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Sample records for zebrafish skeletal muscle

  1. In vivo myosin step-size from zebrafish skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ajtai, Katalin; Sun, Xiaojing; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Muscle myosins transduce ATP free energy into actin displacement to power contraction. In vivo, myosin side chains are modified post-translationally under native conditions, potentially impacting function. Single myosin detection provides the ‘bottom-up’ myosin characterization probing basic mechanisms without ambiguities inherent to ensemble observation. Macroscopic muscle physiological experimentation provides the definitive ‘top-down’ phenotype characterizations that are the concerns in translational medicine. In vivo single myosin detection in muscle from zebrafish embryo models for human muscle fulfils ambitions for both bottom-up and top-down experimentation. A photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in transgenic zebrafish skeletal muscle specifically modifies the myosin lever-arm. Strychnine induces the simultaneous contraction of the bilateral tail muscles in a live embryo, causing them to be isometric while active. Highly inclined thin illumination excites the GFP tag of single lever-arms and its super-resolution orientation is measured from an active isometric muscle over a time sequence covering many transduction cycles. Consecutive frame lever-arm angular displacement converts to step-size by its product with the estimated lever-arm length. About 17% of the active myosin steps that fall between 2 and 7 nm are implicated as powerstrokes because they are beyond displacements detected from either relaxed or ATP-depleted (rigor) muscle. PMID:27249818

  2. Skeletal muscle regeneration in Xenopus tadpoles and zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mammals are not able to restore lost appendages, while many amphibians are. One important question about epimorphic regeneration is related to the origin of the new tissues and whether they come from mature cells via dedifferentiation and/or from stem cells. Several studies in urodele amphibians (salamanders) indicate that, after limb or tail amputation, the multinucleated muscle fibres do dedifferentiate by fragmentation and proliferation, thereby contributing to the regenerate. In Xenopus laevis tadpoles, however, it was shown that muscle fibres do not contribute directly to the tail regenerate. We set out to study whether dedifferentiation was present during muscle regeneration of the tadpole limb and zebrafish larval tail, mainly by cell tracing and histological observations. Results Cell tracing and histological observations indicate that zebrafish tail muscle do not dedifferentiate during regeneration. Technical limitations did not allow us to trace tadpole limb cells, nevertheless we observed no signs of dedifferentiation histologically. However, ultrastructural and gene expression analysis of regenerating muscle in tadpole tail revealed an unexpected dedifferentiation phenotype. Further histological studies showed that dedifferentiating tail fibres did not enter the cell cycle and in vivo cell tracing revealed no evidences of muscle fibre fragmentation. In addition, our results indicate that this incomplete dedifferentiation was initiated by the retraction of muscle fibres. Conclusions Our results show that complete skeletal muscle dedifferentiation is less common than expected in lower vertebrates. In addition, the discovery of incomplete dedifferentiation in muscle fibres of the tadpole tail stresses the importance of coupling histological studies with in vivo cell tracing experiments to better understand the regenerative mechanisms. PMID:22369050

  3. Satellite-like cells contribute to pax7-dependent skeletal muscle repair in adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Berberoglu, Michael A.; Gallagher, Thomas L.; Morrow, Zachary T.; Talbot, Jared C.; Hromowyk, Kimberly J.; Tenente, Inês M.; Langenau, David M.; Amacher, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Satellite cells, also known as muscle stem cells, are responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair in mammals. Pax7 and Pax3 transcription factors are established satellite cell markers required for muscle development and regeneration, and there is great interest in identifying additional factors that regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and/or skeletal muscle regeneration. Due to the powerful regenerative capacity of many zebrafish tissues, even in adults, we are exploring the regenerative potential of adult zebrafish skeletal muscle. Here, we show that adult zebrafish skeletal muscle contains cells similar to mammalian satellite cells. Adult zebrafish satellite-like cells have dense heterochromatin, express Pax7 and Pax3, proliferate in response to injury, and show peak myogenic responses 4–5 days post-injury (dpi). Furthermore, using a pax7a-driven GFP reporter, we present evidence implicating satellite-like cells as a possible source of new muscle. In lieu of central nucleation, which distinguishes regenerating myofibers in mammals, we describe several characteristics that robustly identify newly-forming myofibers from surrounding fibers in injured adult zebrafish muscle. These characteristics include partially overlapping expression in satellite cells and regenerating myofibers of two RNA-binding proteins Rbfox2 and Rbfoxl1, known to regulate embryonic muscle development and function. Finally, by analyzing pax7a; pax7b double mutant zebrafish, we show that Pax7 is required for adult skeletal muscle repair, as it is in the mouse. PMID:28279710

  4. Extraction Protocols for Individual Zebrafish's Ventricle Myosin and Skeletal Muscle Actin for In vitro Motility Assays

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Lisa-Mareike; Weber, Cornelia; Bopp, Nasrin; Mosqueira, Matias; Fink, Rainer H. A.

    2017-01-01

    The in vitro motility assay (IVMA) is a technique that enables the measurement of the interaction between actin and myosin providing a relatively simple model to understand the mechanical muscle function. For actin-myosin IVMA, myosin is immobilized in a measurement chamber, where it converts chemical energy provided by ATP hydrolysis into mechanical energy. The result is the movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments that can be recorded microscopically and analyzed quantitatively. Resulting sliding speeds and patterns help to characterize the underlying actin-myosin interaction that can be affected by different factors such as mutations or active compounds. Additionally, modulatory actions of the regulatory proteins tropomyosin and troponin in the presence of calcium on actin-myosin interaction can be studied with the IVMA. Zebrafish is considered a suitable model organism for cardiovascular and skeletal muscle research. In this context, straightforward protocols for the isolation and use of zebrafish muscle proteins in the IVMA would provide a useful tool in molecular studies. Currently, there are no protocols available for the mentioned purpose. Therefore, we developed fast and easy protocols for characterization of zebrafish proteins in the IVMA. Our protocols enable the interested researcher to (i) isolate actin from zebrafish skeletal muscle and (ii) extract functionally intact myosin from cardiac and skeletal muscle of individual adult zebrafish. Zebrafish tail muscle actin is isolated after acetone powder preparation, polymerized, and labeled with Rhodamine-Phalloidin. Myosin from ventricles of adult zebrafish is extracted directly into IVMA flow-cells. The same extraction protocol is applicable for comparably small tissue pieces as from zebrafish tail, mouse and frog muscle. After addition of the fluorescently labeled F-actin from zebrafish—or other origin—and ATP, sliding movement can be visualized using a fluorescence microscope and an

  5. Influenza A Virus Infection Damages Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle and Exacerbates Disease in Zebrafish Modeling Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goody, Michelle; Jurczyszak, Denise; Kim, Carol; Henry, Clarissa

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Both genetic and infectious diseases can result in skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, pain, and/or weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common congenital muscle disease. DMD causes progressive muscle wasting due to mutations in Dystrophin. Influenza A and B viruses are frequently associated with muscle complications, especially in children. Infections activate an immune response and immunosuppressant drugs reduce DMD symptoms. These data suggest that the immune system may contribute to muscle pathology. However, roles of the immune response in DMD and Influenza muscle complications are not well understood. Zebrafish with dmd mutations are a well-characterized model in which to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of DMD pathology. We recently showed that zebrafish can be infected by human Influenza A virus (IAV). Thus, the zebrafish is a powerful system with which to ask questions about the etiology and mechanisms of muscle damage due to genetic and/or infectious diseases. METHODS: We infected zebrafish with IAV and assayed muscle tissue structure, sarcolemma integrity, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment, and molecular and cellular markers of inflammation in response to IAV infection alone or in the context of DMD. RESULTS: We find that IAV-infected zebrafish display mild muscle degeneration with sarcolemma damage and compromised ECM adhesion. An innate immune response is elicited in muscle in IAV-infected zebrafish: NFkB signaling is activated, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is upregulated, and neutrophils localize to sites of muscle damage. IAV-infected dmd mutants display more severe muscle damage than would be expected from an additive effect of dmd mutation and IAV infection, suggesting that muscle damage caused by Dystrophin-deficiency and IAV infection is synergistic. DISCUSSION: These data demonstrate the importance of preventing IAV infections in individuals with genetic muscle diseases

  6. Influenza A Virus Infection Damages Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle and Exacerbates Disease in Zebrafish Modeling Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Goody, Michelle; Jurczyszak, Denise; Kim, Carol; Henry, Clarissa

    2017-10-25

    Both genetic and infectious diseases can result in skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, pain, and/or weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common congenital muscle disease. DMD causes progressive muscle wasting due to mutations in Dystrophin. Influenza A and B viruses are frequently associated with muscle complications, especially in children. Infections activate an immune response and immunosuppressant drugs reduce DMD symptoms. These data suggest that the immune system may contribute to muscle pathology. However, roles of the immune response in DMD and Influenza muscle complications are not well understood. Zebrafish with dmd mutations are a well-characterized model in which to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of DMD pathology. We recently showed that zebrafish can be infected by human Influenza A virus (IAV). Thus, the zebrafish is a powerful system with which to ask questions about the etiology and mechanisms of muscle damage due to genetic and/or infectious diseases. We infected zebrafish with IAV and assayed muscle tissue structure, sarcolemma integrity, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment, and molecular and cellular markers of inflammation in response to IAV infection alone or in the context of DMD. We find that IAV-infected zebrafish display mild muscle degeneration with sarcolemma damage and compromised ECM adhesion. An innate immune response is elicited in muscle in IAV-infected zebrafish: NFkB signaling is activated, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is upregulated, and neutrophils localize to sites of muscle damage. IAV-infected dmd mutants display more severe muscle damage than would be expected from an additive effect of dmd mutation and IAV infection, suggesting that muscle damage caused by Dystrophin-deficiency and IAV infection is synergistic. These data demonstrate the importance of preventing IAV infections in individuals with genetic muscle diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms of immune

  7. Cavin4b/Murcb Is Required for Skeletal Muscle Development and Function in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Housley, Michael P; Njaine, Brian; Ricciardi, Filomena; Stone, Oliver A; Hölper, Soraya; Krüger, Marcus; Kostin, Sawa; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal muscles provide metazoans with the ability to feed, reproduce and avoid predators. In humans, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, termed muscular dystrophies (MD), lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Mutations in the gene encoding Caveolin-3, a principal component of the membrane micro-domains known as caveolae, cause defects in muscle maintenance and function; however it remains unclear how caveolae dysfunction underlies MD pathology. The Cavin family of caveolar proteins can form membrane remodeling oligomers and thus may also impact skeletal muscle function. Changes in the distribution and function of Cavin4/Murc, which is predominantly expressed in striated muscles, have been reported to alter caveolae structure through interaction with Caveolin-3. Here, we report the generation and phenotypic analysis of murcb mutant zebrafish, which display impaired swimming capacity, skeletal muscle fibrosis and T-tubule abnormalities during development. To understand the mechanistic importance of Murc loss of function, we assessed Caveolin-1 and 3 localization and found it to be abnormal. We further identified an in vivo function for Murc in Erk signaling. These data link Murc with developmental defects in T-tubule formation and progressive muscle dysfunction, thereby providing a new candidate for the etiology of muscular dystrophy.

  8. Cavin4b/Murcb Is Required for Skeletal Muscle Development and Function in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Housley, Michael P.; Njaine, Brian; Ricciardi, Filomena; Stone, Oliver A.; Hölper, Soraya; Krüger, Marcus; Kostin, Sawa; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscles provide metazoans with the ability to feed, reproduce and avoid predators. In humans, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, termed muscular dystrophies (MD), lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Mutations in the gene encoding Caveolin-3, a principal component of the membrane micro-domains known as caveolae, cause defects in muscle maintenance and function; however it remains unclear how caveolae dysfunction underlies MD pathology. The Cavin family of caveolar proteins can form membrane remodeling oligomers and thus may also impact skeletal muscle function. Changes in the distribution and function of Cavin4/Murc, which is predominantly expressed in striated muscles, have been reported to alter caveolae structure through interaction with Caveolin-3. Here, we report the generation and phenotypic analysis of murcb mutant zebrafish, which display impaired swimming capacity, skeletal muscle fibrosis and T-tubule abnormalities during development. To understand the mechanistic importance of Murc loss of function, we assessed Caveolin-1 and 3 localization and found it to be abnormal. We further identified an in vivo function for Murc in Erk signaling. These data link Murc with developmental defects in T-tubule formation and progressive muscle dysfunction, thereby providing a new candidate for the etiology of muscular dystrophy. PMID:27294373

  9. Ferulic Acid Promotes Hypertrophic Growth of Fast Skeletal Muscle in Zebrafish Model.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ya; Ushio, Hideki

    2017-09-26

    As a widely distributed and natural existing antioxidant, ferulic acid and its functions have been extensively studied in recent decades. In the present study, hypertrophic growth of fast skeletal myofibers was observed in adult zebrafish after ferulic acid administration for 30 days, being reflected in increased body weight, body mass index (BMI), and muscle mass, along with an enlarged cross-sectional area of myofibers. qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated the up-regulation of relative mRNA expression levels of myogenic transcriptional factors (MyoD, myogenin and serum response factor (SRF)) and their target genes encoding sarcomeric unit proteins involved in muscular hypertrophy (skeletal alpha-actin, myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, and troponin I). Western blot analyses detected a higher phosphorylated level of zTOR (zebrafish target of rapamycin), p70S6K, and 4E-BP1, which suggests an enhanced translation efficiency and protein synthesis capacity of fast skeletal muscle myofibers. These changes in transcription and translation finally converge and lead to higher protein contents in myofibers, as confirmed by elevated levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC), and an increased muscle mass. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have been reported for the first time in vivo and suggest potential applications of ferulic acid as functional food additives and dietary supplements owing to its ability to promote muscle growth.

  10. Knockdown of desmin in zebrafish larvae affects interfilament spacing and mechanical properties of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Andersson-Lendahl, Monika; Sejersen, Thomas; Arner, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Skeletal muscle was examined in zebrafish larvae in order to address questions related to the function of the intermediate filament protein desmin and its role in the pathogenesis of human desminopathy. A novel approach including mechanical and structural studies of 4-6-d-old larvae was applied. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides were used to knock down desmin. Expression was assessed using messenger RNA and protein analyses. Histology and synchrotron light-based small angle x-ray diffraction were applied. Functional properties were analyzed with in vivo studies of swimming behavior and with in vitro mechanical examinations of muscle. The two desmin genes normally expressed in zebrafish could be knocked down by ~50%. This resulted in a phenotype with disorganized muscles with altered attachments to the myosepta. The knockdown larvae were smaller and had diminished swimming activity. Active tension was lowered and muscles were less vulnerable to acute stretch-induced injury. X-ray diffraction revealed wider interfilament spacing. In conclusion, desmin intermediate filaments are required for normal active force generation and affect vulnerability during eccentric work. This is related to the role of desmin in anchoring sarcomeres for optimal force transmission. The results also show that a partial lack of desmin, without protein aggregates, is sufficient to cause muscle pathology resembling that in human desminopathy.

  11. Determination of the source of SHG verniers in zebrafish skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, William P.; Hodas, Nathan O.; Ponti, Aaron; Pantazis, Periklis

    2015-12-01

    SHG microscopy is an emerging microscopic technique for medically relevant imaging because certain endogenous proteins, such as muscle myosin lattices within muscle cells, are sufficiently spatially ordered to generate detectable SHG without the use of any fluorescent dye. Given that SHG signal is sensitive to the structural state of muscle sarcomeres, SHG functional imaging can give insight into the integrity of muscle cells in vivo. Here, we report a thorough theoretical and experimental characterization of myosin-derived SHG intensity profiles within intact zebrafish skeletal muscle. We determined that “SHG vernier” patterns, regions of bifurcated SHG intensity, are illusory when sarcomeres are staggered with respect to one another. These optical artifacts arise due to the phase coherence of SHG signal generation and the Guoy phase shift of the laser at the focus. In contrast, two-photon excited fluorescence images obtained from fluorescently labeled sarcomeric components do not contain such illusory structures, regardless of the orientation of adjacent myofibers. Based on our results, we assert that complex optical artifacts such as SHG verniers should be taken into account when applying functional SHG imaging as a diagnostic readout for pathological muscle conditions.

  12. In Vivo Orientation of Single Myosin Lever Arms in Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojing; Ekker, Stephen C.; Shelden, Eric A.; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal myosin assembled in the muscle lattice power contraction by transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin catalytic/lever-arm domains comprise the transduction/mechanical coupling machinery that move actin by lever-arm rotation. In vivo, myosin is crowded and constrained by the fiber lattice as side chains are mutated and otherwise modified under normal, diseased, or aging conditions that collectively define the native myosin environment. Single-myosin detection uniquely defines bottom-up characterization of myosin functionality. The marriage of in vivo and single-myosin detection to study zebrafish embryo models of human muscle disease is a multiscaled technology that allows one-to-one registration of a selected myosin molecular alteration with muscle filament-sarcomere-cell-fiber-tissue-organ- and organism level phenotypes. In vivo single-myosin lever-arm orientation was observed at superresolution using a photoactivatable-green-fluorescent-protein (PAGFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in zebrafish skeletal muscle. By simultaneous observation of multiphoton excitation fluorescence emission and second harmonic generation from myosin, we demonstrated tag specificity for the lever arm. Single-molecule detection used highly inclined parallel beam illumination and was verified by quantized photoactivation and photobleaching. Single-molecule emission patterns from relaxed muscle in vivo provided extensive superresolved dipole orientation constraints that were modeled using docking scenarios generated for the myosin (S1) and GFP crystal structures. The dipole orientation data provided sufficient constraints to estimate S1/GFP coordination. The S1/GFP coordination in vivo is rigid and the lever-arm orientation distribution is well-ordered in relaxed muscle. For comparison, single myosins in relaxed permeabilized porcine papillary muscle fibers indicated slightly differently oriented lever arms and rigid S1

  13. Smad4 is required for the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Junnai; Zeng, Zhen; Qiao, Long; Zhuang, Liang; Jiang, Lijun; Wei, Juncheng; Ma, Quanfu; Wu, Mingfu; Ye, Shuangmei; Gao, Qinglei; Ma, Ding; Huang, Xiaoyuan

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates cellular functions and plays key roles in development and carcinogenesis. Smad4 is the central intracellular mediator of TGF-beta signaling and plays crucial roles in tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, embryonic development, regulation of the immune system and tumor progression. To clarify the role of smad4 in development, we examined both the pattern of smad4 expression in zebrafish embryos and the effect of smad4 suppression on embryonic development using smad4-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides. We show that smad4 is expressed in zebrafish embryos at all developmental stages examined and that embryonic knockdown of smad4 results in pericardial edema, decreased heartbeat and defects in the trunk structure. Additionally, these phenotypes were associated with abnormal expression of the two heart-chamber markers, cmlc2 and vmhc, as well as abnormal expression of three makers of myogenic terminal differentiation, mylz2, smyhc1 and mck. Furthermore, a notable increase in apoptosis was apparent in the smad4 knockdown embryos, while no obvious reduction in cell proliferation was observed. Collectively, these data suggest that smad4 plays an important role in heart and skeletal muscle development. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  15. Circadian expression of clock and putative clock-controlled genes in skeletal muscle of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ian P G; Johnston, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    To identify circadian patterns of gene expression in skeletal muscle, adult male zebrafish were acclimated for 2 wk to a 12:12-h light-dark photoperiod and then exposed to continuous darkness for 86 h with ad libitum feeding. The increase in gut food content associated with the subjective light period was much diminished by the third cycle, enabling feeding and circadian rhythms to be distinguished. Expression of zebrafish paralogs of mammalian transcriptional activators of the circadian mechanism (bmal1, clock1, and rora) followed a rhythmic pattern with a ∼24-h periodicity. Peak expression of rora paralogs occurred at the beginning of the subjective light period [Zeitgeber time (ZT)07 and ZT02 for roraa and rorab], whereas the highest expression of bmal1 and clock paralogs occurred 12 h later (ZT13-15 and ZT16 for bmal and clock paralogs). Expression of the transcriptional repressors cry1a, per1a/1b, per2, per3, nr1d2a/2b, and nr1d1 also followed a circadian pattern with peak expression at ZT0-02. Expression of the two paralogs of cry2 occurred in phase with clock1a/1b. Duplicated genes had a high correlation of expression except for paralogs of clock1, nr1d2, and per1, with cry1b showing no circadian pattern. The highest expression difference was 9.2-fold for the activator bmal1b and 51.7-fold for the repressor per1a. Out of 32 candidate clock-controlled genes, only myf6, igfbp3, igfbp5b, and hsf2 showed circadian expression patterns. Igfbp3, igfbp5b, and myf6 were expressed in phase with clock1a/1b and had an average of twofold change in expression from peak to trough, whereas hsf2 transcripts were expressed in phase with cry1a and had a 7.2-fold-change in expression. The changes in expression of clock and clock-controlled genes observed during continuous darkness were also observed at similar ZTs in fish exposed to a normal photoperiod in a separate control experiment. The role of circadian clocks in regulating muscle maintenance and growth are discussed.

  16. The Popeye domain containing 2 (popdc2) gene in zebrafish is required for heart and skeletal muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Kirchmaier, Bettina C.; Poon, Kar Lai; Schwerte, Thorsten; Huisken, Jan; Winkler, Christoph; Jungblut, Benno; Stainier, Didier Y.; Brand, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode a family of transmembrane proteins with an evolutionary conserved Popeye domain. These genes are abundantly expressed in striated muscle tissue, however their function is not well understood. In this study we have investigated the role of the popdc2 gene in zebrafish. Popdc2 transcripts were detected in the embryonic myocardium and transiently in the craniofacial and tail musculature. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of popdc2 resulted in aberrant development of skeletal muscle and heart. Muscle segments in the trunk were irregularly shaped and craniofacial muscles were severely reduced or even missing. In the heart, pericardial edema was prevalent in the morphants and heart chambers were elongated and looping was abnormal. These pathologies in muscle and heart were alleviated after reducing the morpholino concentration. However the heart still was abnormal displaying cardiac arrhythmia at later stages of development. Optical recordings of cardiac contractility revealed irregular ventricular contractions with a 2:1, or 3:1 atrial/ventricular conduction ratio, which caused a significant reduction in heart frequency. Recordings of calcium transients with high spatiotemporal resolution using a transgenic calcium indicator line (Tg(cmlc2:gCaMP)s878) and SPIM microscopy confirmed the presence of a severe arrhythmia phenotype. Our results identify popdc2 as a gene important for striated muscle differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis. In addition it is required for the development of the cardiac conduction system. PMID:22290329

  17. Gne depletion during zebrafish development impairs skeletal muscle structure and function.

    PubMed

    Daya, Alon; Vatine, Gad David; Becker-Cohen, Michal; Tal-Goldberg, Tzukit; Friedmann, Adam; Gothilf, Yoav; Du, Shao Jun; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, Stella

    2014-07-01

    GNE Myopathy is a rare recessively inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the GNE gene, which codes for the key enzyme in the metabolic pathway of sialic acid synthesis. The process by which GNE mutations lead to myopathy is not well understood. By in situ hybridization and gne promoter-driven fluorescent transgenic fish generation, we have characterized the spatiotemporal expression pattern of the zebrafish gne gene and have shown that it is highly conserved compared with the human ortholog. We also show the deposition of maternal gne mRNA and maternal GNE protein at the earliest embryonic stage, emphasizing the critical role of gne in embryonic development. Injection of morpholino (MO)-modified antisense oligonucleotides specifically designed to knockdown gne, into one-cell embryos lead to a variety of phenotypic severity. Characterization of the gne knockdown morphants showed a significantly reduced locomotor activity as well as distorted muscle integrity, including a reduction in the number of muscle myofibers, even in mild or intermediate phenotype morphants. These findings were further confirmed by electron microscopy studies, where large gaps between sarcolemmas were visualized, although normal sarcomeric structures were maintained. These results demonstrate a critical novel role for gne in embryonic development and particularly in myofiber development, muscle integrity and activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Sema4d is required for the development of the hindbrain boundary and skeletal muscle in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jie; Zeng, Zhen; Wei, Juncheng

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: ► Sema4d was expressed at all developmental stages of zebrafish. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos resulted in defects in the hindbrain and the trunk structure. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos upregulated the expression of three hindbrain rhombomere markers. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos increased the expression of myogenic regulatory factors. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos resulted in an obvious increase of cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: Semaphorin4d (SEMA4D), also known as CD100, an oligodendrocyte secreted R-Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), affecting axonal growth is involved in a range of processes including cell adhesion, motility, angiogenesis, immune responsesmore » and tumour progression. However, its actual physiological mechanisms and its role in development remain unclear. This study has focused on the role of sema4d in the development and expression patterns in zebrafish embryos and the effect of its suppression on development using sema4d-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides. In this study the knockdown of sema4d, expressed at all developmental stages, lead to defects in the hindbrain and trunk structure of zebrafish embryos. In addition, these phenotypes appeared to be associated with the abnormal expression of three hindbrain rhombomere boundary markers, wnt1, epha4a and foxb1.2, and two myogenic regulatory factors, myod and myog. Further, a notable increase of cell apoptosis appeared in the sema4d knockdown embryos, while no obvious reduction in cell proliferation was observed. Collectively, these data suggest that sema4d plays an important role in the development of the hindbrain and skeletal muscle.« less

  19. Ethanol Exposure Causes Muscle Degeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Elizabeth C.; Pasquarella, Maggie E.; Goody, Michelle F.

    2018-01-01

    Alcoholic myopathies are characterized by neuromusculoskeletal symptoms such as compromised movement and weakness. Although these symptoms have been attributed to neurological damage, EtOH may also target skeletal muscle. EtOH exposure during zebrafish primary muscle development or adulthood results in smaller muscle fibers. However, the effects of EtOH exposure on skeletal muscle during the growth period that follows primary muscle development are not well understood. We determined the effects of EtOH exposure on muscle during this phase of development. Strikingly, muscle fibers at this stage are acutely sensitive to EtOH treatment: EtOH induces muscle degeneration. The severity of EtOH-induced muscle damage varies but muscle becomes more refractory to EtOH as muscle develops. NF-kB induction in muscle indicates that EtOH triggers a pro-inflammatory response. EtOH-induced muscle damage is p53-independent. Uptake of Evans blue dye shows that EtOH treatment causes sarcolemmal instability before muscle fiber detachment. Dystrophin-null sapje mutant zebrafish also exhibit sarcolemmal instability. We tested whether Trichostatin A (TSA), which reduces muscle degeneration in sapje mutants, would affect EtOH-treated zebrafish. We found that TSA and EtOH are a lethal combination. EtOH does, however, exacerbate muscle degeneration in sapje mutants. EtOH also disrupts adhesion of muscle fibers to their extracellular matrix at the myotendinous junction: some detached muscle fibers retain beta-Dystroglycan indicating failure of muscle end attachments. Overexpression of Paxillin, which reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish deficient for beta-Dystroglycan, is not sufficient to rescue degeneration. Taken together, our results suggest that EtOH exposure has pleiotropic deleterious effects on skeletal muscle. PMID:29615556

  20. Effects of Double Transgenesis of Somatotrophic Axis (GH/GHR) on Skeletal Muscle Growth of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Cecilia Gomes; Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Nornberg, Bruna Felix; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Romano, Luis Alberto; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic fish for growth hormone (GH) has been considered as a potential technological improvement in aquaculture. In this study, a double-transgenic zebrafish was used to evaluate the effect of GH and its receptor (GHR) on muscle growth. Double transgenics reached the same length of GH transgenic, but with significantly less weight, featuring an unbalanced growth. The condition factor of GH/GHR-transgenic fish was lower than the other genotypes. Histological analysis showed a decrease in the percentage of thick muscle fibers in GH/GHR genotype of ∼ 80% in comparison to GH-transgenic line. The analysis of gene expression showed a significant decrease in genes related to muscle growth in GH/GHR genotype. It seems that concomitant overexpression of GH and GHR resulted in a strong decrease of the somatotrophic axis intracellular signaling by diminishing its principal transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5.1 (STAT5.1).

  1. Using Transgenic Zebrafish to Study Muscle Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong D; Currie, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Understanding muscle stem cell behaviors can potentially provide insights into how these cells act and respond during normal growth and diseased contexts. The zebrafish is an ideal model organism to examine these behaviors in vivo where it would normally be technically challenging in other mammalian models. This chapter will describe the procedures required to successfully conduct live imaging of zebrafish transgenics that has specifically been adapted for skeletal muscle.

  2. Mechanoprotection by skeletal muscle caveolae.

    PubMed

    Lo, Harriet P; Hall, Thomas E; Parton, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Caveolae, small bulb-like pits, are the most abundant surface feature of many vertebrate cell types. The relationship of the structure of caveolae to their function has been a subject of considerable scientific interest in view of the association of caveolar dysfunction with human disease. In a recent study Lo et al. (1) investigated the organization and function of caveolae in skeletal muscle. Using quantitative 3D electron microscopy caveolae were shown to be predominantly organized into multilobed structures which provide a large reservoir of surface-connected membrane underlying the sarcolemma. These structures were preferentially disassembled in response to changes in membrane tension. Perturbation or loss of caveolae in mouse and zebrafish models suggested that caveolae can protect the muscle sarcolemma against damage in response to excessive membrane activity. Flattening of caveolae to release membrane into the bulk plasma membrane in response to increased membrane tension can allow cell shape changes and prevent membrane rupture. In addition, disassembly of caveolae can have widespread effects on lipid-based plasma membrane organization. These findings suggest that the ability of the caveolar membrane system to respond to mechanical forces is a crucial evolutionarily-conserved process which is compromised in disease conditions associated with mutations in key caveolar components.

  3. Mechanoprotection by skeletal muscle caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Harriet P; Hall, Thomas E; Parton, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    abstract Caveolae, small bulb-like pits, are the most abundant surface feature of many vertebrate cell types. The relationship of the structure of caveolae to their function has been a subject of considerable scientific interest in view of the association of caveolar dysfunction with human disease. In a recent study Lo et al.1 investigated the organization and function of caveolae in skeletal muscle. Using quantitative 3D electron microscopy caveolae were shown to be predominantly organized into multilobed structures which provide a large reservoir of surface-connected membrane underlying the sarcolemma. These structures were preferentially disassembled in response to changes in membrane tension. Perturbation or loss of caveolae in mouse and zebrafish models suggested that caveolae can protect the muscle sarcolemma against damage in response to excessive membrane activity. Flattening of caveolae to release membrane into the bulk plasma membrane in response to increased membrane tension can allow cell shape changes and prevent membrane rupture. In addition, disassembly of caveolae can have widespread effects on lipid-based plasma membrane organization. These findings suggest that the ability of the caveolar membrane system to respond to mechanical forces is a crucial evolutionarily-conserved process which is compromised in disease conditions associated with mutations in key caveolar components. PMID:26760312

  4. Mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical to the development and maintenance of skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that convert these shape changes to biochemical signals is not known. When a deformation is imposed on a muscle, changes in cellular and molecular conformations link the mechanical forces with biochemical signals, and the close integration of mechanical signals with electrical, metabolic, and hormonal signaling may disguise the aspect of the response that is specific to the mechanical forces. The mechanically induced conformational change may directly activate downstream signaling and may trigger messenger systems to activate signaling indirectly. Major effectors of mechanotransduction include the ubiquitous mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) and phosphatidylinositol-3’ kinase (PI-3K), which have well described receptor dependent cascades, but the chain of events leading from mechanical stimulation to biochemical cascade is not clear. This review will discuss the mechanics of biological deformation, loading of cellular and molecular structures, and some of the principal signaling mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction. PMID:17127292

  5. Mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical to the development and maintenance of skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that convert these shape changes to biochemical signals is not known. When a deformation is imposed on a muscle, changes in cellular and molecular conformations link the mechanical forces with biochemical signals, and the close integration of mechanical signals with electrical, metabolic, and hormonal signaling may disguise the aspect of the response that is specific to the mechanical forces. The mechanically induced conformational change may directly activate downstream signaling and may trigger messenger systems to activate signaling indirectly. Major effectors of mechanotransduction include the ubiquitous mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) and phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI-3K), which have well described receptor dependent cascades, but the chain of events leading from mechanical stimulation to biochemical cascade is not clear. This review will discuss the mechanics of biological deformation, loading of cellular and molecular structures, and some of the principal signaling mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction.

  6. Expression and functional characterization of Smyd1a in myofibril organization of skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Li, Junling; Li, Bao-Jun; Yagil, Ezra; Zhang, Jianshe; Du, Shao Jun

    2014-01-01

    Smyd1, the founding member of the Smyd family including Smyd-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, is a SET and MYND domain containing protein that plays a key role in myofibril assembly in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that zebrafish genome contains two highly related smyd1 genes, smyd1a and smyd1b. Although Smyd1b function is well characterized in skeletal and cardiac muscles, the function of Smyd1a is, however, unknown. To investigate the function of Smyd1a in muscle development, we isolated smyd1a from zebrafish, and characterized its expression and function during muscle development via gene knockdown and transgenic expression approaches. The results showed that smyd1a was strongly expressed in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. Functional analysis revealed that knockdown of smyd1a alone had no significant effect on myofibril assembly in zebrafish skeletal muscles. However, knockdown of smyd1a and smyd1b together resulted in a complete disruption of myofibril organization in skeletal muscles, a phenotype stronger than knockdown of smyd1a or smyd1b alone. Moreover, ectopic expression of zebrafish smyd1a or mouse Smyd1 transgene could rescue the myofibril defects from the smyd1b knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Collectively, these data indicate that Smyd1a and Smyd1b share similar biological activity in myofibril assembly in zebrafish embryos. However, Smyd1b appears to play a major role in this process.

  7. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing.

    PubMed

    Tieland, Michael; Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C

    2018-02-01

    The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation-contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  8. Exercise quantity-dependent muscle hypertrophy in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hasumura, Takahiro; Meguro, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Exercise is very important for maintaining and increasing skeletal muscle mass, and is particularly important to prevent and care for sarcopenia and muscle disuse atrophy. However, the dose-response relationship between exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration and muscle mass is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exercise duration on skeletal muscle to reveal the relationship between exercise quantity and muscle hypertrophy in zebrafish forced to exercise. Adult male zebrafish were exercised 6 h/day for 4 weeks, 6 h/day for 2 weeks, or 3 h/day for 2 weeks. Flow velocity was adjusted to maximum velocity during continual swimming (initial 43 cm/s). High-speed consecutive photographs revealed that zebrafish mainly drove the caudal part. Additionally, X-ray micro computed tomography measurements indicated muscle hypertrophy of the mid-caudal half compared with the mid-cranial half part. The cross-sectional analysis of the mid-caudal half muscle revealed that skeletal muscle (red, white, or total) mass increased with increasing exercise quantity, whereas that of white muscle and total muscle increased only under the maximum exercise load condition of 6 h/day for 4 weeks. Additionally, the muscle fiver size distributions of exercised fish were larger than those from non-exercised fish. We revealed that exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration were correlated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The forced exercise model enabled us to investigate the relationship between exercise quantity and skeletal muscle mass. These results open up the possibility for further investigations on the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle in adult zebrafish.

  9. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co‐morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age‐related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation–contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. PMID:29151281

  10. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sass, F Andrea; Fuchs, Michael; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N; Perka, Carsten; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina

    2018-03-13

    Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  11. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sass, F. Andrea; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N.; Perka, Carsten; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues. PMID:29534011

  12. Skeletal muscle satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form

  13. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  14. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  15. Amino Acid Sensing in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Tatiana; Ebert, Scott M.; Adams, Christopher M.; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2016-01-01

    Aging impairs skeletal muscle protein synthesis, leading to muscle weakness and atrophy. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we review evidence that mTORC1- and ATF4-mediated amino acid sensing pathways, triggered by impaired amino acid delivery to aged skeletal muscle, may play important roles in skeletal muscle aging. Interventions that alleviate age-related impairments in muscle protein synthesis, strength and/or muscle mass appear to do so by reversing age-related changes in skeletal muscle amino acid delivery, mTORC1 activity and/or ATF4 activity. An improved understanding of the mechanisms and roles of amino acid sensing pathways in skeletal muscle may lead to evidence-based strategies to attenuate sarcopenia. PMID:27444066

  16. [Regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle].

    PubMed

    Wernig, A

    2003-07-01

    The organotypic stem cell of skeletal muscle has previously been known as satellite cell. They allow muscle fiber growth during ontogenesis, enable fiber hypertrophy and are responsible for the very efficient repair of muscle fibers. This efficient apparatus is to some degree counterbalanced by an enormous use of the satellite cell pool: fiber atrophy probably is accompanied by loss of myonuclei such that every reversal of atrophy is bound to use new myonuclei i.e. satellite cells. How often in life does this occur? Hard to say. Moreover, the potent repair capacity is challenged by an unexpected vulnerability of skeletal muscle fibers: Passive stretching of contracted muscles may cause multiple "microdamage," disruption of contractile elements or tiny areas of true necrosis (focal necrosis). How often does this happen? Well, for many of us at least once per year when we go up and down mountains during vacation time, followed by sour muscles. Others may decide to change his/her (locomotor) behaviour by severe onset of jogging; it may happen that they suffer kidney failure on Monday due to muscle microdamage and the transfer of myoproteins into the serum over weekend. Also 20 minutes of stepping up and down something like a chair will do: There is a remarkable increase in kreatin kinase and other muscle derived proteins which lasts for days and is bound to reflect some muscle damage. How about sportsmen and worker who repeatedly use their muscles in such a way? We don't have answers yet to most of these questions, but considerable amount of information has been collected over the last years both in animal and--less--in human. What is common in all cases of growth and repair is the proliferation of the satellite cells and their consequent incorporation and fusion with the parent fiber. This way focal damage is repaired often without visible reminders. We would run out of satellite cells were they not stem cells: After division one daughter remains a satellite cell

  17. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cartee, Gregory D.; Hepple, Russell T.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Zierath, Juleen R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics, and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes “healthy aging” by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. PMID:27304505

  18. Redox Control of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Le Moal, Emmeran; Pialoux, Vincent; Juban, Gaëtan; Groussard, Carole; Zouhal, Hassane; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Mounier, Rémi

    2017-08-10

    Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent. This review focuses on redox regulation during skeletal muscle regeneration. An overview of the basics of ROS/RNS and antioxidant chemistry and biology occurring in skeletal muscle is first provided. Then, the comprehensive knowledge on redox regulation of MuSCs and their surrounding cell partners (macrophages, endothelial cells) during skeletal muscle regeneration is presented in normal muscle and in specific physiological (exercise-induced muscle damage, aging) and pathological (muscular dystrophies) contexts. Recent advances in the comprehension of these processes has led to the development of therapeutic assays using antioxidant supplementation, which result in inconsistent efficiency, underlying the need for new tools that are aimed at precisely deciphering and targeting ROS networks. This review should provide an overall insight of the redox regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration while highlighting the limits of the use of nonspecific antioxidants to improve muscle function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 276-310.

  19. Redox Control of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Le Moal, Emmeran; Pialoux, Vincent; Juban, Gaëtan; Groussard, Carole; Zouhal, Hassane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent. This review focuses on redox regulation during skeletal muscle regeneration. An overview of the basics of ROS/RNS and antioxidant chemistry and biology occurring in skeletal muscle is first provided. Then, the comprehensive knowledge on redox regulation of MuSCs and their surrounding cell partners (macrophages, endothelial cells) during skeletal muscle regeneration is presented in normal muscle and in specific physiological (exercise-induced muscle damage, aging) and pathological (muscular dystrophies) contexts. Recent advances in the comprehension of these processes has led to the development of therapeutic assays using antioxidant supplementation, which result in inconsistent efficiency, underlying the need for new tools that are aimed at precisely deciphering and targeting ROS networks. This review should provide an overall insight of the redox regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration while highlighting the limits of the use of nonspecific antioxidants to improve muscle function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 276–310. PMID:28027662

  20. Skeletal muscle and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Myrie, Semone B; Pinder, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Skeletal muscle is critical for mobility and many metabolic functions integral to survival and long-term health. Alcohol can affect skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, which will have immediate and long-term consequences on health. While skeletal muscle abnormalities, including morphological, biochemical, and functional impairments, are well-documented in adults that excessively consume alcohol, there is a scarcity of information about the skeletal muscle in the offspring prenatally exposed to alcohol ("prenatal alcohol exposure"; PAE). This minireview examines the available studies addressing skeletal muscle abnormalities due to PAE. Growth restriction, fetal alcohol myopathy, and abnormalities in the neuromuscular system, which contribute to deficits in locomotion, are some direct, immediate consequences of PAE on skeletal muscle morphology and function. Long-term health consequences of PAE-related skeletal abnormalities include impaired glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, leading to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In general, there is limited information on the morphological, biochemical, and functional features of skeletal abnormalities in PAE offspring. There is a need to understand how PAE affects muscle growth and function at the cellular level during early development to improve the immediate and long-term health of offspring suffering from PAE.

  1. Muscle contraction controls skeletal morphogenesis through regulation of chondrocyte convergent extension.

    PubMed

    Shwartz, Yulia; Farkas, Zsuzsanna; Stern, Tomer; Aszódi, Attila; Zelzer, Elazar

    2012-10-01

    Convergent extension driven by mediolateral intercalation of chondrocytes is a key process that contributes to skeletal growth and morphogenesis. While progress has been made in deciphering the molecular mechanism that underlies this process, the involvement of mechanical load exerted by muscle contraction in its regulation has not been studied. Using the zebrafish as a model system, we found abnormal pharyngeal cartilage morphology in both chemically and genetically paralyzed embryos, demonstrating the importance of muscle contraction for zebrafish skeletal development. The shortening of skeletal elements was accompanied by prominent changes in cell morphology and organization. While in control the cells were elongated, chondrocytes in paralyzed zebrafish were smaller and exhibited a more rounded shape, confirmed by a reduction in their length-to-width ratio. The typical columnar organization of cells was affected too, as chondrocytes in various skeletal elements exhibited abnormal stacking patterns, indicating aberrant intercalation. Finally, we demonstrate impaired chondrocyte intercalation in growth plates of muscle-less Sp(d) mouse embryos, implying the evolutionary conservation of muscle force regulation of this essential morphogenetic process.Our findings provide a new perspective on the regulatory interaction between muscle contraction and skeletal morphogenesis by uncovering the role of muscle-induced mechanical loads in regulating chondrocyte intercalation in two different vertebrate models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Loss of Smyhc1 or Hsp90α1 Function Results in Different Effects on Myofibril Organization in Skeletal Muscles of Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Codina, Marta; Li, Junling; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Kao, Joseph P. Y.; Du, Shao Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background Myofibrillogenesis requires the correct folding and assembly of sarcomeric proteins into highly organized sarcomeres. Heat shock protein 90α1 (Hsp90α1) has been implicated as a myosin chaperone that plays a key role in myofibrillogenesis. Knockdown or mutation of hsp90α1 resulted in complete disorganization of thick and thin filaments and M- and Z-line structures. It is not clear whether the disorganization of these sarcomeric structures is due to a direct effect from loss of Hsp90α1 function or indirectly through the disorganization of myosin thick filaments. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we carried out a loss-of-function analysis of myosin thick filaments via gene-specific knockdown or using a myosin ATPase inhibitor BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide) in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrated that knockdown of myosin heavy chain 1 (myhc1) resulted in sarcomeric defects in the thick and thin filaments and defective alignment of Z-lines. Similarly, treating zebrafish embryos with BTS disrupted thick and thin filament organization, with little effect on the M- and Z-lines. In contrast, loss of Hsp90α1 function completely disrupted all sarcomeric structures including both thick and thin filaments as well as the M- and Z-lines. Conclusion/Significance Together, these studies indicate that the hsp90α1 mutant phenotype is not simply due to disruption of myosin folding and assembly, suggesting that Hsp90α1 may play a role in the assembly and organization of other sarcomeric structures. PMID:20049323

  3. Chevron formation of the zebrafish muscle segments

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Fabian; Eugster, Christina; Schröter, Christian; Oates, Andrew C.; Brusch, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The muscle segments of fish have a folded shape, termed a chevron, which is thought to be optimal for the undulating body movements of swimming. However, the mechanism shaping the chevron during embryogenesis is not understood. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy of developing zebrafish embryos spanning the entire somitogenesis period to quantify the dynamics of chevron shape development. By comparing such time courses with the start of movements in wildtype zebrafish and analysing immobile mutants, we show that the previously implicated body movements do not play a role in chevron formation. Further, the monotonic increase of chevron angle along the anteroposterior axis revealed by our data constrains or rules out possible contributions by previously proposed mechanisms. In particular, we found that muscle pioneers are not required for chevron formation. We put forward a tension-and-resistance mechanism involving interactions between intra-segmental tension and segment boundaries. To evaluate this mechanism, we derived and analysed a mechanical model of a chain of contractile and resisting elements. The predictions of this model were verified by comparison with experimental data. Altogether, our results support the notion that a simple physical mechanism suffices to self-organize the observed spatiotemporal pattern in chevron formation. PMID:25267843

  4. Chevron formation of the zebrafish muscle segments.

    PubMed

    Rost, Fabian; Eugster, Christina; Schröter, Christian; Oates, Andrew C; Brusch, Lutz

    2014-11-01

    The muscle segments of fish have a folded shape, termed a chevron, which is thought to be optimal for the undulating body movements of swimming. However, the mechanism shaping the chevron during embryogenesis is not understood. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy of developing zebrafish embryos spanning the entire somitogenesis period to quantify the dynamics of chevron shape development. By comparing such time courses with the start of movements in wildtype zebrafish and analysing immobile mutants, we show that the previously implicated body movements do not play a role in chevron formation. Further, the monotonic increase of chevron angle along the anteroposterior axis revealed by our data constrains or rules out possible contributions by previously proposed mechanisms. In particular, we found that muscle pioneers are not required for chevron formation. We put forward a tension-and-resistance mechanism involving interactions between intra-segmental tension and segment boundaries. To evaluate this mechanism, we derived and analysed a mechanical model of a chain of contractile and resisting elements. The predictions of this model were verified by comparison with experimental data. Altogether, our results support the notion that a simple physical mechanism suffices to self-organize the observed spatiotemporal pattern in chevron formation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  6. [Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Astratenkova, I V; Rogozkin, V A

    2014-06-01

    Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The central place is taken by mTOR enzyme which controls and regulates the main stages of the cascade of reactions of muscle proteins providing synthesis in the conditions of human life. coactivator PGC-1a.

  7. AMPK in skeletal muscle function and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Hingst, Janne R.; Fentz, Joachim; Foretz, Marc; Sanz, Maria-Nieves; Pehmøller, Christian; Shum, Michael; Marette, André; Mounier, Remi; Treebak, Jonas T.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F. P.; Viollet, Benoit; Lantier, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK’s role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism (e.g., substrate uptake, oxidation, and storage as well as mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle fibers). We focus on the role of AMPK in skeletal muscle during exercise and in exercise recovery. We also address adaptations to exercise training, including skeletal muscle plasticity, highlighting novel concepts and future perspectives that need to be investigated. Furthermore, we discuss the possible role of AMPK as a therapeutic target as well as different AMPK activators and their potential for future drug development.—Kjøbsted, R., Hingst, J. R., Fentz, J., Foretz, M., Sanz, M.-N., Pehmøller, C., Shum, M., Marette, A., Mounier, R., Treebak, J. T., Wojtaszewski, J. F. P., Viollet, B., Lantier, L. AMPK in skeletal muscle function and metabolism. PMID:29242278

  8. Zebrafish models flex their muscles to shed light on muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joachim; Currie, Peter D

    2012-11-01

    Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that specifically affect skeletal muscle and are characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakening. To develop therapies and treatments for these diseases, a better understanding of the molecular basis of muscular dystrophies is required. Thus, identification of causative genes mutated in specific disorders and the study of relevant animal models are imperative. Zebrafish genetic models of human muscle disorders often closely resemble disease pathogenesis, and the optical clarity of zebrafish embryos and larvae enables visualization of dynamic molecular processes in vivo. As an adjunct tool, morpholino studies provide insight into the molecular function of genes and allow rapid assessment of candidate genes for human muscular dystrophies. This unique set of attributes makes the zebrafish model system particularly valuable for the study of muscle diseases. This review discusses how recent research using zebrafish has shed light on the pathological basis of muscular dystrophies, with particular focus on the muscle cell membrane and the linkage between the myofibre cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix.

  9. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Uncoupling nicotine mediated motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors and muscle degeneration in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, Lillian; Tanguay, Robert L.; Svoboda, Kurt R.

    Zebrafish embryos offer a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms by which nicotine exposure impacts early vertebrate development. Embryos exposed to nicotine become functionally paralyzed by 42 hpf suggesting that the neuromuscular system is compromised in exposed embryos. We previously demonstrated that secondary spinal motoneurons in nicotine-exposed embryos were delayed in development and that their axons made pathfinding errors (Svoboda, K.R., Vijayaraghaven, S., Tanguay, R.L., 2002. Nicotinic receptors mediate changes in spinal motoneuron development and axonal pathfinding in embryonic zebrafish exposed to nicotine. J. Neurosci. 22, 10731-10741). In that study, we did not consider the potential role that altered skeletalmore » muscle development caused by nicotine exposure could play in contributing to the errors in spinal motoneuron axon pathfinding. In this study, we show that an alteration in skeletal muscle development occurs in tandem with alterations in spinal motoneuron development upon exposure to nicotine. The alteration in the muscle involves the binding of nicotine to the muscle-specific AChRs. The nicotine-induced alteration in muscle development does not occur in the zebrafish mutant (sofa potato, [sop]), which lacks muscle-specific AChRs. Even though muscle development is unaffected by nicotine exposure in sop mutants, motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors still occur in these mutants, indicating a direct effect of nicotine exposure on nervous system development.« less

  11. Skeletal muscle design to meet functional demands

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Richard L.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscles are length- and velocity-sensitive force producers, constructed of a vast array of sarcomeres. Muscles come in a variety of sizes and shapes to accomplish a wide variety of tasks. How does muscle design match task performance? In this review, we outline muscle's basic properties and strategies that are used to produce movement. Several examples are provided, primarily for human muscles, in which skeletal muscle architecture and moment arms are tailored to a particular performance requirement. In addition, the concept that muscles may have a preferred sarcomere length operating range is also introduced. Taken together, the case is made that muscles can be fine-tuned to perform specific tasks that require actuators with a wide range of properties. PMID:21502118

  12. Sumoylated α-skeletal muscle actin in the skeletal muscle of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Uda, Munehiro; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Iizumi, Kyoichi; Shigenaga, Ayako; Baba, Takeshi; Naito, Hisashi; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Yamakura, Fumiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of two major muscle fiber types: slow-twitch oxidative fibers and fast-twitch glycolytic fibers. The proteins in these muscle fibers are known to differ in their expression, relative abundance, and post-translational modifications. In this study, we report a previously unreported post-translational modification of α-skeletal muscle actin in the skeletal muscles of adult male F344 rats in vivo. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), we first examined the differences in the protein expression profiles between the soleus and plantaris muscles. We found higher intensity protein spots at approximately 60 kDa and pH 9 on 2D-PAGE for the soleus muscle compared with the plantaris muscle. These spots were identified as α-skeletal muscle actin by liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and western blot analyses. In addition, we found that the 60 kDa α-skeletal muscle actin is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) 1, using 2D-PAGE and western blot analyses. Furthermore, we found that α-skeletal muscle actin with larger molecular weight was localized in the nuclear and cytosol of the skeletal muscle, but not in the myofibrillar fraction by the combination of subcellular fractionation and western blot analyses. These results suggest that α-skeletal muscle actin is modified by SUMO-1 in the skeletal muscles, localized in nuclear and cytosolic fractions, and the extent of this modification is much higher in the slow muscles than in the fast muscles. This is the first study to show the presence of SUMOylated actin in animal tissues.

  13. [Skeletal muscles, physical activity and health].

    PubMed

    Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2000-11-01

    The metabolic capacity of skeletal muscle plays a significant role for insulin sensitivity and the blood lipid profile. The metabolic capacity of the muscle is a function of the individual's physical activity level. This is also true for the content of type IIa muscle fibres, which is reduced, and the number of capillaries, which is elevated with muscle usage. Several of these skeletal muscle features are risk factors for or linked with life-style induced diseases such as type II diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipemia and obesity. The central role of the skeletal muscle and its functional metabolic capacity for life style diseases highlights the importance of people maintaining daily physical activity. This article focuses on the link between the metabolic capacity of skeletal muscle and the metabolic syndrome and briefly discusses the explanations for this relationship. As one important aspect if skeletal muscle has a high capacity for lipid oxidation, then more saturated fatty acids are oxidised and more unsaturated fatty acids are built in the phospholipid fraction of the plasma membrane, giving it more fluidity and improved insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the article points at the role of these fatty acids in activating genes via the PPAR-receptor system essential for enzyme and transport proteins in the lipid metabolism.

  14. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  15. Zebrafish: A Model for the Study of Toxicants Affecting Muscle Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Dubińska-Magiera, Magda; Daczewska, Małgorzata; Lewicka, Anna; Migocka-Patrzałek, Marta; Niedbalska-Tarnowska, Joanna; Jagla, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The rapid progress in medicine, agriculture, and allied sciences has enabled the development of a large amount of potentially useful bioactive compounds, such as drugs and pesticides. However, there is another side of this phenomenon, which includes side effects and environmental pollution. To avoid or minimize the uncontrollable consequences of using the newly developed compounds, researchers seek a quick and effective means of their evaluation. In achieving this goal, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has proven to be a highly useful tool, mostly because of its fast growth and development, as well as the ability to absorb the molecules diluted in water through its skin and gills. In this review, we focus on the reports concerning the application of zebrafish as a model for assessing the impact of toxicants on skeletal muscles, which share many structural and functional similarities among vertebrates, including zebrafish and humans. PMID:27869769

  16. Aspects of skeletal muscle modelling.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Marcelo; Herzog, Walter

    2003-09-29

    The modelling of skeletal muscle raises a number of philosophical questions, particularly in the realm of the relationship between different possible levels of representation and explanation. After a brief incursion into this area, a list of desiderata is proposed as a guiding principle for the construction of a viable model, including: comprehensiveness, soundness, experimental consistency, predictive ability and refinability. Each of these principles is illustrated by means of simple examples. The presence of internal constraints, such as incompressibility, may lead to counterintuitive results. A one-panel example is exploited to advocate the use of the principle of virtual work as the ideal tool to deal with these situations. The question of stability in the descending limb of the force-length relation is addressed and a purely mechanical analogue is suggested. New experimental results confirm the assumption that fibre stiffness is positive even in the descending limb. The indeterminacy of the force-sharing problem is traditionally resolved by optimizing a, presumably, physically meaningful target function. After presenting some new results in this area, based on a separation theorem, it is suggested that a more fundamental approach to the problem is the abandoning of optimization criteria in favour of an explicit implementation of activation criteria.

  17. ISOLATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE NUCLEI

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Jean C.; Edelman, P. Michael; Knigge, Karl M.; Schwartz, Irving L.

    1965-01-01

    A method employing aqueous media for isolation of nuclei from rat skeletal muscle is described. The technique involves (a) mincing and then homogenizing in a 0.32 M sucrose-salt solution with a Potter-Elvehjem type homogenizer using a Delrin (an acetal resin) pestle and a carefully controlled, relatively large pestle-to-glass clearance, (b) filtering through fiberglass and stainless steel screens of predetermined mesh size to remove myofibrils and connective tissue, and (c) centrifuging in a 2.15 M sucrose-salt solution containing 0.7 mM ATP. Electron and phase-contrast microscopic observations show that the nuclei are intact, unencumbered by cytoplasmic tags, and possess well preserved distinct nucleoli, nucleoplasm, and nuclear membranes. Cytoplasmic contamination is minimal and mainly mitochondrial. Chemical assays of the nuclear fraction show that the DNA/protein and RNA/DNA ratios are comparable to those obtained in other tissues. These ratios, as well as the low specific activity obtained for cytochrome c oxidase and the virtual absence of myofibrillar ATPase, indicate a high degree of purity with minimal mitochondrial and myofibrillar contamination. The steps comprising the technique and the reasons for their selection are discussed. PMID:4287141

  18. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogenesis imperfecta mice.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2010-09-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (P(o), P(o)/mg and P(o)/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased P(o) and an inability to sustain P(o) for the 300-ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Skeletal muscle tensile strain dependence: hyperviscoelastic nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Benjamin B; Morrow, Duane A; Odegard, Gregory M; Kaufman, Kenton R; Donahue, Tammy L Haut

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Computational modeling of skeletal muscle requires characterization at the tissue level. While most skeletal muscle studies focus on hyperelasticity, the goal of this study was to examine and model the nonlinear behavior of both time-independent and time-dependent properties of skeletal muscle as a function of strain. Materials and Methods Nine tibialis anterior muscles from New Zealand White rabbits were subject to five consecutive stress relaxation cycles of roughly 3% strain. Individual relaxation steps were fit with a three-term linear Prony series. Prony series coefficients and relaxation ratio were assessed for strain dependence using a general linear statistical model. A fully nonlinear constitutive model was employed to capture the strain dependence of both the viscoelastic and instantaneous components. Results Instantaneous modulus (p<0.0005) and mid-range relaxation (p<0.0005) increased significantly with strain level, while relaxation at longer time periods decreased with strain (p<0.0005). Time constants and overall relaxation ratio did not change with strain level (p>0.1). Additionally, the fully nonlinear hyperviscoelastic constitutive model provided an excellent fit to experimental data, while other models which included linear components failed to capture muscle function as accurately. Conclusions Material properties of skeletal muscle are strain-dependent at the tissue level. This strain dependence can be included in computational models of skeletal muscle performance with a fully nonlinear hyperviscoelastic model. PMID:26409235

  20. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Evans, W J

    1987-01-01

    In brief: Delayed-onset muscle soreness is most likely caused by structural damage in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise, in which muscles produce force while lengthening, as in running downhill. This damage may take as long as 12 weeks to repair. Therefore, athletes should allow plenty of time for recovery after events that cause extreme muscle soreness. Because prostaglandin E2 may be important in muscle repair, prostaglandin blockers, such as aspirin, may be useless or even detrimental in the treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness. Eccentric exercise training may help prevent soreness.

  1. Skeletal muscle mechanics, energetics and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Richard L; Roberts, Thomas J; Blemker, Silvia S; Lee, Sabrina S M; Herzog, Walter

    2017-10-23

    The following papers by Richard Lieber (Skeletal Muscle as an Actuator), Thomas Roberts (Elastic Mechanisms and Muscle Function), Silvia Blemker (Skeletal Muscle has a Mind of its Own: a Computational Framework to Model the Complex Process of Muscle Adaptation) and Sabrina Lee (Muscle Properties of Spastic Muscle (Stroke and CP) are summaries of their representative contributions for the session on skeletal muscle mechanics, energetics and plasticity at the 2016 Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement Conference (BANCOM 2016). Dr. Lieber revisits the topic of sarcomere length as a fundamental property of skeletal muscle contraction. Specifically, problems associated with sarcomere length non-uniformity and the role of sarcomerogenesis in diseases such as cerebral palsy are critically discussed. Dr. Roberts then makes us aware of the (often neglected) role of the passive tissues in muscles and discusses the properties of parallel elasticity and series elasticity, and their role in muscle function. Specifically, he identifies the merits of analyzing muscle deformations in three dimensions (rather than just two), because of the potential decoupling of the parallel elastic element length from the contractile element length, and reviews the associated implications for the architectural gear ratio of skeletal muscle contraction. Dr. Blemker then tackles muscle adaptation using a novel way of looking at adaptive processes and what might drive adaptation. She argues that cells do not have pre-programmed behaviors that are controlled by the nervous system. Rather, the adaptive responses of muscle fibers are determined by sub-cellular signaling pathways that are affected by mechanical and biochemical stimuli; an exciting framework with lots of potential. Finally, Dr. Lee takes on the challenging task of determining human muscle properties in vivo. She identifies the dilemma of how we can demonstrate the effectiveness of a treatment, specifically in cases of muscle

  2. Isolation of Primary Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spinazzola, Janelle M.; Gussoni, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Primary myoblast culture is a valuable tool in research of muscle disease, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. This protocol describes techniques for dissociation of cells from human skeletal muscle biopsies and enrichment for a highly myogenic population by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We also describe methods for assessing myogenicity and population expansion for subsequent in vitro study. PMID:29152538

  3. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael; Pöllänen, Eija; Atkinson, Ross A; Hansen, Mette; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2013-06-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss in fast muscle function (power), and accumulation of fat in skeletal muscle. Further HRT raises the protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscle after resistance training, and has an anabolic effect upon connective tissue in both skeletal muscle and tendon, which influences matrix structure and mechanical properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal muscle.

  4. Denervation and reinnervation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, R. F.; Max, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the physiological and biochemical changes that occur in mammalian skeletal muscle after denervation and reinnervation. These changes are compared with those observed after altered motor function. Also considered is the nature of the trophic influence by which nerves control muscle properties. Topics examined include the membrane and contractile properties of denervated and reinnervated muscle; the cholinergic proteins, such as choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and the acetylcholine receptor; and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

  5. Human Skeletal Muscle Health with Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappe, Scott

    2012-07-01

    This lecture will overview the most recent aerobic and resistance exercise programs used by crewmembers while aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for six months and examine its effectiveness for protecting skeletal muscle health. Detailed information on the exercise prescription program, whole muscle size, whole muscle performance, and cellular data obtained from muscle biopsy samples will be presented. Historically, detailed information on the exercise program while in space has not been available. These most recent exercise and muscle physiology findings provide a critical foundation to guide the exercise countermeasure program forward for future long-duration space missions.

  6. Exercise-Induced Hypertrophic and Oxidative Signaling Pathways and Myokine Expression in Fast Muscle of Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Mireia; Arrey, Gerard; Planas, Josep V.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that undergoes cellular and metabolic adaptations under conditions of increased contractile activity such as exercise. Using adult zebrafish as an exercise model, we previously demonstrated that swimming training stimulates hypertrophy and vascularization of fast muscle fibers, consistent with the known muscle growth-promoting effects of exercise and with the resulting increased aerobic capacity of this tissue. Here we investigated the potential involvement of factors and signaling mechanisms that could be responsible for exercise-induced fast muscle remodeling in adult zebrafish. By subjecting zebrafish to swimming-induced exercise, we observed an increase in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Mef2 protein levels in fast muscle. We also observed an increase in the protein levels of the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 that correlated with an increase in the protein expression levels of Pax7, a satellite-like cell marker. Furthermore, the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was also increased by exercise, in parallel with an increase in the mRNA expression levels of pgc1α and also of pparda, a β-oxidation marker. Changes in the mRNA expression levels of slow and fast myosin markers further supported the notion of an exercise-induced aerobic phenotype in zebrafish fast muscle. The mRNA expression levels of il6, il6r, apln, aplnra and aplnrb, sparc, decorin and igf1, myokines known in mammals to be produced in response to exercise and to signal through mTOR/AMPK pathways, among others, were increased in fast muscle of exercised zebrafish. These results support the notion that exercise increases skeletal muscle growth and myogenesis in adult zebrafish through the coordinated activation of the mTOR-MEF2 and AMPK-PGC1α signaling pathways. These results, coupled with altered expression of markers for oxidative metabolism and fast-to-slow fiber-type switch, also suggest improved aerobic

  7. Skeletal muscle as an endogenous nitrate reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Piknova, Barbora; Park, Ji Won; Swanson, Kathryn M.; Dey, Soumyadeep; Noguchi, Constance Tom; Schechter, Alan N

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes form nitric oxide (NO) from arginine in the presence of oxygen. At reduced oxygen availability NO is also generated from nitrate in a two step process by bacterial and mammalian molybdopterin proteins, and also directly from nitrite by a variety of five-coordinated ferrous hemoproteins. The mammalian NO cycle also involves direct oxidation of NO to nitrite, and both NO and nitrite to nitrate by oxy-ferrous hemoproteins. The liver and blood are considered the sites of active mammalian NO metabolism and nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the liver and blood of several mammalian species, including human, have been determined. However, the large tissue mass of skeletal muscle had not been generally considered in the analysis of the NO cycle, in spite of its long-known presence of significant levels of active neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS1). We hypothesized that skeletal muscle participates in the NO cycle and, due to its NO oxidizing heme protein, oxymyoglobin, has high concentrations of nitrate ions. We measured nitrite and nitrate concentrations in rat and mouse leg skeletal muscle and found unusually high concentrations of nitrate but similar levels of nitrite, when compared to the liver. The nitrate reservoir in muscle is easily accessible via the bloodstream and therefore nitrate is available for transport to internal organs where it can be reduced to nitrite and NO. Nitrate levels in skeletal muscle and blood in nNOS−/− mice were dramatically lower when compared with controls, which support further our hypothesis. Although the nitrate reductase activity of xanthine oxidoreductase in muscle is less than that of liver, the residual activity in muscle could be very important in view of its total mass and the high basal level of nitrate. We suggest that skeletal muscle participates in overall NO metabolism, serving as a nitrate reservoir, for direct formation of nitrite and NO, and for determining levels of nitrate

  8. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  9. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P.; McKay, Bryon R.; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models. PMID:26557092

  10. Skeletal muscle biopsy studies of cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Fekete, G; Boros, Z; Cserhalmi, L; Apor, P

    1987-01-01

    Eleven patients diagnosed and treated for congestive cardiomyopathy (COCM) of unknown aetiology, and another 10 patients, with congestive alcoholic heart muscle disease (ACOCM) were studied. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis (VL) and the gastrocnemius (G) muscles. In part of the sample muscle the fibre pattern was classified by means of ATPase activity staining, a technique based on the pH lability of the fibres concerned. Fibre typing and area measurements were carried out by light microscope. The other part of the sample was used as muscle homogenate of which the Ca2+-activated ATPase activity as well as citrate synthetase (CS) and aldolase activities were measured. No significant difference was found in these enzyme activities between the two groups of patients. The proportion of the slow twitch (ST) fibres in the VL, mainly in the patients with ACOCM, was lower as compared to data for healthy subjects. A similar tendency was revealed for G. In both muscles tested, the area of ST fibres was smaller in the ACOCM group. The fast twitch (FT) fibre area proved to be slightly different in the two groups of subjects tested. Occurrence of degenerative signs in the histological tests was higher in the ACOCM than in the COCM group. It was concluded that differences in the skeletal muscles of patients with ACOCM and COCM may primarily account for the alcoholism. The disease of the heart muscle has little effect on the function of skeletal muscle. Even so, a low amount or lack of physical activity may have an unfavourable influence on the skeletal muscles of patients with heart muscle disease.

  11. Ultrasound of skeletal muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eamon Su Chun; McNally, Eugene G

    2007-06-01

    The professional and recreational demands of modern society make the treatment of muscle injury an increasingly important clinical problem, particularly in the athletic population. In the elite athlete, significant financial and professional pressures may also exist that emphasize the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment. With new advances in ultrasound technology, images of exquisite detail allow diagnosis of muscle injury that matches the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, the benefits of real-time and Doppler imaging, ability to perform interventional procedures, and relative cost benefits compared with MRI place ultrasound at the forefront for investigation for these injuries in many circumstances. Muscle injury may be divided into acute and chronic pathology, with muscle strain injury the most common clinical problem presenting to sports physicians. This article reviews the spectrum of acute and chronic muscle injuries, with particular attention to clinical features and some common or important muscle strain injuries.

  12. Autophagy and skeletal muscles in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mofarrahi, Mahroo; Sigala, Ioanna; Guo, Yeting; Godin, Richard; Davis, Elaine C; Petrof, Basil; Sandri, Marco; Burelle, Yan; Hussain, Sabah N A

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial injury develops in skeletal muscles during the course of severe sepsis. Autophagy is a protein and organelle recycling pathway which functions to degrade or recycle unnecessary, redundant, or inefficient cellular components. No information is available regarding the degree of sepsis-induced mitochondrial injury and autophagy in the ventilatory and locomotor muscles. This study tests the hypotheses that the locomotor muscles are more prone to sepsis-induced mitochondrial injury, depressed biogenesis and autophagy induction compared with the ventilatory muscles. Adult male C57/Bl6 mice were injected with i.p. phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 20 mg/kg) and sacrificed 24 h later. The tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOLD) and diaphragm (DIA) muscles were quickly excised and examined for mitochondrial morphological injury, Ca(++) retention capacity and biogenesis. Autophagy was detected with electron microscopy, lipidation of Lc3b proteins and by measuring gene expression of several autophagy-related genes. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural injuries in the mitochondria of each muscle, however, injuries were more severe in the TA and SOL muscles than they were in the DIA. Gene expressions of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription factors and co-activators (indicators of biogenesis) were significantly depressed in all treated muscles, although to a greater extent in the TA and SOL muscles. Significant autophagosome formation, Lc3b protein lipidation and upregulation of autophagy-related proteins were detected to a greater extent in the TA and SOL muscles and less so in the DIA. Lipidation of Lc3b and the degree of induction of autophagy-related proteins were significantly blunted in mice expressing a muscle-specific IκBα superrepresor. We conclude that locomotor muscles are more prone to sepsis-induced mitochondrial injury, decreased biogenesis and increased autophagy compared with the ventilatory muscles

  13. Skeletal muscle atrophy in bioengineered skeletal muscle: a new model system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter H U; Vandenburgh, Herman H

    2013-10-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy has been well characterized in various animal models, and while certain pathways that lead to disuse atrophy and its associated functional deficits have been well studied, available drugs to counteract these deficiencies are limited. An ex vivo tissue-engineered skeletal muscle offers a unique opportunity to study skeletal muscle physiology in a controlled in vitro setting. Primary mouse myoblasts isolated from adult muscle were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) containing hundreds of aligned postmitotic muscle fibers expressing sarcomeric proteins. When electrically stimulated, BAMs generated measureable active forces within 2-3 days of formation. The maximum isometric tetanic force (Po) increased for ∼3 weeks to 2587±502 μN/BAM and was maintained at this level for greater than 80 days. When BAMs were reduced in length by 25% to 50%, muscle atrophy occurred in as little as 6 days. Length reduction resulted in significant decreases in Po (50.4%), mean myofiber cross-sectional area (21.7%), total protein synthesis rate (22.0%), and noncollagenous protein content (6.9%). No significant changes occurred in either the total metabolic activity or protein degradation rates. This study is the first in vitro demonstration that length reduction alone can induce skeletal muscle atrophy, and establishes a novel in vitro model for the study of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  14. Emerging impact of skeletal muscle in health and disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has been over 60 years since Huxley first described the essential force transmitting properties of voluntary striated skeletal muscle. At no time since then has the importance of skeletal muscle integrity been more pronounced. Although skeletal muscle comprises 40-50% of total body mass, this tis...

  15. The zebrafish dystrophic mutant softy maintains muscle fibre viability despite basement membrane rupture and muscle detachment

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, Arie S.; Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.; Hall, Thomas E.; Berger, Joachim; Berger, Silke; Sonntag, Carmen; Sachs, Caroline; Geisler, Robert; Stemple, Derek L.; Currie, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The skeletal muscle basement membrane fulfils several crucial functions during development and in the mature myotome and defects in its composition underlie certain forms of muscular dystrophy. A major component of this extracellular structure is the laminin polymer, which assembles into a resilient meshwork that protects the sarcolemma during contraction. Here we describe a zebrafish mutant, softy, which displays severe embryonic muscle degeneration as a result of initial basement membrane failure. The softy phenotype is caused by a mutation in the lamb2 gene, identifying laminin β2 as an essential component of this basement membrane. Uniquely, softy homozygotes are able to recover and survive to adulthood despite the loss of myofibre adhesion. We identify the formation of ectopic, stable basement membrane attachments as a novel means by which detached fibres are able to maintain viability. This demonstration of a muscular dystrophy model possessing innate fibre viability following muscle detachment suggests basement membrane augmentation as a therapeutic strategy to inhibit myofibre loss. PMID:19736328

  16. Human skeletal muscle biochemical diversity.

    PubMed

    Tirrell, Timothy F; Cook, Mark S; Carr, J Austin; Lin, Evie; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    The molecular components largely responsible for muscle attributes such as passive tension development (titin and collagen), active tension development (myosin heavy chain, MHC) and mechanosensitive signaling (titin) have been well studied in animals but less is known about their roles in humans. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of titin, collagen and MHC isoform distributions in a large number of human muscles, to search for common themes and trends in the muscular organization of the human body. In this study, 599 biopsies were obtained from six human cadaveric donors (mean age 83 years). Three assays were performed on each biopsy - titin molecular mass determination, hydroxyproline content (a surrogate for collagen content) and MHC isoform distribution. Titin molecular mass was increased in more distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. This trend was also observed for collagen. Percentage MHC-1 data followed a pattern similar to collagen in muscles of the upper extremity but this trend was reversed in the lower extremity. Titin molecular mass was the best predictor of anatomical region and muscle functional group. On average, human muscles had more slow myosin than other mammals. Also, larger titins were generally associated with faster muscles. These trends suggest that distal muscles should have higher passive tension than proximal ones, and that titin size variability may potentially act to 'tune' the protein's mechanotransduction capability.

  17. Human skeletal muscle biochemical diversity

    PubMed Central

    Tirrell, Timothy F.; Cook, Mark S.; Carr, J. Austin; Lin, Evie; Ward, Samuel R.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The molecular components largely responsible for muscle attributes such as passive tension development (titin and collagen), active tension development (myosin heavy chain, MHC) and mechanosensitive signaling (titin) have been well studied in animals but less is known about their roles in humans. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of titin, collagen and MHC isoform distributions in a large number of human muscles, to search for common themes and trends in the muscular organization of the human body. In this study, 599 biopsies were obtained from six human cadaveric donors (mean age 83 years). Three assays were performed on each biopsy – titin molecular mass determination, hydroxyproline content (a surrogate for collagen content) and MHC isoform distribution. Titin molecular mass was increased in more distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. This trend was also observed for collagen. Percentage MHC-1 data followed a pattern similar to collagen in muscles of the upper extremity but this trend was reversed in the lower extremity. Titin molecular mass was the best predictor of anatomical region and muscle functional group. On average, human muscles had more slow myosin than other mammals. Also, larger titins were generally associated with faster muscles. These trends suggest that distal muscles should have higher passive tension than proximal ones, and that titin size variability may potentially act to ‘tune’ the protein's mechanotransduction capability. PMID:22786631

  18. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The role of capillaries is to serve as the interface for delivery of oxygen and removal of metabolites to/from tissues. During the past decade there has been a proliferation of studies that have advanced our understanding of angiogenesis, demonstrating that tissue capillary supply is under strict control during health but poorly controlled in disease, resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable and thus one of the few organ systems that can be experimentally manipulated (e.g., by exercise) to study physiological regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus on the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity and highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes, and ultrastructural rearrangement of capillaries) that identify areas of future research with the greatest potential to expand our understanding of how angiogenesis is normally regulated, and that may also help to better understand conditions of uncontrolled (pathological) angiogenesis. PMID:26608338

  19. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The two major goals for this project is to (1) examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter; and (2) examine skeletal muscle.

  20. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  1. Photothermal imaging of skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tomimatsu, Toru; Miyazaki, Jun; Kano, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2017-06-01

    The morphology and topology of mitochondria provide useful information about the physiological function of skeletal muscle. Previous studies of skeletal muscle mitochondria are based on observation with transmission, scanning electron microscopy or fluorescence microscopy. In contrast, photothermal (PT) microscopy has advantages over the above commonly used microscopic techniques because of no requirement for complex sample preparation by fixation or fluorescent-dye staining. Here, we employed the PT technique using a simple diode laser to visualize skeletal muscle mitochondria in unstained and stained tissues. The fine mitochondrial network structures in muscle fibers could be imaged with the PT imaging system, even in unstained tissues. PT imaging of tissues stained with toluidine blue revealed the structures of subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria and the swelling behavior of mitochondria in damaged muscle fibers with sufficient image quality. PT image analyses based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) and Grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were performed to derive the characteristic size of mitochondria and to discriminate the image patterns of normal and damaged fibers.

  2. Wave biomechanics of the skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Sarvazyan, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    Results of acoustic measurements in skeletal muscle are generalized. It is shown that assessment of the pathologies and functional condition of the muscular system is possible with the use of shear waves. The velocity of these waves in muscles is much smaller than the velocity of sound; therefore, a higher symmetry type is formed for them. In the presence of a preferential direction (along muscle fibers), it is characterized by only two rather than five (as in usual media with the same anisotropy) moduli of elasticity. A covariant form of the corresponding wave equation is presented. It is shown that dissipation properties of skeletal muscles can be controlled by contracting them isometrically. Pulsed loads (shocks) and vibrations are damped differently, depending on their frequency spectrum. Characteristic frequencies on the order of tens and hundreds of hertz are attenuated due to actin-myosin bridges association/dissociation dynamics in the contracted muscle. At higher (kilohertz) frequencies, when the muscle is tensed, viscosity of the tissue increases by a factor of several tens because of the increase in friction experienced by fibrillar structures as they move relative to the surrounding liquid; the tension of the fibers changes the hydrodynamic conditions of the flow around them. Finally, at higher frequencies, the attenuation is associated with the rheological properties of biological molecules, in particular, with their conformational dynamics in the wave field. Models that describe the controlled shock dissipation mechanisms are proposed. Corresponding solutions are found, including those that allow for nonlinear effects.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: Methods to Form Skeletal Myotubes and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined. PMID:24320971

  4. Effect of statins on skeletal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Capizzi, Jeffrey A; Grimaldi, Adam S; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Cole, Stephanie M; Keadle, Justin; Chipkin, Stuart; Pescatello, Linda S; Simpson, Kathleen; White, C Michael; Thompson, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    Many clinicians believe that statins cause muscle pain, but this has not been observed in clinical trials, and the effect of statins on muscle performance has not been carefully studied. The Effect of Statins on Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance (STOMP) study assessed symptoms and measured creatine kinase, exercise capacity, and muscle strength before and after atorvastatin 80 mg or placebo was administered for 6 months to 420 healthy, statin-naive subjects. No individual creatine kinase value exceeded 10 times normal, but average creatine kinase increased 20.8±141.1 U/L (P<0.0001) with atorvastatin. There were no significant changes in several measures of muscle strength or exercise capacity with atorvastatin, but more atorvastatin than placebo subjects developed myalgia (19 versus 10; P=0.05). Myalgic subjects on atorvastatin or placebo had decreased muscle strength in 5 of 14 and 4 of 14 variables, respectively (P=0.69). These results indicate that high-dose atorvastatin for 6 months does not decrease average muscle strength or exercise performance in healthy, previously untreated subjects. Nevertheless, this blinded, controlled trial confirms the undocumented impression that statins increase muscle complaints. Atorvastatin also increased average creatine kinase, suggesting that statins produce mild muscle injury even among asymptomatic subjects. This increase in creatine kinase should prompt studies examining the effects of more prolonged, high-dose statin treatment on muscular performance. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00609063.

  5. Characterization of muscle ankyrin repeat proteins in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wette, Stefan G; Smith, Heather K; Lamb, Graham D; Murphy, Robyn M

    2017-09-01

    Muscle ankyrin repeat proteins (MARPs) are a family of titin-associated, stress-response molecules and putative transducers of stretch-induced signaling in skeletal muscle. In cardiac muscle, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) and diabetes-related ankyrin repeat protein (DARP) reportedly redistribute from binding sites on titin to the nucleus following a prolonged stretch. However, it is unclear whether ankyrin repeat domain protein 2 (Ankrd 2) shows comparable stretch-induced redistribution to the nucleus. We measured the following in rested human skeletal muscle: 1 ) the absolute amount of MARPs and 2 ) the distribution of Ankrd 2 and DARP in both single fibers and whole muscle preparations. In absolute amounts, Ankrd 2 is the most abundant MARP in human skeletal muscle, there being ~3.1 µmol/kg, much greater than DARP and CARP (~0.11 and ~0.02 µmol/kg, respectively). All DARP was found to be tightly bound at cytoskeletal (or possibly nuclear) sites. In contrast, ~70% of the total Ankrd 2 is freely diffusible in the cytosol [including virtually all of the phosphorylated (p)Ankrd 2-Ser99 form], ~15% is bound to non-nuclear membranes, and ~15% is bound at cytoskeletal sites, likely at the N2A region of titin. These data are not consistent with the proposal that Ankrd 2, per se, or pAnkrd 2-Ser99 mediates stretch-induced signaling in skeletal muscle, dissociating from titin and translocating to the nucleus, because the majority of these forms of Ankrd 2 are already free in the cytosol. It will be necessary to show that the titin-associated Ankrd 2 is modified by stretch in some as-yet-unidentified way, distinct from the diffusible pool, if it is to act as a stretch-sensitive signaling molecule. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Autophagy and Skeletal Muscles in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Mofarrahi, Mahroo; Sigala, Ioanna; Guo, Yeting; Godin, Richard; Davis, Elaine C.; Petrof, Basil; Sandri, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial injury develops in skeletal muscles during the course of severe sepsis. Autophagy is a protein and organelle recycling pathway which functions to degrade or recycle unnecessary, redundant, or inefficient cellular components. No information is available regarding the degree of sepsis-induced mitochondrial injury and autophagy in the ventilatory and locomotor muscles. This study tests the hypotheses that the locomotor muscles are more prone to sepsis-induced mitochondrial injury, depressed biogenesis and autophagy induction compared with the ventilatory muscles. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult male C57/Bl6 mice were injected with i.p. phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 20 mg/kg) and sacrificed 24 h later. The tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOLD) and diaphragm (DIA) muscles were quickly excised and examined for mitochondrial morphological injury, Ca++ retention capacity and biogenesis. Autophagy was detected with electron microscopy, lipidation of Lc3b proteins and by measuring gene expression of several autophagy-related genes. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural injuries in the mitochondria of each muscle, however, injuries were more severe in the TA and SOL muscles than they were in the DIA. Gene expressions of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription factors and co-activators (indicators of biogenesis) were significantly depressed in all treated muscles, although to a greater extent in the TA and SOL muscles. Significant autophagosome formation, Lc3b protein lipidation and upregulation of autophagy-related proteins were detected to a greater extent in the TA and SOL muscles and less so in the DIA. Lipidation of Lc3b and the degree of induction of autophagy-related proteins were significantly blunted in mice expressing a muscle-specific IκBα superrepresor. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that locomotor muscles are more prone to sepsis-induced mitochondrial injury, decreased biogenesis

  7. Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression and elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25098362

  8. Imaging skeletal muscle with linearly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Ranasinghesagara, J.; Yao, G.

    2008-04-01

    We developed a polarization sensitive imaging system that can acquire reflectance images in turbid samples using incident light of different polarization states. Using this system, we studied polarization imaging on bovine sternomandibularis muscle strips using light of two orthogonal linearly polarized states. We found the obtained polarization sensitive reflectance images had interesting patterns depending on the polarization states. In addition, we computed four elements of the Mueller matrix from the acquired images. As a comparison, we also obtained polarization images of a 20% Intralipid"R" solution and compared the results with those from muscle samples. We found that the polarization imaging patterns from Intralipid solution can be described with a model based on single-scattering approximation. However, the polarization images in muscle had distinct patterns and can not be explained by this simple model. These results implied that the unique structural properties of skeletal muscle play important roles in modulating the propagation of polarized light.

  9. Skeletal muscle regeneration and impact of aging and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Domingues-Faria, Carla; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Goncalves-Mendes, Nicolas; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stephane

    2016-03-01

    After skeletal muscle injury a regeneration process takes place to repair muscle. Skeletal muscle recovery is a highly coordinated process involving cross-talk between immune and muscle cells. It is well known that the physiological activities of both immune cells and muscle stem cells decline with advancing age, thereby blunting the capacity of skeletal muscle to regenerate. The age-related reduction in muscle repair efficiency contributes to the development of sarcopenia, one of the most important factors of disability in elderly people. Preserving muscle regeneration capacity may slow the development of this syndrome. In this context, nutrition has drawn much attention: studies have demonstrated that nutrients such as amino acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols and vitamin D can improve skeletal muscle regeneration by targeting key functions of immune cells, muscle cells or both. Here we review the process of skeletal muscle regeneration with a special focus on the cross-talk between immune and muscle cells. We address the effect of aging on immune and skeletal muscle cells involved in muscle regeneration. Finally, the mechanisms of nutrient action on muscle regeneration are described, showing that quality of nutrition may help to preserve the capacity for skeletal muscle regeneration with age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    There were two major goals for my project. One was to examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter. This initial goal was subsequently modified so that additional developmental measures were taken (e.g. body weight, eye opening) as the progeny developed, and the study period was lengthened to eighty days. Also videotapes taken shortly after the pregnant Flight dams returned to Earth were scored for locomotor activity and compared to those for the Synchronous control dams at the same stage of pregnancy. The second goal was to examine skeletal muscle. Selected hindlimb skeletal muscles were to be identified, weighed, and examined for the presence and integrity of muscle receptors, (both muscle spindles and tendon organs), at the level of the light and electron microscope. Muscles were examined from rats that were at fetal (G20), newborn (postnatal day 1 or P1, where P1 = day of birth), and young adult (approx. P100) stages. At the present time data from only the last group of rats (i.e. P100) has been completely examined.

  11. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria and Aging: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Courtney M.; Johannsen, Darcy L.; Ravussin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. Declines in skeletal muscle mitochondria are thought to play a primary role in this process. Mitochondria are the major producers of reactive oxygen species, which damage DNA, proteins, and lipids if not rapidly quenched. Animal and human studies typically show that skeletal muscle mitochondria are altered with aging, including increased mutations in mitochondrial DNA, decreased activity of some mitochondrial enzymes, altered respiration with reduced maximal capacity at least in sedentary individuals, and reduced total mitochondrial content with increased morphological changes. However, there has been much controversy over measurements of mitochondrial energy production, which may largely be explained by differences in approach and by whether physical activity is controlled for. These changes may in turn alter mitochondrial dynamics, such as fusion and fission rates, and mitochondrially induced apoptosis, which may also lead to net muscle fiber loss and age-related sarcopenia. Fortunately, strategies such as exercise and caloric restriction that reduce oxidative damage also improve mitochondrial function. While these strategies may not completely prevent the primary effects of aging, they may help to attenuate the rate of decline. PMID:22888430

  12. Effect of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Current knowledge and questions remaining concerning the effects of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle is reviewed. The most dramatic of these effects is muscle atrophy, which has been noted in cases of muscles fixed at or below their resting length. Immobilization is also accompanied by a substantial decrease in motoneuronal discharges, which results in the conversion of slow-twitch muscle to muscle with fast-twitch characteristics. Sarcolemma effects include no change or a decrease in resting membrane potential, the appearance of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors, and no change in acetylcholinesterase activity. Evidence of changes in motoneuron after hyperpolarization characteristics suggests that the muscle inactivity is responsible for neuronal changes, rather than vice versa. The rate of protein loss from atrophying muscles is determined solely by the first-order rate constant for degradation. Various other biochemical and functional changes have been noted, including decreased insulin responsiveness and protein synthesis. The model of limb immobilization may also be useful for related studies of muscle adaptation.

  13. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal muscle weakness can increase the duration of hospitalization, result in exercise limitation, and contribute to a poor quality of life. Importantly, skeletal muscle atrophy is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality of patients. Therefore, improving our understanding of the mechanism(s) responsible for skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue in patients is a required first step to develop clinical protocols to prevent these skeletal muscle problems. This review will highlight the consequences and potential mechanisms responsible for skeletal muscle atrophy and fatigue in patients suffering from acute critical illness, cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, and neurological disorders. PMID:27128663

  14. Regulatory T cells and skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schiaffino, Stefano; Pereira, Marcelo G; Ciciliot, Stefano; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2017-02-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration results from the activation and differentiation of myogenic stem cells, called satellite cells, located beneath the basal lamina of the muscle fibers. Inflammatory and immune cells have a crucial role in the regeneration process. Acute muscle injury causes an immediate transient wave of neutrophils followed by a more persistent infiltration of M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory/proregenerative) macrophages. New studies show that injured muscle is also infiltrated by a specialized population of regulatory T (Treg) cells, which control both the inflammatory response, by promoting the M1-to-M2 switch, and the activation of satellite cells. Treg cells accumulate in injured muscle in response to specific cytokines, such as IL-33, and promote muscle growth by releasing growth factors, such as amphiregulin. Muscle repair during aging is impaired due to reduced number of Treg cells and can be enhanced by IL-33 supplementation. Migration of Treg cells could also contribute to explain the effect of heterochronic parabiosis, whereby muscle regeneration of aged mice can be improved by a parabiotically linked young partners. In mdx dystrophin-deficient mice, a model of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy, muscle injury, and inflammation is mitigated by expansion of the Treg-cell population but exacerbated by Treg-cell depletion. These findings support the notion that immunological mechanisms are not only essential in the response to pathogenic microbes and tumor cells but also have a wider homeostatic role in tissue repair, and open new perspectives for boosting muscle growth in chronic muscle disease and during aging. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, U F; Rasmussen, H N

    2000-04-01

    Under aerobic work, the oxygen consumption and major ATP production occur in the mitochondria and it is therefore a relevant question whether the in vivo rates can be accounted for by mitochondrial capacities measured in vitro. Mitochondria were isolated from human quadriceps muscle biopsies in yields of approximately 45%. The tissue content of total creatine, mitochondrial protein and different cytochromes was estimated. A number of activities were measured in functional assays of the mitochondria: pyruvate, ketoglutarate, glutamate and succinate dehydrogenases, palmitoyl-carnitine respiration, cytochrome oxidase, the respiratory chain and the ATP synthesis. The activities involved in carbohydrate oxidation could account for in vivo oxygen uptakes of 15-16 mmol O2 min-1 kg-1 or slightly above the value measured at maximal work rates in the knee-extensor model of Saltin and co-workers, i.e. without limitation from the cardiac output. This probably indicates that the maximal oxygen consumption of the muscle is limited by the mitochondrial capacities. The in vitro activities of fatty acid oxidation corresponded to only 39% of those of carbohydrate oxidation. The maximal rate of free energy production from aerobic metabolism of glycogen was calculated from the mitochondrial activities and estimates of the DeltaG or ATP hydrolysis and the efficiency of the actin-myosin reaction. The resultant value was 20 W kg-1 or approximately 70% of the maximal in vivo work rates of which 10-20% probably are sustained by the anaerobic ATP production. The lack of aerobic in vitro ATP synthesis might reflect termination of some critical interplay between cytoplasm and mitochondria.

  16. Stem Cells for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Pantelic, Molly N; Larkin, Lisa M

    2018-04-19

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a debilitating condition wherein muscle loss overwhelms the body's normal physiological repair mechanism. VML is particularly common among military service members who have sustained war injuries. Because of the high social and medical cost associated with VML and suboptimal current surgical treatments, there is great interest in developing better VML therapies. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) is a promising alternative to traditional VML surgical treatments that use autogenic tissue grafts, and rather uses isolated stem cells with myogenic potential to generate de novo skeletal muscle tissues to treat VML. Satellite cells are the native precursors to skeletal muscle tissue, and are thus the most commonly studied starting source for SMTE. However, satellite cells are difficult to isolate and purify, and it is presently unknown whether they would be a practical source in clinical SMTE applications. Alternative myogenic stem cells, including adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, perivascular stem cells, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonic stem cells, each have myogenic potential and have been identified as possible starting sources for SMTE, although they have yet to be studied in detail for this purpose. These alternative stem cell varieties offer unique advantages and disadvantages that are worth exploring further to advance the SMTE field toward highly functional, safe, and practical VML treatments. The following review summarizes the current state of satellite cell-based SMTE, details the properties and practical advantages of alternative myogenic stem cells, and offers guidance to tissue engineers on how alternative myogenic stem cells can be incorporated into SMTE research.

  17. 3D Cell Printing of Functional Skeletal Muscle Constructs Using Skeletal Muscle-Derived Bioink.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Taek Gyoung; Jeong, Jonghyeon; Yi, Hee-Gyeong; Park, Ji Won; Hwang, Woonbong; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-10-01

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues that mimic the structure and function of native muscle have been considered as an alternative strategy for the treatment of various muscular diseases and injuries. Here, it is demonstrated that 3D cell-printing of decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (mdECM)-based bioink facilitates the fabrication of functional skeletal muscle constructs. The cellular alignment and the shape of the tissue constructs are controlled by 3D cell-printing technology. mdECM bioink provides the 3D cell-printed muscle constructs with a myogenic environment that supports high viability and contractility as well as myotube formation, differentiation, and maturation. More interestingly, the preservation of agrin is confirmed in the mdECM, and significant increases in the formation of acetylcholine receptor clusters are exhibited in the 3D cell-printed muscle constructs. In conclusion, mdECM bioink and 3D cell-printing technology facilitate the mimicking of both the structural and functional properties of native muscle and hold great promise for producing clinically relevant engineered muscle for the treatment of muscular injuries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. GLUT-3 expression in human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Peng, B. H.; Popov, V. L.; Hudnall, S. D.; Campbell, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle biopsy homogenates contain GLUT-3 mRNA and protein. Before these studies, it was unclear where GLUT-3 was located in muscle tissue. In situ hybridization using a midmolecule probe demonstrated GLUT-3 within all muscle fibers. Fluorescent-tagged antibody reacting with affinity-purified antibody directed at the carboxy-terminus demonstrated GLUT-3 protein in all fibers. Slow-twitch muscle fibers, identified by NADH-tetrazolium reductase staining, possessed more GLUT-3 protein than fast-twitch fibers. Electron microscopy using affinity-purified primary antibody and gold particle-tagged second antibody showed that the majority of GLUT-3 was in association with triads and transverse tubules inside the fiber. Strong GLUT-3 signals were seen in association with the few nerves that traversed muscle sections. Electron microscopic evaluation of human peripheral nerve demonstrated GLUT-3 within the axon, with many of the particles related to mitochondria. GLUT-3 protein was found in myelin but not in Schwann cells. GLUT-1 protein was not present in nerve cells, axons, myelin, or Schwann cells but was seen at the surface of the peripheral nerve in the perineurium. These studies demonstrated that GLUT-3 mRNA and protein are expressed throughout normal human skeletal muscle, but the protein is predominantly found in the triads of slow-twitch muscle fibers.

  19. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.Berger@Monash.edu; Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D.

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in anmore » otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.« less

  20. FGFR1 inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy associated with hindlimb suspension

    PubMed Central

    Eash, John; Olsen, Aaron; Breur, Gert; Gerrard, Dave; Hannon, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur under many different conditions, including prolonged disuse or immobilization, cachexia, cushingoid conditions, secondary to surgery, or with advanced age. The mechanisms by which unloading of muscle is sensed and translated into signals controlling tissue reduction remains a major question in the field of musculoskeletal research. While the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors are synthesized by, and intimately involved in, embryonic skeletal muscle growth and repair, their role maintaining adult muscle status has not been examined. Methods We examined the effects of ectopic expression of FGFR1 during disuse-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy, utilizing hindlimb suspension and DNA electroporation in mice. Results We found skeletal muscle FGF4 and FGFR1 mRNA expression to be modified by hind limb suspension,. In addition, we found FGFR1 protein localized in muscle fibers within atrophying mouse muscle which appeared to be resistant to atrophy. Electroporation and ectopic expression of FGFR1 significantly inhibited the decrease in muscle fiber area within skeletal muscles of mice undergoing suspension induced muscle atrophy. Ectopic FGFR1 expression in muscle also significantly stimulated protein synthesis in muscle fibers, and increased protein degradation in weight bearing muscle fibers. Conclusion These results support the theory that FGF signaling can play a role in regulation of postnatal skeletal muscle maintenance, and could offer potentially novel and efficient therapeutic options for attenuating muscle atrophy during aging, illness and spaceflight. PMID:17425786

  1. Regenerating skeletal muscle in the face of aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Jasuja, Ravi; LeBrasseur, Nathan K

    2014-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is a fundamental organ in the generation of force and movement, the regulation of whole-body metabolism, and the provision of resiliency. Indeed, physical medicine and rehabilitation is recognized for optimizing skeletal muscle health in the context of aging (sarcopenia) and disease (cachexia). Exercise is, and will remain, the cornerstone of therapies to improve skeletal muscle health. However, there are now a number of promising biologic and small molecule interventions currently under development to rejuvenate skeletal muscle, including myostatin inhibitors, selective androgen receptor modulators, and an activator of the fast skeletal muscle troponin complex. The opportunities for skeletal muscle-based regenerative therapies and a selection of emerging pharmacologic interventions are discussed in this review.

  2. Skeletal muscle disorders of glycogenolysis and glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Richard; Quinlivan, Ros

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle disorders of glycogenolysis and glycolysis account for most of the conditions collectively termed glycogen storage diseases (GSDs). These disorders are rare (incidence 1 in 20,000-43,000 live births), and are caused by autosomal or X-linked recessive mutations that result in a specific enzyme deficiency, leading to the inability to utilize muscle glycogen as an energy substrate. McArdle disease (GSD V) is the most common of these disorders, and is caused by mutations in the gene encoding muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Symptoms of McArdle disease and most other related GSDs include exercise intolerance, muscle contracture, acute rhabdomyolysis, and risk of acute renal failure. Older patients may exhibit muscle wasting and weakness involving the paraspinal muscles and shoulder girdle. For patients with these conditions, engaging with exercise is likely to be beneficial. Diagnosis is frequently delayed owing to the rarity of the conditions and lack of access to appropriate investigations. A few randomized clinical trials have been conducted, some focusing on dietary modification, although the quality of the evidence is low and no specific recommendations can yet be made. The development of EUROMAC, an international registry for these disorders, should improve our knowledge of their natural histories and provide a platform for future clinical trials.

  3. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES: IMPACT ON SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott K.; Ji, Li Li; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that contracting muscles produce both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Although the sources of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, growing evidence suggests that mitochondria are not the dominant source. Regardless of the sources of oxidants in contracting muscles, intense and prolonged exercise can result in oxidative damage to both proteins and lipids in the contracting myocytes. Further, oxidants regulate numerous cell signaling pathways and modulate the expression of many genes. This oxidant-mediated change in gene expression involves changes at transcriptional, mRNA stability, and signal transduction levels. Furthermore, numerous products associated with oxidant-modulated genes have been identified and include antioxidant enzymes, stress proteins, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species result in contractile dysfunction and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to explore the redox-sensitive targets in muscle that are responsible for both redox-regulation of muscle adaptation and oxidant-mediated muscle fatigue. PMID:23737208

  4. Effects of regular exercise training on skeletal muscle contractile function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is critical to movement and one's ability to perform daily tasks, such as eating and walking. One objective of this article is to review the contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle and single fibers, with particular emphasis on the cellular events that control or rate limit the important mechanical properties. Another important goal of this article is to present the current understanding of how the contractile properties of limb skeletal muscle adapt to programs of regular exercise.

  5. Osmoregulatory processes and skeletal muscle metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschmann, Michael; Gottschalk, Simone; Adams, Frauke; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    Prolonged microgravity during space flight is associated with a decrease in blood and extracellular volume. These changes in water and electrolyte balance might activate catabolic processes which contribute finally to the loss of muscle and bone mass and strength. Recently, we found a prompt increase that energy expenditure by about 30% in both normal and overweight men and women after drinking 500 ml water. This effect is mediated by an increased sympathetic nervous system activity, obviously secondary to stimulation of osmosensitive afferent neurons in the liver, and skeletal muscle is possibly one effector organ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this thermogenic response to water is accompanied by a stimulation of aerobic glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. To this end, 16 young healthy volunteers (8 men) were studied. After an overnight fast (12h), a microdialysis probe was implanted into the right M. quadriceps femoris vastus lateralis and subsequently perfused with Ringer's solution (+50 mM ethanol). After 1h, volunteers were asked to drink 500 ml water (22° C) followed by continuing microdialysis for another 90 min. Dialysates (15 min fractions) were analyzed for [ethanol], [glucose], [lactate], [pyruvate], and [glycerol] in order to assess changes in muscle tissue perfusion (ethanol dilution technique), glycolysis and lipolysis. Blood samples were taken and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Neither HR and systolic and diastolic BP, nor plasma [glucose], [lactate], [insulin], and [C peptide] changed significantly after water drinking. Also, tissue perfusion and dialysate [glucose] did not change significantly. However, dialysate [lactate] increased by about 10 and 20% and dialysate [pyruvate] by about 100 and 200% in men and women, respectively. In contrast, dialysate [glycerol] decreased by about 30 and 20% in men and women, respectively. Therefore, drinking of 500 ml water stimulates aerobic glucose metabolism and inhibits

  6. Biophysical Stimulation for Engineering Functional Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Somers, Sarah M; Spector, Alexander A; DiGirolamo, Douglas J; Grayson, Warren L

    2017-08-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising therapeutic strategy to regenerate skeletal muscle. However, ex vivo cultivation methods typically result in a low differentiation efficiency of stem cells as well as grafts that resemble the native tissues morphologically, but lack contractile function. The application of biomimetic tensile strain provides a potent stimulus for enhancing myogenic differentiation and engineering functional skeletal muscle grafts. We reviewed integrin-dependent mechanisms that potentially link mechanotransduction pathways to the upregulation of myogenic genes. Yet, gaps in our understanding make it challenging to use these pathways to theoretically determine optimal ex vivo strain regimens. A multitude of strain protocols have been applied to in vitro cultures for the cultivation of myogenic progenitors (adipose- and bone marrow-derived stem cells and satellite cells) and transformed murine myoblasts, C2C12s. Strain regimens are characterized by orientation, amplitude, and time-dependent factors (effective frequency, duration, and the rest period between successive strain cycles). Analysis of published data has identified possible minimum/maximum values for these parameters and suggests that uniaxial strains may be more potent than biaxial strains, possibly because they more closely mimic physiologic strain profiles. The application of these biophysical stimuli for engineering 3D skeletal muscle grafts is nontrivial and typically requires custom-designed bioreactors used in combination with biomaterial scaffolds. Consideration of the physical properties of these scaffolds is critical for effective transmission of the applied strains to encapsulated cells. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that biomimetic tensile strain generally results in improved myogenic outcomes in myogenic progenitors and differentiated myoblasts. However, for 3D systems, the optimization of the strain regimen may require the entire system including cells, biomaterials

  7. Dolichol-phosphate mannose synthase depletion in zebrafish leads to dystrophic muscle with hypoglycosylated α-dystroglycan.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Maria; Pappalardo, Andrea; Baldacci, Jacopo; Verri, Tiziano; Doccini, Stefano; Cassandrini, Denise; Bruno, Claudio; Fiorillo, Chiara; Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Bertini, Enrico; Pitto, Letizia; Santorelli, Filippo M

    2016-08-12

    Defective dolichol-phosphate mannose synthase (DPMS) complex is a rare cause of congenital muscular dystrophy associated with hypoglycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (α-DG) in skeletal muscle. We used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) to model muscle abnormalities due to defects in the subunits of DPMS. The three zebrafish ortholog subunits (encoded by the dpm1, dpm2 and dpm3 genes, respectively) showed high similarity to the human proteins, and their expression displayed localization in the midbrain/hindbrain area and somites. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeting each subunit were used to transiently deplete the dpm genes. The resulting morphant embryos showed early death, muscle disorganization, low DPMS complex activity, and increased levels of apoptotic nuclei, together with hypoglycosylated α-DG in muscle fibers, thus recapitulating most of the characteristics seen in patients with mutations in DPMS. Our results in zebrafish suggest that DPMS plays a role in stabilizing muscle structures and in apoptotic cell death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Skeletal muscle responses to unloading in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G.; Tesch, P.; Hather, B.; Adams, G.; Buchanan, P.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the effects of unloading on skeletal muscle structure. Method: Eight subjects walked on crutches for six weeks with a 110 cm elevated sole on the right shoe. This removed weight bearing by the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of both lower limbs and biopsies of the left m. vastus laterallis (VL) were used to study muscle structure. Results: Unloading decreased (P less than 0.05) muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the knee extensors 16 percent. The knee flexors showed about 1/2 of this response (-7 percent, P less than 0.05). The three vasti muscles each showed decreases (P less than 0.05) of about 15 percent. M. rectus femoris did not change. Mean fiber CSA in VL decreased (P less than 0.05) 14 percent with type 2 and type 1 fibers showing reductions of 15 and 11 percent respectively. The ankle extensors showed a 20 percent decrease (P less than 0.05) in CSA. The reduction for the 'fast' m. gastrocnemius was 27 percent compared to the 18 percent decrease for the 'slow' soleus. Summary: The results suggest that decreases in muscle CSA are determined by the relative change in impact loading history because atrophy was (1) greater in extensor than flexor muscles, (2) at least as great in fast as compared to slow muscles or fibers, and (3) not dependent on single or multi-joint function. They also suggest that the atrophic responses to unloading reported for lower mammals are quantitatively but not qualitatively similar to those of humans.

  9. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell Activation Following Cutaneous Burn in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    satellite cell activation and survival during oxidative stress. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 2011;32(2):99–109. [33] Rathbone CR, Booth FW, Lees SJ. Sirt1 ...Skeletal muscle satellite cell activation following cutaneous burn in rats Xiaowu Wu*, Thomas J. Walters, Christopher R. Rathbone Extremity Trauma...f o Article history: Accepted 15 October 2012 Keywords: Muscle precursor cell Thermal injury Atrophy Skeletal muscle Activation a b s t r a c t

  10. Structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle.

  11. Motor Force Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Gao, Huajian

    2011-01-01

    In active biological contractile processes such as skeletal muscle contraction, cellular mitosis, and neuronal growth, an interesting common observation is that multiple motors can perform coordinated and synchronous actions, whereas individual myosin motors appear to randomly attach to and detach from actin filaments. Recent experiment has demonstrated that, during skeletal muscle shortening at a wide range of velocities, individual myosin motors maintain a force of ∼6 pN during a working stroke. To understand how such force-homeostasis can be so precisely regulated in an apparently chaotic system, here we develop a molecular model within a coupled stochastic-elastic theoretical framework. The model reveals that the unique force-stretch relation of myosin motor and the stochastic behavior of actin-myosin binding cause the average number of working motors to increase in linear proportion to the filament load, so that the force on each working motor is regulated at ∼6 pN, in excellent agreement with experiment. This study suggests that it might be a general principle to use catch bonds together with a force-stretch relation similar to that of myosin motors to regulate force homeostasis in many biological processes. PMID:21767492

  12. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor); Booth, Frank W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  13. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  14. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman W.

    1987-01-01

    New muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow embryonic skeletal myofibers which are able to differentiate into more adultlike myofibers. Studies on mechanical simulation of cultured muscle cell growth will now be more directly applicable to mechanically-induced growth in adult muscle, and lead to better models for understanding muscle tissue atrophy caused by disuse in the microgravity of space.

  15. Structural analysis of alterations in zebrafish muscle differentiation induced by simvastatin and their recovery with cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luís

    2015-06-01

    In vitro studies show that cholesterol is essential to myogenesis. We have been using zebrafish to overcome the limitations of the in vitro approach and to study the sub-cellular structures and processes involved during myogenesis. We use simvastatin--a drug widely used to prevent high levels of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease--during zebrafish skeletal muscle formation. Simvastatin is an efficient inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis that has various myotoxic consequences. Here, we employed simvastatin concentrations that cause either mild or severe morphological disturbances to observe changes in the cytoskeleton (intermediate filaments and microfilaments), extracellular matrix and adhesion markers by confocal microscopy. With low-dose simvastatin treatment, laminin was almost normal, and alpha-actinin was reduced in the myofibrils. With high simvastatin doses, laminin and vinculin were reduced and appeared discontinuous along the septa, with almost no myofibrils, and small amounts of desmin accumulating close to the septa. We also analyzed sub-cellular alterations in the embryos by electron microscopy, and demonstrate changes in embryo and somite size, septa shape, and in myofibril structure. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin in muscle cells in particular, and in the study of myogenesis in general. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Structural Analysis of Alterations in Zebrafish Muscle Differentiation Induced by Simvastatin and Their Recovery with Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Laise M.; Rios, Eduardo A.; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luís

    2015-01-01

    In vitro studies show that cholesterol is essential to myogenesis. We have been using zebrafish to overcome the limitations of the in vitro approach and to study the sub-cellular structures and processes involved during myogenesis. We use simvastatin—a drug widely used to prevent high levels of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease—during zebrafish skeletal muscle formation. Simvastatin is an efficient inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis that has various myotoxic consequences. Here, we employed simvastatin concentrations that cause either mild or severe morphological disturbances to observe changes in the cytoskeleton (intermediate filaments and microfilaments), extracellular matrix and adhesion markers by confocal microscopy. With low-dose simvastatin treatment, laminin was almost normal, and alpha-actinin was reduced in the myofibrils. With high simvastatin doses, laminin and vinculin were reduced and appeared discontinuous along the septa, with almost no myofibrils, and small amounts of desmin accumulating close to the septa. We also analyzed sub-cellular alterations in the embryos by electron microscopy, and demonstrate changes in embryo and somite size, septa shape, and in myofibril structure. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin in muscle cells in particular, and in the study of myogenesis in general. PMID:25786435

  17. A focus on extracellular Ca2+ entry into skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chung-Hyun; Woo, Jin Seok; Perez, Claudio F; Lee, Eun Hui

    2017-01-01

    The main task of skeletal muscle is contraction and relaxation for body movement and posture maintenance. During contraction and relaxation, Ca2+ in the cytosol has a critical role in activating and deactivating a series of contractile proteins. In skeletal muscle, the cytosolic Ca2+ level is mainly determined by Ca2+ movements between the cytosol and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The importance of Ca2+ entry from extracellular spaces to the cytosol has gained significant attention over the past decade. Store-operated Ca2+ entry with a low amplitude and relatively slow kinetics is a main extracellular Ca2+ entryway into skeletal muscle. Herein, recent studies on extracellular Ca2+ entry into skeletal muscle are reviewed along with descriptions of the proteins that are related to extracellular Ca2+ entry and their influences on skeletal muscle function and disease. PMID:28912570

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J.; Galloway, Stuart D. R.; Hamilton, D. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  19. Response of skeletal muscle mitochondria to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hoppeler, Hans; Vogt, Michael; Weibel, Ewald R; Flück, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This review explores the current concepts relating the structural and functional modifications of skeletal muscle mitochondria to the molecular mechanisms activated when organisms are exposed to a hypoxic environment. In contrast to earlier assumptions it is now established that permanent or long-term exposure to severe environmental hypoxia decreases the mitochondrial content of muscle fibres. Oxidative muscle metabolism is shifted towards a higher reliance on carbohydrates as a fuel, and intramyocellular lipid substrate stores are reduced. Moreover, in muscle cells of mountaineers returning from the Himalayas, we find accumulations of lipofuscin, believed to be a mitochondrial degradation product. Low mitochondrial contents are also observed in high-altitude natives such as Sherpas. In these subjects high-altitude performance seems to be improved by better coupling between ATP demand and supply pathways as well as better metabolite homeostasis. The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been identified as a master regulator for the expression of genes involved in the hypoxia response, such as genes coding for glucose transporters, glycolytic enzymes and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). HIF-1 achieves this by binding to hypoxia response elements in the promoter regions of these genes, whereby the increase of HIF-1 in hypoxia is the consequence of a reduced degradation of its dominant subunit HIF-1a. A further mechanism that seems implicated in the hypoxia response of muscle mitochondria is related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria during oxidative phosphorylation. How exactly ROS interfere with HIF-1a as well as MAP kinase and other signalling pathways is debated. The current evidence suggests that mitochondria themselves could be important players in oxygen sensing.

  20. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    Muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow skeletal myofibers which differentiate into more adult-like myofibers. Mechanical simulation studies of these muscle cells in a newly developed mechanical cell simulator can now be performed to study growth processes in skeletal muscle. Conditions in the mechanical cell simulator were defined where mechanical activity can either prevent muscle wasting or stimulate muscle growth. The role of endogenous and exogenous growth factors in tension-induced muscle growth is being investigated under the defined conditions of tissue culture.

  1. The response of human skeletal muscle tissue to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lundby, Carsten; Calbet, Jose A L; Robach, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Hypoxia refers to environmental or clinical settings that potentially threaten tissue oxygen homeostasis. One unique aspect of skeletal muscle is that, in addition to hypoxia, oxygen balance in this tissue may be further compromised when exercise is superimposed on hypoxia. This review focuses on the cellular and molecular responses of human skeletal muscle to acute and chronic hypoxia, with emphasis on physical exercise and training. Based on published work, it is suggested that hypoxia does not appear to promote angiogenesis or to greatly alter oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle at rest. Although the HIF-1 pathway in skeletal muscle is still poorly documented, emerging evidence suggests that muscle HIF-1 signaling is only activated to a minor degree by hypoxia. On the other hand, combining hypoxia with exercise appears to improve some aspects of muscle O(2) transport and/or metabolism.

  2. Effect of experimental hyperthyroidism on skeletal-muscle proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Carter, W J; van der Weijden Benjamin, W S; Faas, F H

    1981-03-15

    It is not clear whether the muscle wasting commonly observed in hyperthyroidism is due to alteration in the rate of protein synthesis or degradation. The effect of experimental hyperthyroidism on skeletal-muscle proteolysis in the rat was studied by measuring alanine and tyrosine release from isolated skeletal muscles in vitro and 3-methyl-histidine excretion in vivo. Alanine release from the isolated epitrochlaris-muscle preparation was increased as soon as 24h after a 25 microgram dose of L-tri-iodothyronine in vivo. Conversely, alanine release from muscles of hypothyroid rats was decreased, but restored by L-tri-iodothyronine supplementation before death. Furthermore, 3-methylhistidine excretion was increased in hyperthyroid rats throughout an 18-day treatment period. The increased amino acid release from isolated muscles and the increased 3-methylhistidine excretion in vivo strongly suggests that hyperthyroidism increases skeletal-muscle proteolysis. Furthermore, the thyroid-hormone concentration may be an important factor in regulating muscle proteolysis.

  3. Skeletal muscle proteomic signature and metabolic impairment in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malenfant, Simon; Potus, François; Fournier, Frédéric; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Pflieger, Aude; Bourassa, Sylvie; Tremblay, Ève; Nehmé, Benjamin; Droit, Arnaud; Bonnet, Sébastien; Provencher, Steeve

    2015-05-01

    Exercise limitation comes from a close interaction between cardiovascular and skeletal muscle impairments. To better understand the implication of possible peripheral oxidative metabolism dysfunction, we studied the proteomic signature of skeletal muscle in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Eight idiopathic PAH patients and eight matched healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated for exercise capacity, skeletal muscle proteomic profile, metabolism, and mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle proteins were extracted, and fractioned peptides were tagged using an iTRAQ protocol. Proteomic analyses have documented a total of 9 downregulated proteins in PAH skeletal muscles and 10 upregulated proteins compared to healthy subjects. Most of the downregulated proteins were related to mitochondrial structure and function. Focusing on skeletal muscle metabolism and mitochondrial health, PAH patients presented a decreased expression of oxidative enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogenase, p < 0.01) and an increased expression of glycolytic enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase activity, p < 0.05). These findings were supported by abnormal mitochondrial morphology on electronic microscopy, lower citrate synthase activity (p < 0.01) and lower expression of the transcription factor A of the mitochondria (p < 0.05), confirming a more glycolytic metabolism in PAH skeletal muscles. We provide evidences that impaired mitochondrial and metabolic functions found in the lungs and the right ventricle are also present in skeletal muscles of patients. • Proteomic and metabolic analysis show abnormal oxidative metabolism in PAH skeletal muscle. • EM of PAH patients reveals abnormal mitochondrial structure and distribution. • Abnormal mitochondrial health and function contribute to exercise impairments of PAH. • PAH may be considered a vascular affliction of heart and lungs with major impact on peripheral muscles.

  4. Skeletal-muscle growth and protein turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Millward, D J; Garlick, P J; Stewart, R J; Nnanyelugo, D O; Waterlow, J C

    1975-01-01

    Because of turnover, protein synthesis and breakdown can each be involved in the regulation of the growth of tissue protein. To investigate the regulation of skeletal-muscle-protein growth we measured rates of protein synthesis and breakdown in growing rats during development on a good diet, during development on a marginally low-protein diet and during rehabilitation on a good diet after a period of severe protein deficiency. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo with a constant intravenous infusion of [14C]tyrosine. The growth rate of muscle protein was measured and the rate of breakdown calculated as breakdown rate=synthesis rate-growth rate. These measurements showed that during development on a good diet there was a fall with age in the rate of protein synthesis resulting from a fall in capacity (RNA concentration) and activity (synthesis rate per unit of RNA). There was a fall with age in the breakdown rate so that the rate was highest in the weaning rats, with a half-life of 3 days. There was a direct correlation between the fractional growth and breakdown rates. During rehabilitation on the good diet, rapid growth was also accompanied by high rates of protein breakdown. During growth on the inadequate diet protein synthesis rates were lesss than in controls, but growth occurred because of decreased rates of protein breakdown. This compression was not complete, however, since ultimate muscle size was only one-half that of controls. It is suggested that increased rates of protein breakdown are a necessary accompaniment to muscle growth and may result from the way in which myofibrils proliferate. PMID:1180916

  5. Role of ATF4 in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher M; Ebert, Scott M; Dyle, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    Here, we discuss recent work focused on the role of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in skeletal muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy involves and requires widespread changes in skeletal muscle gene expression; however, the transcriptional regulatory proteins responsible for those changes are not yet well defined. Recent work indicates that some forms of muscle atrophy require ATF4, a stress-inducible bZIP transcription factor subunit that helps to mediate a broad range of stress responses in mammalian cells. ATF4 expression in skeletal muscle fibers is sufficient to induce muscle fiber atrophy and required for muscle atrophy during several stress conditions, including aging, fasting, and limb immobilization. By helping to activate specific genes in muscle fibers, ATF4 contributes to the expression of numerous mRNAs, including at least two mRNAs (Gadd45a and p21) that encode mediators of muscle fiber atrophy. Gadd45a promotes muscle fiber atrophy by activating the protein kinase MEKK4. p21 promotes atrophy by reducing expression of spermine oxidase, a metabolic enzyme that helps to maintain muscle fiber size under nonstressed conditions. In skeletal muscle fibers, ATF4 is critical component of a complex and incompletely understood molecular signaling network that causes muscle atrophy during aging, fasting, and immobilization.

  6. Genomic stability and telomere regulation in skeletal muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Trajano, Larissa Alexsandra da Silva Neto; Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Silva, Marco Aurélio Dos Santos; Stumbo, Ana Carolina; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da

    2018-02-01

    Muscle injuries are common, especially in sports and cumulative trauma disorder, and their repair is influenced by free radical formation, which causes damages in lipids, proteins and DNA. Oxidative DNA damages are repaired by base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair, ensuring telomeric and genomic stability. There are few studies on this topic in skeletal muscle cells. This review focuses on base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair, telomere regulation and how telomeric stabilization influences healthy muscle, injured muscle, exercise, and its relationship with aging. In skeletal muscle, genomic stabilization and telomere regulation seem to play an important role in tissue health, influencing muscle injury repair. Thus, therapies targeting mechanisms of DNA repair and telomeric regulation could be new approaches for improving repair and prevention of skeletal muscle injuries in young and old people. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiac troponin T and fast skeletal muscle denervation in ageing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zherong; Feng, Xin; Dong, Juan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Lee, Jingyun; Furdui, Cristina; Files, Daniel Clark; Beavers, Kristen M; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Milligan, Carolanne; Jin, Jian-Ping; Delbono, Osvaldo; Zhang, Tan

    2017-10-01

    Ageing skeletal muscle undergoes chronic denervation, and the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the key structure that connects motor neuron nerves with muscle cells, shows increased defects with ageing. Previous studies in various species have shown that with ageing, type II fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres show more atrophy and NMJ deterioration than type I slow-twitch fibres. However, how this process is regulated is largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle fibre-type specific denervation at the NMJ could be critical to identifying novel treatments for sarcopenia. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT), the heart muscle-specific isoform of TnT, is a key component of the mechanisms of muscle contraction. It is expressed in skeletal muscle during early development, after acute sciatic nerve denervation, in various neuromuscular diseases and possibly in ageing muscle. Yet the subcellular localization and function of cTnT in skeletal muscle is largely unknown. Studies were carried out on isolated skeletal muscles from mice, vervet monkeys, and humans. Immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry were used to analyse protein expression, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure gene expression, immunofluorescence staining was performed for subcellular distribution assay of proteins, and electromyographic recording was used to analyse neurotransmission at the NMJ. Levels of cTnT expression in skeletal muscle increased with ageing in mice. In addition, cTnT was highly enriched at the NMJ region-but mainly in the fast-twitch, not the slow-twitch, muscle of old mice. We further found that the protein kinase A (PKA) RIα subunit was largely removed from, while PKA RIIα and RIIβ are enriched at, the NMJ-again, preferentially in fast-twitch but not slow-twitch muscle in old mice. Knocking down cTnT in fast skeletal muscle of old mice: (i) increased PKA RIα and reduced PKA RIIα at the NMJ; (ii

  8. Resistance Training Increases Skeletal Muscle Capillarization in Healthy Older Men.

    PubMed

    Verdijk, Lex B; Snijders, Tim; Holloway, Tanya M; VAN Kranenburg, Janneau; VAN Loon, Luc J C

    2016-11-01

    Skeletal muscle capillarization plays a key role in oxygen and nutrient delivery to muscle. The loss of muscle mass with aging and the concept of anabolic resistance have been, at least partly, attributed to changes in skeletal muscle capillary structure and function. We aimed to compare skeletal muscle capillarization between young and older men and evaluate whether resistance-type exercise training increases muscle capillarization in older men. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of healthy young (n = 14, 26 ± 2 yr) and older (n = 16, 72 ± 1 yr) adult men, with biopsies before and after 12 wk of resistance-type exercise training in the older subjects. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess skeletal muscle fiber size, capillary contacts (CC) per muscle fiber, and the capillary-to-fiber perimeter exchange (CFPE) index in type I and II muscle fibers. Type II muscle fibers were smaller in old versus young (4507 ± 268 vs 6084 ± 497 μm, respectively, P = 0.007). Type I and type II muscle fiber CC and CFPE index were smaller in old compared with young muscle (CC type I: 3.8 ± 0.2 vs 5.0 ± 0.3; CC type II: 3.2 ± 0.2 vs 4.2 ± 0.2, respectively; both P < 0.001). Resistance-type exercise training increased type II muscle fiber size only. In addition, CC and CFPE index increased in both the type I (26% ± 9% and 27% ± 8%) and type II muscle fibers (33% ± 7% and 24% ± 6%, respectively; all P ≤ 0.001) after 12 wk resistance training in older men. We conclude that resistance-type exercise training can effectively augment skeletal muscle fiber capillarization in older men. The greater capillary supply may be an important prerequisite to reverse anabolic resistance and support muscle hypertrophy during lifestyle interventions aiming to support healthy aging.

  9. Circulating protein synthesis rates reveal skeletal muscle proteome dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; King, Chelsea L.; Angel, Thomas E.; Holmes, William E.; Li, Kelvin W.; Colangelo, Marc; Price, John C.; Turner, Scott M.; Bell, Christopher; Hamilton, Karyn L.; Miller, Benjamin F.; Hellerstein, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we have described and validated a strategy for monitoring skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in rodents and humans over days or weeks from blood samples. We based this approach on label incorporation into proteins that are synthesized specifically in skeletal muscle and escape into the circulation. Heavy water labeling combined with sensitive tandem mass spectrometric analysis allowed integrated synthesis rates of proteins in muscle tissue across the proteome to be measured over several weeks. Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of plasma creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3) in the blood, more than 90% of which is derived from skeletal muscle, correlated closely with FSR of CK-M, CA-3, and other proteins of various ontologies in skeletal muscle tissue in both rodents and humans. Protein synthesis rates across the muscle proteome generally changed in a coordinate manner in response to a sprint interval exercise training regimen in humans and to denervation or clenbuterol treatment in rodents. FSR of plasma CK-M and CA-3 revealed changes and interindividual differences in muscle tissue proteome dynamics. In human subjects, sprint interval training primarily stimulated synthesis of structural and glycolytic proteins. Together, our results indicate that this approach provides a virtual biopsy, sensitively revealing individualized changes in proteome-wide synthesis rates in skeletal muscle without a muscle biopsy. Accordingly, this approach has potential applications for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of muscle disorders. PMID:26657858

  10. Muscle dysfunction in a zebrafish model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Widrick, Jeffrey J; Alexander, Matthew S; Sanchez, Benjamin; Gibbs, Devin E; Kawahara, Genri; Beggs, Alan H; Kunkel, Louis M

    2016-11-01

    Sapje zebrafish lack the protein dystrophin and are the smallest vertebrate model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Their small size makes them ideal for large-scale drug discovery screens. However, the extent that sapje mimic the muscle dysfunction of higher vertebrate models of DMD is unclear. We used an optical birefringence assay to differentiate affected dystrophic sapje larvae from their unaffected siblings and then studied trunk muscle contractility at 4-7 days postfertilization. Preparation cross-sectional area (CSA) was similar for affected and unaffected larvae, yet tetanic forces of affected preparations were only 30-60% of normal. ANCOVA indicated that the linear relationship observed between tetanic force and CSA for unaffected preparations was absent in the affected population. Consequently, the average force/CSA of affected larvae was depressed 30-70%. Disproportionate reductions in twitch vs. tetanic force, and a slowing of twitch tension development and relaxation, indicated that the myofibrillar disorganization evident in the birefringence assay could not explain the entire force loss. Single eccentric contractions, in which activated preparations were lengthened 5-10%, resulted in tetanic force deficits in both groups of larvae. However, deficits of affected preparations were three- to fivefold greater at all strains and ages, even after accounting for any recovery. Based on these functional assessments, we conclude that the sapje mutant zebrafish is a phenotypically severe model of DMD. The severe contractile deficits of sapje larvae represent novel physiological endpoints for therapeutic drug screening. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. TAK1 regulates skeletal muscle mass and mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, Sajedah M.; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Bohnert, Kyle R.; Gibb, Andrew A.; Gallot, Yann S.; McMillan, Joseph D.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a complex array of signaling pathways. TGF-β–activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is an important signaling protein, which regulates context-dependent activation of multiple intracellular pathways. However, the role of TAK1 in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass remains unknown. Here, we report that inducible inactivation of TAK1 causes severe muscle wasting, leading to kyphosis, in both young and adult mice.. Inactivation of TAK1 inhibits protein synthesis and induces proteolysis, potentially through upregulating the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. Phosphorylation and enzymatic activity of AMPK are increased, whereas levels of phosphorylated mTOR and p38 MAPK are diminished upon inducible inactivation of TAK1 in skeletal muscle. In addition, targeted inactivation of TAK1 leads to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of adult mice. Inhibition of TAK1 does not attenuate denervation-induced muscle wasting in adult mice. Finally, TAK1 activity is highly upregulated during overload-induced skeletal muscle growth, and inactivation of TAK1 prevents myofiber hypertrophy in response to functional overload. Overall, our study demonstrates that TAK1 is a key regulator of skeletal muscle mass and oxidative metabolism. PMID:29415881

  12. Molecular events in skeletal muscle during disuse atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandarian, Susan C.; Stevenson, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    This review summarizes the current knowledge of the molecular processes underlying skeletal muscle atrophy due to disuse. Because the processes involved with muscle wasting due to illness are similar to disuse, this literature is used for comparison. Areas that are ripe for further study and that will advance our understanding of muscle atrophy are suggested.

  13. Lifting the nebula: novel insights into skeletal muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Ottenheijm, Coen A C; Granzier, Henk

    2010-10-01

    Nebulin is a giant protein and a constituent of the skeletal muscle sarcomere. The name of this protein refers to its unknown (i.e., nebulous) function. However, recent rapid advances reveal that nebulin plays important roles in the regulation of muscle contraction. When these functions of nebulin are compromised, muscle weakness ensues, as is the case in patients with nemaline myopathy.

  14. Cardiac troponin T and fast skeletal muscle denervation in ageing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zherong; Feng, Xin; Dong, Juan; Wang, Zhong‐Min; Lee, Jingyun; Furdui, Cristina; Files, Daniel Clark; Beavers, Kristen M.; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Milligan, Carolanne; Jin, Jian‐Ping; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Ageing skeletal muscle undergoes chronic denervation, and the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the key structure that connects motor neuron nerves with muscle cells, shows increased defects with ageing. Previous studies in various species have shown that with ageing, type II fast‐twitch skeletal muscle fibres show more atrophy and NMJ deterioration than type I slow‐twitch fibres. However, how this process is regulated is largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle fibre‐type specific denervation at the NMJ could be critical to identifying novel treatments for sarcopenia. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT), the heart muscle‐specific isoform of TnT, is a key component of the mechanisms of muscle contraction. It is expressed in skeletal muscle during early development, after acute sciatic nerve denervation, in various neuromuscular diseases and possibly in ageing muscle. Yet the subcellular localization and function of cTnT in skeletal muscle is largely unknown. Methods Studies were carried out on isolated skeletal muscles from mice, vervet monkeys, and humans. Immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry were used to analyse protein expression, real‐time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure gene expression, immunofluorescence staining was performed for subcellular distribution assay of proteins, and electromyographic recording was used to analyse neurotransmission at the NMJ. Results Levels of cTnT expression in skeletal muscle increased with ageing in mice. In addition, cTnT was highly enriched at the NMJ region—but mainly in the fast‐twitch, not the slow‐twitch, muscle of old mice. We further found that the protein kinase A (PKA) RIα subunit was largely removed from, while PKA RIIα and RIIβ are enriched at, the NMJ—again, preferentially in fast‐twitch but not slow‐twitch muscle in old mice. Knocking down cTnT in fast skeletal muscle of old mice: (i

  15. Skeletal muscle pathology in endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Grobler, L; Collins, M; Lambert, M; Sinclair-Smith, C; Derman, W; St, C; Noakes, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well established that prolonged, exhaustive endurance exercise is capable of inducing skeletal muscle damage and temporary impairment of muscle function. Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for repair and adaptation, this may be limited, ultimately resulting in an accumulation of chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Case studies have alluded to an association between long term, high volume endurance training and racing, acquired training intolerance, and chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Objective: To systematically compare the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural status of endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance (ATI group) with asymptomatic endurance athletes matched for age and years of endurance training (CON group). Methods: Histological and electron microscopic analyses were carried out on a biopsy sample of the vastus lateralis from 18 ATI and 17 CON endurance athletes. The presence of structural and ultrastructural disruptions was compared between the two groups of athletes. Results: Significantly more athletes in the ATI group than in the CON group presented with fibre size variation (15 v 6; p = 0.006), internal nuclei (9 v 2; p = 0.03), and z disc streaming (6 v 0; p = 0.02). Conclusions: There is an association between increased skeletal muscle disruptions and acquired training intolerance in endurance athletes. Further studies are required to determine the nature of this association and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:15562162

  16. Craniofacial skeletal defects of adult zebrafish glypican 4 (knypek) mutants

    PubMed Central

    LeClair, Elizabeth E.; Mui, Stephanie R.; Huang, Angela; Topczewska, Jolanta M.; Topczewski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The heparan sulfate proteoglycan Glypican 4 (Gpc4) is part of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway, which is required for convergence and extension during zebrafish gastrulation. To observe Glypican 4-deficient phenotypes at later stages, we rescued gpc4−/− (knypek) homozygotes and raised them for more than one year. Adult mutants showed diverse cranial malformations of both dermal and endochondral bones, ranging from shortening of the rostral-most skull to loss of the symplectic. Additionally, the adult palatoquadrate cartilage was disorganized, with abnormal chondrocyte orientation. To understand how the palatoquadrate cartilage normally develops, we examined a juvenile series of wild type and mutant specimens. This identified two novel domains of elongated chondrocytes in the larval palatoquadrate, which normally form prior to endochondral ossification. In contrast, gpc4−/− larvae never form these domains, suggesting a failure of chondrocyte orientation, though not differentiation. Our findings implicate Gpc4 in the regulation of zebrafish cartilage and bone morphogenesis. PMID:19777561

  17. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    PubMed

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  18. Renal function alterations during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.

    1992-01-01

    This project was to examine the alterations in renal functions during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity. Although this area could cover a wide range of investigative efforts, the limited funding resulted in the selection of two projects. These projects would result in data contributing to an area of research deemed high priority by NASA and would address issues of the alterations in renal response to vasoactive stimuli during conditions of skeletal muscle disuse as well as investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle disuse, conditions normally found in long term human exposure to microgravity, to the balance of fluid and macromolecules within the vasculature versus the interstitium. These two projects selected are as follows: investigate the role of angiotensin 2 on renal function during periods of simulated microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse to determine if the renal response is altered to changes in circulating concentrations of angiotensin 2 compared to appropriate controls; and determine if the shift of fluid balance from vasculature to the interstitium, the two components of extracellular fluid volume, that occur during prolonged exposure to microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse is a result, in part, to alterations in the fluid and macromolecular balance in the peripheral capillary beds, of which the skeletal muscle contains the majority of recruitment capillaries. A recruitment capillary bed would be most sensitive to alterations in Starling forces and fluid and macromolecular permeability.

  19. Circadian Rhythms, the Molecular Clock, and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lefta, Mellani; Wolff, Gretchen; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Almost all organisms ranging from single cell bacteria to humans exhibit a variety of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical rhythms. In mammals, circadian rhythms control the timing of many physiological processes over a 24-h period, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, feeding, and hormone production. This body of research has led to defined characteristics of circadian rhythms based on period length, phase, and amplitude. Underlying circadian behaviors is a molecular clock mechanism found in most, if not all, cell types including skeletal muscle. The mammalian molecular clock is a complex of multiple oscillating networks that are regulated through transcriptional mechanisms, timed protein turnover, and input from small molecules. At this time, very little is known about circadian aspects of skeletal muscle function/metabolism but some progress has been made on understanding the molecular clock in skeletal muscle. The goal of this chapter is to provide the basic terminology and concepts of circadian rhythms with a more detailed review of the current state of knowledge of the molecular clock, with reference to what is known in skeletal muscle. Research has demonstrated that the molecular clock is active in skeletal muscles and that the muscle-specific transcription factor, MyoD, is a direct target of the molecular clock. Skeletal muscle of clock-compromised mice, Bmal1−/− and ClockΔ19 mice, are weak and exhibit significant disruptions in expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. We suggest that the interaction between the molecular clock, MyoD, and metabolic factors, such as PGC-1, provide a potential system of feedback loops that may be critical for both maintenance and adaptation of skeletal muscle. PMID:21621073

  20. Myostatin and the skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J; Vernus, B; Chelh, I; Cassar-Malek, I; Gabillard, J C; Hadj Sassi, A; Seiliez, I; Picard, B; Bonnieu, A

    2014-11-01

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and is conserved in many species, from rodents to humans. Myostatin inactivation can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while its overexpression or systemic administration causes muscle atrophy. As it represents a potential target for stimulating muscle growth and/or preventing muscle wasting, myostatin regulation and functions in the control of muscle mass have been extensively studied. A wealth of data strongly suggests that alterations in skeletal muscle mass are associated with dysregulation in myostatin expression. Moreover, myostatin plays a central role in integrating/mediating anabolic and catabolic responses. Myostatin negatively regulates the activity of the Akt pathway, which promotes protein synthesis, and increases the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to induce atrophy. Several new studies have brought new information on how myostatin may affect both ribosomal biogenesis and translation efficiency of specific mRNA subclasses. In addition, although myostatin has been identified as a modulator of the major catabolic pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome systems, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. The goal of this review is to highlight outstanding questions about myostatin-mediated regulation of the anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. Particular emphasis has been placed on (1) the cross-regulation between myostatin, the growth-promoting pathways and the proteolytic systems; (2) how myostatin inhibition leads to muscle hypertrophy; and (3) the regulation of translation by myostatin.

  1. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and structure and function of skeletal muscle fibres in male body builders

    PubMed Central

    D'Antona, Giuseppe; Lanfranconi, Francesca; Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta; Brocca, Lorenza; Adami, Raffaella; Rossi, Rosetta; Moro, Giorgio; Miotti, Danilo; Canepari, Monica; Bottinelli, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Needle biopsy samples were taken from vastus lateralis muscle (VL) of five male body builders (BB, age 27.4 ± 0.93 years; mean ±s.e.m.), who had being performing hypertrophic heavy resistance exercise (HHRE) for at least 2 years, and from five male active, but untrained control subjects (CTRL, age 29.9 ± 2.01 years). The following determinations were performed: anatomical cross-sectional area and volume of the quadriceps and VL muscles in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC) distribution of the whole biopsy samples by SDS-PAGE; cross-sectional area (CSA), force (Po), specific force (Po/CSA) and maximum shortening velocity (Vo) of a large population (n= 524) of single skinned muscle fibres classified on the basis of MHC isoform composition by SDS-PAGE; actin sliding velocity (Vf) on pure myosin isoforms by in vitro motility assays. In BB a preferential hypertrophy of fast and especially type 2X fibres was observed. The very large hypertrophy of VL in vivo could not be fully accounted for by single muscle fibre hypertrophy. CSA of VL in vivo was, in fact, 54% larger in BB than in CTRL, whereas mean fibre area was only 14% larger in BB than in CTRL. MHC isoform distribution was shifted towards 2X fibres in BB. Po/CSA was significantly lower in type 1 fibres from BB than in type 1 fibres from CTRL whereas both type 2A and type 2X fibres were significantly stronger in BB than in CTRL. Vo of type 1 fibres and Vf of myosin 1 were significantly lower in BB than in CTRL, whereas no difference was observed among fast fibres and myosin 2A. The findings indicate that skeletal muscle of BB was markedly adapted to HHRE through extreme hypertrophy, a shift towards the stronger and more powerful fibre types and an increase in specific force of muscle fibres. Such adaptations could not be fully accounted for by well known mechanisms of muscle plasticity, i.e. by the hypertrophy of single muscle fibre (quantitative mechanism) and by a

  2. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial health and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Laura C; Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2016-10-18

    Mitochondria are the main source of cellular energy production and are dynamic organelles that undergo biogenesis, remodeling, and degradation. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in a number of disease states including acute and chronic central or peripheral nervous system injury by traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), and neurodegenerative disease as well as in metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes and obesity. Mitochondrial dysfunction is most commonly observed in high energy requiring tissues like the brain and skeletal muscle. In persons with chronic SCI, changes to skeletal muscle may include remarkable atrophy and conversion of muscle fiber type from oxidative to fast glycolytic, combined with increased infiltration of intramuscular adipose tissue. These changes contribute to a proinflammatory environment, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The loss of metabolically active muscle combined with inactivity predisposes individuals with SCI to type II diabetes and obesity. The contribution of skeletal muscle mitochondrial density and electron transport chain activity to the development of the aforementioned comorbidities following SCI is unclear. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics is imperative to designing and testing effective treatments for this growing population. The current editorial will review ways to study mitochondrial function and the importance of improving skeletal muscle mitochondrial health in clinical populations with a special focus on chronic SCI.

  3. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  4. Current Methods for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Saul, Dominik; Böker, Kai Oliver; Ernst, Jennifer; Lehman, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has the capacity of regeneration after injury. However, for large volumes of muscle loss, this regeneration needs interventional support. Consequently, muscle injury provides an ongoing reconstructive and regenerative challenge in clinical work. To promote muscle repair and regeneration, different strategies have been developed within the last century and especially during the last few decades, including surgical techniques, physical therapy, biomaterials, and muscular tissue engineering as well as cell therapy. Still, there is a great need to develop new methods and materials, which promote skeletal muscle repair and functional regeneration. In this review, we give a comprehensive overview over the epidemiology of muscle tissue loss, highlight current strategies in clinical treatment, and discuss novel methods for muscle regeneration and challenges for their future clinical translation. PMID:29850487

  5. Naturally derived and synthetic scaffolds for skeletal muscle reconstruction☆

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Matthew T.; Dearth, Christopher L.; Sonnenberg, Sonya B.; Loboa, Elizabeth G.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue has an inherent capacity for regeneration following injury. However, severe trauma, such as volumetric muscle loss, overwhelms these natural muscle repair mechanisms prompting the search for a tissue engineering/regenerative medicine approach to promote functional skeletal muscle restoration. A desirable approach involves a bioscaffold that simultaneously acts as an inductive microenvironment and as a cell/drug delivery vehicle to encourage muscle ingrowth. Both biologically active, naturally derived materials (such as extracellular matrix) and carefully engineered synthetic polymers have been developed to provide such a muscle regenerative environment. Next generation naturally derived/synthetic “hybrid materials” would combine the advantageous properties of these materials to create an optimal platform for cell/drug delivery and possess inherent bioactive properties. Advances in scaffolds using muscle tissue engineering are reviewed herein. PMID:25174309

  6. Muscle development is disrupted in zebrafish embryos deficient for Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Chelsi J.; Peterson, Matthew T.; Khalil, Andre; Henry, Clarissa A.

    2008-01-01

    After somitogenesis, skeletal muscle precursors elongate into muscle fibers that anchor to the somite boundary, which becomes the myotome boundary. Fibronectin (Fn) is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both boundaries. Although Fn is required for somitogenesis, effects of Fn disruption on subsequent muscle development are unknown. We show fn knockdown disrupts myogenesis. Muscle morphogenesis is more disrupted in fn morphants than in a mutant where initial somite boundaries did not form, aei/deltaD. We quantified this disruption using the 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima method, which uses the variation of intensity in an image with respect to the direction considered to characterize the structure in a cell lattice. We show that fibers in fn morphants are less organized than in aei/deltaD mutant embryos. Fast- and slow-twitch muscle lengths are also more frequently uncoupled. These data suggest fn may function to regulate fiber organization and limit fast-twitch muscle fiber length. PMID:18729220

  7. Action of Obestatin in Skeletal Muscle Repair: Stem Cell Expansion, Muscle Growth, and Microenvironment Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration. PMID:25762009

  8. Action of obestatin in skeletal muscle repair: stem cell expansion, muscle growth, and microenvironment remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-06-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration.

  9. Biomimetic Scaffolds for Regeneration of Volumetric Muscle Loss in Skeletal Muscle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Grasman, Jonathan M.; Zayas, Michelle J.; Page, Ray; Pins, George D.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries typically result from traumatic incidents such as combat injuries where soft-tissue extremity injuries are present in one of four cases. Further, about 4.5 million reconstructive surgical procedures are performed annually as a result of car accidents, cancer ablation, or cosmetic procedures. These combat- and trauma-induced skeletal muscle injuries are characterized by volumetric muscle loss (VML), which significantly reduces the functionality of the injured muscle. While skeletal muscle has an innate repair mechanism, it is unable to compensate for VML injuries because large amounts of tissue including connective tissue and basement membrane are removed or destroyed. This results in in a significant need to develop off-the-shelf biomimetic scaffolds to direct skeletal muscle regeneration. Here, the structure and organization of native skeletal muscle tissue is described in order to reveal clear design parameters that are necessary for scaffolds to mimic in order to successfully regenerate muscular tissue. We review the literature with respect to the materials and methodologies used to develop scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue regeneration as well as the limitations of these materials. We further discuss the variety of cell sources and different injury models to provide some context for the multiple approaches used to evaluate these scaffold materials. Recent findings are highlighted to address the state of the field and directions are outlined for future strategies, both in scaffold design and in the use of different injury models to evaluate these materials, for regenerating functional skeletal muscle. PMID:26219862

  10. An Old Problem: Aging and Skeletal-Muscle-Strain Injury.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brent A

    2017-04-01

    Clinical Scenario: Even though chronological aging is an inevitable phenomenological consequence occurring in every living organism, it is biological aging that may be the most significant factor challenging our quality of life. Development of functional limitations, resulting from improper maintenance and restoration of various organ systems, ultimately leads to reduced health and independence. Skeletal muscle is an organ system that, when challenged, is often injured in response to varying stimuli. Overt muscle-strain injury can be traumatic, clinically diagnosable, properly managed, and a remarkably common event, yet our contemporary understanding of how age and environmental stressors affect the initial and subsequent induction of injury and how the biological processes resulting from this event are modifiable and, eventually, lead to functional restoration and healing of skeletal muscle and adjacent tissues is presently unclear. Even though the secondary injury response to and recovery from "contraction-induced" skeletal-muscle injury are impaired with aging, there is no scientific consensus as to the exact mechanism responsible for this event. Given the multitude of investigative approaches, particular consideration given to the appropriateness of the muscle-injury model, or research paradigm, is critical so that outcomes may be physiologically relevant and translational. In this case, methods implementing stretch-shortening contractions, the most common form of muscle movements used by all mammals during physical movement, work, and activity, are highlighted. Understanding the fundamental evidence regarding how aging influences the responsivity of skeletal muscle to strain injury is vital for informing how clinicians approach and implement preventive strategies, as well as therapeutic interventions. From a practical perspective, maintaining or improving the overall health and tissue quality of skeletal muscle as one ages will positively affect skeletal

  11. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insulin resistance is linked to increased acylcarnitine species in a number of tissues including skeletal muscle, due to incomplete fatty acid oxidation (FAO). It is not known if acylcarnitines participate in muscle insulin resistance or simply reflect dysregulated metabolism. The aim of this stud...

  12. Skeletal Muscle as a Peripheral Modifier of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Robert R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses how muscle can exert an influence on the behavioral potential of an organism and attempts to refute the "all or none law" by demonstrating that skeletal muscle is not merely a slave of the central nervous system. (Author/MA)

  13. Physiologic and biochemical aspects of skeletal muscle denervation and reinnervation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Mayer, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the physiologic and biochemical changes that occur in mammalian skeletal muscle following denervation and reinnervation are considered and some comparisons are made with changes observed following altered motor function. The nature of the trophic influence by which nerves control muscle properties are discussed, including the effects of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase and the role of the acetylcholine receptor.

  14. Molecular responses to moderate endurance exercise in skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined alterations in skeletal-muscle growth and atrophy-related molecular events after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 men (23 +/- 1 yr, body mass 80 +/- 2 kg, and VO(2peak) 45 +/- 1 ml x kg'¹ x min'¹) immediately (0 hr) and...

  15. Connexin 39.9 Protein Is Necessary for Coordinated Activation of Slow-twitch Muscle and Normal Behavior in Zebrafish*

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Hiromi; Wen, Hua; Kawakami, Yu; Naganawa, Yuriko; Ogino, Kazutoyo; Yamada, Kenta; Saint-Amant, Louis; Low, Sean E.; Cui, Wilson W.; Zhou, Weibin; Sprague, Shawn M.; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Muto, Akira; Kawakami, Koichi; Kuwada, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    In many tissues and organs, connexin proteins assemble between neighboring cells to form gap junctions. These gap junctions facilitate direct intercellular communication between adjoining cells, allowing for the transmission of both chemical and electrical signals. In rodents, gap junctions are found in differentiating myoblasts and are important for myogenesis. Although gap junctions were once believed to be absent from differentiated skeletal muscle in mammals, recent studies in teleosts revealed that differentiated muscle does express connexins and is electrically coupled, at least at the larval stage. These findings raised questions regarding the functional significance of gap junctions in differentiated muscle. Our analysis of gap junctions in muscle began with the isolation of a zebrafish motor mutant that displayed weak coiling at day 1 of development, a behavior known to be driven by slow-twitch muscle (slow muscle). We identified a missense mutation in the gene encoding Connexin 39.9. In situ hybridization found connexin 39.9 to be expressed by slow muscle. Paired muscle recordings uncovered that wild-type slow muscles are electrically coupled, whereas mutant slow muscles are not. The further examination of cellular activity revealed aberrant, arrhythmic touch-evoked Ca2+ transients in mutant slow muscle and a reduction in the number of muscle fibers contracting in response to touch in mutants. These results indicate that Connexin 39.9 facilitates the spreading of neuronal inputs, which is irregular during motor development, beyond the muscle cells and that gap junctions play an essential role in the efficient recruitment of slow muscle fibers. PMID:22075003

  16. Skeletal muscle inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huaizhu; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2017-01-03

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Under normal conditions, skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal; thus, dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation occurs in skeletal muscle in obesity and is mainly manifested by increased immune cell infiltration and proinflammatory activation in intermyocellular and perimuscular adipose tissue. By secreting proinflammatory molecules, immune cells may induce myocyte inflammation, adversely regulate myocyte metabolism, and contribute to insulin resistance via paracrine effects. Increased influx of fatty acids and inflammatory molecules from other tissues, particularly visceral adipose tissue, can also induce muscle inflammation and negatively regulate myocyte metabolism, leading to insulin resistance.

  17. Skeletal muscle inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huaizhu; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Under normal conditions, skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal; thus, dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation occurs in skeletal muscle in obesity and is mainly manifested by increased immune cell infiltration and proinflammatory activation in intermyocellular and perimuscular adipose tissue. By secreting proinflammatory molecules, immune cells may induce myocyte inflammation, adversely regulate myocyte metabolism, and contribute to insulin resistance via paracrine effects. Increased influx of fatty acids and inflammatory molecules from other tissues, particularly visceral adipose tissue, can also induce muscle inflammation and negatively regulate myocyte metabolism, leading to insulin resistance. PMID:28045398

  18. Skeletal and cardiac muscle pericytes: Functions and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Iain R.; Baily, James E.; Chen, William C.W.; Dar, Ayelet; Gonzalez, Zaniah N.; Jensen, Andrew R.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Deb, Arjun; Henderson, Neil C.

    2017-01-01

    Pericytes are periendothelial mesenchymal cells residing within the microvasculature. Skeletal muscle and cardiac pericytes are now recognized to fulfill an increasing number of functions in normal tissue homeostasis, including contributing to microvascular function by maintaining vessel stability and regulating capillary flow. In the setting of muscle injury, pericytes contribute to a regenerative microenvironment through release of trophic factors and by modulating local immune responses. In skeletal muscle, pericytes also directly enhance tissue healing by differentiating into myofibers. Conversely, pericytes have also been implicated in the development of disease states, including fibrosis, heterotopic ossication and calcification, atherosclerosis, and tumor angiogenesis. Despite increased recognition of pericyte heterogeneity, it is not yet clear whether specific subsets of pericytes are responsible for individual functions in skeletal and cardiac muscle homeostasis and disease. PMID:27595928

  19. Mechanically induced alterations in cultured skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.; Hatfaludy, S.; Karlisch, P.; Shansky, J.

    1991-01-01

    Model systems are available for mechanically stimulating cultured skeletal muscle cells by passive tensile forces which simulate those found in vivo. When applied to embryonic muscle cells in vitro these forces induce tissue organogenesis, metabolic adaptations, and muscle cell growth. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cell growth correlates with stretch-induced increases in the efflux of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2(alpha) in a time and frequency dependent manner. These prostaglandins act as mechanical 'second messengers' regulating skeletal muscle protein turnover rates. Since they also effect bone remodelling in response to tissue loading and unloading, secreted prostaglandins may serve as paracrine growth factors, coordinating the growth rates of muscle and bone in response to external mechanical forces. Cell culture model systems will supplement other models in understanding mechanical transduction processes at the molecular level.

  20. High skeletal muscle adenylate cyclase in malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed Central

    Willner, J H; Cerri, C G; Wood, D S

    1981-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia occurs in humans with several congenital myopathies, usually in response to general anesthesia. Commonly, individuals who develop this syndrome lack symptoms of muscle disease, and their muscle lacks specific pathological changes. A biochemical marker for this myopathy has not previously been available; we found activity of adenylate cyclase and content of cyclic AMP to be abnormally high in skeletal muscle. Secondary modification of protein phosphorylation could explain observed abnormalities of phosphorylase activation and sarcoplasmic reticulum function. PMID:6271806

  1. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  2. Hypodynamic and hypokinetic condition of skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katinas, G. S.; Oganov, V. S.; Potapov, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented in regard to the effect of unilateral brachial amputation on the physiological characteristics of two functionally different muscles, the brachial muscle (flexor of the brachium) and the medial head of the brachial triceps muscle (extensor of the brachium), which in rats represents a separate muscle. Hypokinesia and hypodynamia were studied.

  3. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we

  4. Effect of repeated forearm muscle cooling on the adaptation of skeletal muscle metabolism in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Wijayanto, Titis; Watanuki, Shigeki; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated cooling of forearm muscle on adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism. It is hypothesized that repeated decreases of muscle temperature would increase the oxygen consumption in hypothermic skeletal muscle. Sixteen healthy males participated in this study. Their right forearm muscles were locally cooled to 25 °C by cooling pads attached to the skin. This local cooling was repeated eight times on separate days for eight participants (experimental group), whereas eight controls received no cold exposure. To evaluate adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism, a local cooling test was conducted before and after the repeated cooling period. Change in oxy-hemoglobin content in the flexor digitorum at rest and during a 25-s isometric handgrip (10% maximal voluntary construction) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy at every 2 °C reduction in forearm muscle temperature. The arterial blood flow was occluded for 15 s by upper arm cuff inflation at rest and during the isometric handgrip. The oxygen consumption in the flexor digitorum muscle was evaluated by a slope of the oxy-hemoglobin change during the arterial occlusion. In the experimental group, resting oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle did not show any difference between pre- and post-intervention, whereas muscle oxygen consumption during the isometric handgrip was significantly higher in post-intervention than in pre-test from thermoneutral baseline to 31 °C muscle temperature ( P < 0.05). This result indicated that repeated local muscle cooling might facilitate oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle. In summary, skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal isometric handgrip was facilitated after repeated local muscle cooling.

  5. Effect of repeated forearm muscle cooling on the adaptation of skeletal muscle metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Wijayanto, Titis; Watanuki, Shigeki; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated cooling of forearm muscle on adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism. It is hypothesized that repeated decreases of muscle temperature would increase the oxygen consumption in hypothermic skeletal muscle. Sixteen healthy males participated in this study. Their right forearm muscles were locally cooled to 25 °C by cooling pads attached to the skin. This local cooling was repeated eight times on separate days for eight participants (experimental group), whereas eight controls received no cold exposure. To evaluate adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism, a local cooling test was conducted before and after the repeated cooling period. Change in oxy-hemoglobin content in the flexor digitorum at rest and during a 25-s isometric handgrip (10% maximal voluntary construction) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy at every 2 °C reduction in forearm muscle temperature. The arterial blood flow was occluded for 15 s by upper arm cuff inflation at rest and during the isometric handgrip. The oxygen consumption in the flexor digitorum muscle was evaluated by a slope of the oxy-hemoglobin change during the arterial occlusion. In the experimental group, resting oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle did not show any difference between pre- and post-intervention, whereas muscle oxygen consumption during the isometric handgrip was significantly higher in post-intervention than in pre-test from thermoneutral baseline to 31 °C muscle temperature (P < 0.05). This result indicated that repeated local muscle cooling might facilitate oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle. In summary, skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal isometric handgrip was facilitated after repeated local muscle cooling.

  6. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

  7. A role for nephrin, a renal protein, in vertebrate skeletal muscle cell fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Regina Lee; Huang, Ping; Kawahara, Genri; Mitchell, Matthew; Guyon, Jeffrey; Kalluri, Raghu; Kunkel, Louis M.; Gussoni, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is formed via fusion of myoblasts, a well-studied process in Drosophila. In vertebrates however, this process is less well understood, and whether there is evolutionary conservation with the proteins studied in flies is under investigation. Sticks and stones (Sns), a cell surface protein found on Drosophila myoblasts, has structural homology to nephrin. Nephrin is a protein expressed in kidney that is part of the filtration barrier formed by podocytes. No previous study has established any role for nephrin in skeletal muscle. We show, using two models, zebrafish and mice, that the absence of nephrin results in poorly developed muscles and incompletely fused myotubes, respectively. Although nephrin-knockout (nephrinKO) myoblasts exhibit prolonged activation of MAPK/ERK pathway during myogenic differentiation, expression of myogenin does not seem to be altered. Nevertheless, MAPK pathway blockade does not rescue myoblast fusion. Co-cultures of unaffected human fetal myoblasts with nephrinKO myoblasts or myotubes restore the formation of mature myotubes; however, the contribution of nephrinKO myoblasts is minimal. These studies suggest that nephrin plays a role in secondary fusion of myoblasts into nascent myotubes, thus establishing a possible functional conservation with Drosophila Sns. PMID:19470472

  8. Effects of prolonged space flight on rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, V P; Zheludkova, Z P; Kuznetsova, L A

    1979-10-01

    The effect of a 20-day space flight on water, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and glycogen contents as well as on activities of glycogen metabolism enzymes--glycogen synthetase and glycogen phosphorylase--of rat skeletal muscles was studied. This data is regarded as an integral test characterizing the state of contractile tissue of the animals at the final stage of flight aboard biosatellites. The measurements indicate that there were no significant changes of cations and glycogen contents nor of the enzymic activities in fast-twitch muscles during the 20-day spaceflight. At the same time dehydration in these muscles was observed, which disappeared on the 25th postflight day. In slow-twitch antigravitational skeletal muscle (m. soleus) there was a decrease of K+ and increase of Na+ in the tissue contents. The changes disappeared at the end of the on-earth readaptation period. From the pattern of these observations, we can conclude that the 20-day space flight leads to some reversible biochemical changes of the rat skeletal muscles. A conclusion can be drawn about necessity of creating, aboard the spaceship, an artificial load on antigravitational skeletal muscles.

  9. How does tissue preparation affect skeletal muscle transverse isotropy?

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Benjamin B.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2016-01-01

    The passive tensile properties of skeletal muscle play a key role in its physiological function. Previous research has identified conflicting reports of muscle transverse isotropy, with some data suggesting the longitudinal direction is stiffest, while others show the transverse direction is stiffest. Accurate constitutive models of skeletal muscle must be employed to provide correct recommendations for and observations of clinical methods. The goal of this work was to identify transversely isotropic tensile muscle properties as a function of post mortem handling. Six pairs of tibialis anterior muscles were harvested from Giant Flemish rabbits and split into two groups: fresh testing (within four hours post mortem), and non-fresh testing (subject to delayed testing and a freeze/thaw cycle). Longitudinal and transverse samples were removed from each muscle and tested to identify tensile modulus and relaxation behavior. Longitudinal non-fresh samples exhibited a higher initial modulus value and faster relaxation than longitudinal fresh, transverse fresh, and transverse rigor samples (p<0.05), while longitudinal fresh samples were less stiff at lower strain levels than longitudinal non-fresh, transverse fresh, and transverse non-fresh samples (p<0.05), but exhibited more nonlinear behavior. While fresh skeletal muscle exhibits a higher transverse modulus than longitudinal modulus, discrepancies in previously published data may be the result of a number of differences in experimental protocol. Constitutive modeling of fresh muscle should reflect these data by identifying the material as truly transversely isotropic and not as an isotropic matrix reinforced with fibers. PMID:27425557

  10. Effect of experimental hyperthyroidism on skeletal-muscle proteolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, W J; van der Weijden Benjamin, W S; Faas, F H

    1981-01-01

    It is not clear whether the muscle wasting commonly observed in hyperthyroidism is due to alteration in the rate of protein synthesis or degradation. The effect of experimental hyperthyroidism on skeletal-muscle proteolysis in the rat was studied by measuring alanine and tyrosine release from isolated skeletal muscles in vitro and 3-methyl-histidine excretion in vivo. Alanine release from the isolated epitrochlaris-muscle preparation was increased as soon as 24h after a 25 microgram dose of L-tri-iodothyronine in vivo. Conversely, alanine release from muscles of hypothyroid rats was decreased, but restored by L-tri-iodothyronine supplementation before death. Furthermore, 3-methylhistidine excretion was increased in hyperthyroid rats throughout an 18-day treatment period. The increased amino acid release from isolated muscles and the increased 3-methylhistidine excretion in vivo strongly suggests that hyperthyroidism increases skeletal-muscle proteolysis. Furthermore, the thyroid-hormone concentration may be an important factor in regulating muscle proteolysis. PMID:7306017

  11. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sandra; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The pioneering work by Patrick H. O’Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry 1975, 250, 4007–4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O’Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:28248237

  12. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Repair and Remodelling in Aging: The Importance of Muscle Stem Cells and Vascularization.

    PubMed

    Joanisse, Sophie; Nederveen, Joshua P; Snijders, Tim; McKay, Bryon R; Parise, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Ultimately, sarcopenia results in the loss of independence, which imposes a large financial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. A critical facet of sarcopenia is the diminished ability for aged muscle to regenerate, repair and remodel. Over the years, research has focused on elucidating underlying mechanisms of sarcopenia and the impaired ability of muscle to respond to stimuli with aging. Muscle-specific stem cells, termed satellite cells (SC), play an important role in maintaining muscle health throughout the lifespan. It is well established that SC are essential in skeletal muscle regeneration, and it has been hypothesized that a reduction and/or dysregulation of the SC pool, may contribute to accelerated loss of skeletal muscle mass that is observed with advancing age. The preservation of skeletal muscle tissue and its ability to respond to stimuli may be impacted by reduced SC content and impaired function observed with aging. Aging is also associated with a reduction in capillarization of skeletal muscle. We have recently demonstrated that the distance between type II fibre-associated SC and capillaries is greater in older compared to younger adults. The greater distance between SC and capillaries in older adults may contribute to the dysregulation in SC activation ultimately impairing muscle's ability to remodel and, in extreme circumstances, regenerate. This viewpoint will highlight the importance of optimal SC activation in addition to skeletal muscle capillarization to maximize the regenerative potential of skeletal muscle in older adults. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Muscle interleukin-6 and fasting-induced PDH regulation in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gudiksen, Anders; Bertholdt, Laerke; Vingborg, Mikkel Birkkjaer; Hansen, Henriette Watson; Ringholm, Stine; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2017-03-01

    Fasting prompts a metabolic shift in substrate utilization from carbohydrate to predominant fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is seen as a controlling link between the competitive oxidation of carbohydrate and fat during metabolic challenges like fasting. Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to be released from muscle with concomitant effects on both glucose and fat utilization. The aim was to test the hypothesis that muscle IL-6 has a regulatory impact on fasting-induced suppression of skeletal muscle PDH. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) were either fed or fasted for 6 or 18 h. Lack of muscle IL-6 elevated the respiratory exchange ratio in the fed and early fasting state, but not with prolonged fasting. Activity of PDH in the active form (PDHa) was higher in fed and fasted IL-6 MKO than in control mice at 18 h, but not at 6 h, whereas lack of muscle IL-6 did not prevent downregulation of PDHa activity in skeletal muscle or changes in plasma and muscle substrate levels in response to 18 h of fasting. Phosphorylation of three of four sites on PDH-E1α increased with 18 h of fasting, but was lower in IL-6 MKO mice than in control. In addition, both PDK4 mRNA and protein increased with 6 and 18 h of fasting in both genotypes, but PDK4 protein was lower in IL-6 MKO than in control. In conclusion, skeletal muscle IL-6 seems to regulate whole body substrate utilization in the fed, but not fasted, state and influence skeletal muscle PDHa activity in a circadian manner. However, skeletal muscle IL-6 is not required for maintaining metabolic flexibility in response to fasting. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and muscle mass by SIRT3

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have previously reported that the expression of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 is high in the slow oxidative muscle and that the expression of muscle SIRT3 level is increased by dietary restriction or exercise training. To explore the function of SIRT3 in skeletal muscle, we report here the esta...

  15. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Eccentric exercise, in which the muscles exert force by lengthening, is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness. How soreness occurs, how recovery proceeds, and what precautions athletes should take are described. (Author/MT)

  16. The role of skeletal muscle in the pathophysiology and management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Krishnasamy, Priathashini; Hall, Michelle; Robbins, Sarah R

    2018-05-01

    The role of skeletal muscle in the pathophysiology of knee OA is poorly understood. To date, the majority of literature has focused on the association of muscle strength with OA symptoms, disease onset and progression. However, deficits or improvements in skeletal muscle strength do not fully explain the mechanisms behind outcome measures in knee OA, such as pain, function and structural disease. This review aims to summarize components of skeletal muscle, providing a holistic view of skeletal muscle mechanisms that includes muscle function, quality and composition and their interactions. Similarly, the role of skeletal muscle in the management of knee OA will be discussed.

  17. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  18. Substrate kinetics in patients with disorders of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of the following studies was to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in fat and carbohydrate metabolism and effect of nutritional interventions in patients with metabolic myopathies and in patients with severe muscle wasting. Yet there is no cure for patients with skeletal muscle disorders. The group of patients is heterozygous and this thesis is focused on patients with metabolic myopathies and low muscle mass due to severe muscle wasting. Disorders of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) are, along with myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease), the most common inborn errors of metabolism leading to recurrent episodes of rhabdomyolysis in adults. Prolonged exercise, fasting, and fever are the main triggering factors for rhabdomyolysis in these conditions, and can be complicated by acute renal failure. Patients with low muscle mass are in risk of loosing their functional skills and depend on a wheel chair and respiratory support. We used nutritional interventions and metabolic studies with stable isotope technique and indirect calorimetry in patients with metabolic myopathies and patients with low muscle mass to get information of the metabolism of the investigated diseases, and to gain knowledge of the biochemical pathways of intermediary metabolism in human skeletal muscle. We have shown that patients with fat metabolism disorders in skeletal muscle affecting the transporting enzyme of fat into the mitochondria (carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency) and affecting the enzyme responsible for breakdown of the long-chain fatty acids (very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency) have a normal fatty acid oxidation at rest, but enzyme activity is too low to increase fatty acid oxidation during exercise. Furthermore, these patients benefit from a carbohydrate rich diet. Oppositely is exercise capacity worsened by a fat-rich diet in these patients. The patients also benefit from IV glucose, however, when glucose is given orally just before

  19. Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Function in Lung Transplant Candidates.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Dmitry; Singer, Lianne G; Herridge, Margaret; Goldstein, Roger; Wickerson, Lisa; Chowdhury, Noori A; Mathur, Sunita

    2017-09-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is offered to older and more complex patients who may be at higher risk of skeletal muscle dysfunction, but the clinical implications of this remain uncertain. The study aims were to characterize deficits in skeletal muscle mass, strength and physical performance, and examine the associations of these deficits with clinical outcomes. Fifty LTx candidates (58% men; age, 59 ± 9 years) were prospectively evaluated for skeletal muscle deficits: muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance, quadriceps, respiratory muscle and handgrip strength, and physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery. Comparisons between number of muscle deficits (low muscle mass, quadriceps strength and physical performance) and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), London Chest Activity of Daily Living Questionnaire, and quality of life were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Associations with pretransplant and posttransplant delisting/mortality, hospital duration, and 3-month posttransplant 6MWD were evaluated using Fisher exact test and Spearman correlation. Deficits in quadriceps strength (n = 27) and physical performance (n = 24) were more common than muscle mass (n = 8). LTx candidates with 2 or 3 muscle deficits (42%) compared with those without any deficits (26%) had worse 6MWD = -109 m (95% confidence interval [CI], -175 to -43), London Chest Activity of Daily Living Questionnaire = 18 (95% CI, 7-30), and St. George's Activity Domain = 12 (95% CI, 2-21). Number of muscle deficits was associated with posttransplant hospital stay (r = 0.34, P = 0.04), but not with delisting/mortality or posttransplant 6MWD. Deficits in quadriceps muscle strength and physical performance are common in LTx candidates and further research is needed to assess whether modifying muscle function pretransplant can lead to improved clinical outcomes.

  20. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle growth, protein metabolism, and amino acid metabolism were studied in various groups of rats. Certain groups were adrenaliectomized; some rats were suspended while others (the controls) were weight bearing. Results show that: (1) metabolic changes in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of suspended rats are due primarily to increased circulating glucocorticoids; (2) metabolic changes in the soleus muscle due to higher steroid levels are probably potentiated by greater numbers of steroid receptors; and (3) not all metabolic responses of the soleus muscle to unloading are due to the elevated levels of glucocorticoids or the increased sensitivity of this muscle to these hormones.

  1. Functional heterogeneity of side population cells in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Ojima, Koichi; Fukada, So-ichiro

    2006-03-17

    Skeletal muscle regeneration has been exclusively attributed to myogenic precursors, satellite cells. A stem cell-rich fraction referred to as side population (SP) cells also resides in skeletal muscle, but its roles in muscle regeneration remain unclear. We found that muscle SP cells could be subdivided into three sub-fractions using CD31 and CD45 markers. The majority of SP cells in normal non-regenerating muscle expressed CD31 and had endothelial characteristics. However, CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells, which are a minor subpopulation in normal muscle, actively proliferated upon muscle injury and expressed not only several regulatory genes for muscle regeneration but also somemore » mesenchymal lineage markers. CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells showed the greatest myogenic potential among three SP sub-fractions, but indeed revealed mesenchymal potentials in vitro. These SP cells preferentially differentiated into myofibers after intramuscular transplantation in vivo. Our results revealed the heterogeneity of muscle SP cells and suggest that CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells participate in muscle regeneration.« less

  2. Assessment of the Contractile Properties of Permeabilized Skeletal Muscle Fibers.

    PubMed

    Claflin, Dennis R; Roche, Stuart M; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Mendias, Christopher L; Brooks, Susan V

    2016-01-01

    Permeabilized individual skeletal muscle fibers offer the opportunity to evaluate contractile behavior in a system that is greatly simplified, yet physiologically relevant. Here we describe the steps required to prepare, permeabilize and preserve small samples of skeletal muscle. We then detail the procedures used to isolate individual fiber segments and attach them to an experimental apparatus for the purpose of controlling activation and measuring force generation. We also describe our technique for estimating the cross-sectional area of fiber segments. The area measurement is necessary for normalizing the absolute force to obtain specific force, a measure of the intrinsic force-generating capability of the contractile system.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Laminopathies: A Review of Clinical and Molecular Features

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Lorenzo; Carboni, Nicola; Bernasconi, Pia

    2016-01-01

    LMNA-related disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the nuclear envelope proteins, lamin A and C, via alternative splicing. Laminopathies are associated with a wide range of disease phenotypes, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic disorders and premature aging syndromes. The most frequent diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene are characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement. This review will focus on genetics and clinical features of laminopathies affecting primarily skeletal muscle. Although only symptomatic treatment is available for these patients, many achievements have been made in clarifying the pathogenesis and improving the management of these diseases. PMID:27529282

  4. Skeletal Muscle Laminopathies: A Review of Clinical and Molecular Features.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Lorenzo; Carboni, Nicola; Bernasconi, Pia

    2016-08-11

    LMNA-related disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the nuclear envelope proteins, lamin A and C, via alternative splicing. Laminopathies are associated with a wide range of disease phenotypes, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic disorders and premature aging syndromes. The most frequent diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene are characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement. This review will focus on genetics and clinical features of laminopathies affecting primarily skeletal muscle. Although only symptomatic treatment is available for these patients, many achievements have been made in clarifying the pathogenesis and improving the management of these diseases.

  5. Characteristics of locomotion, muscle strength, and muscle tissue in regenerating rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Akira; Fuchioka, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Koichi; Masuhara, Mitsuhiko; Kami, Katsuya

    2010-05-01

    Although numerous studies have aimed to elucidate the mechanisms used to repair the structure and function of injured skeletal muscles, it remains unclear how and when movement recovers following damage. We performed a temporal analysis to characterize the changes in movement, muscle function, and muscle structure after muscle injury induced by the drop-mass technique. At each time-point, movement recovery was determined by ankle kinematic analysis of locomotion, and functional recovery was represented by isometric force. As a histological analysis, the cross-sectional area of myotubes was measured to examine structural regeneration. The dorsiflexion angle of the ankle, as assessed by kinematic analysis of locomotion, increased after injury and then returned to control levels by day 14 post-injury. The isometric force returned to normal levels by day 21 post-injury. However, the size of the myotubes did not reach normal levels, even at day 21 post-injury. These results indicate that recovery of locomotion occurs prior to recovery of isometric force and that functional recovery occurs earlier than structural regeneration. Thus, it is suggested that recovery of the movement and function of injured skeletal muscles might be insufficient as markers for estimating the degree of neuromuscular system reconstitution.

  6. Human skeletal muscle responses to spaceflight and possible countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gollnick, Philip D.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Saltin, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    The current status of knowledge concerning the effects of unweighting skeletal muscle is summarized. The results of both ground-based and space-based animal studies are reviewed which show that there is rapid loss in muscle mass, primarily in slow-twitch muscle, of the rat during unweighting of muscle. There is also a shift in the myosin isoforms with muscles such that slow-twitch muscles take on many of the characteristics of fast-twitch muscles. Ground-based studies in human suggest that programs of electrical stimulation can be developed to simulate normal muscular contractions. Attempts to develop countermeasures to the adverse effects of space travel on muscular functions in humans have not been successful to date.

  7. Parvalbumin Gene Transfer Impairs Skeletal Muscle Contractility in Old Mice

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kate T.; Ham, Daniel J.; Church, Jarrod E.; Naim, Timur; Trieu, Jennifer; Williams, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sarcopenia is the progressive age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with functional impairments that reduce mobility and quality of life. Overt muscle wasting with sarcopenia is usually preceded by a slowing of the rate of relaxation and a reduction in maximum force production. Parvalbumin (PV) is a cytosolic Ca2+ buffer thought to facilitate relaxation in muscle. We tested the hypothesis that restoration of PV levels in muscles of old mice would increase the magnitude and hasten relaxation of submaximal and maximal force responses. The tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of young (6 month), adult (13 month), and old (26 month) C57BL/6 mice received electroporation-assisted gene transfer of plasmid encoding PV or empty plasmid (pcDNA3.1). Contractile properties of TA muscles were assessed in situ 14 days after transfer. In old mice, muscles with increased PV expression had a 40% slower rate of tetanic force development (p<0.01), and maximum twitch and tetanic force were 22% and 16% lower than control values, respectively (p<0.05). Muscles with increased PV expression from old mice had an 18% lower maximum specific (normalized) force than controls, and absolute force was ∼26% lower at higher stimulation frequencies (150–300 Hz, p<0.05). In contrast, there was no effect of increased PV expression on TA muscle contractile properties in young and adult mice. The impairments in skeletal muscle function in old mice argue against PV overexpression as a therapeutic strategy for ameliorating aspects of contractile dysfunction with sarcopenia and help clarify directions for therapeutic interventions for age-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. PMID:22455364

  8. Smooth muscle tension induces invasive remodeling of the zebrafish intestine.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christoph; Davuluri, Gangarao; Abrams, Joshua; Byfield, Fitzroy J; Janmey, Paul A; Pack, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The signals that initiate cell invasion are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that extracellular physical signals play an important role. Here we show that epithelial cell invasion in the intestine of zebrafish meltdown (mlt) mutants arises in response to unregulated contractile tone in the surrounding smooth muscle cell layer. Physical signaling in mlt drives formation of membrane protrusions within the epithelium that resemble invadopodia, matrix-degrading protrusions present in invasive cancer cells. Knockdown of Tks5, a Src substrate that is required for invadopodia formation in mammalian cells blocked formation of the protrusions and rescued invasion in mlt. Activation of Src-signaling induced invadopodia-like protrusions in wild type epithelial cells, however the cells did not migrate into the tissue stroma, thus indicating that the protrusions were required but not sufficient for invasion in this in vivo model. Transcriptional profiling experiments showed that genes responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) were upregulated in mlt larvae. ROS generators induced invadopodia-like protrusions and invasion in heterozygous mlt larvae but had no effect in wild type larvae. Co-activation of oncogenic Ras and Wnt signaling enhanced the responsiveness of mlt heterozygotes to the ROS generators. These findings present the first direct evidence that invadopodia play a role in tissue cell invasion in vivo. In addition, they identify an inducible physical signaling pathway sensitive to redox and oncogenic signaling that can drive this process.

  9. Smooth Muscle Tension Induces Invasive Remodeling of the Zebrafish Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Christoph; Davuluri, Gangarao; Abrams, Joshua; Byfield, Fitzroy J.; Janmey, Paul A.; Pack, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The signals that initiate cell invasion are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that extracellular physical signals play an important role. Here we show that epithelial cell invasion in the intestine of zebrafish meltdown (mlt) mutants arises in response to unregulated contractile tone in the surrounding smooth muscle cell layer. Physical signaling in mlt drives formation of membrane protrusions within the epithelium that resemble invadopodia, matrix-degrading protrusions present in invasive cancer cells. Knockdown of Tks5, a Src substrate that is required for invadopodia formation in mammalian cells blocked formation of the protrusions and rescued invasion in mlt. Activation of Src-signaling induced invadopodia-like protrusions in wild type epithelial cells, however the cells did not migrate into the tissue stroma, thus indicating that the protrusions were required but not sufficient for invasion in this in vivo model. Transcriptional profiling experiments showed that genes responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) were upregulated in mlt larvae. ROS generators induced invadopodia-like protrusions and invasion in heterozygous mlt larvae but had no effect in wild type larvae. Co-activation of oncogenic Ras and Wnt signaling enhanced the responsiveness of mlt heterozygotes to the ROS generators. These findings present the first direct evidence that invadopodia play a role in tissue cell invasion in vivo. In addition, they identify an inducible physical signaling pathway sensitive to redox and oncogenic signaling that can drive this process. PMID:22973180

  10. Biomaterial-based delivery for skeletal muscle repair

    PubMed Central

    Cezar, Christine A.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable capacity for regeneration in response to minor damage, but severe injury resulting in a volumetric muscle loss can lead to extensive and irreversible fibrosis, scarring, and loss of muscle function. In early clinical trials, the intramuscular injection of cultured myoblasts was proven to be a safe but ineffective cell therapy, likely due to rapid death, poor migration, and immune rejection of the injected cells. In recent years, appropriate therapeutic cell types and culturing techniques have improved progenitor cell engraftment upon transplantation. Importantly, the identification of several key biophysical and biochemical cues that synergistically regulate satellite cell fate has paved the way for the development of cell-instructive biomaterials that serve as delivery vehicles for cells to promote in vivo regeneration. Material carriers designed to spatially and temporally mimic the satellite cell niche may be of particular importance for the complete regeneration of severely damaged skeletal muscle. PMID:25271446

  11. Insights into skeletal muscle development and applications in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Tran, T; Andersen, R; Sherman, S P; Pyle, A D

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic and postnatal development of skeletal muscle entails highly regulated processes whose complexity continues to be deconstructed. One key stage of development is the satellite cell, whose niche is composed of multiple cell types that eventually contribute to terminally differentiated myotubes. Understanding these developmental processes will ultimately facilitate treatments of myopathies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a disease characterized by compromised cell membrane structure, resulting in severe muscle wasting. One theoretical approach is to use pluripotent stem cells in a therapeutic setting to help replace degenerated muscle tissue. This chapter discusses key myogenic developmental stages and their regulatory pathways; artificial myogenic induction in pluripotent stem cells; advantages and disadvantages of DMD animal models; and therapeutic approaches targeting DMD. Furthermore, skeletal muscle serves as an excellent paradigm for understanding general cell fate decisions throughout development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional regulation of decreased protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, G.; Steffen, J. M.; Geoghegan, T. E.

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory role of transcriptional alterations in unloaded skeletal muscles was investigated by determining levels of total muscle RNA and mRNA fractions in soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats subjected to whole-body suspension for up to 7 days. After 7 days, total RNA and mRNA contents were lower in soleus and gastrocnemius, compared with controls, but the concentrations of both RNAs per g muscle were unaltered. Alpha-actin mRNA (assessed by dot hybridization) was significantly reduced in soleus after 1, 3, and 7 days of suspension and in gastrocnemius after 3 and 7 days, but was unchanged in EDL. Protein synthesis directed by RNA extracted from soleus and EDL indicated marked alteration in mRNAs coding for several small proteins. Results suggest that altered transcription and availability of specific mRNAs contribute significantly to the regulation of protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading.

  13. Changes in skeletal muscle with aging: effects of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M A; Evans, W J

    1993-01-01

    There is an approximate 30% decline in muscle strength and a 40% reduction in muscle area between the second and seventh decades of life. Thus, the loss of muscle mass with aging appears to be the major factor in the age-related loss of muscle strength. The loss of muscle mass is partially due to a significant decline in the numbers of both Type I and Type II muscle fibers plus a decrease in the size of the muscle cells, with the Type II fibers showing a preferential atrophy. There appears to be no loss of glycolytic capacity in senescent skeletal muscle whereas muscle oxidative enzyme activity and muscle capillarization decrease by about 25%. Vigorous endurance exercise training in older people, where the stimulus is progressively increased, elicits a proliferation of muscle capillaries, an increase in oxidative enzyme activity, and a significant improvement in VO2max. Likewise, progressive resistive training in older individuals results in muscle hypertrophy and increased strength, if the training stimulus is of a sufficient intensity and duration. Since older individuals adapt to resistive and endurance exercise training in a similar fashion to young people, the decline in the muscle's metabolic and force-producing capacity can no longer be considered as an inevitable consequence of the aging process. Rather, the adaptations in aging skeletal muscle to exercise training may prevent sarcopenia, enhance the ease of carrying out the activities of daily living, and exert a beneficial effect on such age-associated diseases as Type II diabetes, coronary artery disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, and obesity.

  14. Inactivity amplifies the catabolic response of skeletal muscle to cortisol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Stuart, C. A.; Sheffield-Moore, M.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    Severe injury or trauma is accompanied by both hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity or bed rest (BR). Trauma and BR alone each result in a loss of muscle nitrogen, albeit through different metabolic alterations. Although BR alone can result in a 2-3% loss of lean body mass, the effects of severe trauma can be 2- to 3-fold greater. We investigated the combined effects of hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers. Six males were studied before and after 14 days of strict BR using a model based on arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. Fractional synthesis and breakdown rates of skeletal muscle protein were also directly calculated. Each assessment of protein metabolism was conducted during a 12-h infusion of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (120 microg/kg x h), resulting in blood cortisol concentrations that mimic severe injury (approximately 31 microg/dL). After 14 days of strict BR, hypercortisolemia increased phenylalanine efflux from muscle by 3-fold (P < 0.05). The augmented negative amino acid balance was the result of an increased muscle protein breakdown (P < 0.05) without a concomitant change in muscle protein synthesis. Muscle efflux of glutamine and alanine increased significantly after bed rest due to a significant increase in de novo synthesis (P < 0.05). Thus, inactivity sensitizes skeletal muscle to the catabolic effects of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, these effects on healthy volunteers are analogous to those seen after severe injury.

  15. Skeletal muscle strength and endurance in recipients of lung transplants.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Sunita; Levy, Robert D; Reid, W Darlene

    2008-09-01

    Exercise limitation in recipients of lung transplant may be a result of abnormalities in the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether these abnormalities are merely a reflection of the changes observed in the pretransplant condition. The purpose of this paper was to compare thigh muscle volume and composition, strength, and endurance in lung transplant recipients to people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Single lung transplant recipients (n=6) and people with COPD (n=6), matched for age, sex, and BMI participated in the study. Subjects underwent MRI to determine muscle size and composition, lower extremity strength testing and an isometric endurance test of the quadriceps. Lung transplant recipients had similar muscle volumes and intramuscular fat infiltration of their thigh muscles and similar strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings to people with COPD who had not undergone transplant. However, quadriceps endurance tended to be lower in transplant recipients compared to people with COPD (15 +/- 7 seconds in transplant versus 31 +/- 12 seconds in COPD, p = 0.08). Recipients of lung transplant showed similar changes in muscle size and strength as people with COPD, however muscle endurance tended to be lower in people with lung transplants. Impairments in muscle endurance may reflect the effects of immunosuppressant medications on skeletal muscle in people with lung transplant.

  16. Mangiferin protects against adverse skeletal muscle changes and enhances muscle oxidative capacity in obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Luz M.; Raya, Ana I.; Martínez-Moreno, Julio M.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-related skeletal muscle changes include muscle atrophy, slow-to-fast fiber-type transformation, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity. These changes relate with increased risk of insulin resistance. Mangiferin, the major component of the plant Mangifera indica, is a well-known anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antihyperlipidemic agent. This study tested the hypothesis that mangiferin treatment counteracts obesity-induced fiber atrophy and slow-to-fast fiber transition, and favors an oxidative phenotype in skeletal muscle of obese rats. Obese Zucker rats were fed gelatin pellets with (15 mg/kg BW/day) or without (placebo group) mangiferin for 8 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received the same gelatin pellets without mangiferin and served as non-obese and non-diabetic controls. Lesser diameter, fiber composition, and histochemical succinic dehydrogenase activity (an oxidative marker) of myosin-based fiber-types were assessed in soleus and tibialis cranialis muscles. A multivariate discriminant analysis encompassing all fiber-type features indicated that obese rats treated with mangiferin displayed skeletal muscle phenotypes significantly different compared with both lean and obese control rats. Mangiferin significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines, preserved skeletal muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional size, and fiber-type composition, and enhanced muscle fiber oxidative capacity. These data demonstrate that mangiferin attenuated adverse skeletal muscle changes in obese rats. PMID:28253314

  17. Mangiferin protects against adverse skeletal muscle changes and enhances muscle oxidative capacity in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Luz M; Raya, Ana I; Martínez-Moreno, Julio M; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-related skeletal muscle changes include muscle atrophy, slow-to-fast fiber-type transformation, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity. These changes relate with increased risk of insulin resistance. Mangiferin, the major component of the plant Mangifera indica, is a well-known anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antihyperlipidemic agent. This study tested the hypothesis that mangiferin treatment counteracts obesity-induced fiber atrophy and slow-to-fast fiber transition, and favors an oxidative phenotype in skeletal muscle of obese rats. Obese Zucker rats were fed gelatin pellets with (15 mg/kg BW/day) or without (placebo group) mangiferin for 8 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received the same gelatin pellets without mangiferin and served as non-obese and non-diabetic controls. Lesser diameter, fiber composition, and histochemical succinic dehydrogenase activity (an oxidative marker) of myosin-based fiber-types were assessed in soleus and tibialis cranialis muscles. A multivariate discriminant analysis encompassing all fiber-type features indicated that obese rats treated with mangiferin displayed skeletal muscle phenotypes significantly different compared with both lean and obese control rats. Mangiferin significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines, preserved skeletal muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional size, and fiber-type composition, and enhanced muscle fiber oxidative capacity. These data demonstrate that mangiferin attenuated adverse skeletal muscle changes in obese rats.

  18. Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers of rats after exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akuzawa, M.; Hataya, M.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers were electron microscopically studied in rats forced to run on the treadmill until all-out. When they were mild and limited to relatively small areas, the reconstruction of filaments ensued within 10 days without infiltration of cells. When they were severe and extensive, phagocytes infiltrated in the lesions and removed degenerative sacroplasmic debris from muscle fibers. A little later, myoblasts appeared and regeneration was accomplished in 30 days in much the same manner as in myogenesis.

  19. In Vitro Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Models for Studying Muscle Physiology and Disease.

    PubMed

    Khodabukus, Alastair; Prabhu, Neel; Wang, Jason; Bursac, Nenad

    2018-04-25

    Healthy skeletal muscle possesses the extraordinary ability to regenerate in response to small-scale injuries; however, this self-repair capacity becomes overwhelmed with aging, genetic myopathies, and large muscle loss. The failure of small animal models to accurately replicate human muscle disease, injury and to predict clinically-relevant drug responses has driven the development of high fidelity in vitro skeletal muscle models. Herein, the progress made and challenges ahead in engineering biomimetic human skeletal muscle tissues that can recapitulate muscle development, genetic diseases, regeneration, and drug response is discussed. Bioengineering approaches used to improve engineered muscle structure and function as well as the functionality of satellite cells to allow modeling muscle regeneration in vitro are also highlighted. Next, a historical overview on the generation of skeletal muscle cells and tissues from human pluripotent stem cells, and a discussion on the potential of these approaches to model and treat genetic diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, is provided. Finally, the need to integrate multiorgan microphysiological systems to generate improved drug discovery technologies with the potential to complement or supersede current preclinical animal models of muscle disease is described. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Macrophage depletion impairs skeletal muscle regeneration: The roles of regulatory factors for muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Linlin; Zeng, Zhigang; Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie

    2017-03-01

    Though macrophages are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration, which is a complex process, the roles and mechanisms of the macrophages in the process of muscle regeneration are still not fully understood. The objective of this study is to explore the roles of macrophages and the mechanisms involved in the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle. One hundred and twelve C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into muscle contusion and macrophages depleted groups. Their gastrocnemius muscles were harvested at the time points of 12 h, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 d post-injury. The changes in skeletal muscle morphology were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain. The gene expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The data showed that CL-liposomes treatment did affect the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD, myogenin) after injury. In addition, CL-liposomes treatment decreased the expression of regulatory factors of muscle regeneration (HGF, uPA, COX-2, IGF-1, MGF, FGF6) and increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES) in the late stage of regeneration. Moreover, there were significant correlations between macrophages and some regulatory factors (such as HGF, uPA) for muscle regeneration. These results suggested that macrophages depletion impairs skeletal muscle regeneration and that the regulatory factors for muscle regeneration may play important roles in this process. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Potential of laryngeal muscle regeneration using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dirja, Bayu Tirta; Yoshie, Susumu; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Nomoto, Yukio; Wada, Ikuo; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may be a new potential cell source for laryngeal muscle regeneration in the treatment of vocal fold atrophy after recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Objectives Unilateral vocal fold paralysis can lead to degeneration, atrophy, and loss of force of the thyroarytenoid muscle. At present, there are some treatments such as thyroplasty, arytenoid adduction, and vocal fold injection. However, such treatments cannot restore reduced mass of the thyroarytenoid muscle. iPS cells have been recognized as supplying a potential resource for cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of iPS cells for the regeneration of laryngeal muscle through the evaluation of both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods Skeletal muscle cells were generated from tdTomato-labeled iPS cells using embryoid body formation. Differentiation into skeletal muscle cells was analyzed by gene expression and immunocytochemistry. The tdTomato-labeled iPS cell-derived skeletal muscle cells were transplanted into the left atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle. To evaluate the engraftment of these cells after transplantation, immunohistochemistry was performed. Results The tdTomato-labeled iPS cells were successfully differentiated into skeletal muscle cells through an in vitro experiment. These cells survived in the atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle after transplantation.

  2. Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry (SOCE) Contributes to Normal Skeletal Muscle Contractility in young but not in aged skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Brotto, Leticia S.; Bougoin, Sylvain; Nosek, Thomas M.; Reid, Michael; Hardin, Brian; Pan, Zui; Ma, Jianjie; Parness, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Muscle atrophy alone is insufficient to explain the significant decline in contractile force of skeletal muscle during normal aging. One contributing factor to decreased contractile force in aging skeletal muscle could be compromised excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, without sufficient available Ca2+ to allow for repetitive muscle contractility, skeletal muscles naturally become weaker. Using biophysical approaches, we previously showed that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is compromised in aged skeletal muscle but not in young ones. While important, a missing component from previous studies is whether or not SOCE function correlates with contractile function during aging. Here we test the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ to contractile function of skeletal muscle during aging. First, we demonstrate graded coupling between SR Ca2+ release channel-mediated Ca2+ release and activation of SOCE. Inhibition of SOCE produced significant reduction of contractile force in young skeletal muscle, particularly at high frequency stimulation, and such effects were completely absent in aged skeletal muscle. Our data indicate that SOCE contributes to the normal physiological contractile response of young healthy skeletal muscle and that defective extracellular Ca2+ entry through SOCE contributes to the reduced contractile force characteristic of aged skeletal muscle. PMID:21666285

  3. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) contributes to normal skeletal muscle contractility in young but not in aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Angela M; Zhao, Xiaoli; Weisleder, Noah; Brotto, Leticia S; Bougoin, Sylvain; Nosek, Thomas M; Reid, Michael; Hardin, Brian; Pan, Zui; Ma, Jianjie; Parness, Jerome; Brotto, Marco

    2011-06-01

    Muscle atrophy alone is insufficient to explain the significant decline in contractile force of skeletal muscle during normal aging. One contributing factor to decreased contractile force in aging skeletal muscle could be compromised excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, without sufficient available Ca(2+) to allow for repetitive muscle contractility, skeletal muscles naturally become weaker. Using biophysical approaches, we previously showed that store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is compromised in aged skeletal muscle but not in young ones. While important, a missing component from previous studies is whether or not SOCE function correlates with contractile function during aging. Here we test the contribution of extracellular Ca(2+) to contractile function of skeletal muscle during aging. First, we demonstrate graded coupling between SR Ca(2+) release channel-mediated Ca(2+) release and activation of SOCE. Inhibition of SOCE produced significant reduction of contractile force in young skeletal muscle, particularly at high frequency stimulation, and such effects were completely absent in aged skeletal muscle. Our data indicate that SOCE contributes to the normal physiological contractile response of young healthy skeletal muscle and that defective extracellular Ca(2+) entry through SOCE contributes to the reduced contractile force characteristic of aged skeletal muscle.

  4. Energetic aspects of skeletal muscle contraction: implications of fiber types.

    PubMed

    Rall, J A

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter fundamental energetic properties of skeletal muscles as elucidated from isolated muscle preparations are described. Implications of these intrinsic properties for the energetic characterization of different fiber types and for the understanding of locomotion have been considered. Emphasis was placed on the myriad of physical and chemical techniques that can be employed to understand muscle energetics and on the interrelationship of results from different techniques. The anaerobic initial processes which liberate energy during contraction and relaxation are discussed in detail. The high-energy phosphate (approximately P) utilized during contraction and relaxation can be distributed between actomyosin ATPase or cross-bridge cycling (70%) and the Ca2+ ATPase of the sacroplasmic reticulum (30%). Muscle shortening increases the rate of approximately P hydrolysis, and stretching a muscle during contraction suppresses the rate of approximately P hydrolysis. The economy of an isometric contraction is defined as the ratio of isometric mechanical response to energetic cost and is shown to be a fundamental intrinsic parameter describing muscle energetics. Economy of contraction varies across the animal kingdom by over three orders of magnitude and is different in different mammalian fiber types. In mammalian skeletal muscles differences in economy of contraction can be attributed mainly to differences in the specific actomyosin and Ca2+ ATPase of muscles. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between economy of contraction and maximum velocity of muscle shortening (Vmax) and maximum power output. This is a fundamental relationship. Muscles cannot be economical at developing and maintaining force and also exhibit rapid shortening. Interestingly, there appears to be a subtle system of unknown nature that modulates the Vmax and economy of contraction. Efficiency of a work-producing contraction is defined and contrasted to the economy of contraction

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging in evaluation of human skeletal muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Zaraiskaya, Tatiana; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2006-08-01

    To explore the capability and reliability of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) in the evaluation of human skeletal muscle injury. DTI of four patients with gastrocnemius and soleus muscles injuries was compared to eight healthy controls. Imaging was performed using a GE 3.0T short-bore scanner. A diffusion-weighted 2D spin echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence optimized for skeletal muscle was used. From a series of axially acquired diffusion tensor images the diffusion tensor eigenparameters (eigenvalues and eigenvectors), fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated and compared for injured and healthy calf muscles. Two dimensional (2D) projection maps of the principal eigenvectors were plotted to visualize the healthy and pathologic muscle fiber architectures. Clear differences in FA and ADC were observed in injured skeletal muscle, compared to healthy controls. Mean control FA was 0.23 +/- 0.02 for medial and lateral gastrocnemius (mg and lg) muscles, and 0.20 +/- 0.02 for soleus (sol) muscles. In all patients FA values were reduced compared to controls, to as low as 0.08 +/- 0.02. The ADC in controls ranged from 1.41 to 1.31 x 10(-9) m(2)/second, while in patients this was consistently higher. The 2D projection maps revealed muscle fiber disorder in injured calves, while in healthy controls the 2D projection maps show a well organized (ordered) fiber structure. DTI is a suitable method to assess human calf muscle injury.

  6. Impact of placental insufficiency on fetal skeletal muscle growth

    PubMed Central

    Hay, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by placental insufficiency is one of the most common and complex problems in perinatology, with no known cure. In pregnancies affected by placental insufficiency, a poorly functioning placenta restricts nutrient supply to the fetus and prevents normal fetal growth. Among other significant deficits in organ development, the IUGR fetus characteristically has less lean body and skeletal muscle mass than their appropriately-grown counterparts. Reduced skeletal muscle growth is not fully compensated after birth, as individuals who were born small for gestational age (SGA) from IUGR have persistent reductions in muscle mass and strength into adulthood. The consequences of restricted muscle growth and accelerated postnatal “catch-up” growth in the form of adiposity may contribute to the increased later life risk for visceral adiposity, peripheral insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in individuals who were formerly IUGR. This review will discuss how an insufficient placenta results in impaired fetal skeletal muscle growth and how lifelong reductions in muscle mass might contribute to increased metabolic disease risk in this vulnerable population. PMID:26994511

  7. Regulation of skeletal muscle capillary growth in exercise and disease.

    PubMed

    Haas, Tara L; Nwadozi, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Capillaries, which are the smallest and most abundant type of blood vessel, form the primary site of gas, nutrient, and waste transfer between the vascular and tissue compartments. Skeletal muscle exhibits the capacity to generate new capillaries (angiogenesis) as an adaptation to exercise training, thus ensuring that the heightened metabolic demand of the active muscle is matched by an improved capacity for distribution of gases, nutrients, and waste products. This review summarizes the current understanding of the regulation of skeletal muscle capillary growth. The multi-step process of angiogenesis is coordinated through the integration of a diverse array of signals associated with hypoxic, metabolic, hemodynamic, and mechanical stresses within the active muscle. The contributions of metabolic and mechanical factors to the modulation of key pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules are discussed within the context of responses to a single aerobic exercise bout and short-term and long-term training. Finally, the paradoxical lack of angiogenesis in peripheral artery disease and diabetes and the implications for disease progression and muscle health are discussed. Future studies that emphasize an integrated analysis of the mechanisms that control skeletal muscle capillary growth will enable development of targeted exercise programs that effectively promote angiogenesis in healthy individuals and in patient populations.

  8. Myopathic changes in murine skeletal muscle lacking synemin

    PubMed Central

    García-Pelagio, Karla P.; Muriel, Joaquin; O'Neill, Andrea; Desmond, Patrick F.; Lovering, Richard M.; Lund, Linda; Bond, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of striated muscle linked to intermediate filament (IF) proteins are associated with defects in the organization of the contractile apparatus and its links to costameres, which connect the sarcomeres to the cell membrane. Here we study the role in skeletal muscle of synemin, a type IV IF protein, by examining mice null for synemin (synm-null). Synm-null mice have a mild skeletal muscle phenotype. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles show a significant decrease in mean fiber diameter, a decrease in twitch and tetanic force, and an increase in susceptibility to injury caused by lengthening contractions. Organization of proteins associated with the contractile apparatus and costameres is not significantly altered in the synm-null. Elastimetry of the sarcolemma and associated contractile apparatus in extensor digitorum longus myofibers reveals a reduction in tension consistent with an increase in sarcolemmal deformability. Although fatigue after repeated isometric contractions is more marked in TA muscles of synm-null mice, the ability of the mice to run uphill on a treadmill is similar to controls. Our results suggest that synemin contributes to linkage between costameres and the contractile apparatus and that the absence of synemin results in decreased fiber size and increased sarcolemmal deformability and susceptibility to injury. Thus synemin plays a moderate but distinct role in fast twitch skeletal muscle. PMID:25567810

  9. Combination of small RNAs for skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, NaJung; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony; Lee, Sang Jin

    2016-03-01

    Selectively controlling the expression of the target genes through RNA interference (RNAi) has significant therapeutic potential for injuries or diseases of tissues. We used this strategy to accelerate and enhance skeletal muscle regeneration for the treatment of muscular atrophy. In this study, we used myostatin small interfering (si)RNA (siGDF-8), a major inhibitory factor in the development and postnatal regeneration of skeletal muscle and muscle-specific microRNAs (miR-1 and -206) to further accelerate muscle regeneration. This combination of 3 small RNAs significantly improved the gene expression of myogenic regulatory factors in vitro, suggesting myogenic activation. Moreover, cell proliferation and myotube formation improved without compromising each other, which indicates the myogenic potential of this combination of small RNAs. The recovery of chemically injured tibialis anterior muscles in rats was significantly accelerated, both functionally and structurally. This novel combination of siRNA and miRNAs has promising therapeutic potential to improve in situ skeletal muscle regeneration. © FASEB.

  10. HDAC4 preserves skeletal muscle structure following long-term denervation by mediating distinct cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Pigna, Eva; Renzini, Alessandra; Greco, Emanuela; Simonazzi, Elena; Fulle, Stefania; Mancinelli, Rosa; Moresi, Viviana; Adamo, Sergio

    2018-02-24

    Denervation triggers numerous molecular responses in skeletal muscle, including the activation of catabolic pathways and oxidative stress, leading to progressive muscle atrophy. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) mediates skeletal muscle response to denervation, suggesting the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to neurogenic muscle atrophy. However, the effects of HDAC4 inhibition in skeletal muscle in response to long-term denervation have not been described yet. To further study HDAC4 functions in response to denervation, we analyzed mutant mice in which HDAC4 is specifically deleted in skeletal muscle. After an initial phase of resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy, skeletal muscle with a deletion of HDAC4 lost structural integrity after 4 weeks of denervation. Deletion of HDAC4 impaired the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, delayed the autophagic response, and dampened the OS response in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system or the autophagic response, if on the one hand, conferred resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy; on the other hand, induced loss of muscle integrity and inflammation in mice lacking HDAC4 in skeletal muscle. Moreover, treatment with the antioxidant drug Trolox prevented loss of muscle integrity and inflammation in in mice lacking HDAC4 in skeletal muscle, despite the resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy. These results reveal new functions of HDAC4 in mediating skeletal muscle response to denervation and lead us to propose the combined use of HDAC inhibitors and antioxidant drugs to treat neurogenic muscle atrophy.

  11. In utero Undernutrition Programs Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Brittany; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In utero undernutrition is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular disease during adult life. A common phenotype associated with low birth weight is reduced skeletal muscle mass. Given the central role of skeletal muscle in whole body metabolism, alterations in its mass as well as its metabolic characteristics may contribute to disease risk. This review highlights the metabolic alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle associated with in utero undernutrition and low birth weight. These tissues have high metabolic demands and are known to be sites of major metabolic dysfunction in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research demonstrates that mitochondrial energetics are decreased in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult offspring from undernourished mothers. These effects apparently lead to the development of a thrifty phenotype, which may represent overall a compensatory mechanism programmed in utero to handle times of limited nutrient availability. However, in an environment characterized by food abundance, the effects are maladaptive and increase adulthood risks of metabolic disease.

  12. In utero Undernutrition Programs Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Brittany; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2016-01-01

    In utero undernutrition is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular disease during adult life. A common phenotype associated with low birth weight is reduced skeletal muscle mass. Given the central role of skeletal muscle in whole body metabolism, alterations in its mass as well as its metabolic characteristics may contribute to disease risk. This review highlights the metabolic alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle associated with in utero undernutrition and low birth weight. These tissues have high metabolic demands and are known to be sites of major metabolic dysfunction in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research demonstrates that mitochondrial energetics are decreased in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult offspring from undernourished mothers. These effects apparently lead to the development of a thrifty phenotype, which may represent overall a compensatory mechanism programmed in utero to handle times of limited nutrient availability. However, in an environment characterized by food abundance, the effects are maladaptive and increase adulthood risks of metabolic disease. PMID:26779032

  13. MicroRNA Transcriptome Profiles During Swine Skeletal Muscle Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MicroRNA (miR) are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts. To evaluate the role of miR in skeletal muscle of swine, global microRNA abundance was measured at specific developmental stages including proliferating satellite cells,...

  14. Redox Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: Role of Aging and Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Li Li

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is associated with the production of ROS due to altered O[subscript 2] distribution and flux in the cell. Despite a highly efficient antioxidant defense, a small surplus of ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, may serve as signaling molecules to stimulate cellular adaptation to reach new homeostasis largely…

  15. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Cardiometabolic Benefits after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...COMPOSITION AND METABOLISM, FUNCTIONAL ELECTERICAL STIMULATION , IMMUNIOCHEMISTRY, SKELETAL MUSCLES, INFLAMMATORY BIOMARKERS, DUAL ENERGEY X-RAY...1. INTRODUCTION: Forty eight participants will be randomly assigned into neuromuscular electrical stimulation + functional electrical

  16. Acylated and unacylated ghrelin impair skeletal muscle atrophy in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cachexia is a wasting syndrome associated with cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, and several other disease states. It is characterized by weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, and skeletal muscle atrophy and is associated with poor patient prognosis, making it an important treatment target. Ghreli...

  17. Differential global gene expression in red and white skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. G.; Gordon, S. E.; Carlson, C. J.; Pattison, J. S.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    The differences in gene expression among the fiber types of skeletal muscle have long fascinated scientists, but for the most part, previous experiments have only reported differences of one or two genes at a time. The evolving technology of global mRNA expression analysis was employed to determine the potential differential expression of approximately 3,000 mRNAs between the white quad (white muscle) and the red soleus muscle (mixed red muscle) of female ICR mice (30-35 g). Microarray analysis identified 49 mRNA sequences that were differentially expressed between white and mixed red skeletal muscle, including newly identified differential expressions between muscle types. For example, the current findings increase the number of known, differentially expressed mRNAs for transcription factors/coregulators by nine and signaling proteins by three. The expanding knowledge of the diversity of mRNA expression between white and mixed red muscle suggests that there could be quite a complex regulation of phenotype between muscles of different fiber types.

  18. Effect of experimental hyperthyroidism on protein turnover in skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Carter, W J; Van Der Weijden Benjamin, W S; Faas, F H

    1980-10-01

    Since experimental hyperthyroidism reduces skeletal muscle mass while simultaneously increasing cardiac muscle mass, the effect of hyperthyroidism on muscle protein degradation was compared in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Pulse-labeling studies using (3H) leucine and (14C) carboxyl labeled aspartate and glutamate were carried out. Hyperthyroidism caused a 25%-29% increase in protein breakdown in both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions of skeletal muscle. Increased muscle protein degradation may be a major factor in the development of skeletal muscle wasting and weakness in hyperthyroidism. In contrast, protein breakdown appeared to be reduced 22% in the sarcoplasmic fraction of hyperthyroid heart muscle and was unchanged in the myofibrillar fraction. Possible reasons for the contrasting effects of hyperthyroidism on skeletal and cardiac muscle include increased sensitivity of the hyperthyroid heart to catecholamines, increased cardiac work caused by the hemodynamic effects of hyperthyroidism, and a different direct effect of thyroid hormone at the nuclear level in cardiac as opposed to skeletal muscle.

  19. Functional classification of skeletal muscle networks. I. Normal physiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Winters, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Extensive measurements of the parts list of human skeletal muscle through transcriptomics and other phenotypic assays offer the opportunity to reconstruct detailed functional models. Through integration of vast amounts of data present in databases and extant knowledge of muscle function combined with robust analyses that include a clustering approach, we present both a protein parts list and network models for skeletal muscle function. The model comprises the four key functional family networks that coexist within a functional space; namely, excitation-activation family (forward pathways that transmit a motoneuronal command signal into the spatial volume of the cell and then use Ca2+ fluxes to bind Ca2+ to troponin C sites on F-actin filaments, plus transmembrane pumps that maintain transmission capacity); mechanical transmission family (a sophisticated three-dimensional mechanical apparatus that bidirectionally couples the millions of actin-myosin nanomotors with external axial tensile forces at insertion sites); metabolic and bioenergetics family (pathways that supply energy for the skeletal muscle function under widely varying demands and provide for other cellular processes); and signaling-production family (which represents various sensing, signal transduction, and nuclear infrastructure that controls the turn over and structural integrity and regulates the maintenance, regeneration, and remodeling of the muscle). Within each family, we identify subfamilies that function as a unit through analysis of large-scale transcription profiles of muscle and other tissues. This comprehensive network model provides a framework for exploring functional mechanisms of the skeletal muscle in normal and pathophysiology, as well as for quantitative modeling. PMID:23085959

  20. Myostatin deficiency is associated with lipidomic abnormalities in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Baati, Narjes; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Vernus, Barbara; Goustard, Bénédicte; Coudray, Charles; Lecomte, Jérome; Blanquet, Véronique; Magnol, Laetitia; Bonnieu, Anne; Koechlin-Ramonatxo, Christelle

    2017-10-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) deficiency leads to skeletal muscle overgrowth and Mstn inhibition is considered as a promising treatment for muscle-wasting disorders. Mstn gene deletion in mice also causes metabolic changes with decreased mitochondria content, disturbance in mitochondrial respiratory function and increased muscle fatigability. However the impact of MSTN deficiency on these metabolic changes is not fully elucidated. Here, we hypothesized that lack of MSTN will alter skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition in relation with pronounced alterations in muscle function and metabolism. Indeed, phospholipids and in particular cardiolipin mostly present in the inner mitochondrial membrane, play a crucial role in mitochondria function and oxidative phosphorylation process. We observed that Mstn KO muscle had reduced fat membrane transporter levels (FAT/CD36, FABP3, FATP1 and FATP4) associated with decreased lipid oxidative pathway (citrate synthase and β-HAD activities) and impaired lipogenesis (decreased triglyceride and free fatty acid content), indicating a role of mstn in muscle lipid metabolism. We further analyzed phospholipid classes and fatty acid composition by chromatographic methods in muscle and mitochondrial membranes. Mstn KO mice showed increased levels of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids. We also demonstrated, in this phenotype, a reduction in cardiolipin proportion in mitochondrial membrane versus the proportion of others phospholipids, in relation with a decrease in the expression of phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase and cardiolipin synthase, enzymes involved in cardiolipin synthesis. These data illustrate the importance of lipids as a link by which MSTN deficiency can impact mitochondrial bioenergetics in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of spaceflight on rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Thomas P.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a 7-day spaceflight (aboard NASA's SL-3) on the size and the metabolism of single fibers from several rat muscles was investigated along with the specificity of these responses as related to the muscle type and the size of fibers. It was found that the loss of mass after flight was varied from 36 percent in the soleus to 15 percent in the extensor digitorum longus. Results of histochemical analyses showed that the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in muscles of flight-exposed rats was maintained at the control levels, whereas the alpha-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity was either maintained or increased. The analyses of the metabolic profiles of ATPase, SDH, and GPD indicated that, in some muscles, there was an increase in the poportion of fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers.

  2. Pixel-based meshfree modelling of skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Shyan; Basava, Ramya Rao; Zhang, Yantao; Csapo, Robert; Malis, Vadim; Sinha, Usha; Hodgson, John; Sinha, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the meshfree Reproducing Kernel Particle Method (RKPM) for 3D image-based modeling of skeletal muscles. This approach allows for construction of simulation model based on pixel data obtained from medical images. The material properties and muscle fiber direction obtained from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) are input at each pixel point. The reproducing kernel (RK) approximation allows a representation of material heterogeneity with smooth transition. A multiphase multichannel level set based segmentation framework is adopted for individual muscle segmentation using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) and DTI. The application of the proposed methods for modeling the human lower leg is demonstrated.

  3. Imaging 2D optical diffuse reflectance in skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka; Yao, Gang

    2007-04-01

    We discovered a unique pattern of optical reflectance from fresh prerigor skeletal muscles, which can not be described using existing theories. A numerical fitting function was developed to quantify the equiintensity contours of acquired reflectance images. Using this model, we studied the changes of reflectance profile during stretching and rigor process. We found that the prominent anisotropic features diminished after rigor completion. These results suggested that muscle sarcomere structures played important roles in modulating light propagation in whole muscle. When incorporating the sarcomere diffraction in a Monte Carlo model, we showed that the resulting reflectance profiles quantitatively resembled the experimental observation.

  4. Skeletal muscle mechanics: questions, problems and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Walter

    2017-09-16

    Skeletal muscle mechanics have been studied ever since people have shown an interest in human movement. However, our understanding of muscle contraction and muscle mechanical properties has changed fundamentally with the discovery of the sliding filament theory in 1954 and associated cross-bridge theory in 1957. Nevertheless, experimental evidence suggests that our knowledge of the mechanisms of contraction is far from complete, and muscle properties and muscle function in human movement remain largely unknown.In this manuscript, I am trying to identify some of the crucial challenges we are faced with in muscle mechanics, offer possible solutions to questions, and identify problems that might be worthwhile exploring in the future. Since it is impossible to tackle all (worthwhile) problems in a single manuscript, I identified three problems that are controversial, important, and close to my heart. They may be identified as follows: (i) mechanisms of muscle contraction, (ii) in vivo whole muscle mechanics and properties, and (iii) force-sharing among synergistic muscles. These topics are fundamental to our understanding of human movement and movement control, and they contain a series of unknowns and challenges to be explored in the future.It is my hope that this paper may serve as an inspiration for some, may challenge current beliefs in selected areas, tackle important problems in the area of muscle mechanics, physiology and movement control, and may guide and focus some of the thinking of future muscle mechanics research.

  5. Protein Availability and Satellite Cell Dynamics in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Baubak; Hawley, John A; Camera, Donny M

    2018-06-01

    Human skeletal muscle satellite cells are activated in response to both resistance and endurance exercise. It was initially proposed that satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were only required to support resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy. However, satellite cells may also play a role in muscle fibre remodelling after endurance-based exercise and extracellular matrix regulation. Given the importance of dietary protein, particularly branched chain amino acids, in supporting myofibrillar and mitochondrial adaptations to both resistance and endurance-based training, a greater understanding of how protein intake impacts satellite cell activity would provide further insight into the mechanisms governing skeletal muscle remodelling with exercise. While many studies have investigated the capacity for protein ingestion to increase post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, few investigations have examined the role for protein ingestion to modulate satellite cell activity. Here we review the molecular mechanisms controlling the activation of satellite cells in response to mechanical stress and protein intake in both in vitro and in vivo models. We provide a mechanistic framework that describes how protein ingestion may enhance satellite activity and promote exercise adaptations in human skeletal muscle.

  6. Skeletal muscle responses to lower limb suspension in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hather, Bruce M.; Adams, Gregory R.; Tesch, Per A.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The morphological responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting were assessed by analyzing multiple transaxial magnetic resonance (MR) images of both lower limbs and skeletal muscle biopsies of the unweighted lower limb before and after six weeks of unilaterial (left) lower limb suspension (ULLS). Results indicated that, as a results of 6 weeks of unweighting (by the subjects walking on crutches using only one limb), the cross sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle of the unweighted left limb decreased 12 percent, while the CSA of the right thigh muscle did not change. The decrease was due to a twofold greater response of the knee extensors than the knee flexors. The pre- and post-ULLS biopsies of the left vastus lateralis showed a 14 percent decrease in average fiber CSA due to unweighting. The number of capillaries surrounding the different fiber types was unchanged after ULLS. Results showed that the adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting are qualitatively, but not quantitatively, similar to those of lower mammals and not necessarily dependent on the fiber-type composition.

  7. Proteomic Profiling of Mitochondrial Enzymes during Skeletal Muscle Aging.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Lisa; O'Connell, Kathleen; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-03-07

    Mitochondria are of central importance for energy generation in skeletal muscles. Expression changes or functional alterations in mitochondrial enzymes play a key role during myogenesis, fibre maturation, and various neuromuscular pathologies, as well as natural fibre aging. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics suggests itself as a convenient large-scale and high-throughput approach to catalogue the mitochondrial protein complement and determine global changes during health and disease. This paper gives a brief overview of the relatively new field of mitochondrial proteomics and discusses the findings from recent proteomic surveys of mitochondrial elements in aged skeletal muscles. Changes in the abundance, biochemical activity, subcellular localization, and/or posttranslational modifications in key mitochondrial enzymes might be useful as novel biomarkers of aging. In the long term, this may advance diagnostic procedures, improve the monitoring of disease progression, help in the testing of side effects due to new drug regimes, and enhance our molecular understanding of age-related muscle degeneration.

  8. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  9. Developing bones are differentially affected by compromised skeletal muscle formation

    PubMed Central

    Nowlan, Niamh C.; Bourdon, Céline; Dumas, Gérard; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Prendergast, Patrick J.; Murphy, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical forces are essential for normal adult bone function and repair, but the impact of prenatal muscle contractions on bone development remains to be explored in depth in mammalian model systems. In this study, we analyze skeletogenesis in two ‘muscleless’ mouse mutant models in which the formation of skeletal muscle development is disrupted; Myf5nlacZ/nlacZ:MyoD−/− and Pax3Sp/Sp (Splotch). Ossification centers were found to be differentially affected in the muscleless limbs, with significant decreases in bone formation in the scapula, humerus, ulna and femur, but not in the tibia. In the scapula and humerus, the morphologies of ossification centers were abnormal in muscleless limbs. Histology of the humerus revealed a decreased extent of the hypertrophic zone in mutant limbs but no change in the shape of this region. The elbow joint was also found to be clearly affected with a dramatic reduction in the joint line, while no abnormalities were evident in the knee. The humeral deltoid tuberosity was significantly reduced in size in the Myf5nlacZ/nlacZ:MyoD−/− mutants while a change in shape but not in size was found in the humeral tuberosities of the Pax3Sp/Sp mutants. We also examined skeletal development in a ‘reduced muscle’ model, the Myf5nlacZ/+:MyoD−/− mutant, in which skeletal muscle forms but with reduced muscle mass. The reduced muscle phenotype appeared to have an intermediate effect on skeletal development, with reduced bone formation in the scapula and humerus compared to controls, but not in other rudiments. In summary, we have demonstrated that skeletal development is differentially affected by the lack of skeletal muscle, with certain rudiments and joints being more severely affected than others. These findings indicate that the response of skeletal progenitor cells to biophysical stimuli may depend upon their location in the embryonic limb, implying a complex interaction between mechanical forces and location

  10. Skeletal muscle metastasis from breast cancer: management and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle metastasis from breast cancer is a very rare clinical entity. We describe an extremely rare case of breast cancer metastasis to the rectus abdominis muscle. Our patient, who had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer four years ago, presented with a painful abdominal mass. Computed tomography scans showed a rim-enhancing mass with central hypoatennuation within the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle. A Fine needle aspiration biopsy was initially performed and the findings were suggestive of malignancy. The muscle lesion was then resected and the histopathological analysis showed metastasis of breast cancer. Through our review of the literature, we found that only two cases of rectus abdominis muscle metastasis from breast cancer have been reported so far. This case highlights the need to rule out muscle metastatic lesions in patients with history of breast cancer presenting with these clinical and imaging characteristics. Differentiation from primary sarcoma is of paramount importance. Skeletal muscle metastases usually indicate an advanced disease associated with poor prognosis. Treatment should be individualized depending on the patient's clinical condition.

  11. Myostatin inhibition prevents skeletal muscle pathophysiology in Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Bondulich, Marie K; Jolinon, Nelly; Osborne, Georgina F; Smith, Edward J; Rattray, Ivan; Neueder, Andreas; Sathasivam, Kirupa; Ahmed, Mhoriam; Ali, Nadira; Benjamin, Agnesska C; Chang, Xiaoli; Dick, James R T; Ellis, Matthew; Franklin, Sophie A; Goodwin, Daniel; Inuabasi, Linda; Lazell, Hayley; Lehar, Adam; Richard-Londt, Angela; Rosinski, Jim; Smith, Donna L; Wood, Tobias; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Brandner, Sebastian; Greensmith, Linda; Howland, David; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio; Lee, Se-Jin; Bates, Gillian P

    2017-10-27

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder of which skeletal muscle atrophy is a common feature, and multiple lines of evidence support a muscle-based pathophysiology in HD mouse models. Inhibition of myostatin signaling increases muscle mass, and therapeutic approaches based on this are in clinical development. We have used a soluble ActRIIB decoy receptor (ACVR2B/Fc) to test the effects of myostatin/activin A inhibition in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Weekly administration from 5 to 11 weeks of age prevented body weight loss, skeletal muscle atrophy, muscle weakness, contractile abnormalities, the loss of functional motor units in EDL muscles and delayed end-stage disease. Inhibition of myostatin/activin A signaling activated transcriptional profiles to increase muscle mass in wild type and R6/2 mice but did little to modulate the extensive Huntington's disease-associated transcriptional dysregulation, consistent with treatment having little impact on HTT aggregation levels. Modalities that inhibit myostatin signaling are currently in clinical trials for a variety of indications, the outcomes of which will present the opportunity to assess the potential benefits of targeting this pathway in HD patients.

  12. HIF-1-driven skeletal muscle adaptations to chronic hypoxia: molecular insights into muscle physiology.

    PubMed

    Favier, F B; Britto, F A; Freyssenet, D G; Bigard, X A; Benoit, H

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is a metabolically active tissue and the major body protein reservoir. Drop in ambient oxygen pressure likely results in a decrease in muscle cells oxygenation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and stabilization of the oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. However, skeletal muscle seems to be quite resistant to hypoxia compared to other organs, probably because it is accustomed to hypoxic episodes during physical exercise. Few studies have observed HIF-1α accumulation in skeletal muscle during ambient hypoxia probably because of its transient stabilization. Nevertheless, skeletal muscle presents adaptations to hypoxia that fit with HIF-1 activation, although the exact contribution of HIF-2, I kappa B kinase and activating transcription factors, all potentially activated by hypoxia, needs to be determined. Metabolic alterations result in the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation, while activation of anaerobic glycolysis is less evident. Hypoxia causes mitochondrial remodeling and enhanced mitophagy that ultimately lead to a decrease in ROS production, and this acclimatization in turn contributes to HIF-1α destabilization. Likewise, hypoxia has structural consequences with muscle fiber atrophy due to mTOR-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and transient activation of proteolysis. The decrease in muscle fiber area improves oxygen diffusion into muscle cells, while inhibition of protein synthesis, an ATP-consuming process, and reduction in muscle mass decreases energy demand. Amino acids released from muscle cells may also have protective and metabolic effects. Collectively, these results demonstrate that skeletal muscle copes with the energetic challenge imposed by O2 rarefaction via metabolic optimization.

  13. Esco2 regulates cx43 expression during skeletal regeneration in the zebrafish fin.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Rajeswari; Eble, Diane M; Iovine, M Kathryn; Skibbens, Robert V

    2016-01-01

    Roberts syndrome (RBS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, limb malformation, and often severe mental retardation. RBS arises from mutations in ESCO2 that encodes an acetyltransferase and modifies the cohesin subunit SMC3. Mutations in SCC2/NIPBL (encodes a cohesin loader), SMC3 or other cohesin genes (SMC1, RAD21/MCD1) give rise to a related developmental malady termed Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). RBS and CdLS exhibit overlapping phenotypes, but RBS is thought to arise through mitotic failure and limited progenitor cell proliferation while CdLS arises through transcriptional dysregulation. Here, we use the zebrafish regenerating fin model to test the mechanism through which RBS-type phenotypes arise. esco2 is up-regulated during fin regeneration and specifically within the blastema. esco2 knockdown adversely affects both tissue and bone growth in regenerating fins-consistent with a role in skeletal morphogenesis. esco2-knockdown significantly diminishes cx43/gja1 expression which encodes the gap junction connexin subunit required for cell-cell communication. cx43 mutations cause the short fin (sof(b123) ) phenotype in zebrafish and oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) in humans. Importantly, miR-133-dependent cx43 overexpression rescues esco2-dependent growth defects. These results conceptually link ODDD to cohesinopathies and provide evidence that ESCO2 may play a transcriptional role critical for human development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Skeletal muscle deiodinase type 2 regulation during illness in mice.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, J; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Platvoet-Ter Schiphorst, M C; Fliers, E; Wiersinga, W M; Boelen, A

    2009-11-01

    We have previously shown that skeletal muscle deiodinase type 2 (D2) mRNA (listed as Dio2 in MGI Database) is upregulated in an animal model of acute illness. However, human studies on the expression of muscle D2 during illness report conflicting data. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of skeletal muscle D2 and D2-regulating factors in two mouse models of illness that differ in timing and severity of illness: 1) turpentine-induced inflammation, and 2) Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. During turpentine-induced inflammation, D2 mRNA and activity increased compared to pair-fed controls, most prominently at day 1 and 2, whereas after S. pneumoniae infection D2 mRNA decreased. We evaluated the association of D2 expression with serum thyroid hormones, (de-)ubiquitinating enzymes ubiquitin-specific peptidase 33 and WD repeat and SOCS box-containing 1 (Wsb1), cytokine expression and activation of inflammatory pathways and cAMP pathway. During chronic inflammation the increased muscle D2 expression is associated with the activation of the cAMP pathway. The normalization of D2 5 days after turpentine injection coincides with increased Wsb1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Muscle interleukin-1beta (Il1b) expression correlated with decreased D2 mRNA expression after S. pneumoniae infection. In conclusion, muscle D2 expression is differentially regulated during illness, probably related to differences in the inflammatory response and type of pathology. D2 mRNA and activity increases in skeletal muscle during the acute phase of chronic inflammation compared to pair-fed controls probably due to activation of the cAMP pathway. In contrast, muscle D2 mRNA decreases 48 h after a severe bacterial infection, which is associated with local Il1b mRNA expression and might also be due to diminished food-intake.

  15. Atomoxetine Prevents Dexamethasone-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jesinkey, Sean R.; Korrapati, Midhun C.; Rasbach, Kyle A.; Beeson, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy remains a clinical problem in numerous pathologic conditions. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists, such as formoterol, can induce mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) to prevent such atrophy. Additionally, atomoxetine, an FDA-approved norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was positive in a cellular assay for MB. We used a mouse model of dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy to investigate the potential role of atomoxetine and formoterol to prevent muscle mass loss. Mice were administered dexamethasone once daily in the presence or absence of formoterol (0.3 mg/kg), atomoxetine (0.1 mg/kg), or sterile saline. Animals were euthanized at 8, 16, and 24 hours or 8 days later. Gastrocnemius muscle weights, changes in mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) isoforms, ATP synthase β, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 β subcomplex, 8, ND1, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), myostatin, muscle Ring-finger protein-1 (muscle atrophy), phosphorylated forkhead box protein O 3a (p-FoxO3a), Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and ribosomal protein S6 (rp-S6; muscle hypertrophy) in naive and muscle-atrophied mice were measured. Atomoxetine increased p-mTOR 24 hours after treatment in naïve mice, but did not change any other biomarkers. Formoterol robustly activated the PGC-1α-4-IGF1–Akt-mTOR-rp-S6 pathway and increased p-FoxO3a as early as 8 hours and repressed myostatin at 16 hours. In contrast to what was observed with acute treatment, chronic treatment (7 days) with atomoxetine increased p-Akt and p-FoxO3a, and sustained PGC-1α expression and skeletal muscle mass in dexamethasone-treated mice, in a manner comparable to formoterol. In conclusion, chronic treatment with a low dose of atomoxetine prevented dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle wasting and supports a potential role in preventing muscle atrophy. PMID:25292181

  16. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Skeletal Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Barbara M.; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical stimulation (FES). This review covers the aspects of electrical stimulation used for rehabilitation and functional purposes. Discussed are the various parameters of electrical stimulation, including frequency, pulse width/duration, duty cycle, intensity/amplitude, ramp time, pulse pattern, program duration, program frequency, and muscle group activated, and how they affect fatigue in the stimulated muscle. PMID:22737049

  17. Decellularised skeletal muscles allow functional muscle regeneration by promoting host cell migration.

    PubMed

    Urciuolo, Anna; Urbani, Luca; Perin, Silvia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Scottoni, Federico; Gjinovci, Asllan; Collins-Hooper, Henry; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Torelli, Silvia; Germinario, Elena; Fallas, Mario Enrique Alvarez; Julia-Vilella, Carla; Eaton, Simon; Blaauw, Bert; Patel, Ketan; De Coppi, Paolo

    2018-05-30

    Pathological conditions affecting skeletal muscle function may lead to irreversible volumetric muscle loss (VML). Therapeutic approaches involving acellular matrices represent an emerging and promising strategy to promote regeneration of skeletal muscle following injury. Here we investigated the ability of three different decellularised skeletal muscle scaffolds to support muscle regeneration in a xenogeneic immune-competent model of VML, in which the EDL muscle was surgically resected. All implanted acellular matrices, used to replace the resected muscles, were able to generate functional artificial muscles by promoting host myogenic cell migration and differentiation, as well as nervous fibres, vascular networks, and satellite cell (SC) homing. However, acellular tissue mainly composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) allowed better myofibre three-dimensional (3D) organization and the restoration of SC pool, when compared to scaffolds which also preserved muscular cytoskeletal structures. Finally, we showed that fibroblasts are indispensable to promote efficient migration and myogenesis by muscle stem cells across the scaffolds in vitro. This data strongly support the use of xenogeneic acellular muscles as device to treat VML conditions in absence of donor cell implementation, as well as in vitro model for studying cell interplay during myogenesis.

  18. Evaluating skeletal muscle electromechanical delay with intramuscular pressure.

    PubMed

    Go, Shanette A; Litchy, William J; Evertz, Loribeth Q; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2018-06-08

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP) is the fluid pressure generated within skeletal muscle and directly reflects individual muscle tension. The purpose of this study was to assess the development of force, IMP, and electromyography (EMG) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle during ramped isometric contractions and evaluate electromechanical delay (EMD). Force, EMG, and IMP were simultaneously measured during ramped isometric contractions in eight young, healthy human subjects. The EMD between the onset of force and EMG activity (Δt-EMG force) and the onset of IMP and EMG activity (Δt EMG-IMP) were calculated. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the mean force-EMG EMD (36 ± 31 ms) and the mean IMP-EMG EMD (3 ± 21 ms). IMP reflects changes in muscle tension due to the contractile muscle elements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraocular muscle regeneration in zebrafish requires late signals from Insulin-like growth factors.

    PubMed

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Louie, Ke'ale W; Sha, Cuilee; Kelly, Ryan M; Kish, Phillip E; Kahana, Alon

    2018-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (Igfs) are key regulators of key biological processes such as embryonic development, growth, and tissue repair and regeneration. The role of Igf in myogenesis is well documented and, in zebrafish, promotes fin and heart regeneration. However, the mechanism of action of Igf in muscle repair and regeneration is not well understood. Using adult zebrafish extraocular muscle (EOM) regeneration as an experimental model, we show that Igf1 receptor blockage using either chemical inhibitors (BMS754807 and NVP-AEW541) or translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) reduced EOM regeneration. Zebrafish EOMs regeneration depends on myocyte dedifferentiation, which is driven by early epigenetic reprogramming and requires autophagy activation and cell cycle reentry. Inhibition of Igf signaling had no effect on either autophagy activation or cell proliferation, indicating that Igf signaling was not involved in the early reprogramming steps of regeneration. Instead, blocking Igf signaling produced hypercellularity of regenerating EOMs and diminished myosin expression, resulting in lack of mature differentiated muscle fibers even many days after injury, indicating that Igf was involved in late re-differentiation steps. Although it is considered the main mediator of myogenic Igf actions, Akt activation decreased in regenerating EOMs, suggesting that alternative signaling pathways mediate Igf activity in muscle regeneration. In conclusion, Igf signaling is critical for re-differentiation of reprogrammed myoblasts during late steps of zebrafish EOM regeneration, suggesting a regulatory mechanism for determining regenerated muscle size and timing of differentiation, and a potential target for regenerative therapy.

  20. Activity Dependent Signal Transduction in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall goals of this project are: 1) to define the initial signal transduction events whereby the removal of gravitational load from antigravity muscles, such as the soleus, triggers muscle atrophy, and 2) to develop countermeasures to prevent this from happening. Our rationale for this approach is that, if countermeasures can be developed to regulate these early events, we could avoid having to deal with the multiple cascades of events that occur downstream from the initial event. One of our major findings is that hind limb suspension causes an early and sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca (2+)](sub i)). In most cells the consequences of changes in ([Ca (2+)](sub i))depend on the amplitude, frequency and duration of the Ca(2+) signal and on other factors in the intracellular environment. We propose that muscle remodeling in microgravity represents a change in the balance among several CA(2+) regulated signal transduction pathways, in particular those involving the transcription factors NFAT and NFkB and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD. Other Ca(2+) sensitive pathways involving PKC, ras, rac, and CaM kinase II may also contribute to muscle remodeling.

  1. Mechanisms of protein balance in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Anthony, T G

    2016-07-01

    Increased global demand for adequate protein nutrition against a backdrop of climate change and concern for animal agriculture sustainability necessitates new and more efficient approaches to livestock growth and production. Anabolic growth is achieved when rates of new synthesis exceed turnover, producing a positive net protein balance. Conversely, deterioration or atrophy of lean mass is a consequence of a net negative protein balance. During early life and periods of growth, muscle mass is driven by increases in protein synthesis at the level of mRNA translation. Throughout life, muscle mass is further influenced by degradative processes such as autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Multiple signal transduction networks guide and coordinate these processes alongside quality control mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Genetics, hormones, and environmental stimuli each influence proteostasis control, altering capacity and/or efficiency of muscle growth. An overview of recent findings and current methods to assess muscle protein balance and proteostasis is presented. Current efforts to identify novel control points have the potential through selective breeding design or development of hormetic strategies to better promote growth and health span during environmental stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of Pannexin 1 and Pannexin 3 during skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tammy L; St-Pierre, Marie-Eve; Ravel-Chapuis, Aymeric; Parks, Tara E C; Langlois, Stéphanie; Penuela, Silvia; Jasmin, Bernard J; Cowan, Kyle N

    2018-05-10

    Pannexin 1 (Panx1) and Pannexin 3 (Panx3) are single membrane channels recently implicated in myogenic commitment, as well as myoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro. However, their expression patterns during skeletal muscle development and regeneration had yet to be investigated. Here, we show that Panx1 levels increase during skeletal muscle development becoming highly expressed together with Panx3 in adult skeletal muscle. In adult mice, Panx1 and Panx3 were differentially expressed in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. We also report that Panx1/PANX1 and Panx3/PANX3 are co-expressed in mouse and human satellite cells, which play crucial roles in skeletal muscle regeneration. Interestingly, Panx1 and Panx3 levels were modulated in muscle degeneration/regeneration, similar to the pattern seen during skeletal muscle development. As Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by skeletal muscle degeneration and impaired regeneration, we next used mild and severe mouse models of this disease and found a significant dysregulation of Panx1 and Panx3 levels in dystrophic skeletal muscles. Together, our results are the first demonstration that Panx1 and Panx3 are differentially expressed amongst skeletal muscle types with their levels being highly modulated during skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and dystrophy. These findings suggest that Panx1 and Panx3 channels may play important and distinct roles in healthy and diseased skeletal muscles. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Image-based modelling of skeletal muscle oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Clough, G. F.

    2017-01-01

    The supply of oxygen in sufficient quantity is vital for the correct functioning of all organs in the human body, in particular for skeletal muscle during exercise. Disease is often associated with both an inhibition of the microvascular supply capability and is thought to relate to changes in the structure of blood vessel networks. Different methods exist to investigate the influence of the microvascular structure on tissue oxygenation, varying over a range of application areas, i.e. biological in vivo and in vitro experiments, imaging and mathematical modelling. Ideally, all of these methods should be combined within the same framework in order to fully understand the processes involved. This review discusses the mathematical models of skeletal muscle oxygenation currently available that are based upon images taken of the muscle microvasculature in vivo and ex vivo. Imaging systems suitable for capturing the blood vessel networks are discussed and respective contrasting methods presented. The review further informs the association between anatomical characteristics in health and disease. With this review we give the reader a tool to understand and establish the workflow of developing an image-based model of skeletal muscle oxygenation. Finally, we give an outlook for improvements needed for measurements and imaging techniques to adequately investigate the microvascular capability for oxygen exchange. PMID:28202595

  4. Secretome profiling of primary human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sonja; Raschke, Silja; Knebel, Birgit; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Passlack, Waltraud; Muller, Stefan; Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Franz, Thomas; Li, Xinping; Dicken, Hans-Dieter; Eckardt, Kristin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Ouwens, D Margriet; Eckel, Jürgen; Kotzka, Jorg; Lehr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The skeletal muscle is a metabolically active tissue that secretes various proteins. These so-called myokines have been proposed to affect muscle physiology and to exert systemic effects on other tissues and organs. Yet, changes in the secretory profile may participate in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. The present study aimed at characterizing the secretome of differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells (hSkMC) derived from healthy, adult donors combining three different mass spectrometry based non-targeted approaches as well as one antibody based method. This led to the identification of 548 non-redundant proteins in conditioned media from hSkmc. For 501 proteins, significant mRNA expression could be demonstrated. Applying stringent consecutive filtering using SignalP, SecretomeP and ER_retention signal databases, 305 proteins were assigned as potential myokines of which 12 proteins containing a secretory signal peptide were not previously described. This comprehensive profiling study of the human skeletal muscle secretome expands our knowledge of the composition of the human myokinome and may contribute to our understanding of the role of myokines in multiple biological processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  5. Skeletal muscle as a gene regulatory endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle is gaining increased attention as an endocrine organ. Recently, novel myokines and new effects of already established myokines have been identified. The objective of this review is to give an update on the recent advances in the field. Several hundred putative myokines have been described, some of which are induced by contraction and differentially regulated between healthy and metabolically diseased individuals. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the prototype myokine, which was identified as a muscle-derived cytokine 15 years ago. Recently, IL-6 has been linked to β-cell survival and inhibition of cancer-cell growth. Moreover, trans-signaling appears to determine whether IL-6 acts as a proinflammatory or an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Irisin has been shown to be a secreted myokine, which contribute to circulating concentrations dependent on training status. IL-15 has been established as a cytokine mediating cross-talk between skeletal muscle and skin tissue, and decorin has been characterized as a contraction-induced myokine which apparently is differentially regulated between healthy and dysglycemic individuals. Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ which, by the release of myokines, may influence metabolism in virtually all organs in the body. This knowledge may potentially open up for the possibility of designing new drugs that mimic the effects of myokine signaling.

  6. Response of macrophages in rat skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Qun; Wang, Shu-Chen; Yu, Xin-Kai; Chao, Wei-Wei

    2018-04-01

    Macrophages are known to be important for healing numerous injured tissues depending on their functional phenotypes in response to different stimuli. The objective of this study was to reveal macrophage phenotypic changes involved in exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury and regeneration. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats experienced one session of downhill running (16° decline, 16 m/min) for 90 min. After exercise the blood and soleus muscles were collected at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 1 w and 2 w after exercise, separately. It was showed that CD68 + M1 macrophages mainly infiltrated into muscle necrotic sites at 1-3 d, while CD163 + M2 macrophages were present in muscles from 0 h to 2 weeks after exercise. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed activated satellite cells 1 d after exercise. Th1-associated transcripts of iNOS and Ccl2 were inhibited post exercise, while COX-2 mRNA was dramatically increased 12 h after running (p < 0.01). M2 phenotype marker Arg-1 increased 12 h and 3 d (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) after exercise, and Clec10a and Mrc2 were up-regulated in muscles 12 h following exercise (p < 0.05, p < 0.05). The data demonstrate the dynamic patterns of macrophage phenotype in skeletal muscle upon eccentric exercise stimuli, and M1 and M2 phenotypes perform different functions during exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury and recovery. Copyright © 2018 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diaphragmatic lymphatic vessel behavior during local skeletal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism through which the stresses developed in the diaphragmatic tissue during skeletal muscle contraction sustain local lymphatic function was studied in 10 deeply anesthetized, tracheotomized adult Wistar rats whose diaphragm was exposed after thoracotomy. To evaluate the direct effect of skeletal muscle contraction on the hydraulic intraluminal lymphatic pressures (Plymph) and lymphatic vessel geometry, the maximal contraction of diaphragmatic fibers adjacent to a lymphatic vessel was elicited by injection of 9.2 nl of 1 M KCl solution among diaphragmatic fibers while Plymph was recorded through micropuncture and vessel geometry via stereomicroscopy video recording. In lymphatics oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of muscle fibers and located at <300 μm from KCl injection, vessel diameter at maximal skeletal muscle contraction (Dmc) decreased to 61.3 ± 1.4% of the precontraction value [resting diameter (Drest)]; however, if injection was at >900 μm from the vessel, Dmc enlarged to 131.1 ± 2.3% of Drest. In vessels parallel to muscle fibers, Dmc increased to 122.8 ± 2.9% of Drest. During contraction, Plymph decreased as much as 22.5 ± 2.6 cmH2O in all submesothelial superficial vessels, whereas it increased by 10.7 ± 5.1 cmH2O in deeper vessels running perpendicular to contracting muscle fibers. Hence, the three-dimensional arrangement of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network seems to be finalized to efficiently exploit the stresses exerted by muscle fibers during the contracting inspiratory phase to promote lymph formation in superficial submesothelial lymphatics and its further propulsion in deeper intramuscular vessels. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Ana Elisa; Ferraz, Karla Mônica; de Castro, Raul Manhães; Canon, Francis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet) and an isocaloric low‐protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet). At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s) enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd) and the steady stress (σs). A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress–strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness. PMID:21340228

  9. Myostatin gene inactivation prevents skeletal muscle wasting in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gallot, Yann S; Durieux, Anne-Cécile; Castells, Josiane; Desgeorges, Marine M; Vernus, Barbara; Plantureux, Léa; Rémond, Didier; Jahnke, Vanessa E; Lefai, Etienne; Dardevet, Dominique; Nemoz, Georges; Schaeffer, Laurent; Bonnieu, Anne; Freyssenet, Damien G

    2014-12-15

    Cachexia is a muscle-wasting syndrome that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality of many patients with advanced cancers. However, little is understood about how the severe loss of skeletal muscle characterizing this condition occurs. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the muscle protein myostatin is involved in mediating the pathogenesis of cachexia-induced muscle wasting in tumor-bearing mice. Myostatin gene inactivation prevented the severe loss of skeletal muscle mass induced in mice engrafted with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells or in Apc(Min) (/+) mice, an established model of colorectal cancer and cachexia. Mechanistically, myostatin loss attenuated the activation of muscle fiber proteolytic pathways by inhibiting the expression of atrophy-related genes, MuRF1 and MAFbx/Atrogin-1, along with autophagy-related genes. Notably, myostatin loss also impeded the growth of LLC tumors, the number and the size of intestinal polyps in Apc(Min) (/+) mice, thus strongly increasing survival in both models. Gene expression analysis in the LLC model showed this phenotype to be associated with reduced expression of genes involved in tumor metabolism, activin signaling, and apoptosis. Taken together, our results reveal an essential role for myostatin in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia and link this condition to tumor growth, with implications for furthering understanding of cancer as a systemic disease. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Imaging two-dimensional mechanical waves of skeletal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Christer; Claesson, Kenji; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is related to rapid mechanical shortening and thickening. Recently, specialized ultrasound systems have been applied to demonstrate and quantify transient tissue velocities and one-dimensional (1-D) propagation of mechanical waves during muscle contraction. Such waves could potentially provide novel information on musculoskeletal characteristics, function and disorders. In this work, we demonstrate two-dimensional (2-D) mechanical wave imaging following the skeletal muscle contraction. B-mode image acquisition during multiple consecutive electrostimulations, speckle-tracking and a time-stamp sorting protocol were used to obtain 1.4 kHz frame rate 2-D tissue velocity imaging of the biceps brachii muscle contraction. The results present novel information on tissue velocity profiles and mechanical wave propagation. In particular, counter-propagating compressional and shear waves in the longitudinal direction were observed in the contracting tissue (speed 2.8-4.4 m/s) and a compressional wave in the transverse direction of the non-contracting muscle tissue (1.2-1.9 m/s). In conclusion, analysing transient 2-D tissue velocity allows simultaneous assessment of both active and passive muscle tissue properties. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sarcocystis fayeri in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Monica; Shapiro, Karen; Sisó, Silvia; Williams, Diane C; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of Sarcocystis fayeri-induced toxicity in people consuming horse meat warrant investigation on the prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. infection in horses. Sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses have been commonly regarded as an incidental finding. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. Our findings indicated that S. fayeri infection was common in young mature horses with neuromuscular disease and could be associated with myopathic and neurogenic processes. The number of infected muscles and number of sarcocysts per muscle were significantly higher in diseased than in control horses. S. fayeri was predominantly found in low oxidative highly glycolytic myofibers. This pathogen had a high glycolytic metabolism. Common clinical signs of disease included muscle atrophy, weakness with or without apparent muscle pain, gait deficits, and dysphagia in horses with involvement of the tongue and esophagus. Horses with myositis were lethargic, apparently painful, stiff, and reluctant to move. Similar to humans, sarcocystosis and cardiomyopathy can occur in horses. This study did not establish causality but supported a possible association (8.9% of cases) with disease. The assumption of Sarcocysts spp. being an incidental finding in every case might be inaccurate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regeneration of injured skeletal muscle after the injury

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero AH; Järvinen, Markku; Kalimo, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Muscle injuries are one of the most common traumas occurring in sports. Despite their clinical importance, few clinical studies exist on the treatment of these traumas. Thus, the current treatment recommendations for muscle injuries have either been derived from experimental studies or been tested only empirically. Although non operative treatment should almost always be the 1st choice as it results in good functional outcomes in the majority of athletes with muscle injuries, the consequences of failed treatment can be very dramatic, possibly postponing an athlete’s return to sports for weeks or even months. Moreover, the recognition of some basic principles of skeletal muscle regeneration and healing processes can considerably help in both avoiding the imminent dangers and accelerating the return to competition. Accordingly, in this review, the authors have summarized the prevailing understanding on the biology of muscle regeneration in hopes of extending these findings to clinical practice in an attempt to propose an evidence-based approach for the diagnosis and optimal treatment of skeletal muscle injuries. PMID:24596699

  13. Skeletal muscle expresses the extracellular cyclic AMP–adenosine pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chiavegatti, T; Costa, V L; Araújo, M S; Godinho, R O

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: cAMP is a key intracellular signalling molecule that regulates multiple processes of the vertebrate skeletal muscle. We have shown that cAMP can be actively pumped out from the skeletal muscle cell. Since in other tissues, cAMP efflux had been associated with extracellular generation of adenosine, in the present study we have assessed the fate of interstitial cAMP and the existence of an extracellular cAMP-adenosine signalling pathway in skeletal muscle. Experimental approach: cAMP efflux and/or its extracellular degradation were analysed by incubating rat cultured skeletal muscle with exogenous cAMP, forskolin or isoprenaline. cAMP and its metabolites were quantified by radioassay or HPLC, respectively. Key results: Incubation of cells with exogenous cAMP was followed by interstitial accumulation of 5′-AMP and adenosine, a phenomenon inhibited by selective inhibitors of ecto-phosphodiesterase (DPSPX) and ecto-nucleotidase (AMPCP). Activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) in cultured cells with forskolin or isoprenaline increased cAMP efflux and extracellular generation of 5′-AMP and adenosine. Extracellular cAMP-adenosine pathway was also observed after direct and receptor-dependent stimulation of AC in rat extensor muscle ex vivo. These events were attenuated by probenecid, an inhibitor of ATP binding cassette family transporters. Conclusions and implications: Our results show the existence of an extracellular biochemical cascade that converts cAMP into adenosine. The functional relevance of this extracellular signalling system may involve a feedback modulation of cellular response initiated by several G protein-coupled receptor ligands, amplifying cAMP influence to a paracrine mode, through its metabolite, adenosine. PMID:18157164

  14. Differentiation of original and regenerated skeletal muscle fibres in mdx dystrophic muscles.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, John C; Kyprianou, Phillip; Krishan, Kewal; Dhoot, Gurtej K

    2002-07-01

    The differentiation of both original muscle fibres and the regenerated muscle fibres following necrosis in mdx muscles was investigated using immunoblotting and immunocytochemical procedures. Before the onset of necrosis, postnatal skeletal muscles in mdx mouse differentiated well with only a slight delay in differentiation indicated by the level of developmental isoforms of troponin T. Prior to the onset of apparent myopathic change, both fast and slow skeletal muscle fibre types in mdx leg muscles also differentiated well when investigated by analysis of specific myosin heavy chain expression pattern. While the original muscle fibres in mdx leg muscles developed well, the differentiation of regenerated myotubes into both slow and distinct fast muscle fibre types, however, was markedly delayed or inhibited as indicated by several clusters of homogeneously staining fibres even at 14 weeks of age. The number of slow myosin heavy chain-positive myotubes amongst the regenerated muscle clusters was quite small even in soleus. This study thus established that while muscle fibres initially develop normally with only a slight delay in the differentiation process, the differentiation of regenerated myotubes in mdx muscles is markedly compromised and consequently delayed.

  15. Leucine Supplementation Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration after Cryolesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marcelo G.; Baptista, Igor L.; Carlassara, Eduardo O. C.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.; Aoki, Marcelo S.; Miyabara, Elen H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to provide further insight into the role of leucine supplementation in the skeletal muscle regeneration process, focusing on myofiber size and strength recovery. Young (2-month-old) rats were subjected or not to leucine supplementation (1.35 g/kg per day) started 3 days prior to cryolesion. Then, soleus muscles were cryolesioned and continued receiving leucine supplementation until 1, 3 and 10 days later. Soleus muscles from leucine-supplemented animals displayed an increase in myofiber size and a reduction in collagen type III expression on post-cryolesion day 10. Leucine was also effective in reducing FOXO3a activation and ubiquitinated protein accumulation in muscles at post-cryolesion days 3 and 10. In addition, leucine supplementation minimized the cryolesion-induced decrease in tetanic strength and increase in fatigue in regenerating muscles at post-cryolesion day 10. These beneficial effects of leucine were not accompanied by activation of any elements of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling pathway in the regenerating muscles. Our results show that leucine improves myofiber size gain and strength recovery in regenerating soleus muscles through attenuation of protein ubiquitination. In addition, leucine might have therapeutic effects for muscle recovery following injury and in some muscle diseases. PMID:24416379

  16. Skeletal muscle calcineurin: influence of phenotype adaptation and atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenburg, E. E.; Williams, J. H.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Spangenberg, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Calcineurin (CaN) has been implicated as a signaling molecule that can transduce physiological stimuli (e.g., contractile activity) into molecular signals that initiate slow-fiber phenotypic gene expression and muscle growth. To determine the influence of muscle phenotype and atrophy on CaN levels in muscle, the levels of soluble CaN in rat muscles of varying phenotype, as assessed by myosin heavy chain (MHC)-isoform proportions, were determined by Western blotting. CaN levels were significantly greater in the plantaris muscle containing predominantly fast (IIx and IIb) MHC isoforms, compared with the soleus (predominantly type I MHC) or vastus intermedius (VI, contains all 4 adult MHC isoforms). Three months after a complete spinal cord transection (ST), the CaN levels in the VI muscle were significantly reduced, despite a significant increase in fast MHC isoforms. Surprisingly, the levels of CaN in the VI were highly correlated with muscle mass but not MHC isoform proportions in ST and control rats. These data demonstrate that CaN levels in skeletal muscle are highly correlated to muscle mass and that the normal relationship with phenotype is lost after ST.

  17. Skeletal muscle repair in a mouse model of nemaline myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sanoudou, Despina; Corbett, Mark A.; Han, Mei; Ghoddusi, Majid; Nguyen, Mai-Anh T.; Vlahovich, Nicole; Hardeman, Edna C.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM), the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathy, is a variably severe neuromuscular disorder for which no effective treatment is available. Although a number of genes have been identified in which mutations can cause NM, the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the phenotypes are poorly understood. To address this question, we examined gene expression patterns in an NM mouse model carrying the human Met9Arg mutation of alpha-tropomyosin slow (Tpm3). We assessed five different skeletal muscles from affected mice, which are representative of muscles with differing fiber-type compositions, different physiological specializations and variable degrees of pathology. Although these same muscles in non-affected mice showed marked variation in patterns of gene expression, with diaphragm being the most dissimilar, the presence of the mutant protein in nemaline muscles resulted in a more similar pattern of gene expression among the muscles. This result suggests a common process or mechanism operating in nemaline muscles independent of the variable degrees of pathology. Transcriptional and protein expression data indicate the presence of a repair process and possibly delayed maturation in nemaline muscles. Markers indicative of satellite cell number, activated satellite cells and immature fibers including M-Cadherin, MyoD, desmin, Pax7 and Myf6 were elevated by western-blot analysis or immunohistochemistry. Evidence suggesting elevated focal repair was observed in nemaline muscle in electron micrographs. This analysis reveals that NM is characterized by a novel repair feature operating in multiple different muscles. PMID:16877500

  18. Skeletal muscle repair in a mouse model of nemaline myopathy.

    PubMed

    Sanoudou, Despina; Corbett, Mark A; Han, Mei; Ghoddusi, Majid; Nguyen, Mai-Anh T; Vlahovich, Nicole; Hardeman, Edna C; Beggs, Alan H

    2006-09-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM), the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathy, is a variably severe neuromuscular disorder for which no effective treatment is available. Although a number of genes have been identified in which mutations can cause NM, the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the phenotypes are poorly understood. To address this question, we examined gene expression patterns in an NM mouse model carrying the human Met9Arg mutation of alpha-tropomyosin slow (Tpm3). We assessed five different skeletal muscles from affected mice, which are representative of muscles with differing fiber-type compositions, different physiological specializations and variable degrees of pathology. Although these same muscles in non-affected mice showed marked variation in patterns of gene expression, with diaphragm being the most dissimilar, the presence of the mutant protein in nemaline muscles resulted in a more similar pattern of gene expression among the muscles. This result suggests a common process or mechanism operating in nemaline muscles independent of the variable degrees of pathology. Transcriptional and protein expression data indicate the presence of a repair process and possibly delayed maturation in nemaline muscles. Markers indicative of satellite cell number, activated satellite cells and immature fibers including M-Cadherin, MyoD, desmin, Pax7 and Myf6 were elevated by western-blot analysis or immunohistochemistry. Evidence suggesting elevated focal repair was observed in nemaline muscle in electron micrographs. This analysis reveals that NM is characterized by a novel repair feature operating in multiple different muscles.

  19. The Effect of Statins on Skeletal Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Cole, Stephanie M.; Keadle, Justin; Chipkin, Stuart; Pescatello, Linda S.; Simpson, Kathleen; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many clinicians believe that statins cause muscle pain, but this has not been observed in clinical trials and the effect of statins on muscle performance has not been carefully studied. Methods and Results The Effect of STatins On Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance (STOMP) study assessed symptoms and measured creatine kinase (CK), exercise capacity, and muscle strength before and after atorvastatin 80 mg or placebo were administered for 6 months to 420 healthy, statin-naive subjects. No individual CK value exceeded 10 times normal, but average CK increased 20.8 ± 141.1 U/L (p<0.0001) with atorvastatin. There were no significant changes in several measures of muscle strength or exercise capacity with atorvastatin, but more atorvastatin than placebo subjects developed myalgia (19 vs 10; p = 0.05). Myalgic subjects on atorvastatin or placebo decreased muscle strength in 5 of 14 and 4 of 14 variables respectively (p = 0.69). Conclusions These results indicate that high-dose atorvastatin for 6 months does not decrease average muscle strength or exercise performance in healthy, previously untreated subjects. Nevertheless, this blinded, controlled trial confirms the undocumented impression that statins increase muscle complaints. Atorvastatin also increased average CK suggesting that statins produce mild muscle injury even among asymptomatic subjects. This increase in CK should prompt studies examining the effects of more prolonged, high-dose statin treatment on muscular performance. Clinical Trial Registration Information: www.clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00609063. PMID:23183941

  20. Engineering functional and histological regeneration of vascularized skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Honick, Jordana; Iyer, Shama R; Somers, Sarah M; Lovering, Richard M; Wagner, Kathryn; Mao, Hai-Quan; Grayson, Warren L

    2018-05-01

    Tissue engineering strategies to treat patients with volumetric muscle loss (VML) aim to recover the structure and contractile function of lost muscle tissue. Here, we assessed the capacity of novel electrospun fibrin hydrogel scaffolds seeded with murine myoblasts to regenerate the structure and function of damaged muscle within VML defects to the mouse tibialis anterior muscle. The electrospun fibrin scaffolds provide pro-myogenic alignment and stiffness cues, myomimetic hierarchical structure, suturability, and scale-up capabilities. Myoblast-seeded scaffolds enabled remarkable muscle regeneration with high myofiber and vascular densities after 2 and 4 weeks, mimicking that of native skeletal muscle, while acellular scaffolds lacked muscle regeneration. Both myoblast-seeded and acellular scaffolds fully recovered muscle contractile function to uninjured values after 2 and 4 weeks. Electrospun scaffolds pre-vascularized with co-cultured human endothelial cells and human adipose-derived stem cells implanted into VML defects for 2 weeks anastomosed with host vasculature and were perfused with host red blood cells. These data demonstrate the significant potential of electrospun fibrin scaffolds seeded with myoblasts to fully regenerate the structure and function of volumetric muscle defects and these scaffolds offer a promising treatment option for patients with VML. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical application of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Longwei, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Summary Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) is increasingly applied in the detection and characterization of skeletal muscle. This promising technique has aroused much enthusiasm and generated high expectations, because it is able to provide some specific information of skeletal muscle that is not available from other imaging modalities. Compared with conventional MRI, DTI could reconstruct the trajectories of skeletal muscle fibers. It makes it possible to non-invasively detect several physiological values (diffusion values), like fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which have a great association with the muscle physiology and pathology. Furthermore, other advantages of DTI are the capability of investigating the muscle biomechanics and also investigate the pathological condition of skeletal muscle. Finally, several challenges, which limit the wide application of DTI in skeletal muscle, were discussed. It is believed that this review may arouse in-depth studies on the clinical application of DTI in skeletal muscle in future. PMID:23738269

  2. Muscle-specific deletion of Prkaa1 enhances skeletal muscle lipid accumulation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiche; Xu, Ziye; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Jiaqi; Feng, Jie; Wang, Xinxia; Shan, Tizhong; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-05-01

    Excessive intramyocellular triacylglycerols (IMTGs, muscle lipids) are associated with the abnormal energy metabolism and insulin resistance of skeletal muscle. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a crucial cellular energy sensor, consists of α, β and γ subunits. Researchers have not clearly determined whether Prkaa1 (also known as AMPKα1) affects IMTG accumulation in skeletal muscle. Here, we show an important role of Prkaa1 in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism. Deletion of muscle Prkaa1 leads to the delayed development of skeletal muscles but does not affect glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity in animals fed a normal diet. Notably, when animals are fed a high-fat diet, the skeletal muscle of muscle-specific Prkaa1 knockout mice accumulates more lipids than the skeletal muscle of wild-type (WT) mice, with concomitant upregulation of adipogenic gene expressions and downregulation of the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial oxidation. Muscle-specific Prkaa1 ablation also results in hyperlipidemia, which may contribute to the increased IMTG levels. Furthermore, Prkaa1 deletion activates skeletal muscle mTOR signalling, which has a central role in lipid metabolism and mitochondrial oxidation. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the role of Prkaa1 in skeletal muscle. This knowledge may contribute to the treatment of related metabolic diseases.

  3. Optical NIR monitoring of skeletal muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, Paolo; Gelmetti, Andrea; Pavesi, Roberta; Zambarbieri, Daniela

    1996-12-01

    NIR spectroscopy allows monitoring of muscle oxygenation and perfusion during contraction. The knowledge of modifications of blood characteristics in body tissues has relevant clinical interest. A compact and reliable device, which makes use of two laser diodes at 750 and 810 nm coupled with the skin surface through optical fibers, was tested. NIR and surface EMG signals during isometric contractions both in normal and ischaemic conditions were analyzed. A set of parameters from the 750/810 spectroscopic curve was analyzed. Two different categories depending on the recovery rate from maximal voluntary contraction to basal oxygenation conditions were found. This behavior can give information about metabolic modifications during muscle fatigue. Interesting results in testing isokinetic rehabilitation training were also obtained.

  4. Fragility fracture risk and skeletal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, F R; Ara, I

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity fractures are closely related with age-related musculoskeletal disorders, including osteoporosis, muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia, age-related chronic diseases, and pharmacological treatments. During the last years, a huge amount of information and recommendations has been released in relation to bone metabolism and mineral content. Muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia are highly prevalent during the second half of life, especially in older subjects. The development of sarcopenia may be slowed through healthy lifestyle changes, which include adequate dietary protein, vitamin D and mineral intakes, and regular physical activity. Prevention of falls should be integral, including correction in major involved factors in order to reduce fragility fracture, improve quality of life and appropriately focus clinical and economic resources. Therefore, to obtain better results a global approach is needed to prevent age-related fractures in frail patients that is not only centered on bone metabolism and antiresorptive drugs.

  5. A review of the thermal sensitivity of the mechanics of vertebrate skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    James, Rob S

    2013-08-01

    Environmental temperature varies spatially and temporally, affecting many aspects of an organism's biology. In ectotherms, variation in environmental temperature can cause parallel changes in skeletal muscle temperature, potentially leading to significant alterations in muscle performance. Endotherms can also undergo meaningful changes in skeletal muscle temperature that can affect muscle performance. Alterations in skeletal muscle temperature can affect contractile performance in both endotherms and ectotherms, changing the rates of force generation and relaxation, shortening velocity, and consequently mechanical power. Such alterations in the mechanical performance of skeletal muscle can in turn affect locomotory performance and behaviour. For instance, as temperature increases, a consequent improvement in limb muscle performance causes some lizard species to be more likely to flee from a potential predator. However, at lower temperatures, they are much more likely to stand their ground, show threatening displays and even bite. There is no consistent pattern in reported effects of temperature on skeletal muscle fatigue resistance. This review focuses on the effects of temperature variation on skeletal muscle performance in vertebrates, and investigates the thermal sensitivity of different mechanical measures of skeletal muscle performance. The plasticity of thermal sensitivity in skeletal muscle performance has been reviewed to investigate the extent to which individuals can acclimate to chronic changes in their thermal environment. The effects of thermal sensitivity of muscle performance are placed in a wider context by relating thermal sensitivity of skeletal muscle performance to aspects of vertebrate species distribution.

  6. Adaptations of mouse skeletal muscle to low intensity vibration training

    PubMed Central

    McKeehen, James N.; Novotny, Susan A.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Nuckley, David J.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity vibration training in mice improves contractile function of hindlimb skeletal muscles and promotes exercise-related cellular adaptations. Methods We subjected C57BL/6J mice to 6 wk, 5 d·wk−1, 15 min·d−1 of sham or low intensity vibration (45 Hz, 1.0 g) while housed in traditional cages (Sham-Active, n=8; Vibrated-Active, n=10) or in small cages to restrict physical activity (Sham-Restricted, n=8; Vibrated-Restricted, n=8). Contractile function and resistance to fatigue were tested in vivo (anterior and posterior crural muscles) and ex vivo on the soleus muscle. Tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were evaluated histologically for alterations in oxidative metabolism, capillarity, and fiber types. Epididymal fat pad and hindlimb muscle masses were measured. Two-way ANOVAs were used to determine effects of vibration and physical inactivity. Results Vibration training resulted in a 10% increase in maximal isometric torque (P=0.038) and 16% faster maximal rate of relaxation (P=0.030) of the anterior crural muscles. Posterior crural muscles were unaffected by vibration, with the exception of greater rates of contraction in Vibrated-Restricted mice compared to Vibrated-Active and Sham-Restricted mice (P=0.022). Soleus muscle maximal isometric tetanic force tended to be greater (P=0.057) and maximal relaxation was 20% faster (P=0.005) in Vibrated compared to Sham mice. Restriction of physical activity induced muscle weakness but was not required for vibration to be effective in improving strength or relaxation. Vibration training did not impact muscle fatigability or any indicator of cellular adaptation investigated (P≥0.431). Fat pad but not hindlimb muscle masses were affected by vibration training. Conclusion Vibration training in mice improved muscle contractility, specifically strength and relaxation rates, with no indication of adverse effects to muscle function or cellular adaptations. PMID:23274599

  7. Transduction of skeletal muscles with common reporter genes can promote muscle fiber degeneration and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Winbanks, Catherine E; Beyer, Claudia; Qian, Hongwei; Gregorevic, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV vectors) are promising tools for delivering transgenes to skeletal muscle, in order to study the mechanisms that control the muscle phenotype, and to ameliorate diseases that perturb muscle homeostasis. Many studies have employed rAAV vectors carrying reporter genes encoding for β-galactosidase (β-gal), human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPLAP), and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as experimental controls when studying the effects of manipulating other genes. However, it is not clear to what extent these reporter genes can influence signaling and gene expression signatures in skeletal muscle, which may confound the interpretation of results obtained in experimentally manipulated muscles. Herein, we report a strong pro-inflammatory effect of expressing reporter genes in skeletal muscle. Specifically, we show that the administration of rAAV6:hPLAP vectors to the hind limb muscles of mice is associated with dose- and time-dependent macrophage recruitment, and skeletal muscle damage. Dose-dependent expression of hPLAP also led to marked activity of established pro-inflammatory IL-6/Stat3, TNFα, IKKβ and JNK signaling in lysates obtained from homogenized muscles. These effects were independent of promoter type, as expression cassettes featuring hPLAP under the control of constitutive CMV and muscle-specific CK6 promoters both drove cellular responses when matched for vector dose. Importantly, the administration of rAAV6:GFP vectors did not induce muscle damage or inflammation except at the highest doses we examined, and administration of a transgene-null vector (rAAV6:MCS) did not cause damage or inflammation at any of the doses tested, demonstrating that GFP-expressing, or transgene-null vectors may be more suitable as experimental controls. The studies highlight the importance of considering the potential effects of reporter genes when designing experiments that examine gene manipulation in vivo.

  8. Spermine oxidase maintains basal skeletal muscle gene expression and fiber size and is strongly repressed by conditions that cause skeletal muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Kale S.; Fox, Daniel K.; Kunkel, Steven D.; Stebounova, Larissa V.; Murry, Daryl J.; Pufall, Miles A.; Ebert, Scott M.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. To better understand the mechanisms of muscle atrophy, we used mouse models to search for a skeletal muscle protein that helps to maintain muscle mass and is specifically lost during muscle atrophy. We discovered that diverse causes of muscle atrophy (limb immobilization, fasting, muscle denervation, and aging) strongly reduced expression of the enzyme spermine oxidase. Importantly, a reduction in spermine oxidase was sufficient to induce muscle fiber atrophy. Conversely, forced expression of spermine oxidase increased muscle fiber size in multiple models of muscle atrophy (immobilization, fasting, and denervation). Interestingly, the reduction of spermine oxidase during muscle atrophy was mediated by p21, a protein that is highly induced during muscle atrophy and actively promotes muscle atrophy. In addition, we found that spermine oxidase decreased skeletal muscle mRNAs that promote muscle atrophy (e.g., myogenin) and increased mRNAs that help to maintain muscle mass (e.g., mitofusin-2). Thus, in healthy skeletal muscle, a relatively low level of p21 permits expression of spermine oxidase, which helps to maintain basal muscle gene expression and fiber size; conversely, during conditions that cause muscle atrophy, p21 expression rises, leading to reduced spermine oxidase expression, disruption of basal muscle gene expression, and muscle fiber atrophy. Collectively, these results identify spermine oxidase as an important positive regulator of muscle gene expression and fiber size, and elucidate p21-mediated repression of spermine oxidase as a key step in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25406264

  9. Validation of Shear Wave Elastography in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Sarah F.; Song, Pengfei; Chen, Shigao; Chen, Qingshan; Greenleaf, James F.; An, Kai-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a very dynamic tissue, thus accurate quantification of skeletal muscle stiffness throughout its functional range is crucial to improve the physical functioning and independence following pathology. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is an ultrasound-based technique that characterizes tissue mechanical properties based on the propagation of remotely induced shear waves. The objective of this study is to validate SWE throughout the functional range of motion of skeletal muscle for three ultrasound transducer orientations. We hypothesized that combining traditional materials testing (MTS) techniques with SWE measurements will show increased stiffness measures with increasing tensile load, and will correlate well with each other for trials in which the transducer is parallel to underlying muscle fibers. To evaluate this hypothesis, we monitored the deformation throughout tensile loading of four porcine brachialis whole-muscle tissue specimens, while simultaneously making SWE measurements of the same specimen. We used regression to examine the correlation between Young's modulus from MTS and shear modulus from SWE for each of the transducer orientations. We applied a generalized linear model to account for repeated testing. Model parameters were estimated via generalized estimating equations. The regression coefficient was 0.1944, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.1463 – 0.2425) for parallel transducer trials. Shear waves did not propagate well for both the 45° and perpendicular transducer orientations. Both parallel SWE and MTS showed increased stiffness with increasing tensile load. This study provides the necessary first step for additional studies that can evaluate the distribution of stiffness throughout muscle. PMID:23953670

  10. Skeletal Muscle Triglycerides, Diacylglycerols, and Ceramides in Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J.; Alvarez-Carnero, Elvis; Edreira, Martin M.; Chomentowski, Peter; Coen, Paul M.; Switzer, Galen E.; Bickel, Perry E.; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G.S.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronic exercise and obesity both increase intramyocellular triglycerides (IMTGs) despite having opposing effects on insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that chronically exercise-trained muscle would be characterized by lower skeletal muscle diacylglycerols (DAGs) and ceramides despite higher IMTGs and would account for its higher insulin sensitivity. We also hypothesized that the expression of key skeletal muscle proteins involved in lipid droplet hydrolysis, DAG formation, and fatty-acid partitioning and oxidation would be associated with the lipotoxic phenotype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 14 normal-weight, endurance-trained athletes (NWA group) and 7 normal-weight sedentary (NWS group) and 21 obese sedentary (OBS group) volunteers were studied. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by glucose clamps. IMTGs, DAGs, ceramides, and protein expression were measured in muscle biopsies. RESULTS DAG content in the NWA group was approximately twofold higher than in the OBS group and ~50% higher than in the NWS group, corresponding to higher insulin sensitivity. While certain DAG moieties clearly were associated with better insulin sensitivity, other species were not. Ceramide content was higher in insulin-resistant obese muscle. The expression of OXPAT/perilipin-5, adipose triglyceride lipase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase protein was higher in the NWA group, corresponding to a higher mitochondrial content, proportion of type 1 myocytes, IMTGs, DAGs, and insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS Total myocellular DAGs were markedly higher in highly trained athletes, corresponding with higher insulin sensitivity, and suggest a more complex role for DAGs in insulin action. Our data also provide additional evidence in humans linking ceramides to insulin resistance. Finally, this study provides novel evidence supporting a role for specific skeletal muscle proteins involved in intramyocellular lipids, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and insulin resistance. PMID

  11. Effect of hindlimb immobilization on the fatigability of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of 6 weeks of disuse atrophy produced by hindlimb immobilization was studied in situ (33.5 C) in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats. The results indicate that disuse causes preferential alterations in the isometric contractile properties of slow-twitch, as opposed to fast-twitch, skeletal muscles. During continuous contractile activity, atrophied muscles were found to have lower ATP levels and an apparent increase in their dependence on anaerobic metabolism, as reflected by the more extensive depletion of glycogen and enhanced lactate formation. Although the atrophied muscles were determined to have fewer cross bridges and thus generated lower tension, the pattern of decline in active cross-bridge formation and tetanic tension during contractile activity was found to proceed in a manner similar to controls.

  12. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor signaling prevents muscle fiber growth during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sugg, Kristoffer B; Korn, Michael A; Sarver, Dylan C; Markworth, James F; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-03-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor receptors alpha and beta (PDGFRα and PDGFRβ) mark fibroadipogenic progenitor cells/fibroblasts and pericytes in skeletal muscle, respectively. While the role that these cells play in muscle growth and development has been evaluated, it was not known whether the PDGF receptors activate signaling pathways that control transcriptional and functional changes during skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate this, we inhibited PDGFR signaling in mice subjected to a synergist ablation muscle growth procedure, and performed analyses 3 and 10 days after induction of hypertrophy. The results from this study indicate that PDGF signaling is required for fiber hypertrophy, extracellular matrix production, and angiogenesis that occur during muscle growth. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. [Calcium in the developing skeletal muscles of the chick embryo].

    PubMed

    Samosudova, N V; Enenko, S O; Larin, Iu S; Shungskaia, V E

    1982-07-01

    The osmium-pyroantimonate technique was used for the ultrastructural study of Ca2+-localization in two types of chick embryo skeletal muscles: m. pectoralis and m. soleus. In 8- and 12-day old embryos the pyroantimonate precipitate was found on plasmalemma, condensed chromatine and ribosomes and in N-lines of I-band. During myogenesis (15-, 21-day old embryos) the calcium precipitate is redistributed from the above mentioned sites to terminal cisternae and N-line of I-band. It is proposed that calcium of N-lines may be involved in the glycogenolysis, its association with the muscle contraction occurring particularly at early developmental stages.

  14. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1993-01-01

    This grant focused on the mechanisms of metabolic changes associated with unweighting atrophy and reduced growth of hind limb muscles of juvenile rats. Metabolic studies included a number of different areas. Amino acid metabolic studies placed particular emphasis on glutamine and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These studies were an outgrowth of understanding stress effects and the role of glucocorticoids in these animals. Investigations on protein metabolism were largely concerned with selective loss of myofibrillar proteins and the role of muscle proteolysis. These investigations lead to finding important differences from denervation and atrophy and to define the roles of cytosolic versus lysosomal proteolysis in these atrophy models. A major outgrowth of these studies was demonstrating an ability to prevent atrophy of the unweighted muscle for at least 24 hours. A large amount of work concentrated on carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation by insulin and catecholamines. Measurements focused on glucose transport, glycogen metabolism, and glucose oxidation. The grant was used to develop an important new in situ approach for studying protein metabolism, glucose transport, and hormonal effects which involves intramuscular injection of various agents for up to 24 hours. Another important consequence of this project was the development and flight of Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment-1 (PARE-1), which was launched aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991. Detailed descriptions of these studies can be found in the 30 peer-reviewed publications, 15 non-reviewed publications, 4 reviews and 33 abstracts (total 82 publications) which were or are scheduled to be published as a result of this project. A listing of these publications grouped by area (i.e. amino acid metabolism, protein metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and space flight studies) are included.

  15. Skeletal muscle architectural adaptations to marathon run training.

    PubMed

    Murach, Kevin; Greever, Cory; Luden, Nicholas D

    2015-01-01

    We assessed lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and vastus lateralis (VL) architecture in 16 recreational runners before and after 12 weeks of marathon training. LG fascicle length decreased 10% while pennation angle increased 17% (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between diminished blood lactate levels and LG pennation angle change (r = 0.90). No changes were observed in VL. This is the first evidence that run training can modify skeletal muscle architectural features.

  16. Using exercise training to understand control of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J

    2017-01-01

    Bengt Saltin believed that exercise was the unsurpassed tool to study human integrative physiology. He demonstrated this over the course of his career by employing physical training as a model to advance our understanding of skeletal muscle metabolic control and the impact of physical activity on performance and health. Bengt was also a pioneer in advocating the concept of exercise is medicine. His scientific curiosity was perhaps exceeded only by his generosity.

  17. Methods for the Organogenesis of Skeletal Muscle in Tissue Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; Shansky, Janet; DelTatto, Michael; Chromiak, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Skeletal muscle structure is regulated by many factors, including nutrition, hormones, electrical activity, and tension. The muscle cells are subjected to both passive and active mechanical forces at all stages of development and these forces play important but poorly understood roles in regulating muscle organogenesis and growth. For example, during embryogenesis, the rapidly growing skeleton places large passive mechanical forces on the attached muscle tissue. These forces not only help to organize the proliferating mononucleated myoblasts into the oriented, multinucleated myofibers of a functional muscle but also tightly couple the growth rate of muscle to that of bone. Postnatally, the actively contracting, innervated muscle fibers are subjected to different patterns of active and passive tensions which regulate longitudinal and cross sectional myofiber growth. These mechanically-induced organogenic processes have been difficult to study under normal tissue culture conditions, resulting in the development of numerous methods and specialized equipment to simulate the in vivo mechanical environment.These techniques have led to the "engineering" of bioartificial muscles (organoids) which display many of the characteristics of in vivo muscle including parallel arrays of postmitotic fibers organized into fascicle-like structures with tendon-like ends. They are contractile, express adult isoforms of contractile proteins, perform directed work, and can be maintained in culture for long periods. The in vivo-like characteristics and durability of these muscle organoids make them useful for long term in vitro studies on mechanotransduction mechanisms and on muscle atrophy induced by decreased tension. In this report, we described a simple method for generating muscle organoids from either primary embrionic avain or neonatal rodent myoblasts.

  18. Nanosecond electric pulses modulate skeletal muscle calcium dynamics and contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Chris; Jirjis, Michael B.; Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2017-02-01

    Irreversible electroporation therapy is utilized to remove cancerous tissues thru the delivery of rapid (250Hz) and high voltage (V) (1,500V/cm) electric pulses across microsecond durations. Clinical research demonstrated that bipolar (BP) high voltage microsecond pulses opposed to monophasic waveforms relieve muscle contraction during electroporation treatment. Our group along with others discovered that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) can activate second messenger cascades, induce cytoskeletal rearrangement, and depending on the nsEP duration and frequency, initiate apoptotic pathways. Of high interest across in vivo and in vitro applications, is how nsEP affects muscle physiology, and if nuances exist in comparison to longer duration electroporation applications. To this end, we exposed mature skeletal muscle cells to monopolar (MP) and BP nsEP stimulation across a wide range of electric field amplitudes (1-20 kV/cm). From live confocal microscopy, we simultaneously monitored intracellular calcium dynamics along with nsEP-induced muscle movement on a single cell level. In addition, we also evaluated membrane permeability with Yo-PRO-1 and Propidium Iodide (PI) across various nsEP parameters. The results from our findings suggest that skeletal muscle calcium dynamics, and nsEP-induced contraction exhibit exclusive responses to both MP and BP nsEP exposure. Overall the results suggest in vivo nsEP application may elicit unique physiology and field applications compared to longer pulse duration electroporation.

  19. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  20. Receptor Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    One on the most persistent problems with long-term space flight is atrophy of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscle is unique as a tissue in the body in that its ability to undergo atrophy or hypertrophy is controlled exclusively by cues from the extracellular environment. The mechanism of communication between muscle cells and their environment is through a group of membrane-bound and soluble receptors, each of which carries out unique, but often interrelated, functions. The primary receptors include acetyl choline receptors, beta-adrenergic receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, insulin receptors, growth hormone (i.e., somatotropin) receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptors, and steroid receptors. This project has been initiated to develop an integrated approach toward muscle atrophy and hypertrophy that takes into account information on the populations of the entire group of receptors (and their respective hormone concentrations), and it is hypothesized that this information can form the basis for a predictive computer model for muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. The conceptual basis for this project is illustrated in the figure below. The individual receptors are shown as membrane-bound, with the exception of the glucocorticoid receptor which is a soluble intracellular receptor. Each of these receptors has an extracellular signalling component (e.g., innervation, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, etc.), and following the interaction of the extracellular component with the receptor itself, an intracellular signal is generated. Each of these intracellular signals is unique in its own way; however, they are often interrelated.

  1. Direct optical activation of skeletal muscle fibres efficiently controls muscle contraction and attenuates denervation atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Magown, Philippe; Shettar, Basavaraj; Zhang, Ying; Rafuse, Victor F.

    2015-01-01

    Neural prostheses can restore meaningful function to paralysed muscles by electrically stimulating innervating motor axons, but fail when muscles are completely denervated, as seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or after a peripheral nerve or spinal cord injury. Here we show that channelrhodopsin-2 is expressed within the sarcolemma and T-tubules of skeletal muscle fibres in transgenic mice. This expression pattern allows for optical control of muscle contraction with comparable forces to nerve stimulation. Force can be controlled by varying light pulse intensity, duration or frequency. Light-stimulated muscle fibres depolarize proportionally to light intensity and duration. Denervated triceps surae muscles transcutaneously stimulated optically on a daily basis for 10 days show a significant attenuation in atrophy resulting in significantly greater contractile forces compared with chronically denervated muscles. Together, this study shows that channelrhodopsin-2/H134R can be used to restore function to permanently denervated muscles and reduce pathophysiological changes associated with denervation pathologies. PMID:26460719

  2. The Role of Skeletal Muscle in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Picchiarelli, Gina; Dupuis, Luc; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset disease primarily characterized by upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, muscle wasting and paralysis. It is increasingly accepted that the pathological process leading to ALS is the result of multiple disease mechanisms that operate within motor neurons and other cell types both inside and outside the central nervous system. The implication of skeletal muscle has been the subject of a number of studies conducted on patients and related animal models. In this review, we describe the features of ALS muscle pathology and discuss on the contribution of muscle to the pathological process. We also give an overview of the therapeutic strategies proposed to alleviate muscle pathology or to deliver curative agents to motor neurons. ALS muscle mainly suffers from oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic disturbances. However, the way by which the disease affects different types of myofibers depends on their contractile and metabolic features. Although the implication of muscle in nourishing the degenerative process is still debated, there is compelling evidence suggesting that it may play a critical role. Detailed understanding of the muscle pathology in ALS could, therefore, lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. © 2016 The Authors. Brain Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Neuropathology.

  3. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    PubMed

    Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1 ) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2 ) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Chemotherapy inhibits skeletal muscle ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Tilignac, Thomas; Temparis, Sandrine; Combaret, Lydie; Taillandier, Daniel; Pouch, Marie-Noëlle; Cervek, Matjaz; Cardenas, Diana M; Le Bricon, Thierry; Debiton, Eric; Samuels, Susan E; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Attaix, Didier

    2002-05-15

    Chemotherapy has cachectic effects, but it is unknown whether cytostatic agents alter skeletal muscle proteolysis. We hypothesized that chemotherapy-induced alterations in protein synthesis should result in the increased incidence of abnormal proteins, which in turn should stimulate ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis. The effects of the nitrosourea cystemustine were investigated in skeletal muscles from both healthy and colon 26 adenocarcinoma-bearing mice, an appropriate model for testing the impact of cytostatic agents. Muscle wasting was seen in both groups of mice 4 days after a single cystemustine injection, and the drug further increased the loss of muscle proteins already apparent in tumor-bearing animals. Cystemustine cured the tumor-bearing mice with 100% efficacy. Surprisingly, within 11 days of treatment, rates of muscle proteolysis progressively decreased below basal levels observed in healthy control mice and contributed to the cessation of muscle wasting. Proteasome-dependent proteolysis was inhibited by mechanisms that include reduced mRNA levels for 20S and 26S proteasome subunits, decreased protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits and the S14 non-ATPase subunit of the 26S proteasome, and impaired chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities of the enzyme. A combination of cisplatin and ifosfamide, two drugs that are widely used in the treatment of cancer patients, also depressed the expression of proteasomal subunits in muscles from rats bearing the MatB adenocarcinoma below basal levels. Thus, a down-regulation of ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis is observed with various cytostatic agents and contributes to reverse the chemotherapy-induced muscle wasting.

  5. Signalling and the control of skeletal muscle size

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, Anthony; Patel, Ketan, E-mail: ketan.patel@reading.ac.uk

    2010-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to environmental stimuli and can alter its mass accordingly. This tissue is almost unique in that it can increase its size through two distinct mechanisms. It can grow through a cellular process mediated by cell fusion, or it can increase its size simply by increasing its protein content. Understanding how these processes are regulated is crucial for the development of potential therapies against debilitating skeletal muscle wasting diseases. Two key signalling molecules, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF) and GDF-8/myostatin, have emerged in recent years to be potent regulators of skeletal muscle size. In this reviewmore » we bring together recent data highlighting the important and novel aspects of both molecules and their signalling pathways, culminating in a discussion of the cellular and tissue phenotypic outcomes of their stimulation or antagonism. We emphasise the complex regulatory mechanisms and discuss the temporal and spatial differences that control their action, understanding of which is crucial to further their use as potential therapeutic targets.« less

  6. Comparing Simplification Strategies for the Skeletal Muscle Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Bethany; Young, Iain S.; Cash, Phillip; Whitfield, Phillip D.; Doherty, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a complex tissue that is dominated by the presence of a few abundant proteins. This wide dynamic range can mask the presence of lower abundance proteins, which can be a confounding factor in large-scale proteomic experiments. In this study, we have investigated a number of pre-fractionation methods, at both the protein and peptide level, for the characterization of the skeletal muscle proteome. The analyses revealed that the use of OFFGEL isoelectric focusing yielded the largest number of protein identifications (>750) compared to alternative gel-based and protein equalization strategies. Further, OFFGEL led to a substantial enrichment of a different sub-population of the proteome. Filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), coupled to peptide-level OFFGEL provided more confidence in the results due to a substantial increase in the number of peptides assigned to each protein. The findings presented here support the use of a multiplexed approach to proteome characterization of skeletal muscle, which has a recognized imbalance in the dynamic range of its protein complement. PMID:28248220

  7. Muscles provide protection during microbial infection by activating innate immune response pathways in Drosophila and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arunita; Roy, Debasish; Patnaik, Esha; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2016-06-01

    Muscle contraction brings about movement and locomotion in animals. However, muscles have also been implicated in several atypical physiological processes including immune response. The role of muscles in immunity and the mechanism involved has not yet been deciphered. In this paper, using Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFMs) as a model, we show that muscles are immune-responsive tissues. Flies with defective IFMs are incapable of mounting a potent humoral immune response. Upon immune challenge, the IFMs produce anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) through the activation of canonical signaling pathways, and these IFM-synthesized AMPs are essential for survival upon infection. The trunk muscles of zebrafish, a vertebrate model system, also possess the capacity to mount an immune response against bacterial infections, thus establishing that immune responsiveness of muscles is evolutionarily conserved. Our results suggest that physiologically fit muscles might boost the innate immune response of an individual. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Human skeletal muscle fibroblasts stimulate in vitro myogenesis and in vivo muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Abigail L; Magnan, Mélanie; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. The extent of cross-talk between fibroblasts, as the source of matrix protein, and satellite cells in humans is unknown. We studied this in human muscle biopsies and cell-culture studies. We observed a strong stimulation of myogenesis by human fibroblasts in cell culture. In biopsies collected 30 days after a muscle injury protocol, fibroblast number increased to four times control levels, where fibroblasts were found to be preferentially located immediately surrounding regenerating muscle fibres. These novel findings indicate an important role for fibroblasts in supporting the regeneration of muscle fibres, potentially through direct stimulation of satellite cell differentiation and fusion, and contribute to understanding of cell-cell cross-talk during physiological and pathological muscle remodelling. Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. In addition to the indispensable role satellite cells play in muscle regeneration, there is emerging evidence in rodents for a regulatory influence on fibroblast activity. However, the influence of fibroblasts on satellite cells and muscle regeneration in humans is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate this in vitro and during in vivo regeneration in humans. Following a muscle injury protocol in young healthy men (n = 7), the number of fibroblasts (TCF7L2+), satellite cells (Pax7+), differentiating myogenic cells (myogenin+) and regenerating fibres (neonatal/embryonic myosin+) was determined from biopsy cross-sections. Fibroblasts and myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) were also isolated from human skeletal muscle (n = 4) and co-cultured using different cell ratios, with the two cell populations either in direct contact with each other or separated by a permeable

  9. Influence of physical exercise on microRNAs in skeletal muscle regeneration, aging and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ultimo, Simona; Zauli, Giorgio; Martelli, Alberto M.; Vitale, Marco; McCubrey, James A.; Capitani, Silvano; Neri, Luca M.

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue with remarkable plasticity and its growth and regeneration are highly organized, with the activation of specific transcription factors, proliferative pathways and cytokines. The decline of skeletal muscle tissue with age, is one of the most important causes of functional loss of independence in older adults. Maintaining skeletal muscle function throughout the lifespan is a prerequisite for good health and independent living. Physical activity represents one of the most effective preventive agents for muscle decay in aging. Several studies have underlined the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the control of myogenesis and of skeletal muscle regeneration and function. In this review, we reported an overview and recent advances about the role of miRNAs expressed in the skeletal muscle, miRNAs regulation by exercise in skeletal muscle, the consequences of different physical exercise training modalities in the skeletal muscle miRNA profile, their regulation under pathological conditions and the role of miRNAs in age-related muscle wasting. Specific miRNAs appear to be involved in response to different types of exercise and therefore to play an important role in muscle fiber identity and myofiber gene expression in adults and elder population. Understanding the roles and regulation of skeletal muscle miRNAs during muscle regeneration may result in new therapeutic approaches in aging or diseases with impaired muscle function or re-growth. PMID:29682218

  10. Vegetarians have a reduced skeletal muscle carnitine transport capacity.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Francis B; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Cheng, Yi; Patel, Nitin; Constantin, Despina; Simpson, Elizabeth J; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2011-09-01

    Ninety-five percent of the body carnitine pool resides in skeletal muscle where it plays a vital role in fuel metabolism. However, vegetarians obtain negligible amounts of carnitine from their diet. We tested the hypothesis that muscle carnitine uptake is elevated in vegetarians compared with that in nonvegetarians to maintain a normal tissue carnitine content. Forty-one young (aged ≈22 y) vegetarian and nonvegetarian volunteers participated in 2 studies. The first study consisted of a 5-h intravenous infusion of l-carnitine while circulating insulin was maintained at a physiologically high concentration (≈170 mU/L; to stimulate muscle carnitine uptake) or at a fasting concentration (≈6 mU/L). The second study consisted of oral ingestion of 3 g l-carnitine. Basal plasma total carnitine (TC) concentration, 24-h urinary TC excretion, muscle TC content, and muscle carnitine transporter [organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2)] messenger RNA and protein expressions were 16% (P < 0.01), 58% (P < 0.01), 17% (P < 0.05), 33% (P < 0.05), and 37% (P = 0.09) lower, respectively, in vegetarian volunteers. However, although nonvegetarians showed a 15% increase (P < 0.05) in muscle TC during l-carnitine infusion with hyperinsulinemia, l-carnitine infusion in the presence or absence of hyperinsulinemia had no effect on muscle TC content in vegetarians. Nevertheless, 24-h urinary TC excretion was 55% less in vegetarians after l-carnitine ingestion. Vegetarians have a lower muscle TC and reduced capacity to transport carnitine into muscle than do nonvegetarians, possibly because of reduced muscle OCTN2 content. Thus, the greater whole-body carnitine retention observed after a single dose of l-carnitine in vegetarians was not attributable to increased muscle carnitine storage.

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of Tropomyosin Isoforms in Skeletal Muscles by Top-down Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yutong; Peng, Ying; Lin, Ziqing; Chen, Yi-Chen; Wei, Liming; Hacker, Timothy A.; Larsson, Lars; Ge, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are heterogeneous in nature and are capable of performing various functions. Tropomyosin (Tpm) is a major component of the thin filament in skeletal muscles and plays an important role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation. Tpm is known to consist of multiple isoforms resulting from different encoding genes and alternative splicing, along with post-translational modifications. However, a systematic characterization of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles is still lacking. Therefore, we employed top-down mass spectrometry (MS) to identify and characterize Tpm isoforms present in different skeletal muscles from multiple species, including swine, rat, and human. Our study revealed that Tpm1.1 and Tpm2.2 are the two major Tpm isoforms in swine and rat skeletal muscles, whereas Tpm1.1, Tpm2.2, and Tpm3.12 are present in human skeletal muscles. Tandem MS was utilized to identify the sequences of the major Tpm isoforms. Furthermore, quantitative analysis revealed muscle-type specific differences in the abundance of un-modified and modified Tpm isoforms in rat and human skeletal muscles. This study represents the first systematic investigation of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles, which not only demonstrates the capabilities of top-down MS for the comprehensive characterization of skeletal myofilament proteins but also provides the basis for further studies on these Tpm isoforms in muscle-related diseases. PMID:27090236

  12. An allometric analysis of the number of muscle spindles in mammalian skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Banks, R W

    2006-01-01

    An allometric analysis of the number of muscle spindles in relation to muscle mass in mammalian (mouse, rat, guinea-pig, cat, human) skeletal muscles is presented. It is shown that the trend to increasing number as muscle mass increases follows an isometric (length) relationship between species, whereas within a species, at least for the only essentially complete sample (human), the number of spindles scales, on average, with the square root rather than the cube root of muscle mass. An attempt is made to reconcile these apparently discrepant relationships. Use of the widely accepted spindle density (number of spindles g−1 of muscle) as a measure of relative abundance of spindles in different muscles is shown to be grossly misleading. It is replaced with the residuals of the linear regression of ln spindle number against ln muscle mass. Significant differences in relative spindle abundance as measured by residuals were found between regional groups of muscles: the greatest abundance is in axial muscles, including those concerned with head position, whereas the least is in muscles of the shoulder girdle. No differences were found between large and small muscles operating in parallel, or between antigravity and non-antigravity muscles. For proximal vs. distal muscles, spindles were significantly less abundant in the hand than the arm, but there was no difference between the foot and the leg. PMID:16761976

  13. The role of Sox6 in zebrafish muscle fiber type specification.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Harriet E; Ono, Yosuke; Wang, Xingang; Elworthy, Stone; Cunliffe, Vincent T; Ingham, Philip W

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox6 has been implicated in regulating muscle fiber type-specific gene expression in mammals. In zebrafish, loss of function of the transcription factor Prdm1a results in a slow to fast-twitch fiber type transformation presaged by ectopic expression of sox6 in slow-twitch progenitors. Morpholino-mediated Sox6 knockdown can suppress this transformation but causes ectopic expression of only one of three slow-twitch specific genes assayed. Here, we use gain and loss of function analysis to analyse further the role of Sox6 in zebrafish muscle fiber type specification. The GAL4 binary misexpression system was used to express Sox6 ectopically in zebrafish embryos. Cis-regulatory elements were characterized using transgenic fish. Zinc finger nuclease mediated targeted mutagenesis was used to analyse the effects of loss of Sox6 function in embryonic, larval and adult zebrafish. Zebrafish transgenic for the GCaMP3 Calcium reporter were used to assay Ca2+ transients in wild-type and mutant muscle fibres. Ectopic Sox6 expression is sufficient to downregulate slow-twitch specific gene expression in zebrafish embryos. Cis-regulatory elements upstream of the slow myosin heavy chain 1 (smyhc1) and slow troponin c (tnnc1b) genes contain putative Sox6 binding sites required for repression of the former but not the latter. Embryos homozygous for sox6 null alleles expressed tnnc1b throughout the fast-twitch muscle whereas other slow-specific muscle genes, including smyhc1, were expressed ectopically in only a subset of fast-twitch fibers. Ca2+ transients in sox6 mutant fast-twitch fibers were intermediate in their speed and amplitude between those of wild-type slow- and fast-twitch fibers. sox6 homozygotes survived to adulthood and exhibited continued misexpression of tnnc1b as well as smaller slow-twitch fibers. They also exhibited a striking curvature of the spine. The Sox6 transcription factor is a key regulator of fast-twitch muscle fiber differentiation

  14. Skeletal muscle adaptations to microgravity exposure in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, B C; Allen, D L; Girten, B; Stodieck, L S; Kostenuik, P J; Bateman, T A; Morony, S; Lacey, D; Leinwand, L A

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effects of microgravity on murine skeletal muscle fiber size, muscle contractile protein, and enzymatic activity, female C57BL/6J mice, aged 64 days, were divided into animal enclosure module (AEM) ground control and spaceflight (SF) treatment groups. SF animals were flown on the space shuttle Endeavour (STS-108/UF-1) and subjected to approximately 11 days and 19 h of microgravity. Immunohistochemical analysis of muscle fiber cross-sectional area revealed that, in each of the muscles analyzed, mean muscle fiber cross-sectional area was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) for all fiber types for SF vs. AEM control. In the soleus, immunohistochemical analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression revealed a significant increase in the percentage of muscle fibers expressing MHC IIx and MHC IIb (P < 0.05). For the gastrocnemius and plantaris, no significant changes in MHC isoform expression were observed. For the muscles analyzed, no alterations in MHC I or MHC IIa protein expression were observed. Enzymatic analysis of the gastrocnemius revealed a significant decrease in citrate synthase activity in SF vs. AEM control.

  15. Diversity effect of capsaicin on different types of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gan; Wang, Lina; Xu, Yaqiong; Yang, Kelin; Luo, Lv; Wang, Leshan; Li, Yongxiang; Wang, Jiawen; Shu, Gang; Wang, Songbo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiaotong; Xi, Qianyun; Sun, Jiajie; Zhang, Yongliang; Jiang, Qingyan

    2018-06-01

    Capsaicin is a major pungent content in green and red peppers which are widely used as spice, and capsaicin may activate different receptors. To determine whether capsaicin has different effects on different types of skeletal muscle, we applied different concentrations (0, 0.01, and 0.02%) of capsaicin in the normal diet and conducted a four-week experiment on Sprague-Dawley rats. The fiber type composition, glucose metabolism enzyme activity, and different signaling molecules' expressions of receptors were detected. Our results suggested that capsaicin reduced the body fat deposition, while promoting the slow muscle-related gene expression and increasing the enzyme activity in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. However, fatty acid metabolism was significantly increased only in the soleus muscle. The study of intracellular signaling suggested that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and cannabinoid receptors in the soleus muscle were more sensitive to capsaicin. In conclusion, the distribution of TRPV1 and cannabinoid receptors differs in different types of muscle, and the different roles of capsaicin in different types of muscle may be related to the different degrees of activation of receptors.

  16. Impact of oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Steinbacher, Peter; Eckl, Peter

    2015-04-10

    It is well established that muscle contractions during exercise lead to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle. These highly reactive molecules have many deleterious effects, such as a reduction of force generation and increased muscle atrophy. Since the discovery of exercise-induced oxidative stress several decades ago, evidence has accumulated that ROS produced during exercise also have positive effects by influencing cellular processes that lead to increased expression of antioxidants. These molecules are particularly elevated in regularly exercising muscle to prevent the negative effects of ROS by neutralizing the free radicals. In addition, ROS also seem to be involved in the exercise-induced adaptation of the muscle phenotype. This review provides an overview of the evidences to date on the effects of ROS in exercising muscle. These aspects include the sources of ROS, their positive and negative cellular effects, the role of antioxidants, and the present evidence on ROS-dependent adaptations of muscle cells in response to physical exercise.

  17. Direct Reprogramming of Mouse Fibroblasts into Functional Skeletal Muscle Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Bar-Nur, Ori; Gerli, Mattia F M; Di Stefano, Bruno; Almada, Albert E; Galvin, Amy; Coffey, Amy; Huebner, Aaron J; Feige, Peter; Verheul, Cassandra; Cheung, Priscilla; Payzin-Dogru, Duygu; Paisant, Sylvain; Anselmo, Anthony; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Ott, Harald C; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Rudnicki, Michael A; Wagers, Amy J; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2018-05-08

    Skeletal muscle harbors quiescent stem cells termed satellite cells and proliferative progenitors termed myoblasts, which play pivotal roles during muscle regeneration. However, current technology does not allow permanent capture of these cell populations in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD, combined with exposure to small molecules, reprograms mouse fibroblasts into expandable induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs). iMPCs express key skeletal muscle stem and progenitor cell markers including Pax7 and Myf5 and give rise to dystrophin-expressing myofibers upon transplantation in vivo. Notably, a subset of transplanted iMPCs maintain Pax7 expression and sustain serial regenerative responses. Similar to satellite cells, iMPCs originate from Pax7 + cells and require Pax7 itself for maintenance. Finally, we show that myogenic progenitor cell lines can be established from muscle tissue following small-molecule exposure alone. This study thus reports on a robust approach to derive expandable myogenic stem/progenitor-like cells from multiple cell types. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SKELETAL MUSCLE ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN STATIN-TOLERANT INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Rengo, Jason L.; Callahan, Damien M.; Savage, Patrick D.; Ades, Philip A.; Toth, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructure and Function in Statin-Tolerant Individuals: Introduction Statins have well-known benefits on cardiovascular mortality, though up to 15% of patients experience side effects. With guidelines from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Diabetics Association expected to double the number of statin users, the overall incidence of myalgia and myopathy will increase. Methods We evaluated skeletal muscle structure and contractile function at the molecular, cellular, and whole tissue levels in 12 statin tolerant and 12 control subjects. Results Myosin isoform expression, fiber type distributions, single fiber maximal Ca2+-activated tension, and whole muscle contractile force were similar between groups. No differences were observed in myosin-actin cross-bridge kinetics in myosin heavy chain (MHC) I or IIA fibers. Discussion We found no evidence for statin-induced changes in muscle morphology at the molecular, cellular, or whole tissue levels. Collectively, our data show that chronic statin therapy in healthy asymptomatic individuals does not promote deleterious myofilament structural or functional adaptations. PMID:26059690

  19. Skeletal muscle plasticity with marathon training in novice runners.

    PubMed

    Luden, N; Hayes, E; Minchev, K; Louis, E; Raue, U; Conley, T; Trappe, S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate leg muscle adaptation in runners preparing for their first marathon. Soleus and vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies were obtained from six recreational runners (23 ± 1 years, 61 ± 3 kg) before (T1), after 13 weeks of run training (T2), and after 3 weeks of taper and marathon (T3). Single muscle fiber size, contractile function (strength, speed, and power) and oxidative enzyme activity [citrate synthase (CS)] were measured at all three time points, and fiber type distribution was determined before and after the 16-week intervention. Training increased VO(2max) ∼9% (P<0.05). All soleus parameters were unchanged. VL MHC I fiber diameter increased (+8%; P<0.05) from T1 to T2. VL MHC I V(o) (-12%), MHC I power (-22%) and MHC IIa power (-29%) were reduced from T1 to T2 (P<0.05). No changes in VL single fiber contractile properties were observed from T2 to T3. No change was observed in soleus CS activity, whereas VL CS activity increased 66% (P<0.05). Our observations indicate that modest marathon training elicits very specific skeletal muscle adaptations that likely support the ability to perform 42.2 km of continuous running - further strengthening the existing body of evidence for skeletal muscle specificity. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation on human skeletal muscle precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jurdana, Mihaela; Cemazar, Maja; Pegan, Katarina; Mars, Tomaz

    2013-01-01

    Background Long term effects of different doses of ionizing radiation on human skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation, cytokine signalling and stress response capacity were studied in primary cell cultures. Materials and methods Human skeletal muscle myoblasts obtained from muscle biopsies were cultured and irradiated with a Darpac 2000 X-ray unit at doses of 4, 6 and 8 Gy. Acute effects of radiation were studied by interleukin – 6 (IL-6) release and stress response detected by the heat shock protein (HSP) level, while long term effects were followed by proliferation capacity and cell death. Results Compared with non-irradiated control and cells treated with inhibitor of cell proliferation Ara C, myoblast proliferation decreased 72 h post-irradiation, this effect was more pronounced with increasing doses. Post-irradiation myoblast survival determined by measurement of released LDH enzyme activity revealed increased activity after exposure to irradiation. The acute response of myoblasts to lower doses of irradiation (4 and 6 Gy) was decreased secretion of constitutive IL-6. Higher doses of irradiation triggered a stress response in myoblasts, determined by increased levels of stress markers (HSPs 27 and 70). Conclusions Our results show that myoblasts are sensitive to irradiation in terms of their proliferation capacity and capacity to secret IL-6. Since myoblast proliferation and differentiation are a key stage in muscle regeneration, this effect of irradiation needs to be taken in account, particularly in certain clinical conditions. PMID:24294183

  1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 binding to rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Delgado, E; Luque, M A; Alcántara, A; Trapote, M A; Clemente, F; Galera, C; Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    1995-01-01

    We have found [125I]glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)-amide-specific binding activity in rat skeletal muscle plasma membranes, with an estimated M(r) of 63,000 by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE. The specific binding was time and membrane protein concentration dependent, and displaceable by unlabeled GLP-1(7-36)-amide with an ID50 of 3 x 10(-9) M of the peptide; GLP-1(1-36)-amide also competed, whereas glucagon and insulin did not. GLP-1(7-36)-amide did not modify the basal adenylate cyclase activity in skeletal muscle plasma membranes. These data, together with our previous finding of a potent glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7-36)-amide in rat soleus muscle, and also in isolated hepatocytes, which was not accompanied by a rise in the cell cyclic AMP content, lead use to believe that the insulin-like effects of this peptide on glucose metabolism in the muscle could be mediated by a type of receptor somehow different to that described for GLP-1 in pancreatic B cells, where GLP-1 action is mediated by the cyclic AMP-adenylate cyclase system.

  2. Ex Vivo Assessment of Contractility, Fatigability and Alternans in Isolated Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Ho; Brotto, Leticia; Lehoang, Oanh; Brotto, Marco; Ma, Jianjie; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Described here is a method to measure contractility of isolated skeletal muscles. Parameters such as muscle force, muscle power, contractile kinetics, fatigability, and recovery after fatigue can be obtained to assess specific aspects of the excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) process such as excitability, contractile machinery and Ca2+ handling ability. This method removes the nerve and blood supply and focuses on the isolated skeletal muscle itself. We routinely use this method to identify genetic components that alter the contractile property of skeletal muscle though modulating Ca2+ signaling pathways. Here, we describe a newly identified skeletal muscle phenotype, i.e., mechanic alternans, as an example of the various and rich information that can be obtained using the in vitro muscle contractility assay. Combination of this assay with single cell assays, genetic approaches and biochemistry assays can provide important insights into the mechanisms of ECC in skeletal muscle. PMID:23149471

  3. Mechanical properties of frog skeletal muscles in iodoacetic acid rigor.

    PubMed Central

    Mulvany, M J

    1975-01-01

    1. Methods have been developed for describing the length: tension characteristics of frog skeletal muscles which go into rigor at 4 degrees C following iodoacetic acid poisoning either in the presence of Ca2+ (Ca-rigor) or its absence (Ca-free-rigor). 2. Such rigor muscles showed less resistance to slow stretch (slow rigor resistance) that to fast stretch (fast rigor resistance). The slow and fast rigor resistances of Ca-free-rigor muscles were much lower than those of Ca-rigor muscles. 3. The slow rigor resistance of Ca-rigor muscles was proportional to the amount of overlap between the contractile filaments present when the muscles were put into rigor. 4. Withdrawing Ca2+ from Ca-rigor muscles (induced-Ca-free rigor) reduced their slow and fast rigor resistances. Readdition of Ca2+ (but not Mg2+, Mn2+ or Sr2+) reversed the effect. 5. The slow and fast rigor resistances of Ca-rigor muscles (but not of Ca-free-rigor muscles) decreased with time. 6.The sarcomere structure of Ca-rigor and induced-Ca-free rigor muscles stretched by 0.2lo was destroyed in proportion to the amount of stretch, but the lengths of the remaining intact sarcomeres were essentially unchanged. This suggests that there had been a successive yielding of the weakeast sarcomeres. 7. The difference between the slow and fast rigor resistance and the effect of calcium on these resistances are discussed in relation to possible variations in the strength of crossbridges between the thick and thin filaments. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:1082023

  4. The Molecular Basis for Load-Induced Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Marcotte, George R.; West, Daniel W.D.; Baar, Keith

    2016-01-01

    In a mature (weight neutral) animal, an increase in muscle mass only occurs when the muscle is loaded sufficiently to cause an increase in myofibrillar protein balance. A tight relationship between muscle hypertrophy, acute increases in protein balance, and the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was demonstrated 15 years ago. Since then, our understanding of the signals that regulate load-induced hypertrophy has evolved considerably. For example, we now know that mechanical load activates mTORC1 in the same way as growth factors, by moving TSC2 (a primary inhibitor of mTORC1) away from its target (the mTORC activator) Rheb. However, the kinase that phosphorylates and moves TSC2 is different in the two processes. Similarly, we have learned that a distinct pathway exists whereby amino acids activate mTORC1 by moving it to Rheb. While mTORC1 remains at the forefront of load-induced hypertrophy, the importance of other pathways that regulate muscle mass are becoming clearer. Myostatin, is best known for its control of developmental muscle size. However, new mechanisms to explain how loading regulates this process are suggesting that it could play an important role in hypertrophic muscle growth as well. Lastly, new mechanisms are highlighted for how β2 receptor agonists could be involved in load-induced muscle growth and why these agents are being developed as non-exercise-based therapies for muscle atrophy. Overall, the results highlight how studying the mechanism of load-induced skeletal muscle mass is leading the development of pharmaceutical interventions to promote muscle growth in those unwilling or unable to perform resistance exercise. PMID:25359125

  5. What's So Special about FGF19-Unique Effects Reported on Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function.

    PubMed

    Glass, David J

    2017-08-01

    In a recent study published in Nature Medicine, Benoit et al. (2017) reported unique effects of FGF19 on mouse skeletal muscle: FGF19 induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and blocked muscle atrophy, acting via FGF receptors and ßKlotho, while a related FGF21 hormone was ineffective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary skeletal muscle cells cultured on gelatin bead microcarriers develop structural and biochemical features characteristic of adult skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kubis, Hans-Peter; Scheibe, Renate J; Decker, Brigitte; Hufendiek, Karsten; Hanke, Nina; Gros, Gerolf; Meissner, Joachim D

    2016-04-01

    A primary skeletal muscle cell culture, in which myoblasts derived from newborn rabbit hindlimb muscles grow on gelatin bead microcarriers in suspension and differentiate into myotubes, has been established previously. In the course of differentiation and beginning spontaneous contractions, these multinucleated myotubes do not detach from their support. Here, we describe the development of the primary myotubes with respect to their ultrastructural differentiation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that myotubes not only grow around the surface of one carrier bead but also attach themselves to neighboring carriers, forming bridges between carriers. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates highly ordered myofibrils, T-tubules, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The functionality of the contractile apparatus is evidenced by contractile activity that occurs spontaneously or can be elicited by electrostimulation. Creatine kinase activity increases steadily until day 20 of culture. Regarding the expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chains (MHC), we could demonstrate that from day 16 on, no non-adult MHC isoform mRNAs are present. Instead, on day 28 the myotubes express predominantly adult fast MHCIId/x mRNA and protein. This MHC pattern resembles that of fast muscles of adult rabbits. In contrast, primary myotubes grown on matrigel-covered culture dishes express substantial amounts of non-adult MHC protein even on day 21. To conclude, primary myotubes grown on microcarriers in their later stages exhibit many features of adult skeletal muscle and characteristics of fast type II fibers. Thus, the culture represents an excellent model of adult fast skeletal muscle, for example, when investigating molecular mechanisms of fast-to-slow fiber-type transformation. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Human skeletal muscle protein breakdown during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein. Excretion of 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) in the urine is a useful measurement of myofibrillar protein breakdown. Bed rest, particularly with 6 degrees head-down tilt, is an accepted ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this report were to compare 3-MH excretion from two Life Sciences shuttle missions (duration 9.5 and 15 days, n = 9) and from 17 days of bed rest (n = 7) with 6 degrees head-down tilt. The bed rest study was designed to mimic an actual Life Sciences spaceflight and so incorporated an extensive battery of physiological tests focused on the musculoskeletal system. Results showed that nitrogen retention, based on excretion of nitrogen in the urine, was reduced during both bed rest [from 22 +/- 1 to 1 +/- 5 mg N x kg(-1) x day(-1) (n = 7; P < 0.05)] and spaceflight [from 57 +/- 9 to 19 +/- 3 mg N x kg(-1) x day(-1) (n = 9; P < 0.05)]. 3-MH excretion was unchanged with either bed rest [pre-bed rest 5.30 +/- 0.29 vs. bed rest 5.71 +/- 0.30 micromol 3-MH x kg(-1) x day(-1), n = 7; P = not significant (NS)] or spaceflight [preflight 4.98 +/- 0.37 vs. 4.59 +/- 0.39 micromol 3-MH x kg(-1) x day(-1) in-flight, n = 9; P = NS]. We conclude that 1) 3-MH excretion was unaffected by spaceflight on the shuttle or with bed rest plus exercise, and 2) because protein breakdown (elevated 3-MH) was increased on Skylab but not on the shuttle, it follows that muscle protein breakdown is not an inevitable consequence of spaceflight.

  8. Smad4 restricts differentiation to promote expansion of satellite cell derived progenitors during skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Paris, Nicole D; Soroka, Andrew; Klose, Alanna; Liu, Wenxuan; Chakkalakal, Joe V

    2016-11-18

    Skeletal muscle regenerative potential declines with age, in part due to deficiencies in resident stem cells (satellite cells, SCs) and derived myogenic progenitors (MPs); however, the factors responsible for this decline remain obscure. TGFβ superfamily signaling is an inhibitor of myogenic differentiation, with elevated activity in aged skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, we find reduced expression of Smad4 , the downstream cofactor for canonical TGFβ superfamily signaling, and the target Id1 in aged SCs and MPs during regeneration. Specific deletion of Smad4 in adult mouse SCs led to increased propensity for terminal myogenic commitment connected to impaired proliferative potential. Furthermore, SC-specific Smad4 disruption compromised adult skeletal muscle regeneration. Finally, loss of Smad4 in aged SCs did not promote aged skeletal muscle regeneration. Therefore, SC-specific reduction of Smad4 is a feature of aged regenerating skeletal muscle and Smad4 is a critical regulator of SC and MP amplification during skeletal muscle regeneration.

  9. Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovic, Caroline; Raman, Ritu; Chan, Vincent; Williams, Brian J; Tolish, Madeline; Bajaj, Piyush; Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Asada, H Harry; Saif, M Taher A; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-07-15

    Combining biological components, such as cells and tissues, with soft robotics can enable the fabrication of biological machines with the ability to sense, process signals, and produce force. An intuitive demonstration of a biological machine is one that can produce motion in response to controllable external signaling. Whereas cardiac cell-driven biological actuators have been demonstrated, the requirements of these machines to respond to stimuli and exhibit controlled movement merit the use of skeletal muscle, the primary generator of actuation in animals, as a contractile power source. Here, we report the development of 3D printed hydrogel "bio-bots" with an asymmetric physical design and powered by the actuation of an engineered mammalian skeletal muscle strip to result in net locomotion of the bio-bot. Geometric design and material properties of the hydrogel bio-bots were optimized using stereolithographic 3D printing, and the effect of collagen I and fibrin extracellular matrix proteins and insulin-like growth factor 1 on the force production of engineered skeletal muscle was characterized. Electrical stimulation triggered contraction of cells in the muscle strip and net locomotion of the bio-bot with a maximum velocity of ∼ 156 μm s(-1), which is over 1.5 body lengths per min. Modeling and simulation were used to understand both the effect of different design parameters on the bio-bot and the mechanism of motion. This demonstration advances the goal of realizing forward-engineered integrated cellular machines and systems, which can have a myriad array of applications in drug screening, programmable tissue engineering, drug delivery, and biomimetic machine design.

  10. Skeletal muscle ceramide species in men with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    de la Maza, M P; Rodriguez, J M; Hirsch, S; Leiva, L; Barrera, G; Bunout, D

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and its consequences, including accelerated ageing and mortality. The underlying factor could be accumulation of certain lipid moieties, such as ceramides (CER) and diacylgycerol (DAG) within muscle tissue, which are known to promote insulin resistance (IR), induce inflammation and oxidative injury, ultimately altering muscle function. First, to study the relationship between body composition and age (independent variables) with skeletal muscle accumulation of lipid species, oxidative injury and strength. Second, to analyze the relationship between muscle tissue metabolites and insulin resistance, inflammation and lymphocyte telomere length, the latter as an indicator of ageing. The sample included 56 healthy sedentary males, scheduled for inguinal hernia surgery, aged 27 to 80 y. Each individual was subject to anthropometric measurements, body composition assessment through radiologic densitometry (DEXA), measurement of handgrip and quadriceps strength, serum biochemical parameters (lipoproteins, creatinine, high sensitivity C reactive protein [hsCRP], fasting and post glucose insulin and glucose concentrations for calculation of IR through the Matsuda and HOMA-IR indexes), and extraction of peripheral leukocytes for measurement of telomere length. During the surgical procedure, a sample of muscle tissue was obtained (anterior abdominal oblique) in order to measure CER and DAG (and sub species according to chain length and saturation) by mass spectrometry, 4 hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts (4-HNE) using electron microscopy immunohistochemistry, and carboxymethyl-lisine (CML) by immunohistochemistry, the latter as indicators of oxidative stress (OS). Body mass index (BMI) of twenty six individuals was > 25 k/m2, while BMI of 7 was > 30 k/m2. Overweight/obese individuals, did not exhibit differences in skeletal muscle lipid metabolites, however total CER and specific long chain CER sub-species (20 and 22 carbon) increased

  11. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Aguer, Céline; McCoin, Colin S; Knotts, Trina A; Thrush, A Brianne; Ono-Moore, Kikumi; McPherson, Ruth; Dent, Robert; Hwang, Daniel H; Adams, Sean H; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance may be linked to incomplete fatty acid β-oxidation and the subsequent increase in acylcarnitine species in different tissues including skeletal muscle. It is not known if acylcarnitines participate in muscle insulin resistance or simply reflect dysregulated metabolism. The aims of this study were to determine whether acylcarnitines can elicit muscle insulin resistance and to better understand the link between incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin-resistance development. Differentiated C2C12, primary mouse, and human myotubes were treated with acylcarnitines (C4:0, C14:0, C16:0) or with palmitate with or without carnitine acyltransferase inhibition by mildronate. Treatment with C4:0, C14:0, and C16:0 acylcarnitines resulted in 20-30% decrease in insulin response at the level of Akt phosphorylation and/or glucose uptake. Mildronate reversed palmitate-induced insulin resistance concomitant with an ∼25% decrease in short-chain acylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine secretion. Although proinflammatory cytokines were not affected under these conditions, oxidative stress was increased by 2-3 times by short- or long-chain acylcarnitines. Acylcarnitine-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance were reversed by treatment with antioxidants. Results are consistent with the conclusion that incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation causes acylcarnitine accumulation and associated oxidative stress, raising the possibility that these metabolites play a role in muscle insulin resistance. © FASEB.

  12. Dexamethasone regulates glutamine synthetase expression in rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, Stephen R.; Konagaya, Masaaki; Konagaya, Yoko; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids in rat skeletal muscles was studied. Administration of dexamethasone strikingly enhanced glutamine synthetase activity in plantaris and soleus muscles. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked to a significant extent by orally administered RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves dramatically increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. The induction of glutamine synthetase was selective in that glutaminase activity of soleus and plantaris muscles was not increased by dexamethasone. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment resulted in only a small increase in glutamine synthetase activity in the heart. Accordingly, there was only a slight change in glutamine synthetase mRNA level in this tissue. Thus, glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase gene expression in rat muscles at the transcriptional level via interaction with intracellular glutamine production by muscle and to mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.

  13. Mitofusin-2 prevents skeletal muscle wasting in cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Xi, Qiu-Lei; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Hai-Sheng; Meng, Qing-Yang; Chen, Ying; Han, Yu-Song; Zhuang, Qiu-Lin; Han, Jun; Wang, Hai-Yu; Fang, Jing; Wu, Guo-Hao

    2016-11-01

    Cancer cachexia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite extensive research and clinical trials. The prominent clinical feature of cancer cachexia is the continuous loss of skeletal muscle that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support, and that leads to progressive functional impairment. The mechanism underlying muscle loss in patients with cachexia is poorly understood. The present study analyzed 21 cancer patients with or without cachexia, and demonstrated that mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) was downregulated in the rectus abdominis of patients with cachexia, which was associated with body weight loss. In vitro cell experiments indicated that loss of Mfn2 was associated with atrophy of the C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line. Furthermore, in vivo animal experiments demonstrated that cachexia decreased gastrocnemius muscle mass and Mfn2 expression, and overexpression of Mfn2 in gastrocnemius muscle was able to partially attenuate cachexia-induced gastrocnemius muscle loss. The results of the present study suggested that Mfn2 is involved in cachexia-induced muscle loss and may serve as a potential target for therapy of cachexia.

  14. Sex-Based Differences in Skeletal Muscle Kinetics and Fiber-Type Composition

    PubMed Central

    Haizlip, K. M.; Harrison, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified over 3,000 genes that are differentially expressed in male and female skeletal muscle. Here, we review the sex-based differences in skeletal muscle fiber composition, myosin heavy chain expression, contractile function, and the regulation of these physiological differences by thyroid hormone, estrogen, and testosterone. The findings presented lay the basis for the continued work needed to fully understand the skeletal muscle differences between males and females. PMID:25559153

  15. MicroRNA in Skeletal Muscle: Its Crucial Roles in Signal Proteins, Mus cle Fiber Type, and Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu Lan

    2017-01-01

    Pork is one of the most economical sources of animal protein for human consumption. Meat quality is an important economic trait for the swine industry, which is primarily determined by prenatal muscle development and postnatal growth. Identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle development is a key priority. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of skeletal muscle development. A number of muscle-related miRNAs have been identified by functional gain and loss experiments in mouse model. However, determining miRNA-mRNA interactions involved in pig skeletal muscle still remains a significant challenge. For a comprehensive understanding of miRNA-mediated mechanisms underlying muscle development, miRNAome analyses of pig skeletal muscle have been performed by deep sequencing. Additionally, porcine miRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms have been implicated in muscle fiber types and meat quality. The present review provides an overview of current knowledge on recently identified miRNAs involved in myogenesis, muscle fiber type and muscle protein metabolism. Undoubtedly, further systematic understanding of the functions of miRNAs in pig skeletal muscle development will be helpful to expand the knowledge of basic skeletal muscle biology and be beneficial for the genetic improvement of meat quality traits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Gadd45a Protein Promotes Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Forming a Complex with the Protein Kinase MEKK4.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Steven A; Seo, Seongjin; Schilling, Birgit; Dyle, Michael C; Dierdorff, Jason M; Ebert, Scott M; DeLau, Austin D; Gibson, Bradford W; Adams, Christopher M

    2016-08-19

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious and highly prevalent condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Previous work found that skeletal muscle atrophy involves an increase in skeletal muscle Gadd45a expression, which is necessary and sufficient for skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. However, the direct mechanism by which Gadd45a promotes skeletal muscle atrophy was unknown. To address this question, we biochemically isolated skeletal muscle proteins that associate with Gadd45a as it induces atrophy in mouse skeletal muscle fibers in vivo We found that Gadd45a interacts with multiple proteins in skeletal muscle fibers, including, most prominently, MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that was not previously known to play a role in skeletal muscle atrophy. Furthermore, we found that, by forming a complex with MEKK4 in skeletal muscle fibers, Gadd45a increases MEKK4 protein kinase activity, which is both sufficient to induce skeletal muscle fiber atrophy and required for Gadd45a-mediated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. Together, these results identify a direct biochemical mechanism by which Gadd45a induces skeletal muscle atrophy and provide new insight into the way that skeletal muscle atrophy occurs at the molecular level. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Ca2+-Dependent Regulations and Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: From Electro-Mechanical Coupling to Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Gehlert, Sebastian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in almost all cellular processes and ensures the functionality of an organism. In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ is critically involved in the innervation of skeletal muscle fibers that results in the exertion of an action potential along the muscle fiber membrane, the prerequisite for skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore and among others, Ca2+ regulates also intracellular processes, such as myosin-actin cross bridging, protein synthesis, protein degradation and fiber type shifting by the control of Ca2+-sensitive proteases and transcription factors, as well as mitochondrial adaptations, plasticity and respiration. These data highlight the overwhelming significance of Ca2+ ions for the integrity of skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we address the major functions of Ca2+ ions in adult muscle but also highlight recent findings of critical Ca2+-dependent mechanisms essential for skeletal muscle-regulation and maintenance. PMID:25569087

  18. An aPPARent Functional Consequence in Skeletal Muscle Physiology via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    PubMed

    Phua, Wendy Wen Ting; Wong, Melissa Xin Yu; Liao, Zehuan; Tan, Nguan Soon

    2018-05-10

    Skeletal muscle comprises 30⁻40% of the total body mass and plays a central role in energy homeostasis in the body. The deregulation of energy homeostasis is a common underlying characteristic of metabolic syndrome. Over the past decades, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in skeletal muscle. The three family members of PPAR have overlapping roles that contribute to the myriad of processes in skeletal muscle. This review aims to provide an overview of the functions of different PPAR members in energy homeostasis as well as during skeletal muscle metabolic disorders, with a particular focus on human and relevant mouse model studies.

  19. Detection of Dystrophin Dp71 in Human Skeletal Muscle Using an Automated Capillary Western Assay System.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Niba, Emma Tabe Eko; Rani, Abdul Qawee Mahyoob; Onishi, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Makoto; Awano, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Masaaki; Nagai, Masashi; Yoshida, Shinobu; Sakakibara, Sachiko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Sato, Osamu; Nishio, Hisahide; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2018-05-23

    Dystrophin Dp71 is one of the isoforms produced by the DMD gene which is mutated in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although Dp71 is expressed ubiquitously, it has not been detected in normal skeletal muscle. This study was performed to assess the expression of Dp71 in human skeletal muscle. Human skeletal muscle RNA and tissues were obtained commercially. Mouse skeletal muscle was obtained from normal and DMD mdx mice. Dp71 mRNA and protein were determined by reverse-transcription PCR and an automated capillary Western assay system, the Simple Western, respectively. Dp71 was over-expressed or suppressed using a plasmid expressing Dp71 or antisense oligonucleotide, respectively. Full-length Dp71 cDNA was PCR amplified as a single product from human skeletal muscle RNA. A ca. 70 kDa protein peak detected by the Simple Western was determined as Dp71 by over-expressing Dp71 in HEK293 cells, or suppressing Dp71 expression with antisense oligonucleotide in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. The Simple Western assay detected Dp71 in the skeletal muscles of both normal and DMD mice. In human skeletal muscle, Dp71 was also detected. The ratio of Dp71 to vinculin of human skeletal muscle samples varied widely, indicating various levels of Dp71 expression. Dp71 protein was detected in human skeletal muscle using a highly sensitive capillary Western blotting system.

  20. An aPPARent Functional Consequence in Skeletal Muscle Physiology via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Wendy Wen Ting; Wong, Melissa Xin Yu; Liao, Zehuan

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle comprises 30–40% of the total body mass and plays a central role in energy homeostasis in the body. The deregulation of energy homeostasis is a common underlying characteristic of metabolic syndrome. Over the past decades, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in skeletal muscle. The three family members of PPAR have overlapping roles that contribute to the myriad of processes in skeletal muscle. This review aims to provide an overview of the functions of different PPAR members in energy homeostasis as well as during skeletal muscle metabolic disorders, with a particular focus on human and relevant mouse model studies. PMID:29747466

  1. Time-dependent behavior of passive skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, T.; Rubin, M. B.; Trimmer, B. A.; Dorfmann, L.

    2016-03-01

    An isotropic three-dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic model is developed to simulate the time-dependent behavior of passive skeletal muscle. The development of the model is stimulated by experimental data that characterize the response during simple uniaxial stress cyclic loading and unloading. Of particular interest is the rate-dependent response, the recovery of muscle properties from the preconditioned to the unconditioned state and stress relaxation at constant stretch during loading and unloading. The model considers the material to be a composite of a nonlinear hyperelastic component in parallel with a nonlinear dissipative component. The strain energy and the corresponding stress measures are separated additively into hyperelastic and dissipative parts. In contrast to standard nonlinear inelastic models, here the dissipative component is modeled using an evolution equation that combines rate-independent and rate-dependent responses smoothly with no finite elastic range. Large deformation evolution equations for the distortional deformations in the elastic and in the dissipative component are presented. A robust, strongly objective numerical integration algorithm is used to model rate-dependent and rate-independent inelastic responses. The constitutive formulation is specialized to simulate the experimental data. The nonlinear viscoelastic model accurately represents the time-dependent passive response of skeletal muscle.

  2. Optogenetic control of contractile function in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bruegmann, Tobias; van Bremen, Tobias; Vogt, Christoph C.; Send, Thorsten; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Sasse, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetic stimulation allows activation of cells with high spatial and temporal precision. Here we show direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscle from transgenic mice expressing the light-sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Largest tetanic contractions are observed with 5-ms light pulses at 30 Hz, resulting in 84% of the maximal force induced by electrical stimulation. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by selectively stimulating with a light guide individual intralaryngeal muscles in explanted larynges from ChR2-transgenic mice, which enables selective opening and closing of the vocal cords. Furthermore, systemic injection of adeno-associated virus into wild-type mice provides sufficient ChR2 expression for optogenetic opening of the vocal cords. Thus, direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscle generates large force and provides the distinct advantage of localized and cell-type-specific activation. This technology could be useful for therapeutic purposes, such as restoring the mobility of the vocal cords in patients suffering from laryngeal paralysis. PMID:26035411

  3. Fetal programming of fat and collagen in porcine skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Karunaratne, JF; Ashton, CJ; Stickland, NC

    2005-01-01

    Connective tissue plays a key role in the scaffolding and development of skeletal muscle. Pilot studies carried out in our laboratory have shown that the smallest porcine littermate has a higher content of connective tissue within skeletal muscle compared with its largest littermate. The present study investigated the prenatal development of intralitter variation in terms of collagen content within connective tissue and intramuscular fat of the M. semitendinosus. Twenty-three pairs of porcine fetuses from a Large White–Landrace origin were used aged from 36 to 86 days of gestation. The largest and smallest littermates were chosen by weight and the M. semitendinosus was removed from each. Complete transverse muscle sections were stained with Oil Red O (detection of lipids) and immunocytochemistry was performed using an antibody to collagen I. Slides were analysed and paired t-Tests revealed the smallest littermate contained a significantly higher proportion of fat deposits and collagen I content compared with the largest littermate. Recent postnatal studies showing elevated levels of intramuscular lipids and low scores for meat tenderness in the smallest littermate corroborate our investigations. It can be concluded that the differences seen in connective tissue elements have a fetal origin that may continue postnatally. PMID:16367803

  4. Thyroid hormones regulate skeletal muscle regeneration after acute injury.

    PubMed

    Leal, Anna Lúcia R C; Albuquerque, João Paulo C; Matos, Marina S; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Carvalho, Denise P; Rosenthal, Doris; da Costa, Vânia Maria Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroid statuses during the initial phase of skeletal muscle regeneration in rats. To induce hypo- or hyperthyroidism, adult male Wistar rats were treated with methimazole (0.03%) or T4 (10 μg/100 g), respectively, for 10 days. Three days before sacrifice, a crush injury was produced in the solear muscles of one half of the animals, while the other half remained intact. T3, T4, TSH, and leptin serum levels were not affected by the injury. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly increased in hyperthyroid and hyper-injury animals. Hypothyroidism was confirmed by the significant increase in serum TSH levels in hypothyroid and hypo-injury animals. Injury increased cell infiltration and macrophage accumulation especially in hyperthyroid animals. Both type 2 and type 3 deiodinases were induced by lesion, and the opposite occurred with the type 1 isoform, at least in the control and hyperthyroid groups. Injury increased both MyoD and myogenin expression in all the studied groups, but only MyoD expression was increased by thyroidal status only at the protein level. We conclude that thyroid hormones modulate skeletal muscle regeneration possibly by regulating the inflammatory process, as well as MyoD and myogenin expression in the injured tissue.

  5. A Noninvasive In Vitro Monitoring System Reporting Skeletal Muscle Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Öztürk-Kaloglu, Deniz; Hercher, David; Heher, Philipp; Posa-Markaryan, Katja; Sperger, Simon; Zimmermann, Alice; Wolbank, Susanne; Redl, Heinz; Hacobian, Ara

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of cell differentiation is a crucial aspect of cell-based therapeutic strategies depending on tissue maturation. In this study, we have developed a noninvasive reporter system to trace murine skeletal muscle differentiation. Either a secreted bioluminescent reporter (Metridia luciferase) or a fluorescent reporter (green fluorescent protein [GFP]) was placed under the control of the truncated muscle creatine kinase (MCK) basal promoter enhanced by variable numbers of upstream MCK E-boxes. The engineered pE3MCK vector, coding a triple tandem of E-Boxes and the truncated MCK promoter, showed twentyfold higher levels of luciferase activation compared with a Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. This newly developed reporter system allowed noninvasive monitoring of myogenic differentiation in a straining bioreactor. Additionally, binding sequences of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs; seed sequences) that are known to be downregulated in myogenesis were ligated as complementary seed sequences into the reporter vector to reduce nonspecific signal background. The insertion of seed sequences improved the signal-to-noise ratio up to 25% compared with pE3MCK. Due to the highly specific, fast, and convenient expression analysis for cells undergoing myogenic differentiation, this reporter system provides a powerful tool for application in skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

  6. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Somik; Yin, Hongshan; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Third Affiliated Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei

    Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response ismore » observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1{sup −/−} mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. - Highlights: • Bmal1 is highly inducible by muscle injury and myogenic stimuli. • Genetic ablation of Bmal1 significantly impairs muscle regeneration. • Bmal1 promotes satellite cell expansion during muscle regeneration. • Bmal1-deficient primary myoblasts display attenuated growth and proliferation.« less

  7. Selenium regulates gene expression of selenoprotein W in chicken skeletal muscle system.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hongfeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Wu, Qiong; Yao, Haidong; Li, Jinlong; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles of mammals and necessary for the metabolism of skeletal muscles. However, its expression pattern in skeletal muscle system of birds is still uncovered. Herein, to investigate the distribution of SelW mRNA in chicken skeletal muscle system and its response to different selenium (Se) status, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to various concentrations of Se as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. In addition, myoblasts were treated with different concentrations of Se in the medium for 72 h. Then the levels of SelW mRNA in skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, thigh muscle) and myoblasts were determined on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 and at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that SelW was detected in all these muscle components and it increased both along with the growth of organism and the differentiation process of myoblasts. The thigh muscle is more responsive to Se intake than the other two skeletal muscle tissues while the optimal Se supplementation for SelW mRNA expression in chicken myoblasts was 10(-7) M. In summary, Se plays important roles in the development of chicken skeletal muscles. To effect optimal SelW gene expression, Se must be provided in the diet and the media in adequate amounts and neither at excessive nor deficient levels.

  8. Caffeine and length dependence of staircase potentiation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Rassier, D E; Tubman, L A; MacIntosh, B R

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle sensitivity to Ca2+ is greater at long lengths, and this results in an optimal length for twitch contractions that is longer than optimal length for tetanic contractions. Caffeine abolishes this length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity. Muscle length (ML) also affects the degree of staircase potentiation. Since staircase potentiation is apparently caused by an increased Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine depresses the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In situ isometric twitch contractions of rat gastrocnemius muscle before and after 10 s of 10-Hz stimulation were analyzed at seven different lengths to evaluate the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In the absence of caffeine, length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was observed, and the degree of potentiation after 10-Hz stimulation showed a linear decrease with increased length (DT = 1.47 - 0.05 ML, r2 = 0.95, where DT is developed tension). Length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was decreased by caffeine when caffeine was administered in amounts estimated to result in 0.5 and 0.75 mM concentrations. Furthermore, the negative slope of the relationship between staircase potentiation and muscle length was diminished at the lower caffeine dose, and the slope was not different from zero after the higher dose (DT = 1.53 - 0.009 ML, r2 = 0.43). Our study shows that length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity in intact skeletal muscle is diminished by caffeine. Caffeine also suppressed the length dependence of staircase potentiation, suggesting that the mechanism of this length dependence may be closely related to the mechanism for length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity.

  9. Hyperthermia increases interleukin-6 in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Welc, Steven S.; Phillips, Neil A.; Oca-Cossio, Jose; Wallet, Shannon M.; Chen, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscles produce and contribute to circulating levels of IL-6 during exercise. However, when core temperature is reduced, the response is attenuated. Therefore, we hypothesized that hyperthermia may be an important and independent stimulus for muscle IL-6. In cultured C2C12 myotubes, hyperthermia (42°C) increased IL-6 gene expression 14-fold after 1 h and 35-fold after 5 h of 37°C recovery; whereas exposure to 41°C resulted in a 2.6-fold elevation at 1 h. IL-6 protein was secreted and significantly elevated in the cell supernatant. Similar but reduced responses to heat were seen in C2C12 myoblasts. Isolated soleus muscles from mice, exposed ex vivo to 41°C for 1 h, yielded similar IL-6 gene responses (>3-fold) but without a significant effect on protein release. When whole animals were exposed to passive hyperthermia, such that core temperature increased to 42.4°C, IL-6 mRNA in soleus increased 5.4-fold compared with time matched controls. Interestingly, TNF-α gene expression was routinely suppressed at all levels of hyperthermia (40.5–42°C) in the isolated models, but TNF-α was elevated (4.2-fold) in the soleus taken from intact mice exposed, in vivo, to hyperthermia. Muscle HSP72 mRNA increased as a function of the level of hyperthermia, and IL-6 mRNA responses increased proportionally with HSP72. In cultured C2C12 myotubes, when heat shock factor was pharmacologically blocked with KNK437, both HSP72 and IL-6 mRNA elevations, induced by heat, were suppressed. These findings implicate skeletal muscle as a “heat stress sensor” at physiologically relevant hyperthermia, responding with a programmed cytokine expression pattern characterized by elevated IL-6. PMID:22673618

  10. Tropomyosin 4 defines novel filaments in skeletal muscle associated with muscle remodelling/regeneration in normal and diseased muscle.

    PubMed

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Schevzov, Galina; Nair-Shaliker, Visalini; Ilkovski, Biljana; Artap, Stanley T; Joya, Josephine E; Kee, Anthony J; North, Kathryn N; Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C

    2008-01-01

    The organisation of structural proteins in muscle into highly ordered sarcomeres occurs during development, regeneration and focal repair of skeletal muscle fibers. The involvement of cytoskeletal proteins in this process has been documented, with nonmuscle gamma-actin found to play a role in sarcomere assembly during muscle differentiation and also shown to be up-regulated in dystrophic muscles which undergo regeneration and repair [Lloyd et al.,2004; Hanft et al.,2006]. Here, we show that a cytoskeletal tropomyosin (Tm), Tm4, defines actin filaments in two novel compartments in muscle fibers: a Z-line associated cytoskeleton (Z-LAC), similar to a structure we have reported previously [Kee et al.,2004], and longitudinal filaments that are orientated parallel to the sarcomeric apparatus, present during myofiber growth and repair/regeneration. Tm4 is upregulated in paradigms of muscle repair including induced regeneration and focal repair and in muscle diseases with repair/regeneration features, muscular dystrophy and nemaline myopathy. Longitudinal Tm4-defined filaments also are present in diseased muscle. Transition of the Tm4-defined filaments from a longitudinal to a Z-LAC orientation is observed during the course of muscle regeneration. This Tm4-defined cytoskeleton is a marker of growth and repair/regeneration in response to injury, disease state and stress in skeletal muscle.

  11. Apoptosis in capillary endothelial cells in ageing skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huijuan; Listrat, Anne; Meunier, Bruno; Gueugneau, Marine; Coudy-Gandilhon, Cécile; Combaret, Lydie; Taillandier, Daniel; Polge, Cécile; Attaix, Didier; Lethias, Claire; Lee, Kijoon; Goh, Kheng Lim; Béchet, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) is a consistent hallmark of ageing. Apoptosis plays an important role in muscle atrophy, and the intent of this study was to specify whether apoptosis is restricted to myofibre nuclei (myonuclei) or occurs in satellite cells or stromal cells of extracellular matrix (ECM). Sarcopenia in mouse gastrocnemius muscle was characterized by myofibre atrophy, oxidative type grouping, delocalization of myonuclei and ECM fibrosis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) indicated a sharp rise in apoptosis during ageing. TUNEL coupled with immunostaining for dystrophin, paired box protein-7 (Pax7) or laminin-2α, respectively, was used to identify apoptosis in myonuclei, satellite cells and stromal cells. In adult muscle, apoptosis was not detected in myofibres, but was restricted to stromal cells. Moreover, the age-related rise in apoptotic nuclei was essentially due to stromal cells. Myofibre-associated apoptosis nevertheless occurred in old muscle, but represented < 20% of the total muscle apoptosis. Specifically, apoptosis in old muscle affected a small proportion (0.8%) of the myonuclei, but a large part (46%) of the Pax7+ satellite cells. TUNEL coupled with CD31 immunostaining further attributed stromal apoptosis to capillary endothelial cells. Age-dependent rise in apoptotic capillary endothelial cells was concomitant with altered levels of key angiogenic regulators, perlecan and a perlecan domain V (endorepellin) proteolytic product. Collectively, our results indicate that sarcopenia is associated with apoptosis of satellite cells and impairment of capillary functions, which is likely to contribute to the decline in muscle mass and functionality during ageing. PMID:24245531

  12. ATP-induced changes in rat skeletal muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Gabdrakhmanov, A I; Khayrullin, A E; Grishin, C H; Ziganshin, A U

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular purine compounds, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine, are involved in regulation of many cell functions, engaging in rapid and long-term cellular processes. The nucleotides, including ATP, exert their extracellular effects by influencing membrane P2 receptors. ATP outside of the cell rapidly is metabolized by the ecto-enzyme system to produce adenosine, which acts on separate adenosine (P1) receptors. Since adenosine and ATP often are functional antagonists, ATP degradation not only limits its effect, but also brings new ligand with different, often opposing, properties. Great variety and widespread of P2 and adenosine receptors in the body emphasize the important physiological and pathophysiological significance of these receptors, and make them very attractive as targets for potential drug action.The existence of several subtypes of P2 and adenosine receptors has been shown in the skeletal muscles. ATP as a co-transmitter is densely packed together with classical neurotransmitters in the presynaptic vesicles of vertebral motor units but until recently ATP was refused to have its own functional role there and was recognized only as a source of adenosine. However, on the eve of the third millennium there appeared data that ATP, released from the nerve ending and acting on presynaptic P2 receptors, suppresses subsequent quantum release of acetylcholine. The final product of its degradation, adenosine, performs a similar inhibitory effect acting on presynaptic adenosine receptors.Despite the fact that the mechanisms of presynaptic inhibitory action of ATP and other purines were studied earlier, the object of those studies was usually neuromuscular synapse of cold-blooded animals. The few studies, in which experiments were carried out on preparations of warm-blooded animals, described the basic effects of purines. These often were guided by the convenience of preparation of the synapses of the diaphragm. We think that those results cannot be

  13. Osmosensation in TRPV2 dominant negative expressing skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Zanou, Nadège; Mondin, Ludivine; Fuster, Clarisse; Seghers, François; Dufour, Inès; de Clippele, Marie; Schakman, Olivier; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Iwata, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Voets, Thomas; Allard, Bruno; Gailly, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Increased plasma osmolarity induces intracellular water depletion and cell shrinkage (CS) followed by activation of a regulatory volume increase (RVI). In skeletal muscle, the hyperosmotic shock-induced CS is accompanied by a small membrane depolarization responsible for a release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools. Hyperosmotic shock also induces phosphorylation of STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). TRPV2 dominant negative expressing fibres challenged with hyperosmotic shock present a slower membrane depolarization, a diminished Ca(2+) response, a smaller RVI response, a decrease in SPAK phosphorylation and defective muscle function. We suggest that hyperosmotic shock induces TRPV2 activation, which accelerates muscle cell depolarization and allows the subsequent Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, activation of the Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter by SPAK, and the RVI response. Increased plasma osmolarity induces intracellular water depletion and cell shrinkage followed by activation of a regulatory volume increase (RVI). In skeletal muscle, this is accompanied by transverse tubule (TT) dilatation and by a membrane depolarization responsible for a release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools. We observed that both hyperosmotic shock-induced Ca(2+) transients and RVI were inhibited by Gd(3+) , ruthenium red and GsMTx4 toxin, three inhibitors of mechanosensitive ion channels. The response was also completely absent in muscle fibres overexpressing a non-permeant, dominant negative (DN) mutant of the transient receptor potential, V2 isoform (TRPV2) ion channel, suggesting the involvement of TRPV2 or of a TRP isoform susceptible to heterotetramerization with TRPV2. The release of Ca(2+) induced by hyperosmotic shock was increased by cannabidiol, an activator of TRPV2, and decreased by tranilast, an inhibitor of TRPV2, suggesting a role for the TRPV2 channel itself. Hyperosmotic shock-induced membrane depolarization was impaired in TRPV2

  14. Osmosensation in TRPV2 dominant negative expressing skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Zanou, Nadège; Mondin, Ludivine; Fuster, Clarisse; Seghers, François; Dufour, Inès; de Clippele, Marie; Schakman, Olivier; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Iwata, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Voets, Thomas; Allard, Bruno; Gailly, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased plasma osmolarity induces intracellular water depletion and cell shrinkage followed by activation of a regulatory volume increase (RVI). In skeletal muscle, this is accompanied by transverse tubule (TT) dilatation and by a membrane depolarization responsible for a release of Ca2+ from intracellular pools. We observed that both hyperosmotic shock-induced Ca2+ transients and RVI were inhibited by Gd3+, ruthenium red and GsMTx4 toxin, three inhibitors of mechanosensitive ion channels. The response was also completely absent in muscle fibres overexpressing a non-permeant, dominant negative (DN) mutant of the transient receptor potential, V2 isoform (TRPV2) ion channel, suggesting the involvement of TRPV2 or of a TRP isoform susceptible to heterotetramerization with TRPV2. The release of Ca2+ induced by hyperosmotic shock was increased by cannabidiol, an activator of TRPV2, and decreased by tranilast, an inhibitor of TRPV2, suggesting a role for the TRPV2 channel itself. Hyperosmotic shock-induced membrane depolarization was impaired in TRPV2-DN fibres, suggesting that TRPV2 activation triggers the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum by depolarizing TTs. RVI requires the sequential activation of STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and NKCC1, a Na+–K+–Cl− cotransporter, allowing ion entry and driving osmotic water flow. In fibres overexpressing TRPV2-DN as well as in fibres in which Ca2+ transients were abolished by the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, the level of P-SPAKSer373 in response to hyperosmotic shock was reduced, suggesting a modulation of SPAK phosphorylation by intracellular Ca2+. We conclude that TRPV2 is involved in osmosensation in skeletal muscle fibres, acting in concert with P-SPAK-activated NKCC1. Key points Increased plasma osmolarity induces intracellular water depletion and cell shrinkage (CS) followed by activation of a regulatory volume increase (RVI). In skeletal muscle, the hyperosmotic shock

  15. Alterations in zebrafish development induced by simvastatin: Comprehensive morphological and physiological study, focusing on muscle

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Guapyassu, Livia; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, has severe collateral effects. We decided to comprehensively study the effects of simvastatin in zebrafish development and in myogenesis, because zebrafish has been used as a model to human diseases, due to its handling easiness, the optical clarity of its embryos, and the availability of physiological and structural methodologies. Furthermore, muscle is an important target of the drug. We used several simvastatin concentrations at different zebrafish developmental stages and studied survival rate, morphology, and physiology of the embryos. Our results show that high levels of simvastatin induce structural damage whereas low doses induce minor structural changes, impaired movements, and reduced heart beating. Morphological alterations include changes in embryo and somite size and septa shape. Physiological changes include movement reduction and slower heartbeat. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Moreover, we quantified the total cell number during zebrafish development and demonstrated a large reduction in cell number after statin treatment. Since we could classify the alterations induced by simvastatin in three distinct phenotypes, we speculate that simvastatin acts through more than one mechanism and could affect both cell replication and/or cell death and muscle function. Our data can contribute to the understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin. PMID:27444151

  16. Alterations in zebrafish development induced by simvastatin: Comprehensive morphological and physiological study, focusing on muscle.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Guapyassu, Livia; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel L

    2016-11-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, has severe collateral effects. We decided to comprehensively study the effects of simvastatin in zebrafish development and in myogenesis, because zebrafish has been used as a model to human diseases, due to its handling easiness, the optical clarity of its embryos, and the availability of physiological and structural methodologies. Furthermore, muscle is an important target of the drug. We used several simvastatin concentrations at different zebrafish developmental stages and studied survival rate, morphology, and physiology of the embryos. Our results show that high levels of simvastatin induce structural damage whereas low doses induce minor structural changes, impaired movements, and reduced heart beating. Morphological alterations include changes in embryo and somite size and septa shape. Physiological changes include movement reduction and slower heartbeat. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Moreover, we quantified the total cell number during zebrafish development and demonstrated a large reduction in cell number after statin treatment. Since we could classify the alterations induced by simvastatin in three distinct phenotypes, we speculate that simvastatin acts through more than one mechanism and could affect both cell replication and/or cell death and muscle function. Our data can contribute to the understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  17. Obstructed metabolite diffusion within skeletal muscle cells in silico.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Mayis K; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2011-12-01

    Using a Monte Carlo simulation technique, we have modeled 3D diffusion of low molecular weight metabolites inside a skeletal muscle cell. The following structural elements are considered: (i) a regular lattice of actin and myosin filaments inside a myofibril, (ii) the membranes of sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria surrounding the myofibrils, (iii) a set of myofibrils inside a skeletal muscle cell encircled by the outer cell membrane, and (iv) an additional set of regular intracellular structures ("macrocompartments") embedded into the cell interior. The macrocompartments are considered to simulate diffusion restrictions because of hypothetical cylindrical structures (16-22 μm in diameter) suggested earlier (de Graaf et al. Biophys J 78: 1657-1664, 2000). This model allowed us to calculate the apparent coefficients of particle diffusion in the radial and axial directions, D(app)(⊥) and D(app)(II), respectively. Particle movements in the axial direction are considered, at first approximation, as unrestricted diffusion (D(app)(II) = const). The apparent coefficient of radial diffusion, D(app)(⊥), decreases with time because of particle collisions with myofilaments and other rigid obstacles. Results of our random walk simulations are in fairly good agreement with experimental data on NMR measurements of restricted radial diffusion of phosphocreatine in white and red skeletal muscles of goldfish (Kinsey et al. NMR Biomed 12:1-7, 1999). Particle reflections from the low-permeable borders of macrocompartments (efficient diameter, D(eff)(MC) ≈ 9.2-10.4 μm) are the prerequisite for agreeing theoretical and experimental data. The low-permeable coverage of hypothetical macrocompartments (99.8% of coverage) provides the main contribution to time-dependent decrease in D(app)(⊥).

  18. Palisade endings and proprioception in extraocular muscles: a comparison with skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Lienbacher, Karoline; Horn, Anja K E

    2012-12-01

    This article describes current views on motor and sensory control of extraocular muscles (EOMs) based on anatomical data. The special morphology of EOMs, including their motor innervation, is described in comparison to classical skeletal limb and trunk muscles. The presence of proprioceptive organs is reviewed with emphasis on the palisade endings (PEs), which are unique to EOMs, but the function of which is still debated. In consideration of the current new anatomical data about the location of cell bodies of PEs, a hypothesis on the function of PEs in EOMs and the multiply innervated muscle fibres they are attached to is put forward.

  19. Effects of the belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation system on lower extremity skeletal muscle activity: Evaluation using positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Numata, Hitoaki; Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Lower-extremity muscle weakness in athletes after lower limb trauma or surgery can hinder their return to sports, and the associated muscle atrophy may lead to deterioration in performance after returning to sports. Recently, belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation (B-SES) which can contract all the lower limb skeletal muscles simultaneously was developed. However, no study has evaluated skeletal muscle activity with B-SES. Since only superficial muscles as well as a limited number of muscles can be investigated using electromyography, we investigated whether positron emission tomography (PET) can evaluate the activity of all the skeletal muscles in the body simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the B-SES system using PET. Twelve healthy males (mean age, 24.3 years) were divided into two groups. The subjects in the control group remained in a sitting position for 10 min, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was intravenously injected. In the exercise group, subjects exercised using the B-SES system for 20 min daily for three consecutive days as a pre-test exercise. On the measurement day, they exercised for 10 min, received an injection of FDG, and exercised for another 10 min. PET-computed tomography images were obtained in each group 60 min after the FDG injection. Regions of interest were drawn in each lower-extremity muscle. We compared each skeletal muscle metabolism using the standardized uptake value. In the exercise group, FDG accumulation in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, quadriceps femoris, sartorius, and hamstrings was significantly higher than the muscles in the control (P < 0.05). Exercise with B-SES increased the skeletal muscle activity of the gluteal muscles as well as the most lower-extremity muscles simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of nandrolone decanoate on skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, R F; Fernandes, K P S; Alves, A N; Teixeira, V P; Silva Junior, J A; Martins, M D; Bussadori, S K; Albertini, R; Mesquita-Ferrari, R A

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on muscle repair and the expression of myogenic regulatory factors following cryoinjury in rat skeletal muscle. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, sham group, cryoinjured group treated with ND and non-injured group treated with ND. Treatment consisted of subcutaneous injections of ND (5 mg/kg) twice a week. After sacrifice, the tibialis anterior muscle was removed for the isolation of total RNA and analysis of myogenic regulatory factors using real-time PCR as well as morphological analysis using the hematoxylin-eosin assay. There was a significant increase in MyoD mRNA after 7 days and in myogenin mRNA after 21 days in the cryoinjured ND group in comparison to other groups in the same period. The morphological analysis revealed no edema or myonecrosis after 7 days as well as no edema or inflammatory infiltrate after 14 days in the cryoinjured ND group. In conclusion the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate can modulate the muscle repair process in rats following cryoinjury by influencing the expression of regulatory myogenic factors and phases of muscle repair. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Adaptations of human skeletal muscle fibers to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, M. Kathleen; Allen, David L.; Mohajerani, Laleh; Greenisen, Michael C.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    1995-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle fibers seem to share most of the same interrelationships among myosin ATPase activity, myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype, mitochondrial enzyme activities, glycolytic enzyme activities, and cross-sectional area (CSA) as found in rat, cat, and other species. One difference seems to be that fast fibers with high mitochrondrial content occur less frequently in humans than in the rat or cat. Recently, we have reported that the type of MHC expressed and the size of the muscle fibers in humans that have spent 11 days in space change significantly. Specifically, about 8% more fibers express fast MHCs and all phenotypes atrophy in the vastus lateralis (VL) post compared to preflight. In the present paper we examine the relationships among the population of myonuclei, MHC type, and CSA of single human muscle fibers before and after spaceflight. These are the first data that define the relationship among the types of MHC expressed, myonuclei number, and myonuclei domain of single fibers in human muscle. We then compare these data to similar measures in the cat. In addition, the maximal torque that can be generated by the knee extensors and their fatigability before and after spaceflight are examined. These data provide some indication of the potential physiologica consequences of the muscle adaptations that occur in humans in response to spaceflight.

  2. Movement measurement of isolated skeletal muscle using imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, David; Zepeda, Hugo; Leija, Lorenzo S.; Sossa, Humberto; de la Rosa, Jose I.

    1997-05-01

    An imaging-microscopy methodology to measure contraction movement in chemically stimulated crustacean skeletal muscle, whose movement speed is about 0.02 mm/s is presented. For this, a CCD camera coupled to a microscope and a high speed digital image acquisition system, allowing us to capture 960 images per second are used. The images are digitally processed in a PC and displayed in a video monitor. A maximal field of 0.198 X 0.198 mm2 and a spatial resolution of 3.5 micrometers are obtained.

  3. Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; DelTatto, Michael; Shansky, Janet; Lemaire, Julie; Chang, Albert; Payumo, Francis; Lee, Peter; Goodyear, Amy; Raven, Latasha

    1996-01-01

    Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myoribers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postmitotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy.

  4. Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; DelTatto, Michael; Shansky, Janet; Lemaire, Julie; Chang, Albert; Payumo, Francis; Lee, Peter; Goodyear, Amy; Raven, Latasha

    1996-01-01

    Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myofibers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid Implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postimtotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy.

  5. Angiotensin II Infusion Induces Marked Diaphragmatic Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rezk, Bashir M.; Yoshida, Tadashi; Semprun-Prieto, Laura; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are characterized by increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels and are often accompanied by significant skeletal muscle wasting that negatively impacts mortality and morbidity. Both CHF and CKD patients have respiratory muscle dysfunction, however the potential effects of Ang II on respiratory muscles are unknown. We investigated the effects of Ang II on diaphragm muscle in FVB mice. Ang II induced significant diaphragm muscle wasting (18.7±1.6% decrease in weight at one week) and reduction in fiber cross-sectional area. Expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1) and of the pro-apoptotic factor BAX was increased after 24 h of Ang II infusion (4.4±0.3 fold, 3.1±0.5 fold and 1.6±0.2 fold, respectively, compared to sham infused control) suggesting increased muscle protein degradation and apoptosis. In Ang II infused animals, there was significant regeneration of injured diaphragm muscles at 7 days as indicated by an increase in the number of myofibers with centralized nuclei and high expression of embryonic myosin heavy chain (E-MyHC, 11.2±3.3 fold increase) and of the satellite cell marker M-cadherin (59.2±22.2% increase). Furthermore, there was an increase in expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, 1.8±0.3 fold increase) in Ang II infused diaphragm, suggesting the involvement of IGF-1 in diaphragm muscle regeneration. Bone-marrow transplantation experiments indicated that although there was recruitment of bone-marrow derived cells to the injured diaphragm in Ang II infused mice (267.0±74.6% increase), those cells did not express markers of muscle stem cells or regenerating myofibers. In conclusion, Ang II causes marked diaphragm muscle wasting, which may be important for the pathophysiology of respiratory muscle dysfunction and cachexia in conditions such as CHF and CKD. PMID:22276172

  6. Branched-chain amino acid-rich diet improves skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Koichi; Kubo, Kaoru; Hino, Kazuo; Kondoh, Yasunori; Nishii, Yasue; Koyama, Noriko; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette smoke induces skeletal muscle wasting by a mechanism not yet fully elucidated. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the skeletal muscles are useful energy sources during exercise or systemic stresses. We investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke and changes in BCAA levels in the plasma and skeletal muscles of rats. Furthermore, the effects of BCAA-rich diet on muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke were also investigated. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats that were fed with a control or a BCAA-rich diet were exposed to cigarette smoke for four weeks. After the exposure, the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in plasma and the skeletal muscles were measured. Cigarette smoke significantly decreased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet increased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles that had decreased by cigarette smoke exposure. In conclusion, skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke was related to the decrease of BCAA levels in the skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet may improve cases of cigarette smoke-induced skeletal muscle wasting.

  7. Soleus muscles of SAMP8 mice provide an accelerated model of skeletal muscle senescence.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Eijnde, Bert O; Ramaekers, Monique; Hespel, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Animal models are valuable research tools towards effective prevention of sarcopenia and towards a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging. We investigated whether senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains provide valid models for skeletal muscle aging studies. Male senescence-prone mice SAMP6 and SAMP8 were studied at age 10, 25 and 60 weeks and compared with senescence-resistant strain, SAMR1. Soleus and EDL muscles were tested for in vitro contractile properties, phosphocreatine content, muscle mass and fiber-type distribution. Declined muscle mass and contractility were observed at 60 weeks, the differences being more pronounced in SAMP8 than SAMP6 and more pronounced in soleus than EDL. Likewise, age-related decreases in muscle phosphocreatine content and type-II fiber size were most pronounced in SAMP8 soleus. In conclusion, typical features of muscular senescence occur at relatively young age in SAMP8 and nearly twice as fast as compared with other models. We suggest that soleus muscles of SAMP8 mice provide a cost-effective model for muscular aging studies.

  8. Effect of spaceflight on skeletal muscle: Mechanical properties and myosin isoform content of a slow muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Baker, Michael J.; Herrick, Robert E.; Tao, Ming; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined changes in contractile, biochemical, and histochemical properties of slow antigravity skeletal muscle after a 6-day spaceflight mission. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: flight and ground-based control. Approximately 3 h after the landing, in situ contractile measurements were made on the soleus muscles of the flight animals. The control animals were studied 24 h later. The contractile measurements included force-velocity relationship, force-frequency relationship, and fatigability. Biochemical measurements focused on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myosin light chain profiles. Adenosinetriphosphatase histochemistry was performed to identify cross-sectional area of slow and fast muscle fibers and to determine the percent fiber type distribution. The force-velocity relationships of the flight muscles were altered such that maximal isometric tension P(sub o) was decreased by 24% and maximal shortening velocity was increased by 14% (P less than 0.05). The force-frequency relationship of the flight muscles was shifted to the right of the control muscles. At the end of the 2-min fatigue test, the flight muscles generated only 34% of P(sub o), whereas the control muscles generated 64% of P(sub o). The flight muscles exhibited de novo expression of the type IIx MHC isoform as well as a slight decrease in the slow type I and fast type IIa MHC isoforms. Histochemical analyses of flight muscles demonstrated a small increase in the percentage of fast type II fibers and a greater atrophy of the slow type I fibers. The results demonstrate that contractile properties of slow antigravity skeletal muscle are sensitive to the microgravity environment and that changes begin to occur within the 1st wk. These changes were at least, in part, associated with changes in the amount and type of contractile protein expressed.

  9. PEDF-derived peptide promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through its mitogenic effect on muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chiang, Yi-Pin; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Show-Li; Hsieh, Jui-Wen; Lan, Yu-Wen; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2015-08-01

    In response injury, intrinsic repair mechanisms are activated in skeletal muscle to replace the damaged muscle fibers with new muscle fibers. The regeneration process starts with the proliferation of satellite cells to give rise to myoblasts, which subsequently differentiate terminally into myofibers. Here, we investigated the promotion effect of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) on muscle regeneration. We report that PEDF and a synthetic PEDF-derived short peptide (PSP; residues Ser(93)-Leu(112)) induce satellite cell proliferation in vitro and promote muscle regeneration in vivo. Extensively, soleus muscle necrosis was induced in rats by bupivacaine, and an injectable alginate gel was used to release the PSP in the injured muscle. PSP delivery was found to stimulate satellite cell proliferation in damaged muscle and enhance the growth of regenerating myofibers, with complete regeneration of normal muscle mass by 2 wk. In cell culture, PEDF/PSP stimulated C2C12 myoblast proliferation, together with a rise in cyclin D1 expression. PEDF induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 in C2C12 myoblasts. Blocking the activity of ERK, Akt, or STAT3 with pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the effects of PEDF/PSP on the induction of C2C12 cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-labeling demonstrated that PEDF/PSP stimulated primary rat satellite cell proliferation in myofibers in vitro. In summary, we report for the first time that PSP is capable of promoting the regeneration of skeletal muscle. The signaling mechanism involves the ERK, AKT, and STAT3 pathways. These results show the potential utility of this PEDF peptide for muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. In Vivo Rodent Models of Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Decreased Use.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Han; Kim, Jang Hoe; Song, Wook

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses plasticity and adaptability to external and internal physiological changes. Due to these characteristics, skeletal muscle shows dramatic changes depending on its response to stimuli such as physical activity, nutritional changes, disease status, and environmental changes. Modulation of the rate of protein synthesis/degradation plays an important role in atrophic responses. The purpose of this review is to describe different features of skeletal muscle adaptation with various models of deceased use. In this review, four models were addressed: immobilization, spinal cord transection, hindlimb unloading, and aging. Immobilization is a form of decreased use in which skeletal muscle shows electrical activity, tension development, and motion. These results differ by muscle group. Spinal cord transection was selected to simulate spinal cord injury. Similar to the immobilization model, dramatic atrophy occurs in addition to fiber type conversion in this model. Despite the fact that electromyography shows unremarkable changes in muscle after hindlimb unloading, decreased muscle mass and contractile force are observed. Lastly, aging significantly decreases the numbers of muscle fibers and motor units. Skeletal muscle responses to decreased use include decreased strength, decreased fiber numbers, and fiber type transformation. These four models demonstrated different changes in the skeletal muscle. This review elucidates the different skeletal muscle adaptations in these four decreased use animal models and encourages further studies.

  11. Autocrine and/or paracrine insulin-like growth factor-I activity in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.

    2002-01-01

    Similar to bone, skeletal muscle responds and adapts to changes in loading state via mechanisms that appear to be intrinsic to the muscle. One of the mechanisms modulating skeletal muscle adaptation it thought to involve the autocrine and/or paracrine production of insulinlike growth factor-I. This brief review outlines components of the insulinlike growth factor-I system as it relates to skeletal muscle and provides the rationale for the theory that insulinlike growth factor-I is involved with muscle adaptation.

  12. Further considerations on in vitro skeletal muscle cell death

    PubMed Central

    Battistelli, Michela; Salucci, Sara; Burattini, Sabrina; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Summary The present review discusses the apoptotic behavior induced by chemical and physical triggers in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, comparing myoblast to myotube sensitivity, and investigating it by means of morphological, biochemical and cytofluorimetric analyses. After all treatments, myotubes, differently from myoblasts, showed a poor sensitivity to cell death. Intriguingly, in cells exposed to staurosporine, etoposide and UVB radiation, apoptotic and normal nuclei within the same fibercould be revealed. The presence of nuclear-dependent “territorial” death domains in the syncytium could explain a delayed cell death of myotubes compared to mononucleated cells. Moreover, autophagic granules abundantly appeared in myotubes after each treatment. Autophagy could protect muscle cell integrity against chemical and physical stimuli, making C2C12 myotubes, more resistant to cell death induction. PMID:24596689

  13. Skeletal Muscle-specific G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Ablation Alters Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mechanics and Enhances Clenbuterol-stimulated Hypertrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Woodall, Benjamin P.; Woodall, Meryl C.; Luongo, Timothy S.; Grisanti, Laurel A.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Elrod, John W.; Koch, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    GRK2, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, plays a critical role in cardiac physiology. Adrenergic receptors are the primary target for GRK2 activity in the heart; phosphorylation by GRK2 leads to desensitization of these receptors. As such, levels of GRK2 activity in the heart directly correlate with cardiac contractile function. Furthermore, increased expression of GRK2 after cardiac insult exacerbates injury and speeds progression to heart failure. Despite the importance of this kinase in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, relatively little is known about the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle function and disease. In this study we generated a novel skeletal muscle-specific GRK2 knock-out (KO) mouse (MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl) to gain a better understanding of the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology. In isolated muscle mechanics testing, GRK2 ablation caused a significant decrease in the specific force of contraction of the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle yet had no effect on the slow-twitch soleus muscle. Despite these effects in isolated muscle, exercise capacity was not altered in MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl mice compared with wild-type controls. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy stimulated by clenbuterol, a β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist, was significantly enhanced in MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl mice; mechanistically, this seems to be due to increased clenbuterol-stimulated pro-hypertrophic Akt signaling in the GRK2 KO skeletal muscle. In summary, our study provides the first insights into the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology and points to a role for GRK2 as a modulator of contractile properties in skeletal muscle as well as β2AR-induced hypertrophy. PMID:27566547

  14. Skeletal Muscle-specific G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Ablation Alters Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mechanics and Enhances Clenbuterol-stimulated Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Benjamin P; Woodall, Meryl C; Luongo, Timothy S; Grisanti, Laurel A; Tilley, Douglas G; Elrod, John W; Koch, Walter J

    2016-10-14

    GRK2, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, plays a critical role in cardiac physiology. Adrenergic receptors are the primary target for GRK2 activity in the heart; phosphorylation by GRK2 leads to desensitization of these receptors. As such, levels of GRK2 activity in the heart directly correlate with cardiac contractile function. Furthermore, increased expression of GRK2 after cardiac insult exacerbates injury and speeds progression to heart failure. Despite the importance of this kinase in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, relatively little is known about the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle function and disease. In this study we generated a novel skeletal muscle-specific GRK2 knock-out (KO) mouse (MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl ) to gain a better understanding of the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology. In isolated muscle mechanics testing, GRK2 ablation caused a significant decrease in the specific force of contraction of the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle yet had no effect on the slow-twitch soleus muscle. Despite these effects in isolated muscle, exercise capacity was not altered in MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl mice compared with wild-type controls. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy stimulated by clenbuterol, a β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) agonist, was significantly enhanced in MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl mice; mechanistically, this seems to be due to increased clenbuterol-stimulated pro-hypertrophic Akt signaling in the GRK2 KO skeletal muscle. In summary, our study provides the first insights into the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology and points to a role for GRK2 as a modulator of contractile properties in skeletal muscle as well as β 2 AR-induced hypertrophy. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Role of TRPC1 channel in skeletal muscle function

    PubMed Central

    Zanou, Nadège; Shapovalov, Georges; Louis, Magali; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Gallo, Chiara; Van Schoor, Monique; Anguish, Isabelle; Cao, My Linh; Schakman, Olivier; Dietrich, Alexander; Lebacq, Jean; Ruegg, Urs; Roulet, Emmanuelle; Birnbaumer, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is reputed not to depend on extracellular Ca2+. Indeed, stricto sensu, excitation-contraction coupling does not necessitate entry of Ca2+. However, we previously observed that, during sustained activity (repeated contractions), entry of Ca2+ is needed to maintain force production. In the present study, we evaluated the possible involvement of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC)1 ion channel in this entry of Ca2+ and investigated its possible role in muscle function. Patch-clamp experiments reveal the presence of a small-conductance channel (13 pS) that is completely lost in adult fibers from TRPC1−/− mice. The influx of Ca2+ through TRPC1 channels represents a minor part of the entry of Ca2+ into muscle fibers at rest, and the activity of the channel is not store dependent. The lack of TRPC1 does not affect intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) transients reached during a single isometric contraction. However, the involvement of TRPC1-related Ca2+ entry is clearly emphasized in muscle fatigue. Indeed, muscles from TRPC1−/− mice stimulated repeatedly progressively display lower [Ca2+]i transients than those observed in TRPC1+/+ fibers, and they also present an accentuated progressive loss of force. Interestingly, muscles from TRPC1−/− mice display a smaller fiber cross-sectional area, generate less force per cross-sectional area, and contain less myofibrillar proteins than their controls. They do not present other signs of myopathy. In agreement with in vitro experiments, TRPC1−/− mice present an important decrease of endurance of physical activity. We conclude that TRPC1 ion channels modulate the entry of Ca2+ during repeated contractions and help muscles to maintain their force during sustained repeated contractions. PMID:19846750

  16. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Greg; Hartzell, Charles R.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and therefore provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75 % satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D flat culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached - cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and non-satellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability since glucose levels in media from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARVS were joined together by cells into three-dimensional aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of

  17. Capillarization in skeletal muscle of rats with cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Degens, Hans; Anderson, Rebecca K; Alway, Stephen E

    2002-02-01

    Exercise intolerance during chronic heart failure (CHF) is localized mainly in skeletal muscle. A decreased capillarization may impair exchange of oxygen between capillaries and muscle tissue and in this way contribute to exercise intolerance. We assessed changes in capillary supply in plantaris and diaphragm muscles of a rat aorta-caval fistula (ACF) preparation, a volume overload model for CHF. An ACF was created under equithesin anesthesia. Plantaris and diaphragm muscles were removed 6 wk postsurgery and examined for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content and capillary supply. Cardiac hypertrophy was 96% (P < 0.002) after ACF. The Type IIb MyHC content of the plantaris muscles increased (33.9 +/- 3.3 vs 49.8 +/- 3.8%; mean +/- SEM) at the expense of Type IIa MyHC (17.6 +/- 1.8 vs 11.2 +/- 1.7%) in ACF rats (P < 0.05). In the diaphragm, the number of Type I (32.1 +/- 2.3 vs 40.6 +/- 2.7%) and IIb fibers (40.6 +/- 1.9 vs 49.6 +/- 3.6%) increased at the expense of Type IIa fibers (26.8 +/- 2.5 vs 9.4 +/- 0.9%) (P < 0.05). The capillary number per fiber did not change, and this indicated that no capillary loss occurred with ACF. Also, the capillary density was maintained in the diaphragm and plantaris muscles of ACF rats. Furthermore, the coupling between fiber type, size, and metabolic type of surrounding fibers, with the capillary supply to a fiber, was maintained in rats with an ACF. The cardiac hypertrophy induced by volume overload seems adequate to prevent atrophy and changes in the microcirculation of limb and diaphragm muscles.

  18. Growth of arterioles in chronically stimulated adult rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Smith, F; Egginton, S; Hudlicka, O

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that capillary growth induced by chronic electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle is accompanied by the growth of small arterioles. Lower limb flexor muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats were stimulated by electrodes implanted in the vicinity of the peroneal nerve at 10 Hz for 8 h/d for 2 and 7 days. Cryostat sections from the proximal, middle, and distal regions of the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) were fluorescently immunolabeled with alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA) and myosin heavy chain (MHC) to identify mature (alpha SMA and MHC-positive) and immature (alpha SMA-positive, MHC-negative) arterioles. The fluorescent derivative of the lectin Griffonia simplicifolia I (GSI) was used to identify all microvessels, including arterioles, capillaries, and venules. The number of vessels positive for GSI or alpha SMA surrounding muscle fibers was similar in all three muscle regions (proximal, middle, distal). The mean values +/- SEM for GSI-positive vessels from all regions were similar in control (4.3 +/- 0.07) and 2-day stimulated (4.7 +/- 0.08) but higher in 7-day stimulated muscles (6.7 +/- 0.1, p < 0.05), thus confirming the previous findings on capillary growth. A similar increase was found in the number of alpha SMA positive vessels < or = 10 microns outer diameter (1.3 +/- 0.09 versus 0.4 +/- 0.03 around muscle fibers in controls). The density of terminal arterioles (< or = 10 microns) was slightly but not significantly higher after 2 days of stimulation (19.5 +/- 4 versus 15.6 +/- 2 profiles/mm2 in control muscles) and significantly higher after 7 days (33 +/- 7). While a similar increase was observed in the density of preterminal arterioles > 10 microns (17 +/- 3 control, 22 +/- 3 at 2 days and 40 +/- 5 at 7 days), the density of MHC-positive vessels muscles stimulated for 7 days was unchanged. Seven-day stimulated muscle also had a fivefold higher density of microvessel profiles < or = 10 microns

  19. Computer-aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  20. Computer aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  1. Tbx15 controls skeletal muscle fibre-type determination and muscle metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kevin Y.; Singh, Manvendra K.; Ussar, Siegfried; Wetzel, Petra; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Kispert, Andreas; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is composed of both slow-twitch oxidative myofibers and fast-twitch glycolytic myofibers that differentially impact muscle metabolism, function and eventually whole-body physiology. Here we show that the mesodermal transcription factor T-box 15 (Tbx15) is highly and specifically expressed in glycolytic myofibers. Ablation of Tbx15 in vivo leads to a decrease in muscle size due to a decrease in the number of glycolytic fibres, associated with a small increase in the number of oxidative fibres. This shift in fibre composition results in muscles with slower myofiber contraction and relaxation, and also decreases whole-body oxygen consumption, reduces spontaneous activity, increases adiposity and glucose intolerance. Mechanistically, ablation of Tbx15 leads to activation of AMPK signalling and a decrease in Igf2 expression. Thus, Tbx15 is one of a limited number of transcription factors to be identified with a critical role in regulating glycolytic fibre identity and muscle metabolism. PMID:26299309

  2. THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM AND THE BIOLOGY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE: MECHANISMS OF MUSCLE WASTING IN CHRONIC DISEASE STATES.

    PubMed

    Delafontaine, Patrice; Yoshida, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are muscle-wasting syndromes associated with aging and with many chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and renal failure. While mechanisms are complex, these conditions are often accompanied by elevated angiotensin II (Ang II). We found that Ang II infusion in rodents leads to skeletal muscle wasting via alterations in insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling, increased apoptosis, enhanced muscle protein breakdown via the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and decreased appetite resulting from downregulation of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides orexin and neuropeptide Y. Furthermore, Ang II inhibits skeletal muscle stem cell proliferation, leading to lowered muscle regenerative capacity. Distinct stem cell Ang II receptor subtypes are critical for regulation of muscle regeneration. In ischemic mouse congestive heart failure model skeletal muscle wasting and attenuated muscle regeneration are Ang II dependent. These data suggest that the renin-angiotensin system plays a critical role in mechanisms underlying cachexia in chronic disease states.

  3. Emerging new tools to study and treat muscle pathologies: genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease.

    PubMed

    Crist, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement, and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because while on the one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best-studied stem cell-dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine-based therapies for skeletal muscle. Future therapeutic strategies should take advantage of rapidly developing technologies enabling the differentiation of skeletal muscle from human pluripotent stem cells, along with precise genome editing, which will go hand in hand with a steady and focused approach to understanding underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease. In this review, I focus on highlighting the recent advances that particularly have relied on developmental and molecular biology approaches to understanding muscle development and stem cell function. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Susceptibility of Skeletal Muscle to Coxsackie A2 Virus Infection: Effects of Botulinum Toxin and Denervation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, Clifford G.; Drachman, Daniel B.; Pestronk, Alan; Narayan, Opendra

    1984-02-01

    Coxsackie A viruses can infect denervated but not innervated mature skeletal muscles. The role of synaptic transmission in preventing susceptibility to Coxsackievirus infection was studied by surgically denervating leg muscles of mice or injecting the muscles with botulinum toxin to block quantal release of acetylcholine. Control muscles were injected with heat-inactivated toxin. Subsequent injection of Coxsackie A2 virus resulted in extensive virus replication and tissue destruction in the denervated and botulinum toxin-treated muscles, while the control muscles showed only minimal changes. This suggests that the susceptibility of skeletal muscle to Coxsackievirus infection is regulated by synaptic transmission.

  5. Prdm1a and miR-499 act sequentially to restrict Sox6 activity to the fast-twitch muscle lineage in the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Wang, XinGang; Ono, Yosuke; Tan, Swee Chuan; Chai, Ruth JinFen; Parkin, Caroline; Ingham, Philip W

    2011-10-01

    Sox6 has been proposed to play a conserved role in vertebrate skeletal muscle fibre type specification. In zebrafish, sox6 transcription is repressed in slow-twitch progenitors by the Prdm1a transcription factor. Here we identify sox6 cis-regulatory sequences that drive fast-twitch-specific expression in a Prdm1a-dependent manner. We show that sox6 transcription subsequently becomes derepressed in slow-twitch fibres, whereas Sox6 protein remains restricted to fast-twitch fibres. We find that translational repression of sox6 is mediated by miR-499, the slow-twitch-specific expression of which is in turn controlled by Prdm1a, forming a regulatory loop that initiates and maintains the slow-twitch muscle lineage.

  6. Changes in muscle fiber contractility and extracellular matrix production during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mendias, Christopher L; Schwartz, Andrew J; Grekin, Jeremy A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Sugg, Kristoffer B

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle can adapt to increased mechanical loads by undergoing hypertrophy. Transient reductions in whole muscle force production have been reported during the onset of hypertrophy, but contractile changes in individual muscle fibers have not been previously studied. Additionally, the extracellular matrix (ECM) stores and transmits forces from muscle fibers to tendons and bones, and determining how the ECM changes during hypertrophy is important in understanding the adaptation of muscle tissue to mechanical loading. Using the synergist ablation model, we sought to measure changes in muscle fiber contractility, collagen content, and cross-linking, and in the expression of several genes and activation of signaling proteins that regulate critical components of myogenesis and ECM synthesis and remodeling during muscle hypertrophy. Tissues were harvested 3, 7, and 28 days after induction of hypertrophy, and nonoverloaded rats served as controls. Muscle fiber specific force (sF o ), which is the maximum isometric force normalized to cross-sectional area, was reduced 3 and 7 days after the onset of mechanical overload, but returned to control levels by 28 days. Collagen abundance displayed a similar pattern of change. Nearly a quarter of the transcriptome changed over the course of overload, as well as the activation of signaling pathways related to hypertrophy and atrophy. Overall, this study provides insight into fundamental mechanisms of muscle and ECM growth, and indicates that although muscle fibers appear to have completed remodeling and regeneration 1 mo after synergist ablation, the ECM continues to be actively remodeling at this time point. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study utilized a rat synergist ablation model to integrate changes in single muscle fiber contractility, extracellular matrix composition, activation of important signaling pathways in muscle adaption, and corresponding changes in the muscle transcriptome to provide novel insight into the basic

  7. Changes in muscle fiber contractility and extracellular matrix production during skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Andrew J.; Grekin, Jeremy A.; Gumucio, Jonathan P.; Sugg, Kristoffer B.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle can adapt to increased mechanical loads by undergoing hypertrophy. Transient reductions in whole muscle force production have been reported during the onset of hypertrophy, but contractile changes in individual muscle fibers have not been previously studied. Additionally, the extracellular matrix (ECM) stores and transmits forces from muscle fibers to tendons and bones, and determining how the ECM changes during hypertrophy is important in understanding the adaptation of muscle tissue to mechanical loading. Using the synergist ablation model, we sought to measure changes in muscle fiber contractility, collagen content, and cross-linking, and in the expression of several genes and activation of signaling proteins that regulate critical components of myogenesis and ECM synthesis and remodeling during muscle hypertrophy. Tissues were harvested 3, 7, and 28 days after induction of hypertrophy, and nonoverloaded rats served as controls. Muscle fiber specific force (sFo), which is the maximum isometric force normalized to cross-sectional area, was reduced 3 and 7 days after the onset of mechanical overload, but returned to control levels by 28 days. Collagen abundance displayed a similar pattern of change. Nearly a quarter of the transcriptome changed over the course of overload, as well as the activation of signaling pathways related to hypertrophy and atrophy. Overall, this study provides insight into fundamental mechanisms of muscle and ECM growth, and indicates that although muscle fibers appear to have completed remodeling and regeneration 1 mo after synergist ablation, the ECM continues to be actively remodeling at this time point. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study utilized a rat synergist ablation model to integrate changes in single muscle fiber contractility, extracellular matrix composition, activation of important signaling pathways in muscle adaption, and corresponding changes in the muscle transcriptome to provide novel insight into the basic

  8. Skeletal Muscle Pathophysiology: The Emerging Role of Spermine Oxidase and Spermidine.

    PubMed

    Cervelli, Manuela; Leonetti, Alessia; Duranti, Guglielmo; Sabatini, Stefania; Ceci, Roberta; Mariottini, Paolo

    2018-02-14

    Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the total body mass. Preserving muscle health and function is essential for the entire body in order to counteract chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Prolonged physical inactivity, particularly among the elderly, causes muscle atrophy, a pathological state with adverse outcomes such as poor quality of life, physical disability, and high mortality. In murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, increased expression of the spermine oxidase (SMOX) enzyme has been found during cell differentiation. Notably, SMOX overexpression increases muscle fiber size, while SMOX reduction was enough to induce muscle atrophy in multiple murine models. Of note, the SMOX reaction product spermidine appears to be involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. It is effective in reactivating autophagy, ameliorating the myopathic defects of collagen VI-null mice. Moreover, spermidine treatment, if combined with exercise, can affect D-gal-induced aging-related skeletal muscle atrophy. This review hypothesizes a role for SMOX during skeletal muscle differentiation and outlines its role and that of spermidine in muscle atrophy. The identification of new molecular pathways involved in the maintenance of skeletal muscle health could be beneficial in developing novel therapeutic lead compounds to treat muscle atrophy.

  9. Skeletal Muscle Pathophysiology: The Emerging Role of Spermine Oxidase and Spermidine

    PubMed Central

    Duranti, Guglielmo; Sabatini, Stefania; Ceci, Roberta; Mariottini, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the total body mass. Preserving muscle health and function is essential for the entire body in order to counteract chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Prolonged physical inactivity, particularly among the elderly, causes muscle atrophy, a pathological state with adverse outcomes such as poor quality of life, physical disability, and high mortality. In murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, increased expression of the spermine oxidase (SMOX) enzyme has been found during cell differentiation. Notably, SMOX overexpression increases muscle fiber size, while SMOX reduction was enough to induce muscle atrophy in multiple murine models. Of note, the SMOX reaction product spermidine appears to be involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. It is effective in reactivating autophagy, ameliorating the myopathic defects of collagen VI-null mice. Moreover, spermidine treatment, if combined with exercise, can affect D-gal-induced aging-related skeletal muscle atrophy. This review hypothesizes a role for SMOX during skeletal muscle differentiation and outlines its role and that of spermidine in muscle atrophy. The identification of new molecular pathways involved in the maintenance of skeletal muscle health could be beneficial in developing novel therapeutic lead compounds to treat muscle atrophy. PMID:29443878

  10. Module-based multiscale simulation of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mathematical modeling of angiogenesis has been gaining momentum as a means to shed new light on the biological complexity underlying blood vessel growth. A variety of computational models have been developed, each focusing on different aspects of the angiogenesis process and occurring at different biological scales, ranging from the molecular to the tissue levels. Integration of models at different scales is a challenging and currently unsolved problem. Results We present an object-oriented module-based computational integration strategy to build a multiscale model of angiogenesis that links currently available models. As an example case, we use this approach to integrate modules representing microvascular blood flow, oxygen transport, vascular endothelial growth factor transport and endothelial cell behavior (sensing, migration and proliferation). Modeling methodologies in these modules include algebraic equations, partial differential equations and agent-based models with complex logical rules. We apply this integrated model to simulate exercise-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The simulation results compare capillary growth patterns between different exercise conditions for a single bout of exercise. Results demonstrate how the computational infrastructure can effectively integrate multiple modules by coordinating their connectivity and data exchange. Model parameterization offers simulation flexibility and a platform for performing sensitivity analysis. Conclusions This systems biology strategy can be applied to larger scale integration of computational models of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, or other complex processes in other tissues under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:21463529

  11. Oligomeric status of the dihydropyridine receptor in aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M; Carlson, B M; Ohlendieck, K

    2000-10-01

    A prominent feature of aging is represented by a decrease in muscle mass and strength. Abnormalities in Ca2+ -regulatory membrane complexes are involved in many muscular disorders. In analogy, we determined potential age-related changes in a key component of excitation-contraction coupling, the dihydropyridine receptor. Immunoblotting of the microsomal fraction from aged rabbit muscle revealed a drastic decline in the voltage-sensing alpha1-subunit of this transverse-tubular receptor, but only marginally altered expression of its auxiliary alpha(2)-subunit and the Na+/K+ -ATPase. A shift to slower fibre type characteristics was indicated by an age-related increase in the slow calsequestrin isoform. Chemical crosslinking analysis showed that the triad receptor complex has a comparable tendency of protein-protein interactions in young and aged muscles. Hence, a reduced expression and not modified oligomerization of the principal dihydropyridine receptor subunit might be involved in triggering impaired triadic signal transduction and abnormal Ca2+ -homeostasis resulting in a progressive functional decline of skeletal muscles. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Multistability inspired by the oblique, pennate architectures of skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidambi, Narayanan; Harne, Ryan L.; Wang, K. W.

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscle mechanics exhibit a range of noteworthy characteristics, providing great inspiration for the development of advanced structural and material systems. These characteristics arise from the synergies demonstrated between muscle's constituents across the various length scales. From the macroscale oblique orientation of muscle fibers to the microscale lattice spacing of sarcomeres, muscle takes advantage of geometries and multidimensionality for force generation or length change along a desired axis. Inspired by these behaviors, this research investigates how the incorporation of multidimensionality afforded by oblique, pennate architectures can uncover novel mechanics in structures exhibiting multistability. Experimental investigation of these mechanics is undertaken using specimens of molded silicone rubber with patterned voids, and results reveal tailorable mono-, bi-, and multi-stability under axial displacements by modulation of transverse confinement. If the specimen is considered as an architected material, these results show its ability to generate intriguing, non-monotonic shear stresses. The outcomes would foster the development of novel, advanced mechanical metamaterials that exploit pennation and multidimensionality.

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle during experimental Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Báez, Alejandra L; Reynoso, María N; Lo Presti, María S; Bazán, Paola C; Strauss, Mariana; Miler, Noemí; Pons, Patricia; Rivarola, Héctor W; Paglini-Oliva, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi invasion and replication in cardiomyocytes and other tissues induce cellular injuries and cytotoxic reactions, with the production of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide, both sources of reactive oxygen species. The myocyte response to oxidative stress involves the progression of cellular changes primarily targeting mitochondria. Similar alterations could be taking place in mitochondria from the skeletal muscle; if that is the case, a simple skeletal muscle biopsy would give information about the cardiac energetic production that could be used as a predictor of the chagasic cardiopathy evolution. Therefore, in the present paper we studied skeletal muscle mitochondrial structure and the enzymatic activity of citrate synthase and respiratory chain complexes I to IV (CI-CIV), in Albino Swiss mice infected with T. cruzi, Tulahuen strain and SGO Z12 and Lucky isolates, along the infection. Changes in the mitochondrial structure were detected in 100% of the mitochondria analyzed from the infected groups: they all presented at least 1 significant abnormality such as increase in their matrix or disorganization of their cristae, which are probably related to the enzymatic dysfunction. When we studied the Krebs cycle functionality through the measurement of the specific citrate synthase activity, we found it to be significantly diminished during the acute phase of the infection in Tulahuen and SGO Z12 infected groups with respect to the control one; citrate synthase activity from the Lucky group was significantly increased (p<0.05). The activity of this enzyme was reduced in all the infected groups during the chronic asymptomatic phase (p<0.001) and return to normal values (Tulahuen and SGO Z12) or increased its activity (Lucky) by day 365 post-infection (p.i.). When the mitochondrial respiratory chain was analyzed from the acute to the chronic phase of the infection through the measurement of the activity of complexes I to IV, the activity of CI

  14. Skeletal muscle and nuclear hormone receptors: implications for cardiovascular and metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron G; Muscat, George E O

    2005-10-01

    Skeletal muscle is a major mass peripheral tissue that accounts for approximately 40% of the total body mass and a major player in energy balance. It accounts for >30% of energy expenditure, is the primary tissue of insulin stimulated glucose uptake, disposal, and storage. Furthermore, it influences metabolism via modulation of circulating and stored lipid (and cholesterol) flux. Lipid catabolism supplies up to 70% of the energy requirements for resting muscle. However, initial aerobic exercise utilizes stored muscle glycogen but as exercise continues, glucose and stored muscle triglycerides become important energy substrates. Endurance exercise increasingly depends on fatty acid oxidation (and lipid mobilization from other tissues). This underscores the importance of lipid and glucose utilization as an energy source in muscle. Consequently skeletal muscle has a significant role in insulin sensitivity, the blood lipid profile, and obesity. Moreover, caloric excess, obesity and physical inactivity lead to skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes. In this context skeletal muscle is an important therapeutic target in the battle against cardiovascular disease, the worlds most serious public health threat. Major risk factors for cardiovascular disease include dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and diabetes. These risk factors are directly influenced by diet, metabolism and physical activity. Metabolism is largely regulated by nuclear hormone receptors which function as hormone regulated transcription factors that bind DNA and mediate the patho-physiological regulation of gene expression. Metabolism and activity, which directly influence cardiovascular disease risk factors, are primarily driven by skeletal muscle. Recently, many nuclear receptors expressed in skeletal muscle have been shown to improve glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Skeletal muscle and nuclear receptors are

  15. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation and skeletal muscle in healthy and muscle-wasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Holeček, Milan

    2017-08-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise. HMB attenuates exercise-induced muscle damage and enhances muscle hypertrophy and strength, aerobic performance, resistance to fatigue, and regenerative capacity. HMB is particularly effective in untrained individuals who are exposed to strenuous exercise and in trained individuals who are exposed to periods of high physical stress. The low effectiveness of HMB in strength-trained athletes could be due to the suppression of the proteolysis that is induced by the adaptation to training, which may blunt the effects of HMB. Studies performed with older people have demonstrated that HMB can attenuate the development of sarcopenia in elderly subjects and that the optimal effects of HMB on muscle growth and strength occur when it is combined with exercise. Studies performed under in vitro conditions and in various animal models suggest that HMB may be effective in treatment of muscle wasting in various forms of cachexia. However, there are few clinical reports of the effects of HMB on muscle wasting in cachexia; in addition, most of these studies evaluated the therapeutic potential of combinations of various agents. Therefore, it has not been possible to determine whether HMB was effective or if there was a synergistic effect. Although most of the endogenous HMB is produced in the liver, there are no reports regarding the levels and the effects of HMB supplementation in subjects with

  16. Second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle tissue and myofibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnola, Paul J.; Mohler, William H.; Plotnikov, Sergey; Millard, Andrew C.

    2006-02-01

    Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging microscopy is used to examine the morphology and structural properties of intact muscle tissue. Using biochemical and optical analysis, we characterize the molecular structure underlying SHG from the complex muscle sarcomere. We find that SHG from isolated myofibrils is abolished by extraction of myosin, but is unaffected by removal or addition of actin filaments. We thus determined that the SHG emission arises from domains of the sarcomere containing thick filaments. By fitting the SHG polarization anisotropy to theoretical response curves, we find an orientation for the harmonophore that corresponds well to the pitch angle of the myosin rod α-helix with respect to the thick filament axis. Taken together, these data indicate that myosin rod domains are the key structures giving rise to SHG from striated muscle. Using SHG imaging microscopy, we have also examined the effect of optical clearing with glycerol to achieve greater penetration into specimens of skeletal muscle tissue. We find that treatment with 50% glycerol results in a 2.5 fold increase in achievable SHG imaging depth. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis shows quantitatively that the periodicity of the sarcomere structure is unaltered by the clearing process. Also, comparison of the SHG angular polarization dependence shows no change in the supramolecular organization of acto-myosin complexes. We suggest that the primary mechanism of optical clearing in muscle with glycerol treatment results from the reduction of cytoplasmic protein concentration and concomitant decrease in the secondary inner filter effect on the SHG signal. The pronounced lack of dependence of glycerol concentration on the imaging depth indicates that refractive index matching plays only a minor role in the optical clearing of muscle.

  17. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonah D.; England, Jonathan H.; Esser, Karyn A.; McCarthy, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23869057

  18. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lee, Jonah D; England, Jonathan H; Esser, Karyn A; McCarthy, John J

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy.

  19. Transplanted hematopoietic stem cells demonstrate impaired sarcoglycan expression after engraftment into cardiac and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lapidos, Karen A; Chen, Yiyin E; Earley, Judy U; Heydemann, Ahlke; Huber, Jill M; Chien, Marcia; Ma, Averil; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2004-12-01

    Pluripotent bone marrow-derived side population (BM-SP) stem cells have been shown to repopulate the hematopoietic system and to contribute to skeletal and cardiac muscle regeneration after transplantation. We tested BM-SP cells for their ability to regenerate heart and skeletal muscle using a model of cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy that lacks delta-sarcoglycan. The absence of delta-sarcoglycan produces microinfarcts in heart and skeletal muscle that should recruit regenerative stem cells. Additionally, sarcoglycan expression after transplantation should mark successful stem cell maturation into cardiac and skeletal muscle lineages. BM-SP cells from normal male mice were transplanted into female delta-sarcoglycan-null mice. We detected engraftment of donor-derived stem cells into skeletal muscle, with the majority of donor-derived cells incorporated within myofibers. In the heart, donor-derived nuclei were detected inside cardiomyocytes. Skeletal muscle myofibers containing donor-derived nuclei generally failed to express sarcoglycan, with only 2 sarcoglycan-positive fibers detected in the quadriceps muscle from all 14 mice analyzed. Moreover, all cardiomyocytes with donor-derived nuclei were sarcoglycan-negative. The absence of sarcoglycan expression in cardiomyocytes and skeletal myofibers after transplantation indicates impaired differentiation and/or maturation of bone marrow-derived stem cells. The inability of BM-SP cells to express this protein severely limits their utility for cardiac and skeletal muscle regeneration.

  20. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes: Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. Exercise improves whole body metabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes, and adaptations to skeletal muscle are essential for this improvement. An acute bout of exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, while chronic exercise training improves mitochondrial…

  1. Long-term skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with hypermetabolism in severely burned children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The long-term impact of burn trauma on skeletal muscle bioenergetics remains unknown. Here, we determined respiratory capacity and function of skeletal muscle mitochondria in healthy individuals and in burn victims for up to two years post-injury. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis...

  2. Effects of exercise on obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jun-Won; No, Mi-Hyun; Park, Dong-Ho; Kang, Ju-Hee; Seo, Dae Yun; Han, Jin; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is known to induce inhibition of glucose uptake, reduction of lipid metabolism, and progressive loss of skeletal muscle function, which are all associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Due to these critical roles of mitochondria, mitochondrial dysfunction results in various diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with impairment of mitochondrial function (e.g., decrease in O2 respiration and increase in oxidative stress) in skeletal muscle. The balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission is critical to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Obesity impairs mitochondrial dynamics, leading to an unbalance between fusion and fission by favorably shifting fission or reducing fusion proteins. Mitophagy is the catabolic process of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria. Obesity reduces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and increases accumulation of dysfunctional cellular organelles, suggesting that mitophagy does not work properly in obesity. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are reported to trigger apoptosis, and mitochondrial apoptosis is induced by obesity in skeletal muscle. It is well known that exercise is the most effective intervention to protect against obesity. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exercise protects against obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle are not clearly elucidated, exercise training attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction, allows mitochondria to maintain the balance between mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy, and reduces apoptotic signaling in obese skeletal muscle. PMID:29200899

  3. Lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltration within skeletal muscle in young girls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fat infiltration within skeletal muscle is strongly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Lower physical activity may be a risk factor for greater fat infiltration within skeletal muscle, although whether lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltrati...

  4. Three-dimensional optical coherence micro-elastography of skeletal muscle tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Lixin; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Wijesinghe, Philip; Pinniger, Gavin J.; Terrill, Jessica R.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    2014-01-01

    In many muscle pathologies, impairment of skeletal muscle function is closely linked to changes in the mechanical properties of the muscle constituents. Optical coherence micro-elastography (OCME) uses optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of tissue under a quasi-static, compressive mechanical load to map variations in tissue mechanical properties on the micro-scale. We present the first study of OCME on skeletal muscle tissue. We show that this technique can resolve features of muscle tissue including fibers, fascicles and tendon, and can also detect necrotic lesions in skeletal muscle from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In many instances, OCME provides better or additional contrast complementary to that provided by OCT. These results suggest that OCME could provide new understanding and opportunity for assessment of skeletal muscle pathologies. PMID:25401023

  5. Optimized dietary strategies to protect skeletal muscle mass during periods of unavoidable energy deficit.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Margolis, Lee M; Orr, Jeb S

    2015-04-01

    Interactions between dietary protein and energy balance on the regulation of human skeletal muscle protein turnover are not well described. A dietary protein intake above the recommended dietary allowance during energy balance typically enhances nitrogen retention and up-regulates muscle protein synthesis, which in turn may promote positive protein balance and skeletal muscle accretion. Recent studies show that during energy deficit, muscle protein synthesis is down-regulated with concomitant increases in ubiquitin proteasome-mediated muscle proteolysis and nitrogen excretion, reflecting the loss of skeletal muscle mass. However, consuming high-protein diets (1.6-2.4 g/kg per day), or high-quality, protein-based meals (15-30 g whey) during energy deficit attenuates intracellular proteolysis, restores muscle protein synthesis, and mitigates skeletal muscle loss. These findings are particularly important for physically active, normal-weight individuals because attenuating the extent to which skeletal muscle mass is lost during energy deficit could prevent decrements in performance, reduce injury risk, and facilitate recovery. This article reviews the relationship between energy status, protein intake, and muscle protein turnover, and explores future research directives designed to protect skeletal muscle mass in physically active, normal-weight adults. © FASEB.

  6. Skeletal Muscle Fascicle Arrangements Can Be Reconstructed Using a Laplacian Vector Field Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hon Fai; Blemker, Silvia S.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscles are characterized by a large diversity in anatomical architecture and function. Muscle force and contraction are generated by contractile fiber cells grouped in fascicle bundles, which transmit the mechanical action between origin and insertion attachments of the muscle. Therefore, an adequate representation of fascicle arrangements in computational models of skeletal muscles is important, especially when investigating three-dimensional muscle deformations in finite element models. However, obtaining high resolution in vivo measurements of fascicle arrangements in skeletal muscles is currently still challenging. This motivated the development of methods in previous studies to generate numerical representations of fascicle trajectories using interpolation templates. Here, we present an alternative approach based on the hypothesis of a rotation and divergence free (Laplacian) vector field behavior which reflects observed physical characteristics of fascicle trajectories. To obtain this representation, the Laplace equation was solved in anatomical reconstructions of skeletal muscle shapes based on medical images using a uniform flux boundary condition on the attachment areas. Fascicle tracts were generated through a robust flux based tracing algorithm. The concept of this approach was demonstrated in two-dimensional synthetic examples of typical skeletal muscle architectures. A detailed evaluation was performed in an example of the anatomical human tibialis anterior muscle which showed an overall agreement with measurements from the literature. The utility and capability of the proposed method was further demonstrated in other anatomical examples of human skeletal muscles with a wide range of muscle shapes and attachment morphologies. PMID:24204878

  7. Immunological changes in human skeletal muscle and blood after eccentric exercise and multiple biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Christer; Nyberg, Pernilla; Engström, Marianne; Sjödin, Bertil; Lenkei, Rodica; Ekblom, Björn; Lundberg, Ingrid

    2000-01-01

    A role of the immune system in muscular adaptation to physical exercise has been suggested but data from controlled human studies are scarce. The present study investigated immunological events in human blood and skeletal muscle by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry after eccentric cycling exercise and multiple biopsies. Immunohistochemical detection of neutrophil- (CD11b, CD15), macrophage- (CD163), satellite cell- (CD56) and IL-1β-specific antigens increased similarly in human skeletal muscle after eccentric cycling exercise together with multiple muscle biopsies, or multiple biopsies only. Changes in immunological variables in blood and muscle were related, and monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells appeared to have governing functions over immunological events in human skeletal muscle. Delayed onset muscle soreness, serum creatine kinase activity and C-reactive protein concentration were not related to leukocyte infiltration in human skeletal muscle. Eccentric cycling and/or muscle biopsies did not result in T cell infiltration in human skeletal muscle. Modes of stress other than eccentric cycling should therefore be evaluated as a myositis model in human. Based on results from the present study, and in the light of previously published data, it appears plausible that muscular adaptation to physical exercise occurs without preceding muscle inflammation. Nevertheless, leukocytes seem important for repair, regeneration and adaptation of human skeletal muscle. PMID:11080266

  8. Effects of Geniposide from Gardenia Fruit Pomace on Skeletal-Muscle Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiou; Li, Yan; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang; Wu, Gangcheng; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Meijuan; Rao, Zhiming; Li, Jin-Long; Wang, Li; Ying, Hao

    2018-05-30

    Geniposide is the main bioactive constituent of gardenia fruit. Skeletal-muscle fibrosis is a common and irreversibly damaging process. Numerous studies have shown that geniposide could improve many chronic diseases, including metabolic syndrome and tumors. However, the effects of geniposide on skeletal-muscle fibrosis are still poorly understood. Here, we found that crude extracts of gardenia fruit pomace could significantly decrease the expression of profibrotic genes in vitro. Moreover, geniposide could also reverse profibrotic-gene expression induced by TGF-β and Smad4, a regulator of skeletal-muscle fibrosis. In addition, geniposide treatment could significantly downregulate profibrotic-gene expression and improve skeletal-muscle injuries in a mouse model of contusion. These results together suggest that geniposide has an antifibrotic effect on skeletal muscle through the suppression of the TGF-β-Smad4 signaling pathway.

  9. Effects of overtraining on skeletal muscle growth and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Xiao, W; Chen, P; Dong, J

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of overtraining on skeletal muscle growth and growth-related gene expression. The rats of overtraining group (OT) and overtraining recovery group (OTR) were subject to 11 experimental weeks of overtraining protocol. It was found that the absolute gastrocnemius muscle wet weight of the OT group was significantly lower than that of the sedentary group (23.6%, P<0.01). Serum creatine kinase was significantly higher in the OT and OTR groups than the sedentary group. CD68, CD163, MyoD, myogenin, IL-1β, TNF-α, IGF-I and MGF mRNA did not change in the OT group as compared with the sedentary group. IL-6 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the OT group increased significantly as compared with the sedentary group (2.17 fold and 1.78 fold, respectively; P<0.01). IL-10 mRNA decreased significantly in the OT group (63%, P<0.01) and the OTR group (77%, P<0.01) compared to the sedentary group. COX-2 mRNA decreased significantly in the OT group (60%, P<0.01) and the OTR group (69%, P<0.01) from the sedentary group. uPA mRNA in the OT group was significantly lower than that in the sedentary group (32%, P<0.01). These data suggest that inflammatory cytokines, COX-2 and uPA may play roles in the inhibition of skeletal muscle growth induced by overtraining. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Declining Skeletal Muscle Function in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Parasoglou, Prodromos; Rao, Smita; Slade, Jill M

    2017-06-01

    The present review highlights current concepts regarding the effects of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in skeletal muscle. It discusses the lack of effective pharmacologic treatments and the role of physical exercise intervention in limb protection and symptom reversal. It also highlights the importance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in providing a mechanistic understanding of the disease and helping develop targeted treatments. This review provides a comprehensive reporting on the effects of DPN in the skeletal muscle of patients with diabetes. It also provides an update on the most recent trials of exercise intervention targeting DPN pathology. Lastly, we report on emerging MRI techniques that have shown promise in providing a mechanistic understanding of DPN and can help improve the design and implementation of clinical trials in the future. Impairments in lower limb muscles reduce functional capacity and contribute to altered gait, increased fall risk, and impaired balance in patients with DPN. This finding is an important concern for patients with DPN because their falls are likely to be injurious and lead to bone fractures, poorly healing wounds, and chronic infections that may require amputation. Preliminary studies have shown that moderate-intensity exercise programs are well tolerated by patients with DPN. They can improve their cardiorespiratory function and partially reverse some of the symptoms of DPN. MRI has the potential to bring new mechanistic insights into the effects of DPN as well as to objectively measure small changes in DPN pathology as a result of intervention. Noninvasive exercise intervention is particularly valuable in DPN because of its safety, low cost, and potential to augment pharmacologic interventions. As we gain a better mechanistic understanding of the disease, more targeted and effective interventions can be designed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extracellular matrix adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kjær, Michael; Magnusson, Peter; Krogsgaard, Michael; Møller, Jens Boysen; Olesen, Jens; Heinemeier, Katja; Hansen, Mette; Haraldsson, Bjarki; Koskinen, Satu; Esmarck, Birgitte; Langberg, Henning

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues enables linking to other tissues, and plays a key role in force transmission and tissue structure maintenance in tendons, ligaments, bone and muscle. ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and metalloprotease activity increase with mechanical loading. This can be shown by determining propeptide and proteinase activity by microdialysis, as well as by verifying the incorporation of infused stable isotope amino acids in biopsies. Local tissue expression and release of growth factors for ECM such as IGF-1, TGF-beta and IL-6 is enhanced following exercise. For tendons, metabolic activity (e.g. detected by positron emission tomography scanning), circulatory responses (e.g. as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and dye dilution) and collagen turnover are markedly increased after exercise. Tendon blood flow is regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated pathways, and glucose uptake is regulated by specific pathways in tendons that differ from those in skeletal muscle. Chronic loading in the form of physical training leads both to increased collagen turnover as well as to some degree of net collagen synthesis. These changes modify the mechanical properties and the viscoelastic characteristics of the tissue, decrease its stress-susceptibility and probably make it more load-resistant. The mechanical properties of tendon fascicles vary within a given human tendon, and even show gender differences. The latter is supported by findings of gender-related differences in the activation of collagen synthesis with exercise. These findings may provide the basis for understanding tissue overloading and injury in both tendons and skeletal muscle. PMID:16637870

  12. Zebrafish Cardiac Muscle Thick Filaments: Isolation Technique and Three-Dimensional Structure

    PubMed Central

    González-Solá, Maryví; AL-Khayat, Hind A.; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. PMID:24739166

  13. Zebrafish cardiac muscle thick filaments: isolation technique and three-dimensional structure.

    PubMed

    González-Solá, Maryví; Al-Khayat, Hind A; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W

    2014-04-15

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ALDH2 restores exhaustive exercise-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiuping; Zheng, Jianheng; Qiu, Jun

    Background: Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is highly expressed in heart and skeletal muscles, and is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde and toxic aldehydes. The cardioprotective effects of ALDH2 during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury have been recognized. However, less is known about the function of ALDH2 in skeletal muscle. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ALDH2 on exhaustive exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. Methods: We created transgenic mice expressing ALDH2 in skeletal muscles. Male wild-type C57/BL6 (WT) and ALDH2 transgenic mice (ALDH2-Tg), 8-weeks old, were challenged with exhaustive exercise for 1 week to induce skeletal muscle injury. Animalsmore » were sacrificed 24 h post-exercise and muscle tissue was excised. Results: ALDH2-Tg mice displayed significantly increased treadmill exercise capacity compared to WT mice. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in mRNA levels of the muscle atrophy markers, Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion in WT skeletal muscles; these effects were attenuated in ALDH2-Tg mice. Exhaustive exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of Beclin1 and Bnip3; the effects of which were mitigated by ALDH2 overexpression. In addition, ALDH2-Tg reversed the increase of an oxidative stress biomarker (4-hydroxynonenal) and decreased levels of mitochondrial antioxidant proteins, including manganese superoxide dismutase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, in skeletal muscle induced by exhaustive exercise. Conclusion: ALDH2 may reverse skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction due to exhaustive exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quality of mitochondria. - Highlights: • Skeletal muscle ALDH2 expression and activity declines during exhaustive exercise. • ALDH2 overexpression enhances physical performance and restores

  15. Deletion of Skeletal Muscle SOCS3 Prevents Insulin Resistance in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Sebastian Beck; O’Neill, Hayley M.; Sylow, Lykke; Honeyman, Jane; Hewitt, Kimberly A.; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Öberg, Lisa; Balendran, Anudharan; Galic, Sandra; van der Poel, Chris; Trounce, Ian A.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to defects in energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression is increased in skeletal muscle of obese humans. SOCS3 inhibits leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and insulin signal transduction in adipose tissue and the liver. Skeletal muscle is an important tissue for controlling energy expenditure and whole-body insulin sensitivity; however, the physiological importance of SOCS3 in this tissue has not been examined. Therefore, we generated mice that had SOCS3 specifically deleted in skeletal muscle (SOCS MKO). The SOCS3 MKO mice had normal muscle development, body mass, adiposity, appetite, and energy expenditure compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Despite similar degrees of obesity when fed a high-fat diet, SOCS3 MKO mice were protected against the development of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance because of enhanced skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt phosphorylation that resulted in increased skeletal muscle glucose uptake. These data indicate that skeletal muscle SOCS3 does not play a critical role in regulating muscle development or energy expenditure, but it is an important contributing factor for inhibiting insulin sensitivity in obesity. Therapies aimed at inhibiting SOCS3 in skeletal muscle may be effective in reversing obesity-related glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. PMID:22961088

  16. [Impacts of physical exercise on remodeling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Takayuki; Nikawa, Takeshi

    The skeletal muscle has high sensitivity for the mechanical stress. Because it is enlarged by training, whereas it is easily withered by lack of exercise. When we exercise, skeletal muscle cells per se sense mechanical loading, and muscular remodeling and the muscular hypertrophy occur. It has been revealed that the intracellular signaling through PGC-1α participates in the remodeling of the skeletal muscle, while PGC-1α4, an isoform of PGC-1α, and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex play important roles in muscular hypertrophy. This review describes the impact of physical exercise gives on the remodeling and hypertrophy of muscle through the signaling.

  17. Phosphorescence quenching microrespirometry of skeletal muscle in situ

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Aleksander S.; Tevald, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an optical method for the evaluation of the oxygen consumption (V̇o2) in microscopic volumes of spinotrapezius muscle. Using phosphorescence quenching microscopy (PQM) for the measurement of interstitial Po2, together with rapid pneumatic compression of the organ, we recorded the oxygen disappearance curve (ODC) in the muscle of the anesthetized rats. A 0.6-mm diameter area in the tissue, preloaded with the phosphorescent oxygen probe, was excited once a second by a 532-nm Q-switched laser with pulse duration of 15 ns. Each of the evoked phosphorescence decays was analyzed to obtain a sequence of Po2 values that constituted the ODC. Following flow arrest and tissue compression, the interstitial Po2 decreased rapidly and the initial slope of the ODC was used to calculate the V̇o2. Special analysis of instrumental factors affecting the ODC was performed, and the resulting model was used for evaluation of V̇o2. The calculation was based on the observation of only a small amount of residual blood in the tissue after compression. The contribution of oxygen photoconsumption by PQM and oxygen inflow from external sources was evaluated in specially designed tests. The average oxygen consumption of the rat spinotrapezius muscle was V̇o2 = 123.4 ± 13.4 (SE) nl O2/cm3·s (N = 38, within 6 muscles) at a baseline interstitial Po2 of 50.8 ± 2.9 mmHg. This technique has opened the opportunity for monitoring respiration rates in microscopic volumes of functioning skeletal muscle. PMID:20971766

  18. Strength Training for Skeletal Muscle Endurance after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, Frederick M.; Prior, Steven J.; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Macko, Richard F.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose Initial studies support the use of strength training (ST) as a safe and effective intervention after stroke. Our previous work shows that relatively aggressive, higher intensity ST translates into large effect sizes for paretic and non-paretic leg muscle volume, myostatin expression, and maximum strength post-stroke. An unanswered question pertains to how our unique ST model for stroke impacts skeletal muscle endurance (SME). Thus, we now report on ST-induced adaptation in the ability to sustain isotonic muscle contraction. Methods Following screening and baseline testing, hemiparetic stroke participants were randomized to either ST or an attention-matched stretch control group (SC). Those in the ST group trained each leg individually to muscle failure (20 repetition sets, 3× per week for 3 months) on each of three pneumatic resistance machines (leg press, leg extension, and leg curl). Our primary outcome measure was SME, quantified as the number of submaximal weight leg press repetitions possible at a specified cadence. The secondary measures included one-repetition maximum strength, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), 10-meter walk speeds, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak). Results ST participants (N = 14) had significantly greater SME gains compared with SC participants (N = 16) in both the paretic (178% versus 12%, P < .01) and non-paretic legs (161% versus 12%, P < .01). These gains were accompanied by group differences for 6MWD (P < .05) and VO2 peak (P < .05). Conclusion Our ST regimen had a large impact on the capacity to sustain submaximal muscle contraction, a metric that may carry more practical significance for stroke than the often reported measures of maximum strength. PMID:27865696

  19. Accelerated skeletal muscle recovery after in vivo polyphenol administration.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Kathryn H; Kruger, Maria J; Smith, Carine

    2012-09-01

    Acute skeletal muscle damage results in fiber disruption, oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated cell-specific contributions to the regeneration process after contusion-induced damage (rat gastrocnemius muscle) with or without chronic grape seed-derived proanthocyanidolic oligomer (PCO) administration. In this placebo-controlled study, male Wistar rats were subjected to PCO administration for 2 weeks, after which they were subjected to a standardised contusion injury. Supplementation was continued after injury. Immune and satellite cell responses were assessed, as well as oxygen radical absorption capacity and muscle regeneration. PCO administration resulted in a rapid satellite cell response with an earlier peak in activation (Pax7⁺, CD56⁺, at 4 h post-contusion) vs. placebo groups (PLA) (P<.001: CD56⁺ on Day 5 and Pax7⁺ on Day 7). Specific immune-cell responses in PLA followed expected time courses (neutrophil elevation on Day 1; sustained macrophage elevation from Days 3 to 5). PCO dramatically decreased neutrophil elevation to nonsignificant, while macrophage responses were normal in extent, but significantly earlier (peak between Days 1 and 3) and completely resolved by Day 5. Anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, increased significantly only in PCO (Day 3). Muscle fiber regeneration (MHC(f) content and central nuclei) started earlier and was complete by Day 14 in PCO, but not in PLA. Thus, responses by three crucial cell types involved in muscle recovery were affected by in vivo administration of a specific purified polyphenol in magnitude (neutrophil), time course (macrophages), or time course and activation state (satellite cell), explaining faster effective regeneration in the presence of proanthocyanidolic oligomers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Passive heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractility in humans.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Wilson, M G; Périard, J D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated passive heat exposure (i.e., acclimation) on muscle contractility in humans. Fourteen nonheat-acclimated males completed two trials including electrically evoked twitches and voluntary contractions in thermoneutral conditions [Cool: 24°C, 40% relative humidity (RH)] and hot ambient conditions in the hyperthermic state (Hot: 44-50°C, 50% RH) on consecutive days in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature was ~36.5°C in Cool and was maintained at ~39°C throughout Hot. Both trials were repeated after 11 days of passive heat acclimation (1 h per day, 48-50°C, 50% RH). Heat acclimation decreased core temperature in Cool (-0.2°C, P < 0.05), increased the time required to reach 39°C in Hot (+9 min, P < 0.05) and increased sweat rate in Hot (+0.7 liter/h, P < 0.05). Moreover, passive heat acclimation improved skeletal muscle contractility as evidenced by an increase in evoked peak twitch amplitude both in Cool (20.5 ± 3.6 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) and Hot (20.5 ± 4.7 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) (+9%, P < 0.05). Maximal voluntary torque production was also increased both in Cool (145 ± 42 vs. 161 ± 36 N·m) and Hot (125 ± 36 vs. 145 ± 30 N·m) (+17%, P < 0.05), despite voluntary activation remaining unchanged. Furthermore, the slope of the relative torque/electromyographic linear relationship was improved postacclimation (P < 0.05). These adjustments demonstrate that passive heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractile function during electrically evoked and voluntary muscle contractions of different intensities both in Cool and Hot. These results suggest that repeated heat exposure may have important implications to passively maintain or even improve muscle function in a variety of performance and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Mechanisms of nascent fiber formation during avian skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, K. M.; Schultz, E.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined two putative mechanisms of new fiber formation in postnatal skeletal muscle, namely longitudinal fragmentation of existing fibers and de novo formation. The relative contributions of these two mechanisms to fiber formation in hypertrophying anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle were assessed by quantitative analysis of their nuclear populations. Muscle hypertrophy was induced by wing-weighting for 1 week. All nuclei formed during the weighting period were labeled by continuous infusion of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog, and embryonic-like fibers were identified using an antibody to ventricular-like embryonic (V-EMB) myosin. The number of BrdU-labeled and unlabeled nuclei in V-EMB-positive fibers were counted. Wing-weighting resulted in significant muscle enlargement and the appearance of many V-EMB+ fibers. The majority of V-EMB+ fibers were completely independent of mature fibers and had a nuclear density characteristics of developing fibers. Furthermore, nearly 100% of the nuclei in independent V-EMB+ fibers were labeled. These findings strongly suggest that most V-EMB+ fibers were nascent fibers formed de novo during the weighting period by satellite cell activation and fusion. Nascent fibers were found primarily in the space between fascicles where they formed a complex anastomosing network of fibers running at angles to one another. Although wing-weighting induced an increase in the number of branched fibers, there was no evidence that V-EMB+ fibers were formed by longitudinal fragmentation. The location of newly formed fibers in wing-weighted and regenerating ALD muscle was compared to determine whether satellite cells in the ALD muscle were unusual in that, if stimulated to divide, they would form fibers in the inter- and intrafascicular space. In contrast to wing-weighted muscle, nascent fibers were always found closely associated with necrotic fibers. These results suggest that wing-weighting is not simply another

  2. Development of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles in the zebrafish: homologies and evolution of these muscles within bony fishes and tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Rui; Hinits, Yaniv; Hughes, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Background During vertebrate head evolution, muscle changes accompanied radical modification of the skeleton. Recent studies have suggested that muscles and their innervation evolve less rapidly than cartilage. The freshwater teleostean zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the most studied actinopterygian model organism, and is sometimes taken to represent osteichthyans as a whole, which include bony fishes and tetrapods. Most work concerning zebrafish cranial muscles has focused on larval stages. We set out to describe the later development of zebrafish head muscles and compare muscle homologies across the Osteichthyes. Results We describe one new muscle and show that the number of mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles found in four day-old zebrafish larvae is similar to that found in the adult. However, the overall configuration and/or the number of divisions of these muscles change during development. For example, the undivided adductor mandibulae of early larvae gives rise to the adductor mandibulae sections A0, A1-OST, A2 and Aω, and the protractor hyoideus becomes divided into dorsal and ventral portions in adults. There is not always a correspondence between the ontogeny of these muscles in the zebrafish and their evolution within the Osteichthyes. All of the 13 mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles present in the adult zebrafish are found in at least some other living teleosts, and all except the protractor hyoideus are found in at least some extant non-teleost actinopterygians. Of these muscles, about a quarter (intermandibularis anterior, adductor mandibulae, sternohyoideus) are found in at least some living tetrapods, and a further quarter (levator arcus palatini, adductor arcus palatini, adductor operculi) in at least some extant sarcopterygian fish. Conclusion Although the zebrafish occupies a rather derived phylogenetic position within actinopterygians and even within teleosts, with respect to the mandibular, hyoid and hypobranchial muscles it

  3. Skeletal muscle metaboreflex in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo J C; Silva, Leonardo R; Maldamer, Vinicius Z; Cipriano, Gerson; Chiappa, Adriana M G; Schuster, Rodrigo; Boni, Victor H F; Grandi, Tatiani; Wolpat, Andiara; Roseguini, Bruno T; Chiappa, Gaspar R

    2017-03-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is affected in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). This study tested the hypothesis that patients with CRF have an altered skeletal muscle metaboreflex. Twenty patients with CRF and 18 healthy subjects of similar age participated in the study. The muscle metaboreflex was determined based on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, calf blood flow and calf vascular resistance (CVR) in response to handgrip exercise. The control of vascular resistance in the calf muscle mediated by the metaboreflex was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve with circulatory occlusion from that without occlusion. Arterial pressure and HR responses during exercise and recovery were similar in two groups of subjects. In the control group, CVR increased during exercise and remained elevated during circulatory occlusion, whereas no significant change was seen in the patients. Thus, the index of the metaboreflex was 7·82 ± 9·57 in the patients versus16·52 ± 14 units in the controls. The findings demonstrate that patients with CRF have a decreased vascular resistance response in the calf during the handgrip exercise, which suggests that CRF condition attenuates this reflex. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The TWEAK-Fn14 system: breaking the silence of cytokine-induced skeletal muscle wasting.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, S; Kumar, A

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of skeletal muscle atrophy, a devastating complication of a large number of disease states and inactivity/disuse conditions, provides a never ending quest to identify novel targets for its therapy. Proinflammatory cytokines are considered the mediators of muscle wasting in chronic diseases; however, their role in disuse atrophy has just begun to be elucidated. An inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), has recently been identified as a potent inducer of skeletal muscle wasting. TWEAK activates various proteolytic pathways and stimulates the degradation of myofibril protein both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, TWEAK mediates the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in response to denervation, a model of disuse atrophy. Adult skeletal muscle express very low to minimal levels of TWEAK receptor, Fn14. Specific catabolic conditions such as denervation, immobilization, or unloading rapidly increase the expression of Fn14 in skeletal muscle which in turn stimulates the TWEAK activation of various catabolic pathways leading to muscle atrophy. In this article, we have discussed the emerging roles and the mechanisms of action of TWEAK-Fn14 system in skeletal muscle with particular reference to different models of muscle atrophy and injury and its potential to be used as a therapeutic target for prevention of muscle loss.

  5. Advances on microRNA in regulating mammalian skeletal muscle development.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Yun; Fu, Liang-Liang; Cheng, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Shu-Hong

    2017-11-20

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of short non-coding RNA, which is about 22 bp in length. In mammals, miRNA exerts its funtion through binding with the 3°-UTR region of target genes and inhibiting their translation. Skeletal muscle development is a complex event, including: proliferation, migration and differentiation of skeletal muscle stem cells; proliferation, differentiation and fusion of myocytes; as well as hypertrophy, energy metabolism and conversion of muscle fiber types. The miRNA plays important roles in all processes of skeletal muscle development through targeting the key factors of different stages. Herein we summarize the miRNA related to muscle development, providing a better understanding of the skeletal muscle development.

  6. Deep Proteomics of Mouse Skeletal Muscle Enables Quantitation of Protein Isoforms, Metabolic Pathways, and Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T.; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms. PMID:25616865

  7. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle: Focus on Insulin Resistance and Exercise Biology

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Atul S.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence, of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle proteomics are challenging. This review describes the technical limitations of skeletal muscle proteomics as well as emerging developments in proteomics workflow with respect to samples preparation, liquid chromatography (LC), MS and computational analysis. These technologies have not yet been fully exploited in the field of skeletal muscle proteomics. Future studies that involve state-of-the-art proteomics technology will broaden our understanding of exercise-induced adaptations as well as molecular pathogenesis of insulin resistance. This could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:28248217

  8. Biomarker evaluation of skeletal muscle toxicity following clofibrate administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Bodié, Karen; Buck, Wayne R; Pieh, Julia; Liguori, Michael J; Popp, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The use of sensitive biomarkers to monitor skeletal muscle toxicity in preclinical toxicity studies is important for the risk assessment in humans during the development of a novel compound. Skeletal muscle toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats was induced with clofibrate at different dose levels for 7 days to compare standard clinical pathology assays with novel skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle biomarkers, gene expression and histopathological changes. The standard clinical pathology assays aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK) enzyme activity were compared to novel biomarkers fatty acid binding protein 3 (Fabp3), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), muscular isoform of CK immunoreactivity (three isoforms CKBB, CKMM, CKMB), parvalbumin (Prv), skeletal troponin I (sTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), CKMM, and myoglobin (Myo). The biomarker elevations were correlated to histopathological findings detected in several muscles and gene expression changes. Clofibrate predominantly induced skeletal muscle toxicity of type I fibers of low magnitude. Useful biomarkers for skeletal muscle toxicity were AST, Fabp3, Myl3, (CKMB) and sTnI. Measurements of CK enzyme activity by a standard clinical assay were not useful for monitoring clofibrate-induced skeletal muscle toxicity in the rat at the doses used in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Zebrafish Cardiac and Slow Skeletal Troponin C Paralogs by MD Simulation and ITC.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Charles M; Rayani, Kaveh; Genge, Christine E; Singh, Gurpreet; Liang, Bo; Roller, Janine M; Li, Cindy; Li, Alison Yueh; Tieleman, D Peter; van Petegem, Filip; Tibbits, Glen F

    2016-07-12

    Zebrafish, as a model for teleost fish, have two paralogous troponin C (TnC) genes that are expressed in the heart differentially in response to temperature acclimation. Upon Ca(2+) binding, TnC changes conformation and exposes a hydrophobic patch that interacts with troponin I and initiates cardiac muscle contraction. Teleost-specific TnC paralogs have not yet been functionally characterized. In this study we have modeled the structures of the paralogs using molecular dynamics simulations at 18°C and 28°C and calculated the different Ca(2+)-binding properties between the teleost cardiac (cTnC or TnC1a) and slow-skeletal (ssTnC or TnC1b) paralogs through potential-of-mean-force calculations. These values are compared with thermodynamic binding properties obtained through isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The modeled structures of each of the paralogs are similar at each temperature, with the exception of helix C, which flanks the Ca(2+) binding site; this region is also home to paralog-specific sequence substitutions that we predict have an influence on protein function. The short timescale of the potential-of-mean-force calculation precludes the inclusion of the conformational change on the ΔG of Ca(2+) interaction, whereas the ITC analysis includes the Ca(2+) binding and conformational change of the TnC molecule. ITC analysis has revealed that ssTnC has higher Ca(2+) affinity than cTnC for Ca(2+) overall, whereas each of the paralogs has increased affinity at 28°C compared to 18°C. Microsecond-timescale simulations have calculated that the cTnC paralog transitions from the closed to the open state more readily than the ssTnC paralog, an unfavorable transition that would decrease the ITC-derived Ca(2+) affinity while simultaneously increasing the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilament. We propose that the preferential expression of cTnC at lower temperatures increases myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity by this mechanism, despite the lower Ca(2+) affinity

  10. Overexpression of Striated Muscle Activator of Rho Signaling (STARS) Increases C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Marita A; Della Gatta, Paul A; Ahmad Mir, Bilal; Kowalski, Greg M; Kloehn, Joachim; McConville, Malcom J; Russell, Aaron P; Lamon, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration depend on the activation of satellite cells, which leads to myocyte proliferation, differentiation and fusion with existing muscle fibers. Skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation are tightly coordinated by a continuum of molecular signaling pathways. The striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) is an actin binding protein that regulates the transcription of genes involved in muscle cell growth, structure and function via the stimulation of actin polymerization and activation of serum-response factor (SRF) signaling. STARS mediates cell proliferation in smooth and cardiac muscle models; however, whether STARS overexpression enhances cell proliferation and differentiation has not been investigated in skeletal muscle cells. We demonstrate for the first time that STARS overexpression enhances differentiation but not proliferation in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. Increased differentiation was associated with an increase in the gene levels of the myogenic differentiation markers Ckm, Ckmt2 and Myh4, the differentiation factor Igf2 and the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) Myf5 and Myf6. Exposing C2C12 cells to CCG-1423, a pharmacological inhibitor of SRF preventing the nuclear translocation of its co-factor MRTF-A, had no effect on myotube differentiation rate, suggesting that STARS regulates differentiation via a MRTF-A independent mechanism. These findings position STARS as an important regulator of skeletal muscle growth and regeneration.

  11. Liver kinase B1 inhibits the expression of inflammation-related genes postcontraction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Moore, Timothy M.; Ebbert, Mark T. W.; McVey, Natalie L.; Madsen, Steven R.; Hallowell, David M.; Harris, Alexander M.; Char, Robin E.; Mackay, Ryan P.; Hancock, Chad R.; Hansen, Jason M.; Kauwe, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle-specific liver kinase B1 (LKB1) knockout mice (skmLKB1-KO) exhibit elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling after treadmill running. MAPK activation is also associated with inflammation-related signaling in skeletal muscle. Since exercise can induce muscle damage, and inflammation is a response triggered by damaged tissue, we therefore hypothesized that LKB1 plays an important role in dampening the inflammatory response to muscle contraction, and that this may be due in part to increased susceptibility to muscle damage with contractions in LKB1-deficient muscle. Here we studied the inflammatory response and muscle damage with in situ muscle contraction or downhill running. After in situ muscle contractions, the phosphorylation of both NF-κB and STAT3 was increased more in skmLKB1-KO vs. wild-type (WT) muscles. Analysis of gene expression via microarray and RT-PCR shows that expression of many inflammation-related genes increased after contraction only in skmLKB1-KO muscles. This was associated with mild skeletal muscle fiber membrane damage in skmLKB1-KO muscles. Gene markers of oxidative stress were also elevated in skmLKB1-KO muscles after contraction. Using the downhill running model, we observed significantly more muscle damage after running in skmLKB1-KO mice, and this was associated with greater phosphorylation of both Jnk and STAT3 and increased expression of SOCS3 and Fos. In conclusion, we have shown that the lack of LKB1 in skeletal muscle leads to an increased inflammatory state in skeletal muscle that is exacerbated by muscle contraction. Increased susceptibility of the muscle to damage may underlie part of this response. PMID:26796753

  12. Inward rectifier potassium currents in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    DiFranco, Marino; Yu, Carl; Quiñonez, Marbella; Vergara, Julio L

    2015-01-01

    Inward rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play a central role in maintaining the resting membrane potential of skeletal muscle fibres. Nevertheless their role has been poorly studied in mammalian muscles. Immunohistochemical and transgenic expression were used to assess the molecular identity and subcellular localization of Kir channel isoforms. We found that Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channels were targeted to both the surface andthe transverse tubular system membrane (TTS) compartments and that both isoforms can be overexpressed up to 3-fold 2 weeks after transfection. Inward rectifying currents (IKir) had the canonical features of quasi-instantaneous activation, strong inward rectification, depended on the external [K+], and could be blocked by Ba2+ or Rb+. In addition, IKir records show notable decays during large 100 ms hyperpolarizing pulses. Most of these properties were recapitulated by model simulations of the electrical properties of the muscle fibre as long as Kir channels were assumed to be present in the TTS. The model also simultaneously predicted the characteristics of membrane potential changes of the TTS, as reported optically by a fluorescent potentiometric dye. The activation of IKir by large hyperpolarizations resulted in significant attenuation of the optical signals with respect to the expectation for equal magnitude depolarizations; blocking IKir with Ba2+ (or Rb+) eliminated this attenuation. The experimental data, including the kinetic properties of IKir and TTS voltage records, and the voltage dependence of peak IKir, while measured at widely dissimilar bulk [K+] (96 and 24 mm), were closely predicted by assuming Kir permeability (PKir) values of ∼5.5 × 10−6 cm s−1 and equal distribution of Kir channels at the surface and TTS membranes. The decay of IKir records and the simultaneous increase in TTS voltage changes were mostly explained by K+ depletion from the TTS lumen. Most importantly, aside from allowing an accurate estimation of

  13. Systems Biology of Skeletal Muscle: Fiber Type as an Organizing Principle

    PubMed Central

    Greising, Sarah M; Gransee, Heather M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle force generation and contraction are fundamental to countless aspects of human life. The complexity of skeletal muscle physiology is simplified by fiber type classification where differences are observed from neuromuscular transmission to release of intracellular Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the resulting recruitment and cycling of cross-bridges. This review uses fiber type classification as an organizing and simplifying principle to explore the complex interactions between the major proteins involved in muscle force generation and contraction. PMID:22811254

  14. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration: are all mitochondria created equal?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R.; Andtbacka, Robert H. I.; Trinity, Joel D.; Hyngstrom, John R.; Garten, Ryan S.; Diakos, Nikolaos A.; Ives, Stephen J.; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, the present study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles were harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53 ± 6 yr), and mitochondrial respiration was assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I + II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (54 ± 1, 39 ± 4, and 15 ± 1 pmol·s−1·mg−1, P < 0.05, respectively). Citrate synthase (CS) activity, an index of mitochondrial density, also fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (222 ± 13, 115 ± 2, and 48 ± 2 μmol·g−1·min−1, P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, when respiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of nonphosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles, such that the respiratory control ratio, state 3/state 2 respiration, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (5.3 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 1.6 ± 0.3 pmol·s−1·mg−1, P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, although oxidative phosphorylation capacity per mitochondrial content in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles suggest all mitochondria are created equal, the contrasting respiratory control ratio and nonphosphorylating respiration highlight the existence of intrinsic functional differences between these muscle mitochondria. This likely influences the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and could potentially alter ROS production. PMID:24906913

  15. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration: are all mitochondria created equal?

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Trinity, Joel D; Hyngstrom, John R; Garten, Ryan S; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Ives, Stephen J; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-08-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, the present study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles were harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53 ± 6 yr), and mitochondrial respiration was assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I + II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (54 ± 1, 39 ± 4, and 15 ± 1 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Citrate synthase (CS) activity, an index of mitochondrial density, also fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (222 ± 13, 115 ± 2, and 48 ± 2 μmol·g(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, when respiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of nonphosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles, such that the respiratory control ratio, state 3/state 2 respiration, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (5.3 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 1.6 ± 0.3 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, although oxidative phosphorylation capacity per mitochondrial content in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles suggest all mitochondria are created equal, the contrasting respiratory control ratio and nonphosphorylating respiration highlight the existence of intrinsic functional differences between these muscle mitochondria. This likely influences the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and could potentially alter ROS production.

  16. Domain cooperativity in the β1a subunit is essential for dihydropyridine receptor voltage sensing in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Anamika; Bhat, Vinayakumar; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Grabner, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) β1a subunit is crucial for enhancement of DHPR triad expression, assembly of DHPRs in tetrads, and elicitation of DHPRα1S charge movement—the three prerequisites of skeletal muscle excitation–contraction coupling. Despite the ability to fully target α1S into triadic junctions and tetradic arrays, the neuronal isoform β3 was unable to restore considerable charge movement (measure of α1S voltage sensing) upon expression in β1-null zebrafish relaxed myotubes, unlike the other three vertebrate β-isoforms (β1a, β2a, and β4). Thus, we used β3 for chimerization with β1a to investigate whether any of the five distinct molecular regions of β1a is dominantly involved in inducing the voltage-sensing function of α1S. Surprisingly, systematic domain swapping between β1a and β3 revealed a pivotal role of the src homology 3 (SH3) domain and C terminus of β1a in charge movement restoration. More interestingly, β1a SH3 domain and C terminus, when simultaneously engineered into β3 sequence background, were able to fully restore charge movement together with proper intracellular Ca2+ release, suggesting cooperativity of these two domains in induction of the α1S voltage-sensing function in skeletal muscle excitation–contraction coupling. Furthermore, substitution of a proline by alanine in the putative SH3-binding polyproline motif in the proximal C terminus of β1a (also of β2a and β4) fully obstructed α1S charge movement. Consequently, we postulate a model according to which β subunits, probably via the SH3–C-terminal polyproline interaction, adapt a discrete conformation required to modify the α1S conformation apt for voltage sensing in skeletal muscle. PMID:23589859

  17. Domain cooperativity in the β1a subunit is essential for dihydropyridine receptor voltage sensing in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Anamika; Bhat, Vinayakumar; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Grabner, Manfred

    2013-04-30

    The dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) β1a subunit is crucial for enhancement of DHPR triad expression, assembly of DHPRs in tetrads, and elicitation of DHPRα1S charge movement--the three prerequisites of skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. Despite the ability to fully target α1S into triadic junctions and tetradic arrays, the neuronal isoform β3 was unable to restore considerable charge movement (measure of α1S voltage sensing) upon expression in β1-null zebrafish relaxed myotubes, unlike the other three vertebrate β-isoforms (β1a, β2a, and β4). Thus, we used β3 for chimerization with β1a to investigate whether any of the five distinct molecular regions of β1a is dominantly involved in inducing the voltage-sensing function of α1S. Surprisingly, systematic domain swapping between β1a and β3 revealed a pivotal role of the src homology 3 (SH3) domain and C terminus of β1a in charge movement restoration. More interestingly, β1a SH3 domain and C terminus, when simultaneously engineered into β3 sequence background, were able to fully restore charge movement together with proper intracellular Ca(2+) release, suggesting cooperativity of these two domains in induction of the α1S voltage-sensing function in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. Furthermore, substitution of a proline by alanine in the putative SH3-binding polyproline motif in the proximal C terminus of β1a (also of β2a and β4) fully obstructed α1S charge movement. Consequently, we postulate a model according to which β subunits, probably via the SH3-C-terminal polyproline interaction, adapt a discrete conformation required to modify the α1S conformation apt for voltage sensing in skeletal muscle.

  18. The Emerging Role of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism as a Biological Target and Cellular Regulator of Cancer-Induced Muscle Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Carson, James A.; Hardee, Justin P.; VanderVeen, Brandon N.

    2015-01-01

    While skeletal muscle mass is an established primary outcome related to understanding cancer cachexia mechanisms, considerable gaps exist in our understanding of muscle biochemical and functional properties that have recognized roles in systemic health. Skeletal muscle quality is a classification beyond mass, and is aligned with muscle’s metabolic capacity and substrate utilization flexibility. This supplies an additional role for the mitochondria in cancer-induced muscle wasting. While the historical assessment of mitochondria content and function during cancer-induced muscle loss was closely aligned with energy flux and wasting susceptibility, this understanding has expanded to link mitochondria dysfunction to cellular processes regulating myofiber wasting. The primary objective of this article is to highlight muscle mitochondria and oxidative metabolism as a biological target of cancer cachexia and also as a cellular regulator of cancer-induced muscle wasting. Initially, we examine the role of muscle metabolic phenotype and mitochondria content in cancer-induced wasting susceptibility. We then assess the evidence for cancer-induced regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, mitophagy, and oxidative stress. In addition, we discuss environments associated with cancer cachexia that can impact the regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. The article also examines the role of cytokine-mediated regulation of mitochondria function regulation, followed by the potential role of cancer-induced hypogonadism. Lastly, a role for decreased muscle use in cancer-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is reviewed. PMID:26593326

  19. Functional and structural adaptations of skeletal muscle to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. R.; Widrick, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Our purpose is to summarize the major effects of space travel on skeletal muscle with particular emphasis on factors that alter function. The primary deleterious changes are muscle atrophy and the associated decline in peak force and power. Studies on both rats and humans demonstrate a rapid loss of cell mass with microgravity. In rats, a reduction in muscle mass of up to 37% was observed within 1 week. For both species, the antigravity soleus muscle showed greater atrophy than the fast-twitch gastrocnemius. However, in the rat, the slow type I fibers atrophied more than the fast type II fibers, while in humans, the fast type II fibers were at least as susceptible to space-induced atrophy as the slow fiber type. Space flight also resulted in a significant decline in peak force. For example, the maximal voluntary contraction of the human plantar flexor muscles declined by 20-48% following 6 months in space, while a 21% decline in the peak force of the soleus type I fibers was observed after a 17-day shuttle flight. The reduced force can be attributed both to muscle atrophy and to a selective loss of contractile protein. The former was the primary cause because, when force was expressed per cross-sectional area (kNm(-2)), the human fast type II and slow type I fibers of the soleus showed no change and a 4% decrease in force, respectively. Microgravity has been shown to increase the shortening velocity of the plantar flexors. This increase can be attributed both to an elevated maximal shortening velocity (V(0)) of the individual slow and fast fibers and to an increased expression of fibers containing fast myosin. Although the cause of the former is unknown, it might result from the selective loss of the thin filament actin and an associated decline in the internal drag during cross-bridge cycling. Despite the increase in fiber V(0), peak power of the slow type I fiber was reduced following space flight. The decreased power was a direct result of the reduced force

  20. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--mechanism of growth hormone stimulation of skeletal muscle growth in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Ge, X

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone, also called somatotropin (ST), is a polypeptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. The major functions of GH include stimulating bone and skeletal muscle growth, lipolysis, milk production, and expression of the IGF-I gene in the liver. Based on these functions, recombinant bovine ST (bST) and recombinant porcine ST (pST) have been used to improve milk production in dairy cows and lean tissue growth in pigs, respectively. However, despite these applications, the mechanisms of action of GH are not fully understood. Indeed, there has been a lot of controversy over the role of liver-derived circulating IGF-I and locally produced IGF-I in mediating the growth-stimulatory effect of GH during the last 15 yr. It is in this context that we have conducted studies to further understand how GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results do not support a role of skeletal muscle-derived IGF-I in GH-stimulated skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results indicate that GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle, in part, by stimulating protein synthesis in muscle through a GH receptor-mediated, IGF-I-independent mechanism. In this review, besides discussing these results, we also argue that liver-derived circulating IGF-I should be still considered as the major mechanism that mediates the growth-stimulatory effect of GH on skeletal muscle in cattle and other domestic animals.

  1. Calcium regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, N I; Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D

    2000-02-24

    Activation of oxidative phosphorylation by physiological levels of calcium in mitochondria from rat skeletal muscle was analysed using top-down elasticity and regulation analysis. Oxidative phosphorylation was conceptually divided into three subsystems (substrate oxidation, proton leak and phosphorylation) connected by the membrane potential or the protonmotive force. Calcium directly activated the phosphorylation subsystem and (with sub-saturating 2-oxoglutarate) the substrate oxidation subsystem but had no effect on the proton leak kinetics. The response of mitochondria respiring on 2-oxoglutarate at two physiological concentrations of free calcium was quantified using control and regulation analysis. The partial integrated response coefficients showed that direct stimulation of substrate oxidation contributed 86% of the effect of calcium on state 3 oxygen consumption, and direct activation of the phosphorylation reactions caused 37% of the increase in phosphorylation flux. Calcium directly activated phosphorylation more strongly than substrate oxidation (78% compared to 45%) to achieve homeostasis of mitochondrial membrane potential during large increases in flux.

  2. Skeletal muscle tissue transcriptome differences in lean and obese female beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Grant, R W; Vester Boler, B M; Ridge, T K; Graves, T K; Swanson, K S

    2013-08-01

    Skeletal muscle is a large and insulin-sensitive tissue that is an important contributor to metabolic homeostasis and energy expenditure. Many metabolic processes are altered with obesity, but the contribution of muscle tissue in this regard is unclear. A limited number of studies have compared skeletal muscle gene expression of lean and obese dogs. Using microarray technology, our objective was to identify genes and functional classes differentially expressed in skeletal muscle of obese (14.6 kg; 8.2 body condition score; 44.5% body fat) vs. lean (8.6 kg; 4.1 body condition score; 22.9% body fat) female beagle adult dogs. Alterations in 77 transcripts was observed in genes pertaining to the functional classes of signaling, transport, protein catabolism and proteolysis, protein modification, development, transcription and apoptosis, cell cycle and differentiation. Genes differentially expressed in obese vs. lean dog skeletal muscle indicate oxidative stress and altered skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Many genes traditionally associated with lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism were not altered in obese vs. lean dogs, but genes pertaining to endocannabinoid metabolism, insulin signaling, type II diabetes mellitus and carnitine transport were differentially expressed. The relatively small response of skeletal muscle could indicate that changes are occurring at a post-transcriptional level, that other tissues (e.g., adipose tissue) were buffering skeletal muscle from metabolic dysfunction or that obesity-induced changes in skeletal muscle require a longer period of time and that the length of our study was not sufficient to detect them. Although only a limited number of differentially expressed genes were detected, these results highlight genes and functional classes that may be important in determining the etiology of obesity-induced derangement of skeletal muscle function. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation

  3. The determinants of transverse tubular volume in resting skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jingwei; Fraser, James A

    2014-01-01

    The transverse tubular (t)-system of skeletal muscle couples sarcolemmal electrical excitation with contraction deep within the fibre. Exercise, pathology and the composition of the extracellular fluid (ECF) can alter t-system volume (t-volume). T-volume changes are thought to contribute to fatigue, rhabdomyolysis and disruption of excitation–contraction coupling. However, mechanisms that underlie t-volume changes are poorly understood. A multicompartment, history-independent computer model of rat skeletal muscle was developed to define the minimum conditions for t-volume stability. It was found that the t-system tends to swell due to net ionic fluxes from the ECF across the access resistance. However, a stable t-volume is possible when this is offset by a net efflux from the t-system to the cell and thence to the ECF, forming a net ion cycle ECF→t-system→sarcoplasm→ECF that ultimately depends on Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Membrane properties that maximize this circuit flux decrease t-volume, including PNa(t) > PNa(s), PK(t) < PK(s) and N(t) < N(s) [P, permeability; N, Na+/K+-ATPase density; (t), t-system membrane; (s), sarcolemma]. Hydrostatic pressures, fixed charges and/or osmoles in the t-system can influence the magnitude of t-volume changes that result from alterations in this circuit flux. Using a parameter set derived from literature values where possible, this novel theory of t-volume was tested against data from previous experiments where t-volume was measured during manipulations of ECF composition. Predicted t-volume changes correlated satisfactorily. The present work provides a robust, unifying theoretical framework for understanding the determinants of t-volume. PMID:25384782

  4. Preliminary Evidence for Adipocytokine Signals in Skeletal Muscle Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, Akihiro; Satoh, Hiroaki; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2018-01-01

    The cross talk between the adipose tissue and insulin target tissues is a key mechanism for obesity-associated insulin resistance. However, the precise role of the interaction between the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue for insulin signaling and glucose uptake is questionable. L6 myocytes were co-cultured with or without 3T3-L1 adipocytes (~5 × 10 3 cells/cm 2 ) up to 24 h. Glucose uptake was evaluated by 2-[ 3 H] deoxyglucose uptake assay. Levels of mRNA expression of Glut1 and Glut4 and mitochondrial enzymes were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Levels of Glut1 and Glut4 protein and phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 and Thr308) were analyzed by immunoblotting. Study 1: co-culture with 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased glucose uptake in dose- and time-dependent manner in L6 myocytes under insulin-untreated conditions. When co-cultured with 3T3-L1 cells, reactive oxygen species production and levels of Glut1 mRNA and protein were increased in L6 cells, while these changes were abrogated and the glucose uptake partially inhibited by antioxidant treatment. Study 2: co-culture with 3T3-L1 adipocytes suppressed insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myocytes. Insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 decreased, which was proportional to 3T3-L1 density. Antioxidant treatment partially reversed this effect. Interactions between skeletal muscle and adipose tissues are important for glucose uptake under insulin-untreated or -treated condition through oxygen stress mechanism.

  5. The effect of malaria and anti-malarial drugs on skeletal and cardiac muscles.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mauro Toledo; Brotto, Marco

    2016-11-02

    Malaria remains one of the most important infectious diseases in the world, being a significant public health problem associated with poverty and it is one of the main obstacles to the economy of an endemic country. Among the several complications, the effects of malaria seem to target the skeletal muscle system, leading to symptoms, such as muscle aches, muscle contractures, muscle fatigue, muscle pain, and muscle weakness. Malaria cause also parasitic coronary artery occlusion. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the effect of malaria disease and the anti-malarial drugs on skeletal and cardiac muscles. Research articles and case report publications that addressed aspects that are important for understanding the involvement of malaria parasites and anti-malarial therapies affecting skeletal and cardiac muscles were analysed and their findings summarized. Sequestration of red blood cells, increased levels of serum creatine kinase and reduced muscle content of essential contractile proteins are some of the potential biomarkers of the damage levels of skeletal and cardiac muscles. These biomarkers might be useful for prevention of complications and determining the effectiveness of interventions designed to protect cardiac and skeletal muscles from malaria-induced damage.

  6. Effects of spaceflight on murine skeletal muscle gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Allen, David L.; Bandstra, Eric R.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Thorng, Seiha; Stodieck, Louis S.; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Morony, Sean; Lacey, David L.; Hammond, Timothy G.; Leinwand, Leslie L.; Argraves, W. Scott; Bateman, Ted A.; Barth, Jeremy L.

    2009-01-01

    Spaceflight results in a number of adaptations to skeletal muscle, including atrophy and shifts toward faster muscle fiber types. To identify changes in gene expression that may underlie these adaptations, we used both microarray expression analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify shifts in mRNA levels in the gastrocnemius from mice flown on the 11-day, 19-h STS-108 shuttle flight and from normal gravity controls. Spaceflight data also were compared with the ground-based unloading model of hindlimb suspension, with one group of pure suspension and one of suspension followed by 3.5 h of reloading to mimic the time between landing and euthanization of the spaceflight mice. Analysis of microarray data revealed that 272 mRNAs were significantly altered by spaceflight, the majority of which displayed similar responses to hindlimb suspension, whereas reloading tended to counteract these responses. Several mRNAs altered by spaceflight were associated with muscle growth, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85α, insulin response substrate-1, the forkhead box O1 transcription factor, and MAFbx/atrogin1. Moreover, myostatin mRNA expression tended to increase, whereas mRNA levels of the myostatin inhibitor FSTL3 tended to decrease, in response to spaceflight. In addition, mRNA levels of the slow oxidative fiber-associated transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1α and the transcription factor PPAR-α were significantly decreased in spaceflight gastrocnemius. Finally, spaceflight resulted in a significant decrease in levels of the microRNA miR-206. Together these data demonstrate that spaceflight induces significant changes in mRNA expression of genes associated with muscle growth and fiber type. PMID:19074574

  7. Botulinum Toxin Induces Muscle Paralysis and Inhibits Bone Regeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Recidoro, Anthony M.; Roof, Amanda C.; Schmitt, Michael; Worton, Leah E.; Petrie, Timothy; Strand, Nicholas; Ausk, Brandon J.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Moon, Randall T.; Gardiner, Edith M.; Kaminsky, Werner; Bain, Steven D.; Allan, Christopher H.; Gross, Ted S.; Kwon, Ronald Y.

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular administration of Botulinum toxin (BTx) has been associated with impaired osteogenesis in diverse conditions of bone formation (e.g., development, growth, and healing), yet the mechanisms of neuromuscular-bone crosstalk underlying these deficits have yet to be identified. Motivated by the emerging utility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a rapid, genetically tractable, and optically transparent model for human pathologies (as well as the potential to interrogate neuromuscular-mediated bone disorders in a simple model that bridges in vitro and more complex in vivo model systems), in this study we developed a model of BTx-induced muscle paralysis in adult zebrafish, and examined its effects on intramembranous ossification during tail fin regeneration. BTx administration induced rapid muscle paralysis in adult zebrafish in a manner that was dose-dependent, transient, and focal, mirroring the paralytic phenotype observed in animal and human studies. During fin regeneration, BTx impaired continued bone ray outgrowth, morphology, and patterning, indicating defects in early osteogenesis. Further, BTx significantly decreased mineralizing activity and crystalline mineral accumulation, suggesting delayed late-stage osteoblast differentiation and/or altered secondary bone apposition. Bone ray transection proximal to the amputation site focally inhibited bone outgrowth in the affected ray, implicating intra- and/or inter-ray nerves in this process. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential to interrogate pathological features of BTx-induced osteoanabolic dysfunction in the regenerating zebrafish fin, define the technological toolbox for detecting bone growth and mineralization deficits in this process, and suggest that pathways mediating neuromuscular regulation of osteogenesis may be conserved beyond established mammalian models of bone anabolic disorders. PMID:24806738

  8. The chaperone activity of 4PBA ameliorates the skeletal phenotype of Chihuahua, a zebrafish model for dominant osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Roberta; Tonelli, Francesca; Ceppi, Ilaria; Biggiogera, Marco; Leikin, Sergey; Fisher, Shannon; Tenedini, Elena; Yorgan, Timur A; Schinke, Thorsten; Tian, Kun; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Forte, Fabiana; Wagener, Raimund; Villani, Simona; Rossi, Antonio; Forlino, Antonella

    2017-08-01

    Classical osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a bone disease caused by type I collagen mutations and characterized by bone fragility, frequent fractures in absence of trauma and growth deficiency. No definitive cure is available for OI and to develop novel drug therapies, taking advantage of a repositioning strategy, the small teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a particularly appealing model. Its small size, high proliferative rate, embryo transparency and small amount of drug required make zebrafish the model of choice for drug screening studies, when a valid disease model is available. We performed a deep characterization of the zebrafish mutant Chihuahua, that carries a G574D (p.G736D) substitution in the α1 chain of type I collagen. We successfully validated it as a model for classical OI. Growth of mutants was delayed compared with WT. X-ray, µCT, alizarin red/alcian blue and calcein staining revealed severe skeletal deformity, presence of fractures and delayed mineralization. Type I collagen extracted from different tissues showed abnormal electrophoretic migration and low melting temperature. The presence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enlargement due to mutant collagen retention in osteoblasts and fibroblasts of mutant fish was shown by electron and confocal microscopy. Two chemical chaperones, 4PBA and TUDCA, were used to ameliorate the cellular stress and indeed 4PBA ameliorated bone mineralization in larva