebrafish has a remarkable ability to regenerate. In mammals, injuries induce proliferation of astrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitors contributing to the formation of a glial scar. We analyzed the proliferation of glial cells and microglia in response to stab injury in the adult zebrafish telencephalon: Radial glial markers were up-regulated at the ventricle and co-expressed the proliferation nuclear antigen (PCNA). Microglia and oligodendrocyte progenitors accumulated transiently at the site of lesion. However, we could not find evidence of permanent scar formation. Parenchymal proliferation was almost negligible in comparison to the increase in proliferation at the ventricular zone. This suggests that most of the cellular material for regeneration is derived from regions of constitutive neurogenesis. Remarkably, the proliferative response is almost completely restricted to the lesioned hemisphere indicating that signals inducing regeneration remain mainly confined within the lesioned half of the telencephalon. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. High resolution fate map of the zebrafish diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Russek-Blum, Niva; Nabel-Rosen, Helit; Levkowitz, Gil

    2009-07-01

    The diencephalon acts as an interactive site between the sensory, central, and endocrine systems and is one of the most elaborate structures in the vertebrate brain. To better understand the embryonic development and morphogenesis of the diencephalon, we developed an improved photoactivation (uncaging)-based lineage tracing strategy. To determine the exact position of a given diencephalic progenitor domain, we used a transgenic line driving green fluorescent protein (GFP) in cells expressing the proneural protein, Neurogenin1 (Neurog1), which was used as a visible neural plate landmark. This approach facilitated precise labeling of defined groups of cells in the prospective diencephalon of the zebrafish neural plate. In this manner, we labeled multiple overlapping areas of the diencephalon, thereby ensuring both accuracy and reproducibility of our lineage tracing regardless of the dynamic changes of the developing neural plate. We present a fate map of the zebrafish diencephalon at a higher spatial resolution than previously described. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. TNF signaling and macrophages govern fin regeneration in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Chi, Mai; Laplace-Builhé, Béryl; Travnickova, Jana; Luz-Crawford, Patricia; Tejedor, Gautier; Lutfalla, Georges; Kissa, Karima; Jorgensen, Christian; Djouad, Farida

    2017-08-10

    Macrophages are essential for appendage regeneration after amputation in regenerative species. The molecular mechanisms through which macrophages orchestrate blastema formation and regeneration are still unclear. Here, we use the genetically tractable and transparent zebrafish larvae to study the functions of polarized macrophage subsets during caudal fin regeneration. After caudal fin amputation, we show an early and transient accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages concomitant with the accumulation of non-inflammatory macrophages which, in contrast to pro-inflammatory macrophages, remain associated to the fin until the end of the regeneration. Chemical and genetic depletion of macrophages suggested that early recruited macrophages that express TNFα are critical for blastema formation. Combining parabiosis and morpholino knockdown strategies, we show that TNFα/TNFR1 signaling pathway is required for the fin regeneration. Our study reveals that TNFR1 has a necessary and direct role in blastema cell activation suggesting that macrophage subset balance provides the accurate TNFα signal to prime regeneration in zebrafish.

  6. Zebrafish Dmrta2 regulates neurogenesis in the telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Akio; Nakahara, Yoshinari; Izawa, Toshiaki; Ishitani, Tohru; Tsutsumi, Makiko; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Itoh, Motoyuki; Kikuchi, Yutaka

    2011-11-01

    Although recent findings showed that some Drosophila doublesex and Caenorhabditis elegans mab-3 related genes are expressed in neural tissues during development, their functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we isolated a zebrafish mutant, ha2, that shows defects in telencephalic neurogenesis and found that ha2 encodes Doublesex and MAB-3 related transcription factor like family A2 (Dmrta2). dmrta2 expression is restricted to the telencephalon, diencephalon and olfactory placode during somitogenesis. We found that the expression of the proneural gene, neurogenin1, in the posterior and dorsal region of telencephalon (posterior-dorsal telencephalon) is markedly reduced in this mutant at the 14-somite stage without any defects in cell proliferation or cell death. In contrast, the telencephalic expression of her6, a Hes-related gene that is known to encode a negative regulator of neurogenin1, expands dramatically in the ha2 mutant. Based on over-expression experiments and epistatic analyses, we propose that zebrafish Dmrta2 controls neurogenin1 expression by repressing her6 in the posterior-dorsal telencephalon. Furthermore, the expression domains of the telencephalic marker genes, foxg1 and emx3, and the neuronal differentiation gene, neurod, are downregulated in the ha2 posterior-dorsal telencephalon during somitogenesis. These results suggest that Dmrta2 plays important roles in the specification of the posterior-dorsal telencephalic cell fate during somitogenesis. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Retinoic Acid Metabolic Genes, Meiosis, and Gonadal Sex Differentiation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Cañestro, Cristian; BreMiller, Ruth A.; Catchen, Julian M.; Yan, Yi-Lin; Postlethwait, John H.

    2013-01-01

    To help understand the elusive mechanisms of zebrafish sex determination, we studied the genetic machinery regulating production and breakdown of retinoic acid (RA) during the onset of meiosis in gonadogenesis. Results uncovered unexpected mechanistic differences between zebrafish and mammals. Conserved synteny and expression analyses revealed that cyp26a1 in zebrafish and its paralog Cyp26b1 in tetrapods independently became the primary genes encoding enzymes available for gonadal RA-degradation, showing lineage-specific subfunctionalization of vertebrate genome duplication (VGD) paralogs. Experiments showed that zebrafish express aldh1a2, which encodes an RA-synthesizing enzyme, in the gonad rather than in the mesonephros as in mouse. Germ cells in bipotential gonads of all zebrafish analyzed were labeled by the early meiotic marker sycp3, suggesting that in zebrafish, the onset of meiosis is not sexually dimorphic as it is in mouse and is independent of Stra8, which is required in mouse but was lost in teleosts. Analysis of dead-end knockdown zebrafish depleted of germ cells revealed the germ cell-independent onset and maintenance of gonadal aldh1a2 and cyp26a1 expression. After meiosis initiated, somatic cell expression of cyp26a1 became sexually dimorphic: up-regulated in testes but not ovaries. Meiotic germ cells expressing the synaptonemal complex gene sycp3 occupied islands of somatic cells that lacked cyp26a1 expression, as predicted by the hypothesis that Cyp26a1 acts as a meiosis-inhibiting factor. Consistent with this hypothesis, females up-regulated cyp26a1 in oocytes that entered prophase-I meiotic arrest, and down-regulated cyp26a1 in oocytes resuming meiosis. Co-expression of cyp26a1 and the pluripotent germ cell stem cell marker pou5f1(oct4) in meiotically arrested oocytes was consistent with roles in mouse to promote germ cell survival and to prevent apoptosis, mechanisms that are central for tipping the sexual fate of gonads towards the female

  8. Humanizing the zebrafish liver shifts drug metabolic profiles and improves pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 substrates.

    PubMed

    Poon, Kar Lai; Wang, Xingang; Ng, Ashley S; Goh, Wei Huang; McGinnis, Claudia; Fowler, Stephen; Carney, Tom J; Wang, Haishan; Ingham, Phillip W

    2017-03-01

    Understanding and predicting whether new drug candidates will be safe in the clinic is a critical hurdle in pharmaceutical development, that relies in part on absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology studies in vivo. Zebrafish is a relatively new model system for drug metabolism and toxicity studies, offering whole organism screening coupled with small size and potential for high-throughput screening. Through toxicity and absorption analyses of a number of drugs, we find that zebrafish is generally predictive of drug toxicity, although assay outcomes are influenced by drug lipophilicity which alters drug uptake. In addition, liver microsome assays reveal specific differences in metabolism of compounds between human and zebrafish livers, likely resulting from the divergence of the cytochrome P450 superfamily between species. To reflect human metabolism more accurately, we generated a transgenic "humanized" zebrafish line that expresses the major human phase I detoxifying enzyme, CYP3A4, in the liver. Here, we show that this humanized line shows an elevated metabolism of CYP3A4-specific substrates compared to wild-type zebrafish. The generation of this first described humanized zebrafish liver suggests such approaches can enhance the accuracy of the zebrafish model for toxicity prediction.

  9. Maternal topoisomerase II alpha, not topoisomerase II beta, enables embryonic development of zebrafish top2a-/- mutants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic alterations in human topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) are linked to cancer susceptibility. TOP2A decatenates chromosomes and thus is necessary for multiple aspects of cell division including DNA replication, chromosome condensation and segregation. Topoisomerase II alpha is also required for embryonic development in mammals, as mouse Top2a knockouts result in embryonic lethality as early as the 4-8 cell stage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extended developmental capability of zebrafish top2a mutants arises from maternal expression of top2a or compensation from its top2b paralogue. Results Here, we describe bloody minded (blm), a novel mutant of zebrafish top2a. In contrast to mouse Top2a nulls, zebrafish top2a mutants survive to larval stages (4-5 day post fertilization). Developmental analyses demonstrate abundant expression of maternal top2a but not top2b. Inhibition or poisoning of maternal topoisomerase II delays embryonic development by extending the cell cycle M-phase. Zygotic top2a and top2b are co-expressed in the zebrafish CNS, but endogenous or ectopic top2b RNA appear unable to prevent the blm phenotype. Conclusions We conclude that maternal top2a enables zebrafish development before the mid-zygotic transition (MZT) and that zebrafish top2a and top2b are not functionally redundant during development after activation of the zygotic genome. PMID:22111588

  10. Myotonia congenita-associated mutations in chloride channel-1 affect zebrafish body wave swimming kinematics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Tian, Jing; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Hunziker, Walter; Eng, How-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Myotonia congenita is a human muscle disorder caused by mutations in CLCN1, which encodes human chloride channel 1 (CLCN1). Zebrafish is becoming an increasingly useful model for human diseases, including muscle disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing, under the control of a muscle specific promoter, human CLCN1 carrying mutations that have been identified in human patients suffering from myotonia congenita. We developed video analytic tools that are able to provide precise quantitative measurements of movement abnormalities in order to analyse the effect of these CLCN1 mutations on adult transgenic zebrafish swimming. Two new parameters for body-wave kinematics of swimming reveal changes in body curvature and tail offset in transgenic zebrafish expressing the disease-associated CLCN1 mutants, presumably due to their effect on muscle function. The capability of the developed video analytic tool to distinguish wild-type from transgenic zebrafish could provide a useful asset to screen for compounds that reverse the disease phenotype, and may be applicable to other movement disorders besides myotonia congenita.

  11. Zebrafish monosex population reveals female dominance in sex determination and earliest events of gonad differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Sok-Keng; Hsu, Hwei-Jan; Chung, Bon-chu

    2010-08-15

    The zebrafish is a popular model for genetic analysis and its sex differentiation has been the focus of attention for breeding purposes. Despite numerous efforts, very little is known about the mechanism of zebrafish sex determination. The lack of discernible sex chromosomes and the difficulty of distinguishing the sex of juvenile fish are two major obstacles that hamper the progress in such studies. To alleviate these problems, we have developed a scheme involving methyltestosterone treatment followed by natural mating to generate fish with predictable sex trait. Female F1 fish that gave rise to all-female offspring were generated. This predictable sex trait enables characterization of gonadal development in juvenile fish by histological examination and gene expression analysis. We found the first sign of zebrafish sex differentiation to be ovarian gonocyte proliferation and differentiation at 10 to 12 days post-fertilization (dpf). Somatic genes were expressed indifferently at 10 to 17 dpf, and then became sexually dimorphic at three weeks. This result indicates clear distinction of male and female gonads derived independently from primordial gonads. We classified the earliest stages of zebrafish sex determination into the initial preparation followed by female germ cell growth, oocyte differentiation, and somatic differentiation. Our genetic selection scheme matches the prediction that female-dominant genetic factors are required to determine zebrafish sex. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Cre-loxP technology in zebrafish to study the regulation of fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng-Ju; Lee, Shu-Hua; Wu, Jen-Leih; Duann, Yeh-Fang; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2013-12-01

    One cannot seek permission to market transgenic fish mainly because there is no field test or any basic research on technological developments for evaluating their biosafety. Infertility is a necessary adjunct to exploiting transgenic fish unless completely secure land-locked facilities are available. In this study, we report the generation of a Cre transgenic zebrafish line using a cytomegalovirus promoter. We also produced fish carrying the Bax1 and Bax2 plasmids; these genes were separated by two loxP sites under a zona pellucida C promoter or were driven by an anti-Müllerian hormone promoter. We inserted a red fluorescent protein gene between the two loxP sites. After obtaining transgenic lines with the two transgenic fish crossed with each other (Cre transgenic zebrafish x loxP transgenic zebrafish), the floxed DNA was found to be specifically eliminated from the female or male zebrafish, and apoptosis gene expressions caused ovarian and testicular growth cessation and degeneration. Overexpression of the Bax1 and Bax2 genes caused various expression levels of apoptosis-related genes. Accordingly, this transgenic zebrafish model system provides a method to produce infertile fish and may be useful for application to genetically modified fish.

  13. Myotonia Congenita-Associated Mutations in Chloride Channel-1 Affect Zebrafish Body Wave Swimming Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Tian, Jing; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Hunziker, Walter; Eng, How-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Myotonia congenita is a human muscle disorder caused by mutations in CLCN1, which encodes human chloride channel 1 (CLCN1). Zebrafish is becoming an increasingly useful model for human diseases, including muscle disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing, under the control of a muscle specific promoter, human CLCN1 carrying mutations that have been identified in human patients suffering from myotonia congenita. We developed video analytic tools that are able to provide precise quantitative measurements of movement abnormalities in order to analyse the effect of these CLCN1 mutations on adult transgenic zebrafish swimming. Two new parameters for body-wave kinematics of swimming reveal changes in body curvature and tail offset in transgenic zebrafish expressing the disease-associated CLCN1 mutants, presumably due to their effect on muscle function. The capability of the developed video analytic tool to distinguish wild-type from transgenic zebrafish could provide a useful asset to screen for compounds that reverse the disease phenotype, and may be applicable to other movement disorders besides myotonia congenita. PMID:25083883

  14. Biotransformation in the zebrafish embryo -temporal gene transcription changes of cytochrome P450 enzymes and internal exposure dynamics of the AhR binding xenobiotic benz[a]anthracene.

    PubMed

    Kühnert, Agnes; Vogs, Carolina; Seiwert, Bettina; Aulhorn, Silke; Altenburger, Rolf; Hollert, Henner; Küster, Eberhard; Busch, Wibke

    2017-11-01

    Not much is known about the biotransformation capability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. For understanding possible toxicity differences to adult fish, it might be crucial to understand the biotransformation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos i.e. as part of toxicokinetics. The biotransformation capabilities were analysed for two different stages of zebrafish embryos in conjunction with the internal concentrations of a xenobiotic. Zebrafish embryos of the late cleavage/early blastula period (2-26 hpf) and the early pharyngula period (26-50 hpf) were exposed for 24 h to the AhR binding compound benz[a]anthracene (BaA). Time dependent changes in cyp transcription (cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1 and cyp1c2) as well as concentration & time-dependent courses of BaA in the fish embryo and the exposure medium were analysed. Additionally, the CYP mediated formation of biotransformation products was investigated. We found correlations between transcriptional responses and the internal concentration for both exposure types. These correlations were depending on the start of the exposure i.e. the age of the exposed embryo. While no significant induction of the examined gene transcripts was observed in the first 12 h of exposure beginning in the blastula period a correlation was apparent when exposure started later i.e. in the pharyngula period. A significant induction of cyp1a was detected already after 1.5 h of BaA exposure. Gene transcripts for cyp1b1, cyp1c1 and cyp1c2 showed expressions distinctly different from cyp1a and were, in general, less inducible by BaA in both exposure windows. The toxicokinetic analysis showed that the biotransformation capability was fivefold higher in the older fish embryos. Biotransformation products of phase I reactions were found between 32 hpf and 50 hpf and were tentatively identified as benz[a]anthracene-phenol and benz[a]anthracene-dihydrodiol-epoxide. In conclusion, not only duration but also onset of exposure in relation to the

  15. Maternal nodal and zebrafish embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James T; Stickney, Heather L; Choi, Wen-Yee; Ciruna, Brian; Talbot, William S; Schier, Alexander F

    2007-11-08

    In fish and amphibians, the dorsal axis is specified by the asymmetric localization of maternally provided components of the Wnt signalling pathway. Gore et al. suggest that the Nodal signal Squint (Sqt) is required as a maternally provided dorsal determinant in zebrafish. Here we test their proposal and show that the maternal activities of sqt and the related Nodal gene cyclops (cyc) are not required for dorsoventral patterning.

  16. Influenza A Virus Infection Damages Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle and Exacerbates Disease in Zebrafish Modeling Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goody, Michelle; Jurczyszak, Denise; Kim, Carol; Henry, Clarissa

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Both genetic and infectious diseases can result in skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, pain, and/or weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common congenital muscle disease. DMD causes progressive muscle wasting due to mutations in Dystrophin. Influenza A and B viruses are frequently associated with muscle complications, especially in children. Infections activate an immune response and immunosuppressant drugs reduce DMD symptoms. These data suggest that the immune system may contribute to muscle pathology. However, roles of the immune response in DMD and Influenza muscle complications are not well understood. Zebrafish with dmd mutations are a well-characterized model in which to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of DMD pathology. We recently showed that zebrafish can be infected by human Influenza A virus (IAV). Thus, the zebrafish is a powerful system with which to ask questions about the etiology and mechanisms of muscle damage due to genetic and/or infectious diseases. METHODS: We infected zebrafish with IAV and assayed muscle tissue structure, sarcolemma integrity, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment, and molecular and cellular markers of inflammation in response to IAV infection alone or in the context of DMD. RESULTS: We find that IAV-infected zebrafish display mild muscle degeneration with sarcolemma damage and compromised ECM adhesion. An innate immune response is elicited in muscle in IAV-infected zebrafish: NFkB signaling is activated, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is upregulated, and neutrophils localize to sites of muscle damage. IAV-infected dmd mutants display more severe muscle damage than would be expected from an additive effect of dmd mutation and IAV infection, suggesting that muscle damage caused by Dystrophin-deficiency and IAV infection is synergistic. DISCUSSION: These data demonstrate the importance of preventing IAV infections in individuals with genetic muscle diseases

  17. Influenza A Virus Infection Damages Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle and Exacerbates Disease in Zebrafish Modeling Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Goody, Michelle; Jurczyszak, Denise; Kim, Carol; Henry, Clarissa

    2017-10-25

    Both genetic and infectious diseases can result in skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, pain, and/or weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common congenital muscle disease. DMD causes progressive muscle wasting due to mutations in Dystrophin. Influenza A and B viruses are frequently associated with muscle complications, especially in children. Infections activate an immune response and immunosuppressant drugs reduce DMD symptoms. These data suggest that the immune system may contribute to muscle pathology. However, roles of the immune response in DMD and Influenza muscle complications are not well understood. Zebrafish with dmd mutations are a well-characterized model in which to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of DMD pathology. We recently showed that zebrafish can be infected by human Influenza A virus (IAV). Thus, the zebrafish is a powerful system with which to ask questions about the etiology and mechanisms of muscle damage due to genetic and/or infectious diseases. We infected zebrafish with IAV and assayed muscle tissue structure, sarcolemma integrity, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment, and molecular and cellular markers of inflammation in response to IAV infection alone or in the context of DMD. We find that IAV-infected zebrafish display mild muscle degeneration with sarcolemma damage and compromised ECM adhesion. An innate immune response is elicited in muscle in IAV-infected zebrafish: NFkB signaling is activated, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is upregulated, and neutrophils localize to sites of muscle damage. IAV-infected dmd mutants display more severe muscle damage than would be expected from an additive effect of dmd mutation and IAV infection, suggesting that muscle damage caused by Dystrophin-deficiency and IAV infection is synergistic. These data demonstrate the importance of preventing IAV infections in individuals with genetic muscle diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms of immune

  18. Neuropeptidergic Signaling Partitions Arousal Behaviors in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Schoppik, David; Shi, Veronica J.; Zimmerman, Steven; Coleman, Haley A.; Greenwood, Joel; Soucy, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Animals modulate their arousal state to ensure that their sensory responsiveness and locomotor activity match environmental demands. Neuropeptides can regulate arousal, but studies of their roles in vertebrates have been constrained by the vast array of neuropeptides and their pleiotropic effects. To overcome these limitations, we systematically dissected the neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal in larval zebrafish. We quantified spontaneous locomotor activity and responsiveness to sensory stimuli after genetically induced expression of seven evolutionarily conserved neuropeptides, including adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1b (adcyap1b), cocaine-related and amphetamine-related transcript (cart), cholecystokinin (cck), calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp), galanin, hypocretin, and nociceptin. Our study reveals that arousal behaviors are dissociable: neuropeptide expression uncoupled spontaneous activity from sensory responsiveness, and uncovered modality-specific effects upon sensory responsiveness. Principal components analysis and phenotypic clustering revealed both shared and divergent features of neuropeptidergic functions: hypocretin and cgrp stimulated spontaneous locomotor activity, whereas galanin and nociceptin attenuated these behaviors. In contrast, cart and adcyap1b enhanced sensory responsiveness yet had minimal impacts on spontaneous activity, and cck expression induced the opposite effects. Furthermore, hypocretin and nociceptin induced modality-specific differences in responsiveness to changes in illumination. Our study provides the first systematic and high-throughput analysis of neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal, demonstrates that arousal can be partitioned into independent behavioral components, and reveals novel and conserved functions of neuropeptides in regulating arousal. PMID:24573274

  19. R-spondin 3 regulates dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning by antagonizing Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiaozhi; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Pin; Zhou, Yumei; Li, Yun; Lu, Ling; Liu, Yunzhang; Zhou, Jianfeng; Duan, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin or canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in early development and in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. R-spondin 3 (Rspo3) is a secreted protein that has been implicated in activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in amphibians and mammals. Here we report that zebrafish Rspo3 plays a negative role in regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Zebrafish Rspo3 has a unique domain structure. It contains a third furin-like (FU3) domain. This FU3 is present in other four ray-finned fish species studied but not in elephant shark. In zebrafish, rspo3 mRNA is maternally deposited and has a ubiquitous expression in early embryonic stages. After 12 hpf, its expression becomes tissue-specific. Forced expression of rspo3 promotes dorsoanterior patterning and increases the expression of dorsal and anterior marker genes. Knockdown of rspo3 increases ventral-posterior development and stimulates ventral and posterior marker genes expression. Forced expression of rspo3 abolishes exogenous Wnt3a action and reduces the endogenous Wnt signaling activity. Knockdown of rspo3 results in increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. Further analyses indicate that Rspo3 does not promote maternal Wnt signaling. Human RSPO3 has similar action when tested in zebrafish embryos. These results suggest that Rspo3 regulates dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning by negatively regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos.

  20. R-Spondin 3 Regulates Dorsoventral and Anteroposterior Patterning by Antagonizing Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pin; Zhou, Yumei; Li, Yun; Lu, Ling; Liu, Yunzhang; Zhou, Jianfeng; Duan, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin or canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in early development and in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. R-spondin 3 (Rspo3) is a secreted protein that has been implicated in activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in amphibians and mammals. Here we report that zebrafish Rspo3 plays a negative role in regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Zebrafish Rspo3 has a unique domain structure. It contains a third furin-like (FU3) domain. This FU3 is present in other four ray-finned fish species studied but not in elephant shark. In zebrafish, rspo3 mRNA is maternally deposited and has a ubiquitous expression in early embryonic stages. After 12 hpf, its expression becomes tissue-specific. Forced expression of rspo3 promotes dorsoanterior patterning and increases the expression of dorsal and anterior marker genes. Knockdown of rspo3 increases ventral-posterior development and stimulates ventral and posterior marker genes expression. Forced expression of rspo3 abolishes exogenous Wnt3a action and reduces the endogenous Wnt signaling activity. Knockdown of rspo3 results in increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. Further analyses indicate that Rspo3 does not promote maternal Wnt signaling. Human RSPO3 has similar action when tested in zebrafish embryos. These results suggest that Rspo3 regulates dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning by negatively regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos. PMID:24918770

  1. Zebrafish collagen XII is present in embryonic connective tissue sheaths (fascia) and basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Bader, Hannah L; Keene, Douglas R; Charvet, Benjamin; Veit, Guido; Driever, Wolfgang; Koch, Manuel; Ruggiero, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Connective tissues ensure the cohesion of the tissues of the body, but also form specialized structures such as tendon and bone. Collagen XII may enhance the stability of connective tissues by bridging collagen fibrils, but its function is still unclear. Here, we used the zebrafish model to visualize its expression pattern in the whole organism. The zebrafish col12a1 gene is homologous to the small isoform of the tetrapod col12a1 gene. In agreement with the biochemical data reported for the small isoform, the zebrafish collagen XII alpha1 chain was characterized as a collagenase sensitive band migrating at approximately 200 kDa. Using newly generated polyclonal antibodies and anti-sense probes, we performed a comprehensive analysis of its expression in developing zebrafish. Collagen XII exhibited a much broader expression pattern than previously thought: it was ubiquitously expressed in the connective tissue sheaths (fascia) that encase the tissues and organs of the body. For example, it was found in sclera, meninges, epimysia and horizontal and vertical myosepta. Collagen XII was also detected in head mesenchyme, pharyngeal arches and within the spinal cord, where it was first expressed within and then at the lateral borders of the floor plate and at the dorsal midline. Furthermore, double immunofluorescence staining with laminin and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that collagen XII is associated with basement membranes. These data suggest that collagen XII is implicated in tissue cohesion by stabilizing fascia and by linking fascia to basement membranes.

  2. In vivo visualization and attenuation of oxidized lipid accumulation in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Green, Simone R.; Baek, Ji Sun; Lee, Sang-Hak; Ellett, Felix; Deer, Elena; Lieschke, Graham J.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative modification of LDL is an early pathological event in the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidation events such as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation may produce specific, immunogenic epitopes. Indeed, antibodies to MDA-derived epitopes are widely used in atherosclerosis research and have been demonstrated to enable cardiovascular imaging. In this study, we engineered a transgenic zebrafish with temperature-inducible expression of an EGFP-labeled single-chain human monoclonal antibody, IK17, which binds to MDA-LDL, and used optically transparent zebrafish larvae for imaging studies. Feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) supplemented with a red fluorescent lipid marker to the transgenic zebrafish resulted in vascular lipid accumulation, quantified in live animals using confocal microscopy. After heat shock–induced expression of IK17-EGFP, we measured the time course of vascular accumulation of IK17-specific MDA epitopes. Treatment with either an antioxidant or a regression diet resulted in reduced IK17 binding to vascular lesions. Interestingly, homogenates of IK17-EGFP–expressing larvae bound to MDA-LDL and inhibited MDA-LDL binding to macrophages. Moreover, sustained expression of IK17-EGFP effectively prevented HCD-induced lipid accumulation in the vascular wall, suggesting that the antibody itself may have therapeutic effects. Thus, we conclude that HCD-fed zebrafish larvae with conditional expression of EGFP-labeled oxidation-specific antibodies afford an efficient method of testing dietary and/or other therapeutic antioxidant strategies that may ultimately be applied to humans. PMID:22105168

  3. Enhanced Cell-Specific Ablation in Zebrafish Using a Triple Mutant of Escherichia Coli Nitroreductase

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Jonathan R.; Zhang, Zhanying; Saxena, Meera T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Transgenic expression of bacterial nitroreductase (NTR) facilitates chemically-inducible targeted cell ablation. In zebrafish, the NTR system enables studies of cell function and cellular regeneration. Metronidazole (MTZ) has become the most commonly used prodrug substrate for eliciting cell loss in NTR-expressing transgenic zebrafish due to the cell-specific nature of its cytotoxic derivatives. Unfortunately, MTZ treatments required for effective cell ablation border toxic effects, and, thus, likely incur undesirable nonspecific effects. Here, we tested whether a triple mutant variant of NTR, previously shown to display improved activity in bacterial assays, can solve this issue by promoting cell ablation in zebrafish using reduced prodrug treatment regimens. We generated several complementary transgenic zebrafish lines expressing either wild-type or mutant NTR (mutNTR) in specific neural cell types, and assayed prodrug-induced cell ablation kinetics using confocal time series imaging and plate reader-based quantification of fluorescent reporters expressed in targeted cell types. The results show that cell ablation can be achieved in mutNTR expressing transgenic lines with markedly shortened prodrug exposure times and/or at lower prodrug concentrations. The mutNTR variant characterized here can circumvent problematic nonspecific/toxic effects arising from low prodrug conversion efficiency, thus increasing the effectiveness and versatility of this selective cell ablation methodology. PMID:24428354

  4. Enhanced cell-specific ablation in zebrafish using a triple mutant of Escherichia coli nitroreductase.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Jonathan R; Zhang, Zhanying; Saxena, Meera T; Mumm, Jeff S

    2014-04-01

    Transgenic expression of bacterial nitroreductase (NTR) facilitates chemically-inducible targeted cell ablation. In zebrafish, the NTR system enables studies of cell function and cellular regeneration. Metronidazole (MTZ) has become the most commonly used prodrug substrate for eliciting cell loss in NTR-expressing transgenic zebrafish due to the cell-specific nature of its cytotoxic derivatives. Unfortunately, MTZ treatments required for effective cell ablation border toxic effects, and, thus, likely incur undesirable nonspecific effects. Here, we tested whether a triple mutant variant of NTR, previously shown to display improved activity in bacterial assays, can solve this issue by promoting cell ablation in zebrafish using reduced prodrug treatment regimens. We generated several complementary transgenic zebrafish lines expressing either wild-type or mutant NTR (mutNTR) in specific neural cell types, and assayed prodrug-induced cell ablation kinetics using confocal time series imaging and plate reader-based quantification of fluorescent reporters expressed in targeted cell types. The results show that cell ablation can be achieved in mutNTR expressing transgenic lines with markedly shortened prodrug exposure times and/or at lower prodrug concentrations. The mutNTR variant characterized here can circumvent problematic nonspecific/toxic effects arising from low prodrug conversion efficiency, thus increasing the effectiveness and versatility of this selective cell ablation methodology.

  5. In vivo cell tracking and quantification method in adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Alt, Clemens; Li, Pulin; White, Richard M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Wei, Xunbin; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful vertebrate model organism for drug discovery, cancer and stem cell research. A recently developed transparent adult zebrafish using double pigmentation mutant, called casper, provide unparalleled imaging power in in vivo longitudinal analysis of biological processes at an anatomic resolution not readily achievable in murine or other systems. In this paper we introduce an optical method for simultaneous visualization and cell quantification, which combines the laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and the in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC). The system is designed specifically for non-invasive tracking of both stationary and circulating cells in adult zebrafish casper, under physiological conditions in the same fish over time. The confocal imaging part in this system serves the dual purposes of imaging fish tissue microstructure and a 3D navigation tool to locate a suitable vessel for circulating cell counting. The multi-color, multi-channel instrument allows the detection of multiple cell populations or different tissues or organs simultaneously. We demonstrate initial testing of this novel instrument by imaging vasculature and tracking circulating cells in CD41: GFP/Gata1: DsRed transgenic casper fish whose thrombocytes/erythrocytes express the green and red fluorescent proteins. Circulating fluorescent cell incidents were recorded and counted repeatedly over time and in different types of vessels. Great application opportunities in cancer and stem cell researches are discussed.

  6. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    SciT

    Kwon, Hye-Joo; Biology Department, Princess Nourah University, Riyadh 11671

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effectmore » on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.« less

  7. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-09-16

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal thyroid hormones are essential for neural development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Campinho, Marco A; Saraiva, João; Florindo, Claudia; Power, Deborah M

    2014-07-01

    Teleost eggs contain an abundant store of maternal thyroid hormones (THs), and early in zebrafish embryonic development, all the genes necessary for TH signaling are expressed. Nonetheless the function of THs in embryonic development remains elusive. To test the hypothesis that THs are fundamental for zebrafish embryonic development, an monocarboxilic transporter 8 (Mct8) knockdown strategy was deployed to prevent maternal TH uptake. Absence of maternal THs did not affect early specification of the neural epithelia but profoundly modified later dorsal specification of the brain and spinal cord as well as specific neuron differentiation. Maternal THs acted upstream of pax2a, pax7, and pax8 genes but downstream of shha and fgf8a signaling. The lack of inhibitory spinal cord interneurons and increased motoneurons in the mct8 morphants is consistent with their stiff axial body and impaired mobility. The mct8 mutations are associated with X-linked mental retardation in humans, and the cellular and molecular consequences of MCT8 knockdown during embryonic development in zebrafish provides new insight into the potential role of THs in this condition.

  9. Maternal Thyroid Hormones Are Essential for Neural Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, João; Florindo, Claudia; Power, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Teleost eggs contain an abundant store of maternal thyroid hormones (THs), and early in zebrafish embryonic development, all the genes necessary for TH signaling are expressed. Nonetheless the function of THs in embryonic development remains elusive. To test the hypothesis that THs are fundamental for zebrafish embryonic development, an monocarboxilic transporter 8 (Mct8) knockdown strategy was deployed to prevent maternal TH uptake. Absence of maternal THs did not affect early specification of the neural epithelia but profoundly modified later dorsal specification of the brain and spinal cord as well as specific neuron differentiation. Maternal THs acted upstream of pax2a, pax7, and pax8 genes but downstream of shha and fgf8a signaling. The lack of inhibitory spinal cord interneurons and increased motoneurons in the mct8 morphants is consistent with their stiff axial body and impaired mobility. The mct8 mutations are associated with X-linked mental retardation in humans, and the cellular and molecular consequences of MCT8 knockdown during embryonic development in zebrafish provides new insight into the potential role of THs in this condition. PMID:24877564

  10. Abnormal cerebellar development and ataxia in CARP VIII morphant zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Aspatwar, Ashok; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Jokitalo, Eija; Parikka, Mataleena; Ortutay, Csaba; Harjula, Sanna-Kaisa E; Rämet, Mika; Vihinen, Mauno; Parkkila, Seppo

    2013-02-01

    Congenital ataxia and mental retardation are mainly caused by variations in the genes that affect brain development. Recent reports have shown that mutations in the CA8 gene are associated with mental retardation and ataxia in humans and ataxia in mice. The gene product, carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARP VIII), is predominantly present in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where it interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, a calcium channel. In this study, we investigated the effects of the loss of function of CARP VIII during embryonic development in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against the CA8 gene. Knockdown of CA8 in zebrafish larvae resulted in a curved body axis, pericardial edema and abnormal movement patterns. Histologic examination revealed gross morphologic defects in the cerebellar region and in the muscle. Electron microscopy studies showed increased neuronal cell death in developing larvae injected with CA8 antisense morpholinos. These data suggest a pivotal role for CARP VIII during embryonic development. Furthermore, suppression of CA8 expression leads to defects in motor and coordination functions, mimicking the ataxic human phenotype. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of CARP VIII in brain development and introduces a novel zebrafish model in which to investigate the mechanisms of CARP VIII-related ataxia and mental retardation in humans.

  11. Quantum Dot Nanotoxicity Assessment Using the Zebrafish Embryo

    PubMed Central

    King-Heiden, Tisha C.; Wiecinski, Paige N.; Mangham, Andrew N.; Metz, Kevin M.; Nesbit, Dorothy; Pedersen, Joel A.; Hamers, Robert J.; Heideman, Warren; Peterson, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) hold promise for several biomedical, life sciences and photovoltaic applications. Substantial production volumes and environmental release are anticipated. QD toxicity may be intrinsic to their physicochemical properties, or result from the release of toxic components during breakdown. We hypothesized that developing zebrafish could be used to identify and distinguish these different types of toxicity. Embryos were exposed to aqueous suspensions of CdSecore/ZnSshell QDs functionalized with either poly-L-lysine or poly(ethylene glycol) terminated with methoxy, carboxylate, or amine groups. Toxicity was influenced by the QD coating, which also contributed to the QD suspension stability. At sublethal concentrations, many QD preparations produced characteristic signs of Cd toxicity that weakly correlated with metallothionein expression, indicating that QDs are only slightly degraded in vivo. QDs also produced distinctly different toxicity that could not be explained by Cd release. Using the zebrafish model, we were able to distinguish toxicity intrinsic to QDs from that caused by released metal ions. We conclude that developing zebrafish provide a rapid, low- cost approach for assessing structure-toxicity relationships of nanoparticles. PMID:19350942

  12. Zebrafish numb and numblike are involved in primitive erythrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bresciani, Erica; Confalonieri, Stefano; Cermenati, Solei; Cimbro, Simona; Foglia, Efrem; Beltrame, Monica; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Cotelli, Franco

    2010-12-13

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved regulatory circuitry implicated in cell fate determination in various developmental processes including hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation of blood lineages. Known endogenous inhibitors of Notch activity are Numb-Nb and Numblike-Nbl, which play partially redundant functions in specifying and maintaining neuronal differentiation. Nb and Nbl are expressed in most tissues including embryonic and adult hematopoietic tissues in mice and humans, suggesting possible roles for these proteins in hematopoiesis. We employed zebrafish to investigate the possible functional role of Numb and Numblike during hematopoiesis, as this system allows a detailed analysis even in embryos with severe defects that would be lethal in other organisms. Here we describe that nb/nbl knockdown results in severe reduction or absence of embryonic erythrocytes in zebrafish. Interestingly, nb/nbl knocked-down embryos present severe downregulation of the erythroid transcription factor gata1. This results in erythroblasts which fail to mature and undergo apoptosis. Our results indicate that Notch activity is increased in embryos injected with nb/nbl morpholino, and we show that inhibition of Notch activation can partially rescue the hematopoietic phenotype. Our results provide the first in vivo evidence of an involvement of Numb and Numblike in zebrafish erythroid differentiation during primitive hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we found that, at least in part, the nb/nbl morphant phenotype is due to enhanced Notch activation within hematopoietic districts, which in turn results in primitive erythroid differentiation defects.

  13. Genetically Blocking the Zebrafish Pineal Clock Affects Circadian Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe Livne, Zohar; Alon, Shahar; Vallone, Daniela; Bayleyen, Yared; Tovin, Adi; Shainer, Inbal; Nisembaum, Laura G; Aviram, Idit; Smadja-Storz, Sima; Fuentes, Michael; Falcón, Jack; Eisenberg, Eli; Klein, David C; Burgess, Harold A; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2016-11-01

    The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted. Moreover, transcriptome analysis revealed that the circadian expression pattern of the majority of clock-controlled genes in the adult pineal gland is abolished. Importantly, circadian rhythms of behavior in zebrafish larvae were affected: rhythms of place preference under constant darkness were eliminated, and rhythms of locomotor activity under constant dark and constant dim light conditions were markedly attenuated. On the other hand, global peripheral molecular oscillators, as measured in whole larvae, were unaffected in this model. In conclusion, characterization of this novel transgenic model provides evidence that the molecular clock in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland plays a key role, possibly as part of a multiple pacemaker system, in modulating circadian rhythms of behavior.

  14. Zebrafish as a systems toxicology model for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Sasagawa, Shota; Umemoto, Noriko; Shimada, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The developing brain is extremely sensitive to many chemicals. Exposure to neurotoxicants during development has been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Although rodents have been widely used for developmental neurotoxicity testing, experiments using large numbers of rodents are time-consuming, expensive, and raise ethical concerns. Using alternative non-mammalian animal models may relieve some of these pressures by allowing testing of large numbers of subjects while reducing expenses and minimizing the use of mammalian subjects. In this review, we discuss some of the advantages of using zebrafish in developmental neurotoxicity testing, focusing on central nervous system development, neurobehavior, toxicokinetics, and toxicodynamics in this species. We also describe some important examples of developmental neurotoxicity testing using zebrafish combined with gene expression profiling, neuroimaging, or neurobehavioral assessment. Zebrafish may be a systems toxicology model that has the potential to reveal the pathways of developmental neurotoxicity and to provide a sound basis for human risk assessments. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  15. Genetically Blocking the Zebrafish Pineal Clock Affects Circadian Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Alon, Shahar; Vallone, Daniela; Tovin, Adi; Shainer, Inbal; Nisembaum, Laura G.; Aviram, Idit; Smadja-Storz, Sima; Fuentes, Michael; Falcón, Jack; Eisenberg, Eli; Klein, David C.; Burgess, Harold A.; Foulkes, Nicholas S.; Gothilf, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted. Moreover, transcriptome analysis revealed that the circadian expression pattern of the majority of clock-controlled genes in the adult pineal gland is abolished. Importantly, circadian rhythms of behavior in zebrafish larvae were affected: rhythms of place preference under constant darkness were eliminated, and rhythms of locomotor activity under constant dark and constant dim light conditions were markedly attenuated. On the other hand, global peripheral molecular oscillators, as measured in whole larvae, were unaffected in this model. In conclusion, characterization of this novel transgenic model provides evidence that the molecular clock in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland plays a key role, possibly as part of a multiple pacemaker system, in modulating circadian rhythms of behavior. PMID:27870848

  16. Glucocorticoid-mediated Period2 induction delays the phase of circadian rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Solmi; Park, Noheon; Cho, Sehyung; Kim, Kyungjin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling synchronizes the circadian rhythm of individual peripheral cells and induces the expression of circadian genes, including Period1 (Per1) and Period2 (Per2). However, no GC response element (GRE) has been reported in the Per2 promoter region. Here we report the molecular mechanisms of Per2 induction by GC signaling and its relevance to the regulation of circadian timing. We found that GC prominently induced Per2 expression and delayed the circadian phase. The overlapping GRE and E-box (GE2) region in the proximal Per2 promoter was responsible for GC-mediated Per2 induction. The GRE in the Per2 promoter was unique in that brain and muscle ARNT-like protein-1 (BMAL1) was essential for GC-induced Per2 expression, whereas other GRE-containing promoters, such as Per1 and mouse mammary tumor virus, responded to dexamethasone in the absence of BMAL1. This specialized regulatory mechanism was mediated by BMAL1-dependent binding of the GC receptor to GRE in Per2 promoter. When Per2 induction was abrogated by the mutation of the GRE or E-box, the circadian oscillation phase failed to be delayed compared with that of the wild-type. Therefore, the current study demonstrates that the rapid Per2 induction mediated by GC is crucial for delaying the circadian rhythm. PMID:23620290

  17. Transcriptomic characterization of cold acclimation in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Temperature is one of key environmental parameters that affect the whole life of fishes and an increasing number of studies have been directed towards understanding the mechanisms of cold acclimation in fish. However, the adaptation of larvae to cold stress and the cold-specific transcriptional alterations in fish larvae remain largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the development of cold-tolerance in zebrafish larvae and investigated the transcriptional profiles under cold stress using RNA-seq. Results Pre-exposure of 96 hpf zebrafish larvae to cold stress (16°C) for 24 h significantly increased their survival rates under severe cold stress (12°C). RNA-seq generated 272 million raw reads from six sequencing libraries and about 92% of the processed reads were mapped to the reference genome of zebrafish. Differential expression analysis identified 1,431 up- and 399 down-regulated genes. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of cold-induced genes revealed that RNA splicing, ribosome biogenesis and protein catabolic process were the most highly overrepresented biological processes. Spliceosome, proteasome, eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis and RNA transport were the most highly enriched pathways for genes up-regulated by cold stress. Moreover, alternative splicing of 197 genes and promoter switching of 64 genes were found to be regulated by cold stress. A shorter isoform of stk16 that lacks 67 amino acids at the N-terminus was specifically generated by skipping the second exon in cold-treated larvae. Alternative promoter usage was detected for per3 gene under cold stress, which leading to a highly up-regulated transcript encoding a truncated protein lacking the C-terminal domains. Conclusions These findings indicate that zebrafish larvae possess the ability to build cold-tolerance under mild low temperature and transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations are extensively involved in this acclimation process. PMID:24024969

  18. Application of Zebrafish Model to Environmental Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a tropical freshwater fish, the zebrafish, has been generally used as a useful model organism in various fields of life science worldwide. The zebrafish model has also been applied to environmental toxicology; however, in Japan, it has not yet become widely used. In this review, we will introduce the biological and historical backgrounds of zebrafish as an animal model and their breeding. We then present the current status of toxicological experiments using zebrafish that were treated with some important environmental contaminants, including cadmium, organic mercury, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and tributyltin. Finally, the future possible application of genetically modified zebrafish to the study of environmental toxicology is discussed.

  19. Involvement of Lypge in the formation of eye and pineal gland in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ji, Dongrui; Wang, Su; Li, Mingyue; Zhang, Shicui; Li, Hongyan

    2018-02-05

    The proteins of Ly-6 (lymphocyte antigen-6) family are involved in the regulation of immunoreaction, cell migration and adhesion, and neuronal excitability. However, little is known about the function of Ly-6 proteins in embryogenesis. Herein, we identified a GPI anchored Ly-6 member named ly6 expressed in pineal gland and eye (lypge). Dynamic expression pattern of lypge was revealed by whole mount in situ hybridization. It was strikingly expressed in the pineal gland and cone photoreceptor, and its expression was regulated by orthodenticle homolog 5 (otx5) which has been shown to control the expression of many pineal genes. In addition, we demonstrated that lypge was rhythmically expressed in larvae from 4dpf on. Moreover, knockdown of lypge resulted in small head and small eye formed in zebrafish embryos. These suggest that Lypge is involved in the formation of the eye and pineal gland in early development of zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A zebrafish transgenic model of Ewing's sarcoma reveals conserved mediators of EWS-FLI1 tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Leacock, Stefanie W; Basse, Audrey N; Chandler, Garvin L; Kirk, Anne M; Rakheja, Dinesh; Amatruda, James F

    2012-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, a malignant bone tumor of children and young adults, is a member of the small-round-blue-cell tumor family. Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), which include peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), are characterized by chromosomal translocations that generate fusions between the EWS gene and ETS-family transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. The EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein represents an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of Ewing's sarcoma. The cell of origin of ESFT and the molecular mechanisms by which EWS-FLI1 mediates tumorigenesis remain unknown, and few animal models of Ewing's sarcoma exist. Here, we report the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model of EWS-FLI1 function and tumorigenesis. Mosaic expression of the human EWS-FLI1 fusion protein in zebrafish caused the development of tumors with histology strongly resembling that of human Ewing's sarcoma. The incidence of tumors increased in a p53 mutant background, suggesting that the p53 pathway suppresses EWS-FLI1-driven tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of the zebrafish tumors defined a set of genes that might be regulated by EWS-FLI1, including the zebrafish ortholog of a crucial EWS-FLI1 target gene in humans. Stable zebrafish transgenic lines expressing EWS-FLI1 under the control of the heat-shock promoter exhibit altered embryonic development and defective convergence and extension, suggesting that EWS-FLI1 interacts with conserved developmental pathways. These results indicate that functional targets of EWS-FLI1 that mediate tumorigenesis are conserved from zebrafish to human and provide a novel context in which to study the function of this fusion oncogene.

  1. Knockdown of Zebrafish Lumican Gene (zlum) Causes Scleral Thinning and Increased Size of Scleral Coats*

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Lung-Kun; Liu, Chia-Yang; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Huang, Chang-Jen; Hu, Fung-Rong; Chien, Chung-Liang; Wang, I-Jong

    2010-01-01

    The lumican gene (lum), which encodes one of the major keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) in the vertebrate cornea and sclera, has been linked to axial myopia in humans. In this study, we chose zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an animal model to elucidate the role of lumican in the development of axial myopia. The zebrafish lumican gene (zlum) spans ∼4.6 kb of the zebrafish genome. Like human (hLUM) and mouse (mlum), zlum consists of three exons, two introns, and a TATA box-less promoter at the 5′-flanking region of the transcription initiation site. Sequence analysis of the cDNA predicts that zLum encodes 344 amino acids. zLum shares 51% amino acid sequence identity with human lumican. Similar to hLUM and mlum, zlum mRNA is expressed in the eye and many other tissues, such as brain, muscle, and liver as well. Transgenic zebrafish harboring an enhanced GFP reporter gene construct downstream of a 1.7-kb zlum 5′-flanking region displayed enhanced GFP expression in the cornea and sclera, as well as throughout the body. Down-regulation of zlum expression by antisense zlum morpholinos manifested ocular enlargement resembling axial myopia due to disruption of the collagen fibril arrangement in the sclera and resulted in scleral thinning. Administration of muscarinic receptor antagonists, e.g. atropine and pirenzepine, effectively subdued the ocular enlargement caused by morpholinos in in vivo zebrafish larvae assays. The observation suggests that zebrafish can be used as an in vivo model for screening compounds in treating myopia. PMID:20551313

  2. Use of TSHβ:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a rapid in vivo model for assessing thyroid-disrupting chemicals

    SciT

    Ji, Cheng; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Jin, Xia

    Accumulating evidence indicates that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to interfere with the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis. Novel endpoints should be evaluated in addition to existing methods in order to effectively assess the effects of these chemicals on the HPT axis. Thyroid-stimulating hormone subunit β (TSHβ) plays central regulatory roles in the HPT system. We identified the regulatory region that determines the expression level of zebrafish TSHβ in the anterior pituitary. In the transgenic zebrafish with EGFP driven by the TSHβ promoter, the similar responsive patterns between the expression levels of TSHβ:EGFP and endogenous TSHβ mRNA in themore » pituitary are observed following treatments with goitrogen chemicals and exogenous thyroid hormones (THs). These results suggest that the TSHβ:EGFP transgenic reporter zebrafish may be a useful alternative in vivo model for the assessment of chemicals interfering with the HPT system. Highlights: ► The promoter of zebrafish TSHβ gene has been identified. ► The stable TSHβ:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter germline has been generated. ► The EGFP in the transgenic fish recapitulated the pattern of pituitary TSHβ mRNA. ► The transgenic zebrafish may be an in vivo model for EDC assessment.« less

  3. Embryonic exposure to sodium arsenite perturbs vascular development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Catherine W; Hans, Charu; Shah, Shishir; Merchant, Fatima A; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Bondesson, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to arsenic in its inorganic form, arsenite, causes adverse effects to many different organs and tissues. Here, we have investigated arsenite-induced adverse effects on vascular tissues in the model organism zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to arsenite at different exposure windows and the susceptibility to vascular tissue damage was recorded at 72hours post fertilization (hpf). Intersegmental vessel sprouting and growth was most perturbed by exposure to arsenite during the 24-48hpf window, while disruption in the condensation of the caudal vein plexus was more often observed at the 48-72hpf exposure window, reflecting when these structures develop during normal embryogenesis. The vascular growth rate was decreased by arsenite exposure, and deviated from that of control embryos at around 24-26.5hpf. We further mapped changes in expression of key regulators of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1/fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (vegfr1/flt1) expression was evident already at 24hpf, coinciding with the decreased vascular growth rate. At later time points, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (mmp9) expression was upregulated, suggesting that arsenite affects the composition of the extracellular matrix. In total, the expression of eight key factors involved in different aspects of vascularization was significantly altered by arsenic exposure. In conclusion, our results show that arsenite is a potent vascular disruptor in the developing zebrafish embryo, a finding that calls for an evaluation of arsenite as a developmental vascular toxicant in mammalian model systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of Sox6 in zebrafish muscle fiber type specification.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Harriet E; Ono, Yosuke; Wang, Xingang; Elworthy, Stone; Cunliffe, Vincent T; Ingham, Philip W

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox6 has been implicated in regulating muscle fiber type-specific gene expression in mammals. In zebrafish, loss of function of the transcription factor Prdm1a results in a slow to fast-twitch fiber type transformation presaged by ectopic expression of sox6 in slow-twitch progenitors. Morpholino-mediated Sox6 knockdown can suppress this transformation but causes ectopic expression of only one of three slow-twitch specific genes assayed. Here, we use gain and loss of function analysis to analyse further the role of Sox6 in zebrafish muscle fiber type specification. The GAL4 binary misexpression system was used to express Sox6 ectopically in zebrafish embryos. Cis-regulatory elements were characterized using transgenic fish. Zinc finger nuclease mediated targeted mutagenesis was used to analyse the effects of loss of Sox6 function in embryonic, larval and adult zebrafish. Zebrafish transgenic for the GCaMP3 Calcium reporter were used to assay Ca2+ transients in wild-type and mutant muscle fibres. Ectopic Sox6 expression is sufficient to downregulate slow-twitch specific gene expression in zebrafish embryos. Cis-regulatory elements upstream of the slow myosin heavy chain 1 (smyhc1) and slow troponin c (tnnc1b) genes contain putative Sox6 binding sites required for repression of the former but not the latter. Embryos homozygous for sox6 null alleles expressed tnnc1b throughout the fast-twitch muscle whereas other slow-specific muscle genes, including smyhc1, were expressed ectopically in only a subset of fast-twitch fibers. Ca2+ transients in sox6 mutant fast-twitch fibers were intermediate in their speed and amplitude between those of wild-type slow- and fast-twitch fibers. sox6 homozygotes survived to adulthood and exhibited continued misexpression of tnnc1b as well as smaller slow-twitch fibers. They also exhibited a striking curvature of the spine. The Sox6 transcription factor is a key regulator of fast-twitch muscle fiber differentiation

  5. fgfr3 and regionalization of anterior neural tube in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sleptsova-Friedrich, I; Li, Y; Emelyanov, A; Ekker, M; Korzh, V; Ge, R

    2001-04-01

    Here we describe the isolation of the zebrafish fgfr3 gene, its structure and chromosomal location. Expression in wild type embryos occurs in the axial mesoderm, the diencephalon, the anterior hindbrain and the anterior spinal cord. In the hindbrain, a differential expression of fgfr3 was detected at several levels of intensity, with the highest expression in the posterior rhombomere 1 that is morphologically distinct from the anterior part, which develops into the cerebellum. Further, analysis of fgfr3 expression in mutants deficient in the formation of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), noi(-/-) and ace(-/-), demonstrated that in the absence of Pax2.1 and FGF8 activity, the expression domains of FGFR3 expand into the MHB, tegmentum, cerebellum and optic tectum, which are the affected structures in these mutants.

  6. Influenza A virus infection in zebrafish recapitulates mammalian infection and sensitivity to anti-influenza drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Kristin A; Goody, Michelle F; Mowel, Walter K; Breitbach, Meghan E; Gratacap, Remi L; Witten, P Eckhard; Kim, Carol H

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal influenza virus infections cause annual epidemics and sporadic pandemics. These present a global health concern, resulting in substantial morbidity, mortality and economic burdens. Prevention and treatment of influenza illness is difficult due to the high mutation rate of the virus, the emergence of new virus strains and increasing antiviral resistance. Animal models of influenza infection are crucial to our gaining a better understanding of the pathogenesis of and host response to influenza infection, and for screening antiviral compounds. However, the current animal models used for influenza research are not amenable to visualization of host-pathogen interactions or high-throughput drug screening. The zebrafish is widely recognized as a valuable model system for infectious disease research and therapeutic drug testing. Here, we describe a zebrafish model for human influenza A virus (IAV) infection and show that zebrafish embryos are susceptible to challenge with both influenza A strains APR8 and X-31 (Aichi). Influenza-infected zebrafish show an increase in viral burden and mortality over time. The expression of innate antiviral genes, the gross pathology and the histopathology in infected zebrafish recapitulate clinical symptoms of influenza infections in humans. This is the first time that zebrafish embryos have been infected with a fluorescent IAV in order to visualize infection in a live vertebrate host, revealing a pattern of vascular endothelial infection. Treatment of infected zebrafish with a known anti-influenza compound, Zanamivir, reduced mortality and the expression of a fluorescent viral gene product, demonstrating the validity of this model to screen for potential antiviral drugs. The zebrafish model system has provided invaluable insights into host-pathogen interactions for a range of infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate a novel use of this species for IAV research. This model has great potential to advance our understanding of

  7. Analysis of a Gene Regulatory Cascade Mediating Circadian Rhythm in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haifang; Du, Jiulin; Yan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the study of circadian rhythms, it has been a puzzle how a limited number of circadian clock genes can control diverse aspects of physiology. Here we investigate circadian gene expression genome-wide using larval zebrafish as a model system. We made use of a spatial gene expression atlas to investigate the expression of circadian genes in various tissues and cell types. Comparison of genome-wide circadian gene expression data between zebrafish and mouse revealed a nearly anti-phase relationship and allowed us to detect novel evolutionarily conserved circadian genes in vertebrates. We identified three groups of zebrafish genes with distinct responses to light entrainment: fast light-induced genes, slow light-induced genes, and dark-induced genes. Our computational analysis of the circadian gene regulatory network revealed several transcription factors (TFs) involved in diverse aspects of circadian physiology through transcriptional cascade. Of these, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor a (mitfa), a dark-induced TF, mediates a circadian rhythm of melanin synthesis, which may be involved in zebrafish's adaptation to daily light cycling. Our study describes a systematic method to discover previously unidentified TFs involved in circadian physiology in complex organisms. PMID:23468616

  8. A reduced transcriptome approach to assess environmental toxicants using zebrafish embryo tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the pilot testing of a new bioassay platform that monitors expression of 1600 genes in zebrafish embryos exposed to either single chemicals or complex water samples. The method provides a more cost effective, high throughput means to broadly evaluate the pot...

  9. Analyzing notochord segmentation and intervertebral disc formation using the twhh:gfp transgenic zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yutaka; Dominique, Vincent J; Du, Shao Jun

    2009-10-01

    To characterize the process of vertebral segmentation and disc formation in living animals, we analyzed tiggy-winkle hedgehog (twhh):green fluorescent protein (gfp) and sonic hedgehog (shh):gfp transgenic zebrafish models that display notochord-specific GFP expression. We found that they showed distinct patterns of expression in the intervertebral discs of late stage fish larvae and adult zebrafish. A segmented pattern of GFP expression was detected in the intervertebral disc of twhh:gfp transgenic fish. In contrast, little GFP expression was found in the intervertebral disc of shh:gfp transgenic fish. Treating twhh:gfp transgenic zebrafish larvae with exogenous retinoic acid (RA), a teratogenic factor on normal development, resulted in disruption of notochord segmentation and formation of oversized vertebrae. Histological analysis revealed that the oversized vertebrae are likely due to vertebral fusion. These studies demonstrate that the twhh:gfp transgenic zebrafish is a useful model for studying vertebral segmentation and disc formation, and moreover, that RA signaling may play a role in this process.

  10. Correlating Whole Brain Neural Activity with Behavior in Head-Fixed Larval Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Orger, Michael B; Portugues, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol to combine behavioral recording and imaging using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy in head-fixed larval zebrafish that express a genetically encoded calcium indicator. The steps involve restraining the larva in agarose, setting up optics that allow projection of a visual stimulus and infrared illumination to monitor behavior, and analysis of the neuronal and behavioral data.

  11. Beta-glucan enhances the response to SVCV infection in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    M Medina-Gali, Regla; Ortega-Villaizan, María Del Mar; Mercado, Luis; Novoa, Beatriz; Coll, Julio; Perez, Luis

    2018-07-01

    The antiviral effects of beta-glucan, an immunostimulatory agent were studied in zebrafish both in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that zebrafish ZF4 cells as well as whole fish primed with yeast β-glucan zymosan exhibited increased cytokine expression and elevated response to spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. In vitro, previous treatment of β-glucan enhanced ZF4 cell viability against SVCV infection which is associated to the activation of interferon signaling pathway and inflammatory cytokines gene expression. In vivo, the SVCV-infected fish primed with β-glucan had a higher survival rate (≈73%) than the control SVCV-infected group (≈33%). Additionally, up-regulation of the expression of a set of genes involved in innate immune response was detected in zebrafish intraperitoneally injected of β-glucan: il1b, il6, il8, il10 and tnfa transcripts showed increased expression that appear to be rapid (2 days) but not long-lived (less than 2 weeks). The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to combine cell culture and in vivo approaches to describe host response to β-glucan stimulation and viral infection in zebrafish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation and characterization of gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish for evaluating endocrine-disrupting effects

    SciT

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Chen, Xiaowen

    The glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene encodes the shared α subunit of the three pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone β (Fshβ), luteinizing hormone β (Lhβ) and thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ). In our current study, we identified and characterized the promoter region of zebrafish gsuα and generated a stable gsuα:EGFP transgenic line, which recapitulated the endogenous gsuα expression in the early developing pituitary gland. A relatively conserved regulatory element set is presented in the promoter regions of zebrafish and three other known mammalian gsuα promoters. Our results also demonstrated that the expression patterns of the gsuα:EGFP transgene were allmore » identical to those expression patterns of the endogenous gsuα expression in the pituitary tissue when our transgenic fish were treated with various endocrine chemicals, including forskolin (FSK), SP600125, trichostatin A (TSA), KClO{sub 4}, dexamethasone (Dex), β-estradiol and progesterone. Thus, this gsuα:EGFP transgenic fish reporter line provides another valuable tool for investigating the lineage development of gsuα-expressing gonadotrophins and the coordinated regulation of various glycoprotein hormone subunit genes. These reporter fish can serve as a novel platform to perform screenings of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vivo as well. - Highlights: • Identification of the promoter of zebrafish glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene • Generation of stable transmission gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter • Demonstration of the recapitulation of the gsuα:EGFP and endogenous gsuα expression • Suggestion of the gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a novel platform for EDC study.« less

  13. Patient-derived xenograft in zebrafish embryos: a new platform for translational research in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Gaudenzi, Germano; Albertelli, Manuela; Dicitore, Alessandra; Würth, Roberto; Gatto, Federico; Barbieri, Federica; Cotelli, Franco; Florio, Tullio; Ferone, Diego; Persani, Luca; Vitale, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    Preclinical research on neuroendocrine tumors usually involves immortalized cell lines and few animal models. In the present study we described an in vivo model based on patient-derived xenografts of neuroendocrine tumor cells in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, allowing a rapid analysis of the angiogenic and invasive potential. Patient-derived neuroendocrine tumor cells were transplanted in 48 hours post-fertilization Tg(fli1a:EGFP) y1 zebrafish embryos that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in the entire vasculature. Neuroendocrine tumor cells, stained with CM-Dil, were injected into the subperidermal (perivitelline) space, close to the developing subintestinal venous plexus. A proper control group, represented by zebrafish injected with only D-PBS, was included in this study. Angiogenic and invasive potentials of each patient-derived xenograft were evaluated by both epifluorescence and confocal microscopes. Six out of eight neuroendocrine tumor samples were successfully transplanted in zebrafish embryos. Although the implanted tumor mass had a limited size (about 100 cells for embryos), patient-derived xenografts showed pro-angiogenic (5 cases) and invasive (6 cases) behaviors within 48 hours post injection. Patient-derived xenograft in zebrafish embryos appears to be a reliable in vivo preclinical model for neuroendocrine tumors, tumors with often limited cell availability. The rapidity of this procedure makes our model a promising platform to perform preclinical drug screening and opens a new scenario for personalized treatment in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

  14. Zebrafish zic2 controls formation of periocular neural crest and choroid fissure morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sedykh, Irina; Yoon, Baul; Roberson, Laura; Moskvin, Oleg; Dewey, Colin N; Grinblat, Yevgenya

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate retina develops in close proximity to the forebrain and neural crest-derived cartilages of the face and jaw. Coloboma, a congenital eye malformation, is associated with aberrant forebrain development (holoprosencephaly) and with craniofacial defects (frontonasal dysplasia) in humans, suggesting a critical role for cross-lineage interactions during retinal morphogenesis. ZIC2, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is linked to human holoprosencephaly. We have previously used morpholino assays to show zebrafish zic2 functions in the developing forebrain, retina and craniofacial cartilage. We now report that zebrafish with genetic lesions in zebrafish zic2 orthologs, zic2a and zic2b, develop with retinal coloboma and craniofacial anomalies. We demonstrate a requirement for zic2 in restricting pax2a expression and show evidence that zic2 function limits Hh signaling. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis identified an early requirement for zic2 in periocular neural crest as an activator of alx1, a transcription factor with essential roles in craniofacial and ocular morphogenesis in human and zebrafish. Collectively, these data establish zic2 mutant zebrafish as a powerful new genetic model for in-depth dissection of cell interactions and genetic controls during craniofacial complex development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 4-dimensional functional profiling in the convulsant-treated larval zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew J; Windell, Dylan; Metz, Jeremy; Matthews, Peter; Pinion, Joe; Brown, Jonathan T; Hetheridge, Malcolm J; Ball, Jonathan S; Owen, Stewart F; Redfern, Will S; Moger, Julian; Randall, Andrew D; Tyler, Charles R

    2017-07-26

    Functional neuroimaging, using genetically-encoded Ca 2+ sensors in larval zebrafish, offers a powerful combination of high spatiotemporal resolution and higher vertebrate relevance for quantitative neuropharmacological profiling. Here we use zebrafish larvae with pan-neuronal expression of GCaMP6s, combined with light sheet microscopy and a novel image processing pipeline, for the 4D profiling of chemoconvulsant action in multiple brain regions. In untreated larvae, regions associated with autonomic functionality, sensory processing and stress-responsiveness, consistently exhibited elevated spontaneous activity. The application of drugs targeting different convulsant mechanisms (4-Aminopyridine, Pentylenetetrazole, Pilocarpine and Strychnine) resulted in distinct spatiotemporal patterns of activity. These activity patterns showed some interesting parallels with what is known of the distribution of their respective molecular targets, but crucially also revealed system-wide neural circuit responses to stimulation or suppression. Drug concentration-response curves of neural activity were identified in a number of anatomically-defined zebrafish brain regions, and in vivo larval electrophysiology, also conducted in 4dpf larvae, provided additional measures of neural activity. Our quantification of network-wide chemoconvulsant drug activity in the whole zebrafish brain illustrates the power of this approach for neuropharmacological profiling in applications ranging from accelerating studies of drug safety and efficacy, to identifying pharmacologically-altered networks in zebrafish models of human neurological disorders.

  16. The Nordic Countries Meeting on the Zebrafish as a Model for Development and Disease 2012

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The first Nordic Countries Meeting on the Zebrafish as a Model for Development and Disease took place at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, November 21–23, 2012. The meeting gathered 130 scientists, students, and company representatives from Iceland, Finland, Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, as well as invited guests and keynote speakers from England, Scotland, Germany, Poland, The Netherlands, Singapore, Japan, and the United States. Presentations covered a wide range of topics, including developmental biology, genetics, evolutionary biology, toxicology, behavioral studies, and disease mechanisms. The need for formal guidance and training in zebrafish housing, husbandry, and health monitoring was recognized, and the meeting expressed its support for the joint working group of the FELASA/COST action BM0804 EuFishBioMed. The decision was made to turn the Nordic meeting into an annual event and create a Nordic network of zebrafish researchers. PMID:23590403

  17. Essential role for fibrillin-2 in zebrafish notochord and vascular morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gansner, John M; Madsen, Erik C; Mecham, Robert P; Gitlin, Jonathan D

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that lysyl oxidase cuproenzymes are critical for zebrafish notochord formation, but the molecular mechanisms of copper-dependent notochord morphogenesis are incompletely understood. We, therefore, conducted a forward genetic screen for zebrafish mutants that exhibit notochord sensitivity to lysyl oxidase inhibition, yielding a mutant with defects in notochord and vascular morphogenesis, puff daddygw1 (pfdgw1). Meiotic mapping and cloning reveal that the pfdgw1 phenotype results from disruption of the gene encoding the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin-2, and the spatiotemporal expression of fibrillin-2 is consistent with the pfdgw1 phenotype. Furthermore, each aspect of the pfdgw1 phenotype is recapitulated by morpholino knockdown of fibrillin-2. Taken together, the data reveal a genetic interaction between fibrillin-2 and the lysyl oxidases in notochord formation and demonstrate the importance of fibrillin-2 in specific early developmental processes in zebrafish. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The Nordic countries meeting on the zebrafish as a model for development and disease 2012.

    PubMed

    Andersson Lendahl, Monika; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    The first Nordic Countries Meeting on the Zebrafish as a Model for Development and Disease took place at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, November 21-23, 2012. The meeting gathered 130 scientists, students, and company representatives from Iceland, Finland, Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, as well as invited guests and keynote speakers from England, Scotland, Germany, Poland, The Netherlands, Singapore, Japan, and the United States. Presentations covered a wide range of topics, including developmental biology, genetics, evolutionary biology, toxicology, behavioral studies, and disease mechanisms. The need for formal guidance and training in zebrafish housing, husbandry, and health monitoring was recognized, and the meeting expressed its support for the joint working group of the FELASA/COST action BM0804 EuFishBioMed. The decision was made to turn the Nordic meeting into an annual event and create a Nordic network of zebrafish researchers.

  19. Probiotic modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and behaviour in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Luca; Aceto, Serena; Agnisola, Claudio; De Paolo, Sofia; Dipineto, Ludovico; Stilling, Roman M; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Menna, Lucia F; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2016-07-15

    The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the bi-directional gut-brain axis, a communication that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities. Animal studies reveal that gut bacteria influence behaviour, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels and serotonin metabolism. In the present study, we report for the first time an analysis of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in zebrafish (Danio rerio). After 28 days of dietary administration with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501, we found differences in shoaling behaviour, brain expression levels of bdnf and of genes involved in serotonin signalling/metabolism between control and treated zebrafish group. In addition, in microbiota we found a significant increase of Firmicutes and a trending reduction of Proteobacteria. This study demonstrates that selected microbes can be used to modulate endogenous neuroactive molecules in zebrafish.

  20. Zebrafish Get Connected: Investigating Neurotransmission Targets and Alterations in Chemical Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Horzmann, Katharine A.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmission is the basis of neuronal communication and is critical for normal brain development, behavior, learning, and memory. Exposure to drugs and chemicals can alter neurotransmission, often through unknown pathways and mechanisms. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system is increasingly being used to study the brain and chemical neurotoxicity. In this review, the major neurotransmitter systems, including glutamate, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and glutamate are surveyed and pathways of synthesis, transport, metabolism, and action are examined. Differences between human and zebrafish neurochemical pathways are highlighted. We also review techniques for evaluating neurological function, including the measurement of neurotransmitter levels, assessment of gene expression through transcriptomic analysis, and the recording of neurobehavior. Finally examples of chemical toxicity studies evaluating alterations in neurotransmitter systems in the zebrafish model are reviewed. PMID:28730152

  1. Regulation of expression of transgenes in developing fish.

    PubMed

    Moav, B; Liu, Z; Caldovic, L D; Gross, M L; Faras, A J; Hackett, P B

    1993-05-01

    The transcriptional regulatory elements of the beta-actin gene of carp (Cyprinus carpio) have been examined in zebrafish and goldfish harbouring transgenes. The high sequence conservation of the putative regulatory elements in the beta-actin genes of animals suggested that their function would be conserved, so that transgenic constructs with the same transcriptional control elements would promote similar levels of transgene expression in different species of transgenic animals. To test this assumption, we analysed the temporal expression of a reporter gene under the control of transcriptional control sequences from the carp beta-actin gene in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) and goldfish (Carrasius auratus). Our results indicated that, contrary to expectations, combinations of different transcriptional control elements affected the level, duration, and onset of gene expression differently in developing zebrafish and goldfish. The major differences in expression of beta-actin/CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) constructs in zebrafish and goldfish were: (1) overall expression was almost 100-fold higher in goldfish than in zebrafish embryos, (2) the first intron had an enhancing effect on gene expression in zebrafish but not in goldfish, and (3) the serum-responsive/CArG-containing regulatory element in the proximal promoter was not always required for maximal CAT activity in goldfish, but was required in zebrafish. These results suggest that in the zebrafish, but not in the goldfish, there may be interactions between motifs in the proximal promoter and the first intron which appear to be required for maximal enhancement of transcription.

  2. Zebrafish Model Systems for Developmental Neurobehavioral Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jordan; Oliveri, Anthony; Levin, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish offer many advantages that complement classic mammalian models for the study of normal development as well as for the teratogenic effects of exposure to hazardous compounds. The clear chorion and embryo of the zebrafish allow for continuous visualization of the anatomical changes associated with development, which, along with short maturation times and the capability of complex behavior, makes this model particularly useful for measuring changes to the developing nervous system. Moreover, the rich array of developmental, behavioral, and molecular benefits offered by the zebrafish have contributed to an increasing demand for the use of zebrafish in behavioral teratology. Essential for this endeavor has been the development of a battery of tests to evaluate a spectrum of behavior in zebrafish. Measures of sensorimotor plasticity, emotional function, cognition and social interaction have been used to characterize the persisting adverse effects of developmental exposure to a variety of chemicals including therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse and environmental toxicants. In this review, we present and discuss such tests and data from a range of developmental neurobehavioral toxicology studies using zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish provide a key intermediate model between high throughput in vitro screens and the classic mammalian models as they have the accessibility of in vitro models and the complex functional capabilities of mammalian models. PMID:23723169

  3. The importance of Zebrafish in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Bárbara; Santos Lopes, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal model organism for the study of vertebrate development. This is due to the large clutches that each couple produces, with up to 200 embryos every 7 days, and to the fact that the embryos and larvae are small, transparent and undergo rapid external development. Using scientific literature research tools available online and the keywords Zebrafish, biomedical research, human disease, and drug screening, we reviewed original studies and reviews indexed in PubMed. In this review we summarized work conducted with this model for the advancement of our knowledge related to several human diseases. We also focused on the biomedical research being performed in Portugal with the zebrafish model. Powerful live imaging and genetic tools are currently available for zebrafish making it a valuable model in biomedical research. The combination of these properties with the optimization of automated systems for drug screening has transformed the zebrafish into "a top model" in biomedical research, drug discovery and toxicity testing. Furthermore, with the optimization of xenografts technology it will be possible to use zebrafish to aide in the choice of the best therapy for each patient. Zebrafish is an excellent model organism in biomedical research, drug development and in clinical therapy.

  4. Zebrafish model systems for developmental neurobehavioral toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jordan; Oliveri, Anthony; Levin, Edward D

    2013-03-01

    Zebrafish offer many advantages that complement classic mammalian models for the study of normal development as well as for the teratogenic effects of exposure to hazardous compounds. The clear chorion and embryo of the zebrafish allow for continuous visualization of the anatomical changes associated with development, which, along with short maturation times and the capability of complex behavior, makes this model particularly useful for measuring changes to the developing nervous system. Moreover, the rich array of developmental, behavioral, and molecular benefits offered by the zebrafish have contributed to an increasing demand for the use of zebrafish in behavioral teratology. Essential for this endeavor has been the development of a battery of tests to evaluate a spectrum of behavior in zebrafish. Measures of sensorimotor plasticity, emotional function, cognition and social interaction have been used to characterize the persisting adverse effects of developmental exposure to a variety of chemicals including therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse and environmental toxicants. In this review, we present and discuss such tests and data from a range of developmental neurobehavioral toxicology studies using zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish provide a key intermediate model between high throughput in vitro screens and the classic mammalian models as they have the accessibility of in vitro models and the complex functional capabilities of mammalian models. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 2017 Midwest Zebrafish Meeting Report.

    PubMed

    Sandquist, Elizabeth; Petersen, Sarah C; Smith, Cody J

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 Midwest Zebrafish meeting was held from June 16 to 18 at the University of Cincinnati, sponsored by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Divisions of Developmental Biology, Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, and Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. The meeting, organized by Saulius Sumanas, Joshua Waxman, and Chunyue Yin, hosted >130 attendees from 16 different states. Scientific sessions were focused on morphogenesis, neural development, novel technologies, and disease models, with Steve Ekker, Stephen Potter, and Lila Solnica-Krezel presenting keynote talks. In this article, we highlight the results and emerging themes from the meeting.

  6. Zebrafish as a Model for Epilepsy-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction: A Pharmacological, Biochemical and Behavioral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kundap, Uday P.; Kumari, Yatinesh; Othman, Iekhsan; Shaikh, Mohd. Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neuronal disorder allied with distinct neurological and behavioral alterations characterized by recurrent spontaneous epileptic seizures. Impairment of the cognitive performances such as learning and memory is frequently observed in epileptic patients. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are efficient to the majority of patients. However, 30% of this population seems to be refractory to the drug treatment. These patients are not seizure-free and frequently they show impaired cognitive functions. Unfortunately, as a side effect, some AEDs could contribute to such impairment. The major problem associated with conducting studies on epilepsy-related cognitive function is the lack of easy, rapid, specific and sensitive in vivo testing models. However, by using a number of different techniques and parameters in the zebrafish, we can incorporate the unique feature of specific disorder to study the molecular and behavior basis of this disease. In the view of current literature, the goal of the study was to develop a zebrafish model of epilepsy induced cognitive dysfunction. In this study, the effect of AEDs on locomotor activity and seizure-like behavior was tested against the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures in zebrafish and epilepsy associated cognitive dysfunction was determined using T-maze test followed by neurotransmitter estimation and gene expression analysis. It was observed that all the AEDs significantly reversed PTZ induced seizure in zebrafish, but had a negative impact on cognitive functions of zebrafish. AEDs were found to modulate neurotransmitter levels, especially GABA, glutamate, and acetylcholine and gene expression in the drug treated zebrafish brains. Therefore, combination of behavioral, neurochemical and genenetic information, makes this model a useful tool for future research and discovery of newer and safer AEDs. PMID:28824436

  7. Polysaccharides from astragali radix restore chemical-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Astragali Radix has been used widely for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and to enhance endurance and stamina in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for over 2000 years. The polysaccharide constituents of Astragali Radix (ARP) are considered as one of the major constituents contributing to the multiple pharmacological effects of this medicinal plant. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vascular regenerative activities of ARPs in a chemically-induced blood vessel loss model in zebrafish. Methods Blood vessel loss was induced in both Tg(fli-1a:EGFP)y1 and Tg(fli-1a:nEGFP)y7 embryos by administration of 300 nM VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) for 3 h at 24 hpf (hour post-fertilization). Then, the blood vessel damaged zebrafish were treated with ARPs for 21 h and 45 h after VRI withdrawal. Morphological changes in intersegmental vessels (ISVs) of zebrafish larvae were observed under the fluorescence microscope and measured quantitatively. The rescue effect of ARPs in the zebrafish models was validated by measuring the relative mRNA expressions of Kdrl, Kdr and Flt-1 using real-time PCR. Results Two polysaccharide fractions, P4 (50000 D < molecular weight & diameter < 0.1 μm) and P5 (molecular diameter > 0.1 μm), isolated from Astragali Radix by ultrafiltration, produced a significant and dose-dependent recovery in VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Flk-1 and Flt-1 mRNA expression induced by VRI was reversed by treatment with P4. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that P4 isolated from Astragali Radix reduces VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. These findings support the hypothesis that polysaccharides are one of the active constituents in Astragali Radix, contributing to its beneficial effect on treatment of diseases associated with a deficiency in angiogenesis. PMID:22357377

  8. Characterization of Na+ and Ca2+ Channels in Zebrafish Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Won, Yu-Jin; Ono, Fumihito; Ikeda, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) somata from rodents have provided an excellent model system to study ion channel properties and modulation using electrophysiological investigation. As in other vertebrates, zebrafish (Danio rerio) DRG are organized segmentally and possess peripheral axons that bifurcate into each body segment. However, the electrical properties of zebrafish DRG sensory neurons, as compared with their mammalian counterparts, are relatively unexplored because a preparation suitable for electrophysiological studies has not been available. Methodology/Principal Findings We show enzymatically dissociated DRG neurons from juvenile zebrafish expressing Isl2b-promoter driven EGFP were easily identified with fluorescence microscopy and amenable to conventional whole-cell patch-clamp studies. Two kinetically distinct TTX-sensitive Na+ currents (rapidly- and slowly-inactivating) were discovered. Rapidly-inactivating INa were preferentially expressed in relatively large neurons, while slowly-inactivating INa was more prevalent in smaller DRG neurons. RT-PCR analysis suggests zscn1aa/ab, zscn8aa/ab, zscn4ab and zscn5Laa are possible candidates for these INa components. Voltage-gated Ca2+ currents (ICa) were primarily (87%) comprised of a high-voltage activated component arising from ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive CaV2.2 (N-type) Ca2+ channels. A few DRG neurons (8%) displayed a miniscule low-voltage-activated component. ICa in zebrafish DRG neurons were modulated by neurotransmitters via either voltage-dependent or -independent G-protein signaling pathway with large cell-to-cell response variability. Conclusions/Significance Our present results indicate that, as in higher vertebrates, zebrafish DRG neurons are heterogeneous being composed of functionally distinct subpopulations that may correlate with different sensory modalities. These findings provide the first comparison of zebrafish and rodent DRG neuron electrical properties and thus provide a basis for

  9. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the bioavailability and neurotoxicity of cypermethrin in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Qiangwei; Xiang, Dandan; Zhu, Guonian

    2018-06-01

    In aquatic environment, the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) has been reported to modify the bioavailability and toxicity of the organic toxicants. Nevertheless, the combined toxicity of NPs and the pesticides that were used world-widely still remains unclear. Cypermethrin (CYP), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, is commonly used for controlling agricultural and indoor pests. Therefore, the effects of titanium dioxide NPs (nTiO 2 ) on CYP bioconcentration and its effects on the neuronal development in zebrafish were investigated in our study. Zebrafish embryos (2- hour-post-fertilization, hpf) were exposed to CYP (0, 0.4, 2 and 10 μg/L) alone or co-exposed with nTiO 2 (1 mg/L) until 120-hpf. nTiO 2 is taken up by zebrafish larvae and also it can adsorb CYP. The zebrafish body burdens of CYP was observed and CYP uptake was increased by nTiO 2 , indicating that the nTiO 2 could accelerate the bioaccumulation of CYP in larvae. Co-exposure of nTiO 2 and CYP induced the generation of reactive oxygen species. Exposure to CYP alone significantly decreased the mRNA expression of genes, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfap), α1-tubulin, myelin basic protein (mbp) and growth associated protein (gap-43). Besides, reductions of serotonin, dopamine and GABA concentrations were observed in zebrafish and the larval locomotion was significantly decreased in response to the lower level of the neurotransmitters. Moreover, co-exposure of nTiO 2 and CYP caused further significantly decreased in the locomotion activity, and enhanced the down-regulation of the mRNA expression of specific genes and the neurotransmitters levels. The results demonstrated that nTiO 2 increased CYP accumulation and enhanced CYP-induced developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hedgehog signaling is required at multiple stages of zebrafish tooth development.

    PubMed

    Jackman, William R; Yoo, James J; Stock, David W

    2010-11-30

    The accessibility of the developing zebrafish pharyngeal dentition makes it an advantageous system in which to study many aspects of tooth development from early initiation to late morphogenesis. In mammals, hedgehog signaling is known to be essential for multiple stages of odontogenesis; however, potential roles for the pathway during initiation of tooth development or in later morphogenesis are incompletely understood. We have identified mRNA expression of the hedgehog ligands shha and the receptors ptc1 and ptc2 during zebrafish pharyngeal tooth development. We looked for, but did not detect, tooth germ expression of the other known zebrafish hedgehog ligands shhb, dhh, ihha, or ihhb, suggesting that as in mammals, only Shh participates in zebrafish tooth development. Supporting this idea, we found that morphological and gene expression evidence of tooth initiation is eliminated in shha mutant embryos, and that morpholino antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of shha, but not shhb, function prevents mature tooth formation. Hedgehog pathway inhibition with the antagonist compound cyclopamine affected tooth formation at each stage in which we applied it: arresting development at early stages and disrupting mature tooth morphology when applied later. These results suggest that hedgehog signaling is required continuously during odontogenesis. In contrast, over-expression of shha had no effect on the developing dentition, possibly because shha is normally extensively expressed in the zebrafish pharyngeal region. We have identified previously unknown requirements for hedgehog signaling for early tooth initiation and later morphogenesis. The similarity of our results with data from mouse and other vertebrates suggests that despite gene duplication and changes in the location of where teeth form, the roles of hedgehog signaling in tooth development have been largely conserved during evolution.

  11. Sprouting Buds of Zebrafish Research in Malaysia: First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish is gaining prominence as an important vertebrate model for investigating various human diseases. Zebrafish provides unique advantages such as optical clarity of embryos, high fecundity rate, and low cost of maintenance, making it a perfect complement to the murine model equivalent in biomedical research. Due to these advantages, researchers in Malaysia are starting to take notice and incorporate the zebrafish model into their research activities. However, zebrafish research in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage and many researchers still remain unaware of the full potential of the zebrafish model or have limited access to related tools and techniques that are widely utilized in many zebrafish laboratories worldwide. To overcome this, we organized the First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop in Malaysia that took place on 11th and 12th of November 2015. In this workshop, we showcased how the zebrafish model is being utilized in the biomedical field in international settings as well as in Malaysia. For this, notable international speakers and those from local universities known to be carrying out impactful research using zebrafish were invited to share some of the cutting edge techniques that are used in their laboratories that may one day be incorporated in the Malaysian scientific community.

  12. Cytochrome P450 20A1 in zebrafish: Cloning, regulation and potential involvement in hyperactivity disorders

    SciT

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Kubota, Akira; O'Meara, Conor M.

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes for which there is no functional information are considered “orphan” CYPs. Previous studies showed that CYP20A1, an orphan, is expressed in human hippocampus and substantia nigra, and in zebrafish (Danio rerio) CYP20A1 maternal transcript occurs in eggs, suggesting involvement in brain and in early development. Moreover, hyperactivity is reported in humans with chromosome 2 microdeletions including CYP20A1. We examined CYP20A1 in zebrafish, including impacts of chemical exposure on expression. Zebrafish CYP20A1 cDNA was cloned, sequenced, and aligned with cloned human CYP20A1 and predicted vertebrate orthologs. CYP20A1s share a highly conserved N-terminal region and unusual sequences inmore » the I-helix and the heme-binding CYP signature motifs. CYP20A1 mRNA expression was observed in adult zebrafish organs including the liver, heart, gonads, spleen and brain, as well as the eye and optic nerve. Putative binding sites in proximal promoter regions of CYP20A1s, and response of zebrafish CYP20A1 to selected nuclear and xenobiotic receptor agonists, point to up-regulation by agents involved in steroid hormone response, cholesterol and lipid metabolism. There also was a dose-dependent reduction of CYP20A1 expression in embryos exposed to environmentally relevant levels of methylmercury. Morpholino knockdown of CYP20A1 in developing zebrafish resulted in behavioral effects, including hyperactivity and a slowing of the optomotor response in larvae. The results suggest that altered expression of CYP20A1 might be part of a mechanism linking methylmercury exposure to neurobehavioral deficits. The expanded information on CYP20A1 brings us closer to “deorphanization”, that is, identifying CYP20A1 functions and its roles in health and disease. - Highlights: • The “orphan” CYP20A1 was cloned from zebrafish and its sequence analyzed. • Knockdown of CYP20A1 reduced an optomotor response and elicited bursts of activity. • Effects

  13. Dynamic neuroanatomy at subcellular resolution in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Faucherre, Adèle; López-Schier, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    Genetic means to visualize and manipulate neuronal circuits in the intact animal have revolutionized neurobiology. "Dynamic neuroanatomy" defines a range of approaches aimed at quantifying the architecture or subcellular organization of neurons over time during their development, regeneration, or degeneration. A general feature of these approaches is their reliance on the optical isolation of defined neurons in toto by genetically expressing markers in one or few cells. Here we use the afferent neurons of the lateral line as an example to describe a simple method for the dynamic neuroanatomical study of axon terminals in the zebrafish by laser-scanning confocal microscopy.

  14. Automated measurement of zebrafish larval movement

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Clinton L; Farrell, Thomas C; Milanese, Chiara; Burton, Edward A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish is a powerful vertebrate model that is readily amenable to genetic, pharmacological and environmental manipulations to elucidate the molecular and cellular basis of movement and behaviour. We report software enabling automated analysis of zebrafish movement from video recordings captured with cameras ranging from a basic camcorder to more specialized equipment. The software, which is provided as open-source MATLAB functions, can be freely modified and distributed, and is compatible with multiwell plates under a wide range of experimental conditions. Automated measurement of zebrafish movement using this technique will be useful for multiple applications in neuroscience, pharmacology and neuropsychiatry. PMID:21646414

  15. Zebrafish tracking using convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiping; Cheng, Xi En

    2017-02-17

    Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans. This work will make further behaviour analysis more reliable.

  16. Automated measurement of zebrafish larval movement.

    PubMed

    Cario, Clinton L; Farrell, Thomas C; Milanese, Chiara; Burton, Edward A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish is a powerful vertebrate model that is readily amenable to genetic, pharmacological and environmental manipulations to elucidate the molecular and cellular basis of movement and behaviour. We report software enabling automated analysis of zebrafish movement from video recordings captured with cameras ranging from a basic camcorder to more specialized equipment. The software, which is provided as open-source MATLAB functions, can be freely modified and distributed, and is compatible with multiwell plates under a wide range of experimental conditions. Automated measurement of zebrafish movement using this technique will be useful for multiple applications in neuroscience, pharmacology and neuropsychiatry.

  17. Zebrafish tracking using convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiping; Cheng, Xi En

    2017-02-01

    Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans. This work will make further behaviour analysis more reliable.

  18. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  19. Systematic approaches to toxicology in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Randall T; Macrae, Calum A

    2012-01-01

    As the current paradigms of drug discovery evolve, it has become clear that a more comprehensive understanding of the interactions between small molecules and organismal biology will be vital. The zebrafish is emerging as a complement to existing in vitro technologies and established preclinical in vivo models that can be scaled for high-throughput. In this review, we highlight the current status of zebrafish toxicology studies, identify potential future niches for the model in the drug development pipeline, and define the hurdles that must be overcome as zebrafish technologies are refined for systematic toxicology.

  20. A review of monoaminergic neuropsychopharmacology in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Maximino, Caio; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2010-12-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters are the major regulatory mechanisms in the vertebrate brain, involved in the adjustment of motivation, emotion, and cognition. The chemical anatomy of these systems is thought to be highly conserved in the brain of all vertebrates, including zebrafish. Recently, the development of behavioral assays in zebrafish allowed the neuropsychopharmacological investigation of these circuits and its functions. Here we review neuroanatomical, genetic, neurochemical, and psychopharmacological evidence regarding the roles of histaminergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and melatonergic systems in this species. We conclude that, in spite of species differences, zebrafish are suitable for the investigation of neuropsychopharmacology of drugs that affect theses systems; nonetheless, more thorough validation of behavioral methods is still needed.

  1. Escherichia coli O78 isolated from septicemic lambs shows high pathogenicity in a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Kjelstrup, Cecilie K; Barber, Amelia E; Norton, J Paul; Mulvey, Matthew A; L'Abée-Lund, Trine M

    2017-01-25

    The pathogenicity of Escherichia coli O78 strain K46, originally isolated from an outbreak of septicemia in neonatal lambs, was investigated in zebrafish embryo and murine models of infection. Its biofilm potential, cellulose production, and the expression of type 1 pili and curli fimbriae were measured by in vitro assays. The strain was highly pathogenic in the zebrafish embryo model of infection, where it killed all embryos within 24 h post inoculation (hpi) at doses as low as 1000 colony forming units. Zebrafish embryos inoculated with similar doses of commensal E. coli strains showed no signs of disease, and cleared the bacteria within 24 h. E. coli K46 colonized the murine gut at the same level as the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) reference strain CFT073 in CBA/J mice after oral inoculation, but infected the murine bladder significantly less than CFT073 after transurethral inoculation. Type 1 pili were clearly expressed by E. coli K46, while curli fimbriae and cellulose production were weakly expressed. The ability to produce biofilm varied in different growth media, but overall E. coli K46 was a poorer biofilm producer compared to the reference strain E. coli UTI89. In conclusion, the zebrafish lethality model provides further evidence that E. coli K46 is highly pathogenic and might be useful in future studies to identify bacterial virulence factors.

  2. Histological and transcriptomic effects of 17α-methyltestosterone on zebrafish gonad development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephanie Ling Jie; Horsfield, Julia A; Black, Michael A; Rutherford, Kim; Fisher, Amanda; Gemmell, Neil J

    2017-07-24

    Sex hormones play important roles in teleost ovarian and testicular development. In zebrafish, ovarian differentiation appears to be dictated by an oocyte-derived signal via Cyp19a1a aromatase-mediated estrogen production. Androgens and aromatase inhibitors can induce female-to-male sex reversal, however, the mechanisms underlying gonadal masculinisation are poorly understood. We used histological analyses together with RNA sequencing to characterise zebrafish gonadal transcriptomes and investigate the effects of 17α-methyltestosterone on gonadal differentiation. At a morphological level, 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) masculinised gonads and accelerated spermatogenesis, and these changes were paralleled in masculinisation and de-feminisation of gonadal transcriptomes. MT treatment upregulated expression of genes involved in male sex determination and differentiation (amh, dmrt1, gsdf and wt1a) and those involved in 11-oxygenated androgen production (cyp11c1 and hsd11b2). It also repressed expression of ovarian development and folliculogenesis genes (bmp15, gdf9, figla, zp2.1 and zp3b). Furthermore, MT treatment altered epigenetic modification of histones in zebrafish gonads. Contrary to expectations, higher levels of cyp19a1a or foxl2 expression in control ovaries compared to MT-treated testes and control testes were not statistically significant during early gonad development (40 dpf). Our study suggests that both androgen production and aromatase inhibition are important for androgen-induced gonadal masculinisation and natural testicular differentiation in zebrafish.

  3. Transient receptor potential channel M5 and phospholipaseC-beta2 colocalizing in zebrafish taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuki; Saitoh, Kana; Aihara, Yoshiko; Okada, Shinji; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2007-10-08

    In mammals, transient receptor potential (TRP) channel M5 (TRPM5) is coexpressed with phospholipaseC-beta2 (PLC-beta2) in the taste receptor cells, and both PLC-beta2 and TRPM5 are essential elements in the signal transduction of sweet, bitter and umami stimuli. In this study, we identified the zebrafish homologue of TRPM5 (zfTRPM5) and examined its expression in the gustatory system by in-situ hybridization. Using a transgenic zebrafish line that expressed green fluorescent protein under the control of the PLC-beta2 promoter, we showed that zfTRPM5 is expressed in green fluorescent protein-labeled cells of the taste buds. These results demonstrate that zfTRPM5 and PLC-beta2 colocalize in zebrafish taste receptor cells, suggesting their crucial roles in taste signaling via the fish taste receptors.

  4. Distinct myocardial lineages break atrial symmetry during cardiogenesis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Oliver; Arnaout, Rima; Guenther, Stefan; Ahuja, Suchit; Uribe, Verónica; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Stainier, Didier YR

    2018-01-01

    The ultimate formation of a four-chambered heart allowing the separation of the pulmonary and systemic circuits was key for the evolutionary success of tetrapods. Complex processes of cell diversification and tissue morphogenesis allow the left and right cardiac compartments to become distinct but remain poorly understood. Here, we describe an unexpected laterality in the single zebrafish atrium analogous to that of the two atria in amniotes, including mammals. This laterality appears to derive from an embryonic antero-posterior asymmetry revealed by the expression of the transcription factor gene meis2b. In adult zebrafish hearts, meis2b expression is restricted to the left side of the atrium where it controls the expression of pitx2c, a regulator of left atrial identity in mammals. Altogether, our studies suggest that the multi-chambered atrium in amniotes arose from a molecular blueprint present before the evolutionary emergence of cardiac septation and provide insights into the establishment of atrial asymmetry. PMID:29762122

  5. MANF regulates dopaminergic neuron development in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-C; Sundvik, M; Rozov, S; Priyadarshini, M; Panula, P

    2012-10-15

    Mesencephalic astrocyte derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is recognized as a dopaminergic neurotrophic factor, which can protect dopaminergic neurons from neurotoxic damage. However, little is known about the function of MANF during the vertebrate development. Here, we report that MANF expression is widespread during embryonic development and in adult organs analyzed by qPCR and in situ hybridization in zebrafish. Knockdown of MANF expression with antisense splice-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in no apparent abnormal phenotype. Nevertheless, the dopamine level of MANF morphants was lower than that of the wild type larvae, the expression levels of the two tyrosine hydroxylase gene transcripts were decreased and a decrease in neuron number in certain groups of th1 and th2 cells in the diencephalon region in MANF morphants was observed. These defects were rescued by injection of exogenous manf mRNA. Strikingly, manf mRNA could partly restore the decrease of th1 positive cells in Nr4a2-deficient larvae. These results suggest that MANF is involved in the regulation of the development of dopaminergic system in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental defects in zebrafish for classification of EGF pathway inhibitors

    SciT

    Pruvot, Benoist; Curé, Yoann; Djiotsa, Joachim

    2014-01-15

    One of the major challenges when testing drug candidates targeted at a specific pathway in whole animals is the discrimination between specific effects and unwanted, off-target effects. Here we used the zebrafish to define several developmental defects caused by impairment of Egf signaling, a major pathway of interest in tumor biology. We inactivated Egf signaling by genetically blocking Egf expression or using specific inhibitors of the Egf receptor function. We show that the combined occurrence of defects in cartilage formation, disturbance of blood flow in the trunk and a decrease of myelin basic protein expression represent good indicators for impairmentmore » of Egf signaling. Finally, we present a classification of known tyrosine kinase inhibitors according to their specificity for the Egf pathway. In conclusion, we show that developmental indicators can help to discriminate between specific effects on the target pathway from off-target effects in molecularly targeted drug screening experiments in whole animal systems. - Highlights: • We analyze the functions of Egf signaling on zebrafish development. • Genetic blocking of Egf expression causes cartilage, myelin and circulatory defects. • Chemical inhibition of Egf receptor function causes similar defects. • Developmental defects can reveal the specificity of Egf pathway inhibitors.« less

  7. Transgenic Zebrafish Reveal Tissue-Specific Differences in Estrogen Signaling in Response to Environmental Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves. Citation: Gorelick DA, Iwanowicz LR, Hung AL, Blazer VS, Halpern ME. 2014. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to

  8. Optogenetic Activation of Zebrafish Somatosensory Neurons using ChEF-tdTomato

    PubMed Central

    Palanca, Ana Marie S.; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish are emerging as a model for describing the development and function of simple neural circuits. Due to their external fertilization, rapid development, and translucency, zebrafish are particularly well suited for optogenetic approaches to investigate neural circuit function. In this approach, light-sensitive ion channels are expressed in specific neurons, enabling the experimenter to activate or inhibit them at will and thus assess their contribution to specific behaviors. Applying these methods in larval zebrafish is conceptually simple but requires the optimization of technical details. Here we demonstrate a procedure for expressing a channelrhodopsin variant in larval zebrafish somatosensory neurons, photo-activating single cells, and recording the resulting behaviors. By introducing a few modifications to previously established methods, this approach could be used to elicit behavioral responses from single neurons activated up to at least 4 days post-fertilization (dpf). Specifically, we created a transgene using a somatosensory neuron enhancer, CREST3, to drive the expression of the tagged channelrhodopsin variant, ChEF-tdTomato. Injecting this transgene into 1-cell stage embryos results in mosaic expression in somatosensory neurons, which can be imaged with confocal microscopy. Illuminating identified cells in these animals with light from a 473 nm DPSS laser, guided through a fiber optic cable, elicits behaviors that can be recorded with a high-speed video camera and analyzed quantitatively. This technique could be adapted to study behaviors elicited by activating any zebrafish neuron. Combining this approach with genetic or pharmacological perturbations will be a powerful way to investigate circuit formation and function. PMID:23407374

  9. Gli function is essential for motor neuron induction in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Vanderlaan, Gary; Tyurina, Oksana V; Karlstrom, Rolf O; Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2005-06-15

    The Gli family of zinc-finger transcription factors mediates Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in all vertebrates. However, their roles in ventral neural tube patterning, in particular motor neuron induction, appear to have diverged across species. For instance, cranial motor neurons are essentially lost in zebrafish detour (gli1(-)) mutants, whereas motor neuron development is unaffected in mouse single gli and some double gli knockouts. Interestingly, the expression of some Hh-regulated genes (ptc