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Sample records for zebrafish spinal cord

  1. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Subhra Prakash

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the present review we discuss two interrelated events—axonal damage and repair—known to occur after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the zebrafish. Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating axonal tracts and can restore full functionality after SCI. Unlike fish, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is extremely limited. As a consequence of an injury there is very little repair of disengaged axons and therefore functional deficit persists after SCI in adult mammals. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons readily regenerate following injury and hence allow functional recovery both in mammals and fish. A better mechanistic understanding of these three scenarios could provide a more comprehensive insight into the success or failure of axonal regeneration after SCI. This review summarizes the present understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of axonal regeneration, in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, and large scale gene expression analysis is used to focus on different events during regeneration. The discovery and identification of genes involved in zebrafish spinal cord regeneration and subsequent functional experimentation will provide more insight into the endogenous mechanism of myelination and remyelination. Furthermore, precise knowledge of the mechanism underlying the extraordinary axonal regeneration process in zebrafish will also allow us to unravel the potential therapeutic strategies to be implemented for enhancing regrowth and remyelination of axons in mammals. PMID:29721326

  2. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sukla; Hui, Subhra Prakash

    2018-03-01

    In the present review we discuss two interrelated events-axonal damage and repair-known to occur after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the zebrafish. Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating axonal tracts and can restore full functionality after SCI. Unlike fish, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is extremely limited. As a consequence of an injury there is very little repair of disengaged axons and therefore functional deficit persists after SCI in adult mammals. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons readily regenerate following injury and hence allow functional recovery both in mammals and fish. A better mechanistic understanding of these three scenarios could provide a more comprehensive insight into the success or failure of axonal regeneration after SCI. This review summarizes the present understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of axonal regeneration, in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, and large scale gene expression analysis is used to focus on different events during regeneration. The discovery and identification of genes involved in zebrafish spinal cord regeneration and subsequent functional experimentation will provide more insight into the endogenous mechanism of myelination and remyelination. Furthermore, precise knowledge of the mechanism underlying the extraordinary axonal regeneration process in zebrafish will also allow us to unravel the potential therapeutic strategies to be implemented for enhancing regrowth and remyelination of axons in mammals.

  3. Injury-induced ctgfa directs glial bridging and spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Patra, Chinmoy; Dickson, Amy L.; Endo, Toyokazu; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish efficiently regenerate functional nervous system tissue after major spinal cord injury. Whereas glial scarring presents a roadblock for mammalian spinal cord repair, glial cells in zebrafish form a bridge across severed spinal cord tissue and facilitate regeneration, a relatively unexplored process. Here, we performed a genome-wide profiling screen for secreted factors that are upregulated during zebrafish spinal cord regeneration. We find that connective tissue growth factor a (ctgfa) is induced in and around glial cells that participate in initial bridging events. Mutations in ctgfa disrupt spinal cord repair, while transgenic ctgfa overexpression and local human CTGF recombinant protein delivery accelerate bridging and functional regeneration. Our study reveals that CTGF is necessary and sufficient to stimulate glial bridging and natural spinal cord regeneration. PMID:27811277

  4. Zebrafish In Situ Spinal Cord Preparation for Electrophysiological Recordings from Spinal Sensory and Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Rosa L.; Josey, Megan; Ribera, Angeles B.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish, first introduced as a developmental model, have gained popularity in many other fields. The ease of rearing large numbers of rapidly developing organisms, combined with the embryonic optical clarity, served as initial compelling attributes of this model. Over the past two decades, the success of this model has been further propelled by its amenability to large-scale mutagenesis screens and by the ease of transgenesis. More recently, gene-editing approaches have extended the power of the model. For neurodevelopmental studies, the zebrafish embryo and larva provide a model to which multiple methods can be applied. Here, we focus on methods that allow the study of an essential property of neurons, electrical excitability. Our preparation for the electrophysiological study of zebrafish spinal neurons involves the use of veterinarian suture glue to secure the preparation to a recording chamber. Alternative methods for recording from zebrafish embryos and larvae involve the attachment of the preparation to the chamber using a fine tungsten pin12345. A tungsten pin is most often used to mount the preparation in a lateral orientation, although it has been used to mount larvae dorsal-side up4. The suture glue has been used to mount embryos and larvae in both orientations. Using the glue, a minimal dissection can be performed, allowing access to spinal neurons without the use of an enzymatic treatment, thereby avoiding any resultant damage. However, for larvae, it is necessary to apply a brief enzyme treatment to remove the muscle tissue surrounding the spinal cord. The methods described here have been used to study the intrinsic electrical properties of motor neurons, interneurons, and sensory neurons at several developmental stages6789. PMID:28448016

  5. Zebrafish In Situ Spinal Cord Preparation for Electrophysiological Recordings from Spinal Sensory and Motor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Rosa L; Josey, Megan; Ribera, Angeles B

    2017-04-18

    Zebrafish, first introduced as a developmental model, have gained popularity in many other fields. The ease of rearing large numbers of rapidly developing organisms, combined with the embryonic optical clarity, served as initial compelling attributes of this model. Over the past two decades, the success of this model has been further propelled by its amenability to large-scale mutagenesis screens and by the ease of transgenesis. More recently, gene-editing approaches have extended the power of the model. For neurodevelopmental studies, the zebrafish embryo and larva provide a model to which multiple methods can be applied. Here, we focus on methods that allow the study of an essential property of neurons, electrical excitability. Our preparation for the electrophysiological study of zebrafish spinal neurons involves the use of veterinarian suture glue to secure the preparation to a recording chamber. Alternative methods for recording from zebrafish embryos and larvae involve the attachment of the preparation to the chamber using a fine tungsten pin 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 . A tungsten pin is most often used to mount the preparation in a lateral orientation, although it has been used to mount larvae dorsal-side up 4 . The suture glue has been used to mount embryos and larvae in both orientations. Using the glue, a minimal dissection can be performed, allowing access to spinal neurons without the use of an enzymatic treatment, thereby avoiding any resultant damage. However, for larvae, it is necessary to apply a brief enzyme treatment to remove the muscle tissue surrounding the spinal cord. The methods described here have been used to study the intrinsic electrical properties of motor neurons, interneurons, and sensory neurons at several developmental stages 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 .

  6. Small GTPase R-Ras participates in neural tube formation in zebrafish embryonic spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Shinya; Uga, Hideko; Okamoto, Hitoshi; Katada, Toshiaki

    2018-06-27

    Ras related (R-Ras), a small GTPase, is involved in the maintenance of apico-basal polarity in neuroepithelial cells of the zebrafish hindbrain, axonal collapse in cultured murine hippocampal neurons, and maturation of blood vessels in adult mice. However, the role of R-Ras in neural tube formation remains unknown. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs), we found that in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos, the lumen was formed bilaterally in rras morphants, whereas it was formed at the midline in control embryos. As AMO can cause off-target effects, we generated rras mutant zebrafish lines using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Although these rras mutant embryos did not have a bilateral lumen in the spinal cord, the following findings suggest that the phenotype is unlikely due to an off-target effect of rras AMO: 1) The rras morphant phenotype was rescued by an injection of AMO-resistant rras mRNA, and 2) a bilaterally segregated spinal cord was not observed in rras mutant embryos injected with rras AMO. The results suggest that the function of other ras family genes may be redundant in rras mutants. Previous research reported a bilaterally formed lumen in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos with a mutation in a planar cell polarity (PCP) gene, van gogh-like 2 (vangl2). In the present study, in cultured cells, R-Ras was co-immunoprecipitated with Vangl2 but not with another PCP regulator, Pricke1. Interestingly, the interaction between R-Ras and Vangl2 was stronger in guanine-nucleotide free point mutants of R-Ras than in wild-type or constitutively active (GTP-bound) forms of R-Ras. R-Ras may regulate neural tube formation in cooperation with Vangl2 in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Proliferating Neural Progenitors after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Subhra Prakash; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Ghosh, Sukla

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish can repair their injured brain and spinal cord after injury unlike adult mammalian central nervous system. Any injury to zebrafish spinal cord would lead to increased proliferation and neurogenesis. There are presences of proliferating progenitors from which both neuronal and glial loss can be reversed by appropriately generating new neurons and glia. We have demonstrated the presence of multiple progenitors, which are different types of proliferating populations like Sox2+ neural progenitor, A2B5+ astrocyte/ glial progenitor, NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor, radial glia and Schwann cell like progenitor. We analyzed the expression levels of two common markers of dedifferentiation like msx-b and vimentin during regeneration along with some of the pluripotency associated factors to explore the possible role of these two processes. Among the several key factors related to pluripotency, pou5f1 and sox2 are upregulated during regeneration and associated with activation of neural progenitor cells. Uncovering the molecular mechanism for endogenous regeneration of adult zebrafish spinal cord would give us more clues on important targets for future therapeutic approach in mammalian spinal cord repair and regeneration. PMID:26630262

  8. Zebrafish transgenic constructs label specific neurons in Xenopus laevis spinal cord and identify frog V0v spinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Morales, José L; Martinez-De Luna, Reyna I; Zuber, Michael E; Roberts, Alan; Lewis, Katharine E

    2017-09-01

    A correctly functioning spinal cord is crucial for locomotion and communication between body and brain but there are fundamental gaps in our knowledge of how spinal neuronal circuitry is established and functions. To understand the genetic program that regulates specification and functions of this circuitry, we need to connect neuronal molecular phenotypes with physiological analyses. Studies using Xenopus laevis tadpoles have increased our understanding of spinal cord neuronal physiology and function, particularly in locomotor circuitry. However, the X. laevis tetraploid genome and long generation time make it difficult to investigate how neurons are specified. The opacity of X. laevis embryos also makes it hard to connect functional classes of neurons and the genes that they express. We demonstrate here that Tol2 transgenic constructs using zebrafish enhancers that drive expression in specific zebrafish spinal neurons label equivalent neurons in X. laevis and that the incorporation of a Gal4:UAS amplification cassette enables cells to be observed in live X. laevis tadpoles. This technique should enable the molecular phenotypes, morphologies and physiologies of distinct X. laevis spinal neurons to be examined together in vivo. We have used an islet1 enhancer to label Rohon-Beard sensory neurons and evx enhancers to identify V0v neurons, for the first time, in X. laevis spinal cord. Our work demonstrates the homology of spinal cord circuitry in zebrafish and X. laevis, suggesting that future work could combine their relative strengths to elucidate a more complete picture of how vertebrate spinal cord neurons are specified, and function to generate behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1007-1020, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dissection and lateral mounting of zebrafish embryos: analysis of spinal cord development.

    PubMed

    Beck, Aaron P; Watt, Roland M; Bonner, Jennifer

    2014-02-28

    The zebrafish spinal cord is an effective investigative model for nervous system research for several reasons. First, genetic, transgenic and gene knockdown approaches can be utilized to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying nervous system development. Second, large clutches of developmentally synchronized embryos provide large experimental sample sizes. Third, the optical clarity of the zebrafish embryo permits researchers to visualize progenitor, glial, and neuronal populations. Although zebrafish embryos are transparent, specimen thickness can impede effective microscopic visualization. One reason for this is the tandem development of the spinal cord and overlying somite tissue. Another reason is the large yolk ball, which is still present during periods of early neurogenesis. In this article, we demonstrate microdissection and removal of the yolk in fixed embryos, which allows microscopic visualization while preserving surrounding somite tissue. We also demonstrate semipermanent mounting of zebrafish embryos. This permits observation of neurodevelopment in the dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior axes, as it preserves the three-dimensionality of the tissue.

  10. Dissection and Lateral Mounting of Zebrafish Embryos: Analysis of Spinal Cord Development

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Aaron P.; Watt, Roland M.; Bonner, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish spinal cord is an effective investigative model for nervous system research for several reasons. First, genetic, transgenic and gene knockdown approaches can be utilized to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying nervous system development. Second, large clutches of developmentally synchronized embryos provide large experimental sample sizes. Third, the optical clarity of the zebrafish embryo permits researchers to visualize progenitor, glial, and neuronal populations. Although zebrafish embryos are transparent, specimen thickness can impede effective microscopic visualization. One reason for this is the tandem development of the spinal cord and overlying somite tissue. Another reason is the large yolk ball, which is still present during periods of early neurogenesis. In this article, we demonstrate microdissection and removal of the yolk in fixed embryos, which allows microscopic visualization while preserving surrounding somite tissue. We also demonstrate semipermanent mounting of zebrafish embryos. This permits observation of neurodevelopment in the dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior axes, as it preserves the three-dimensionality of the tissue. PMID:24637734

  11. Intradiencephalon injection of histamine inhibited the recovery of locomotor function of spinal cord injured zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Bing; Zhao, Hou-De; Wang, Lin-Fang; Sun, Meng-Fei; Zhu, Ying-Li; Wu, Yi-Bo; Xu, Yi-Da; Peng, Shi-Xiao; Cui, Chun; Shen, Yan-Qin

    2017-07-29

    Human spinal cord injury (SCI) usually causes irreversible disability beneath the injured site due to poor neural regeneration. On the contrary, zebrafish show significant regenerative ability after SCI, thus is usually worked as an animal model for studying neuroregeneration. Most of the previous SCI studies focused on the local site of SCI, the supraspinal-derived signals were rarely mentioned. Here we showed that intradiencephalon injection of histamine (HA) inhibited the locomotor recovery in adult zebrafish post-SCI. Immunofluorescence results showed that intradiencephalon HA administration increased the activated microglia 3 days post injury (dpi), promoted the proliferation of radial glial cells at 7 dpi and affected the morphology of radial glial cells at 11 dpi. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results showed that intradiencephalon HA administration also reduced the expression of neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1) at the lesion site, however, had no effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta. Hence, our data suggested that exogenous intradiencephalon HA retarded locomotor recovery in spinal cord injured zebrafish via modulating the repair microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. E2F4 Promotes Neuronal Regeneration and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Shota; Nishimura, Yuhei; Hayakawa, Yuka; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Okabe, Shiko; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Mammals exhibit poor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), whereas non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit significant spontaneous recovery after SCI. The mechanisms underlying this difference have not been fully elucidated; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate these mechanisms. Using comparative transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that genes related to cell cycle were significantly enriched in the genes specifically dysregulated in zebrafish SCI. Most of the cell cycle-related genes dysregulated in zebrafish SCI were down-regulated, possibly through activation of e2f4. Using a larval zebrafish model of SCI, we demonstrated that the recovery of locomotive function and neuronal regeneration after SCI were significantly inhibited in zebrafish treated with an E2F4 inhibitor. These results suggest that activation of e2f4 after SCI may be responsible, at least in part, for the significant recovery in zebrafish. This provides novel insight into the lack of recovery after SCI in mammals and informs potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27242526

  13. Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the spinal cord. These attachments cause an abnormal stretching of the spinal cord. The course of the ... the spinal cord. These attachments cause an abnormal stretching of the spinal cord. The course of the ...

  14. Modeling spinal cord biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.

  15. Spinal cord trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oh's Intensive Care Manual . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 78. Bryce TN. Spinal cord injury. ... Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 49. Dalzell K, Nouri A, Fehlings ...

  16. Spinal Cord Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal muscular atrophy Symptoms vary but might include pain, numbness, loss of sensation and muscle weakness. These symptoms can occur around the spinal cord, and also in other areas such as your arms and legs. Treatments often include medicines and surgery.

  17. Living with Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Spinal Cord Injury A spinal cord injury (SCI) can result from trauma, such as a motor ... these injuries occur in men. A person with SCI typically has some paralysis and decreased or loss ...

  18. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; hide

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  19. Reduce, reuse, recycle - Developmental signals in spinal cord regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Marcos Julian; Mysiak, Karolina S; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2017-12-01

    Anamniotes, fishes and amphibians, have the capacity to regenerate spinal cord tissue after injury, generating new neurons that mature and integrate into the spinal circuitry. Elucidating the molecular signals that promote this regeneration is a fundamental question in regeneration research. Model systems, such as salamanders and larval and adult zebrafish are used to analyse successful regeneration. This shows that many developmental signals, such as Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP), Wnt, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Retinoic Acid (RA) and neurotransmitters are redeployed during regeneration and activate resident spinal progenitor cells. Here we compare the roles of these signals in spinal cord development and regeneration of the much larger and fully patterned adult spinal cord. Understanding how developmental signalling systems are reactivated in successfully regenerating species may ultimately lead to ways to reactivate similar systems in mammalian progenitor cells, which do not show neurogenesis after spinal injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Expression of ALS/FTD-linked mutant CCNF in zebrafish leads to increased cell death in the spinal cord and an aberrant motor phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Alison L; Don, Emily K; Rayner, Stephanie L; Lee, Albert; Laird, Angela S; Watchon, Maxinne; Winnick, Claire; Tarr, Ingrid S; Morsch, Marco; Fifita, Jennifer A; Gwee, Serene S L; Formella, Isabel; Hortle, Elinor; Yuan, Kristy C; Molloy, Mark P; Williams, Kelly L; Nicholson, Garth A; Chung, Roger S; Blair, Ian P; Cole, Nicholas J

    2017-07-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Approximately 10% of cases have a known family history of ALS and disease-linked mutations in multiple genes have been identified. ALS-linked mutations in CCNF were recently reported, however the pathogenic mechanisms associated with these mutations are yet to be established. To investigate possible disease mechanisms, we developed in vitro and in vivo models based on an ALS-linked missense mutation in CCNF. Proteomic analysis of the in vitro models identified the disruption of several cellular pathways in the mutant model, including caspase-3 mediated cell death. Transient overexpression of human CCNF in zebrafish embryos supported this finding, with fish expressing the mutant protein found to have increased levels of cleaved (activated) caspase-3 and increased cell death in the spinal cord. The mutant CCNF fish also developed a motor neuron axonopathy consisting of shortened primary motor axons and increased frequency of aberrant axonal branching. Importantly, we demonstrated a significant correlation between the severity of the CCNF-induced axonopathy and a reduced motor response to a light stimulus (photomotor response). This is the first report of an ALS-linked CCNF mutation in vivo and taken together with the in vitro model identifies the disruption of cell death pathways as a significant consequence of this mutation. Additionally, this study presents a valuable new tool for use in ongoing studies investigating the pathobiology of ALS-linked CCNF mutations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Spinal cord repair in MS

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarelli, O.; Altmann, D. R.; McLean, M. A.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C. A.; Wimpey, K.; Miller, D. H.; Thompson, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanisms of spinal cord repair and their relative contribution to clinical recovery in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) after a cervical cord relapse, using spinal cord 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and volumetric imaging. Methods: Fourteen patients with MS and 13 controls underwent spinal cord imaging at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months. N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) concentration, which reflects axonal count and metabolism in mitochondria, and the cord cross-sectional area, which indicates axonal count, were measured in the affected cervical region. Mixed effect linear regression models investigated the temporal evolution of these measures and their association with clinical changes. Ordinal logistic regressions identified predictors of recovery. Results: Patients who recovered showed a sustained increase in NAA after 1 month. In the whole patient group, a greater increase of NAA after 1 month was associated with greater recovery. Patients showed a significant decline in cord area during follow-up, which did not correlate with clinical changes. A worse recovery was predicted by a longer disease duration at study entry. Conclusions: The partial recovery of N-acetyl-aspartate levels after the acute event, which is concurrent with a decline in cord cross-sectional area, may be driven by increased axonal mitochondrial metabolism. This possible repair mechanism is associated with clinical recovery, and is less efficient in patients with longer disease duration. These insights into the mechanisms of spinal cord repair highlight the need to extend spinal cord magnetic resonance spectroscopy to other spinal cord disorders, and explore therapies that enhance recovery by modulating mitochondrial activity. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; EDSS = Expanded Disability Status Scale; FOV = field of view; MR = magnetic resonance; MRS = magnetic resonance spectroscopy; MS = multiple sclerosis; NAA = N-acetyl-aspartate; SC = spinal

  2. Spinal cord injury - Symptoms and causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the leading cause of spinal cord injuries, accounting for almost half of new spinal cord injuries ... address these problems if they affect you. Respiratory system. Your injury may make it more difficult to ...

  3. Management of chronic spinal cord dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Gary M; Ganguly, Karunesh

    2015-02-01

    Both acute and chronic spinal cord disorders present multisystem management problems to the clinician. This article highlights key issues associated with chronic spinal cord dysfunction. Advances in symptomatic management for chronic spinal cord dysfunction include use of botulinum toxin to manage detrusor hyperreflexia, pregabalin for management of neuropathic pain, and intensive locomotor training for improved walking ability in incomplete spinal cord injuries. The care of spinal cord dysfunction has advanced significantly over the past 2 decades. Management and treatment of neurologic and non-neurologic complications of chronic myelopathies ensure that each patient will be able to maximize their functional independence and quality of life.

  4. Spinal cord abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 42. Kusuma S, Klineberg EO. Spinal infections: diagnosis and treatment of discitis, ... by: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard ...

  5. Spinal cord injury arising in anaesthesia practice.

    PubMed

    Hewson, D W; Bedforth, N M; Hardman, J G

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury arising during anaesthetic practice is a rare event, but one that carries a significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury. We will then discuss injuries relating to patient position, spinal cord hypoperfusion and neuraxial techniques. The most serious causes of spinal cord injury - vertebral canal haematoma, spinal epidural abscess, meningitis and adhesive arachnoiditis - will be discussed in turn. For each condition, we draw attention to practical, evidence-based measures clinicians can undertake to reduce their incidence, or mitigate their severity. Finally, we will discuss transient neurological symptoms. Some cases of spinal cord injury during anaesthesia can be ascribed to anaesthesia itself, arising as a direct consequence of its conduct. The injury to a spinal nerve root by inaccurate and/or incautious needling during spinal anaesthesia is an obvious example. But in many cases, spinal cord injury during anaesthesia is not caused by, related to, or even associated with, the conduct of the anaesthetic. Surgical factors, whether direct (e.g. spinal nerve root damage due to incorrect pedicle screw placement) or indirect (e.g. cord ischaemia following aortic surgery) are responsible for a significant proportion of spinal cord injuries that occur concurrently with the delivery of regional or general anaesthesia. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0587 TITLE: Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30Sep2014 - 29Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on...ABSTRACT Essentially all spinal cord injured patients receive stretching therapies beginning within the first few weeks post-injury. Despite this fact

  7. Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-16

    Spinal Cord Injury; Spinal Cord Injuries; Trauma, Nervous System; Wounds and Injuries; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Spinal Cord Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Endocrine System Diseases; Hypogonadism; Genital Diseases, Male

  8. Spinal cord compression in pseudohypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Timothy T; Khasnavis, Siddharth; Papaliodis, Dean N; Citone, Isabella; Carl, Allen L

    2013-12-01

    Spinal cord compression associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is an increasingly reported sequelae of the underlying metabolic syndrome. The association of neurologic dysfunction with PHP is not well appreciated. We believe this to be secondary to a combination of underlying congenital stenosis, manifest by short pedicles secondary to premature physeal closure, and hypertrophic ossification of the vertebral bony and ligamentous complexes. The purpose of this case report is to review the case of spinal stenosis in a child with PHP Type Ia. We are aware of only eight published reports of patients with PHP Type Ia and spinal stenosis-there are only two previously known cases of pediatric spinal stenosis secondary to PHP. This is a case report detailing the symptoms, diagnosis, interventions, complications, and ultimate outcomes of a pediatric patient undergoing spinal decompression and fusion for symptomatic stenosis secondary to PHP Type Ia. Literature search was reviewed regarding the reports of spinal stenosis and PHP, and the results are culminated and discussed. We report on a 14-year-old obese male with PHP and progressive lower extremity weakness secondary to congenital spinal stenosis. Examination revealed functional upper extremities with spastic paraplegia of bilateral lower extremities. The patient's neurologic function was cautiously monitored, but he deteriorated to a bed-bound state, preoperatively. The patient's chart was reviewed, summarized, and presented. Literature was searched using cross-reference of PHP and the terms "spinal stenosis," "myelopathy", "myelopathic," and "spinal cord compression." All relevant case reports were reviewed, and the results are discussed herein. The patient underwent decompression and instrumented fusion of T2-T11. He improved significantly with regard to lower extremity function, achieving unassisted ambulation function after extensive rehabilitation. Results from surgical decompression in previously reported

  9. Part 1: recognizing neonatal spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Brand, M Colleen

    2006-02-01

    Neonatal spinal cord injury can occur in utero, as well as after either a difficult delivery or a nontraumatic delivery. Spinal cord injury can also be related to invasive nursery procedures or underlying neonatal pathology. Early clinical signs of spinal cord injury that has occurred in utero or at delivery includes severe respiratory compromise and profound hypotonia. Knowledge of risk factors and awareness of symptoms is required for early recognition and appropriate treatment. This article reviews the embryological development of the spinal column highlighting mechanisms of injury and identifying underlying factors that increase the risk of spinal cord injury in newborns. Signs and symptoms of injury, cervical spine immobilization, and the differential diagnosis are discussed. Nursing implications, general prognosis, and research in spinal cord injury are provided.

  10. Twiddler's syndrome in spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahfoudh, Rafid; Chan, Yuen; Chong, Hsu Pheen; Farah, Jibril Osman

    2016-01-01

    The aims are to present a case series of Twiddler's syndrome in spinal cord stimulators with analysis of the possible mechanism of this syndrome and discuss how this phenomenon can be prevented. Data were collected retrospectively between 2007 and 2013 for all patients presenting with failure of spinal cord stimulators. The diagnostic criterion for Twiddler's syndrome is radiological evidence of twisting of wires in the presence of failure of spinal cord stimulation. Our unit implants on average 110 spinal cord stimulators a year. Over the 5-year study period, all consecutive cases of spinal cord stimulation failure were studied. Three patients with Twiddler's syndrome were identified. Presentation ranged from 4 to 228 weeks after implantation. Imaging revealed repeated rotations and twisting of the wires of the spinal cord stimulators leading to hardware failure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported series of Twiddler's syndrome with implantable pulse generators (IPGs) for spinal cord stimulation. Hardware failure is not uncommon in spinal cord stimulation. Awareness and identification of Twiddler's syndrome may help prevent its occurrence and further revisions. This may be achieved by implanting the IPG in the lumbar region subcutaneously above the belt line. Psychological intervention may have a preventative role for those who are deemed at high risk of Twiddler's syndrome from initial psychological screening.

  11. Spinal Cord Ischemia Secondary to Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Siddhant; Koh, Roy KM; Yang, Eugene WR; Hee, Hwan-Tak

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old male presented with symptoms of spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic prostate cancer. An urgent decompression at the cervical-thoracic region was performed, and there were no complications intraoperatively. Three hours postoperatively, the patient developed acute bilateral lower-limb paralysis (motor grade 0). Clinically, he was in class 3 hypovolemic shock. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, showing no epidural hematoma. He was managed aggressively with medical therapy to improve his spinal cord perfusion. The patient improved significantly, and after one week, he was able to regain most of his motor functions. Although not commonly reported, spinal cord ischemia post-surgery should be recognized early, especially in the presence of hypovolemic shock. MRI should be performed to exclude other potential causes of compression. Spinal cord ischemia needs to be managed aggressively with medical treatment to improve spinal cord perfusion. The prognosis depends on the severity of deficits, and is usually favorable. PMID:25558328

  12. Topologically preserving straightening of spinal cord MRI.

    PubMed

    De Leener, Benjamin; Mangeat, Gabriel; Dupont, Sara; Martin, Allan R; Callot, Virginie; Stikov, Nikola; Fehlings, Michael G; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-10-01

    To propose a robust and accurate method for straightening magnetic resonance (MR) images of the spinal cord, based on spinal cord segmentation, that preserves spinal cord topology and that works for any MRI contrast, in a context of spinal cord template-based analysis. The spinal cord curvature was computed using an iterative Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) approximation. Forward and inverse deformation fields for straightening were computed by solving analytically the straightening equations for each image voxel. Computational speed-up was accomplished by solving all voxel equation systems as one single system. Straightening accuracy (mean and maximum distance from straight line), computational time, and robustness to spinal cord length was evaluated using the proposed and the standard straightening method (label-based spline deformation) on 3T T 2 - and T 1 -weighted images from 57 healthy subjects and 33 patients with spinal cord compression due to degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). The proposed algorithm was more accurate, more robust, and faster than the standard method (mean distance = 0.80 vs. 0.83 mm, maximum distance = 1.49 vs. 1.78 mm, time = 71 vs. 174 sec for the healthy population and mean distance = 0.65 vs. 0.68 mm, maximum distance = 1.28 vs. 1.55 mm, time = 32 vs. 60 sec for the DCM population). A novel image straightening method that enables template-based analysis of quantitative spinal cord MRI data is introduced. This algorithm works for any MRI contrast and was validated on healthy and patient populations. The presented method is implemented in the Spinal Cord Toolbox, an open-source software for processing spinal cord MRI data. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1209-1219. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; Şah, Volkan; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients’ family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

  14. Cellular Scaling Rules for Primate Spinal Cords

    PubMed Central

    Burish, Mark J.; Peebles, J. Klint; Baldwin, Mary K.; Tavares, Luciano; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2010-01-01

    The spinal cord can be considered a major sensorimotor interface between the body and the brain. How does the spinal cord scale with body and brain mass, and how are its numbers of neurons related to the number of neurons in the brain across species of different body and brain sizes? Here we determine the cellular composition of the spinal cord in eight primate species and find that its number of neurons varies as a linear function of cord length, and accompanies body mass raised to an exponent close to 1/3. This relationship suggests that the extension, mass and number of neurons that compose the spinal cord are related to body length, rather than to body mass or surface. Moreover, we show that although brain mass increases linearly with cord mass, the number of neurons in the brain increases with the number of neurons in the spinal cord raised to the power of 1.7. This faster addition of neurons to the brain than to the spinal cord is consistent with current views on how larger brains add complexity to the processing of environmental and somatic information. PMID:20926855

  15. General Information about Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Go ... types of brain and spinal cord tumors. The information from tests and procedures done to detect (find) ...

  16. Microsurgical resection of intramedullary spinal cord hemangioblastoma.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Spinal cord hemangioblastomas account for about 10% of spinal cord tumors. They usually arise from the dorsolateral pia mater and are characterized by their significant vascularity. The principles and techniques of safe resection are different than those employed for the more commonly occurring intramedullary glial tumors (e.g. ependymoma, astrocytoma) and consist of circumferential detachment of the tumor margin from the surrounding normal pia. This video demonstrates the microsurgical techniques of resection of a thoracic spinal cord hemangioblastoma. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/yT5KLi4VyAo.

  17. Idiopathic thoracic transdural intravertebral spinal cord herniation

    PubMed Central

    Turel, Mazda K; Wewel, Joshua T; Kerolus, Mena G; O'Toole, John E

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare and often missed cause of thoracic myelopathy. The clinical presentation and radiological appearance is inconsistent and commonly confused with a dorsal arachnoid cyst and often is a misdiagnosed entity. While ventral spinal cord herniation through a dural defect has been previously described, intravertebral herniation is a distinct entity and extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year old man with idiopathic thoracic transdural intravertebral spinal cord herniation and discuss the clinico-radiological presentation, pathophysiology and operative management along with a review the literature of this unusual entity. PMID:29021685

  18. Noninvasive Optical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Hemodynamics and Oxygenation after Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption . The oxygen portion of the Oxylite probe emits short pulses of blue LED light resulting in a fluorescent...Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0602 TITLE: Noninvasive Optical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Hemodynamics and Oxygenation after Acute Spinal Cord Injury...COVERED 1 Sep 2016 - 31 Aug 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Noninvasive Optical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Hemodynamics and Oxygenation

  19. Neuropeptide Y in human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Allen, J M; Gibson, S J; Adrian, T E; Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

    1984-08-06

    The distribution of a newly described peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY) within the human spinal cord has been determined using radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. Higher concentrations were found in the lumbar (49.9 +/- 6.8 pmol/g) and sacral (47.0 +/- 10.6 pmol/g) regions than in the cervical (27.6 +/- 2.7 pmol/g) and thoracic spinal cord (33.8 +/- 5.3 pmol/g). Immunocytochemistry revealed numerous nerve fibers containing NPY in the spinal cord; these were particularly concentrated in the substantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horn. In the ventral spinal cord NPY-containing nerves were sparse becoming more abundant in lumbosacral segments.

  20. The development of spinal cord anatomy.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2008-01-01

    A panel illustrating spinal cord injury in The Dying Lioness in the British Museum dates to 650 BC. This paper outlines the subsequent progression of knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord. The animal dissections of Galen are considered because his deductions persisted through the Dark Ages until the late 18th century. Anatomy advanced gradually to yield discoveries of the complex tracts and grey matter elements of the cord and their functions. Amongst many distinguished exponents, the works of Blasius, Huber, Vicq d'Azyr and Stilling are emphasised. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. [Spinal cord injury due to penetrating missiles].

    PubMed

    Ohry, Avi

    2003-10-01

    Gunshot wound of the spine is a major cause of spinal cord injury among US civilian population, members of the military armed conflict personnel, or civilians injured in terrorists attacks. The bullet fragments cause damage to the spinal cord even without penetrating the spinal canal. Concussive effects, heat, fractures or vascular injury may cause the neurological damage. Unfortunately, bullet or shrapnel removal or laminectomy do not change the prognosis. In this article we review the historical background, the Israeli experience, ballistic-forensic considerations, complications, treatment and prognosis.

  2. Microsurgical resection of intramedullary spinal cord ependymoma.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Ependymomas are the most commonly occurring intramedullary spinal cord tumor in adults. With few exceptions these tumors are histologically benign, although they exhibit some biologic variability with respect to growth rate. While unencapsulated, spinal ependymomas are non-infiltrative and present a clear margin of demarcation from the surrounding spinal cord that serves as an effective dissection plane. This video demonstrates the technique of microsurgical resection of an intramedullary ependymoma through a posterior midline myelotomy. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/lcHhymSvSqU.

  3. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI. PMID

  4. Intractable Pruritus After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Deborah A; Jaffee, Kenneth M; Kundu, Anjana

    2009-01-01

    Background: This report describes a young woman with incomplete traumatic cervical spinal cord injury and intractable pruritus involving her dorsal forearm. Method: Case report. Findings: Anatomic distribution of the pruritus corresponded to the dermatomal distribution of her level of spinal cord injury and vertebral fusion. Symptoms were attributed to the spinal cord injury and possible cervical root injury. Pruritus was refractory to all treatments, including topical lidocaine, gabapentin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, intravenous Bier block, stellate ganglion block, and acupuncture. Conclusions: Further understanding of neuropathic pruritus is needed. Diagnostic workup of intractable pruritus should include advanced imaging to detect ongoing nerve root compression. If diagnostic studies suggest radiculopathy, epidural steroid injection should be considered. Because the autonomic nervous system may be involved in complex chronic pain or pruritic syndromes, sympatholysis via such techniques as stellate ganglion block might be effective. PMID:19777867

  5. Multifocal Spinal Cord Nephroblastoma in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Henker, L C; Bianchi, R M; Vargas, T P; de Oliveira, E C; Driemeier, D; Pavarini, S P

    2018-01-01

    A 1-year-old male American pit bull terrier was presented with a history of proprioceptive deficits and mild lameness of the right hindlimb, which progressed after 5 months to paraparesis, culminating in tetraparesis after 2 weeks. Necropsy findings were limited to the spinal cord and consisted of multiple, intradural, extramedullary, slightly red masses which produced segmental areas of medullary swelling located in the cervical intumescence, thoracolumbar column, sacral segment and cauda equina. Histological evaluation revealed a tumour, composed of epithelial, stromal and blastemal cells, with structures resembling tubules, acini and embryonic glomeruli. Immunohistochemical labelling for vimentin, cytokeratin and S100 was positive for the stromal, epithelial and blastemal cells, respectively. A final diagnosis of multifocal spinal cord nephroblastoma was established. This is the first report of such a tumour showing concomitant involvement of the cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, sacral and cauda equina areas of the spinal cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Episodic swimming in the larval zebrafish is generated by a spatially distributed spinal network with modular functional organization

    PubMed Central

    Wiggin, Timothy D.; Anderson, Tatiana M.; Eian, John; Peck, Jack H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the diverse methods vertebrates use for locomotion, there is evidence that components of the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) are conserved across species. When zebrafish begin swimming early in development, they perform short episodes of activity separated by periods of inactivity. Within these episodes, the trunk flexes with side-to-side alternation and the traveling body wave progresses rostrocaudally. To characterize the distribution of the swimming CPG along the rostrocaudal axis, we performed transections of the larval zebrafish spinal cord and induced fictive swimming using N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). In both intact and spinalized larvae, bursting is found throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord, and the properties of fictive swimming observed were dependent on the concentration of NMDA. We isolated series of contiguous spinal segments by performing multiple spinal transections on the same larvae. Although series from all regions of the spinal cord have the capacity to produce bursts, the capacity to produce organized episodes of fictive swimming has a rostral bias: in the rostral spinal cord, only 12 contiguous body segments are necessary, whereas 23 contiguous body segments are necessary in the caudal spinal cord. Shorter series of segments were often active but produced either continuous rhythmic bursting or sporadic, nonrhythmic bursting. Both episodic and continuous bursting alternated between the left and right sides of the body and showed rostrocaudal progression, demonstrating the functional dissociation of the circuits responsible for episodic structure and fine burst timing. These findings parallel results in mammalian locomotion, and we propose a hierarchical model of the larval zebrafish swimming CPG. PMID:22572943

  7. Breaking the News in Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kirshblum, Steven; Fichtenbaum, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Breaking the bad news in terms of prognosis for significant motor recovery following a neurologically complete spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most difficult tasks for the spinal cord medicine specialist. Learning the skills to facilitate this communication is extremely important to better assist patients to understand their prognosis as well as foster hope for their future. If bad news is delivered poorly it can cause confusion and long-lasting distress and resentment; if done well, it may assist understanding, adjustment, and acceptance. This article provides the physician who cares for patients with SCI with some concepts to consider when discussing prognosis with patients and their families. PMID:18533406

  8. Primary Spinal OPC Culture System from Adult Zebrafish to Study Oligodendrocyte Differentiation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kroehne, Volker; Tsata, Vasiliki; Marrone, Lara; Froeb, Claudia; Reinhardt, Susanne; Gompf, Anne; Dahl, Andreas; Sterneckert, Jared; Reimer, Michell M

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a promising target to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) by remyelinating denuded, and therefore vulnerable, axons. Demyelination is the result of a primary insult and secondary injury, leading to conduction blocks and long-term degeneration of the axons, which subsequently can lead to the loss of their neurons. In response to SCI, dormant OPCs can be activated and subsequently start to proliferate and differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs). Therefore, researchers strive to control OPC responses, and utilize small molecule screening approaches in order to identify mechanisms of OPC activation, proliferation, migration and differentiation. In zebrafish, OPCs remyelinate axons of the optic tract after lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-induced demyelination back to full thickness myelin sheaths. In contrast to zebrafish, mammalian OPCs are highly vulnerable to excitotoxic stress, a cause of secondary injury, and remyelination remains insufficient. Generally, injury induced remyelination leads to shorter internodes and thinner myelin sheaths in mammals. In this study, we show that myelin sheaths are lost early after a complete spinal transection injury, but are re-established within 14 days after lesion. We introduce a novel, easy-to-use, inexpensive and highly reproducible OPC culture system based on dormant spinal OPCs from adult zebrafish that enables in vitro analysis. Zebrafish OPCs are robust, can easily be purified with high viability and taken into cell culture. This method enables to examine why zebrafish OPCs remyelinate better than their mammalian counterparts, identify cell intrinsic responses, which could lead to pro-proliferating or pro-differentiating strategies, and to test small molecule approaches. In this methodology paper, we show efficient isolation of OPCs from adult zebrafish spinal cord and describe culture conditions that enable analysis up to 10

  9. Experimental spinal cord trauma: a review of mechanically induced spinal cord injury in rat models.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Dauda; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; Mohamad, Masro; Aziz, Izzuddin; Sanusi, Junedah

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that animal spinal cord compression (using methods such as clips, balloons, spinal cord strapping, or calibrated forceps) mimics the persistent spinal canal occlusion that is common in human spinal cord injury (SCI). These methods can be used to investigate the effects of compression or to know the optimal timing of decompression (as duration of compression can affect the outcome of pathology) in acute SCI. Compression models involve prolonged cord compression and are distinct from contusion models, which apply only transient force to inflict an acute injury to the spinal cord. While the use of forceps to compress the spinal cord is a common choice due to it being inexpensive, it has not been critically assessed against the other methods to determine whether it is the best method to use. To date, there is no available review specifically focused on the current compression methods of inducing SCI in rats; thus, we performed a systematic and comprehensive publication search to identify studies on experimental spinalization in rat models, and this review discusses the advantages and limitations of each method.

  10. Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    atrophy. Interestingly, there is a clinical phenomenon that stretching can lead to muscle fiber hypertrophy , but that doesn’t appear to be...specific muscle groups) on functional recovery after spinal cord injury in a rat model. We have undertaken these studies because of an observation we...spinal cord injury, locomotor recovery, physical therapy, muscle stretch, joint range- of-motion, rat. Overall Project Summary: In this, the

  11. Dopamine is produced in the rat spinal cord and regulates micturition reflex after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shaoping; Carson, David M.; Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C.; Houlé, John D.; Tom, Veronica J.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons in the mammalian central nervous system are thought to be restricted to the brain. DA-mediated regulation of urinary activity is considered to occur through an interaction between midbrain DA neurons and the pontine micturition center. Here we show that DA is produced in the rat spinal cord and modulates the bladder reflex. We observed numerous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+ neurons in the autonomic nuclei and superficial dorsal horn in L6–S3 spinal segments. These neurons are dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)− and some contain detectable dopamine decarboxylase (DDC), suggesting their capacity to produce DA. Interestingly, following a complete thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) to interrupt supraspinal projections, more TH+ neurons emerged in the lumbosacral spinal cord, coincident with a sustained, low level of DA expression there and a partially recovered micturition reflex. Non-selective blockade of spinal DA receptors reduced bladder activity whereas activation of spinal D2-like receptors increased bladder activity and facilitated voiding. Additionally, depletion of lumbosacral TH+ neurons with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) decreased bladder non-voiding contractions and voiding efficiency. Furthermore, injecting the transsynaptic neuronal tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) into the bladder detrusor labeled TH+ cells in the lumbosacral cord, confirming their involvement in spinal micturition reflex circuits. These results illustrate that DA is synthesized in the rat spinal cord; plasticity of lumbosacral TH+ neurons following SCI may contribute to DA expression and modulate the spinal bladder reflex. Thus, spinally-derived DA and receptors could be a novel therapeutic target to improve micturition recovery after SCI. PMID:26655672

  12. Dopamine is produced in the rat spinal cord and regulates micturition reflex after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shaoping; Carson, David M; Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C; Houlé, John D; Tom, Veronica J

    2016-11-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons in the mammalian central nervous system are thought to be restricted to the brain. DA-mediated regulation of urinary activity is considered to occur through an interaction between midbrain DA neurons and the pontine micturition center. Here we show that DA is produced in the rat spinal cord and modulates the bladder reflex. We observed numerous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) + neurons in the autonomic nuclei and superficial dorsal horn in L6-S3 spinal segments. These neurons are dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) - and some contain detectable dopamine decarboxylase (DDC), suggesting their capacity to produce DA. Interestingly, following a complete thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) to interrupt supraspinal projections, more TH + neurons emerged in the lumbosacral spinal cord, coincident with a sustained, low level of DA expression there and a partially recovered micturition reflex. Non-selective blockade of spinal DA receptors reduced bladder activity whereas activation of spinal D 2 -like receptors increased bladder activity and facilitated voiding. Additionally, depletion of lumbosacral TH + neurons with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) decreased bladder non-voiding contractions and voiding efficiency. Furthermore, injecting the transsynaptic neuronal tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) into the bladder detrusor labeled TH + cells in the lumbosacral cord, confirming their involvement in spinal micturition reflex circuits. These results illustrate that DA is synthesized in the rat spinal cord; plasticity of lumbosacral TH + neurons following SCI may contribute to DA expression and modulate the spinal bladder reflex. Thus, spinally-derived DA and receptors could be a novel therapeutic target to improve micturition recovery after SCI. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Malignant spinal cord compression in cancer patients may be mimicked by a primary spinal cord tumour.

    PubMed

    Mohammadianpanah, M; Vasei, M; Mosalaei, A; Omidvari, S; Ahmadloo, N

    2006-12-01

    Although it is quite rare, second primary neoplasms in cancer patients may present with the signs and symptoms of malignant spinal cord compression. Primary spinal cord tumours in the cancer patients may be deceptive and considered as the recurrent first cancer. Therefore, it should be precisely differentiated and appropriately managed. We report such a case of intramedullary ependymoma of the cervical spinal cord mimicking metatstatic recurrent lymphoma and causing cord compression. A 50-year-old man developed intramedullary ependymoma of the cervical spinal cord 1.5 years following chemoradiation for Waldeyer's ring lymphoma. He presented with a 2-month history of neck pain, progressive upper- and lower-extremity numbness and weakness, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary expansive lesion extending from C4 to C6 levels of the cervical spinal cord. The clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of malignant process. A comprehensive investigation failed to detect another site of disease. He underwent operation, and the tumour was subtotally resected. The patient's neurological deficits improved subsequently. The development of the intramedullary ependymoma following treating lymphoma has not been reported. We describe the clinical, radiological and pathological findings of this case and review the literature.

  14. Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge.

    PubMed

    Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-05-15

    An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recovery of locomotion in the cat following spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, S; Bouyer, L; Barthélemy, D; Langlet, C; Leblond, H

    2002-10-01

    In most species, locomotor function beneath the level of a spinal cord lesion can be restored even if the cord is completely transected. This suggests that there is, within the spinal cord, an autonomous network of neurons capable of generating a locomotor pattern independently of supraspinal inputs. Recent studies suggest that several physiological and neurochemical changes have to occur in the neuronal networks located caudally to the lesion to allow the expression of spinal locomotion. Some evidence of this plasticity will be addressed in this review. In addition, original data on the functional organisation of the lumbar spinal cord will also be presented. Recent works in our lab show that segmental responsiveness of the spinal cord of the cat to locally micro-injected drugs in different lumbar segments, in combination with complete lesions at various level of the spinal cord, suggest a rostro-caudal organisation of spinal locomotor control. Moreover, the integrity of midlumbar segments seems to be crucial for the expression of spinal locomotion. These data suggest that the regions of critical importance for locomotion can be confined to a restricted portion of the spinal cord. Later, these midlumbar segments could be targeted by electrical stimulation or grafts to improve recovery of function. Understanding the changes in spinal cord neurophysiology and neurochemistry after a lesion is of critical importance to the improvement of treatments for locomotor rehabilitation in spinal-cord-injured patients.

  16. Gene therapy approaches for spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Corinne

    As the biomedical engineering field expands, combination technologies are demonstrating enormous potential for treating human disease. In particular, intersections between the rapidly developing fields of gene therapy and tissue engineering hold promise to achieve tissue regeneration. Nonviral gene therapy uses plasmid DNA to deliver therapeutic proteins in vivo for extended periods of time. Tissue engineering employs biomedical materials, such as polymers, to support the regrowth of injured tissue. In this thesis, a combination strategy to deliver genes and drugs in a polymeric scaffold was applied to a spinal cord injury model. In order to develop a platform technology to treat spinal cord injury, several nonviral gene delivery systems and polymeric scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Nonviral vector trafficking was evaluated in primary neuronal culture to develop an understanding of the barriers to gene transfer in neurons and their supporting glia. Although the most efficient gene carrier in vitro differed from the optimal gene carrier in vivo, confocal and electron microscopy of these nonviral vectors provided insights into the interaction of these vectors with the nucleus. A novel pathway for delivering nanoparticles into the nuclei of neurons and Schwann cells via vesicle trafficking was observed in this study. Reporter gene expression levels were evaluated after direct and remote delivery to the spinal cord, and the optimal nonviral vector, dose, and delivery strategy were applied to deliver the gene encoding the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the spinal cord. An injectable and biocompatible gel, composed of the amphiphillic polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) was evaluated as a drug and gene delivery system in vitro, and combined with the optimized nonviral gene delivery system to treat spinal cord injury. Plasmid DNA encoding the bFGF gene and the therapeutic NEP1--40 peptide

  17. Spinal cord injuries among paragliders in Norway.

    PubMed

    Rekand, T; Schaanning, E E; Varga, V; Schattel, U; Gronning, M

    2008-06-01

    A national retrospective descriptive study. To study the clinical effects of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) caused by paragliding accidents in Norway. Spinal cord units at Haukeland University Hospital, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital and St Olav Hospital in Norway. We studied the medical files for nine patients with SCI caused by paragliding accidents to evaluate the circumstances of the accidents, and clinical effects of injury. We obtained the data from hospital patient files at all three spinal units in Norway and crosschecked them through the Norwegian Paragliding Association's voluntary registry for injuries. All patients were hospitalized from 1997 to 2006, eight men and one woman, with mean age 30.7 years. The causes of the accidents were landing problems combined with unexpected wind whirls, technical problems and limited experience with unexpected events. All patients contracted fractures in the thoracolumbal junction of the spine, most commonly at the L1 level. At clinical follow-up, all patients presented clinically incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association impairment scores B-D). Their main health problems differed widely, ranging from urinary and sexual disturbances to neuropathic pain and loss of motor functioning. Only three patients returned to full-time employment after rehabilitation. Paragliding accidents cause spinal fractures predominantly in the thoracolumbal junction with subsequent SCIs and increased morbidity. All patients experienced permanent health problems that influenced daily activities and required long-time clinical follow-up and medical intervention. Better education in landing techniques and understanding of aerodynamics may reduce the risk of paragliding accidents.

  18. Spinal cord testing: auditing for quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Marr, J A; Reid, B

    1991-04-01

    A quality assurance audit of spinal cord testing as documented by staff nurses was carried out. Twenty-five patient records were examined for accuracy of documented testing and compared to assessments performed by three investigators. A pilot study established interrater reliability of a tool that was designed especially for this study. Results indicated staff nurses failed to meet pre-established 100% standard in all categories of testing when compared with investigator's findings. Possible reasons for this disparity are discussed as well as indications for modifications in the spinal testing record, teaching program and preset standards.

  19. Spinal cord injury with central cord syndrome from surfing.

    PubMed

    Steinfeld, Yaniv; Keren, Yaniv; Haddad, Elias

    2018-01-01

    Central cord syndrome (CCS) is an injury to the center of the spinal cord. It is well known as a hyperextension injury, but it has never been described as a surfing injury. Our report describes this injury in detail. A 35-year-old male novice surfer presented to the emergency department with acute tetraplegia following falling off his surfboard and hitting sea floor at a shallow beach break. He was rescued by a fellow surfer while floating in the sea and unable to raise his head above sea level. Upon arrival at the hospital, tetraplegia and sensory deficits were noted. Radiological investigations showed advanced spinal stenosis at C4-6 levels. T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated myelopathy at C5-C6 level. He was diagnosed as having central cord syndrome, treated conservatively, and regained near full neurologic recovery after a month of rehabilitation. Unique sport activities lead to unique injuries. It is important to accurately describe these injuries in order to create protective measures against them. Neurologic injuries in surfers are uncommon. With low-energy trauma, surfer's myelopathy is still the most common diagnosis, but central cord syndrome should be in the differential diagnosis.

  20. Spinal cord protection during radiation therapy

    SciT

    Coia, L.; Chu, J.; Larsen, R.

    1986-09-01

    Treating intrathoracic malignancies to high doses, particularly those of lung and esophagus, requires limiting the radiation dose delivered to the spinal cord. Several factors are important in determining the cord dose. These are: The distance from the block or collimator edge to the cord, the variation of dose with distance from the block or collimator edge and, the expected variation of this distance for clinical set-up from day-to-day. When treating with an oblique beam, the position of the cord may be difficult to identify. A technique for localizing the spinal cord on a simulator film at an arbitrary gantry anglemore » is presented. The technique requires determination of distances from the central axis of the beam to the medial aspect of the pedicle and posterior vertebral body. These can readily be obtained from measurements on orthogonal, AP/PA and lateral isocentric simulator radiographs. A mathematical transformation is applied to determine the corresponding cord locations on the oblique radiographs for any arbitrary gantry angle. The accuracy of cord localization was within 2-3 mm with a precision of 2 mm for five physicians who used this technique. The beam edge characteristics for 60Co, 6 MV, and 10 MV teletherapy unit were measured for various depths and field sizes. For the 6 and 10 MV units, the beam penumbra is nearly independent of the field size, depth and field defining devices (inner and outer collimator jaws, trimmer bars, and shielding blocks). Because the beam penumbra is dependent on the design of the linear accelerator, its measurement should be made individually for each linear accelerator. Our preliminary data on patient positioning uncertainty did not exceed the 6-8 mm limit documented in the literature.« less

  1. Worklife After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pflaum, Christopher; McCollister, George; Strauss, David J; Shavelle, Robert M; DeVivo, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop predictive models to estimate worklife expectancy after spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Inception cohort study. Setting: Model SCI Care Systems throughout the United States. Participants: 20,143 persons enrolled in the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center database since 1973. Intervention: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Postinjury employment rates and worklife expectancy. Results: Using logistic regression, we found a greater likelihood of being employed in any given year to be significantly associated with younger age, white race, higher education level, being married, having a nonviolent cause of injury, paraplegia, ASIA D injury, longer time postinjury, being employed at injury and during the previous postinjury year, higher general population employment rate, lower level of Social Security Disability Insurance benefits, and calendar years after the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Conclusions: The likelihood of postinjury employment varies substantially among persons with SCI. Given favorable patient characteristics, worklife should be considerably higher than previous estimates. PMID:17044388

  2. [Spinal cord injuries caused by aviation accidents].

    PubMed

    Heim, M; Ohry, A; Zeilig, G; Gur, S

    1992-05-15

    During the past 15 years fewer than 1% of those treated in the National Spinal Cord Injury Center were injured as a result of aviation accidents. In addition to 9 such patients treated at the center since 1973, another 6 were found among the many hundreds receiving ambulatory care in our clinics. 3 patients had survived a helicopter crash, 2 were injured while ejecting from combat aircraft, 3 were injured in crashes of light aircraft, 1 fell from a hand glider and 6 were injured in parachute drops. Of the 15 reviewed, 6 use wheelchairs, 3 walk assisted by orthopedic devices, while 6 ambulate freely. Although initial hospitalization was not substantially longer than in other patients with spinal cord injuries, extended ambulatory psychological intervention was necessary.

  3. Cardiac dysfunctions following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sandu, AM; Popescu, M; Iacobini, MA; Stoian, R; Neascu, C; Popa, F

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze cardiac dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Cardiac dysfunctions are common complications following SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. We reviewed epidemiology of cardiac disturbances after SCI, and neuroanatomy and pathophysiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic. SCI causes disruption of descendent pathways from central control centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating into intermediolateral nuclei of T1–L2 spinal cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant cardiac dysfunction. Impairment of autonomic nervous control system, mostly in patients with cervical or high thoracic SCI, causes cardiac dysrrhythmias, especially bradycardia and, rarely, cardiac arrest, or tachyarrhytmias and hypotension. Specific complication dependent on the period of time after trauma like spinal shock and autonomic dysreflexia are also reviewed. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe bradycardia and hypotension. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life–threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5–T6). Besides all this, additional cardiac complications, such as cardiac deconditioning and coronary heart disease may also occur. Proper prophylaxis, including nonpharmacologic and pharmacological strategies and cardiac rehabilitation diminish occurrence of the cardiac dysfunction following

  4. Are there endogenous stem cells in the spinal cord?

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Michela; Ryskalin, Larisa; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Biagioni, Francesca; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPC) represent the stem-like niche of the central nervous system that maintains a regenerative potential also in the adult life. Despite NPC in the brain are well documented, the presence of NPC in the spinal cord has been controversial for a long time. This is due to a scarce activity of NPC within spinal cord, which also makes difficult their identification. The present review recapitulates the main experimental studies, which provided evidence for the occurrence of NPC within spinal cord, with a special emphasis on spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. By using experimental models, here we analyse the site-specificity, the phenotype and the main triggers of spinal cord NPC. Moreover, data are reported on the effect of specific neurogenic stimuli on these spinal cord NPC in an effort to comprehend the endogenous neurogenic potential of this stem cell niche.

  5. Brain protection by methylprednisolone in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Mao; Lee, Ming-Hsueh; Wang, Ting-Chung; Weng, Hsu-Huei; Chung, Chiu-Yen; Yang, Jen-Tsung

    2009-07-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is clinically treated by high doses of methylprednisolone. However, the effect of methylprednisolone on the brain in spinal cord injury patients has been little investigated. This experimental study examined Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression and Nissl staining to evaluate an apoptosis-related intracellular signaling event and final neuron death, respectively. Spinal cord injury produced a significant apoptotic change and cell death not only in the spinal cord but also in the supraventricular cortex and hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 region in the rat brains. The treatment of methylprednisolone increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and prevented neuron death for 1-7 days after spinal cord injury. These findings suggest that rats with spinal cord injury show ascending brain injury that could be restricted through methylprednisolone management.

  6. Advanced Restoration Therapies in Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    project. In addition, Dr. Belegu has performed SCI surgeries , electrode implantations, FES stimulation, and neurological assays. Name: Ali...month worked: 10.2 Contribution to Project: Dr. Liu has assisted Dr. Belegu in performing SCI surgeries , electrode implantation. In addition, she...training-based rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 93, 1508-1517. Karimi, M.T. (2013). Robotic rehabilitation of spinal cord injury individual

  7. Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hammell, K R

    1994-11-01

    Studies have indicated that loss of social contact remains the primary complaint of people with head injuries many years after discharge. In an attempt to disentangle specific and nonspecific effects of head injury a study was undertaken to compare a group of 15 men with severe closed head injuries and their wives, with a group of 15 men with complete, traumatic spinal cord injuries and their partners (n = 60). Time since discharge extended from 4 months to several years. This paper focuses primarily upon the results and implication of the responses from the group of men with spinal cord injuries and their partners. The Interview Schedule for Social Interaction was correlated with the Leeds Scale for the Self Assessment of Anxiety and Depression. All groups reported low availability and adequacy of social integration and exhibited high levels of depression. The group of men with spinal cord injuries had the lowest scores for the availability of social integration, indicating that the social isolation which has previously been identified amongst people with head injuries may not be attributable solely to brain damage.

  8. Spinal cord evolution in early Homo.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marc R; Haeusler, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The discovery at Nariokotome of the Homo erectus skeleton KNM-WT 15000, with a narrow spinal canal, seemed to show that this relatively large-brained hominin retained the primitive spinal cord size of African apes and that brain size expansion preceded postcranial neurological evolution. Here we compare the size and shape of the KNM-WT 15000 spinal canal with modern and fossil taxa including H. erectus from Dmanisi, Homo antecessor, the European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, and Pan troglodytes. In terms of shape and absolute and relative size of the spinal canal, we find all of the Dmanisi and most of the vertebrae of KNM-WT 15000 are within the human range of variation except for the C7, T2, and T3 of KNM-WT 15000, which are constricted, suggesting spinal stenosis. While additional fossils might definitively indicate whether H. erectus had evolved a human-like enlarged spinal canal, the evidence from the Dmanisi spinal canal and the unaffected levels of KNM-WT 15000 show that unlike Australopithecus, H. erectus had a spinal canal size and shape equivalent to that of modern humans. Subadult status is unlikely to affect our results, as spinal canal growth is complete in both individuals. We contest the notion that vertebrae yield information about respiratory control or language evolution, but suggest that, like H. antecessor and European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, early Homo possessed a postcranial neurological endowment roughly commensurate to modern humans, with implications for neurological, structural, and vascular improvements over Pan and Australopithecus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spinal cord aspergillus invasion--complication of an aspergilloma.

    PubMed

    Sheth, N K; Varkey, B; Wagner, D K

    1985-12-01

    Acute paraplegia developed in a 53-year-old man with pulmonary aspergilloma because of contiguous extension of Aspergillus infection to the epidural and subdural spaces and spinal cord. Histopathologic findings of the spinal cord showed Aspergillus hyphae penetrating the myelin sheath and myelomalacia, predominantly in the anterior and lateral columns. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no previous descriptions or illustrations of spinal cord involvement and the pathologic changes caused by Aspergillus infection.

  10. Optical monitoring of spinal cord hemodynamics, a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Kwon, Brian K.; Streijger, Femke; Manouchehri, Neda; So, Kitty; Shortt, Katelyn; Cripton, Peter A.; Macnab, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Background: After an acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), the spinal cord is subjected to ischemia, hypoxia, and increased hydrostatic pressure which exacerbate further secondary damage and neuronal deficit. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for non-invasive and real-time monitoring of these changes within the injured spinal cord in an animal model. NIRS is a non-invasive optical technique that utilizes light in the near infrared spectrum to monitor changes in the concentration of tissue chromophores from which alterations in tissues oxygenation and perfusion can be inferred in real time. Methods: A custom-made miniaturized NIRS sensor was developed to monitor spinal cord hemodynamics and oxygenation noninvasively and in real time simultaneously with invasive, intraparenchymal monitoring in a pig model of SCI. The spinal cord around the T10 injury site was instrumented with intraparenchymal probes inserted directly into the spinal cord to measure oxygen pressure, blood flow, and hydrostatic pressure, and the same region of the spinal cord was monitored with the custom-designed extradural NIRS probe. We investigated how well the extradural NIRS probe detected intraparenchymal changes adjacent to the injury site after alterations in systemic blood pressure, global hypoxia, and traumatic injury generated by a weight-drop contusion. Results: The NIRS sensor successfully identified periods of systemic hypoxia, re-ventilation and changes in spinal cord perfusion and oxygenation during alterations of mean arterial pressure and following spinal cord injury. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that extradural NIRS monitoring of the spinal cord is feasible as a non-invasive optical method to identify changes in spinal cord hemodynamics and oxygenation in real time. Further development of this technique would allow clinicians to monitor real-time physiologic changes within the injured spinal cord during the

  11. The adaptation to pregnancy of spinal cord injured women.

    PubMed

    Craig, D I

    1990-01-01

    This study explored the experiences encountered by spinal cord injured women during pregnancy. The spinal cord injured women experienced complications associated with pregnancy: recurring urinary tract infections, an increase in incontinence, and autonomic dysreflexia. (The first two of these are not unique to spinal cord injury, but are common in all pregnancies.) They neither developed pressure areas nor experienced premature deliveries, major complications predicted by the literature. All felt they were victims of inadequate environmental design that hindered their mobility and inhibited their independence. Many of the psychosocial aspects studied proved to be common to pregnant women in general and not specific to the spinal cord injured population.

  12. The spinal cord: a review of functional neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Bican, Orhan; Minagar, Alireza; Pruitt, Amy A

    2013-02-01

    The spinal cord controls the voluntary muscles of the trunk and limbs and receives sensory input from these areas. It extends from the medulla oblongata to the lower border of the first lumbar vertebra. A basic knowledge of spinal cord anatomy is essential for interpretation of clinical signs and symptoms and for understanding of pathologic processes involving the spinal cord. In this article, anatomic structures are correlated with relevant clinical signs and symptoms and a step-wise approach to spinal cord diagnosis is outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular dysfunctions following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Popa, F; Grigorean, VT; Onose, G; Sandu, AM; Popescu, M; Burnei, G; Strambu, V; Sinescu, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the vascular dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Vascular dysfunctions are common complications of SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. Neuroanatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, is reviewed. SCI implies disruption of descendent pathways from central centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating in intermediolateral nuclei of T1–L2 cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant vascular dysfunction. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and it is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe arterial hypotension and bradycardia. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life–threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5–T6). Arterial hypotension with orthostatic hypotension occurs in both acute and chronic phases. The etiology is multifactorial. We described a few factors influencing the orthostatic hypotension occurrence in SCI: sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, low plasma catecholamine levels, rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone activity, peripheral alpha–adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness, impaired function of baroreceptors, hyponatremia and low plasmatic volume, cardiovascular deconditioning, morphologic changes in sympathetic neurons, plasticity within spinal circuits, and motor deficit leading to loss of skeletal muscle pumping activity. Additional associated cardiovascular concerns in SCI, such as

  14. In-vivo spinal cord deformation in flexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qing; Dougherty, Lawrence; Margulies, Susan S.

    1997-05-01

    Traumatic mechanical loading of the head-neck complex results cervical spinal cord injury when the distortion of the cord is sufficient to produce functional or structural failure of the cord's neural and/or vascular components. Characterizing cervical spinal cord deformation during physiological loading conditions is an important step to defining a comprehensive injury threshold associated with acute spinal cord injury. In this study, in vivo quasi- static deformation of the cervical spinal cord during flexion of the neck in human volunteers was measured using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of motion with spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM). A custom-designed device was built to guide the motion of the neck and enhance more reproducibility. the SPAMM pulse sequence labeled the tissue with a series of parallel tagging lines. A single- shot gradient-recalled-echo sequence was used to acquire the mid-sagittal image of the cervical spine. A comparison of the tagged line pattern in each MR reference and deformed image pair revealed the distortion of the spinal cord. The results showed the cervical spinal cord elongates during head flexion. The elongation experienced by the spinal cord varies linearly with head flexion, with the posterior surface of the cord stretching more than the anterior surface. The maximal elongation of the cord is about 12 percent of its original length.

  15. Changes in Afferent Activity After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Groat, William C.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Aims To summarize the changes that occur in the properties of bladder afferent neurons following spinal cord injury. Methods Literature review of anatomical, immunohistochemical, and pharmacologic studies of normal and dysfunctional bladder afferent pathways. Results Studies in animals indicate that the micturition reflex is mediated by a spinobulbospinal pathway passing through coordination centers (periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center) located in the rostral brain stem. This reflex pathway, which is activated by small myelinated (Aδ) bladder afferent nerves, is in turn modulated by higher centers in the cerebral cortex involved in the voluntary control of micturition. Spinal cord injury at cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary voiding, as well as the normal reflex pathways that coordinate bladder and sphincter function. Following spinal cord injury, the bladder is initially areflexic but then becomes hyperreflexic due to the emergence of a spinal micturition reflex pathway. The recovery of bladder function after spinal cord injury is dependent in part on the plasticity of bladder afferent pathways and the unmasking of reflexes triggered by unmyelinated, capsaicin-sensitive, C-fiber bladder afferent neurons. Plasticity is associated with morphologic, chemical, and electrical changes in bladder afferent neurons and appears to be mediated in part by neurotrophic factors released in the spinal cord and the peripheral target organs. Conclusions Spinal cord injury at sites remote from the lumbosacral spinal cord can indirectly influence properties of bladder afferent neurons by altering the function and chemical environment in the bladder or the spinal cord. PMID:20025033

  16. The Lesioned Spinal Cord Is a “New” Spinal Cord: Evidence from Functional Changes after Spinal Injury in Lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Parker, David

    2017-01-01

    Finding a treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) focuses on reconnecting the spinal cord by promoting regeneration across the lesion site. However, while regeneration is necessary for recovery, on its own it may not be sufficient. This presumably reflects the requirement for regenerated inputs to interact appropriately with the spinal cord, making sub-lesion network properties an additional influence on recovery. This review summarizes work we have done in the lamprey, a model system for SCI research. We have compared locomotor behavior (swimming) and the properties of descending inputs, locomotor networks, and sensory inputs in unlesioned animals and animals that have received complete spinal cord lesions. In the majority (∼90%) of animals swimming parameters after lesioning recovered to match those in unlesioned animals. Synaptic inputs from individual regenerated axons also matched the properties in unlesioned animals, although this was associated with changes in release parameters. This suggests against any compensation at these synapses for the reduced descending drive that will occur given that regeneration is always incomplete. Compensation instead seems to occur through diverse changes in cellular and synaptic properties in locomotor networks and proprioceptive systems below, but also above, the lesion site. Recovery of locomotor performance is thus not simply the reconnection of the two sides of the spinal cord, but reflects a distributed and varied range of spinal cord changes. While locomotor network changes are insufficient on their own for recovery, they may facilitate locomotor outputs by compensating for the reduction in descending drive. Potentiated sensory feedback may in turn be a necessary adaptation that monitors and adjusts the output from the “new” locomotor network. Rather than a single aspect, changes in different components of the motor system and their interactions may be needed after SCI. If these are general features, and where

  17. Management of acute traumatic spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Shank, C D; Walters, B C; Hadley, M N

    2017-01-01

    Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease process affecting tens of thousands of people across the USA each year. Despite the increase in primary prevention measures, such as educational programs, motor vehicle speed limits, automobile running lights, and safety technology that includes automobile passive restraint systems and airbags, SCIs continue to carry substantial permanent morbidity and mortality. Medical measures implemented following the initial injury are designed to limit secondary insult to the spinal cord and to stabilize the spinal column in an attempt to decrease devastating sequelae. This chapter is an overview of the contemporary management of an acute traumatic SCI patient from the time of injury through the stay in the intensive care unit. We discuss initial triage, immobilization, and transportation of the patient by emergency medical services personnel to a definitive treatment facility. Upon arrival at the emergency department, we review initial trauma protocols and the evidence-based recommendations for radiographic evaluation of the patient's vertebral column. Finally, we outline closed cervical spine reduction and various aggressive medical therapies aimed at improving neurologic outcome. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Shriners Hospital Spinal Cord Injury Self Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Carol

    This manual is intended for young people with spinal cord injuries who are receiving rehabilitation services within the Spinal Cord Injury Unit at Shriners Hospital (San Francisco, California). An introduction describes the rehabilitation program, which includes family conferences, an individualized program, an independent living program,…

  19. Characteristics of spinal cord stroke in clinical neurology.

    PubMed

    Romi, Fredrik; Naess, Halvor

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord stroke accounts for about 0.3% of all strokes in our department. Thirty-two patients (15 males, 17 females; mean age 63.3 years) treated in the period 1995-2010 were included. Patients underwent thorough investigation including the use of different stroke scales (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale). Twenty-eight patients had infarctions, 3 had hemorrhages, and 1 had arterio-venous fistula. Twenty-eight spinal cord strokes were spontaneous, 2 were secondary to aorta aneurysms, and 2 post surgery. Biphasic ictus was seen in 17% of all spontaneous infarctions. Younger age, male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and higher blood glucose on admission regardless of diabetes mellitus, were risk factors associated with more severe spinal cord stroke. Treatment and prevention of these risk factors should be essential in spinal cord stroke. We recommend a clinical classification into upper (cervical) and lower (thoracic or medullary conus) spinal cord strokes. Patients with upper strokes in this study had more severe strokes initially, but they had a better prognosis. Therefore it is important to identify this patient group.Acute sensory spinal cord deficit symptoms, common initial symptoms in biphasic spinal cord strokes, should be considered as possible spinal cord stroke, especially when preceded by radiating pain between the shoulders. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Prognosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Astrocytoma

    SciT

    Minehan, Kiernan J.; Section of Radiation Oncology, Franciscan Skemp Healthcare, Mayo Health System, La Crosse, WI; Brown, Paul D.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic factors for spinal cord astrocytoma and determine the effects of surgery and radiotherapy on outcome. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study reviewed the cases of consecutive patients with spinal cord astrocytoma treated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1962 and 2005. Results: A total of 136 consecutive patients were identified. Of these 136 patients, 69 had pilocytic and 67 had infiltrative astrocytoma. The median follow-up for living patients was 8.2 years (range, 0.08-37.6), and the median survival for deceased patients was 1.15 years (range, 0.01-39.9). The extent of surgery included incisional biopsy only (59%), subtotal resectionmore » (25%), and gross total resection (16%). Patients with pilocytic tumors survived significantly longer than those with infiltrative astrocytomas (median overall survival, 39.9 vs. 1.85 years; p < 0.001). Patients who underwent resection had a worse, although nonsignificant, median survival than those who underwent biopsy only (pilocytic, 18.1 vs. 39.9 years, p = 0.07; infiltrative, 19 vs. 30 months, p = 0.14). Postoperative radiotherapy, delivered in 75% of cases, gave no significant survival benefit for those with pilocytic tumors (39.9 vs. 18.1 years, p = 0.33) but did for those with infiltrative astrocytomas (24 vs. 3 months; Wilcoxon p = 0.006). On multivariate analysis, pilocytic histologic type, diagnosis after 1984, longer symptom duration, younger age, minimal surgical extent, and postoperative radiotherapy predicted better outcome. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that histologic type is the most important prognostic variable affecting the outcome of spinal cord astrocytomas. Surgical resection was associated with shorter survival and thus remains an unproven treatment. Postoperative radiotherapy significantly improved survival for patients with infiltrative astrocytomas but not for those with pilocytic tumors.« less

  1. Spinal cord injuries in Australian footballers.

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    Acute spinal cord injury is a serious concern in football, particularly the rugby codes. This Australia-wide study covers the years 1986-1996 and data are compared with those from a previous identical study for 1960-1985. A retrospective review of 80 players with a documented acute spinal cord injury admitted to the six spinal cord injury units in Australia. Personal interview was carried out in 85% of the participants to determine the injury circumstances and the level of compensation. The severity of the neurological deficit and the functional recovery were determined (Frankel grade). The annual incidence of injuries for all codes combined did not change over the study period, but there was some decrease in rugby union and an increase in rugby league. In particular there was a significant decline in the incidence of adult rugby union injuries (P = 0.048). Scrum injuries in union have decreased subsequent to law changes in 1985, particularly in schoolboys, although ruck and maul injuries are increasing; 39% of scrum injuries occurred in players not in their regular position. Tackles were the most common cause of injury in league, with two-on-one tackles accounting for nearly half of these. Schoolboy injuries tended to mirror those in adults, but with a lower incidence. Over half of the players remain wheelchair-dependent, and 10% returned to near-normality. Six players (7.5%) died as a result of their injuries. The rugby codes must be made safer by appropriate preventative strategies and law changes. In particular, attention is necessary for tackle injuries in rugby league and players out of regular position in scrummage. Compensation for injured players is grossly inadequate. There is an urgent need to establish a national registry to analyse these injuries prospectively.

  2. Effect of lycopene on the blood-spinal cord barrier after spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jianbo; Gu, Zhengsong; Zhang, Qing; Zheng, Hong

    2016-09-05

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in a mouse model. Lycopene inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage as a highly efficient antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Lycopene (4 mg/kg/d) was administrated immediately following SCI. The permeability of the BSCB and water content in the spinal cord tissue were evaluated. Additionally, levels of expression of tight junction proteins and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined with Western blotting. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of spinal cord tissue homogenates was performed 48 h after SCI to evaluate the expression of inflammation-related cytokines. In addition, recovery of motor function was assessed 1 d, 2 d, 5 d, 10 d, and 15 d after SCI using the Basso Mouse Scale to score locomotion. Compared to the group with an untreated SCI, mice with an SCI treated with lycopene had significantly reduced spinal cord tissue water content and BSCB permeability. Furthermore, motor function of mice with an SCI was also greatly improved by lycopene administration. The expression of the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and NF-kB increased markedly 48 h after SCI, and their upregulation was significantly attenuated by lycopene treatment. The expression of molecules that protect tight junctions, zonula occluden-1 and claudin-5, was upregulated by lycopene treatment after SCI. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that lycopene attenuated SCI by promoting repair of the damaged BSCB, so lycopene is a novel and promising treatment for SCI in humans.

  3. Early elective colostomy following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Michelle

    Elective colostomy is an accepted method of bowel management for patients who have had a spinal cord injury (SCI). Approximately 2.4% of patients with SCI have a colostomy, and traditionally it is performed as a last resort several years after injury, and only if bowel complications persist when all other methods have failed. This is despite evidence that patients find a colostomy easier to manage and frequently report wishing it had been performed earlier. It was noticed in the author's spinal unit that increasing numbers of patients were requesting colostomy formation during inpatient rehabilitation following SCI. No supporting literature was found for this; it appears to be an emerging and untested practice. This article explores colostomy formation as a method of bowel management in patients with SCI, considers the optimal time for colostomy formation after injury and examines issues for health professionals.

  4. Alleviating Autonomic Dysreflexia after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    below  the  level  of  injury,  frequently  initiated  in  the  bladder  or  bowel.  It  is   a  key  contributor  to   cardiovascular   disease ,  the...affects blood flow and arterial pressure, and contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease . Potential Treatment Strategies As...LG, Brown DJ, Ungar G, Moore P, McNeil JJ, Louis WJ (1992) Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in chronic spinal cord inju- ry patients

  5. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Mailis-Gagnon, A; Furlan, A D; Sandoval, J A; Taylor, R

    2004-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a form of therapy used to treat certain types of chronic pain. It involves an electrical generator that delivers pulses to a targeted spinal cord area. The leads can be implanted by laminectomy or percutaneously and the source of power is supplied by an implanted battery or by an external radio-frequency transmitter. The exact mechanism of action of SCS is poorly understood. To assess the efficacy and effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation in relieving certain kinds of pain, as well as the complications and adverse effects of this procedure. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE to September 2003; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 3, 2003); textbooks and reference lists in retrieved articles. We also contacted experts in the field of pain and the main manufacturer of the stimulators. We included trials with a control group, either randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs), that assessed spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, assessed study quality and extracted the data. One of the assessors of methodological quality was blinded to authors, dates and journals. The data were analysed using qualitative methods (best evidence synthesis). Two RCTs (81 patients in total) met our inclusion criteria. One was judged as being of high quality (score of 3 on Jadad scale) and the other of low quality (score of 1 on Jadad scale). One trial included patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy) and the other patients with Failed Back Surgery Syndrome. The follow-up periods varied from 6 to 12 months. Both studies reported that SCS was effective, however, meta-analysis was not undertaken because of the small number of patients and the heterogeneity of the study population. Although there is limited evidence in favour of SCS for Failed Back Surgery Syndrome and Complex Regional Pain

  6. Spinal cord injury following operative shoulder intervention: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Christine; Walker, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Cervical myelopathy is a spinal cord dysfunction that results from extrinsic compression of the spinal cord, its blood supply, or both. It is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in patients greater than 55 years of age. A 57-year-old male with right shoulder septic arthritis underwent surgical debridement of his right shoulder and sustained a spinal cord injury intraoperatively. The most likely etiology is damage to the cervical spinal cord during difficult intubation requiring multiple attempts in this patient with underlying asymptomatic severe cervical stenosis. Although it is not feasible to perform imaging studies on all patients undergoing intubation for surgery, this patient's outcome would suggest consideration of inclusion of additional pre-surgical screening examination techniques, such as testing for a positive Hoffman's reflex, is appropriate to detect asymptomatic patients who may have underlying cervical stenosis.

  7. [Repair of spinal cord injury with rats' umbilical cord MSCs].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuhai; Feng, Shiqing; Wang, Xue

    2009-12-01

    To study the growth characteristics of umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) in vitro and its effect on the nerve regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). UCMSCs isolated from pregnant rats umbilical cord were cultured and purified in vitro. Sixty female Wistar rats weighing (300 +/- 10) g were randomized into three groups (n=20 per group). UCMSCs group (group A) in which UCMSCs suspension injection was conducted; DMEM control group (group B) in which 10% DMEM injection was conducted; sham group (group C) in which the animal received laminectomy only. Establish acute SCI model (T10) by Impactor model-II device in group A and group B. The recovery of the lower extremity was observed using BBB locomotor scoring system, neurofilament 200 (NF-200) immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the neural regeneration, and then the corticospinal tract (CST) was observed using the biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) tracing. Cultured UCMSCs were spindle-shaped fibrocyte-like adherent growth, swirling or parallelly. The USMSCs expressed CD29, but not CD31, CD45, and HLA-DR. The BBB score was higher in group A than group B 4, 5, and 6 weeks after operation, and there was a significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). The BBB scores at different time points were significantly lower in groups A and B than that in group C (P < 0.05). UCMSCs was proved to survive and assemble around the injured place by frozen section of the cords 6 weeks after injury. NF-200 positive response area in groups A, B, and C was (11,943 +/- 856), (7,986 +/- 627), and (13,117 +/- 945) pixels, respectively, suggesting there was a significant difference between groups A, C and group B (P < 0.05), and no significant difference was evident between group A and group C (P > 0.05). BDA anterograde tracing 10 weeks after operation demonstrated that more regenerated nerve fibers went through injured area in group A, but just quite few nerve fibers in group B went through the injuried cavity. The ratios

  8. [The metabolic profilings study of serum and spinal cord from acute spinal cord injury rats ¹H NMR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Hu, Hua-Hui; Huang, Xiao-Long; Quan, Ren-Fu; Yang, Zong-Bao; Xu, Jing-Jing

    2017-02-25

    To establish the rat model of acute spinal cord injury, followed by aprimary study on this model with ¹H NMR based on metabonomics and to explore the metabonomics and biomarkers of spinal cord injury rat. Twenty eight-week-old adult male SD rats of clean grade, with body weight of (200±10) g, were divided into sham operation group and model group in accordance with the law of random numbers, and every group had 10 rats. The rats of sham operation group were operated without damaging the spinal cord, and rats of model group were made an animal model of spinal cord incomplete injury according to the modified Allen's method. According to BBB score to observate the motor function of rats on the 1th, 5th, and 7th days after surgery. Postoperative spinal cord tissue was collected in order to pathologic observation at the 7th day, and the metabolic profilings of serum and spinal cord from spinal cord injury rats were studied by ¹H NMR spectroscopy. The hindlimb motion of rats did not obviously change in sham operation group, there was no significant difference at each time point;and rats of model group occurred flaccid paralysis of both lower extremities, there was a significant difference at each time; there was significant differences between two groups at each time. Pathological results showed the spinal cord structure was normal with uniform innervation in shame group, while in model group, the spinal cord structure was mussy, and the neurons were decreased, with inflammatory cells and necrotic tissue. Analysis of metabonomics showed that concentration of very low density fat protein (VLDL), low density fat protein (LDL), glutamine, citric acid, dimethylglycine (DMG) in the serum and glutathione, 3-OH-butyrate, N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid (NAA), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glutamic acid, and ascorbate in spinal cord had significant changes( P <0.05). There are significant differences in metabolic profile from serum and spinal cord sample between model group and sham

  9. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Taweel, Waleed Al; Seyam, Raouf

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:26090342

  10. Outcome Measures in Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Marcalee S.; Anderson, Kim; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Blight, Andrew R.; Brannon, Ruth; Bryce, Thomas; Creasey, Graham; Catz, Amiram; Curt, Armin; Donovan, William; Ditunno, John; Ellaway, Peter; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Graves, Daniel E.; Haynes, Beth Ann; Heinemann, Allen W.; Jackson, Amie B.; Johnston, Mark; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Kleitman, Naomi; Krassioukov, Andrei; Krogh, Klaus; Lammertse, Daniel; Magasi, Susan; Mulcahey, MJ; Schurch, Brigitte; Sherwood, Arthur; Steeves, John D.; Stiens, Steven; Tulsky, David S.; van Hedel, Hubertus J.A.; Whiteneck, Gale

    2009-01-01

    Study Design review by the Spinal Cord Outcomes Partnership Endeavor (SCOPE), which is a broad-based international consortium of scientists and clinical researchers representing academic institutions, industry, government agencies, not-for-profit organizations and foundations. Objectives assessment of current and evolving tools for evaluating human spinal cord injury (SCI) outcomes for both clinical diagnosis and clinical research studies. Methods a framework for the appraisal of evidence of metric properties was used to examine outcome tools or tests for accuracy, sensitivity, reliability and validity for human SCI. Results imaging, neurological, functional, autonomic, sexual health, bladder/bowel, pain, and psycho-social tools were evaluated. Several specific tools for human SCI studies have or are being developed to allow the more accurate determination for a clinically meaningful benefit (improvement in functional outcome or quality of life) being achieved as a result of a therapeutic intervention. Conclusion significant progress has been made, but further validation studies are required to identify the most appropriate tools for specific targets in a human SCI study or clinical trial. PMID:19381157

  11. Involvement of the Spinal Cord in Mitochondrial Disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Zarrouk-Mahjoub, Sinda

    2018-01-01

    This review aims at summarising and discussing the current status concerning the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of spinal cord affection in mitochondrial disorders (MIDs). A literature search using the database Pubmed was carried out by application of appropriate search terms and their combinations. Involvement of the spinal cord in MIDs is more frequent than anticipated. It occurs in specific and non-specific MIDs. Among the specific MIDs it has been most frequently described in LBSL, LS, MERRF, KSS, IOSCA, MIRAS, and PCH and only rarely in MELAS, CPEO, and LHON. Clinically, spinal cord involvement manifests as monoparesis, paraparesis, quadruparesis, sensory disturbances, hypotonia, spasticity, urinary or defecation dysfunction, spinal column deformities, or as transverse syndrome. Diagnosing spinal cord involvement in MIDs requires a thoroughly taken history, clinical exam, and imaging studies. Additionally, transcranial magnetic stimulation, somato-sensory-evoked potentials, and cerebro-spinal fluid can be supportive. Treatment is generally not at variance compared to the underlying MID but occasionally surgical stabilisation of the spinal column may be necessary. It is concluded that spinal cord involvement in MIDs is more frequent than anticipated but may be missed if cerebral manifestations prevail. Spinal cord involvement in MIDs may strongly determine the mobility of these patients.

  12. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a patient's spinal cord to relieve... on the patient's spinal cord and an external transmitter for transmitting the stimulating pulses...

  13. Revisiting the segmental organization of the human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Leijnse, J N; D'Herde, K

    2016-09-01

    In classic anatomic atlases, the spinal cord is standardly represented in its anatomical form with symmetrically emerging anterior and posterior roots, which at the level of the intervertebral foramen combine into the spinal nerves. The parts of the cord delimited by the boundaries of the roots are called segments or myelomeres. Associated with their regular repetitive appearance is the notion that the cord is segmentally organized. This segmental view is reinforced by clinical practice. Spinal cord roots innervate specific body parts. The level of cord trauma is diagnosed by the de-innervation symptoms of these parts. However, systemically, the case for a segmentally organized cord is not so clear. To date, developmental and genetic research points to a regionally rather than a segmentally organized cord. In the present study, to what degree the fila radicularia are segmentally implanted along the cord was investigated. The research hypothesis was that if the fila radicularia were non-segmentally implanted at the cord surface, it would be unlikely that the internal neuron stratum would be segmented. The visual segmented aspect of the myelomeres would then be the consequence of the necessary bundling of axons towards the vertebral foramen as the only exits of the vertebral canal, rather than of an underlying segment organization of the cord itself. To investigate the research hypothesis, the fila radicularia in the cervical-upper thoracic part of five spinal cords were detached from their spinal nerves and dissected in detail. The principal research question was if the fila radicularia are separated from their spinal nerves and dissected from their connective tissues up to the cord, would it be possible to reconstruct the original spinal segments from the morphology and interspaces of the fila? The dissections revealed that the anterior fila radicularia emerge from the cord at regular regionally modulated interspaces without systematic segmental delineations. The

  14. What Are the Key Statistics about Brain and Spinal Cord Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Key Statistics for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors The American ... Cord Tumors . Visit the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Statistics Center for more key statistics. Written by References ...

  15. Cooling athletes with a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Katy E; Price, Michael J; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Cooling strategies that help prevent a reduction in exercise capacity whilst exercising in the heat have received considerable research interest over the past 3 decades, especially in the lead up to a relatively hot Olympic and Paralympic Games. Progressing into the next Olympic/Paralympic cycle, the host, Rio de Janeiro, could again present an environmental challenge for competing athletes. Despite the interest and vast array of research into cooling strategies for the able-bodied athlete, less is known regarding the application of these cooling strategies in the thermoregulatory impaired spinal cord injured (SCI) athletic population. Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have a reduced afferent input to the thermoregulatory centre and a loss of both sweating capacity and vasomotor control below the level of the spinal cord lesion. The magnitude of this thermoregulatory impairment is proportional to the level of the lesion. For instance, individuals with high-level lesions (tetraplegia) are at a greater risk of heat illness than individuals with lower-level lesions (paraplegia) at a given exercise intensity. Therefore, cooling strategies may be highly beneficial in this population group, even in moderate ambient conditions (~21 °C). This review was undertaken to examine the scientific literature that addresses the application of cooling strategies in individuals with an SCI. Each method is discussed in regards to the practical issues associated with the method and the potential underlying mechanism. For instance, site-specific cooling would be more suitable for an athlete with an SCI than whole body water immersion, due to the practical difficulties of administering this method in this population group. From the studies reviewed, wearing an ice vest during intermittent sprint exercise has been shown to decrease thermal strain and improve performance. These garments have also been shown to be effective during exercise in the able-bodied. Drawing on

  16. Making sense out of spinal cord somatosensory development

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Rebecca P.

    2016-01-01

    The spinal cord integrates and relays somatosensory input, leading to complex motor responses. Research over the past couple of decades has identified transcription factor networks that function during development to define and instruct the generation of diverse neuronal populations within the spinal cord. A number of studies have now started to connect these developmentally defined populations with their roles in somatosensory circuits. Here, we review our current understanding of how neuronal diversity in the dorsal spinal cord is generated and we discuss the logic underlying how these neurons form the basis of somatosensory circuits. PMID:27702783

  17. Propitious Therapeutic Modulators to Prevent Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hemant; Ropper, Alexander E; Lee, Soo-Hong; Han, Inbo

    2017-07-01

    The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is a specialized protective barrier that regulates the movement of molecules between blood vessels and the spinal cord parenchyma. Analogous to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the BSCB plays a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis and internal environmental stability of the central nervous system (CNS). After spinal cord injury (SCI), BSCB disruption leads to inflammatory cell invasion such as neutrophils and macrophages, contributing to permanent neurological disability. In this review, we focus on the major proteins mediating the BSCB disruption or BSCB repair after SCI. This review is composed of three parts. Section 1. SCI and the BSCB of the review describes critical events involved in the pathophysiology of SCI and their correlation with BSCB integrity/disruption. Section 2. Major proteins involved in BSCB disruption in SCI focuses on the actions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), angiopoietins (Angs), bradykinin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelins (ETs) in BSCB disruption and repair. Section 3. Therapeutic approaches discusses the major therapeutic compounds utilized to date for the prevention of BSCB disruption in animal model of SCI through modulation of several proteins.

  18. Capillary Hemangioma of the Thoracic Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sung-Kyun; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Seung-Won

    2010-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are common soft tissue tumors on the skin or mucosa of the head and neck in the early childhood, but very rare in the neuraxis. A 47-year-old man presented with one month history of back pain on the lower thoracic area, radiating pain to both legs, and hypesthesia below T7 dermatome. Thoracic spine MRI showed 1×1.3×1.5 cm, well-defined intradural mass at T6-7 disc space level, which showed isointensity to spinal cord on T1, heterogeneous isointensity on T2-weighted images, and homogeneous strong enhancement. The patient underwent T6-7 total laminotomy, complete tumor removal and laminoplasty. Histologically, the mass showed a capsulated nodular lesion composed of capillary-sized vascular channels, which were tightly packed into nodules separated by fibrous septa. These features were consistent with capillary hemangioma. PMID:21082058

  19. Functional Electrical Stimulation and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chester H.; Triolo, Ronald J.; Elias, Anastasia L.; Kilgore, Kevin L.; DiMarco, Anthony F.; Bogie, Kath; Vette, Albert H.; Audu, Musa; Kobetic, Rudi; Chang, Sarah R.; Chan, K. Ming; Dukelow, Sean; Bourbeau, Dennis J.; Brose, Steven W.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Kiss, Zelma; Mushahwar, Vivian K.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Spinal cord injuries (SCI) can disrupt communications between the brain and the body, leading to a loss of control over otherwise intact neuromuscular systems. The use of electrical stimulation (ES) of the central and peripheral nervous system can take advantage of these intact neuromuscular systems to provide therapeutic exercise options, to allow functional restoration, and even to manage or prevent many medical complications following SCI. The use of ES for the restoration of upper extremity, lower extremity and truncal functions can make many activities of daily living a potential reality for individuals with SCI. Restoring bladder and respiratory functions and preventing pressure ulcers may significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality following SCI. Many of the ES devices are already commercially available and should be considered by all SCI clinicians routinely as part of the lifelong rehabilitation care plan for all eligible individuals with SCI. PMID:25064792

  20. Aurora kinase B regulates axonal outgrowth and regeneration in the spinal motor neurons of developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gwee, Serene S L; Radford, Rowan A W; Chow, Sharron; Syal, Monisha D; Morsch, Marco; Formella, Isabel; Lee, Albert; Don, Emily K; Badrock, Andrew P; Cole, Nicholas J; West, Adrian K; Cheung, Steve N S; Chung, Roger S

    2018-02-21

    Aurora kinase B (AurkB) is a serine/threonine protein kinase with a well-characterised role in orchestrating cell division and cytokinesis, and is prominently expressed in healthy proliferating and cancerous cells. However, the role of AurkB in differentiated and non-dividing cells has not been extensively explored. Previously, we have described a significant upregulation of AurkB expression in cultured cortical neurons following an experimental axonal transection. This is somewhat surprising, as AurkB expression is generally associated only with dividing cells Frangini et al. (Mol Cell 51:647-661, 2013); Hegarat et al. (J Cell Biol 195:1103-1113, 2011); Lu et al. (J Biol Chem 283:31785-31790, 2008); Trakala et al. (Cell Cycle 12:1030-1041, 2014). Herein, we present the first description of a role for AurkB in terminally differentiated neurons. AurkB was prominently expressed within post-mitotic neurons of the zebrafish brain and spinal cord. The expression of AurkB varied during the development of the zebrafish spinal motor neurons. Utilising pharmacological and genetic manipulation to impair AurkB activity resulted in truncation and aberrant motor axon morphology, while overexpression of AurkB resulted in extended axonal outgrowth. Further pharmacological inhibition of AurkB activity in regenerating axons delayed their recovery following UV laser-mediated injury. Collectively, these results suggest a hitherto unreported role of AurkB in regulating neuronal development and axonal outgrowth.

  1. Spinal interneurons differentiate sequentially from those driving the fastest swimming movements in larval zebrafish to those driving the slowest ones.

    PubMed

    McLean, David L; Fetcho, Joseph R

    2009-10-28

    Studies of neuronal networks have revealed few general principles that link patterns of development with later functional roles. While investigating the neural control of movements, we recently discovered a topographic map in the spinal cord of larval zebrafish that relates the position of motoneurons and interneurons to their order of recruitment during swimming. Here, we show that the map reflects an orderly pattern of differentiation of neurons driving different movements. First, we use high-speed filming to show that large-amplitude swimming movements with bending along much of the body appear first, with smaller, regional swimming movements emerging later. Next, using whole-cell patch recordings, we demonstrate that the excitatory circuits that drive large-amplitude, fast swimming movements at larval stages are present and functional early on in embryos. Finally, we systematically assess the orderly emergence of spinal circuits according to swimming speed using transgenic fish expressing the photoconvertible protein Kaede to track neuronal differentiation in vivo. We conclude that a simple principle governs the development of spinal networks in which the neurons driving the fastest, most powerful swimming in larvae develop first with ones that drive increasingly weaker and slower larval movements layered on over time. Because the neurons are arranged by time of differentiation in the spinal cord, the result is a topographic map that represents the speed/strength of movements at which neurons are recruited and the temporal emergence of networks. This pattern may represent a general feature of neuronal network development throughout the brain and spinal cord.

  2. Update on traumatic acute spinal cord injury. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Mourelo Fariña, M; Salvador de la Barrera, S; Montoto Marqués, A; Ferreiro Velasco, M E; Galeiras Vázquez, R

    The aim of treatment in acute traumatic spinal cord injury is to preserve residual neurologic function, avoid secondary injury, and restore spinal alignment and stability. In this second part of the review, we describe the management of spinal cord injury focusing on issues related to short-term respiratory management, where the preservation of diaphragmatic function is a priority, with prediction of the duration of mechanical ventilation and the need for tracheostomy. Surgical assessment of spinal injuries based on updated criteria is discussed, taking into account that although the type of intervention depends on the surgical team, nowadays treatment should afford early spinal decompression and stabilization. Within a comprehensive strategy in spinal cord injury, it is essential to identify and properly treat patient anxiety and pain associated to spinal cord injury, as well as to prevent and ensure the early diagnosis of complications secondary to spinal cord injury (thromboembolic disease, gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, pressure ulcers). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Spinal cord tumors: new views and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mechtler, Laszlo L; Nandigam, Kaveer

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord tumors are uncommon neoplasms that, without treatment, can cause significant neurologic morbidity and mortality. The historic classification of spine tumors is based on the use of myelography with 3 main groups: (1) extramedullary extradural, (2) intradural extramedullary, and (3) intradural intramedullary. This chapter focuses on intramedullary spinal cord tumors (ISCTs), with an emphasis on new diagnostic imaging modalities and treatment options. The common ISCTs include ependymoma, astrocytoma and hemangioblastoma, which together account for over 90% of primary ISCTs. Rare tumors such as gangliglioma, oligodendroglioma, paraganglioma, melanocytoma, lipoma, and primary spinal cord lymphoma are also included in this review, in addition to spinal cord metastatic disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling the neuroanatomic propagation of ALS in the spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drawert, Brian; Thakore, Nimish; Mitchell, Brian; Pioro, Erik; Ravits, John; Petzold, Linda R.

    2017-07-01

    Recent hypotheses of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression have posited a point-source origin of motor neuron death with neuroanatomic propagation either contiguously to adjacent regions, or along networks via axonal and synaptic connections. Although the molecular mechanisms of propagation are unknown, one leading hypothesis is a "prion-like" spread of misfolded and aggregated proteins, including SOD1 and TDP-43. We have developed a mathematical model representing cellular and molecular spread of ALS in the human spinal cord. Our model is based on the stochastic reaction-diffusion master equation approach using a tetrahedral discretized space to capture the complex geometry of the spinal cord. Domain dimension and shape was obtained by reconstructing human spinal cord from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images and known gross and histological neuroanatomy. Our preliminary results qualitatively recapitulate the clinically observed pattern of spread of ALS thorough the spinal cord.

  5. Normalization of Blood Pressure With Spinal Cord Epidural Stimulation After Severe Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Harkema, Susan J.; Wang, Siqi; Angeli, Claudia A.; Chen, Yangsheng; Boakye, Maxwell; Ugiliweneza, Beatrice; Hirsch, Glenn A.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic low blood pressure and orthostatic hypotension remain challenging clinical issues after severe spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting health, rehabilitation, and quality of life. We previously reported that targeted lumbosacral spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES) could promote stand and step functions and restore voluntary movement in patients with chronic motor complete SCI. This study addresses the effects of targeted scES for cardiovascular function (CV-scES) in individuals with severe SCI who suffer from chronic hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that CV-scES can increase resting blood pressure and attenuate chronic hypotension in individuals with chronic cervical SCI. Four research participants with chronic cervical SCI received an implant of a 16-electrode array on the dura (L1–S1 cord segments, T11–L1 vertebrae). Individual-specific CV-scES configurations (anode and cathode electrode selection, voltage, frequency, and pulse width) were identified to maintain systolic blood pressure within targeted normative ranges without skeletal muscle activity of the lower extremities as assessed by electromyography. These individuals completed five 2-h sessions using CV-scES in an upright, seated position during measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. Noninvasive continuous blood pressure was measured from a finger cuff by plethysmograph technique. For each research participant there were statistically significant increases in mean arterial pressure in response to CV-scES that was maintained within normative ranges. This result was reproducible over the five sessions with concomitant decreases or no changes in heart rate using individual-specific CV-scES that was modulated with modest amplitude changes throughout the session. Our study shows that stimulating dorsal lumbosacral spinal cord can effectively and safely activate mechanisms to elevate blood pressures to normal ranges from a chronic hypotensive state in humans with severe SCI with

  6. Spinal cord stress injury assessment (SCOSIA): clinical applications of mechanical modeling of the spinal cord and brainstem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Choi, Jae; Wilson, William; Berry, Joel; Henderson, Fraser C., Sr.

    2009-02-01

    Abnormal stretch and strain is a major cause of injury to the spinal cord and brainstem. Such forces can develop from age-related degeneration, congenital malformations, occupational exposure, or trauma such as sporting accidents, whiplash and blast injury. While current imaging technologies provide excellent morphology and anatomy of the spinal cord, there is no validated diagnostic tool to assess mechanical stresses exerted upon the spinal cord and brainstem. Furthermore, there is no current means to correlate these stress patterns with known spinal cord injuries and other clinical metrics such as neurological impairment. We have therefore developed the spinal cord stress injury assessment (SCOSIA) system, which uses imaging and finite element analysis to predict stretch injury. This system was tested on a small cohort of neurosurgery patients. Initial results show that the calculated stress values decreased following surgery, and that this decrease was accompanied by a significant decrease in neurological symptoms. Regression analysis identified modest correlations between stress values and clinical metrics. The strongest correlations were seen with the Brainstem Disability Index (BDI) and the Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), whereas the weakest correlations were seen with the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale. SCOSIA therefore shows encouraging initial results and may have wide applicability to trauma and degenerative disease involving the spinal cord and brainstem.

  7. Experiences of Living with Pain after a Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0465 TITLE: Experiences of Living with Pain after a...COVERED 01 September 2012 – 31 August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experiences of Living with Pain after a Spinal Cord Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Persistent chronic pain is prevalent after a spinal cord injury (SCI), with

  8. Release and repair of a ventral thoracic spinal cord herniation.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Ventral thoracic spinal cord herniation is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of progressive myelopathy. This video demonstrates the imaging characteristics and surgical techniques for release and reduction of the spinal cord herniation as well as primary repair and reinforcement of the ventral dural hernia defect through an extended posterior approach. An instrumented fusion was concomitantly performed. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/6Pcokep6Tug.

  9. Heterogeneity of Opioid Binding Sites in Guinea Pig Spinal Cord

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-30

    the release of substance P from spinal cord. Substance P is one of the putative transmitters of y nociceptive i m p u l ^ (Lembeck et al., 1981), and...is located in primary afferents of spinal cord (Jessel et al., 1978). Demonstration of morphine’s abil it/ to inhibit the relea^ of substance P ...demonstrate enkephalin’s ability to inhibit substance P relea^ from senajry neurons in culture as well as to cteirease the action potential of these

  10. The negotiated equilibrium model of spinal cord function.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2018-04-16

    The belief that the spinal cord is hardwired is no longer tenable. Like the rest of the CNS, the spinal cord changes during growth and aging, when new motor behaviours are acquired, and in response to trauma and disease. This paper describes a new model of spinal cord function that reconciles its recently appreciated plasticity with its long recognized reliability as the final common pathway for behaviour. According to this model, the substrate of each motor behaviour comprises brain and spinal plasticity: the plasticity in the brain induces and maintains the plasticity in the spinal cord. Each time a behaviour occurs, the spinal cord provides the brain with performance information that guides changes in the substrate of the behaviour. All the behaviours in the repertoire undergo this process concurrently; each repeatedly induces plasticity to preserve its key features despite the plasticity induced by other behaviours. The aggregate process is a negotiation among the behaviours: they negotiate the properties of the spinal neurons and synapses that they all use. The ongoing negotiation maintains the spinal cord in an equilibrium - a negotiated equilibrium - that serves all the behaviours. This new model of spinal cord function is supported by laboratory and clinical data, makes predictions borne out by experiment, and underlies a new approach to restoring function to people with neuromuscular disorders. Further studies are needed to test its generality, to determine whether it may apply to other CNS areas such as the cerebral cortex, and to develop its therapeutic implications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional characterization of mouse spinal cord infiltrating CD8+ lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Chandra; Howe, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the immunopathogenesis of neuroimmunological diseases of the CNS requires a robust method for isolating and characterizing the immune effector cells that infiltrate the spinal cord in animal models. We have developed a simple and rapid isolation method that produces high yields of spinal cord infiltrating leukocytes from a single demyelinated spinal cord and which maintains high surface expression of key immunophenotyping antigens. Using this method and the Theiler’s virus model of chronic demyelination, we report the presence of spinal cord infiltrating acute effector CD8+ lymphocytes that are CD45hiCD44loCD62L− and a population of spinal cord infiltrating target effector memory CD8+ lymphocytes that are CD45hiCD44hiCD62L−. These cells respond robustly to ex vivo stimulation by producing interferon γ but do not exhibit specificity for Theiler’s virus in a cytotoxicity assay. We conclude that target-derived lymphocytes in a mouse model of chronic spinal cord demyelination may have unique functional specificities. PMID:19596449

  12. Variations in the formation of the human caudal spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Saraga-Babić, M; Sapunar, D; Wartiovaara, J

    1995-01-01

    Collection of 15 human embryos between 4-8 developmental weeks was used to histologically investigate variations in the development of the caudal part of the spinal cord and the neighboring axial organs (notochord and vertebral column). In the 4-week embryo, two types of neurulation were parallelly observed along the anteroposterior body axis: primary in the areas cranial to the neuroporus caudalis and secondary in the more caudal tail regions. In the 5-week embryos, both parts of the neural tube fused, forming only one continuous lumen in the developing spinal cord. In the three examined embryos we found anomalous pattern of spinal cord formation. Caudal parts of these spinal cords displayed division of their central canal into two or three separate lumina, each surrounded by neuroepithelial layer. In the caudal area of the spinal cord, derived by secondary neurulation, formation of separate lumina was neither connected to any anomalous notochord or vertebral column formation, nor the appearance of any major axial disturbances. We suggest that development of the caudal part of the spinal cord differs from its cranial region not only in the type of neurulation, but also in the destiny of its derivatives and possible modes of abnormality formation.

  13. The spinal cord and its roots according to Galen.

    PubMed

    Viale, Giuseppe L

    2004-06-01

    Galen's methodological approach to medicine anticipated modern rules. His experiments on the spinal cord contributed greatly to our knowledge of this structure by reporting the variegated pattern of neurological impairment after sectioning at different levels. His approach to injuries of the spinal roots and peripheral nerves documents both diagnostic skill and intellectual honesty.

  14. Optical monitoring of spinal cord subcellular damage after acute spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Manouchehri, Neda; So, Kitty; Shortt, Katelyn; Fong, Allan; Streijger, Femke; Macnab, Andrew; Kwon, Brian K.

    2018-02-01

    Introduction: Sudden physical trauma to the spinal cord results in acute spinal cord injury (SCI), leading to spinal cord (SC) tissue destruction, acute inflammation, increased SC intraparenchymal pressure, and tissue ischemia, hypoxia, and cellular necrosis. The ability to monitor SC tissue viability at subcellular level, using a real-time noninvasive method, would be extremely valuable to clinicians for estimating acute SCI damage, and adjusting and monitoring treatment in the intensive care setting. This study examined the feasibility and sensitivity of a custommade near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensor to monitor the oxidation state of SC mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 (CCO), which reflects the subcellular damage of SC tissue in an animal model of SCI. Methods: Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were studied using a custom-made multi-wavelength NIRS system with a miniaturized optical sensor applied directly on the surgically exposed SC at T9. The oxidation states of SC tissue hemoglobin and CCO were monitored before, during and after acute SCI, and during mean arterial pressure alterations. Results: Non-invasive NIRS monitoring reflected changes in SC tissue CCO, simultaneous but independent of changes in hemoglobin saturation following acute SCI. A consistent decrease in SC tissue CCO chromophore concentration (-1.98 +/- 2.1 ab, p<0.05) was observed following SCI, indicating progressive SC cellular damage at the injury site. Elevation of mean arterial pressure can reduce SC tissue damage as suggested by different researchers and observed by significant increase in SC tissue CCO concentration (1.51 +/- 1.7 ab, p<0.05) in this study. Conclusions: This pilot study indicates that a novel miniaturized multi-wave NIRS sensor has the potential to monitor post-SCI changes of SC cytochrome aa3 oxygenation state in real time. Further development of this method may offer new options for improved SCI care.

  15. Sexual counseling with spinal cord-injured clients.

    PubMed

    Miller, D K

    1975-01-01

    Spinal cord-injured clients have many fears and misapprehension about their sexual functioning. Common beliefs include: (a) disabled men cannot sexually satisfy able-bodied women; and (b) cord-injured persons cannot have sexual intercourse. Such misapprehensions can be helped by the counselor's willingness to discuss sexual issues openly. Clients need a clear and accurate picture of the facts, as well as encouragement and support to help them rediscover their sexuality. Spinal cord injury does not mean sexual incapacity. Given a knowing and patient partner, most clients can enjoy a satisfying sex life.

  16. Vocational outcome following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Conroy, L; McKenna, K

    1999-09-01

    Non-experimental (ex post facto) survey research design involving the use of a fixed alternative format questionnaire. To investigate variables influencing vocational outcome, to identify barriers to gaining and sustaining employment and to identify the effects of variables on the type of work engaged in following spinal cord injury. The two sets of independent variables considered were, individual and injury-related factors (age at onset of injury, time since injury, extent/level of injury, highest educational qualification achieved pre-injury, and pre-injury occupation) and circumstantial factors (means of transport, access difficulties, perceived workplace discrimination, financial disincentives to work and perceived level of skill). The Princess Alexandra Hospital Spinal Injuries Unit, Queensland, Australia. Data on the variables and the vocational outcomes of having ever worked or studied post-injury, current employment status and post-injury occupation were obtained from survey responses. Demographical and medical data were gathered from medical records. Forward stepwise logistic regression revealed that having ever worked or studied post-injury was associated with all individual and injury-related factors except pre-injury occupation, and two circumstantial factors, namely means of transport and access difficulties. Current employment was associated with all circumstantial factors as well as age at injury and pre-injury occupation. Standard multiple regression analyses revealed that post-injury occupation was correlated with all individual and injury-related factors as well as means of transport and perceived workplace discrimination. Tailored rehabilitation programs for individuals with characteristics associated with less successful vocational outcomes may facilitate their employment status after injury.

  17. Congenital Zika Virus Infection Induces Severe Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Fernando S; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y; da Silva, Luis L; Figueiredo, Luiz T M; Rocha, Lenaldo B; Neder, Luciano; Teixeira, Sara R; Apolinário, Letícia A; Ramalho, Leandra N Z; Silva, Deisy M; Coutinho, Conrado M; Melli, Patrícia P; Augusto, Marlei J; Santoro, Ligia B; Duarte, Geraldo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M

    2017-08-15

    We report 2 fatal cases of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Brain anomalies, including atrophy of the cerebral cortex and brainstem, and cerebellar aplasia were observed. The spinal cord showed architectural distortion, severe neuronal loss, and microcalcifications. The ZIKV proteins and flavivirus-like particles were detected in cytoplasm of spinal neurons, and spinal cord samples were positive for ZIKV RNA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Recurrent ‘universal tumour’ of the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, John; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Lipoma is popularly known as the ‘universal tumour’ because of its ubiquitous presence anywhere in the body. This is the first documented case of recurrent thoracic spinal cord intramedullary lipoma in a 44-year-old man, with a background of spinal dysraphism, which recurred 15 years after initial surgery. He was followed up every 2 years and currently presented with an 8-month history of progressive weakness in his lower limbs. An MRI of the spine confirmed recurrence of lipoma. He underwent redo laminectomy and partial resection and spinal cord decompression with duroplasty. Lipoma, although a low-grade tumour, can cause significant neurological deficits because of its location. Surgical exploration and removal of lipoma is recommended. However, to preserve the functionality of the spinal cord, one may resort to partial resection and aim for spinal cord decompression. The literature on spinal cord lipoma is reviewed and the aetiopathogenesis of this rare occurrence is described. PMID:22675149

  19. Migration of luque rods through a laminectomy defect causing spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Quint, D J; Salton, G

    1993-01-01

    Internal fixation of traumatic spinal injuries has been associated with spinal canal stenosis, spinal cord compression, and nerve root impingement. We present a case of spinal cord/cauda equina compression due to migration of intact, anchored thoracolumbar Luque rods into the spinal canal through a laminectomy defect, leading to neurologic complications 10 years after the original operation.

  20. Enrichment of spinal cord cell cultures with motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Spinal cord cell cultures contain several types of neurons. Two methods are described for enriching such cultures with motoneurons (defined here simply as cholinergic cells that are capable of innervating muscle). In the first method, 7-day embryonic chick spinal cord neurons were separated according to size by 1 g velocity sedimentation. It is assumed that cholinergic motoneurons are among the largest cells present at this stage. The spinal cords were dissociated vigorously so that 95-98% of the cells in the initial suspension were isolated from one another. Cells in leading fractions (large cell fractions: LCFs) contain about seven times as much choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity per unit cytoplasm as do cells in trailing fractions (small cell fractions: SCFs). Muscle cultures seeded with LCFs develop 10-70 times as much CAT as cultures seeded with SCFs and six times as much CAT as cultures seeded with control (unfractionated) spinal cord cells. More than 20% of the large neurons in LCF-muscle cultures innervate nearby myotubes. In the second method, neurons were gently dissociated from 4-day embryonic spinal cords and maintained in vitro. This approach is based on earlier observations that cholinergic neurons are among the first cells to withdraw form the mitotic cycle in the developing chick embryo (Hamburger, V. 1948. J. Comp. Neurol. 88:221- 283; and Levi-Montalcini, R. 1950. J. Morphol. 86:253-283). 4-Day spinal cord-muscle cultures develop three times as much CAT as do 7-day spinal cord-muscle plates, prepared in the same (gentle) manner. More than 50% of the relatively large 4-day neurons innervate nearby myotubes. Thus, both methods are useful first steps toward the complete isolation of motoneurons. Both methods should facilitate study of the development of cholinergic neurons and of nerve-muscle synapse formation. PMID:566275

  1. Spinal cord lesions in Bangladesh: an epidemiological study 1994 - 1995.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M F; Grangeon, C; Reed, K

    1999-12-01

    Spinal Cord Lesions are a major public health problem in Bangladesh. This epidemiological study was undertaken in order to identify the causes of spinal cord lesions and thus to allow prevention and control programs to be developed. The records of 247 patients with spinal cord lesions admitted to The Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP), Savar, Dhaka from January 1994 to June 1995 were reviewed retrospectively. Comparisons were made with the reports of studies from other countries, both developing and developed. The most common cause of traumatic lesions was a fall from a height followed by falling when carrying a heavy weight on the head and road traffic accidents. Most of the patients were between 20 - 40 years old and the overall age group ranged from 10 - 70 years. The male:female ratio was 7.5 : 1.0. Among the traumatic spinal cord lesions, 60% were paraplegics and 40% tetraplegics. Among the non-traumatic spinal cord lesions cases 84% were paraplegics and 16% tetraplegics. The leading cause of death resulted from respiratory complications and these deaths occurred in the very early period of admission. From the results it can be deduced that the high incidence of spinal cord lesion as a result from falls from a height, and from falling when carrying a heavy weight on the head, can be explained by the mainly agricultural based economy of Bangladesh. The most common age group (10 - 40 years) of patients reflects the socio-economic conditions of Bangladesh. The male:female ratio (7.5 : 1.0) of patients with a spinal cord lesion is due to the socio-economic status and to the traditional culture of the society.

  2. Noradrenergic innervation of the rat spinal cord caudal to a complete spinal cord transection: effects of olfactory ensheathing glia.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Aya; Kubasak, Marc D; Zhong, Hui; Kaplan, Jennifer; Roy, Roland R; Phelps, Patricia E

    2010-03-01

    Transplantation of olfactory bulb-derived olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) combined with step training improves hindlimb locomotion in adult rats with a complete spinal cord transection. Spinal cord injury studies use the presence of noradrenergic (NA) axons caudal to the injury site as evidence of axonal regeneration and we previously found more NA axons just caudal to the transection in OEG- than media-injected spinal rats. We therefore hypothesized that OEG transplantation promotes descending coeruleospinal regeneration that contributes to the recovery of hindlimb locomotion. Now we report that NA axons are present throughout the caudal stump of both media- and OEG-injected spinal rats and they enter the spinal cord from the periphery via dorsal and ventral roots and along large penetrating blood vessels. These results indicate that the presence of NA fibers in the caudal spinal cord is not a reliable indicator of coeruleospinal regeneration. We then asked if NA axons appose cholinergic neurons associated with motor functions, i.e., central canal cluster and partition cells (active during fictive locomotion) and somatic motor neurons (SMNs). We found more NA varicosities adjacent to central canal cluster cells, partition cells, and SMNs in the lumbar enlargement of OEG- than media-injected rats. As non-synaptic release of NA is common in the spinal cord, more associations between NA varicosities and motor-associated cholinergic neurons in the lumbar spinal cord may contribute to the improved treadmill stepping observed in OEG-injected spinal rats. This effect could be mediated through direct association with SMNs and/or indirectly via cholinergic interneurons. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. NORADRENERGIC INNERVATION OF THE RAT SPINAL CORD CAUDAL TO A COMPLETE SPINAL CORD TRANSECTION: EFFECTS OF OLFACTORY ENSHEATHING GLIA

    PubMed Central

    Takeoka, Aya; Kubasak, Marc D.; Zhong, Hui; Kaplan, Jennifer; Roy, Roland R.; Phelps, Patricia E.

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation of olfactory bulb-derived olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) combined with step training improves hindlimb locomotion in adult rats with a complete spinal cord transection. Spinal cord injury studies use the presence of noradrenergic (NA) axons caudal to the injury site as evidence of axonal regeneration and we previously found more NA axons just caudal to the transection in OEG- than media-injected spinal rats. We therefore hypothesized that OEG transplantation promotes descending coeruleospinal regeneration that contributes to the recovery of hindlimb locomotion. Now we report that NA axons are present throughout the caudal stump of both media- and OEG-injected spinal rats and they enter the spinal cord from the periphery via dorsal and ventral roots and along large penetrating blood vessels. These results indicate that the presence of NA fibers in the caudal spinal cord is not a reliable indicator of coeruleospinal regeneration. We then asked if NA axons appose cholinergic neurons associated with motor functions, i.e., central canal cluster and partition cells (active during fictive locomotion) and somatic motor neurons (SMNs). We found more NA varicosities adjacent to central canal cluster cells, partition cells, and SMNs in the lumbar enlargement of OEG- than media-injected rats. As non-synaptic release of NA is common in the spinal cord, more associations between NA varicosities and motor-associated cholinergic neurons in the lumbar spinal cord may contribute to the improved treadmill stepping observed in OEG-injected spinal rats. This effect could be mediated through direct association with SMNs and/or indirectly via cholinergic interneurons. PMID:20025875

  4. Earnings among people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, K; Loh, S Y; Omar, Z

    2011-09-01

    Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. To identify differences in earnings among participants with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their relation to demographic, injury, educational and employment-related factors. People living with SCI in the community who were members of a disability support organization. A total of 76 members who have had traumatic SCI for at least 2 years, between 15 and 64 years of age at time of study and were working before SCI were interviewed over the phone. The earnings were categorized as more, same or less than before SCI or no income for those unemployed. Of the 76 participants (who averaged about 15.1 years post SCI), only 13 participants (17.1%) were earning more than before injury, whereas majority were in the category of having no income, being unemployed at time of study, n=36 (47.4%). Factors positively related to earnings were having more years in education, both at time of injury and at time of survey. As anticipated, those currently in full time and paid employments were earning more while receipt of financial compensation was negatively related to earnings. Despite a lengthy period of time post SCI, only a minority were earning more, reflecting poorly on the quality of post SCI employment experience. The rehabilitation team should therefore focus on improving both educational and vocational opportunities for persons with SCI and aim for full time, paid employments. The current workers' compensation scheme renders the recipient at a static income and may need to be revised.

  5. Cardiovascular dysfunction following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Partida, Elizabeth; Mironets, Eugene; Hou, Shaoping; Tom, Veronica J.

    2016-01-01

    Both sensorimotor and autonomic dysfunctions often occur after spinal cord injury (SCI). Particularly, a high thoracic or cervical SCI interrupts supraspinal vasomotor pathways and results in disordered hemodynamics due to deregulated sympathetic outflow. As a result of the reduced sympathetic activity, patients with SCI may experience hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias, and hypothermia post-injury. In the chronic phase, changes within the CNS and blood vessels lead to orthostatic hypotension and life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia (AD). AD is characterized by an episodic, massive sympathetic discharge that causes severe hypertension associated with bradycardia. The syndrome is often triggered by unpleasant visceral or sensory stimuli below the injury level. Currently the only treatments are palliative – once a stimulus elicits AD, pharmacological vasodilators are administered to help reduce the spike in arterial blood pressure. However, a more effective means would be to mitigate AD development by attenuating contributing mechanisms, such as the reorganization of intraspinal circuits below the level of injury. A better understanding of the neuropathophysiology underlying cardiovascular dysfunction after SCI is essential to better develop novel therapeutic approaches to restore hemodynamic performance. PMID:27073353

  6. Spinal cord compression in two related Ursus arctos horribilis.

    PubMed

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A; Chen, Annie V; Roberts, Greg R; Schmidt, Carrie E; Layton, Arthur W

    2012-09-01

    Two 15-yr-old grizzly bear littermates were evaluated within 9 mo of each other with the symptom of acute onset of progressive paraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia. The most significant clinical examination finding was pelvic limb paresis in both bears. Magnetic resonance examinations of both bears showed cranial thoracic spinal cord compression. The first bear had left-sided extradural, dorsolateral spinal cord compression at T3-T4. Vertebral canal stenosis was also observed at T2-T3. Images of the second bear showed lateral spinal cord compression from T2-T3 to T4-T5. Intervertebral disk disease and associated spinal cord compression was also observed at T2-T3 and T3-T4. One grizzly bear continued to deteriorate despite reduced exercise, steroid, and antibiotic therapy. The bear was euthanized, and a necropsy was performed. The postmortem showed a spinal ganglion cyst that caused spinal cord compression at the level of T3-T4. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C3-T6. The second bear was prescribed treatment that consisted of a combination of reduced exercise and steroid therapy. He continued to deteriorate with these medical therapies and was euthanized 4 mo after diagnosis. A necropsy showed hypertrophy and protrusion of the dorsal longitudinal ligament at T2-T3 and T3-T4, with resulting spinal cord compression in this region. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C2-L1. This is one of few case reports that describes paresis in bears. It is the only case report, to the authors' knowledge, that describes spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings in a grizzly bear and also the only report that describes a cranial thoracic myelopathy in two related grizzly bears with neurologic signs.

  7. Intraspinal AAV Injections Immediately Rostral to a Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury Site Efficiently Transduces Neurons in Spinal Cord and Brain

    PubMed Central

    Klaw, Michelle C; Xu, Chen; Tom, Veronica J

    2013-01-01

    In the vast majority of studies utilizing adeno-associated virus (AAV) in central nervous system applications, including those published with spinal cord injury (SCI) models, AAV has been administered at the level of the cell body of neurons targeted for genetic modification, resulting in transduction of neurons in the vicinity of the injection site. However, as SCI interrupts many axon tracts, it may be more beneficial to transduce a diverse pool of supraspinal neurons. We determined if descending axons severed by SCI are capable of retrogradely transporting AAV to remotely transduce a variety of brain regions. Different AAV serotypes encoding the reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected into gray and white matter immediately rostral to a spinal transection site. This resulted in the transduction of thousands of neurons within the spinal cord and in multiple regions within the brainstem that project to spinal cord. In addition, we established that different serotypes had disparate regional specificity and that AAV5 transduced the most brain and spinal cord neurons. This is the first demonstration that retrograde transport of AAV by axons severed by SCI is an effective means to transduce a collection of supraspinal neurons. Thus, we identify a novel, minimally invasive means to transduce a variety of neuronal populations within both the spinal cord and the brain following SCI. This paradigm to broadly distribute viral vectors has the potential to be an important component of a combinatorial strategy to promote functional axonal regeneration. PMID:23881451

  8. Simultaneous Brain-Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning.

    PubMed

    Vahdat, Shahabeddin; Lungu, Ovidiu; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2015-06-01

    The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning. Specifically, we show learning-related modulation of activity in the C6-C8 spinal region, which is independent from that of related supraspinal sensorimotor structures. Moreover, a brain-spinal cord functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that the initial linear relationship between the spinal cord and sensorimotor cortex gradually fades away over the course of motor sequence learning, while the connectivity between spinal activity and cerebellum gains strength. These data suggest that the spinal cord not only constitutes an active functional component of the human motor learning network but also contributes distinctively from the brain to the learning process. The present findings open new avenues for rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, as they demonstrate that this part of the central nervous system is much more plastic than assumed before. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this intrinsic functional plasticity in the spinal cord warrant further investigations.

  9. Simultaneous Brain–Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Adad, Julien; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning. Specifically, we show learning-related modulation of activity in the C6–C8 spinal region, which is independent from that of related supraspinal sensorimotor structures. Moreover, a brain–spinal cord functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that the initial linear relationship between the spinal cord and sensorimotor cortex gradually fades away over the course of motor sequence learning, while the connectivity between spinal activity and cerebellum gains strength. These data suggest that the spinal cord not only constitutes an active functional component of the human motor learning network but also contributes distinctively from the brain to the learning process. The present findings open new avenues for rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, as they demonstrate that this part of the central nervous system is much more plastic than assumed before. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this intrinsic functional plasticity in the spinal cord warrant further investigations. PMID:26125597

  10. 'Full dose' reirradiation of human cervical spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ryu, S; Gorty, S; Kazee, A M; Bogart, J; Hahn, S S; Dalal, P S; Chung, C T; Sagerman, R H

    2000-02-01

    With the progress of modern multimodality cancer treatment, retreatment of late recurrences or second tumors became more commonly encountered in management of patients with cancer. Spinal cord retreatment with radiation is a common problem in this regard. Because radiation myelopathy may result in functional deficits, many oncologists are concerned about radiation-induced myelopathy when retreating tumors located within or immediately adjacent to the previous radiation portal. The treatment decision is complicated because it requires a pertinent assessment of prognostic factors with and without reirradiation, radiobiologic estimation of recovery of occult spinal cord damage from the previous treatment, as well as interactions because of multimodality treatment. Recent studies regarding reirradiation of spinal cord in animals using limb paralysis as an endpoint have shown substantial and almost complete recovery of spinal cord injury after a sufficient time after the initial radiotherapy. We report a case of "full" dose reirradiation of the entire cervical spinal cord in a patient who has not developed clinically detectable radiation-induced myelopathy on long-term follow-up of 17 years after the first radiotherapy and 5 years after the second radiotherapy.

  11. Return to work following spinal cord injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Lidal, Ingeborg Beate; Huynh, Tuan Khai; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2007-09-15

    To review literature on return to work (RTW) and employment in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), and present employment rates, factors influencing employment, and interventions aimed at helping people with SCI to obtain and sustain productive work. A systematic review for 2000 - 2006 was carried out in PubMed/Medline, AMED, (ISI) Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo and Sociological abstracts database. The keywords 'spinal cord injuries', 'spinal cord disorder', 'spinal cord lesion' or 'spinal cord disease' were cross-indexed with 'employment', 'return to work', 'occupation' or 'vocational'. Out of approximately 270 hits, 110 references were used, plus 13 more found elsewhere. Among individuals with SCI working at the time of injury 21 - 67% returned to work after injury. RTW was higher in persons injured at a younger age, had less severe injuries and higher functional independence. Employment rate improved with time after SCI. Persons with SCI employed ranged from 11.5% to 74%. Individuals who sustained SCI during childhood or adolescence had higher adult employment rates. Most common reported barriers to employment were problems with transportation, health and physical limitations, lack of work experience, education or training, physical or architectural barriers, discrimination by employers, and loss of benefits. Individuals with SCI discontinue working at younger age. This review confirmed low employment rates after SCI. Future research should explore interventions aimed at helping people with SCI to obtain and sustain productive work.

  12. Frequency Mapping of Rat Spinal Cord at 7T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Evan; Rauscher, Alexander; Kozlowski, Piotr; Yung, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    The spinal cord is an integral part of the nervous system responsible for sensory, motor, and reflex control crucial to all bodily function. Due to its non-invasive nature, MRI is well matched for characterizing and imaging of spinal cord, and is used extensively for clinical applications. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at high field (7T) using phase represents a new approach of characterizing spinal cord myelin. Theory suggests that microstructure differences in myelinated white matter (WM) and non-myelinated gray matter (GM) affect MR phase, measurable frequency shifts. Data from pilot experiments using a multi-gradient echo (MGE) sequence to image rat spinal cords placed parallel to main magnetic field B0 has shown frequency shifts between not only between WM and GM, but also between specific WM tracts of the dorsal column, including the fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus, and corticospinal tract. Using MGE, frequency maps at multiple echo times (TE) between 4ms and 22ms show a non-linear relationship between WM frequency, contrary to what was previously expected. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of MGE in revealing new information about spinal cord tissue microstructure, and lays important groundwork for in-vivo and human studies.

  13. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Characterization of the Porcine Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Shetye, Snehal; Troyer, Kevin; Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H. T.; Kwon, Brian K.; Cripton, Peter; Puttlitz, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Although quasi-static and quasi-linear viscoelastic properties of the spinal cord have been reported previously, there are no published studies that have investigated the fully (strain-dependent) nonlinear viscoelastic properties of the spinal cord. In this study, stress relaxation experiments and dynamic cycling were performed on six fresh porcine lumbar cord specimens to examine their viscoelastic mechanical properties. The stress relaxation data were fitted to a modified superposition formulation and a novel finite ramp time correction technique was applied. The parameters obtained from this fitting methodology were used to predict the average dynamic cyclic viscoelastic behavior of the porcine cord. The data indicate that the porcine spinal cord exhibited fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. The average weighted RMSE for a Heaviside ramp fit was 2.8kPa, which was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that of the nonlinear (comprehensive viscoelastic characterization (CVC) method) fit (0.365kPa). Further, the nonlinear mechanical parameters obtained were able to accurately predict the dynamic behavior, thus exemplifying the reliability of the obtained nonlinear parameters. These parameters will be important for future studies investigating various damage mechanisms of the spinal cord and studies developing high resolution finite elements models of the spine. PMID:24211612

  14. Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Paquin, M-Ê; El Mendili, M M; Gros, C; Dupont, S M; Cohen-Adad, J; Pradat, P-F

    2018-01-01

    There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year. Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Standard functional scale was recorded at the time of MR imaging and after 1 year. MR imaging data were processed automatically to measure the spinal cord, gray matter, and white matter cross-sectional areas. A statistical analysis assessed the difference in cross-sectional areas between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and controls, correlations between spinal cord and gray matter atrophy to clinical disability at baseline and at 1 year, and prediction of clinical disability at 1 year. Gray matter atrophy was more sensitive to discriminate patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls ( P = .004) compared with spinal cord atrophy ( P = .02). Gray matter and spinal cord cross-sectional areas showed good correlations with clinical scores at baseline ( R = 0.56 for gray matter and R = 0.55 for spinal cord; P < .01). Prediction at 1 year with clinical scores ( R 2 = 0.54) was improved when including a combination of gray matter and white matter cross-sectional areas ( R 2 = 0.74). Although improvements over spinal cord cross-sectional areas were modest, this study suggests the potential use of gray matter cross-sectional areas as an MR imaging structural biomarker to monitor the evolution of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. [Electrophysiological testing in spinal cord tumors].

    PubMed

    André-Obadia, N; Mauguière, F

    2017-11-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are useful to evaluate the functional impairment of motor and somatosensory pathways in spinal cord tumors. Conduction through pyramidal tracts is evaluated by motor EPs (MEPs) elicited by transcranial stimulation, magnetic for awake patients or electric in the operating room. Somatosensory EPs (SEPs) and laser EPs (LEPs) are complementary procedures to explore conduction in dorsal columns and spinothalamic tracts, respectively. MEPs as well as SEPs show conduction abnormalities in about 60% of cases with a sensitivity that increases up to 70% when both procedures are carried out. Abnormalities are observed in the absence of any clinical sign in respectively 7% and 15% of cases for MEPs and SEPs. Multilevel stimulations for SEPs recordings permit to detect segmental dysfunction in 70% in case of cervical TIM, even in the absence of clinical signs. LEPs are useful in specific clinical situations: they allow a dermatomal stimulation and are correlated to segmental thermoalgic anaesthesia. Electrophysiological testing plays an important role in the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy: before surgery, MEPs and SEPs objectively evaluate the functional impairment directly related to the lesion. They also help by permitting a follow-up, either before surgery when the surgical decision is delayed because of a good clinical tolerance of the lesion, or after operation to evaluate the functional evolution. Intraoperative monitoring of MEPs and SEPs allows informing the surgeon about the impact on each surgical manipulation. No prospective randomized study has been performed to date to compare clinical evolution after surgery with or without monitoring. Nevertheless, a wide consensus became established in favor of monitoring to limit the risk of postoperative definite deficit and to permit an optimal surgical resection without risk when responses are preserved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Spinal cord normalization in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jiwon; Seigo, Michaela; Saidha, Shiv; Sotirchos, Elias; Zackowski, Kathy; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry; Diener-West, Marie; Calabresi, Peter A; Reich, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord (SC) pathology is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and measures of SC-atrophy are increasingly utilized. Normalization reduces biological variation of structural measurements unrelated to disease, but optimal parameters for SC volume (SCV)-normalization remain unclear. Using a variety of normalization factors and clinical measures, we assessed the effect of SCV normalization on detecting group differences and clarifying clinical-radiological correlations in MS. 3T cervical SC-MRI was performed in 133 MS cases and 11 healthy controls (HC). Clinical assessment included expanded disability status scale (EDSS), MS functional composite (MSFC), quantitative hip-flexion strength ("strength"), and vibration sensation threshold ("vibration"). SCV between C3 and C4 was measured and normalized individually by subject height, SC-length, and intracranial volume (ICV). There were group differences in raw-SCV and after normalization by height and length (MS vs. HC; progressive vs. relapsing MS-subtypes, P < .05). There were correlations between clinical measures and raw-SCV (EDSS:r = -.20; MSFC:r = .16; strength:r = .35; vibration:r = -.19). Correlations consistently strengthened with normalization by length (EDSS:r = -.43; MSFC:r = .33; strength:r = .38; vibration:r = -.40), and height (EDSS:r = -.26; MSFC:r = .28; strength:r = .22; vibration:r = -.29), but diminished with normalization by ICV (EDSS:r = -.23; MSFC:r = -.10; strength:r = .23; vibration:r = -.35). In relapsing MS, normalization by length allowed statistical detection of correlations that were not apparent with raw-SCV. SCV-normalization by length improves the ability to detect group differences, strengthens clinical-radiological correlations, and is particularly relevant in settings of subtle disease-related SC-atrophy in MS. SCV-normalization by length may enhance the clinical utility of measures of SC-atrophy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  17. Robotic rehabilitation of spinal cord injury individual.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Various types of systems have been used for rehabilitation of Spinal cord injury (SCI) individuals, including mechanical orthoses, functional electrical stimulation (FES), hybrid system and robotic devices. Although, the use of robotic systems for rehabilitation of SCI subjects is increasing, there is not enough evidence to determine the positive and side effects of this system. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to find some evidences to support the influence of use of this system on the performance of the subjects. Furthermore, it was aimed to find the difference between the performances of paraplegic subjects while walking with robotic devices. An electronic search was done based on PubMed, Embase, Ebsco, and ISI Web of Knowledge to extract the data from 1970 to 2012. The quality of the research studies was evaluated by use of Black and Down tool. Although 250 papers have been found based on the selected key words, finally 10 papers have been selected for final analysis. There were only two clinical trials done in this regard. There are some improvements which were reported to body function and activities follow the use of robotic device. 1. Although various types of orthotic systems have been developed for paraplegic subjects for walking and rehabilitation, there is not enough research in this regard. 2. It is not easy to determine the therapeutic influence of robotic orthosis on the health status of paraplegic subjects. 3. There is a huge gap for a randomized clinical trial research to determine the effect of robotic system on the health status of the SCI subjects.

  18. Spirometry Testing Standards in Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Alyson; Garshick, Eric; Gross, Erica R.; Lieberman, Steven L.; Tun, Carlos G.; Brown, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives Because muscle paralysis makes it uncertain whether subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) can perform spirometry in accordance with American Thoracic Society (ATS) standards, determinants of test failure were examined. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. Participants Veterans with SCI at VA Boston Healthcare System and nonveterans recruited by mail and advertisement. Measurements and results Two hundred thirty of 278 subjects (83%) were able to produce three expiratory efforts lasting ≥ 6 s and without excessive back-extrapolated volume (EBEV). In 217 of 230 subjects (94%), FVC and FEV1 were each reproducible in accordance with 1994 ATS standards. In the remaining 48 subjects, efforts with smooth and continuous volume-time tracings and acceptable flow-volume loops were identified. These subjects had a lower percentage of predicted FVC, FEV1, and maximum expiratory and inspiratory pressures compared to the others, and a greater proportion had neurologically complete cervical injury (42% compared to 16%). In 19 subjects (40%), some expiratory efforts were not sustained maximally for ≥ 6 s but had at least a 0.5-s plateau at residual volume (short efforts). In eight subjects (17%), some efforts were not short but had EBEV. In the remaining 21 subjects (44%), some efforts were short, some had EBEV, and some had both. If these efforts were not rejected, 262 of 278 subjects (94%) would have produced three acceptable efforts, and in 257 subjects (92%), the efforts were reproducible. Conclusions Subjects with SCI with the most impaired respiratory muscles and abnormal pulmonary function are able to perform spirometry reproducibly despite not meeting usual ATS acceptability standards. Exclusion of these subjects would lead to bias in studies of respiratory function in SCI. The modification of spirometry testing standards to include efforts with EBEV and with a 0.5-s plateau if < 6 s would reduce the potential for

  19. [Posttraumatic syringomyelia in 2 patients with thoracic spinal cord lesions].

    PubMed

    Bollen, A E; Hoving, E W; Kuks, J B

    2000-04-29

    Two patients, men aged 42 and 40 years, developed new neurological symptoms 3 months and 22 years, respectively, after a traumatic high thoracic spinal cord injury. The MRI scan showed a cavity in the central part of the spinal cord, on which the diagnosis of 'posttraumatic syringomyelia' could be based. In one of the patients a syringo-subarachnoidal shunt was created, the other was treated conservatively because of a severe concomitant thoracic kyphosis. Posttraumatic syringomyelia is a potentially life-threathening late complication of spinal cord injury and is characterized by development of new neurological symptoms after a variable time interval. The most typical symptom of non-traumatic syringomyelia, viz. diminution of vital sensitivity without loss of gnostic sensitivity, is not necessarily present in posttraumatic syringomyelia. Surgical treatment of posttraumatic syringomyelia is advocated if there is progressive neurological deterioration, and consists of drainage of the syrinx.

  20. Spinal cord electrophysiology II: extracellular suction electrode fabrication.

    PubMed

    Garudadri, Suresh; Gallarda, Benjamin; Pfaff, Samuel; Alaynick, William

    2011-02-20

    Development of neural circuitries and locomotion can be studied using neonatal rodent spinal cord central pattern generator (CPG) behavior. We demonstrate a method to fabricate suction electrodes that are used to examine CPG activity, or fictive locomotion, in dissected rodent spinal cords. The rodent spinal cords are placed in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and the ventral roots are drawn into the suction electrode. The electrode is constructed by modifying a commercially available suction electrode. A heavier silver wire is used instead of the standard wire given by the commercially available electrode. The glass tip on the commercial electrode is replaced with a plastic tip for increased durability. We prepare hand drawn electrodes and electrodes made from specific sizes of tubing, allowing consistency and reproducibility. Data is collected using an amplifier and neurogram acquisition software. Recordings are performed on an air table within a Faraday cage to prevent mechanical and electrical interference, respectively.

  1. Spinal Cord Electrophysiology II: Extracellular Suction Electrode Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Garudadri, Suresh; Gallarda, Benjamin; Pfaff, Samuel; Alaynick, William

    2011-01-01

    Development of neural circuitries and locomotion can be studied using neonatal rodent spinal cord central pattern generator (CPG) behavior. We demonstrate a method to fabricate suction electrodes that are used to examine CPG activity, or fictive locomotion, in dissected rodent spinal cords. The rodent spinal cords are placed in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and the ventral roots are drawn into the suction electrode. The electrode is constructed by modifying a commercially available suction electrode. A heavier silver wire is used instead of the standard wire given by the commercially available electrode. The glass tip on the commercial electrode is replaced with a plastic tip for increased durability. We prepare hand drawn electrodes and electrodes made from specific sizes of tubing, allowing consistency and reproducibility. Data is collected using an amplifier and neurogram acquisition software. Recordings are performed on an air table within a Faraday cage to prevent mechanical and electrical interference, respectively. PMID:21372792

  2. Lifestyle and health conditions of adults with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Xavier de França, Inacia Sátiro; Cruz Enders, Bertha; Silva Coura, Alexsandro; Pereira Cruz, Giovanna Karinny; da Silva Aragão, Jamilly; Carvalho de Oliveira, Déborah Raquel

    2014-01-01

    . To describe the lifestyle of adults with spinal cord injury and explore its relation with some health conditions. Cross sectional study, in which a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, habits and health conditions variables was used. Forty-seven people with spinal cord injury participated and answered the self-report questionnaire. The group under study was predominantly male (92%), under 40 years of age (47%), and had low educational level (76%). The most frequent risk factors related to the lifestyle were: smoking (28%), alcohol consumption (36%), coffee consumption (92%) and being physically inactive (64%). Association was found between having four or more risk factors related to lifestyle and the loss of appetite, as well as constipation. . The actual inadequate lifestyle is associated with the health conditions of patients, and the nursing team should pay special attention to the education and promotion of health related to people with spinal cord injury.

  3. 76 FR 71623 - Agency Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... INFORMATION: Title: Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey, VA Form 10-0515. OMB Control Number: OMB Control... 10-0515 will be used to determine spinal cord patients' satisfaction with VA rehabilitation and...

  4. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882.5880 Section 882.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator...

  5. Spinal cord stimulation for refractory angina in a patient implanted with a cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Paolo; Grimaldi, Roberto; Massa, Riccardo; Chiribiri, Amedeo; De Luca, Anna; Castellano, Maddalena; Cardano, Paola; Trevi, Gian Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation is currently used to treat refractory angina. Some concerns may arise about the possible interaction concerning the spinal cord stimulator in patients already implanted with a pacemaker or a cardioverter defibrillator. We are going to describe the successful implantation of a spinal cord stimulator in a patient previously implanted with a cardioverter defibrillator.

  6. Targeting Lumbar Spinal Neural Circuitry by Epidural Stimulation to Restore Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Minassian, Karen; McKay, W Barry; Binder, Heinrich; Hofstoetter, Ursula S

    2016-04-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation has a long history of application for improving motor control in spinal cord injury. This review focuses on its resurgence following the progress made in understanding the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and on recent reports of its augmentative effects upon otherwise subfunctional volitional motor control. Early work revealed that the spinal circuitry involved in lower-limb motor control can be accessed by stimulating through electrodes placed epidurally over the posterior aspect of the lumbar spinal cord below a paralyzing injury. Current understanding is that such stimulation activates large-to-medium-diameter sensory fibers within the posterior roots. Those fibers then trans-synaptically activate various spinal reflex circuits and plurisegmentally organized interneuronal networks that control more complex contraction and relaxation patterns involving multiple muscles. The induced change in responsiveness of this spinal motor circuitry to any residual supraspinal input via clinically silent translesional neural connections that have survived the injury may be a likely explanation for rudimentary volitional control enabled by epidural stimulation in otherwise paralyzed muscles. Technological developments that allow dynamic control of stimulation parameters and the potential for activity-dependent beneficial plasticity may further unveil the remarkable capacity of spinal motor processing that remains even after severe spinal cord injuries.

  7. Pathology of radiation injury to the canine spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Powers, B E; Beck, E R; Gillette, E L; Gould, D H; LeCouter, R A

    1992-01-01

    The histopathologic response of the canine spinal cord to fractionated doses of radiation was investigated. Forty-two dogs received 0, 44, 52, 60, or 68 Gy in 4 Gy fractions to the thoracic spinal cord. Dogs were evaluated for neurologic signs and were observed for 1 or 2 years after irradiation. Six major lesion types were observed; five in the irradiated spinal cord and one in irradiated dorsal root ganglia. The three most severe spinal cord lesions were white matter necrosis, massive hemorrhage, and segmental parenchymal atrophy which had an ED50 of 56.9 Gy (51.3-63.3 Gy 95% CI) in 4 Gy fractions. These lesions were consistently associated with abnormal neurologic signs. Radiation damage to the vasculature was the most likely cause of these three lesions. The two less severe spinal cord lesions were focal fiber loss, which had an ED50 of 49.5 Gy (44.8-53.6 Gy 95% CI) in 4 gy fractions and scattered white matter vacuolation that occurred at all doses. These less severe lesions were not consistently associated with neurologic signs and indicated the presence of residual damage that may occur after lower doses of radiation. Radiation damage to glial cells, axons, and/or vasculature were possible causes of these lesions. In the irradiated dorsal root ganglia, affected sensory neurons contained large intracytoplasmic vacuoles, and there was loss of neurons and satellite cells. Such alterations could affect sensory function. The dog is a good model for spinal cord irradiation studies as tolerance doses for lesions causing clinical signs are close to the estimated tolerance doses for humans, and studies involving volume and long-term observation can be done.

  8. Fertility and sexuality in the spinal cord injury patient.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, J T; Van der Aa, F; Wittmann, D; Yande, S; Elliott, S

    2018-06-14

    After a spinal cord injury, patients have different perceptions of sexuality, sexual function, and potential for fertility. These changes can greatly impact quality of life over a lifetime. The purpose of this workgroup was to identify common evidence based or expert opinion themes and recommendations regarding treatment of sexuality, sexual function and fertility in the spinal cord injury population. As part of the SIU-ICUD joint consultation of Urologic Management of the Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), a workgroup and comprehensive literature search of English language manuscripts regarding fertility and sexuality in the spinal cord injury patient were formed. Articles were compiled, and recommendations in the chapter are based on group discussion and follow the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system for levels of evidence (LOEs) and grades of recommendation (GORs). Genital arousal, ejaculation, and orgasm are significantly impacted after spinal cord injury in both male and female SCI patients. This may have a more significant impact on potential for fertility in male spinal cord injury patients, particularly regarding ability of generate erection, semen quantity and quality. Female patients should be consulted that pregnancy is still possible after injury and a woman should expect resumption of normal reproductive function. As a result, sexual health teaching should be continued in women despite injury. Pregnancy in a SCI may cause complications such as autonomic dysreflexia, so this group should be carefully followed during pregnancy. By understanding physiologic changes after injury, patients and care teams can work together to achieve goals and maximize sexual quality of life after the injury.

  9. Spinal cord ischemia following thoracotomy without epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Raz, Aeyal; Avramovich, Aharon; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Saute, Milton; Eidelman, Leonid A

    2006-06-01

    Paraplegia is an uncommon yet devastating complication following thoracotomy, usually caused by compression or ischemia of the spinal cord. Ischemia without compression may be a result of global ischemia, vascular injury and other causes. Epidural anesthesia has been implicated as a major cause. This report highlights the fact that perioperative cord ischemia and paraplegia may be unrelated to epidural intervention. A 71-yr-old woman was admitted for a left upper lobectomy for resection of a non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. The patient refused epidural catheter placement and underwent a left T5-6 thoracotomy under general anesthesia. During surgery, she was hemodynamically stable and good oxygen saturation was maintained. Several hours following surgery the patient complained of loss of sensation in her legs. Neurological examination disclosed a complete motor and sensory block at the T5-6 level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spinal cord ischemia. The patient received iv steroid treatment, but remained paraplegic. Five months following the surgery there was only partial improvement in her motor symptoms. A follow-up MRI study was consistent with a diagnosis of spinal cord ischemia. In this case of paraplegia following thoracic surgery for lung resection, epidural anesthesia/analgesia was not used. The MRI demonstrated evidence of spinal cord ischemia, and no evidence of cord compression. This case highlights that etiologies other than epidural intervention, such as injury to the spinal segmental arteries during thoracotomy, should be considered as potential causes of cord ischemia and resultant paraplegia in this surgical population.

  10. Autonomic Nervous System in Paralympic Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Walter, Matthias; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2018-05-01

    Individuals sustaining a spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer from sensorimotor and autonomic impairment. Damage to the autonomic nervous system results in cardiovascular, respiratory, bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunctions, as well as temperature dysregulation. These complications not only impede quality of life, but also affect athletic performance of individuals with SCI. This article summarizes existing evidence on how damage to the spinal cord affects the autonomic nervous system and impacts the performance in athletes with SCI. Also discussed are frequently used performance-enhancing strategies, with a special focus on their legal aspect and implication on the athletes' health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cell therapy for spinal cord injury informed by electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Jack; Ye, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury devastates the CNS, besetting patients with symptoms including but not limited to: paralysis, autonomic nervous dysfunction, pain disorders and depression. Despite the identification of several molecular and genetic factors, a reliable regenerative therapy has yet to be produced for this terminal disease. Perhaps the missing piece of this puzzle will be discovered within endogenous electrotactic cellular behaviors. Neurons and stem cells both show mediated responses (growth rate, migration, differentiation) to electromagnetic waves, including direct current electric fields. This review analyzes the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury, the rationale for regenerative cell therapy and the evidence for directing cell therapy via electromagnetic waves shown by in vitro experiments.

  12. International spinal cord injury pulmonary function basic data set.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Donovan, W; Karlsson, A-K; Mueller, G; Perkash, I; Sheel, A William; Wecht, J; Schilero, G J

    2012-06-01

    To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets in order to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic bronchopulmonary findings in the SCI population. International. The SCI Pulmonary Function Data Set was developed by an international working group. The initial data set document was revised on the basis of suggestions from members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations and societies and individual reviewers. In addition, the data set was posted for 2 months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. The final International SCI Pulmonary Function Data Set contains questions on the pulmonary conditions diagnosed before spinal cord lesion,if available, to be obtained only once; smoking history; pulmonary complications and conditions after the spinal cord lesion, which may be collected at any time. These data include information on pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnea. Current utilization of ventilator assistance including mechanical ventilation, diaphragmatic pacing, phrenic nerve stimulation and Bi-level positive airway pressure can be reported, as well as results from pulmonary function testing includes: forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the website of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk).

  13. Formation of the spinal network in zebrafish determined by domain-specific Pax genes

    PubMed Central

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Urban, Jason M.; Gebhart, Nichole; Hatta, Kohei; Kawakami, Koichi; Ono, Fumihito

    2012-01-01

    In the formation of the spinal network, various transcription factors interact to develop specific cell types. Using a gene trap technique, we established a stable line of zebrafish in which the red fluorescent protein (RFP) was inserted in the pax8 gene. RFP insertion marked putative pax8-lineage cells with fluorescence and inhibited pax8 expression in homozygous embryos. Pax8 homozygous embryos displayed defects in the otic vesicle, as previously reported in studies using morpholinos. The pax8 homozygous embryos survived to adulthood in contrast to mammalian counterparts that die prematurely. RFP is expressed in the dorsal spinal cord. Examination of the axon morphology revealed that RFP (+) neurons include Commissural Bifurcating Longitudinal (CoBL) interneurons, but other inhibitory neurons such as Commissural Local (CoLo) interneurons and Circumferential Ascending (CiA) interneurons do not express RFP. We examined the effect of inhibiting pax2a/pax8 expression on interneuron development. In pax8 homozygous fish, the RFP (+) cells undergo differentiation similar to that of pax8 heterozygous fish, and the swimming behavior remained intact. In contrast, the RFP (+) cells of pax2a/pax8 double mutants displayed altered cell fates. CoBLs were not observed. Instead, RFP (+) cells exhibited axons descending ipsilaterally: a morphology resembling that of V2a/V2b interneurons. PMID:21452218

  14. Formation of the spinal network in zebrafish determined by domain-specific pax genes.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Urban, Jason M; Gebhart, Nichole; Hatta, Kohei; Kawakami, Koichi; Ono, Fumihito

    2011-06-01

    In the formation of the spinal network, various transcription factors interact to develop specific cell types. By using a gene trap technique, we established a stable line of zebrafish in which the red fluorescent protein (RFP) was inserted into the pax8 gene. RFP insertion marked putative pax8-lineage cells with fluorescence and inhibited pax8 expression in homozygous embryos. Pax8 homozygous embryos displayed defects in the otic vesicle, as previously reported in studies with morpholinos. The pax8 homozygous embryos survived to adulthood, in contrast to mammalian counterparts that die prematurely. RFP is expressed in the dorsal spinal cord. Examination of the axon morphology revealed that RFP(+) neurons include commissural bifurcating longitudinal (CoBL) interneurons, but other inhibitory neurons such as commissural local (CoLo) interneurons and circumferential ascending (CiA) interneurons do not express RFP. We examined the effect of inhibiting pax2a/pax8 expression on interneuron development. In pax8 homozygous fish, the RFP(+) cells underwent differentiation similar to that of pax8 heterozygous fish, and the swimming behavior remained intact. In contrast, the RFP(+) cells of pax2a/pax8 double mutants displayed altered cell fates. CoBLs were not observed. Instead, RFP(+) cells exhibited axons descending ipsilaterally, a morphology resembling that of V2a/V2b interneurons. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Modification of spasticity by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; McKay, William B.; Tansey, Keith E.; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut; Minassian, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Context/objective To examine the effects of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) on lower-limb spasticity. Design Interventional pilot study to produce preliminary data. Setting Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria. Participants Three subjects with chronic motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) who could walk ≥10 m. Interventions Two interconnected stimulating skin electrodes (Ø 5 cm) were placed paraspinally at the T11/T12 vertebral levels, and two rectangular electrodes (8 × 13 cm) on the abdomen for the reference. Biphasic 2 ms-width pulses were delivered at 50 Hz for 30 minutes at intensities producing paraesthesias but no motor responses in the lower limbs. Outcome measures The Wartenberg pendulum test and neurological recordings of surface-electromyography (EMG) were used to assess effects on exaggerated reflex excitability. Non-functional co-activation during volitional movement was evaluated. The timed 10-m walk test provided measures of clinical function. Results The index of spasticity derived from the pendulum test changed from 0.8 ± 0.4 pre- to 0.9 ± 0.3 post-stimulation, with an improvement in the subject with the lowest pre-stimulation index. Exaggerated reflex responsiveness was decreased after tSCS across all subjects, with the most profound effect on passive lower-limb movement (pre- to post-tSCS EMG ratio: 0.2 ± 0.1), as was non-functional co-activation during voluntary movement. Gait speed values increased in two subjects by 39%. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that tSCS, similar to epidurally delivered stimulation, may be used for spasticity control, without negatively impacting residual motor control in incomplete SCI. Further study in a larger population is warranted. PMID:24090290

  16. A Brain–Spinal Interface Alleviating Gait Deficits after Spinal Cord Injury in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Buse, Nicolas; Gandar, Jerome; Barraud, Quentin; Xing, David; Rey, Elodie; Duis, Simone; Jianzhong, Yang; Ko, Wai Kin D.; Li, Qin; Detemple, Peter; Denison, Tim; Micera, Silvestro; Bezard, Erwan; Bloch, Jocelyne; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury disrupts the communication between the brain and the spinal circuits that orchestrate movement. To bypass the lesion, brain–computer interfaces1–3 have directly linked cortical activity to electrical stimulation of muscles, which have restored grasping abilities after hand paralysis1,4. Theoretically, this strategy could also restore control over leg muscle activity for walking5. However, replicating the complex sequence of individual muscle activation patterns underlying natural and adaptive locomotor movements poses formidable conceptual and technological challenges6,7. Recently, we showed in rats that epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord can reproduce the natural activation of synergistic muscle groups producing locomotion8–10. Here, we interfaced leg motor cortex activity with epidural electrical stimulation protocols to establish a brain–spinal interface that alleviated gait deficits after a spinal cord injury in nonhuman primates. Rhesus monkeys were implanted with an intracortical microelectrode array into the leg area of motor cortex; and a spinal cord stimulation system composed of a spatially selective epidural implant and a pulse generator with real-time triggering capabilities. We designed and implemented wireless control systems that linked online neural decoding of extension and flexion motor states with stimulation protocols promoting these movements. These systems allowed the monkeys to behave freely without any restrictions or constraining tethered electronics. After validation of the brain–spinal interface in intact monkeys, we performed a unilateral corticospinal tract lesion at the thoracic level. As early as six days post-injury and without prior training of the monkeys, the brain–spinal interface restored weight-bearing locomotion of the paralyzed leg on a treadmill and overground. The implantable components integrated in the brain–spinal interface have all been approved for investigational

  17. Can the mammalian lumbar spinal cord learn a motor task?

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J A; Roy, R R; de Leon, R; Dobkin, B; Edgerton, V R

    1994-12-01

    Progress toward restoring locomotor function in low thoracic spinal transected cats and the application of similar techniques to patients with spinal cord injury is reviewed. Complete spinal cord transection (T12-T13) in adult cats results in an immediate loss of locomotor function in the hindlimbs. Limited locomotor function returns after several months in cats that have not received specific therapies designed to restore hindlimb stepping. Training transected cats to step on a treadmill for 30 min.d-1 and 5 d.wk-1 greatly improves their stepping ability. The most successful outcome was in cats where training began early, i.e., 1 wk after spinal transection. Cats trained to stand instead of stepping had great difficulty using the hindlimbs for locomotion. These effects were reversible over a 20-month period such that cats unable to step as a result of standing training could be trained to step and, conversely, locomotion in stepping-trained cats could be abolished by standing training. These results indicate that the spinal cord is capable of learning specific motor tasks. It has not been possible to elicit locomotion in patients with clinically complete spinal injuries, but appropriately coordinated EMG activity has been demonstrated in musculature of the legs during assisted locomotion on a treadmill.

  18. Cycling exercise and fetal spinal cord transplantation act synergistically on atrophied muscle following chronic spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C A; Murphy, R J; Dupont-Versteegden, E E; Houlé, J D

    2000-01-01

    The potential of two interventions, alone or in combination, to restore chronic spinal cord transection-induced changes in skeletal muscles of adult Sprague-Dawley rats was studied. Hind limb skeletal muscles were examined in the following groups of animals: rats with a complete spinal cord transection (Tx) for 8 weeks; Tx with a 4-week delay before initiation of a 4-week motor-assisted cycling exercise (Ex) program; Tx with a 4-week delay before transplantation (Tp) of fetal spinal cord tissue into the lesion cavity; Tx with a 4-week delay before Tp and Ex; and uninjured control animals. Muscle mass, muscle to body mass ratios, and mean myofiber cross-sectional areas were significantly reduced 8 weeks after transection. Whereas transplantation of fetal spinal cord tissue did not reverse this atrophy and exercise alone had only a modest effect in restoring lost muscle mass, the combination of exercise and transplantation significantly increased muscle mass, muscle to body mass ratios, and mean myofiber cross-sectional areas in both soleus and plantaris muscles. Spinal cord injury (SCI) also caused changes in myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression toward faster isoforms in both soleus and plantaris and increased soleus myofiber succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. Combined exercise and transplantation led to a change in the expression of the fastest MyHC isoform in soleus but had no effect in the plantaris. Exercise alone and in combination with transplantation reduced SDH activity to control levels in the soleus. These results suggest a synergistic action of exercise and transplantation of fetal spinal cord tissue on skeletal muscle properties following SCI, even after an extended post-injury period before intervention.

  19. Spinal Meninges and Their Role in Spinal Cord Injury: A Neuroanatomical Review.

    PubMed

    Grassner, Lukas; Grillhösl, Andreas; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Thomé, Claudius; Bühren, Volker; Strowitzki, Martin; Winkler, Peter A

    2018-02-01

    Current recommendations support early surgical decompression and blood pressure augmentation after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Elevated intraspinal pressure (ISP), however, has probably been underestimated in the pathophysiology of SCI. Recent studies provide some evidence that ISP measurements and durotomy may be beneficial for individuals suffering from SCI. Compression of the spinal cord against the meninges in SCI patients causes a "compartment-like" syndrome. In such cases, intentional durotomy with augmentative duroplasty to reduce ISP and improve spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP) may be indicated. Prior to performing these procedures routinely, profound knowledge of the spinal meninges is essential. Here, we provide an in-depth review of relevant literature along with neuroanatomical illustrations and imaging correlates.

  20. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Refractory Angina Pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Hongguang; Si, Yanna; Xu, Chenjie; Chen, Hao; Gao, Xianzhong; Xie, Xinyi; Xu, Yajie; Sun, Fan; Zeng, Lingqing

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Paresthesia-free stimulation such as high frequency and burst have been demonstrated as effective therapies for neuropathic pain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of conventional spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of refractory angina pectoris (RAP). Materials and Methods: Relevant randomized controlled trials that investigated SCS for patients with RAP were comprehensively searched in Medline, Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Five meta-analyses were performed examining the changes in Canadian Cardiovascular Society classes, exercise time, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of pain, Seattle Angina Questionnaire, and nitroglycerin use in RAP patients after SCS therapy. We analyzed standardized mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome by Review Manager 5.0 and STATA 12.0. Results: A total of 12 randomized controlled trials involving 476 RAP patients were identified. A trend of reduction in the angina frequency (MD=−9.03, 95% CI, −15.70 to −2.36) and nitroglycerin consumption (MD=−0.64, 95% CI, −0.84 to −0.45) could be observed in the SCS group. Compared with the control group, SCS showed benefit on increasing exercise time (MD=0.49, 95% CI, 0.13-0.85) and treatment satisfaction (MD=6.87, 95% CI, 2.07-11.66) with decreased VAS scores of pain (MD=−0.50, 95% CI, −0.81 to −0.20) and disease perception (MD=−8.34, 95% CI, −14.45 to −2.23). However, the result did not reach the significance level in terms of physical limitation (95% CI, −8.75 to 3.38; P=0.39) or angina stability (95% CI, −7.55 to 3.67; P=0.50). Discussion: The current meta-analysis suggested that SCS was a potential alternative in the treatment of PAP patients. Further investigation for finding the appropriate intensity of stimulation is required before this treatment should be widely recommended and applied. PMID:27875377

  1. Inflammatory cascades mediate synapse elimination in spinal cord compression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) is caused by chronic spinal cord compression due to spondylosis, a degenerative disc disease, and ossification of the ligaments. Tip-toe walking Yoshimura (twy) mice are reported to be an ideal animal model for CCM-related neuronal dysfunction, because they develop spontaneous spinal cord compression without any artificial manipulation. Previous histological studies showed that neurons are lost due to apoptosis in CCM, but the mechanism underlying this neurodegeneration was not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology of CCM by evaluating the global gene expression of the compressed spinal cord and comparing the transcriptome analysis with the physical and histological findings in twy mice. Methods Twenty-week-old twy mice were divided into two groups according to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings: a severe compression (S) group and a mild compression (M) group. The transcriptome was analyzed by microarray and RT-PCR. The cellular pathophysiology was examined by immunohistological analysis and immuno-electron microscopy. Motor function was assessed by Rotarod treadmill latency and stride-length tests. Results Severe cervical calcification caused spinal canal stenosis and low functional capacity in twy mice. The microarray analysis revealed 215 genes that showed significantly different expression levels between the S and the M groups. Pathway analysis revealed that genes expressed at higher levels in the S group were enriched for terms related to the regulation of inflammation in the compressed spinal cord. M1 macrophage-dominant inflammation was present in the S group, and cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61), an inducer of M1 macrophages, was markedly upregulated in these spinal cords. Furthermore, C1q, which initiates the classical complement cascade, was more upregulated in the S group than in the M group. The confocal and electron microscopy observations indicated

  2. Observational study of the effectiveness of spinal cord injury rehabilitation using the Spinal Cord Injury-Ability Realization Measurement Index.

    PubMed

    Scivoletto, G; Bonavita, J; Torre, M; Baroncini, I; Tiberti, S; Maietti, E; Laurenza, L; China, S; Corallo, V; Guerra, F; Buscaroli, L; Candeloro, C; Brunelli, E; Catz, A; Molinari, M

    2016-06-01

    Retrospective observational study. The objective of this study was to determine the rehabilitation potential and the extent to which it is realized in a cohort of spinal cord injury patients using the Spinal Cord Injury-Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI) and to study the clinical factors that influence this realization. Two spinal units in Italy. Consecutive patients were assessed at the end of an in-patient rehabilitation program using the Spinal Cord Independence Measure and the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. On the basis of these data and of the age and gender of the patients, we calculated the SCI-ARMI score. Regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between clinical factors and the extent to which rehabilitation potential is realized. We examined the data for 306 patients. Most patients were discharged without having reached their rehabilitation potential, with an SCI-ARMI score <80%. SCI-ARMI scores at discharge were positively influenced by etiology and the lesion level and correlated negatively with lesion severity and the presence of complications during rehabilitation. The SCI-ARMI is an effective tool that can be used to measure the achievement of rehabilitation potential in SCI patients and to identify groups of patients who are at risk of not meeting their rehabilitative potential.

  3. Augmentation of Voluntary Locomotor Activity by Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation in Motor-Incomplete Spinal Cord-Injured Individuals.

    PubMed

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Krenn, Matthias; Danner, Simon M; Hofer, Christian; Kern, Helmut; McKay, William B; Mayr, Winfried; Minassian, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The level of sustainable excitability within lumbar spinal cord circuitries is one of the factors determining the functional outcome of locomotor therapy after motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Here, we present initial data using noninvasive transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) to modulate this central state of excitability during voluntary treadmill stepping in three motor-incomplete spinal cord-injured individuals. Stimulation was applied at 30 Hz with an intensity that generated tingling sensations in the lower limb dermatomes, yet without producing muscle reflex activity. This stimulation changed muscle activation, gait kinematics, and the amount of manual assistance required from the therapists to maintain stepping with some interindividual differences. The effect on motor outputs during treadmill-stepping was essentially augmentative and step-phase dependent despite the invariant tonic stimulation. The most consistent modification was found in the gait kinematics, with the hip flexion during swing increased by 11.3° ± 5.6° across all subjects. This preliminary work suggests that tSCS provides for a background increase in activation of the lumbar spinal locomotor circuitry that has partially lost its descending drive. Voluntary inputs and step-related feedback build upon the stimulation-induced increased state of excitability in the generation of locomotor activity. Thus, tSCS essentially works as an electrical neuroprosthesis augmenting remaining motor control. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular function basic data set.

    PubMed

    Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Karlsson, A-K; Donovan, W; Mathias, C J; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2010-08-01

    To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. An international working group. The draft of the data set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the executive committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the data set was developed after review by members of the executive committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS scientific committee, ASIA board, relevant and interested international organizations and societies, individual persons with specific interest and the ISCoS Council. To make the data set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. The variables included in the International SCI Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set include the following items: date of data collection, cardiovascular history before the spinal cord lesion, events related to cardiovascular function after the spinal cord lesion, cardiovascular function after the spinal cord lesion, medications affecting cardiovascular function on the day of examination; and objective measures of cardiovascular functions, including time of examination, position of examination, pulse and blood pressure. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the websites of both ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org).

  5. Does the intrathecal propofol have a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord ischemia?

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Murat; Gullu, Huriye; Peker, Kemal; Sayar, Ilyas; Binici, Orhan; Yildiz, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of propofol have been confirmed. However, it remains unclear whether intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord ischemia. At 1 hour prior to spinal cord ischemia, propofol (100 and 300 µg) was intrathecally administered in rats with spinal cord ischemia. Propofol pre-treatment greatly improved rat pathological changes and neurological function deficits at 24 hours after spinal cord ischemia. These results suggest that intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord structural and functional damage caused by ischemia. PMID:26807119

  6. Does the intrathecal propofol have a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord ischemia?

    PubMed

    Sahin, Murat; Gullu, Huriye; Peker, Kemal; Sayar, Ilyas; Binici, Orhan; Yildiz, Huseyin

    2015-11-01

    The neuroprotective effects of propofol have been confirmed. However, it remains unclear whether intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord ischemia. At 1 hour prior to spinal cord ischemia, propofol (100 and 300 µg) was intrathecally administered in rats with spinal cord ischemia. Propofol pre-treatment greatly improved rat pathological changes and neurological function deficits at 24 hours after spinal cord ischemia. These results suggest that intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord structural and functional damage caused by ischemia.

  7. Combined Effects of Acrobatic Exercise and Magnetic Stimulation on the Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the study was to determine whether physical exercise combined with epidural spinal cord magnetic stimulation could improve recovery after injury of the spinal cord. Spinal cord lesioning in mice resulted in reduced locomotor function and negatively affected the muscle strength tested in vitro. Acrobatic exercise attenuated the behavioral effects of spinal cord injury. The exposure to magnetic fields facilitated further this improvement. The progress in behavioral recovery was correlated with reduced muscle degeneration and enhanced muscle contraction. The acrobatic exercise combined with stimulation with magnetic fields significantly facilitates behavioral recovery and muscle physiology in mice following spinal cord injury. PMID:18986227

  8. Early Versus Delayed Surgical Decompression of Spinal Cord after Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Cost-Utility Analysis.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Julio C; Craven, B Catharine; Massicotte, Eric M; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    This cost-utility analysis was undertaken to compare early (≤24 hours since trauma) versus delayed surgical decompression of spinal cord to determine which approach is more cost effective in the management of patients with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). This study includes the patients enrolled into the Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (STASCIS) and admitted at Toronto Western Hospital. Cases were grouped into patients with motor complete SCI and individuals with motor incomplete SCI. A cost-utility analysis was performed for each group of patients by the use of data for the first 6 months after SCI. The perspective of a public health care insurer was adopted. Costs were estimated in 2014 U.S. dollars. Utilities were estimated from the STASCIS. The baseline analysis indicates early spinal decompression is more cost-effective approach compared with the delayed spinal decompression. When we considered the delayed spinal decompression as the baseline strategy, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio analysis revealed a saving of US$ 58,368,024.12 per quality-adjusted life years gained for patients with complete SCI and a saving of US$ 536,217.33 per quality-adjusted life years gained in patients with incomplete SCI for the early spinal decompression. The probabilistic analysis confirmed the early-decompression strategy as more cost effective than the delayed-decompression approach, even though there is no clearly dominant strategy. The results of this economic analysis suggests that early decompression of spinal cord was more cost effective than delayed surgical decompression in the management of patients with motor complete and incomplete SCI, even though no strategy was clearly dominant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Substance Use by Persons with Recent Spinal Cord Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    Substance use histories were obtained from 103 persons (16 to 63 years of age) with recent spinal cord injuries (SCI). Lifetime exposure to and current use of substances with abuse potential were substantially greater in this sample compared to a like-age national sample. Exposure to and recent use of substances with abuse potential was…

  10. The Role of Hope in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen; And Others

    Hope has motivational importance to individuals who have suffered a major physical loss. Theories of adjustment to a spinal cord injury take one of three approaches: (1) premorbid personality, which highlights the individual's past experiences, personal meanings, and body image; (2) typologies of injury reactions, which range from normal to…

  11. Drinking Patterns, Drinking Expectancies, and Coping after Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Drinking patterns, alcohol expectancies, and coping strategies were assessed for 121 persons with recent spinal cord injuries during hospitalization, 3 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Although the rate of heavy drinking decreased, preinjury problem drinkers still had the lowest rate of positive reappraisal, problem solving, and…

  12. Social Support, Stress, and Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, James B; And Others

    Social support has been considered an important coping resource moderating the stress associated with physical illness and disability. The role of social support as a buffering agent for stressful life events inherent in physical illness and disability was examined in 78 individuals with spinal cord injury, residing in community settings in…

  13. Incidence of Secondary Complications in Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, C. A.; Shepherd, C.

    1996-01-01

    Data from 348 patients (mean age 37) with postacute spinal cord injury revealed that 95% reported at least 1 secondary problem, and 58% reported 3 or more. The number and severity of complications varied with time since the injury. Obesity, pain, spasticity, urinary tract infections, pressure sores, and lack of social integration were common…

  14. Single fraction spine radiosurgery for myeloma epidural spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ryan; Rock, Jack; Jin, Jian-Yue; Janakiraman, Nalini; Kim, Jae Ho; Movsas, Benjamin; Ryu, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Radiosurgery delivers highly focused radiation beams to the defined target with high precision and accuracy. It has been demonstrated that spine radiosurgery can be safely used for treatment of spine metastasis with rapid and durable pain control, but without detrimental effects to the spinal cord. This study was carried out to determine the role of single fraction radiosurgery for epidural spinal cord compression due to multiple myeloma. A total of 31 lesions in 24 patients with multiple myeloma, who presented with epidural spinal cord compression, were treated with spine radiosurgery. Single fraction radiation dose of 10-18 Gy (median of 16 Gy) was administered to the involved spine including the epidural or paraspinal tumor. Patients were followed up with clinical exams and imaging studies. Median follow-up was 11.2 months (range 1-55). Primary endpoints of this study were pain control, neurological improvement, and radiographic tumor control. Overall pain control rate was 86%; complete relief in 54%, and partial relief in 32% of the patients. Seven patients presented with neurological deficits. Five patients neurologically improved or became normal after radiosurgery. Complete radiographic response of the epidural tumor was noted in 81% at 3 months after radiosurgery. During the follow-up time, there was no radiographic or neurological progression at the treated spine. The treatment was non-invasive and well tolerated. Single fraction radiosurgery achieved an excellent clinical and radiographic response of myeloma epidural spinal cord compression. Radiosurgery can be a viable treatment option for myeloma epidural compression.

  15. Quality of Life in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcay, Eda; Bal, Ajda; Eksioglu, Emel; Cakci, Aytul

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) in spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors. Secondary objectives were to determine the effects of various sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on QoL. This cross-sectional study included 54 patients with SCI. The Turkish version of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey was…

  16. Sexual Counseling with Spinal Cord-Injured Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Donald K.

    1975-01-01

    Spinal cord-injured clients have many fears and misapprehensions about their sexual functioning. Such misapprehensions can be helped by the counselor's willingness to discuss sexual issues openly. Clients need a clear and accurate picture of the facts, as well as encouragement and support to help them rediscover their sexuality. (Author)

  17. The Rehabilitation of the Spinal Cord-Injured Street Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coven, Arnold B.; Glazeroff, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    The spinal cord-injured street person is especially resistant to rehabilitation. His life style is characterized by the use of physical power and mobility to survive and gain respect. He loses this main form of control and attempts to manipulate the treatment environment to care for him while he avoids confronting his disability. (Author)

  18. The Relationship between Productivity and Adjustment Following Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.

    1990-01-01

    Examined adjustment and productivity of persons (N=344) with spinal cord injuries. Found 45 percent of subjects gainfully employed, 14 percent engaged in unpaid productive activities, 41 percent not engaged in any productive activities. Employed subjects had best overall adjustment. Injury level was not related to level of productive activity,…

  19. What are the Causes of Spinal Cord Injury?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a New Light An Honest Wheelchair Love Story Seven Helpful Smart Home Devices for People With Disabilities Can’t Work Because of a Spinal Cord Injury? Tags accessibility accident ADA adaptive adaptive equipment Adaptive technology Americans with Disabilities Act Ben Mattlin caregiver Cerebral ...

  20. The Animal Model of Spinal Cord Injury as an Experimental Pain Model

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Aya; Nakai, Kunihiro; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Pain, which remains largely unsolved, is one of the most crucial problems for spinal cord injury patients. Due to sensory problems, as well as motor dysfunctions, spinal cord injury research has proven to be complex and difficult. Furthermore, many types of pain are associated with spinal cord injury, such as neuropathic, visceral, and musculoskeletal pain. Many animal models of spinal cord injury exist to emulate clinical situations, which could help to determine common mechanisms of pathology. However, results can be easily misunderstood and falsely interpreted. Therefore, it is important to fully understand the symptoms of human spinal cord injury, as well as the various spinal cord injury models and the possible pathologies. The present paper summarizes results from animal models of spinal cord injury, as well as the most effective use of these models. PMID:21436995

  1. Hodgkin Lymphoma revealed by epidural spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Ghedira, Khalil; Matar, Nidhal; Bouali, Sofiene; Zehani, Alia; Boubaker, Adnen; Jemel, Hafedh

    2018-01-30

    Hodgkin Lymphoma is rarely diagnosed as spinal cord compression syndrome. Caused by an epidural mass, this complication is often encountered in a late stage of the disease. We report the case of a 40-year-old man presenting with symptoms of low thoracic spinal cord compression due to an epidural tumor on the MRI. Emergent surgery was undertaken on this patient, consisting in laminectomy and tumor resection. After surgery, pain relief and mild neurological improvement were noticed. The histological study revealed a Hodgkin Lymphoma and the patient was referred to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Though chemotherapy is the gold standard treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma, surgical spinal decompression may be required in epidural involvement of the disease. Diagnosis may be suspected in the presence of lymphadenopathy and general health decay.

  2. Axonal loss in the multiple sclerosis spinal cord revisited.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Natalia; Carassiti, Daniele; Altmann, Daniel R; Baker, David; Schmierer, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Preventing chronic disease deterioration is an unmet need in people with multiple sclerosis, where axonal loss is considered a key substrate of disability. Clinically, chronic multiple sclerosis often presents as progressive myelopathy. Spinal cord cross-sectional area (CSA) assessed using MRI predicts increasing disability and has, by inference, been proposed as an indirect index of axonal degeneration. However, the association between CSA and axonal loss, and their correlation with demyelination, have never been systematically investigated using human post mortem tissue. We extensively sampled spinal cords of seven women and six men with multiple sclerosis (mean disease duration= 29 years) and five healthy controls to quantify axonal density and its association with demyelination and CSA. 396 tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin and immuno-stained for myelin basic protein and phosphorylated neurofilaments. Measurements included total CSA, areas of (i) lateral cortico-spinal tracts, (ii) gray matter, (iii) white matter, (iv) demyelination, and the number of axons within the lateral cortico-spinal tracts. Linear mixed models were used to analyze relationships. In multiple sclerosis CSA reduction at cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels ranged between 19 and 24% with white (19-24%) and gray (17-21%) matter atrophy contributing equally across levels. Axonal density in multiple sclerosis was lower by 57-62% across all levels and affected all fibers regardless of diameter. Demyelination affected 24-48% of the gray matter, most extensively at the thoracic level, and 11-13% of the white matter, with no significant differences across levels. Disease duration was associated with reduced axonal density, however not with any area index. Significant association was detected between focal demyelination and decreased axonal density. In conclusion, over nearly 30 years multiple sclerosis reduces axonal density by 60% throughout the spinal cord. Spinal cord cross sectional area

  3. Emergence of Serotonergic Neurons After Spinal Cord Injury in Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Fabbiani, Gabriela; Rehermann, María I.; Aldecosea, Carina; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar; Russo, Raúl E.

    2018-01-01

    Plasticity of neural circuits takes many forms and plays a fundamental role in regulating behavior to changing demands while maintaining stability. For example, during spinal cord development neurotransmitter identity in neurons is dynamically adjusted in response to changes in the activity of spinal networks. It is reasonable to speculate that this type of plasticity might occur also in mature spinal circuits in response to injury. Because serotonergic signaling has a central role in spinal cord functions, we hypothesized that spinal cord injury (SCI) in the fresh water turtle Trachemys scripta elegans may trigger homeostatic changes in serotonergic innervation. To test this possibility we performed immunohistochemistry for serotonin (5-HT) and key molecules involved in the determination of the serotonergic phenotype before and after SCI. We found that as expected, in the acute phase after injury the dense serotonergic innervation was strongly reduced. However, 30 days after SCI the population of serotonergic cells (5-HT+) increased in segments caudal to the lesion site. These cells expressed the neuronal marker HuC/D and the transcription factor Nkx6.1. The new serotonergic neurons did not incorporate the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and did not express the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) indicating that novel serotonergic neurons were not newborn but post-mitotic cells that have changed their neurochemical identity. Switching towards a serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype may be a spinal cord homeostatic mechanism to compensate for the loss of descending serotonergic neuromodulation, thereby helping the outstanding functional recovery displayed by turtles. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist (±)-8-Hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) blocked the increase in 5-HT+ cells suggesting 5-HT1A receptors may trigger the respecification process. PMID:29593503

  4. Towards a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) for restoration of function after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Shahdoost, Shahab; Frost, Shawn; Van Acker, Gustaf; DeJong, Stacey; Dunham, Caleb; Barbay, Scott; Nudo, Randolph; Mohseni, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 6 million people in the United States are currently living with paralysis in which 23% of the cases are related to spinal cord injury (SCI). Miniaturized closed-loop neural interfaces have the potential for restoring function and mobility lost to debilitating neural injuries such as SCI by leveraging recent advancements in bioelectronics and a better understanding of the processes that underlie functional and anatomical reorganization in an injured nervous system. This paper describes our current progress towards developing a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) that is envisioned to convert in real time the neural command signals recorded from the brain to electrical stimuli delivered to the spinal cord below the injury level. Specifically, the paper reports on a corticospinal interface integrated circuit (IC) as a core building block for such a BMSI that is capable of low-noise recording of extracellular neural spikes from the cerebral cortex as well as muscle activation using intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) in a rat with contusion injury to the thoracic spinal cord. The paper further presents results from a neurobiological study conducted in both normal and SCI rats to investigate the effect of various ISMS parameters on movement thresholds in the rat hindlimb. Coupled with proper signal-processing algorithms in the future for the transformation between the cortically recorded data and ISMS parameters, such a BMSI has the potential to facilitate functional recovery after an SCI by re-establishing corticospinal communication channels lost due to the injury.

  5. Widespread spinal cord involvement in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Hattori, Manabu; Aiba, Ikuko; Sobue, Gen

    2007-08-01

    We describe the histopathologic features of spinal cord lesions in 10 cases of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and review the literature. Histologic examination revealed atrophy with myelin pallor in the anterior funiculus and anterolateral funiculus in the cervical and thoracic segments in eight of the 10 cases, whereas the posterior funiculus was well preserved. The degrees of atrophy of the anterior funiculus and the anterolateral funiculus correlated with that of the tegmentum of the medulla oblongata. Myelin pallor of the lateral corticospinal tract was observed in two of the 10 cases. Microscopic observation of the spinal white matter, particularly the cervical segment, revealed a few to several neuropil threads, particularly in the white matter surrounding the anterior horn after Gallyas-Braak (GB) staining or AT-8 tau immunostaining. However, the posterior funiculus was completely preserved from the presence of argyrophilic or tau-positive structures. In the spinal gray matter, widespread distribution of neurons with cytoplasmic inclusions and neuropil threads was observed, particularly in the medial division of the anterior horn and intermediate gray matter, especially in the cervical segment. Globose-type neurofibrillary tangles and pretangles were found. The distribution of GB- or AT-8 tau-positive small neurons and neuropil threads resembled that of the spinal interneurons. In conclusion, the spinal cord, especially the cervical segment, is constantly involved in the pathologic process of PSP. We speculate that spinal interneurons and their neuronal processes, particularly in the medial division of the anterior horn and intermediate gray matter of the cervical segment, are most severely damaged in the PSP spinal cord.

  6. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation of the lumbar and sacral spinal cord: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Sofia R.; Salvador, Ricardo; Wenger, Cornelia; de Carvalho, Mamede; Miranda, Pedro C.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Our aim was to perform a computational study of the electric field (E-field) generated by transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) applied over the thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal cord, in order to assess possible neuromodulatory effects on spinal cord circuitry related with lower limb functions. Approach. A realistic volume conductor model of the human body consisting of 14 tissues was obtained from available databases. Rubber pad electrodes with a metallic connector and a conductive gel layer were modelled. The finite element (FE) method was used to calculate the E-field when a current of 2.5 mA was passed between two electrodes. The main characteristics of the E-field distributions in the spinal grey matter (spinal-GM) and spinal white matter (spinal-WM) were compared for seven montages, with the anode placed either over T10, T8 or L2 spinous processes (s.p.), and the cathode placed over right deltoid (rD), umbilicus (U) and right iliac crest (rIC) areas or T8 s.p. Anisotropic conductivity of spinal-WM and of a group of dorsal muscles near the vertebral column was considered. Main results. The average E-field magnitude was predicted to be above 0.15 V m-1 in spinal cord regions located between the electrodes. L2-T8 and T8-rIC montages resulted in the highest E-field magnitudes in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (>0.30 V m-1). E-field longitudinal component is 3 to 6 times higher than the ventral-dorsal and right-left components in both the spinal-GM and WM. Anatomical features such as CSF narrowing due to vertebrae bony edges or disks intrusions in the spinal canal correlate with local maxima positions. Significance. Computational modelling studies can provide detailed information regarding the electric field in the spinal cord during tsDCS. They are important to guide the design of clinical tsDCS protocols that optimize stimulation of application-specific spinal targets.

  7. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: the most frequent vascular malformations of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Iglesias Gordo, J; Martínez García, R

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas are produced by direct communication between the arterial and venous systems of the spinal cord, causing hypertension in the latter with spinal cord dysfunction. It is a rare pathology with unknown etiology and non-specific clinical symptoms that usually results in a delayed diagnosis. Often radiologists are the first to guide the disease towards an adequate diagnosis. Characteristic findings can be seen through MR or MR angiography, and may even locate the fistula in a high percentage of cases, although the pathology must be confirmed by spinal angiography. There are two treatment modalities: endovascular and surgical therapy. Endovascular treatment has improved in recent years with the advantages of a less invasive approach and is therefore usually chosen as primary therapy. In this article we review the main clinical manifestations, imaging findings and treatment of this pathology. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Peripheral Inflammation Undermines the Plasticity of the Isolated Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Huie, John R.; Grau, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral capsaicin treatment induces molecular changes that sensitize the responses of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. The current studies demonstrate that capsaicin also undermines the adaptive plasticity of the spinal cord, rendering the system incapable of learning a simple instrumental task. In these studies, male rats are transected at the second thoracic vertebra and are tested 24 to 48 hours later. During testing, subjects receive shock to one hindleg when it is extended (controllable stimulation). Rats quickly learn to maintain the leg in a flexed position. Rats that have been injected with capsaicin (1% or 3%) in the hindpaw fail to learn, even when tested on the leg contralateral to the injection. This learning deficit lasts at least 24 hours. Interestingly, training with controllable electrical stimulation prior to capsaicin administration protects the spinal cord against the maladaptive effects. Rats pretrained with controllable stimulation do not display a learning deficit or tactile allodynia. Moreover, controllable stimulation, combined with naltrexone, reverses the capsaicin-induced deficit. These data suggest that peripheral inflammation, accompanying spinal cord injuries, might have an adverse effect on recovery. PMID:18298266

  9. [Larsen syndrome: two reports of cases with spinal cord compromise].

    PubMed

    Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, D; Fernández-Jaén, A; Muñoz-Jareño, N; Calleja-Pérez, B; San Antonio-Arce, V; Martínez-Boniche, H

    Larsen syndrome is characterised by untreatable congenital dislocation of multiple body joints, along with marked foot deformities. These patients have a flattened face with a short nose, a broad depressed nasal bridge and a prominent forehead. In this clinical note our aim is to report two cases that coursed with spinal cord compromise. Case 1: an 18-month-old female with congenital dislocation of knees and hips. The patient had a flat face, sunken root of nose, and carp mouth. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed severe cervical kyphosis secondary to malformation and hypoplasia of the cervical vertebral bodies and important compression of the spinal cord. Clinically, there were also signs of upper motor neuron syndrome, which was especially prominent in the lower limbs. Case 2: a 14-year-old male with a characteristic face and dislocation of the head of the radius. The patient presented amyotrophy of the muscles in the right hand and clinical signs of lower motor neuron syndrome due to neuronal damage secondary to spinal malformations. Larsen syndrome is an infrequent osteochondrodysplasia. Alteration of the spine is common and may give rise to spinal cord compression with varying clinical repercussions which require surgical treatment in the early years of the patient's life.

  10. Differential expression of ryanodine receptor isoforms after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Pelisch, Nicolas; Gomes, Cynthia; Nally, Jacqueline M; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Stirling, David P

    2017-11-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are highly conductive intracellular Ca 2+ release channels and are widely expressed in many tissues, including the central nervous system. RyRs have been implicated in intracellular Ca 2+ overload which can drive secondary damage following traumatic injury to the spinal cord (SCI), but the spatiotemporal expression of the three isoforms of RyRs (RyR1-3) after SCI remains unknown. Here, we analyzed the gene and protein expression of RyR isoforms in the murine lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the spinal cord lesion site at 1, 2 and 7 d after a mild contusion SCI. Quantitative RT PCR analysis revealed that RyR3 was significantly increased in lumbar DRGs and at the lesion site at 1 and 2 d post contusion compared to sham (laminectomy only) controls. Additionally, RyR2 expression was increased at 1 d post injury within the lesion site. RyR2 and -3 protein expression was localized to lumbar DRG neurons and their spinal projections within the lesion site acutely after SCI. In contrast, RyR1 expression within the DRG and lesion site remained unaltered following trauma. Our study shows that SCI initiates acute differential expression of RyR isoforms in DRG and spinal cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Learning from the spinal cord: How the study of spinal cord plasticity informs our view of learning

    PubMed Central

    Grau, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews research examining whether and how training can induce a lasting change in spinal cord function. A framework for the study of learning, and some essential issues in experimental design, are discussed. A core element involves delayed assessment under common conditions. Research has shown that brain systems can induce a lasting (memory-like) alteration in spinal function. Neurons within the lower (lumbosacral) spinal cord can also adapt when isolated from the brain by means of a thoracic transection. Using traditional learning paradigms, evidence suggests that spinal neurons support habituation and sensitization as well as Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. At a neurobiological level, spinal systems support phenomena (e.g., long-term potentiation), and involve mechanisms (e.g., NMDA mediated plasticity, protein synthesis) implicated in brain-dependent learning and memory. Spinal learning also induces modulatory effects that alter the capacity for learning. Uncontrollable/unpredictable stimulation disables the capacity for instrumental learning and this effect has been linked to the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Predictable/controllable stimulation enables learning and counters the adverse effects of uncontrollable simulation through a process that depends upon brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Finally, uncontrollable, but not controllable, nociceptive stimulation impairs recovery after a contusion injury. A process-oriented approach (neurofunctionalism) is outlined that encourages a broader view of learning phenomena. PMID:23973905

  12. Intraspinal microstimulation and diaphragm activation after cervical spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, L. M.; Gonzalez-Rothi, E. J.; Streeter, K. A.; Posgai, S. S.; Poirier, A. S.; Fuller, D. D.; Reier, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) using implanted electrodes can evoke locomotor movements after spinal cord injury (SCI) but has not been explored in the context of respiratory motor output. An advantage over epidural and direct muscle stimulation is the potential of ISMS to selectively stimulate components of the spinal respiratory network. The present study tested the hypothesis that medullary respiratory activity could be used to trigger midcervical ISMS and diaphragm motor unit activation in rats with cervical SCI. Studies were conducted after acute (hours) and subacute (5–21 days) C2 hemisection (C2Hx) injury in adult rats. Inspiratory bursting in the genioglossus (tongue) muscle was used to trigger a 250-ms train stimulus (100 Hz, 100–200 μA) to the ventral C4 spinal cord, targeting the phrenic motor nucleus. After both acute and subacute injury, genioglossus EMG activity effectively triggered ISMS and activated diaphragm motor units during the inspiratory phase. The ISMS paradigm also evoked short-term potentiation of spontaneous inspiratory activity in the previously paralyzed hemidiaphragm (i.e., bursting persisting beyond the stimulus period) in ∼70% of the C2Hx animals. We conclude that medullary inspiratory output can be used to trigger cervical ISMS and diaphragm activity after SCI. Further refinement of this method may enable “closed-loop-like” ISMS approaches to sustain ventilation after severe SCI. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the feasibility of using intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) of the cervical spinal cord to evoke diaphragm activity ipsilateral to acute and subacute hemisection of the upper cervical spinal cord of the rat. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the efficacy of diaphragm activation, using an upper airway respiratory EMG signal to trigger ISMS at the level of the ipsilesional phrenic nucleus during acute and advanced postinjury intervals. PMID:27881723

  13. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. 882.5850 Section 882.5850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. 882.5850 Section 882.5850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal...

  15. Spatacsin and spastizin act in the same pathway required for proper spinal motor neuron axon outgrowth in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elodie; Yanicostas, Constantin; Rastetter, Agnès; Alavi Naini, Seyedeh Maryam; Maouedj, Alissia; Kabashi, Edor; Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni; Soussi-Yanicostas, Nadia

    2012-12-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are rare neurological conditions caused by degeneration of the long axons of the cerebrospinal tracts, leading to locomotor impairment and additional neurological symptoms. There are more than 40 different causative genes, 24 of which have been identified, including SPG11 and SPG15 mutated in complex clinical forms. Since the vast majority of the causative mutations lead to loss of function of the corresponding proteins, we made use of morpholino-oligonucleotide (MO)-mediated gene knock-down to generate zebrafish models of both SPG11 and SPG15 and determine how invalidation of the causative genes (zspg11 and zspg15) during development might contribute to the disease. Micro-injection of MOs targeting each gene caused locomotor impairment and abnormal branching of spinal cord motor neurons at the neuromuscular junction. More severe phenotypes with abnormal tail developments were also seen. Moreover, partial depletion of both proteins at sub-phenotypic levels resulted in the same phenotypes, suggesting for the first time, in vivo, a genetic interaction between these genes. In conclusion, the zebrafish orthologues of the SPG11 and SPG15 genes are important for proper development of the axons of spinal motor neurons and likely act in a common pathway to promote their proper path finding towards the neuromuscular junction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thoracic Unilateral Spinal Cord Injury After Spinal Anaesthesia for Total Hip Replacement: Fate or Mistake?

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Costa; Romualdo, Del Buono; Eugenio, Agrò Felice; Vittoradolfo, Tambone; Massimiliano, Vitali Andrea; Giovanna, Ricci

    2017-01-01

    Spinal anaesthesia is the most preffered anesthesia technique for total hip replacement, and its complications range from low entity (insignificant) to life threatening. The incidence of neurologic complications after neuraxial anaesthesia is not perfectly clear, although there are several described cases of spinal cord ischaemia. We present a case of unilateral T8–T11 spinal cord ischaemia following L2–L3 spinal anaesthesia for total hip replacement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a hyperintense T8–T11 signal alteration on the leftside of paramedian spinal cord. A temporal epidemiologic linkage between the damage and the surgery seems to be present. The injury occurred without anatomical proximity between the injury site and the spinal needle entry site. This may be due to multiple contributing factors, each of them is probably not enough to determine the damage by itself; however, acting simultaneously, they could have been responsible for the complication. The result was unpredictable and unavoidable and was caused by unforeseeable circumstances and not by inadequate medical practice. PMID:28439446

  17. Non-invasive imaging of zebrafish with spinal deformities using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Liane; Beaudette, Kathy; Patten, Kessen; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Émilie; Strupler, Mathias; Moldovan, Florina; Boudoux, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    A zebrafish model has recently been introduced to study various genetic mutations that could lead to spinal deformities such as scoliosis. However, current imaging techniques make it difficult to perform longitudinal studies of this condition in zebrafish, especially in the early stages of development. The goal of this project is to determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a viable non-invasive method to image zebrafish exhibiting spinal deformities. Images of both live and fixed malformed zebrafish (5 to 21 days postfertilization) as well as wild-type fish (5 to 29 days postfertilization) were acquired non-invasively using a commercial SD-OCT system, with a laser source centered at 930nm (λ=100nm), permitting axial and lateral resolutions of 7 and 8μm respectively. Using two-dimensional images and three-dimensional reconstructions, it was possible to identify the malformed notochord as well as deformities in other major organs at different stages of formation. Visualization of the notochord was facilitated with the development of a segmentation algorithm. OCT images were compared to HE histological sections and images obtained by calcein staining. Because of the possibility of performing longitudinal studies on a same fish and reducing image processing time as compared with staining techniques and histology, the use of OCT could facilitate phenotypic characterization in studying genetic factors leading to spinal deformities in zebrafish and could eventually contribute to the identification of the genetic causes of spinal deformities such as scoliosis.

  18. Is neuroinflammation in the injured spinal cord different than in the brain? Examining intrinsic differences between the brain and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Gensel, J C

    2014-08-01

    The field of neuroimmunology is rapidly advancing. There is a growing appreciation for heterogeneity, both in inflammatory composition and region-specific inflammatory responses. This understanding underscores the importance of developing targeted immunomodulatory therapies for treating neurological disorders. Concerning neurotrauma, there is a dearth of publications directly comparing inflammatory responses in the brain and spinal cord after injury. The question therefore remains as to whether inflammatory cells responding to spinal cord vs. brain injury adopt similar functions and are therefore amenable to common therapies. In this review, we address this question while revisiting and modernizing the conclusions from publications that have directly compared inflammation across brain and spinal cord injuries. By examining molecular differences, anatomical variations, and inflammatory cell phenotypes between the injured brain and spinal cord, we provide insight into how neuroinflammation relates to neurotrauma and into fundamental differences between the brain and spinal cord. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spinal Cord Injury—Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, William H

    2007-01-01

    Summary: This special report traces the path of spinal cord injury (SCI) from ancient times through the present and provides an optimistic overview of promising clinical trials and avenues of basic research. The spinal cord injuries of Lord Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, President James A. Garfield, and General George Patton provide an interesting perspective on the evolution of the standard of care for SCI. The author details the contributions of a wide spectrum of professionals in the United States, Europe, and Australia, as well as the roles of various government and professional organizations, legislation, and overall advances in surgery, anesthesia, trauma care, imaging, pharmacology, and infection control, in the advancement of care for the individual with SCI. PMID:17591221

  20. Outcomes in Treatment for Intradural Spinal Cord Ependymomas

    SciT

    Volpp, P. Brian; Han, Khanh; Kagan, A. Robert

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: Spinal cord ependymomas are rare tumors, accounting for <2% of all primary central nervous system tumors. This study assessed the treatment outcomes for patients diagnosed with spinal cord ependymomas within the Southern California Kaiser Permanente system. Methods and Materials: We studied 23 patients treated with surgery with or without external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The local and distant control rates and overall survival rates were determined. Results: The overall local control, overall recurrence, and 9-year overall survival rate was 96%, 17.4%, and 63.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that en bloc gross total resection should be themore » initial treatment, with radiotherapy reserved primarily for postoperative cases with unfavorable characteristics such as residual tumor, anaplastic histologic features, or piecemeal resection. Excellent local control and overall survival rates can be achieved using modern microsurgical techniques, with or without local radiotherapy.« less

  1. The management of spinal cord injury patients in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petropoulou, C B; Rapidi, C A; Beltsios, M; Karantonis, G; Lampiris, P E

    1992-02-01

    In Greece, spinal cord injury patients have serious problems concerning their treatment, social management and vocational integration. Unfortunately the treatment of such patients is usually limited to that offered in institutions for the chronically sick, after they have received their acute initial care in general hospitals. The large number of institutional beds (1287 in 1986) in relation to the small number of active rehabilitation beds (116 beds in 1989) is noteworthy. Generally speaking, the specialisation of health personnel is limited. In practice there is no programme of social rehabilitation, except for special concessions. Disabled individuals can refer to the Professional Integration Service for their vocational reintegration. We must note that vocational counsellors do not take part in the rehabilitation team. The idea of intervention for the adaptation of architectural barriers is now beginning to be considered in theory. Physicians are making efforts to establish 'basic' spinal cord units.

  2. [Functional rehabilitation of spinal cord injured persons using neuroprostheses].

    PubMed

    Rupp, R; Abel, R

    2005-02-01

    Recent technological advancements in microelectronics have led to the establishment of systems for restoration of basic functions in spinal cord injured (SCI) persons using functional electrical stimulation (FES). FES systems for the restoration of bladder and diaphragm function are well established in clinical practice. While FES systems in the lower extremities for standing/walking have not yet achieved widespread clinical acceptance, devices which enhance or restore the grasp function in tetraplegic patients with missing control of hand and fingers are demonstrably successful. Especially with the use of implantable systems a reliable, easy to handle application is possible. The most recent developments in micromechanical engineering are aimed at providing minimally invasive, subminiature systems for functional support in incomplete SCI persons. The possibility of direct brain control of FES systems will expand the application of neuroprostheses for patients with injury of the high cervical spinal cord.

  3. Biomechanical properties of the spinal cord: implications for tissue engineering and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Richard D; Choi, David; Phillips, James B

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury is a severely debilitating condition which can leave individuals paralyzed and suffering from autonomic dysfunction. Regenerative medicine may offer a promising solution to this problem. Previous research has focused primarily on exploring the cellular and biological aspects of the spinal cord, yet relatively little remains known about the biomechanical properties of spinal cord tissue. Given that a number of regenerative strategies aim to deliver cells and materials in the form of tissue-engineered therapies, understanding the biomechanical properties of host spinal cord tissue is important. We review the relevant biomechanical properties of spinal cord tissue and provide the baseline knowledge required to apply these important physical concepts to spinal cord tissue engineering.

  4. Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

    2012-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI.

  5. Naturally Occurring Disk Herniation in Dogs: An Opportunity for Pre-Clinical Spinal Cord Injury Research

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Porter, Brian F.; Topp, Kimberly; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injuries represent a significant source of morbidity in humans. Despite decades of research using experimental models of spinal cord injury to identify candidate therapeutics, there has been only limited progress toward translating beneficial findings to human spinal cord injury. Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation is a naturally occurring disease that affects dogs and results in compressive/contusive spinal cord injury. Here we discuss aspects of this disease that are analogous to human spinal cord injury, including injury mechanisms, pathology, and metrics for determining outcomes. We address both the strengths and weaknesses of conducting pre-clinical research in these dogs, and include a review of studies that have utilized these animals to assess efficacy of candidate therapeutics. Finally, we consider a two-species approach to pre-clinical data acquisition, beginning with a reproducible model of spinal cord injury in the rodent as a tool for discovery with validation in pet dogs with intervertebral disk herniation. PMID:21438715

  6. Pain following Spinal Cord Injury: The Impact on Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Catherine; Eng, Janice J

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Prospective, correlational Objectives 1) describe how pain changes over recovery from admission to spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation, discharge and after 6 months of community living and 2) examine the relationship between pain and community integration at 6 months of community living. Setting Tertiary rehabilitation centre, spinal cord injury unit, Vancouver, Canada. Methods Subjects from 66 consecutive admissions to the Spinal Cord Injury Program of a tertiary rehabilitation centre for the treatment of a traumatic spinal cord injury during the years 2000 to 2002 were followed using data from the National Rehabilitation Reporting System (NRRS). Information was obtained from NRRS standardized assessments performed on admission, discharge and 6 month community living. Early community living was defined as 6-months post-discharge. Community re-integration was assessed by the Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNL). Pain presence, pain impact and pain intensity were assessed using single item Likhert type scales. Results 86% of individuals with a SCI reported pain at 6-months post discharge, with 27% of these individuals reporting pain that impacted on many or most activities. Pain impact and pain intensity were related to the community re-integration (r=−0.39 and r=−0.55, p<.001), with pain intensity accounting for 25% of the variance in RNL scores. Conclusions Pain is a major consequence of a SCI, impacting on an individual’s activities and perception of how well they are integrated into the community. The results of this study highlight the need to address pain during both the rehabilitation phase of treatment and the early transition into the community. PMID:15570317

  7. Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Axonal Response to Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    73(2):614-22. doi: 10.1002/ mrm .25174. Epub 2014 Mar 6) and in generating spinal cord myelin maps (Magnetization transfer from inhomogeneously...Rangwala N, Alsop DC, Duhamel G. Magn Reson Med. 2016 Mar 9. doi: 10.1002/ mrm .26134. [Epub ahead of print]) The third aim, to extend quantitative...resolution and gradient stability that off the shelf alternatives. However, the incompatibility of the coil and software with the new instrument introduced

  8. Necrosulfonamide Attenuates Spinal Cord Injury via Necroptosis Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongxiang; Wang, Jingcheng; Wang, Hua; Feng, Xinmin; Tao, Yuping; Yang, Jiandong; Cai, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious trauma without efficient treatment currently. Necroptosis can be blocked post injury by special inhibitors. This study is to investigate the effects, mechanism, and potential benefit of necrosulfonamide (NSA) for SCI therapy. Pathologic condition was detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining on injured spinal cord and other major organs. Necroptosis-related factors-RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL-were detected using Western blot. Detections on mitochondrial functions such as adenosine triphosphate generation and activities of superoxide dismutase and caspase-3 were also performed. Finally, ethologic performance was detected using a 21-point open-field locomotion test. Reduced lesions and protected neurons were found in the injured spinal cord after treatment with NSA using hematoxylin-eosin staining for pathologic detection. No obvious toxicity on rat liver, kidney, heart, and spleen was detected. Rather than RIP1 and RIP3, MLKL was significantly inhibited by the NSA using Western blot detection. Adenosine triphosphate generation was obviously decreased post injury but slightly increased after the NSA treatment, especially 24 hours post injury. No significant changes were found on activities of superoxide dismutase and caspase-3 after the treatment of NSA. Ethologic performance was significantly improved using a 21-point, open-field locomotion test. Our research indicates NSA attenuates the spinal cord injury via necroptosis inhibition. It might be a potential and safe chemical benefit for SCI therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the effects of NSA as treatment of traumatic SCI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Motor Cortex Stimulation Reverses Maladaptive Plasticity Following Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    pp 74–85. Austin: Landes Biosciences. 3. Abstracts o Mechanisms of Pain Relief Following Motor Cortex Stimulation: An fMRI Study. Society for...Neuroscience Meeting. Washington, DC. 2012. o Resting State fMRI in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury Neuropathic Pain: A Longitudinal Study. Society...2601–2610. 16. Stefanacci L, Reber P, Costanza J, Wong E, Buxton R, Zola S, Squire L, Albright T. fMRI of monkey visual cortex. Neuron 1998;20:1051

  10. Protective effect of melatonin on experimental spinal cord ischemia.

    PubMed

    Erten, S F; Kocak, A; Ozdemir, I; Aydemir, S; Colak, A; Reeder, B S

    2003-10-01

    Experimental animal model to assess ischemic spinal cord injury following occlusion of the thoraco-abdominal aorta. To measure whether melatonin administered to rabbits before and after occlusion exerts an effect on the repair of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Medical Biology Laboratory, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey. Rabbits were divided into three IR treatment groups and one sham-operated (ShOp) control group. The three treatment groups had their infrarenal aorta temporarily occluded for 25 min, while the ShOp group had laparotomy without aortic occlusion. Melatonin was administered either 10 min before aortic occlusion or 10 min after the clamp was removed. Physiologic saline was administered to the control animals. After treatment, the animals were euthanized and lumbosacral spinal cord tissue was removed for the determination of relevant enzyme activities. Malondialdehyde levels, indicating the extent of lipid peroxidation, were found to be significantly increased in the nonmelatonin treated (IR) group when compared to the ShOp group. Melatonin, whether given to pre- or post occlusion groups, suppressed malondialdehyde levels below that of the ShOp group. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were increased in the IR group compared to the ShOp group. Melatonin given preocclusion resulted in a significant decrease in both CAT and GSH-Px enzyme levels. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity was decreased in the ischemia-reperfusion treatment group. However, the melatonin treatment increased SOD enzyme activity to levels approximating that of the ShOp group. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the effects of melatonin administered both pre- and postischemia on induced oxidative damage to injured spinal cords. Our data also expands on reports that melatonin administration may significantly reduce the incidence of spinal cord injury following temporary aortic occlusion.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Axonal Response to Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Outcomes 6 Conclusions 6 References 6-29 Appendices Introduction During the first year we pursued studies of Magnetic Resonance q-space imaging...QSI) of the spinal cord and myelin imaging. The QSI studies extended our previous work establishing our ability to define the distribution of axon...Conventional MR imaging of the central nervous systems studies water protons exclusively. Although other compounds, such a lipid and proteins, have

  12. Back pain: a real target for spinal cord stimulation?

    PubMed

    Rigoard, Philippe; Delmotte, Alexandre; D'Houtaud, Samuel; Misbert, Lorraine; Diallo, Bakari; Roy-Moreau, Aline; Durand, Sylvain; Royoux, Solène; Giot, Jean-Philippe; Bataille, Benoit

    2012-03-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome represents one of the most frequent etiologies of chronic back pain and is a major public health issue. Neurostimulation has currently not been validated in the treatment of back pain because of technological limitations in implantable spinal cord stimulation (SCS) systems. New-generation leads using several columns of stimulation can generate longitudinal and/or transverse stimulation fields into the spinal cord. To investigate, through extensive stimulation testing, the capacity of multicolumn tripolar leads to achieve back territory paresthesia coverage in refractory failed back surgery syndrome patients. Eleven patients implanted with a 16-contact spinal cord stimulation lead (Specify 5-6-5, Medtronic Inc) were assessed with a systematic exploration of 43 selected stimulation configurations to generate bilateral back paresthesia in addition to leg territory coverage. The tripolar lead successfully generated paresthesia in both bilateral back and leg territories in 9 patients (81.8%). Success rates of multicolumn stimulation patterns were significantly higher than for longitudinal configurations for lombodorsal paresthesia coverage. Six months after implantation, significant pain relief was obtained compared with preoperative evaluation for global pain (Visual Analog Scale, 2.25 vs 8.2 preoperatively; P < .05), leg pain (Visual Analog Scale, 0.5 vs 7.6 preoperatively; P < .05), and back pain (Visual Analog Scale, 1.5 vs 7.8 preoperatively; P < .05). These results suggest that multicolumn leads can reliably generate back pain coverage and favor pain relief outcomes. This may lead physicians to reconsider new indications for spinal cord stimulation. Expanding neurostimulation perspectives to intractable back pain syndromes could become realistic in the near future.

  13. Alpha-2 agonist attenuates ischemic injury in spinal cord neurons.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kirsten A; Puskas, Ferenc; Bell, Marshall T; Mares, Joshua M; Foley, Lisa S; Weyant, Michael J; Cleveland, Joseph C; Fullerton, David A; Meng, Xianzhong; Herson, Paco S; Reece, T Brett

    2015-05-01

    Paraplegia secondary to spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a devastating complication of thoracoabdominal aortic intervention. The complex interactions between injured neurons and activated leukocytes have limited the understanding of neuron-specific injury. We hypothesize that spinal cord neuron cell cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) would simulate ischemia-reperfusion injury, which could be attenuated by specific alpha-2a agonism in an Akt-dependent fashion. Spinal cords from perinatal mice were harvested, and neurons cultured in vitro for 7-10 d. Cells were pretreated with 1 μM dexmedetomidine (Dex) and subjected to OGD in an anoxic chamber. Viability was determined by MTT assay. Deoxyuridine-triphosphate nick-end labeling staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used for apoptosis and necrosis identification, respectively. Western blot was used for protein analysis. Vehicle control cells were only 59% viable after 1 h of OGD. Pretreatment with Dex significantly preserves neuronal viability with 88% viable (P < 0.05). Dex significantly decreased apoptotic cells compared with that of vehicle control cells by 50% (P < 0.05). Necrosis was not significantly different between treatment groups. Mechanistically, Dex treatment significantly increased phosphorylated Akt (P < 0.05), but protective effects of Dex were eliminated by an alpha-2a antagonist or Akt inhibitor (P < 0.05). Using a novel spinal cord neuron cell culture, OGD mimics neuronal metabolic derangement responsible for paraplegia after aortic surgery. Dex preserves neuronal viability and decreases apoptosis in an Akt-dependent fashion. Dex demonstrates clinical promise for reducing the risk of paraplegia after high-risk aortic surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid myelin water imaging in human cervical spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ljungberg, Emil; Vavasour, Irene; Tam, Roger; Yoo, Youngjin; Rauscher, Alexander; Li, David K B; Traboulsee, Anthony; MacKay, Alex; Kolind, Shannon

    2017-10-01

    Myelin water imaging (MWI) using multi-echo T 2 relaxation is a quantitative MRI technique that can be used as an in vivo biomarker for myelin in the central nervous system. MWI using a multi-echo spin echo sequence currently takes more than 20 min to acquire eight axial slices (5 mm thickness) in the cervical spinal cord, making spinal cord MWI impractical for implementation in clinical studies. In this study, an accelerated gradient and spin echo sequence (GRASE), previously validated for brain MWI, was adapted for spinal cord MWI. Ten healthy volunteers were scanned with the GRASE sequence (acquisition time 8.5 min) and compared with the multi-echo spin echo sequence (acquisition time 23.5 min). Using region of interest analysis, myelin estimates obtained from the two sequences were found to be in good agreement (mean difference = -0.0092, 95% confidence interval =  - 0.0092 ± 0.061; regression slope = 1.01, ρ = 0.9). MWI using GRASE was shown to be highly reproducible with an average coefficient of variation of 6.1%. The results from this study show that MWI can be performed in the cervical spinal cord in less than 10 min, allowing for practical implementation in multimodal clinical studies. Magn Reson Med 78:1482-1487, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. [Neurotoxic effects of levobupivacaine and fentanyl on rat spinal cord].

    PubMed

    Abut, Yesim Cokay; Turkmen, Asli Zengin; Midi, Ahmet; Eren, Burak; Yener, Nese; Nurten, Asiye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the neurotoxic effects of intrathecally administered levobupivacaine, fentanyl and their mixture on rat spinal cord. In experiment, there were four groups with medication and a control group. Rats were injected 15μL saline or fentanyl 0.0005μg/15μL, levobupivacaine 0.25%/15μL and fentanyl 0.0005μg+levobupivacaine 0.25%/15μL intrathecally for four days. Hot plate test was performed to assess neurologic function after each injection at 5th, 30th and 60th min. Five days after last lumbal injection, spinal cord sections between the T5 and T6 vertebral levels were obtained for histologic analysis. A score based on subjective assessment of number of eosinophilic neurons - Red neuron - which means irreversible neuronal degeneration. They reflect the approximate number of degenerating neurons present in the affected neuroanatomic areas as follows: 1, none; 2, 1-20%; 3, 21-40%; 4, 41-60%; and 5, 61-100% dead neurons. An overall neuropathologic score was calculated for each rat by summating the pathologic scores for all spinal cord areas examined. In the results of HPT, comparing the control group, analgesic latency statistically prolonged for all four groups. In neuropathologic investment, the fentanyl and fentanyl+levobupivacaine groups have statistically significant high degenerative neuron counts than control and saline groups. These results suggest that, when administered intrathecally in rats, fentanyl and levobupivacaine behave similar for analgesic action, but fentanyl may be neurotoxic for spinal cord. There was no significant degeneration with levobupivacaine, but fentanyl group has had significant degeneration. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Aquaporin-4 in brain and spinal cord oedema.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, S; Papadopoulos, M C

    2010-07-28

    Brain oedema is a major clinical problem produced by CNS diseases (e.g. stroke, brain tumour, brain abscess) and systemic diseases that secondarily affect the CNS (e.g. hyponatraemia, liver failure). The swollen brain is compressed against the surrounding dura and skull, which causes the intracranial pressure to rise, leading to brain ischaemia, herniation, and ultimately death. A water channel protein, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is found in astrocyte foot processes (blood-brain border), the glia limitans (subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid-brain border) and ependyma (ventricular cerebrospinal fluid-brain border). Experiments using mice lacking AQP4 or alpha syntrophin (which secondarily downregulate AQP4) showed that AQP4 facilitates oedema formation in diseases causing cytotoxic (cell swelling) oedema such as cerebral ischaemia, hyponatraemia and meningitis. In contrast, AQP4 facilitates oedema elimination in diseases causing vasogenic (vessel leak) oedema and therefore AQP4 deletion aggravates brain oedema produced by brain tumour and brain abscess. AQP4 is also important in spinal cord oedema. AQP4 deletion was associated with less cord oedema and improved outcome after compression spinal cord injury in mice. Here we consider the possible routes of oedema formation and elimination in the injured cord and speculate about the role of AQP4. Finally we discuss the role of AQP4 in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an inflammatory demyelinating disease that produces oedema in the spinal cord and optic nerves. NMO patients have circulating AQP4 IgG autoantibody, which is now used for diagnosing NMO. We speculate how NMO-IgG might produce CNS inflammation, demyelination and oedema. Since AQP4 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of CNS oedema, we conclude that AQP4 inhibitors and activators may reduce CNS oedema in many diseases. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomedical Influences on Spinal Cord Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-14

    Larson SJ: Failure levels and dimensions of lumbar spinal ligaments. Orthoaic Transactions 8(3):425-426, 1984. 8. Sances A Jr, Maiman DJ, Myklebust JB...Injury of the Head and Spine, Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, IL, 654 pp, 1983. 61. Farfan, H.F., Muscular mechanism of the lumbar spine and...lesions of the thoracic and lumbar spine, J Neurosurg, 45:628-637, 1976. 113. Larson, S.J., The lateral extrapleural and extraperitoneal approach to

  18. International Spinal Cord Injury Data Sets for non-traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    New, P W; Marshall, R

    2014-02-01

    Multifaceted: extensive discussions at workshop and conference presentations, survey of experts and feedback. Present the background, purpose and development of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Sets for Non-Traumatic SCI (NTSCI), including a hierarchical classification of aetiology. International. Consultation via e-mail, presentations and discussions at ISCoS conferences (2006-2009), and workshop (1 September 2008). The consultation processes aimed to: (1) clarify aspects of the classification structure, (2) determine placement of certain aetiologies and identify important missing causes of NTSCI and (3) resolve coding issues and refine definitions. Every effort was made to consider feedback and suggestions from participants. The International Data Sets for NTSCI includes basic and an extended versions. The extended data set includes a two-axis classification system for the causes of NTSCI. Axis 1 consists of a five-level, two-tier (congenital-genetic and acquired) hierarchy that allows for increasing detail to specify the aetiology. Axis 2 uses the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Related Health Problems for coding the initiating diseases(s) that may have triggered the events that resulted in the axis 1 diagnosis, where appropriate. Additional items cover the timeframe of onset of NTSCI symptoms and presence of iatrogenicity. Complete instructions for data collection, data sheet and training cases are available at the websites of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org). The data sets should facilitate comparative research involving NTSCI participants, especially epidemiological studies and prevention projects. Further work is anticipated to refine the data sets, particularly regarding iatrogenicity.

  19. Electrospun Fibers for Spinal Cord Injury Research and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Nicholas J.; Johnson, Christopher D.; Cooper, Blair

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electrospinning is the process by which a scaffold containing micrometer and nanometer diameter fibers are drawn from a polymer solution or melt using a large voltage gradient between a polymer emitting source and a grounded collector. Ramakrishna and colleagues first investigated electrospun fibers for neural applications in 2004. After this initial study, electrospun fibers are increasingly investigated for neural tissue engineering applications. Electrospun fibers robustly support axonal regeneration within in vivo rodent models of spinal cord injury. These findings suggest the possibility of their eventual use within patients. Indeed, both spinal cord and peripheral nervous system regeneration research over the last several years shows that physical guidance cues induce recovery of limb, respiration, or bladder control in rodent models. Electrospun fibers may be an alternative to the peripheral nerve graft (PNG), because PNG autografts injure the patient and are limited in supply, and allografts risk host rejection. In addition, electrospun fibers can be engineered easily to confront new therapeutic challenges. Fibers can be modified to release therapies locally or can be physically modified to direct neural stem cell differentiation. This review summarizes the major findings and trends in the last decade of research, with a particular focus on spinal cord injury. This review also demonstrates how electrospun fibers can be used to study the central nervous system in vitro. PMID:26650778

  20. Gene Delivery Strategies to Promote Spinal Cord Repair

    PubMed Central

    Walthers, Christopher M; Seidlits, Stephanie K

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapies hold great promise for the treatment of many neurodegenerative disorders and traumatic injuries in the central nervous system. However, development of effective methods to deliver such therapies in a controlled manner to the spinal cord is a necessity for their translation to the clinic. Although essential progress has been made to improve efficiency of transgene delivery and reduce the immunogenicity of genetic vectors, there is still much work to be done to achieve clinical strategies capable of reversing neurodegeneration and mediating tissue regeneration. In particular, strategies to achieve localized, robust expression of therapeutic transgenes by target cell types, at controlled levels over defined time periods, will be necessary to fully regenerate functional spinal cord tissues. This review summarizes the progress over the last decade toward the development of effective gene therapies in the spinal cord, including identification of appropriate target genes, improvements to design of genetic vectors, advances in delivery methods, and strategies for delivery of multiple transgenes with synergistic actions. The potential of biomaterials to mediate gene delivery while simultaneously providing inductive scaffolding to facilitate tissue regeneration is also discussed. PMID:25922572

  1. MRI and MRA of spinal cord arteriovenous shunts.

    PubMed

    Condette-Auliac, Stéphanie; Boulin, Anne; Roccatagliata, Luca; Coskun, Oguzhan; Guieu, Stéphanie; Guedin, Pierre; Rodesch, Georges

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the diagnostic criteria for spinal cord arteriovenous shunts (SCAVSs) when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and to discuss the extent to which the different MRI and MRA sequences and technical parameters provide the information that is required to diagnose these lesions properly. SCAVSs are divided into four groups according to location (paraspinal, epidural, dural, or intradural) and type (fistula or nidus); each type of lesion is described. SCAVSs are responsible for neurological symptoms due to spinal cord or nerve root involvement. MRI is usually the first examination performed when a spinal cord lesion is suspected. Recognition of the image characteristics of vascular lesions is mandatory if useful sequences are to be performed-especially MRA sequences. Because the treatment of SCAVSs relies mainly on endovascular therapies, MRI and MRA help with the planning of the angiographic procedure. We explain the choice of MRA sequences and parameters, the advantages and pitfalls to be aware of in order to obtain the best visualization, and the analysis of each lesion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Estimating the global incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fitzharris, M; Cripps, R A; Lee, B B

    2014-02-01

    Population modelling--forecasting. To estimate the global incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). An initiative of the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Prevention Committee. Regression techniques were used to derive regional and global estimates of TSCI incidence. Using the findings of 31 published studies, a regression model was fitted using a known number of TSCI cases as the dependent variable and the population at risk as the single independent variable. In the process of deriving TSCI incidence, an alternative TSCI model was specified in an attempt to arrive at an optimal way of estimating the global incidence of TSCI. The global incidence of TSCI was estimated to be 23 cases per 1,000,000 persons in 2007 (179,312 cases per annum). World Health Organization's regional results are provided. Understanding the incidence of TSCI is important for health service planning and for the determination of injury prevention priorities. In the absence of high-quality epidemiological studies of TSCI in each country, the estimation of TSCI obtained through population modelling can be used to overcome known deficits in global spinal cord injury (SCI) data. The incidence of TSCI is context specific, and an alternative regression model demonstrated how TSCI incidence estimates could be improved with additional data. The results highlight the need for data standardisation and comprehensive reporting of national level TSCI data. A step-wise approach from the collation of conventional epidemiological data through to population modelling is suggested.

  3. Spinal cord stimulation for treatment of meralgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Barna, Steven A; Hu, M Melvin; Buxo, Carlos; Trella, Jason; Cosgrove, G Rees

    2005-07-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is a clinical syndrome of pain, dysesthesia or both, in the anterolateral thigh. It is associated with an entrapment mononeuropathy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Diagnosis of meralgia paresthetica is typically made clinically and is based on the characteristic location of pain or dysesthesia, sensory abnormality on exam, and absence of any other neurological abnormality in the leg. The majority of patients with meralgia paresthetica respond well to conservative treatment. To present a case of intractable meralgia paresthetica in which conservative treatment options failed but which was successfully treated with a spinal cord stimulator. A 44-year-old woman presented to the pain clinic with a one-year history of bilateral anterolateral thigh pain. History, physical exam, and diagnostic work-up were consistent with meralgia paresthetica. Multiple medications, physical therapy, and chiropractic therapy were not successful for this patient. In addition, local anesthetic/steroid injection of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve provided only short-term relief. Ultimately, a spinal cord stimulator was implanted after a successful temporary percutaneous trial. Two months after the implantation, she continued to have 100% pain relief, worked full-time, was physically active, and no longer required any pain medication including opioids. An implanted spinal cord stimulator may be an ideal treatment for intractable meralgia paresthetica after conservative treatments have failed because it is not destructive and can always be explanted without significant permanent adverse effects.

  4. Exercise modulates chloride homeostasis after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Côté, Marie-Pascale; Gandhi, Sapan; Zambrotta, Marina; Houlé, John D

    2014-07-02

    Activity-based therapies are routinely integrated in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation programs because they result in a reduction of hyperreflexia and spasticity. However, the mechanisms by which exercise regulates activity in spinal pathways to reduce spasticity and improve functional recovery are poorly understood. Persisting alterations in the action of GABA on postsynaptic targets is a signature of CNS injuries, including SCI. The action of GABA depends on the intracellular chloride concentration, which is determined largely by the expression of two cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs), KCC2 and NKCC1, which serve as chloride exporters and importers, respectively. We hypothesized that the reduction in hyperreflexia with exercise after SCI relies on a return to chloride homeostasis. Sprague Dawley rats received a spinal cord transection at T12 and were assigned to SCI-7d, SCI-14d, SCI-14d+exercise, SCI-28d, SCI-28d+exercise, or SCI-56d groups. During a terminal experiment, H-reflexes were recorded from interosseus muscles after stimulation of the tibial nerve and the low-frequency-dependent depression (FDD) was assessed. We provide evidence that exercise returns spinal excitability and levels of KCC2 and NKCC1 toward normal levels in the lumbar spinal cord. Acutely altering chloride extrusion using the KCC2 blocker DIOA masked the effect of exercise on FDD, whereas blocking NKCC1 with bumetanide returned FDD toward intact levels after SCI. Our results indicate that exercise contributes to reflex recovery and restoration of endogenous inhibition through a return to chloride homeostasis after SCI. This lends support for CCCs as part of a pathway that could be manipulated to improve functional recovery when combined with rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348976-12$15.00/0.

  5. Restoration of Bladder and Bowel Function Using Electrical Stimulation and Block after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0132 TITLE: Restoration of Bladder and Bowel Function Using Electrical Stimulation and Block after Spinal Cord Injury...Sept 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Restoration of Bladder and Bowel Function Using Electrical Stimulation and Block after Spinal Cord Injury 5a...evaluate the restoration of bladder and bowel function using electrical stimulation and block after spinal cord injury in human subjects. All staff

  6. Genetic visualization with an improved GCaMP calcium indicator reveals spatiotemporal activation of the spinal motor neurons in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Akira; Ohkura, Masamichi; Kotani, Tomoya; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Nakai, Junichi; Kawakami, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Animal behaviors are generated by well-coordinated activation of neural circuits. In zebrafish, embryos start to show spontaneous muscle contractions at 17 to 19 h postfertilization. To visualize how motor circuits in the spinal cord are activated during this behavior, we developed GCaMP-HS (GCaMP-hyper sensitive), an improved version of the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP, and created transgenic zebrafish carrying the GCaMP-HS gene downstream of the Gal4-recognition sequence, UAS (upstream activation sequence). Then we performed a gene-trap screen and identified the SAIGFF213A transgenic fish that expressed Gal4FF, a modified version of Gal4, in a subset of spinal neurons including the caudal primary (CaP) motor neurons. We conducted calcium imaging using the SAIGFF213A; UAS:GCaMP-HS double transgenic embryos during the spontaneous contractions. We demonstrated periodic and synchronized activation of a set of ipsilateral motor neurons located on the right and left trunk in accordance with actual muscle movements. The synchronized activation of contralateral motor neurons occurred alternately with a regular interval. Furthermore, a detailed analysis revealed rostral-to-caudal propagation of activation of the ipsilateral motor neuron, which is similar to but much slower than the rostrocaudal delay observed during swimming in later stages. Our study thus demonstrated coordinated activities of the motor neurons during the first behavior in a vertebrate. We propose the GCaMP technology combined with the Gal4FF-UAS system is a powerful tool to study functional neural circuits in zebrafish. PMID:21383146

  7. Plasticity of spinal centers in spinal cord injury patients: new concepts for gait evaluation and training.

    PubMed

    Scivoletto, Giorgio; Ivanenko, Yuri; Morganti, Barbara; Grasso, Renato; Zago, Mirka; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ditunno, John; Molinari, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Recent data on spinal cord plasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI) were reviewed to analyze the influence of training on the neurophysiological organization of locomotor spinal circuits in SCI patients. In particular, the authors studied the relationship between central pattern generators (CPGs) and motor neuron pool activation during gait. An analysis of the relations between locomotor recovery and compensatory mechanisms focuses on the hierarchical organization of gait parameters and allows characterizing kinematic parameters that are highly stable during different gait conditions and in recovered gait after SCI. The importance of training characteristics and the use of robotic/automated devices in gait recovery is analyzed and discussed. The role of CPG in defining kinematic gait parameters is summarized, and spatio-temporal maps of EMG activity during gait are used to clarify the role of CPG plasticity in sustaining gait recovery.

  8. Exercise recommendations for individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Patrick L; Nash, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit deficits in volitional motor control and sensation that limit not only the performance of daily tasks but also the overall activity level of these persons. This population has been characterised as extremely sedentary with an increased incidence of secondary complications including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and atherogenic lipid profiles. As the daily lifestyle of the average person with SCI is without adequate stress for conditioning purposes, structured exercise activities must be added to the regular schedule if the individual is to reduce the likelihood of secondary complications and/or to enhance their physical capacity. The acute exercise responses and the capacity for exercise conditioning are directly related to the level and completeness of the spinal lesion. Appropriate exercise testing and training of persons with SCI should be based on the individual's exercise capacity as determined by accurate assessment of the spinal lesion. The standard means of classification of SCI is by application of the International Standards for Classification of Spinal Cord Injury, written by the Neurological Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association. Individuals with complete spinal injuries at or above the fourth thoracic level generally exhibit dramatically diminished cardiac acceleration with maximal heart rates less than 130 beats/min. The work capacity of these persons will be limited by reductions in cardiac output and circulation to the exercising musculature. Persons with complete spinal lesions below the T(10) level will generally display injuries to the lower motor neurons within the lower extremities and, therefore, will not retain the capacity for neuromuscular activation by means of electrical stimulation. Persons with paraplegia also exhibit reduced exercise capacity and increased heart rate responses (compared with the non-disabled), which have been associated with circulatory limitations

  9. Improving outcome of sensorimotor functions after traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In the rehabilitation of a patient suffering a spinal cord injury (SCI), the exploitation of neuroplasticity is well established. It can be facilitated through the training of functional movements with technical assistance as needed and can improve outcome after an SCI. The success of such training in individuals with incomplete SCI critically depends on the presence of physiological proprioceptive input to the spinal cord leading to meaningful muscle activations during movement performances. Some actual preclinical approaches to restore function by compensating for the loss of descending input to spinal networks following complete/incomplete SCI are critically discussed in this report. Electrical and pharmacological stimulation of spinal neural networks is still in the experimental stage, and despite promising repair studies in animal models, translations to humans up to now have not been convincing. It is possible that a combination of techniques targeting the promotion of axonal regeneration is necessary to advance the restoration of function. In the future, refinement of animal models according to clinical conditions and requirements may contribute to greater translational success.

  10. Sexual satisfaction in women with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Otero-Villaverde, S; Ferreiro-Velasco, M E; Montoto-Marqués, A; Salvador de la Barrera, S; Arias-Pardo, A I; Rodriguez-Sotillo, A

    2015-07-01

    Structured interview based on a predesigned survey. To examine the factors that affect the degree of sexual satisfaction in a sample of women with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study participants were women with SCIs, from the area of the SCI Unit of A Coruña, a reference unit for the Community of Galicia in the northwest of Spain. All study participants were selected consecutively in the outpatient clinic in 2013. The study included women with the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A-D spinal injuries, between the ages of 18 and 65 years, who completed rehabilitation therapy and live in the community. A total of 32 women formed the final study group. When comparing the group of women who were sexually active with those who were not, variables such as age, neurological level, time since the SCI, ASIA or Spinal Cord Independence Measure score, urinary incontinence, chronic pain and spasticity were not related to sexual activity. The only factors that we found to be related to sexual activity were not having a stable partner (P=0.017) and a lack of sensation in the genital area (P=0.039). The only variables related to sexual activity were not having a partner and a lack of sensation in the genital area. Improving sexual satisfaction, information and specific programs during rehabilitation can help women with SCI explore and investigate new erotic possibilities, thereby improving their self-esteem and social relationships.

  11. Receptor activated bladder and spinal ATP release in neurally intact and chronic spinal cord injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Nilson A.; Somogyi, George T.; Gangitano, David A.; Boone, Timothy B.; Smith, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    Neurally intact (NI) rats and chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) rats were studied to determine how activation of mechanosensory or cholinergic receptors in the bladder urothelium evokes ATP release from afferent terminals in the bladder as well as in the spinal cord. Spinal cord transection was performed at the T9-T10 level 2–3 weeks prior to the experiment and a microdialysis fiber was inserted in the L6-S1 lumbosacral spinal cord. Mechanically evoked (i.e. 10cm/w bladder pressure) ATP release into the bladder lumen was approximately 6.5 fold higher in SCI compared to NI rats (p<0.05). Intravesical carbachol (CCh) induced a significantly greater release of ATP in the bladder from SCI as compared to NI rats (3424.32 ± 1255.57 vs. 613.74 ± 470.44 pmol/ml, respectively, p<0.05). However, ATP release in NI or SCI rats to intravesical CCh was not affected by the muscarinic antagonist atropine (Atr). Spinal release of ATP to bladder stimulation with 10cm/w pressure was 5-fold higher in SCI compared to NI rats (p<0.05). CCh also induced a significantly greater release of spinal ATP in SCI rats compared to controls (4.3 ± 0.9 vs. 0.90 ± 0.15 pmol, p < 0.05). Surprisingly, the percent inhibitory effect of Atr on CCh-induced ATP release was significantly less in SCI as compared to NI rats (49% vs. 89%, respectively). SCI induces a dramatic increase in intravesical pressure and cholinergic receptor evoked bladder and spinal ATP release. Muscarinic receptors do not mediate intravesical CCh induced ATP release into the bladder lumen in NI or SCI rats. In NI rats sensory muscarinic receptors are the predominant mechanism by which CCh induces ATP release from primary afferents within the lumbosacral spinal cord. Following SCI, however, nicotinic or purinergic receptor mechanisms become active, as evidenced by the fact that Atr was only partially effective in inhibiting CCh-induced spinal ATP release. PMID:17067723

  12. Spinal cord injury: overview of experimental approaches used to restore locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide and can lead to paraplegia and quadriplegia. Anatomical discontinuity in the spinal cord results in disruption of the impulse conduction that causes temporary or permanent changes in the cord's normal functions. Although axonal regeneration is limited, damage to the spinal cord is often accompanied by spontaneous plasticity and axon regeneration that help improve sensory and motor skills. The recovery process depends mainly on synaptic plasticity in the preexisting circuits and on the formation of new pathways through collateral sprouting into neighboring denervated territories. However, spontaneous recovery after spinal cord injury can go on for several years, and the degree of recovery is very limited. Therefore, the development of new approaches that could accelerate the gain of motor function is of high priority to patients with damaged spinal cord. Although there are no fully restorative treatments for spinal injury, various rehabilitative approaches have been tested in animal models and have reached clinical trials. In this paper, a closer look will be given at the potential therapies that could facilitate axonal regeneration and improve locomotor recovery after injury to the spinal cord. This article highlights the application of several interventions including locomotor training, molecular and cellular treatments, and spinal cord stimulation in the field of rehabilitation research. Studies investigating therapeutic approaches in both animal models and individuals with injured spinal cords will be presented.

  13. Breaking bad news in spinal cord injury; a qualitative study assessing the perspective of spinal cord injury survivors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozyemisci-Taskiran, Ozden; Coskun, Ozlem; Budakoglu, Isil Irem; Demirsoy, Nesrin

    2018-05-01

    Prior abstract publication: 2 nd Medical Rehabilitation Congress; Nov 4-7, 2010; Ankara, Turkey Objective: This study aims to investigate the process of breaking bad news from the perspective of spinal cord injury survivors. A cross sectional, qualitative study. Community. Fourteen spinal cord injury survivors. Subjects participated in a semi-structured interview about 'when', 'where' 'by whom' and 'how' they received and 'would' prefer to receive bad news. Answers to 'how' questions were coded according to SPIKES protocol (Setting, Perception, Invitation, Knowledge, Empathizing, Summary). Eight participants (57%) reported that they received bad news from a physician, mostly during rehabilitation. All would prefer to be informed by a physician and majority preferred to be gradually informed during rehabilitation. Half were not satisfied with the content of information. Only half felt that his/her physiatrist understood his/her emotional distress. Majority of participants who received bad news from physicians reported that the setting was private and their family members accompanied them. Most spinal cord injury survivors were unsatisfied with knowledge and emotional support provided by rehabilitation physicians. Participants would prefer to receive bad news by a senior physiatrist in a planned meeting during rehabilitation.

  14. Involvement of peripheral and spinal tumor necrosis factor α in spinal cord hyperexcitability during knee joint inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    König, Christian; Zharsky, Maxim; Möller, Christian; Schaible, Hans-Georg; Ebersberger, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is produced not only in peripheral tissues, but also in the spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to address the potential of peripheral and spinal TNFα to induce and maintain spinal hyperexcitability, which is a hallmark of pain states in the joints during rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. In vivo recordings of the responses of spinal cord neurons to nociceptive knee input under normal conditions and in the presence of experimental knee joint inflammation were obtained in anesthetized rats. TNFα, etanercept, or antibodies to TNF receptors were applied to either the knee joint or the spinal cord surface. Injection of TNFα into the knee joint cavity increased the responses of spinal cord neurons to mechanical joint stimulation, and injection of etanercept into the knee joint reduced the inflammation-evoked spinal activity. These spinal effects closely mirrored the induction and reduction of peripheral sensitization. Responses to joint stimulation were also enhanced by spinal application of TNFα, and spinal application of either etanercept or anti-TNF receptor type I significantly attenuated the generation of inflammation-evoked spinal hyperexcitability, which is characterized by widespread pain sensitization beyond the inflamed joint. Spinally applied etanercept did not reduce established hyperexcitability in the acute kaolin/carrageenan model. In antigen-induced arthritis, etanercept decreased spinal responses on day 1, but not on day 3. While peripheral TNFα increases spinal responses to joint stimulation, spinal TNFα supports the generation of the full pattern of spinal hyperexcitability. However, established spinal hyperexcitability may be maintained by downstream mechanisms that are independent of spinal TNFα. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. [Spanish validation of the International Spinal Cord Injury Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set questionnaire for the study of the repercussion of spinal cord injury in the respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Gómez Garrido, Alba; León Espitia, Ana María; Montesinos Magraner, Lluïsa; Ramirez Galceran, Lucrecia; Soler Canudes, Emilia; González Viejo, Miguel Angel

    2015-12-07

    The dysfunction of the respiratory system and the breathing complications in persons with injured spinal cord has an effect on the morbidity and the mortality of the disease. The objectives were: 1) to translate to Spanish and validate the questionnaire of international consensus: International Spinal Cord Injury Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set, and 2) to determine the influence of chronic spinal cord injury in the respiratory system in terms of respiratory functionalism. Translation to Spanish and validation of the questionnaire of international consensus intended for the study of the pulmonary function in spinal cord injury disease. We tested the reliability of that questionnaire. We conducted a descriptive transversal study to determine the degree of involvement of the respiratory system in spinal cord injury. A percentage of 91.9 did not have any respiratory pathology before spinal cord injury and 54.8% of patients smoked. A percentage of 27.4 of patients presented breathing complications one year after the injury. Results of the respiratory function tests were: FVC 67%, FEV1 72% and PEF 70%. Concordance and reliability were 98%. The Spanish version of the questionnaire of international consensus about the pulmonary function is a useful tool for the study of the respiratory involvement in spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Spinal column and spinal cord injuries in mountain bikers: a 13-year review.

    PubMed

    Dodwell, Emily R; Kwon, Brian K; Hughes, Barbara; Koo, David; Townson, Andrea; Aludino, Allan; Simons, Richard K; Fisher, Charles G; Dvorak, Marcel F; Noonan, Vanessa K

    2010-08-01

    Multiple studies have described in general the injuries associated with mountain biking, and detailed accounts of spine injuries sustained in hockey, gymnastics, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and paragliding have previously been published. However, no large-scale detailed assessment of mountain biking associated spinal fractures and spinal cord injuries has previously been published. This study was undertaken to describe the patient demographics, injuries, mechanisms, treatments, outcomes, and resource requirements associated with spine injuries sustained while mountain biking. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients who were injured while mountain biking, and who were seen at a provincial spine referral center between 1995 and 2007 inclusive, with spinal cord injuries and/or spine fracture were included. A chart review was performed to obtain demographic data, and details of the injury, treatment, outcome, and resource requirements. A total of 102 men and 5 women were identified for inclusion. The mean age at injury was 32.7 years (95% confidence interval 30.6, 35.0). Seventy-nine patients (73.8%) sustained cervical injuries, while the remainder sustained thoracic or lumbar injuries. Forty-three patients (40.2%) sustained a spinal cord injury. Of those with cord injuries, 18 (41.9%) were American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A, 5 (11.6%) were ASIA B, 10 (23.3%) ASIA C, and 10 (23.3%) ASIA D. Sixty-seven patients (62.6%) required surgical treatment. The mean length of stay in an acute hospital bed was 16.9 days (95% confidence interval 13.1, 30.0). Thirty-three patients (30.8%) required intensive care unit attention, and 31 patients (29.0%) required inpatient rehabilitation. Of the 43 patients (40.2%) seen with spinal cord injuries, 14 (32.5%) improved by 1 ASIA category, and 1 (2.3%) improved by 2 ASIA categories. Two patients remained ventilator-dependent at discharge. Spine fractures and spinal cord injuries caused by mountain biking accidents typically

  17. Brachial plexus injury mimicking a spinal-cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Macyszyn, Luke J.; Gonzalez-Giraldo, Ernesto; Aversano, Michael; Heuer, Gregory G.; Zager, Eric L.; Schuster, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: High-energy impact to the head, neck, and shoulder can result in cervical spine as well as brachial plexus injuries. Because cervical spine injuries are more common, this tends to be the initial focus for management. We present a case in which the initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was somewhat misleading and a detailed neurological exam lead to the correct diagnosis. Clinical presentation: A 19-year-old man presented to the hospital following a shoulder injury during football practice. The patient immediately complained of significant pain in his neck, shoulder, and right arm and the inability to move his right arm. He was stabilized in the field for a presumed cervical-spine injury and transported to the emergency department. Intervention: Initial radiographic assessment (C-spine CT, right shoulder x-ray) showed no bony abnormality. MRI of the cervical-spine showed T2 signal change and cord swelling thought to be consistent with a cord contusion. With adequate pain control, a detailed neurological examination was possible and was consistent with an upper brachial plexus avulsion injury that was confirmed by CT myelogram. The patient failed to make significant neurological recovery and he underwent spinal accessory nerve grafting to the suprascapular nerve to restore shoulder abduction and external rotation, while the phrenic nerve was grafted to the musculocutaneous nerve to restore elbow flexion. Conclusion: Cervical spinal-cord injuries and brachial plexus injuries can occur by the same high energy mechanisms and can occur simultaneously. As in this case, MRI findings can be misleading and a detailed physical examination is the key to diagnosis. However, this can be difficult in polytrauma patients with upper extremity injuries, head injuries or concomitant spinal-cord injury. Finally, prompt diagnosis and early surgical renerveration have been associated with better long-term recovery with certain types of injury. PMID:22956928

  18. Bipedal locomotion of bonnet macaques after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Babu, Rangasamy Suresh; Anand, P; Jeraud, Mathew; Periasamy, P; Namasivayam, A

    2007-10-01

    Experimental studies concerning the analysis of locomotor behavior in spinal cord injury research are widely performed in rodent models. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the degree of functional recovery in reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) after spinal contusive injury. Six monkeys were tested for various reflex components (grasping, righting, hopping, extension withdrawal) and were trained preoperatively to walk in bipedal fashion on the simple and complex locomotor runways (narrow beam, grid, inclined plane, treadmill) of this investigation. The overall performance of the animals'motor behavior and the functional status of limb movements during bipedal locomotion were graded by the Combined Behavioral Score (CBS) system. Using the simple Allen weight-drop technique, a contusive injury was produced by dropping a 13-g weight from a height of 30 cm to the exposed spinal cord at the T12-L1 vertebral level of the trained monkeys. All the monkeys showed significant impairments in every reflex activity and in walking behavior during the early part of the postoperative period. In subsequent periods, the animals displayed mild alterations in certain reflex responses, such as grasping, extension withdrawal, and placing reflexes, which persisted through a 1-year follow-up. The contused animals traversed locomotor runways--narrow beam, incline plane, and grid runways--with more steps and few errors, as evaluated with the CBS system. Eventually, the behavioral performance of all spinal-contused monkeys recovered to near-preoperative level by the fifth postoperative month. The findings of this study reveal the recovery time course of various reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of spinal-contused macaques on runways for a postoperative period of up to 1 year. Our spinal cord research in primates is advantageous in understanding the characteristics of hind limb functions only, which possibly

  19. Dendritic spine dysgenesis contributes to hyperreflexia after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Bandaru, Samira P.; Liu, Shujun; Waxman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperreflexia and spasticity are chronic complications in spinal cord injury (SCI), with limited options for safe and effective treatment. A central mechanism in spasticity is hyperexcitability of the spinal stretch reflex, which presents symptomatically as a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes and exaggerated tendon jerks. In this study we tested the hypothesis that dendritic spine remodeling within motor reflex pathways in the spinal cord contributes to H-reflex dysfunction indicative of spasticity after contusion SCI. Six weeks after SCI in adult Sprague-Dawley rats, we observed changes in dendritic spine morphology on α-motor neurons below the level of injury, including increased density, altered spine shape, and redistribution along dendritic branches. These abnormal spine morphologies accompanied the loss of H-reflex rate-dependent depression (RDD) and increased ratio of H-reflex to M-wave responses (H/M ratio). Above the level of injury, spine density decreased compared with below-injury spine profiles and spine distributions were similar to those for uninjured controls. As expected, there was no H-reflex hyperexcitability above the level of injury in forelimb H-reflex testing. Treatment with NSC23766, a Rac1-specific inhibitor, decreased the presence of abnormal dendritic spine profiles below the level of injury, restored RDD of the H-reflex, and decreased H/M ratios in SCI animals. These findings provide evidence for a novel mechanistic relationship between abnormal dendritic spine remodeling in the spinal cord motor system and reflex dysfunction in SCI. PMID:25505110

  20. The international spinal cord injury pain basic data set.

    PubMed

    Widerström-Noga, E; Biering-Sørensen, F; Bryce, T; Cardenas, D D; Finnerup, N B; Jensen, M P; Richards, J S; Siddall, P J

    2008-12-01

    To develop a basic pain data set (International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set, ISCIPDS:B) within the framework of the International spinal cord injury (SCI) data sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of pain in the SCI population. International. The ISCIPDS:B was developed by a working group consisting of individuals with published evidence of expertise in SCI-related pain regarding taxonomy, psychophysics, psychology, epidemiology and assessment, and one representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The members were appointed by four major organizations with an interest in SCI-related pain (International Spinal Cord Society, ISCoS; American Spinal Injury Association, ASIA; American Pain Society, APS and International Association for the Study of Pain, IASP). The initial ISCIPDS:B was revised based on suggestions from members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA and APS Boards, and the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the IASP, individual reviewers and societies and the ISCoS Council. The final ISCIPDS:B contains core questions about clinically relevant information concerning SCI-related pain that can be collected by health-care professionals with expertise in SCI in various clinical settings. The questions concern pain severity, physical and emotional function and include a pain-intensity rating, a pain classification and questions related to the temporal pattern of pain for each specific pain problem. The impact of pain on physical, social and emotional function, and sleep is evaluated for each pain.

  1. [Review of the regeneration mechanism of complete spinal cord injury].

    PubMed

    Li, Jiayin; Li, Xing; Xiao, Zhifeng; Dai, Jianwu

    2018-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI), especially the complete SCI, usually results in complete paralysis below the level of the injury and seriously affects the patient's quality of life. SCI repair is still a worldwide medical problem. In the last twenty years, Professor DAI Jianwu and his team pioneered complete SCI model by removing spinal tissue with varied lengths in rodents, canine, and non-human primates to verify therapeutic effect of different repair strategies. Moreover, they also started the first clinical study of functional collagen scaffold on patients with acute complete SCI on January 16th, 2015. This review mainly focusses on the possible mechanisms responsible for complete SCI. In common, recovery of some sensory and motor functions post complete SCI include the following three contributing reasons. ① Regeneration of long ascending and descending axons throughout the lesion site to re-connect the original targets; ② New neural circuits formed in the lesion site by newly generated neurons post injury, which effectively re-connect the transected stumps; ③ The combined effect of ① and ②. The numerous studies have confirmed that neural circuits rebuilt across the injury site by newborn neurons might be the main mechanisms for functional recovery of animals from rodents to dogs. In many SCI model, especially the complete spinal cord transection model, many studies have convincingly demonstrated that the quantity and length of regenerated long descending axons, particularly like CST fibers, are too few to across the lesion site that is millimeters in length to realize motor functional recovery. Hence, it is more feasible in guiding neuronal relays formation by bio-scaffolds implantation than directing long motor axons regeneration in improving motor function of animals with complete spinal cord transection. However, some other issues such as promoting more neuronal relays formation, debugging wrong connections, and maintaining adequate neural circuits for

  2. Distribution of glycinergic neuronal somata in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Hossaini, Mehdi; French, Pim J; Holstege, Jan C

    2007-04-20

    Glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2) mRNA is exclusively expressed in glycinergic neurons, and is presently considered a reliable marker for glycinergic neuronal somata. In this study, we have performed non-radioactive in situ hybridization to localize GlyT2 mRNA in fixed free-floating sections of cervical (C2 and C6), thoracic (T5), lumbar (L2 and L5) and sacral (S1) segments of the rat spinal cord. The results showed that in all segments the majority of the GlyT2 mRNA labeled (glycinergic) neuronal somata was present in the deep dorsal horn and the intermediate zone (laminae III-VIII), with around 50% (range 43.7-70.9%) in laminae VII&VIII. In contrast, the superficial dorsal horn, the motoneuronal cell groups and the area around the central canal contained only few glycinergic neuronal somata. The density (number of glycinergic neuronal somata per mm(2)) was also low in these areas, while the highest densities were found in laminae V to VIII. The lateral spinal nucleus and the lateral cervical nucleus also contained a limited number of glycinergic neurons. Our findings showed that the distribution pattern of the glycinergic neuronal somata is similar in all the examined segments. The few differences that were found in the relative laminar distribution between some of the segments, are most likely due to technical reasons. We therefore conclude that the observed distribution pattern of glycinergic neuronal somata is present throughout the spinal cord. Our findings further showed that the non-radioactive in situ hybridization technique for identifying GlyT2 mRNA in fixed free-floating sections is a highly efficient tool for identifying glycinergic neurons in the spinal cord.

  3. Reliable and fast volumetry of the lumbar spinal cord using cord image analyser (Cordial).

    PubMed

    Tsagkas, Charidimos; Altermatt, Anna; Bonati, Ulrike; Pezold, Simon; Reinhard, Julia; Amann, Michael; Cattin, Philippe; Wuerfel, Jens; Fischer, Dirk; Parmar, Katrin; Fischmann, Arne

    2018-04-30

    To validate the precision and accuracy of the semi-automated cord image analyser (Cordial) for lumbar spinal cord (SC) volumetry in 3D T1w MRI data of healthy controls (HC). 40 3D T1w images of 10 HC (w/m: 6/4; age range: 18-41 years) were acquired at one 3T-scanner in two MRI sessions (time interval 14.9±6.1 days). Each subject was scanned twice per session, allowing determination of test-retest reliability both in back-to-back (intra-session) and scan-rescan images (inter-session). Cordial was applied for lumbar cord segmentation twice per image by two raters, allowing for assessment of intra- and inter-rater reliability, and compared to a manual gold standard. While manually segmented volumes were larger (mean: 2028±245 mm 3 vs. Cordial: 1636±300 mm 3 , p<0.001), accuracy assessments between manually and semi-automatically segmented images showed a mean Dice-coefficient of 0.88±0.05. Calculation of within-subject coefficients of variation (COV) demonstrated high intra-session (1.22-1.86%), inter-session (1.26-1.84%), as well as intra-rater (1.73-1.83%) reproducibility. No significant difference was shown between intra- and inter-session reproducibility or between intra-rater reliabilities. Although inter-rater reproducibility (COV: 2.87%) was slightly lower compared to all other reproducibility measures, between rater consistency was very strong (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.974). While under-estimating the lumbar SCV, Cordial still provides excellent inter- and intra-session reproducibility showing high potential for application in longitudinal trials. • Lumbar spinal cord segmentation using the semi-automated cord image analyser (Cordial) is feasible. • Lumbar spinal cord is 40-mm cord segment 60 mm above conus medullaris. • Cordial provides excellent inter- and intra-session reproducibility in lumbar spinal cord region. • Cordial shows high potential for application in longitudinal trials.

  4. Spinal cord emergencies: false reassurance from reflexes.

    PubMed

    Glick, T H; Workman, T P; Gaufberg, S V

    1998-10-01

    Emergency physicians need to understand the potential for false reassurance in the interpretation of reflex examination data. Neurologic consultation should be sought when classic signs are lacking, but other evidence causes suspicion. Changes in teaching emphasis and acute practice are needed, since the stakes may be high and time is of the essence. We have responded to the insights gained from this study by augmenting in-service and continuing medical education teaching and by implementing guidelines to assist EPs. We have emphasized the importance of spotlighting high-risk patients, as exemplified above, and of taking advantage of neurologic or neurosurgical consultation. Where in-person consultation is less available, the use of guidelines and remote consultation should be able to help direct further examination, diagnostic formulation, and the need for imaging decisions. Given the potential for severe negative outcome if spinal emergencies are not optimally managed, we must give the teaching of these issues high priority.

  5. Functional MR imaging of the spinal cord in cervical spinal cord injury patients by acupuncture at LI 4 (Hegu) and LI 11(Quchi).

    PubMed

    Chen, Y X; Kong, K M; Wang, W D; Xie, C H; Wu, R H

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the cervical spinal cord mapping on acupuncture at LI 4 (Hegu) and LI 11 (Quchi) by using 'Signal Enhancement by Extravascular water Protons' (SEEP)-fMRI, and to establish the response of using acupuncture in the cervical spinal cord. This research may provide some laboratory evidences from the acupuncture treatment on the cervical spinal cord of injuried patients. Seven healthy volunteers (healthy group) and three cervical spinal cord injury patients (injury group) were underwent low-frequency electrical stimulation at LI 4 and LI 11. Meanwhile, a single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequence was used to perform functional MR imaging on a 1.5 T GE Signa MR system. The signals from the cervical spinal cord activated was measured both in sagittal and transverse imaging planes and then analyzed by AFNI (Analysis of Functional Neuroimages) system. It was found that in the sagittal view, two groups had an fMRI response in the cervical spinal cord after given acupuncture treatments at LI 4 and LI 11. The localizations of the segmental fMRI activation were focused at C6 and C2 cervical spinal cord level. In the transverse imaging plane, significant fMRI responses could be measured from the four of seven healthy volunteers and from two of three cervical spinal cord injury patients. They were located at C6/7 segments. The cross-sectional localization of the activity measured in the spinal cord was most in terms of the ipsilateral posterior direction. The signal amplitude varied mainly between 6.8%17.8%. However, the difference found between the two groups had no statistical meaning. The fMRI technique had detected an activation focused at C6 and C2 cervical spinal cord levels by use of acupuncture at LI 4 and LI 11 on a 1.5T GE clinical system. This proved that the meridians and points are found to be in existence. The fMRI can be used as a harmless research method to discuss the mechanisms of acupuncture as well as study the mechanisms of spinal cord diseases

  6. Management of subaxial cervical facet dislocation through anterior approach monitored by spinal cord evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Wang, Cheng; Tan, Jiangwei; Shen, Binghua; Ni, Shuqin; Zheng, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Retrospective case series. To discuss the clinical efficacy of anterior cervical surgery of decompression, reduction, stabilization, and fusion in treating subaxial cervical facet dislocation without spinal cord injury or with mild spinal cord injury monitored by spinal cord evoked potential. The optimal treatment of lower cervical facet dislocation has been controversial. Because of the risk of iatrogenic damage of neurological function, it is challenging for surgeons to manage the lower cervical facet dislocation without or with mild spinal cord injury. To avoid the risks, more secure strategy need to be designed. A retrospective study was performed on 17 cases of subaxial cervical facet dislocation without spinal cord injury or with mild spinal cord injury treated by anterior cervical surgery under spinal cord evoked potential monitor from January 2008 to June 2012. There were 12 males, 5 females, with a mean age of 40.1 years (from 21 to 73 yr). Dislocation sites: 1 in C3-C4, 2 in C4-C5, 6 in C5-C6, 8 in C6-C7; 10 cases with unilateral cervical facet dislocation, 7 cases with bilateral dislocation. Thirteen patients were preoperatively classified as grade D and 4 as E according to Frankel standard. All patients were followed up for average of 16 months. All operations were completed successfully. Postoperative radiographs showed that the sequence and curvature of the cervical spine were well recovered. And, evidence of intervertebral fusion was observed at 3 months in all cases. No redislocation or symptoms of spinal cord injury occurred. Thirteen cases with mild spinal cord injury recovered at 1 month after operation. Anterior cervical surgery of decompression, reduction, stabilization, and fusion monitored by spinal cord evoked potential is an effective and safe method for treatment of subaxial cervical facet dislocation without or with mild spinal cord injury. 4.

  7. [APPLICATION OF THREE DIMENSIONAL PRINTING ON MANUFACTURING BIONIC SCAFFOLDS OF SPINAL CORD IN RATS].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yisheng; Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Xuyi; Chen, Chong; Tu, Yue; Zhang, Sai; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    To fabricate the bionic scaffolds of rat spinal cord by combining three dimensional (3D) printer and 3D software, so as to lay the foundation of theory and technology for the manufacture of scaffolds by using biomaterials. Three female Sprague Dawley rats were scanned by 7.0T MRI to obtain the shape and position data of the cross section and gray matter of T8 to T10 spinal cord. Combined with data of position and shape of nerve conduction beam, the relevant data were obtained via Getdata software. Then the 3D graphics were made and converted to stereolithography (STL) format by using SolidWorks software. Photosensitive resin was used as the materials of spinal cord scaffolds. The bionic scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printer. MRI showed that the section shape of T8 to T10 segments of the spinal cord were approximately oval with a relatively long sagittal diameter of (2.20 ± 0.52) mm and short transverse diameter of (2.05 ± 0.24) mm, and the data of nerve conduction bundle were featured in the STL format. The spinal cord bionic scaffolds of the target segments made by 3D printer were similar to the spinal cord of rat in the morphology and size, and the position of pores simulated normal nerve conduction of rat spinal cord. Spinal cord scaffolds produced by 3D printer which have similar shape and size of normal rat spinal cord are more bionic, and the procedure is simple. This technology combined with biomaterials is also promising in spinal cord repairing after spinal cord injury.

  8. Spinal cord neuron classes in embryos of the smooth newt Triturus vulgaris: a horseradish peroxidase and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Harper, C E; Roberts, A

    1993-04-29

    Spinal cord neurons were investigated in embryos of Triturus vulgaris, the smooth newt, just prior to hatching. These embryos can swim if freed from their egg membranes. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelling, together with GABA and glycine immunocytochemistry (ICC), revealed nine distinct anatomical classes of neuron. 1. Ventrolateral motoneurons with mainly dorsal dendrites, sometimes a descending central axon and peripheral axon innervating the trunk muscles. 2. Dorsal primary sensory Rohon-Beard neurons innervating skin and with dorsal ascending and descending axons in spinal cord. 3. Commissural interneurons with mid-cord unipolar soma, glycine-like immunoreactivity, dendrites on initial segment of ventral axon which crosses cord to ascend or branch. 4. Dorsolateral commissural interneurons with multipolar soma in dorsolateral position with dorsal dendrites and ventral axon which crosses and ascends or branches. 5. Giant dorsolateral commissural interneurons with large dorsolateral somata widely spaced (130-250 microns spacing) with process projecting dorsally to other side, dorsolateral dendrites and ventral axon which crosses to ascend and branch. 6. Dorsolateral ascending interneurons in dorsolateral position with multipolar soma and ascending axon on same side. 7. Ascending interneurons with unipolar soma, GABA-like immunoreactivity and ascending axon on same side. 8. Descending interneurons with bi- or multi-polar soma, extensive dorsal and ventral dendrites, and descending axon on same side. They may also have ascending axons. 9. Kolmer-Agduhr cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons with cilia and microvilli in lateral corners of neural canal. GABA-like immunoreactivity, no dendrites and ascending axon. Eight of the nine cells classes were found to bear a marked resemblance to neurons previously described in zebrafish and Xenopus embryos in terms of their anatomy, distribution and immunoreactivity to GABA and glycine. Homologies and possible functions are

  9. International bowel function basic spinal cord injury data set.

    PubMed

    Krogh, K; Perkash, I; Stiens, S A; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2009-03-01

    International expert working group. To develop an International Bowel Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in daily practice or in research. Working group consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). A draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, and later by ISCoS Scientific Committee and the ASIA Board. Relevant and interested scientific and professional (international) organizations and societies (approximately 40) were also invited to review the data set and it was posted on the ISCoS and ASIA websites for 3 months to allow comments and suggestions. The ISCoS Scientific Committee, Council and ASIA Board received the data set for final review and approval. The International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set includes the following 12 items: date of data collection, gastrointestinal or anal sphincter dysfunction unrelated to SCI, surgical procedures on the gastrointestinal tract, awareness of the need to defecate, defecation method and bowel care procedures, average time required for defecation, frequency of defecation, frequency of fecal incontinence, need to wear pad or plug, medication affecting bowel function/constipating agents, oral laxatives and perianal problems. An International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set has been developed.

  10. Symptomatic thoracic spinal cord herniation: case series and technical report.

    PubMed

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Ray, Wilson Z; Wright, Neill M

    2014-09-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is an uncommon condition located predominantly in the thoracic spine and often associated with a remote history of a major traumatic injury. ISCH has an incompletely described presentation and unknown etiology. There is no consensus on the treatment algorithm and surgical technique, and there are few data on clinical outcomes. In this case series and technical report, we describe the atypical myelopathy presentation, remote history of traumatic injury, radiographic progression, treatment, and outcomes of 5 patients treated at Washington University for symptomatic ISCH. A video showing surgical repair is presented. In contrast to classic compressive myelopathy symptomatology, ISCH patients presented with an atypical myelopathy, characterized by asymmetric motor and sensory deficits and early-onset urinary incontinence. Clinical deterioration correlated with progressive spinal cord displacement and herniation observed on yearly spinal imaging in a patient imaged serially because of multiple sclerosis. Finally, compared with compressive myelopathy in the thoracic spine, surgical treatment of ISCH led to rapid improvement despite a long duration of symptoms. Symptomatic ISCH presents with atypical myelopathy and slow temporal progression and can be successfully managed with surgical repair.

  11. International urodynamic basic spinal cord injury data set.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M; Schick, E; Wyndaele, J-J

    2008-07-01

    To create the International Urodynamic Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. International working group. The draft of the data set was developed by a working group consisting of members appointed by the Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the data set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested (international) organizations and societies (around 40) and persons and the ISCoS Council. Endorsement of the data set by relevant organizations and societies will be obtained. To make the data set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. Variables included in the International Urodynamic Basic SCI Data Set are date of data collection, bladder sensation during filling cystometry, detrusor function, compliance during filing cystometry, function during voiding, detrusor leak point pressure, maximum detrusor pressure, cystometric bladder capacity and post-void residual volume.

  12. Electrode contact configuration and energy consumption in spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Cecile C; Hilgerink, Marjolein P; Buschman, Hendrik P J; Holsheimer, Jan

    2009-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that in spinal cord stimulation, an increase in the number of cathodes increases the energy per pulse, contrary to an increase in the number of anodes, which decreases energy consumption per pulse. Patients with an Itrel III (7425; Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) implantable pulse generator and a Pisces-Quad (3487A; Medtronic, Inc.) implantable quadripolar lead were selected for this study. A set of 7 standard contact configurations was used for each patient. Resistor network models mimicking these configurations were constructed. The University of Twente's Spinal Cord Stimulation software was used to simulate the effect of these contact configurations on large spinal nerve fibers. To allow a comparison of the measured and modeled energy per pulse, all values were normalized. Both the empirical and the modeling results showed an increase in energy consumption with an increasing number of cathodes. Although the patient data with 1 and 2 cathodes did not differ significantly, energy consumption was significantly higher when 3 cathodes were used instead of 1 or 2 cathodes. The average energy consumption was significantly higher when bipolar stimulation was used instead of monopolar cathodal stimulation. An increasing number of anodes caused a decrease in energy consumption. When the paresthesia area can be covered with several configurations, it will be beneficial for the patient to program a configuration with 1 cathode and either no or multiple anodes.

  13. 46-year-old man with a spinal cord mass.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ann; Vitaz, Todd; Rosenblum, Marc; Plaga, Alexis R; Parker, Joseph C; Parker, John R

    2011-01-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for only 1% of all adult CNS tumors. Likewise, recurrence of adult medulloblastoma greater than 20 years after initial diagnosis is extremely rare.We describe a case of adult medulloblastoma with late relapse of disease. The patient was 24 years old when first diagnosed and was treated with total tumor resection and craniospinal radiation. At the age of 45, an enhancing 1.3 cm intradural extramedullary spinal cord lesion at T5 was discovered on MRI. This was presumed to be recurrent medulloblastoma in the form of drop metastasis and the patient was treated with spinal radiation. Several months following treatment, at the age of 46, a follow-up MRI demonstrated an enhancing 1.4 cm intradural extramedullary spinal cord lesion at T7. The lesion was resected and histopathologic examination was most consistent with medulloblastoma, late drop metastasis. Although rare, adult medulloblastoma recurring 20 years after initial diagnosis should always be considered in the main differential diagnosis when working up CNS lesions at or outside the primary tumor site.

  14. Symptomatic Thoracic Spinal Cord Herniation: Case Series and Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Wright, Neill M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is an uncommon condition located predominantly in the thoracic spine and often associated with a remote history of a major traumatic injury. ISCH has an incompletely described presentation and unknown etiology. There is no consensus on treatment algorithm and surgical technique, and there is little data on clinical outcomes. Clinical Presentation In this case series and technical report, we describe the atypical myelopathy presentation, remote history of traumatic injury, radiographic progression, treatment, and outcomes of 5 patients treated at Washington University for symptomatic ISCH. A video showing surgical repair is presented. In contrast to classic compressive myelopathy symptomology, ISCH patients presented with an atypical myelopathy, characterized by asymmetric motor and sensory deficits and early-onset urinary incontinence. Clinical deterioration correlated with progressive spinal cord displacement and herniation observed on yearly spinal imaging in a patient imaged serially due to multiple sclerosis. Finally compared to compressive myelopathy in the thoracic spine, surgical treatment of ISH led to rapid improvement despite long duration of symptoms. Conclusion Symptomatic ISCH presents with atypical myelopathy and slow temporal progression and can be successfully managed with surgical repair. PMID:24871148

  15. Neurophysiological detection of impending spinal cord injury during scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel M; Auerbach, Joshua D; Dormans, John P; Flynn, John; Drummond, Denis S; Bowe, J Andrew; Laufer, Samuel; Shah, Suken A; Bowen, J Richard; Pizzutillo, Peter D; Jones, Kristofer J; Drummond, Denis S

    2007-11-01

    Despite the many reports attesting to the efficacy of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential monitoring in reducing the prevalence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury during corrective scoliosis surgery, these afferent neurophysiological signals can provide only indirect evidence of injury to the motor tracts since they monitor posterior column function. Early reports on the use of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials to monitor the corticospinal motor tracts directly suggested that the method holds great promise for improving detection of emerging spinal cord injury. We sought to compare the efficacy of these two methods of monitoring to detect impending iatrogenic neural injury during scoliosis surgery. We reviewed the intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring records of 1121 consecutive patients (834 female and 287 male) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (mean age, 13.9 years) treated between 2000 and 2004 at four pediatric spine centers. The same group of experienced surgical neurophysiologists monitored spinal cord function in all patients with use of a standardized multimodality technique with the patient under total intravenous anesthesia. A relevant neurophysiological change (an alert) was defined as a reduction in amplitude (unilateral or bilateral) of at least 50% for somatosensory evoked potentials and at least 65% for transcranial electric motor evoked potentials compared with baseline. Thirty-eight (3.4%) of the 1121 patients had recordings that met the criteria for a relevant signal change (i.e., an alert). Of those thirty-eight patients, seventeen showed suppression of the amplitude of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials in excess of 65% without any evidence of changes in somatosensory evoked potentials. In nine of the thirty-eight patients, the signal change was related to hypotension and was corrected with augmentation of the blood pressure. The remaining twenty-nine patients had an alert that was related directly to a

  16. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Brain and spinal cord tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Both types cause signs or symptoms and need treatment. Get information about the many kinds of brain and spinal cord tumors, signs and symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

  17. Spontaneous recovery of locomotion induced by remaining fibers after spinal cord transection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    You, Si-Wei; Chen, Bing-Yao; Liu, Hui-Ling; Lang, Bing; Xia, Jie-Lai; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Ju, Gong

    2003-01-01

    A major issue in analysis of experimental results after spinal cord injury is spontaneous functional recovery induced by remaining nerve fibers. The authors investigated the relationship between the degree of locomotor recovery and the percentage and location of the fibers that spared spinal cord transection. The spinal cords of 12 adult rats were transected at T9 with a razor blade, which often resulted in sparing of nerve fibers in the ventral spinal cord. The incompletely-transected animals were used to study the degree of spontaneous recovery of hindlimb locomotion, evaluated with the BBB rating scale, in correlation to the extent and location of the remaining fibers. Incomplete transection was found in the ventral spinal cord in 42% of the animals. The degree of locomotor recovery was highly correlated with the percentage of the remaining fibers in the ventral and ventrolateral funiculi. In one of the rats, 4.82% of remaining fibers in unilateral ventrolateral funiculus were able to sustain a certain recovery of locomotion. Less than 5% of remaining ventrolateral white matter is sufficient for an unequivocal motor recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury. Therefore, for studies with spinal cord transection, the completeness of sectioning should be carefully checked before any conclusion can be reached. The fact that the degree of locomotor recovery is correlated with the percentage of remaining fibers in the ventrolateral spinal cord, exclusive of most of the descending motor tracts, may imply an essential role of propriospinal connections in the initiation of spontaneous locomotor recovery.

  18. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  19. Spinal cord herniation following cervical meningioma excision: a rare clinical entity and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, Siddharth N; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Kanna, Rishi; Maheswaran, Anupama; Rajasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Spinal cord herniation following surgery is an extremely uncommon clinical condition with very few reports in published literature. This condition usually occurs as a spontaneous idiopathic phenomenon often in the thoracic spine or following a scenario of post traumatic spinal cord/nerve root injury. Rarely has it been reported following spinal cord tumor surgery. To document a case of cervical spinal cord herniation as a late onset complication following spinal cord tumor surgery with an atypical presentation of monoparesis. Case report. We describe the clinical presentation, operative procedure, post operative outcome and review of literature of this rare clinical condition. A 57-year-old man presented with right upper limb monoparesis due to a spinal cord herniation 6 years after a cervical intradural meningioma excision. The patients underwent surgery to reduce the herniation and duroplasty with subsequent complete resolution of symptoms. Spinal cord herniation must be considered as differential diagnosis in scenarios of spinal cord tumor excision presenting with late onset neurological deficit. These cases may present as paraparesis, Brown-sequard syndrome and rarely as in our case as monoparesis.

  20. Religiosity and Spirituality among Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Irmo; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 157 persons with spinal cord injury completed the "Spirituality and Spinal Cord Injury Survey" in relation to their spiritual and/or religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices in terms of adapting to their disability. Factor analysis accounting for 69% of the variance revealed four factors related to Spiritual Help and Improvement…

  1. Spinal cord regeneration in Xenopus tadpoles proceeds through activation of Sox2-positive cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast to mammals, amphibians, such as adult urodeles (for example, newts) and anuran larvae (for example, Xenopus) can regenerate their spinal cord after injury. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still poorly understood. Results Here, we report that tail amputation results in a global increase of Sox2 levels and proliferation of Sox2+ cells. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 diminished proliferation of spinal cord resident cells affecting tail regeneration after amputation, suggesting that spinal cord regeneration is crucial for the whole process. After spinal cord transection, Sox2+ cells are found in the ablation gap forming aggregates. Furthermore, Sox2 levels correlated with regenerative capabilities during metamorphosis, observing a decrease in Sox2 levels at non-regenerative stages. Conclusions Sox2+ cells contribute to the regeneration of spinal cord after tail amputation and transection. Sox2 levels decreases during metamorphosis concomitantly with the lost of regenerative capabilities. Our results lead to a working hypothesis in which spinal cord damage activates proliferation and/or migration of Sox2+ cells, thus allowing regeneration of the spinal cord after tail amputation or reconstitution of the ependymal epithelium after spinal cord transection. PMID:22537391

  2. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  3. Emotional Intelligence in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    PubMed Central

    SABERI, Hooshang; GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a devastating situation. Spinal Cord Injury affects functional, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of patients’ lives. The ability to accomplish and explicate the one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions to spread over appropriate information for confirming thoughts and actions is defined as emotional intelligence (EI). The goal of this study was to evaluate depression and EI in SCI patients in comparison with healthy subjects. Methods: One-hundred-ten patients with SCI and 80 healthy subjects between Aug 2014 and Aug 2015 were enrolled. The study was conducted in Imam Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). All data were analyzed using SPSS. Data were presented as Mean±SD for continuous or frequencies for categorical variables. Continuous variables compared by means of independent sample t-test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Mean age of patients was 28.7 and mean age of controls was 30.2 yr. Spinal cord injury in 20 (18.3%) were at cervical level, in 83 (75.4%) were thoracic and in 7 (6.3%) were lumbar. Mean values of independence, stress tolerance, self-actualization, emotional Self-Awareness, reality testing, Impulse Control, flexibility, responsibility, and assertiveness were significantly different between cases and controls. Mean values of stress tolerance, optimism, self-regard, and responsibility were significantly different between three groups with different injury level. Most scales were not significantly different between male and female cases. Conclusion: Emotional intelligence should be considered in SCI cases as their physical and psychological health is affected by their illness. PMID:28560199

  4. Neuroprotective effects of perflurocarbon (oxycyte) after contusive spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Adly; Hajec, Marygrace C; Stanger, Richard; Wan, Wen; Young, Harold; Mathern, Bruce E

    2014-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in irreversible and permanent neurological deficits and long-term disability. Vasospasm, hemorrhage, and loss of microvessels create an ischemic environment at the site of contusive or compressive SCI and initiate the secondary injury cascades leading to progressive tissue damage and severely decreased functional outcome. Although the initial mechanical destructive events cannot be reversed, secondary injury damage occurs over several hours to weeks, a time frame during which therapeutic intervention could be achieved. One essential component of secondary injury cascade is the reduction in spinal cord blood flow with resultant decrease in oxygen delivery. Our group has recently shown that administration of fluorocarbon (Oxycyte) significantly increased parenchymal tissue oxygen levels during the usual postinjury hypoxic phase, and fluorocarbon has been shown to be effective in stroke and head injury. In the current study, we assessed the beneficial effects of Oxycyte after a moderate-to-severe contusion SCI was simulated in adult Long-Evans hooded rats. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis showed that the administration of 5 mL/kg of Oxycyte perfluorocarbon (60% emulsion) after SCI dramatically reduced destruction of spinal cord anatomy and resulted in a marked decrease of lesion area, less cell death, and greater white matter sparing at 7 and 42 days postinjury. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining showed a significant reduced number of apoptotic cells in Oxycyte-treated animals, compared to the saline group. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential neuroprotective effect of Oxycyte treatment after SCI, and its beneficial effects may be, in part, a result of reducing apoptotic cell death and tissue sparing. Further studies to determine the most efficacious Oxycyte dose and its mechanisms of protection are warranted.

  5. AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF CULTURED RAT SPINAL CORD

    PubMed Central

    Bunge, Richard P.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Peterson, Edith R.

    1965-01-01

    Explants prepared from 17- to 18-day fetal rat spinal cord were allowed to mature in culture; such preparations have been shown to differentiate and myelinate in vitro (61) and to be capable of complex bioelectric activity (14–16). At 23, 35, or 76 days, the cultures were fixed (without removal from the coverslip) in buffered OsO4, embedded in Epon, sectioned, and stained for light and electron microscopy. These mature explants generally are composed of several strata of neurons with an overlying zone of neuropil. The remarkable cytological similarity between in vivo and in vitro nervous tissues is established by the following observations. Cells and processes in the central culture mass are generally closely packed together with little intervening space. Neurons exhibit well developed Nissl bodies, elaborate Golgi regions, and subsurface cisternae. Axosomatic and axodendritic synapses, including synaptic junctions between axons and dendritic spines, are present. Typical synaptic vesicles and increased membrane densities are seen at the terminals. Variations in synaptic fine structure (Type 1 and Type 2 synapses of Gray) are visible. Some characteristics of the cultured spinal cord resemble infrequently observed specializations of in vivo central nervous tissue. Neuronal somas may display minute synapse-bearing projections. Occasionally, synaptic vesicles are grouped in a crystal-like array. A variety of glial cells, many apparently at intermediate stages of differentiation, are found throughout the otherwise mature explant. There is ultrastructural evidence of extensive glycogen deposits in some glial processes and scattered glycogen particles in neuronal terminals. This is the first description of the ultrastructure of cultured spinal cord. Where possible, correlation is made between the ultrastructural data and the known physiological properties of these cultures. PMID:14326105

  6. Irradiation of Pediatric High-Grade Spinal Cord Tumors

    SciT

    Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S., E-mail: atmaram.pai-panandiker@stjude.or; Wu Shengjie

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To report the outcome using radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric patients with high-grade spinal cord tumors. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted that included 17 children with high-grade spinal cord tumors treated with RT at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1981 and 2007. Three patients had gross total resection, 11 had subtotal resection, and 3 underwent biopsy. The tumor diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme (n = 7), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 8), or anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 2). Seven patients received craniospinal irradiation (34.2-48.6 Gy). The median dose to the primary site was 52.2 Gy (range,more » 38-66 Gy). Results: The median progression-free and overall survivals were 10.8 and 13.8 months, respectively. Local tumor progression at 12 months (79% vs. 30%, p = 0.02) and median survival (13.1 vs. 27.2 months, p = 0.09) were worse for patients with glioblastoma multiforme compared with anaplastic astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma. The median overall survival was shorter for patients when failure included neuraxis dissemination (n = 8) compared with local failure alone (n = 5), 9.6 vs. 13.8 months, p = 0.08. Three long-term survivors with World Health Organization Grade III tumors were alive with follow-up, ranging from 88-239 months. Conclusions: High-grade spinal cord primary tumors in children have a poor prognosis. The propensity for neuraxis metastases as a component of progression after RT suggests the need for more aggressive therapy.« less

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Sulforaphane after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Andrea L.; Mountney, Andrea; Hurtado, Andres; Bryan, Kelley E.; Schnaar, Ronald L.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to oxidative stress, calcium mobilization, glutamate toxicity, the release of proinflammatory factors, and depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) at the site of injury. Induction of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway can alleviate neurotoxicity by protecting against GSH depletion, oxidation, intracellular calcium overload, mitochondrial dysfunction, and excitotoxicity. Sulforaphane (SF), an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent naturally-occurring inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, leading to upregulation of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins such as NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1, and GSH-regulatory enzymes. Additionally, SF can attenuate inflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, and the enzymatic activity of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF). Our study examined systemic administration of SF in a rat model of contusion SCI, in an effort to utilize its indirect antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to decrease secondary injury. Two doses of SF (10 or 50 mg/kg) were administered at 10 min and 72 h after contusion SCI. SF (50 mg/kg) treatment resulted in both acute and long-term beneficial effects, including upregulation of the phase 2 antioxidant response at the injury site, decreased mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., MMP-9) in the injured spinal cord, inactivation of urinary MIF tautomerase activity, enhanced hindlimb locomotor function, and an increased number of serotonergic axons caudal to the lesion site. These findings demonstrate that SF provides neuroprotective effects in the spinal cord after injury, and could be a candidate for therapy of SCI. PMID:22853439

  8. Neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane after contusive spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Andrea L; Mountney, Andrea; Hurtado, Andres; Bryan, Kelley E; Schnaar, Ronald L; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Talalay, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to oxidative stress, calcium mobilization, glutamate toxicity, the release of proinflammatory factors, and depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) at the site of injury. Induction of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway can alleviate neurotoxicity by protecting against GSH depletion, oxidation, intracellular calcium overload, mitochondrial dysfunction, and excitotoxicity. Sulforaphane (SF), an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent naturally-occurring inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, leading to upregulation of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins such as NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1, and GSH-regulatory enzymes. Additionally, SF can attenuate inflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, and the enzymatic activity of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF). Our study examined systemic administration of SF in a rat model of contusion SCI, in an effort to utilize its indirect antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to decrease secondary injury. Two doses of SF (10 or 50 mg/kg) were administered at 10 min and 72 h after contusion SCI. SF (50 mg/kg) treatment resulted in both acute and long-term beneficial effects, including upregulation of the phase 2 antioxidant response at the injury site, decreased mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., MMP-9) in the injured spinal cord, inactivation of urinary MIF tautomerase activity, enhanced hindlimb locomotor function, and an increased number of serotonergic axons caudal to the lesion site. These findings demonstrate that SF provides neuroprotective effects in the spinal cord after injury, and could be a candidate for therapy of SCI.

  9. Biciliated ependymal cell proliferation contributes to spinal cord growth

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Mirzadeh, Zaman; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Two neurogenic regions have been described in the adult brain, the lateral ventricle subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus subgranular zone. It has been suggested that neural stem cells also line the central canal of the adult spinal cord. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining, we describe here the organization and cell types of the central canal epithelium in adult mice. The identity of dividing cells was determined by three-dimensional ultrastructural reconstructions of [3H]thymidine-labeled cells and confocal analysis of bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The most common cell type lining the central canal had two long motile (9+2) cilia and was vimentin+, CD24+, FoxJ1+, Sox2+ and CD133+, but nestin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-. These biciliated ependymal cells of the central canal (Ecc) resembled E2 cells of the lateral ventricles, but their basal bodies were different from that of E2 or E1 cells. Interestingly, we frequently found Ecc cells with two nuclei and four cilia, suggesting they are formed by incomplete cytokinesis or cell fusion. GFAP+ astrocytes with a single cilium and an orthogonally oriented centriole were also observed. The majority of dividing cells corresponded to biciliated Ecc cells. Central canal proliferation was most common during the active period of spinal cord growth. Pairs of labeled Ecc cells were observed within the central canal in adult mice 2.5 weeks post-labeling. Our work suggests that the vast majority of postnatal dividing cells in the central canal are Ecc cells and their proliferation is associated with the growth of the spinal cord. PMID:22434575

  10. Emotional Intelligence in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Saberi, Hooshang; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2017-05-01

    Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a devastating situation. Spinal Cord Injury affects functional, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of patients' lives. The ability to accomplish and explicate the one's own and other's feelings and emotions to spread over appropriate information for confirming thoughts and actions is defined as emotional intelligence (EI). The goal of this study was to evaluate depression and EI in SCI patients in comparison with healthy subjects. One-hundred-ten patients with SCI and 80 healthy subjects between Aug 2014 and Aug 2015 were enrolled. The study was conducted in Imam Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). All data were analyzed using SPSS. Data were presented as Mean±SD for continuous or frequencies for categorical variables. Continuous variables compared by means of independent sample t -test. P -values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Mean age of patients was 28.7 and mean age of controls was 30.2 yr. Spinal cord injury in 20 (18.3%) were at cervical level, in 83 (75.4%) were thoracic and in 7 (6.3%) were lumbar. Mean values of independence, stress tolerance, self-actualization, emotional Self-Awareness, reality testing, Impulse Control, flexibility, responsibility, and assertiveness were significantly different between cases and controls. Mean values of stress tolerance, optimism, self-regard, and responsibility were significantly different between three groups with different injury level. Most scales were not significantly different between male and female cases. Emotional intelligence should be considered in SCI cases as their physical and psychological health is affected by their illness.

  11. Spinal cord injuries in Australian footballers 1997-2002.

    PubMed

    Carmody, David J; Taylor, Thomas K F; Parker, David A; Coolican, Myles R J; Cumming, Robert G

    2005-06-06

    To review acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs) in all Australian codes of football (rugby union [RU], rugby league [RL], Australian Rules football [ARF] and soccer) for 1997-2002 and to compare data with those of a 1986-1996 survey. Retrospective review of hospital records, and structured interviews with injured players. Patients admitted to any of the six Australian spinal cord injury units with a documented football-related ASCI over the period 1997-2002. Average annual incidence of ASCIs per 100,000 players in the different codes, final Frankel grading of injuries, and wheelchair status. Fifty-two footballers (45 adult men and seven schoolboys) suffered ASCIs between 1997 and 2002. The average annual incidence of ASCIs per 100,000 players was 3.2 for RU, 1.5 for RL, 0.5 for ARF and 0.2 for soccer. While there has been little change in incidence since the 1986-1996 survey, there has been a trend towards less severe injuries in RU and RL, but not in ARF. There have been no scrum injuries in RL since 1996, when the scrum stopped being contested. Seven injuries occurred in RU scrums, six at the moment of engagement of the opposing teams. The incidence of 2-on-1 and "gang" tackles (involving multiple tacklers) in RL is disturbing. Overall, 39% of injured players became permanently wheelchair-dependent. There continues to be good reason to revise the laws of scrum engagement in RU. The laws relating to multiple tacklers in RL should be examined. The insurance cover for injured players is grossly inadequate. The longstanding need for a registry of spinal cord injuries for all football codes regrettably remains unmet.

  12. The course of fatigue after acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Anton, H A; Miller, W C; Townson, A F; Imam, B; Silverberg, N; Forwell, S

    2017-01-01

    Prospective cohort study. To determine the prevalence and course of fatigue following acute spinal cord injury (SCI) during rehabilitation and after discharge. Tertiary spinal cord rehabilitation facility. Fifty-two patients with traumatic SCI were assessed after admission to rehabilitation and followed until 6-months post discharge into the community. Fatigue was measured using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale for Spinal Cord Injury (MFIS-SCI) at admission, discharge and 6 months after discharge. Clinically significant fatigue was defined as FSS scores ⩾4 or MFIS-SCI scores ⩾24.5. The mean (s.d.) age of our mainly male (78.8%) sample was 46.3 (17.8) years of age. Half had cervical and 61.6% had complete injuries. Mean (s.d.) FSS scores were 3.7 (1.6) at baseline, 3.4 (1.5) at discharge and 3.7 (1.7) post discharge. Mean (s.d.) MFIS-SCI scores were 24.4 (16.1) at baseline, 23.4 (16.3) at discharge and 27.8 (17.5) post discharge. Fatigue on the FSS was present in 51.9% at baseline, 38.3% at discharge and 48.1% post discharge. Fatigue on the MFIS-SCI was present in 44.2% at baseline, 44.7% at discharge and 51.9% post discharge. There was no relationship between fatigue and injury level or completeness. Fatigue is common in SCI patients admitted to rehabilitation. Fatigue remained stable during rehabilitation and after discharge into the community. Clinicians should consider early screening for fatigue and interventions to reduce the consequences of fatigue in people with SCI. The British Columbia Medical Services Foundation funded our study.

  13. Microsurgical Resection of Spinal Cord Hemangioblastoma: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

    PubMed

    Pojskic, Mirza; Arnautovic, Kenan I

    2018-05-18

    This video demonstrates microsurgical resection of spinal cord hemangioblastoma. Hemangioblastomas are rare, benign, highly vascularized tumors classified as grade I according to World Health Organization classification systems. About 3% of all intramedullary tumors are hemangioblastomas.1,2 Spinal cord hemangioblastomas are either sporadic3,4 or manifestations of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease in 20% to 45% of patients.5,6 A 30-year-old male presented with sudden onset urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancing intramedullary tumor with adjacent cyst in T11, and syringomyelia extending to C1. Surgical resection followed rules that apply to resection of arteriovascular malformations: coagulation of arterial feeders precedes the coagulation of the draining vein, which is preserved until the end of surgery.2,4,5,7,8 First, posterior midline myelotomy was performed and the tumor cyst was drained in order to develop a dissection plane. Following this, we continuously separated dorsal nerve roots from the tumor nodule using microsurgical technique. The key step in tumor resection is devascularization of the tumor, achievable in 2 ways.2,7,9-13 The circumferential detachment of the normal pia from the tumor pia is crucial in developing a plane of dissection. The coagulation and division of arterial feeders while preserving the drainage vein further devascularizes the tumor. Once the tumor mural nodule was detached from the spinal cord, the drainage vein was coagulated last and the tumor was removed. The patient fully recovered from his incontinence and was neurologically intact. Screening for VHL disease was negative. Written consent was obtained directly from the patient.

  14. Characterization of the Antibody Response after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ulndreaj, Antigona; Tzekou, Apostolia; Mothe, Andrea J.; Siddiqui, Ahad M.; Dragas, Rachel; Tator, Charles H.; Torlakovic, Emina E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The immune system plays a critical and complex role in the pathobiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), exerting both beneficial and detrimental effects. Increasing evidence suggests that there are injury level–dependent differences in the immune response to SCI. Patients with traumatic SCI have elevated levels of circulating autoantibodies against components of the central nervous system, but the role of these antibodies in SCI outcomes remains unknown. In rodent models of mid-thoracic SCI, antibody-mediated autoimmunity appears to be detrimental to recovery. However, whether autoantibodies against the spinal cord are generated following cervical SCI (cSCI), the most common level of injury in humans, remains undetermined. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the antibody responses following cSCI in a rat model of injury. We found increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies in the spinal cord in the subacute phase of injury (2 weeks), but not in more chronic phases (10 and 20 weeks). At 2 weeks post-cSCI, antibodies were detected at the injury epicenter and co-localized with the astroglial scar and neurons of the ventral horn. These increased levels of antibodies corresponded with enhanced activation of immune responses in the spleen. Higher counts of antibody-secreting cells were observed in the spleen of injured rats. Further, increased levels of secreted IgG antibodies and enhanced proliferation of T-cells in splenocyte cultures from injured rats were found. These findings suggest the potential development of autoantibody responses following cSCI in the rat. The impact of the post-traumatic antibody responses on functional outcomes of cSCI is a critical topic that requires further investigation. PMID:27775474

  15. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis induces microglial activation in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Wong, Larry; Done, Joseph D; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown and factors including the host's immune response and the nervous system have been attributed to the development of CP/CPPS. We previously demonstrated that mast cells and chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL3 play an important role in mediating prostatitis. Here, we examined the role of neuroinflammation and microglia in the CNS in the development of chronic pelvic pain. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was induced using a subcutaneous injection of rat prostate antigen. Sacral spinal cord tissue (segments S14-S5) was isolated and utilized for immunofluorescence or QRT-PCR analysis. Tactile allodynia was measured at baseline and at various points during EAP using Von Frey fibers as a function for pelvic pain. EAP mice were treated with minocycline after 30 days of prostatitis to test the efficacy of microglial inhibition on pelvic pain. Prostatitis induced the expansion and activation of microglia and the development of inflammation in the spinal cord as determined by increased expression levels of CCL3, IL-1β, Iba1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Microglial activation in mice with prostatitis resulted in increased expression of P2X4R and elevated levels of BDNF, two molecular markers associated with chronic pain. Pharmacological inhibition of microglia alleviated pain in mice with prostatitis and resulted in decreased expression of IL-1β, P2X4R, and BDNF. Our data show that prostatitis leads to inflammation in the spinal cord and the activation and expansion of microglia, mechanisms that may contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pelvic pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis induces microglial activation in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Larry; Done, Joseph D.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown and factors including the host’s immune response and the nervous system have been attributed to the development of CP/CPPS. We previously demonstrated that mast cells and chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL3 play an important role in mediating prostatitis. Here, we examined the role of neuroinflammation and microglia in the CNS in the development of chronic pelvic pain. Methods Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was induced using a subcutaneous injection of rat prostate antigen. Sacral spinal cord tissue (segments S4–S5) was isolated and utilized for immunofluorescence or QRT-PCR analysis. Tactile allodynia was measured at baseline and at various points during EAP using Von Frey fibers as a function for pelvic pain. EAP mice were treated with minocycline after 30 days of prostatitis to test the efficacy of microglial inhibition on pelvic pain. Results Prostatitis induced the expansion and activation of microglia and the development of inflammation in the spinal cord as determined by increased expression levels of CCL3, IL-1β, Iba1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Microglial activation in mice with prostatitis resulted in increased expression of P2X4R and elevated levels of BDNF, two molecular markers associated with chronic pain. Pharmacological inhibition of microglia alleviated pain in mice with prostatitis and resulted in decreased expression of IL-1β, P2X4R, and BDNF. Conclusion Our data shows that prostatitis leads to inflammation in the spinal cord and the activation and expansion of microglia, mechanisms that may contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:25263093

  17. Managing the urinary tract in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Simon C. W.

    2010-01-01

    This review sets out to provide an overview of the author’s approach to the management of the urinary tract in the patient who has suffered from an injury to their spinal cord. Emphasis is given to the need to understand the fundamental pathophysiological patterns that are seen with injuries that involve the sacral segments of the cord (the conus) and those that spare the conus but interrupt communication between the sacral parasympathetic and somatic centers and the brain (supraconal lesions). The importance of patient participation in management decisions is highlighted by considering the different ways in which the urinary tract can be managed and how the clinician needs to try to meet patient expectations and requirements while establishing safe urological management. Finally, consideration is given to the importance of establishing an appropriate follow up regime and managing urinary tract complications effectively. PMID:20877604

  18. Activity-dependent plasticity in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Lynskey, James V.; Belanger, Adam; Jung, Ranu

    2008-01-01

    The adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is capable of considerable plasticity, both in health and disease. After spinal neurotrauma, the degrees and extent of neuroplasticity and recovery depend on multiple factors, including the level and extent of injury, postinjury medical and surgical care, and rehabilitative interventions. Rehabilitation strategies focus less on repairing lost connections and more on influencing CNS plasticity for regaining function. Current evidence indicates that strategies for rehabilitation, including passive exercise, active exercise with some voluntary control, and use of neuroprostheses, can enhance sensorimotor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) by promoting adaptive structural and functional plasticity while mitigating maladaptive changes at multiple levels of the neuraxis. In this review, we will discuss CNS plasticity that occurs both spontaneously after SCI and in response to rehabilitative therapies. PMID:18566941

  19. Self-concept and sexuality of spinal cord injured women.

    PubMed

    Fitting, M D; Salisbury, S; Davies, N H; Mayclin, D K

    1978-03-01

    Differences in perceived self-concept and sexual response before and after spinal cord injury were examined. Twenty-four women between the ages of 20 and 40 completed a questionnaire and participated in a brief taped interview. Most of the women viewed themselves as very or somewhat attractive and had been involved in a sexual relationship since injury. The majority viewed sexual relationships as very enjoyable, although many commented that changes in bowel and bladder function had inhibited sexual expression. The need for more effective sexual counseling was highlighted. A trend was noted for an interrelationship between sexuality and self-concept in adapting to acquired disability.

  20. Acute spinal cord injuries in the Lebanon War, 1982.

    PubMed

    Ohry, A; Rozin, R

    1984-04-01

    Our experience with 17 patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) acquired in the Lebanon War, 1982, is described. The SCI were due to gunshot wounds in 12 patients and to other causes in 5. Two laparotomies and one thoracotomy were performed. Corticosteroids were not seen to influence recovery, nor was laminectomy, which was performed in three cases. Complications such as pressure sores, hydronephrosis, ileus and deep vein thrombosis were rare or did not occur. Three high quadriplegics died. Based on our experience, we recommend conservative treatment and rehabilitation in acute SCI.

  1. The epidemiology of spinal cord injuries in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gee, R W; Sinha, S N

    1982-06-01

    Thirty six patients with traumatic spinal cord injury were studied in Papua New Guinean hospitals. Road trauma and falls from trees each accounted for 1/3 of injuries. The mean age of patients, 80% of whom were male, was 26 years. Complications included pressure sores (69%), urinary tract infection (61%) and contractures (22%). Two thirds of patients failed to make any significant recovery and remained permanently in hospital. At present there are no special facilities for treating paraplegic patients in this country but as the number of cases is increasing it is recommended that major hospitals provide special units and a standard management protocol for these patients.

  2. Spinal cord potentials in traumatic paraplegia and quadriplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Sedgwick, E M; el-Negamy, E; Frankel, H

    1980-01-01

    Cortical, cervical and lumbar somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded following median and tibial nerve stimulation in patients with traumatic paraplegia and quadriplegia. The isolated cord was able to produce normal potentials even during spinal shock if the vertical extent of the lesion did not involve the generator mechanisms. The cervical potentials showed subtle changes in paraplegia at Th5 levels and below. In high cervical lesions the early cervical potentials may still be present but the later potentials were absent or, in partial lesions, delayed. PMID:7420105

  3. Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Osteoporosis: Pathogenesis and Emerging Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Battaglino, Ricardo A.; Lazzari, Antonio A.; Garshick, Eric; Morse, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury causes rapid, severe osteoporosis with increased fracture risk. Mechanical unloading after paralysis results in increased osteocyte expression of sclerostin, suppressed bone formation, and indirect stimulation of bone resorption. At this time there are no clinical guidelines to prevent bone loss after SCI and fractures are common. More research is required to define the pathophysiology and epidemiology of SCI-induced osteoporosis. This review summarizes emerging therapeutics including anti-sclerostin antibodies, mechanical loading of the lower extremity with electrical stimulation, and mechanical stimulation via vibration therapy. PMID:22983921

  4. Group characteristics of children with cerebral and spinal cord tumours.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A M; Lennox, E L; Sanders, B M

    1973-12-01

    A study of 2072 children who developed cerebral or spinal cord tumours of varying degrees of malignancy before 15 years of age has shown that there is equally good representation of fatal and non-fatal cases in official registrations. Attack rates are higher for boys than girls and the prognosis is better for girls than boys. The risk of an early death is negatively correlated with age at diagnosis, and the risk of a late death shows the opposite relationship. These observations and a relatively high incidence of hindbrain tumours are suggestive of an embryonic origin for most of the cases.

  5. Erythropoietin's Beta Common Receptor Mediates Neuroprotection in Spinal Cord Neurons.

    PubMed

    Foley, Lisa S; Fullerton, David A; Mares, Joshua; Sungelo, Mitchell; Weyant, Michael J; Cleveland, Joseph C; Reece, T Brett

    2017-12-01

    Paraplegia from spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (SCIR) remains an elusive and devastating complication of complex aortic operations. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates this injury in models of SCIR. Upregulation of the EPO beta common receptor (βcR) is associated with reduced damage in models of neural injury. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EPO-mediated neuroprotection was dependent on βcR expression. We hypothesized that spinal cord neurons subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation would mimic SCIR injury in aortic surgery and EPO treatment attenuates this injury in a βcR-dependent fashion. Lentiviral vectors with βcR knockdown sequences were tested on neuron cell cultures. The virus with greatest βcR knockdown was selected. Spinal cord neurons from perinatal wild-type mice were harvested and cultured to maturity. They were treated with knockdown or nonsense virus and transduced cells were selected. Three groups (βcR knockdown virus, nonsense control virus, no virus control; n = 8 each) were subjected to 1 hour of oxygen-glucose deprivation. Viability was assessed. βcR expression was quantified by immunoblot. EPO preserved neuronal viability after oxygen-glucose deprivation (0.82 ± 0.04 versus 0.61 ± 0.01; p < 0.01). Additionally, EPO-mediated neuron preservation was similar in the nonsense virus and control mice (0.82 ± 0.04 versus 0.80 ± 0.05; p = 0.77). EPO neuron preservation was lost in βcR knockdown mice compared with nonsense control mice (0.46 ± 0.03 versus 0.80 ± 0.05; p < 0.01). EPO attenuates neuronal loss after oxygen-glucose deprivation in a βcR-dependent fashion. This receptor holds immense clinical promise as a target for pharmacotherapies treating spinal cord ischemic injury. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of Pediatric Spinal Cord Astrocytomas: Outcomes With Adjuvant Radiation

    SciT

    Guss, Zachary D.; Moningi, Shalini; Jallo, George I.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors are exceedingly rare; in the United States, 100 to 200 cases are recognized annually, of these, most are astrocytomas. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes in pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at a tertiary care center. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved retrospective single-institution study was performed for pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at our hospital from 1990 to 2010. The patients were evaluated on the extent of resection, progression-free survival (PFS), and development of radiation-related toxicities. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate regression model methods weremore » used for analysis. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included in the study, 24 with grade 1 or 2 (low-grade) tumors and 5 with grade 3 or 4 (high-grade) tumors. The median follow-up time was 55 months (range, 1-215 months) for patients with low-grade tumors and 17 months (range, 10-52 months) for those with high-grade tumors. Thirteen patients in the cohort received chemotherapy. All patients underwent at least 1 surgical resection. Twelve patients received radiation therapy to a median radiation dose of 47.5 Gy (range, 28.6-54.0 Gy). Fifteen patients with low-grade tumors and 1 patient with a high-grade tumor exhibited stable disease at the last follow-up visit. Acute toxicities of radiation therapy were low grade, whereas long-term sequelae were infrequent and manageable when they arose. All patients with low-grade tumors were alive at the last follow-up visit, compared with 1 patient with a high-grade tumor. Conclusion: Primary pediatric spinal cord astrocytomas vary widely in presentation and clinical course. Histopathologic grade remains a major prognostic factor. Patients with low-grade tumors tend to have excellent disease control and long-term survival compared to those with high-grade tumors. This experience suggests that radiation

  7. Neuroprotection and Acute Spinal Cord Injury: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Edward D.; Springer, Joe E.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: It has long been recognized that much of the post-traumatic degeneration of the spinal cord following injury is caused by a multi-factorial secondary injury process that occurs during the first minutes, hours, and days after spinal cord injury (SCI). A key biochemical event in that process is reactive oxygen-induced lipid peroxidation (LP). In 1990 the results of the Second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (NASCIS II) were published, which showed that the administration of a high-dose regimen of the glucocorticoid steroid methylprednisolone (MP), which had been previously shown to inhibit post-traumatic LP in animal models of SCI, could improve neurological recovery in spinal-cord-injured humans. This resulted in the registration of high-dose MP for acute SCI in several countries, although not in the U.S. Nevertheless, this treatment quickly became the standard of care for acute SCI since the drug was already on the U.S. market for many other indications. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that the non-glucocorticoid 21-aminosteroid tirilazad could duplicate the antioxidant neuroprotective efficacy of MP in SCI models, and evidence of human efficacy was obtained in a third NASCIS trial (NASCIS III). In recent years, the use of high-dose MP in acute SCI has become controversial largely on the basis of the risk of serious adverse effects versus what is perceived to be on average a modest neurological benefit. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone was also tested in NASCIS II based upon the demonstration of its beneficial effects in SCI models. Although it did not a significant overall effect, some evidence of efficacy was seen in incomplete (i.e., paretic) patients. The monosialoganglioside GM1 has also been examined in a recently completed clinical trial in which the patients first received high-dose MP treatment. However, GM1 failed to show any evidence of a significant enhancement in the extent of neurological recovery over the level afforded by

  8. Development of a multi-electrode array for spinal cord epidural stimulation to facilitate stepping and standing after a complete spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gad, Parag; Choe, Jaehoon; Nandra, Mandheerej Singh; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Tai, Yu-Chong; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2013-01-21

    Stimulation of the spinal cord has been shown to have great potential for improving function after motor deficits caused by injury or pathological conditions. Using a wide range of animal models, many studies have shown that stimulation applied to the neural networks intrinsic to the spinal cord can result in a dramatic improvement of motor ability, even allowing an animal to step and stand after a complete spinal cord transection. Clinical use of this technology, however, has been slow to develop due to the invasive nature of the implantation procedures, the lack of versatility in conventional stimulation technology, and the difficulty of ascertaining specific sites of stimulation that would provide optimal amelioration of the motor deficits. Moreover, the development of tools available to control precise stimulation chronically via biocompatible electrodes has been limited. In this paper, we outline the development of this technology and its use in the spinal rat model, demonstrating the ability to identify and stimulate specific sites of the spinal cord to produce discrete motor behaviors in spinal rats using this array. We have designed a chronically implantable, rapidly switchable, high-density platinum based multi-electrode array that can be used to stimulate at 1-100 Hz and 1-10 V in both monopolar and bipolar configurations to examine the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of spinal cord epidural stimulation in complete spinal cord transected rats. In this paper, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of using high-resolution stimulation parameters in the context of improving motor recovery after a spinal cord injury. We observed that rats whose hindlimbs were paralyzed can stand and step when specific sets of electrodes of the array are stimulated tonically (40 Hz). Distinct patterns of stepping and standing were produced by stimulation of different combinations of electrodes on the array located at specific spinal cord levels and by specific

  9. Transplantation of canine umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in experimentally induced spinal cord injured dogs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji Hey; Byeon, Ye Eun; Ryu, Hak Hyun; Jeong, Yun Hyeok; Lee, Young Won; Kim, Wan Hee; Kang, Kyung Sun; Kweon, Oh Kyeong

    2007-09-01

    This study was to determine the effects of allogenic umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and recombinant methionyl human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rmhGCSF) on a canine spinal cord injury model after balloon compression at the first lumbar vertebra. Twenty-five adult mongrel dogs were assigned to five groups according to treatment after a spinal cord injury: no treatment (CN); saline treatment (CP); rmhGCSF treatment (G); UCB-MSCs treatment (UCB-MSC); co-treatment (UCBG). The UCBMSCs isolated from cord blood of canine fetuses were prepared as 10(6) cells/150 microl saline. The UCB-MSCs were directly injected into the injured site of the spinal cord and rmhGCSF was administered subcutaneously 1 week after the induction of spinal cord injury. The Olby score, magnetic resonance imaging, somatosensory evoked potentials and histopathological examinations were used to evaluate the functional recovery after transplantation. The Olby scores of all groups were zero at the 0-week evaluation. At 2 week after the transplantation, the Olby scores in the groups with the UCB-MSC and UCBG were significantly higher than in the CN and CP groups. However, there were no significant differences between the UCB-MSC and UCBG groups, and between the CN and CP groups. These comparisons remained stable at 4 and 8 week after transplantation. There was significant improvement in the nerve conduction velocity based on the somatosensory evoked potentials. In addition, a distinct structural consistency of the nerve cell bodies was noted in the lesion of the spinal cord of the UCB-MSC and UCBG groups. These results suggest that transplantation of the UCB-MSCs resulted in recovery of nerve function in dogs with a spinal cord injury and may be considered as a therapeutic modality for spinal cord injury.

  10. Transplantation of canine umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in experimentally induced spinal cord injured dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Hey; Byeon, Ye-Eun; Ryu, Hak-Hyun; Jeong, Yun-Hyeok; Lee, Young-Won; Kim, Wan Hee

    2007-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of allogenic umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and recombinant methionyl human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rmhGCSF) on a canine spinal cord injury model after balloon compression at the first lumbar vertebra. Twenty-five adult mongrel dogs were assigned to five groups according to treatment after a spinal cord injury: no treatment (CN); saline treatment (CP); rmhGCSF treatment (G); UCB-MSCs treatment (UCB-MSC); co-treatment (UCBG). The UCB-MSCs isolated from cord blood of canine fetuses were prepared as 106 cells/150 µl saline. The UCB-MSCs were directly injected into the injured site of the spinal cord and rmhGCSF was administered subcutaneously 1 week after the induction of spinal cord injury. The Olby score, magnetic resonance imaging, somatosensory evoked potentials and histopathological examinations were used to evaluate the functional recovery after transplantation. The Olby scores of all groups were zero at the 0-week evaluation. At 2 week after the transplantation, the Olby scores in the groups with the UCB-MSC and UCBG were significantly higher than in the CN and CP groups. However, there were no significant differences between the UCB-MSC and UCBG groups, and between the CN and CP groups. These comparisons remained stable at 4 and 8 week after transplantation. There was significant improvement in the nerve conduction velocity based on the somatosensory evoked potentials. In addition, a distinct structural consistency of the nerve cell bodies was noted in the lesion of the spinal cord of the UCB-MSC and UCBG groups. These results suggest that transplantation of the UCB-MSCs resulted in recovery of nerve function in dogs with a spinal cord injury and may be considered as a therapeutic modality for spinal cord injury. PMID:17679775

  11. Reliability analysis of the epidural spinal cord compression scale.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Mark H; Laufer, Ilya; Fourney, Daryl R; Groff, Michael; Schmidt, Meic H; Varga, Peter Paul; Vrionis, Frank D; Yamada, Yoshiya; Gerszten, Peter C; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2010-09-01

    The evolution of imaging techniques, along with highly effective radiation options has changed the way metastatic epidural tumors are treated. While high-grade epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) frequently serves as an indication for surgical decompression, no consensus exists in the literature about the precise definition of this term. The advancement of the treatment paradigms in patients with metastatic tumors for the spine requires a clear grading scheme of ESCC. The degree of ESCC often serves as a major determinant in the decision to operate or irradiate. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a 6-point, MR imaging-based grading system for ESCC. To determine the reliability of the grading scale, a survey was distributed to 7 spine surgeons who participate in the Spine Oncology Study Group. The MR images of 25 cervical or thoracic spinal tumors were distributed consisting of 1 sagittal image and 3 axial images at the identical level including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and Gd-enhanced T1-weighted images. The survey was administered 3 times at 2-week intervals. The inter- and intrarater reliability was assessed. The inter- and intrarater reliability ranged from good to excellent when surgeons were asked to rate the degree of spinal cord compression using T2-weighted axial images. The T2-weighted images were superior indicators of ESCC compared with T1-weighted images with and without Gd. The ESCC scale provides a valid and reliable instrument that may be used to describe the degree of ESCC based on T2-weighted MR images. This scale accounts for recent advances in the treatment of spinal metastases and may be used to provide an ESCC classification scheme for multicenter clinical trial and outcome studies.

  12. Systemic hypothermia for the treatment of acute cervical spinal cord injury in sports.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, William Dalton; Cappuccino, Andrew; Cappuccino, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that affects approximately 12,000 patients each year in the United States. Major causes for spinal cord injury include motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, and direct trauma. Moderate hypothermia has gained attention as a potential therapy due to recent experimental and clinical studies and the use of modest systemic hypothermia (MSH) in high profile case of spinal cord injury in a National Football League (NFL) player. In experimental models of spinal cord injury, moderate hypothermia has been shown to improve functional recovery and reduce overall structural damage. In a recent Phase I clinical trial, systemic hypothermia has been shown to be safe and provide some encouraging results in terms of functional recovery. This review will summarize recent preclinical data, as well as clinical findings that support the continued investigations for the use of hypothermia in severe cervical spinal cord injury.

  13. Electrical field distribution within the injured cat spinal cord: injury potentials and field distribution.

    PubMed

    Khan, T; Myklebust, J; Swiontek, T; Sayers, S; Dauzvardis, M

    1994-12-01

    This study investigated the spontaneous injury potentials measured after contusion or transection injury to the cat spinal cord. In addition, the distribution of electrical field potentials on the surface and within the spinal cord were measured following applied electrical fields after transection and contusion injuries. After transection of the spinal cord, the injury potentials were -19.8 +/- 2.6 mV; after contusion of the spinal cord, the injury potentials were -9.5 +/- 2.2 mV. These potentials returned to control values within 2.5-4h after injury. The electrical field distribution measured on the dorsal surface, as well as within the spinal cord, after the application of a 10 microA current, showed little difference between contusion and transection injuries. Scalar potential fields were measured using two configurations of stimulating electrodes: dorsal to dorsal (D-D), in which both electrodes were placed epidurally on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, and ventral to dorsal (V-D), in which one electrode was placed dorsally and one ventrally. As reported in normal uninjured cats, the total current in the midsagittal plane for the D-D configuration was largely confined to the dorsal portion of the spinal cord; with the V-D configuration, the current distribution was uniform throughout the spinal cord. In the injured spinal cord, the equipotential lines midway between the stimulating electrodes have a wider separation than in the uninjured spinal cord. Because the magnitude of the electrical field E is equal to the current density J multiplied by the resistivity r, this suggests that either the current density is reduced or that the resistivity is reduced.

  14. Gastrointestinal symptoms in spinal cord injury: relationships with level of injury and psychologic factors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Clinton; Prott, Gillian; Rutkowski, Susan; Li, Yueming; Hansen, Ross; Kellow, John; Malcolm, Allison

    2005-08-01

    Previous surveys of gastrointestinal symptoms after spinal cord injury have not used validated questionnaires and have not focused on the full spectrum of such symptoms and their relationship to factors, such as level of spinal cord injury and psychologic dysfunction. This study was designed to detail the spectrum and prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in spinal cord injury and to determine clinical and psychologic factors associated with such symptoms. Established spinal cord injury patients (>12 months) randomly selected from a spinal cord injury database completed the following three questionnaires: 1) Rome II Integrative Questionnaire, 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and 3) Burwood Bowel Dysfunction after spinal cord injury. A total of 110 patients participated. The prevalence of abdominal bloating and constipation were 22 and 46 percent, respectively. Bloating was associated with cervical (odds ratio = 9.5) and lumbar (odds ratio = 12.1) level but not with thoracic level of injury. Constipation was associated with a higher level of injury (cervical odds ratio = 5.6 vs. lumbar) but not with psychologic factors. In contrast, abdominal pain (33 percent) and fecal incontinence (41 percent) were associated with higher levels of anxiety (odds ratio = 6.8, and odds ratio = 2.4) but not with the level of injury. There is a high prevalence and wide spectrum of gastrointestinal symptoms in spinal cord injury. Abdominal bloating and constipation are primarily related to specific spinal cord levels of injury, whereas abdominal pain and fecal incontinence are primarily associated with higher levels of anxiety. Based on our findings, further physiologic and psychologic research studies in spinal cord injury patients should lead to more rational management strategies for the common gastrointestinal symptoms in spinal cord injury.

  15. Spinal Cord Stimulation Modulates Gene Expression in the Spinal Cord of an Animal Model of Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Dana M; Cedeño, David L; Kelley, Courtney A; Benyamin, Ramsin; Vallejo, Ricardo

    Previously, we found that application of pulsed radiofrequency to a peripheral nerve injury induces changes in key genes regulating nociception concurrent with alleviation of paw sensitivity in an animal model. In the current study, we evaluated such genes after applying spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were randomized into test and control groups. The spared nerve injury model was used to simulate a neuropathic pain state. A 4-contact microelectrode was implanted at the L1 vertebral level and SCS was applied continuously for 72 hours. Mechanical hyperalgesia was tested. Spinal cord tissues were collected and analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify levels of IL1β, GABAbr1, subP, Na/K ATPase, cFos, 5HT3ra, TNFα, Gal, VIP, NpY, IL6, GFAP, ITGAM, and BDNF. Paw withdrawal thresholds significantly decreased in spared nerve injury animals and stimulation attenuated sensitivity within 24 hours (P = 0.049), remaining significant through 72 hours (P = 0.003). Nerve injury caused up-regulation of TNFα, GFAP, ITGAM, and cFOS as well as down-regulation of Na/K ATPase. Spinal cord stimulation therapy modulated the expression of 5HT3ra, cFOS, and GABAbr1. Strong inverse relationships in gene expression relative to the amount of applied current were observed for GABAbr1 (R = -0.65) and Na/K ATPase (R = -0.58), and a positive linear correlations between 5HT3r (R = 0.80) and VIP (R = 0.50) were observed. Continuously applied SCS modulates expression of key genes involved in the regulation of neuronal membrane potential.

  16. Spinal Plasticity and Behavior: BDNF-Induced Neuromodulation in Uninjured and Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Huie, J. Russell

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family of signaling molecules. Since its discovery over three decades ago, BDNF has been identified as an important regulator of neuronal development, synaptic transmission, and cellular and synaptic plasticity and has been shown to function in the formation and maintenance of certain forms of memory. Neural plasticity that underlies learning and memory in the hippocampus shares distinct characteristics with spinal cord nociceptive plasticity. Research examining the role BDNF plays in spinal nociception and pain overwhelmingly suggests that BDNF promotes pronociceptive effects. BDNF induces synaptic facilitation and engages central sensitization-like mechanisms. Also, peripheral injury-induced neuropathic pain is often accompanied with increased spinal expression of BDNF. Research has extended to examine how spinal cord injury (SCI) influences BDNF plasticity and the effects BDNF has on sensory and motor functions after SCI. Functional recovery and adaptive plasticity after SCI are typically associated with upregulation of BDNF. Although neuropathic pain is a common consequence of SCI, the relation between BDNF and pain after SCI remains elusive. This article reviews recent literature and discusses the diverse actions of BDNF. We also highlight similarities and differences in BDNF-induced nociceptive plasticity in naïve and SCI conditions. PMID:27721996

  17. Focal thoracolumbar spinal cord lymphosarcoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Ingrao, Joelle C.; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma. PMID:24982519

  18. [Research progress in the role of aquaproin-4 and inward rectifying potassium channel 4.1 in spinal cord edema].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tiege; Dang, Yuexiu; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Dongliang; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Haihong

    2018-05-28

    Spinal edema is a very important pathophysiological basis for secondary spinal cord injury, which affects the repair and prognosis of spinal cord injury. Aquaporin-4 is widely distributed in various organs of the body, and is highly expressed in the brain and spinal cord. Inward rectifying potassium channel 4.1 is a protein found in astrocytes of central nervous system. It interacts with aquaporins in function. Aquaporin-4 and inward rectifying potassium channel 4.1 play an important role in the formation and elimination of spinal cord edema, inhibition of glial scar formation and promotion of excitotoxic agents exclusion. The distribution and function of aquaporin-4 and inward rectifying potassium channel 4.1 in the central nervous system and their expression after spinal cord injury have multiple effects on spinal edema. Studies of aquaporin-4 and inward rectifying potassium channel 4.1 in the spinal cord may provide new ideas for the elimination and treatment of spinal edema.

  19. Spectrum of Spinal Cord, Spinal Root, and Brain MRI Abnormalities in Congenital Zika Syndrome with and without Arthrogryposis.

    PubMed

    Aragao, M F V V; Brainer-Lima, A M; Holanda, A C; van der Linden, V; Vasco Aragão, L; Silva Júnior, M L M; Sarteschi, C; Petribu, N C L; Valença, M M

    2017-05-01

    Arthrogryposis is among the malformations of congenital Zika syndrome. Similar to the brain, there might exist a spectrum of spinal cord abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe in detail the MR imaging features found in the spinal cords, nerve roots, and brains of children with congenital Zika syndrome with and without arthrogryposis. Twelve infants with congenital Zika syndrome (4 with arthrogryposis and 8 without) who had undergone brain and spinal cord MR imaging were retrospectively selected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed and compared between groups. At visual inspection, both groups showed reduced thoracic spinal cord thickness: 75% (6/8) of the group without arthrogryposis and 100% (4/4) of the arthrogryposis group. However, the latter had the entire spinal cord reduced and more severely reduced conus medullaris anterior roots (respectively, P = .002 and .007). Quantitative differences were found for conus medullaris base and cervical and lumbar intumescences diameters (respectively, P = .008, .048, .008), with more prominent reduction in arthrogryposis. Periventricular calcifications were more frequent in infants with arthrogryposis ( P = .018). Most infants had some degree of spinal cord thickness reduction, predominant in the thoracic segment (without arthrogryposis) or in the entire spinal cord (with arthrogryposis). The conus medullaris anterior roots were reduced in both groups (thinner in arthrogryposis). A prominent anterior median fissure of the spinal cord was absent in infants without arthrogryposis. Brain stem hypoplasia was present in all infants with arthrogryposis, periventricular calcifications, in the majority, and polymicrogyria was absent. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. Comparing patients with spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction: clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Naess, Halvor; Romi, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome of spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction. Risk factors, concomitant diseases, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome were registered among 28 patients with spinal cord infarction and 1075 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Multivariate analyses were performed with location of stroke (cord or brain), neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome (both Barthel Index [BI] 1 week after symptom onset and discharge home or to other institution) as dependent variables. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with spinal cord infarction were younger, more often female, and less afflicted by hypertension and cardiac disease than patients with cerebral infarction. Functional score (BI) was lower among patients with spinal cord infarctions 1 week after onset of symptoms (P < 0.001). Odds ratio for being discharged home was 5.5 for patients with spinal cord infarction compared to cerebral infarction after adjusting for BI scored 1 week after onset (P = 0.019). Patients with spinal cord infarction have a risk factor profile that differs significantly from that of patients with cerebral infarction, although there are some parallels to cerebral infarction caused by atherosclerosis. Patients with spinal cord infarction were more likely to be discharged home when adjusting for early functional level on multivariate analysis.

  1. Comparing patients with spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction: clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Naess, Halvor; Romi, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Background: To compare the clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome of spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction. Methods: Risk factors, concomitant diseases, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome were registered among 28 patients with spinal cord infarction and 1075 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Multivariate analyses were performed with location of stroke (cord or brain), neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome (both Barthel Index [BI] 1 week after symptom onset and discharge home or to other institution) as dependent variables. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that patients with spinal cord infarction were younger, more often female, and less afflicted by hypertension and cardiac disease than patients with cerebral infarction. Functional score (BI) was lower among patients with spinal cord infarctions 1 week after onset of symptoms (P < 0.001). Odds ratio for being discharged home was 5.5 for patients with spinal cord infarction compared to cerebral infarction after adjusting for BI scored 1 week after onset (P = 0.019). Conclusion: Patients with spinal cord infarction have a risk factor profile that differs significantly from that of patients with cerebral infarction, although there are some parallels to cerebral infarction caused by atherosclerosis. Patients with spinal cord infarction were more likely to be discharged home when adjusting for early functional level on multivariate analysis. PMID:21915166

  2. Complete segmental resection of the spine, including the spinal cord, for telangiectatic osteosarcoma: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hideki; Tomita, Katsuro; Kawahara, Norio; Oda, Makoto; Yahata, Tetsutaro; Yamaguchi, Takehiko

    2006-02-15

    Two case reports of telangiectatic osteosarcoma treated with complete segmental resection of the spine, including the spinal cord. To report the en bloc tumor excision, including the spinal cord, for telangiectatic osteosarcoma, and discuss the indication of cord transection and influence after cutting the spinal cord. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports describing telangiectatic osteosarcoma of the spine and the subsequent en bloc excision of the spine, including the spinal cord. The clinical and radiographic presentations of 2 cases with telangiectatic osteosarcoma are presented. Because these 2 cases already had complete paralysis for at least 1 month, it was suspected that there was no possibility of recovering spinal cord function. Complete segmental spinal resection (total en bloc spondylectomy) was performed. At that level, the spinal cord was also cut and resected. En bloc excision of the tumor with a wide margin was achieved in both cases. In the resected specimen, the nerve cells in the spinal cord had lapsed into degenerative necrosis. The pathologic findings showed that there was no hope for recovery of spinal cord function. En bloc spinal resection, including the spinal cord, is an operation allowed when there is no hope for recovery of spinal cord function. This surgery should be accepted as an option in spine tumor surgeries.

  3. Deciphering and Imaging Pathogenesis and Cording of Mycobacterium abscessus in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Bernut, Audrey; Dupont, Christian; Sahuquet, Alain; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Lutfalla, Georges; Kremer, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos are increasingly used as an infection model to study the function of the vertebrate innate immune system in host-pathogen interactions. The ease of obtaining large numbers of embryos, their accessibility due to external development, their optical transparency as well as the availability of a wide panoply of genetic/immunological tools and transgenic reporter line collections, contribute to the versatility of this model. In this respect, the present manuscript describes the use of zebrafish as an in vivo model system to investigate the chronology of Mycobacterium abscessus infection. This human pathogen can exist either as smooth (S) or rough (R) variants, depending on cell wall composition, and their respective virulence can be imaged and compared in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Micro-injection of either S or R fluorescent variants directly in the blood circulation via the caudal vein, leads to chronic or acute/lethal infections, respectively. This biological system allows high resolution visualization and analysis of the role of mycobacterial cording in promoting abscess formation. In addition, the use of fluorescent bacteria along with transgenic zebrafish lines harbouring fluorescent macrophages produces a unique opportunity for multi-color imaging of the host-pathogen interactions. This article describes detailed protocols for the preparation of homogenous M. abscessus inoculum and for intravenous injection of zebrafish embryos for subsequent fluorescence imaging of the interaction with macrophages. These techniques open the avenue to future investigations involving mutants defective in cord formation and are dedicated to understand how this impacts on M. abscessus pathogenicity in a whole vertebrate. PMID:26382225

  4. Spinal cord stimulation modulates intraspinal colorectal visceroreceptive transmission in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qin, C.; Lehew, R.T.; Khan, K.A.; Wienecke, G.M.; Foreman, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that spinal cord stimulation (SCS) of upper lumbar segments decreases visceromotor responses to mechanical stimuli in a sensitized rat colon and reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in patients. SCS applied to the upper cervical spinal dorsal column reduces pain of chronic refractory angina. Further, chemical stimulation of C1-C2 propriospinal neurons in rats modulates the responses of lumbosacral spinal neurons to colorectal distension. The present study was designed to compare the effects of upper cervical and lumbar SCS on activity of lumbosacral neurons receiving noxious colorectal input. Extracellular potentials of L6-S2 spinal neurons were recorded in pentobarbital anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated male rats. SCS (50 Hz, 0.2 ms) at low intensity (90% of motor threshold) was applied to the dorsal column of upper cervical (C1-C2) or upper lumbar (L2-L3) ipsilateral spinal segments. Colorectal distension (CRD, 20, 40, 60 mmHg, 20 s) was produced by air inflation of a latex balloon. Results showed that SCS applied to L2-L3 and C1-C2 segments significantly reduced the excitatory responses to noxious CRD from 417.6±68.0 imp to 296.3±53.6 imp (P<0.05, n=24) and from 336.2±64.5 imp to 225.0±73.3 imp (P<0.05, n= 18), respectively. Effects of L2-L3 and C1-C2 SCS lasted 10.2±1.9 min and 8.0±0.9 min after offset of CRD. Effects of SCS were observed on spinal neurons with either high or low threshold excitatory responses to CRD. However, L2-L3 or C1-C2 SCS did not significantly affect inhibitory neuronal responses to CRD. C1-C2 SCS-induced effects were abolished by cutting the C7-C8 dorsal column but not by spinal transection at cervicomedullary junction. These data demonstrated that upper cervical or lumbar SCS modulated responses of lumbosacral spinal neurons to noxious mechanical stimulation of the colon, thereby, proved two loci for a potential therapeutic effect of SCS in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and other

  5. Training a Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Team in Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Lusilla-Palacios, Pilar; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina

    2015-01-01

    Background. An acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) is a severe condition that requires extensive and very specialized management of both physical and psychological dimensions of injured patients. Objective. The aim of the part of the study reported here was twofold: (1) to describe burnout, empathy, and satisfaction at work of these professionals and (2) to explore whether a tailored program based on motivational interviewing (MI) techniques modifies and improves such features. Methods. This paper presents findings from an intervention study into a tailored training for professionals (N = 45) working in a spinal cord injury (SCI) unit from a general hospital. Rehabilitation professionals' empathy skills were measured with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and additional numeric scales were used to assess the perceived job-related stress and perceived satisfaction with job. Results. Findings suggest that professionals are performing quite well and they refer to satisfactory empathy, satisfaction at work, and no signs of burnout or significant stress both before and after the training. Conclusions. No training effect was observed in the variables considered in the study. Some possible explanations for these results and future research directions are discussed in depth in this paper. The full protocol of this study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01889940). PMID:26770827

  6. Measuring Fatigue in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Hubert A.; Miller, William C.; Townson, Andrea F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design A two week methodological study was conducted to assess the internal consistency, reliability and the construct validity of the FSS. Setting A tertiary spinal cord rehabilitation facility. Participants 48 community living individuals at least one year post SCI with ASIA A or B SCI and no medical conditions causing fatigue. Main Outcome Measures The ASIA Impairment Scale; the FSS; a Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F), the SF-36 vitality scale, and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression – Scale (CES-D) Results Our sample was predominantly male (n=31, 65%) with tetraplegia (n=26, 54%) and ASIA A injuries (n=30, 63%). The mean FSS score at baseline was 4.4 (SD=1.4) with 54% (N=26) scoring greater than 4. The internal consistency of the FSS was Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89. Two-week test-retest reliability was ICC=0.84 (95% CI 0.74 – 0.90). The magnitude of the relationship was as hypothesized for the VAS-F(r=.67) and CES-D (r=.58) and lower than hypothesized for the vitality subscore (r=−.48) of the SF-36. Conclusions The FSS has acceptable reliability with regard to internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity in persons with motor complete SCI. PMID:18295634

  7. Neurogenic bowel management after spinal cord injury: Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Engkasan, Julia Patrick; Sudin, Siti Suhaida

    2013-02-01

    To describe the bowel programmes utilized by individuals with spinal cord injury; and to determine the association between the outcome of the bowel programmes and various interventions to facilitate defecation. A cross-sectional study. Individuals with spinal cord injury who have neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a self-constructed questionnaire that consisted of: (i) demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants; (ii) interventions to facilitate defecation; (iii) bowel care practices; (iv) outcome of the bowel programme (incidence of incontinence and duration of the evacuation procedure); and (v) participant satisfaction with their bowel programme. The majority (79.2%) of subjects used multiple interventions for bowel care. Duration of the evacuation procedure was more than 60 min in 28.0% of participants. Water intake of more than 2 l/day was associated with longer duration of bowel care. Only 8.0% of participants had at least one episode of incontinence per month. The majority of participants (84.8%) were satisfied with their bowel programme. Patients used multiple interventions to manage their bowels and spent a substantial amount of time performing bowel care. Nevertheless, the incidence of incontinence was low and satisfaction with their bowel programme was high.

  8. Musculoskeletal Deterioration and Hemicorporectomy After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The long-term management following an hemicorporectomy (HCP) is not well documented in the scientific literature. The purpose of this case report is to describe the 25-year history of a man with a spinal cord injury who experienced severe musculoskeletal deterioration and hemicorporectomy. Case Description The client sustained T10 complete paraplegia at age 18 years, developed severe decubitus ulcers, and required an HCP as a lifesaving measure 13 years later. The authors describe the chronology of several rehabilitation and prosthetic strategies and speculate on factors that may have contributed to their successes and failures. Outcomes The client survived 12 years after the HCP and returned to independent mobility, self-care, and schooling despite complications with continued skin breakdown. Over the 12 years following discharge from the hospital after the spinal cord injury, he spent 749 days in the hospital. During the 12 years he lived after discharge from the hospital following the HCP, he was hospitalized 190 days. Discussion The authors discuss factors contributing to the client’s musculoskeletal deterioration including chronic wounds, postural deviations, and incomplete adherence to pressure-relief recommendations and raise considerations for physical therapists who treat patients after HCP. PMID:12620090

  9. New Prophylactic and Therapeutic Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Sookyoung; Park, Kanghui; Lee, Youngjeon; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Hong, Yonggeun

    2013-03-01

    Melatonin production by the pineal gland in the vertebrate brain has attracted much scientific attention. Pineal melatonin is regulated by photoperiodicity, whereas circadian secretion of melatonin produced in the gastrointestinal tract is regulated by food intake. Thus, the circadian rhythm of pineal melatonin depends upon whether a species is diurnal or nocturnal. Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves damage to the spinal cord caused by trauma or disease that results in compromise or loss of body function. Melatonin is the most efficient and commonly used pharmacological antioxidant treatment for SCI. Melatonin is an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland during the dark phase of the circadian cycle. Neurorehabilitation is a complex medical process that focuses on improving function and repairing damaged connections in the brain and nervous system following injury. Physical activity associated with an active lifestyle reduces the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, and depression and protects against neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and ischemic stroke. Physical activity has been shown to increase the gene expression of several brain neurotrophins (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], nerve growth factor, and galanin) and the production of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2, which promotes neuronal survival, differentiation, and growth. In summary, melatonin is a neural protectant, and when combined with therapeutic exercise, the hormone prevents the progression of secondary neuronal degeneration in SCI. The present review briefly describes the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SCI, focusing on therapeutic targets and combined melatonin and exercise therapy, which can attenuate secondary injury mechanisms with minimal side effects.

  10. Psychological impact of sports activity in spinal cord injury patients.

    PubMed

    Gioia, M C; Cerasa, A; Di Lucente, L; Brunelli, S; Castellano, V; Traballesi, M

    2006-12-01

    To investigate whether sports activity is associated with better psychological profiles in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on psychological benefits. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Form X2 (STAI-X2), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and the questionnaire for depression (QD) were administered in a cross-sectional study of 137 males with spinal cord injury including 52 tetraplegics and 85 paraplegics. The subjects were divided into two groups according to sports activity participation (high frequency vs no sports participation). Moreover, multiple regression analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of demographic variables, such as age, educational level, occupational status and marital status, on psychological variables. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the groups for anxiety (STAI-X2), extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and depression (QD). In particular, SCI patients who did not practice sports showed higher anxiety and depression scores and lower extraversion scores than sports participants. In addition, with respect to the paraplegics, the tetraplegic group showed the lowest depression scores. Following multiple regression analysis, only the sports activity factor remained as an independent factor of anxiety scores. These findings demonstrate that sports activity is associated with better psychological status in SCI patients, irrespective of tetraplegia and paraplegia, and that psychological benefits are not emphasized by demographic factors.

  11. Spinal cord stimulation paresthesia and activity of primary afferents.

    PubMed

    North, Richard B; Streelman, Karen; Rowland, Lance; Foreman, P Jay

    2012-10-01

    A patient with failed back surgery syndrome reported paresthesia in his hands and arms during a spinal cord stimulation (SCS) screening trial with a low thoracic electrode. The patient's severe thoracic stenosis necessitated general anesthesia for simultaneous decompressive laminectomy and SCS implantation for chronic use. Use of general anesthesia gave the authors the opportunity to characterize the patient's unusual distribution of paresthesia. During SCS implantation, they recorded SCS-evoked antidromic potentials at physiologically relevant amplitudes in the legs to guide electrode placement and in the arms as controls. Stimulation of the dorsal columns at T-8 evoked potentials in the legs (common peroneal nerves) and at similar thresholds, consistent with the sensation of paresthesia in the arms, in the right ulnar nerve. The authors' electrophysiological observations support observations by neuroanatomical specialists that primary afferents can descend several (in this case, at least 8) vertebral segments in the spinal cord before synapsing or ascending. This report thus confirms a physiological basis for unusual paresthesia distribution associated with thoracic SCS.

  12. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Christian A; Kundu, Bornali; Hawryluk, Gregory W J

    2016-06-01

    Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS's status as a historical standard of care.

  13. Cold pressor test in spinal cord injury-revisited.

    PubMed

    Hubli, Michèle; Bolt, Doris; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2018-06-01

    Systematic review. A spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly results in alterations of cardiovascular physiology. In order to investigate such alterations, the cold pressor test (CPT) has been used as an established challenge test. This review summarizes the basic physiology underlying a CPT, discusses potential mechanisms responsible for abnormal pressor responses following SCI, and highlights the utility of CPT in the SCI population. Canada and Switzerland. We have completed a comprehensive review of studies that have investigated the effect of foot or hand CPT on hemodynamic indices in individuals with SCI. Depending on the level of spinal cord lesion and the location of cold application, i.e., above or below the lesion, mean arterial pressure typically increases (ranging between 4 and 23 mmHg), while heart rate responses demonstrated either a decrease or an increase (ranging between -4 and 24 bpm) during CPT. The increase in blood pressure during foot CPT in high-level lesions might not necessarily be attributed to a physiological CPT response as seen in able-bodied individuals, but rather due to a reflexic sympathetic discharge below the level of lesion, known as autonomic dysreflexia. Further investigations in a wider range of individuals with SCI including incomplete injuries might be helpful to examine the ability of CPT assessing the integrity of the autonomic nervous system following SCI. Furthermore, additional autonomic tests are needed to emphasize the integrity of autonomic pathways and to account for the complexity of the autonomic nervous system.

  14. Spinal-cord injuries in Australian footballers, 1960-1985.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R

    1987-08-03

    A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League.

  15. Brain and spinal cord metabolic activity during propofol anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Cavazzuti, M; Porro, C A; Barbieri, A; Galetti, A

    1991-04-01

    We have investigated the effects of propofol anaesthesia on the metabolic activity pattern of 35 regions of the rat brain and cervical spinal cord using the 14C-2-deoxyglucose technique. Anaesthesia was produced by an i.v. bolus of the commercial preparation of the drug (8 mg kg-1) and maintained with successive bolus administrations of 6 mg kg-1. Functional activity values (expressed as rates of local utilization of glucose) were reduced in 31 grey matter and two white matter structures in a propofol group relative both to saline-injected and vehicle-injected (aqueous emulsion containing 10% soya bean oil, 1.2% egg phosphatide and 2.25% glycerol) controls. Values from the two control groups did not differ significantly. Propofol-induced depression of metabolic activity was present in central nervous system regions belonging to sensory (auditory, visual and somatosensory), motor and limbic systems, including spinal cord grey matter. Mean percentage decreases ranged from 40% (vestibular nuclei) to 76% (cingulate cortex). Although these values may be slightly overestimated because of the modest increase in PaCo2 in the anaesthetized group, propofol appeared to elicit generalized reduction of central nervous system functional activity.

  16. Gut dysbiosis impairs recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Mo, Xiaokui

    2016-01-01

    The trillions of microbes that exist in the gastrointestinal tract have emerged as pivotal regulators of mammalian development and physiology. Disruption of this gut microbiome, a process known as dysbiosis, causes or exacerbates various diseases, but whether gut dysbiosis affects recovery of neurological function or lesion pathology after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. Data in this study show that SCI increases intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the gut. These changes are associated with immune cell activation in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) and significant changes in the composition of both major and minor gut bacterial taxa. Postinjury changes in gut microbiota persist for at least one month and predict the magnitude of locomotor impairment. Experimental induction of gut dysbiosis in naive mice before SCI (e.g., via oral delivery of broad-spectrum antibiotics) exacerbates neurological impairment and spinal cord pathology after SCI. Conversely, feeding SCI mice commercial probiotics (VSL#3) enriched with lactic acid–producing bacteria triggers a protective immune response in GALTs and confers neuroprotection with improved locomotor recovery. Our data reveal a previously unknown role for the gut microbiota in influencing recovery of neurological function and neuropathology after SCI. PMID:27810921

  17. Corticosteroid Treatment for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: A Review.

    PubMed

    Skeoch, Gordon D; Tobin, Matthew K; Khan, Sajeel; Linninger, Andreas A; Mehta, Ankit I

    2017-05-01

    Narrative review. Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a very frequent complication among cancer patients. Presenting commonly as nocturnal back pain, MSCC typically progresses to lower extremity paresis, loss of ambulatory capabilities, and paraplegia. In addition to standard treatment modalities, corticosteroid administration has been utilized in preclinical and clinical settings as adjunctive therapy to reduce local spinal cord edema and improve clinical symptoms. This article serves as a review of existing literature regarding corticosteroid management of MSCC and seeks to provide potential avenues of research on the topic. A literature search was performed using PubMed in order to consolidate existing information regarding dexamethasone treatment of MSCC. Of all search results, 7 articles are reviewed, establishing the current understanding of metastatic spine disease and dexamethasone treatment in both animal models and in clinical trials. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids is associated with an increased rate of potentially serious systemic side effects. For this reason, definitive guidelines for the use of dexamethasone in the management of MSCC are unavailable. It is still unclear what role dexamethasone plays in the treatment of MSCC. It is evident that new, more localizable therapies may provide more acceptable treatment strategies using corticosteroids. Looking forward, the potential for more targeted, localized application of the steroid through the use of nanotechnology would decrease the incidence of adverse effects while maintaining the drug's efficacy.

  18. Thoracic Radiculopathy following Spinal Cord Stimulator Implantation Treated with Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ritam; Holland, Ryan; Mammis, Antonios

    2017-04-01

    Spinal cord stimulation has been used since 1967 to manage chronic neuropathic pain. Although effective, the literature describes the complication rate to be as high as 35%. One rare complication following spinal cord stimulator (SCS) implantation is the development of radicular pain. We present a case series of 2 patients implanted with SCSs who developed thoracic radiculopathy following implantation that resolved with corticosteroids. Although this complication was previously thought to require surgical intervention, this case series describes the use of corticosteroids to resolve postimplantation thoracic radiculopathy. Two patients were studied in this case series who received permanent thoracic implantation of a paddle lead SCS. Several days later, both developed back pain radiating toward the umbilicus in a dermatomal pattern consistent with thoracic radiculopathy. Corticosteroids were administered to relieve this pain. One received 6 mg dexamethasone intravenously every 6 hours followed by an oral dexamethasone taper for 1 week. The other was treated with an oral methylprednisolone taper for 2 weeks. Upon follow-up, both patients no longer complained of the thoracic radiculopathy and were satisfied with the pain relief the stimulators provided. In conclusion, postsurgical radicular pain is a rare but troubling complication of SCS implantation. In order to avoid further surgical complications or the need to explant a device that provides satisfactory paresthesia coverage, pharmacologic management is desirable. This case series has demonstrated that the use of corticosteroids can effectively resolve postimplantation thoracic radicular pain in a specific subgroup of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Emerging Role of Spinal Cord TRPV1 in Pain Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-In; Lim, Ji Yeon; Yoo, Sungjae; Kim, Hyun; Hwang, Sun Wook

    2016-01-01

    TRPV1 is well known as a sensor ion channel that transduces a potentially harmful environment into electrical depolarization of the peripheral terminal of the nociceptive primary afferents. Although TRPV1 is also expressed in central regions of the nervous system, its roles in the area remain unclear. A series of recent reports on the spinal cord synapses have provided evidence that TRPV1 plays an important role in synaptic transmission in the pain pathway. Particularly, in pathologic pain states, TRPV1 in the central terminal of sensory neurons and interneurons is suggested to commonly contribute to pain exacerbation. These observations may lead to insights regarding novel synaptic mechanisms revealing veiled roles of spinal cord TRPV1 and may offer another opportunity to modulate pathological pain by controlling TRPV1. In this review, we introduce historical perspectives of this view and details of the recent promising results. We also focus on extended issues and unsolved problems to fully understand the role of TRPV1 in pathological pain. Together with recent findings, further efforts for fine analysis of TRPV1's plastic roles in pain synapses at different levels in the central nervous system will promote a better understanding of pathologic pain mechanisms and assist in developing novel analgesic strategies. PMID:26885404

  20. Spinal cord stimulation: Current applications for treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Vannemreddy, Prasad; Slavin, Konstantin V

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is thought to relieve chronic intractable pain by stimulating nerve fibers in the spinal cord. The resulting impulses in the fibers may inhibit the conduction of pain signals to the brain, according to the pain gate theory proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 and the sensation of pain is thus blocked. Although SCS may reduce pain, it will not eliminate it. After a period of concern about safety and efficacy, SCS is now regaining popularity among pain specialists for the treatment of chronic pain. The sympatholytic effect of SCS is one of its most interesting therapeutic properties. This effect is considered responsible for the effectiveness of SCS in peripheral ischemia, and at least some cases of complex regional pain syndrome. The sympatholytic effect has also been considered part of the management of other chronic pain states such as failed back surgery syndrome, phantom pain, diabetic neuropathy, and postherpetic neuralgia. In general, SCS is part of an overall treatment strategy and is used only after the more conservative treatments have failed. The concept of SCS has evolved rapidly following the technological advances that have produced leads with multiple contact electrodes and battery systems. The current prevalence of patients with chronic pain requiring treatment other than conventional medical management has significantly increased and so has been the need for SCS. With the cost benefit analysis showing significant support for SCS, it may be appropriate to offer this as an effective alternative treatment for these patients.

  1. Hydrogels and Cell Based Therapies in Spinal Cord Injury Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Assunção-Silva, Rita C.; Gomes, Eduardo D.; Silva, Nuno A.; Salgado, António J.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a central nervous system- (CNS-) related disorder for which there is yet no successful treatment. Within the past several years, cell-based therapies have been explored for SCI repair, including the use of pluripotent human stem cells, and a number of adult-derived stem and mature cells such as mesenchymal stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, and Schwann cells. Although promising, cell transplantation is often overturned by the poor cell survival in the treatment of spinal cord injuries. Alternatively, the therapeutic role of different cells has been used in tissue engineering approaches by engrafting cells with biomaterials. The latter have the advantages of physically mimicking the CNS tissue, while promoting a more permissive environment for cell survival, growth, and differentiation. The roles of both cell- and biomaterial-based therapies as single therapeutic approaches for SCI repair will be discussed in this review. Moreover, as the multifactorial inhibitory environment of a SCI suggests that combinatorial approaches would be more effective, the importance of using biomaterials as cell carriers will be herein highlighted, as well as the recent advances and achievements of these promising tools for neural tissue regeneration. PMID:26124844

  2. [Myelitis as a differential diagnosis of spinal cord tumors].

    PubMed

    Vermersch, P; Outteryck, O; Ferriby, D; Zéphir, H

    2017-11-01

    Myelitis is common, related to multiple aetiologies and constitute in some cases a differential diagnosis for spinal cord tumors. Our objective was to review the clinical and paraclinical aspects of the main aetiologies of myelitis. These aetiologies will be reviewed based on data not only from the scientific literature but also from our personal experience reported in different cohorts of patients. Multiple sclerosis is the main cause of partial myelitis in young adults. Neuromyelitis optica is now a well-known specific entity frequently revealed by a transverse myelitis. The diagnosis is based on specific criteria, including the presence of anti-NMO antibodies. In our cohorts, approximately 12 % of the patients admitted for an acute or subacute myelitis were related to infections, mainly of a viral origin. Patients with myelitis must be screened for systemic diseases. As for neuromyelitis optica, patients with myelitis related to a systemic disease should be treated in emergency. Acute myelitis is sometimes the first symptom of a systemic lupus or of a sarcoidosis. Sjögren syndrome can mimic myelitis related to primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Spinal cord imaging contributes greatly to defining the myelitis. In most cases, a routine clinical and paraclinical examination and the follow-up of the patients can contribute to establishing the aetiology of a myelitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytoarchitecture of the spinal cord of the postnatal (P4) mouse.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Gulgun; Puchalski, Ralph B; Watson, Charles

    2012-05-01

    Interpretation of the new wealth of gene expression and molecular mechanisms in the developing mouse spinal cord requires an accurate anatomical base on which data can be mapped. Therefore, we have assembled a spinal cord atlas of the P4 mouse to facilitate direct comparison with the adult specimens and to contribute to studies of the development of the mouse spinal cord. This study presents the anatomy of the spinal cord of the P4 C57Bl/6J mouse using Nissl and acetyl cholinesterase-stained sections. It includes a detailed map of the laminar organization of selected spinal cord segments and a description of named cell groups of the spinal cord such as the central cervical (CeCv), lateral spinal nucleus, lateral cervical, and dorsal nuclei. The motor neuron groups have also been identified according to the muscle groups they are likely to supply. General features of Rexed's laminae of the P4 spinal cord showed similarities to that of the adult (P56). However, certain differences were observed with regard to the extent of laminae and location of certain cell groups, such as the dorsal nucleus having a more dispersed structure and a more ventral and medial position or the CeCv being located in the medial part of lamina 5 in contrast to the adult where it is located in lamina 7. Motor neuron pools appeared to be more tightly packed in the P4 spinal cord. The dorsal horn was relatively larger and there was more white matter in the P56 spinal cord. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Intramedullary pressure changes in rats after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Yang, D; Li, J; Liu, C; Yang, M; Du, L; Gu, R; Hu, A; Zhang, H

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the change of intramedullary pressure over time in rats after different degrees of spinal cord contusion injury and to verify the hypothesis that the more serious the injury, the higher the intramedullary pressure. The control group rats underwent laminectomy only, whereas the rats in the three experimental groups were subjected to mild, moderate or severe 10th thoracic cord (T10) contusion injury after laminectomy. In addition, an intramedullary pressure of T10 was measured by a Millar Mikro-Tip pressure catheter (Millar Incorporated Company, Houston, TX, USA) immediately in the control group or at different time points after injury in the experimental groups. The average intramedullary pressure of the rats in the control group was 6.88±1.67 mm Hg, whereas that of the rats in any injury group was significantly higher (P=0.000). There was statistical difference among the different time points in the mild or moderate injury group (P=0.007/0.017), but no in the severe (P=0.374). The curves of intramedullary pressure over time in the mild and moderate injury group were bimodal, peaking at 1 and 48 h after the injury. The intramedullary pressure after injury was positively correlated with the injury degree (r=0.438, P=0.000). The intramedullary pressure of the rats increased after traumatic spinal cord injury. If the injury was not serious, the intramedullary pressure fluctuated with time and peaked at 1 and 48 h after injury. If the injury was serious, the intramedullary pressure remained high. The more serious the injury, the higher the intramedullary pressure.

  5. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents apoptosis in rats that have undergone fetal spinal cord transplantation following spinal hemisection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Shao, Yang; Zhao, Changsong; Cai, Juan; Sun, Sheng

    2014-12-01

    Spinal cord injury is the main cause of paraplegia, but effective therapies for it are lacking. Embryonic spinal cord transplantation is able to repair spinal cord injury, albeit with a large amount of neuronal apoptosis remaining in the spinal cord. MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is able to reduce cell death by decreasing the concentration of excitatory amino acids and preventing extracellular calcium ion influx. In this study, the effect of MK-801 on the apoptosis of spinal cord neurons in rats that have received a fetal spinal cord (FSC) transplant following spinal hemisection was investigated. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Spinal cord hemisection injury with a combination of FSC transplantation and MK-801 treatment (group A); spinal cord hemisection injury with FSC transplantation (group B); and spinal cord injury with insertion of a Gelfoam pledget (group C). The rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after the surgery. Apoptosis in spinal slices from the injured spinal cord was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling reaction, and the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was measured by immunohistochemistry. The positive cells were quantitatively analyzed using a computer image analysis system. The rate of apoptosis and the positive expression of Bcl-2 protein in the spinal cord neurons in the three groups decreased in the following order: C>B>A (P<0.05) and A>B>C (P<0.05), respectively. This indicates that treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents apoptosis in the spinal cord neurons of rats that have undergone FSC transplantation following spinal hemisection.

  6. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents apoptosis in rats that have undergone fetal spinal cord transplantation following spinal hemisection

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, QIANG; SHAO, YANG; ZHAO, CHANGSONG; CAI, JUAN; SUN, SHENG

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is the main cause of paraplegia, but effective therapies for it are lacking. Embryonic spinal cord transplantation is able to repair spinal cord injury, albeit with a large amount of neuronal apoptosis remaining in the spinal cord. MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is able to reduce cell death by decreasing the concentration of excitatory amino acids and preventing extracellular calcium ion influx. In this study, the effect of MK-801 on the apoptosis of spinal cord neurons in rats that have received a fetal spinal cord (FSC) transplant following spinal hemisection was investigated. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Spinal cord hemisection injury with a combination of FSC transplantation and MK-801 treatment (group A); spinal cord hemisection injury with FSC transplantation (group B); and spinal cord injury with insertion of a Gelfoam pledget (group C). The rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after the surgery. Apoptosis in spinal slices from the injured spinal cord was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling reaction, and the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was measured by immunohistochemistry. The positive cells were quantitatively analyzed using a computer image analysis system. The rate of apoptosis and the positive expression of Bcl-2 protein in the spinal cord neurons in the three groups decreased in the following order: C>B>A (P<0.05) and A>B>C (P<0.05), respectively. This indicates that treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents apoptosis in the spinal cord neurons of rats that have undergone FSC transplantation following spinal hemisection. PMID:25371724

  7. Cervical spinal stenosis and sports-related cervical cord neurapraxia in children.

    PubMed

    Boockvar, J A; Durham, S R; Sun, P P

    2001-12-15

    Congenital spinal stenosis has been demonstrated to contribute to cervical cord neurapraxia after cervical spinal cord injury in adult athletes. A sagittal canal diameter <14 mm and/or a Torg ratio (sagittal diameter of the spinal canal: midcervical sagittal vertebral body diameter) of <0.8 are indicative of significant cervical spinal stenosis. Although sports-related cervical spine injuries are common in children, the role of congenital cervical stenosis in the etiology of these injuries remains unclear. The authors measured the sagittal canal diameter and the Torg ratio in children presenting with cervical cord neurapraxia resulting from sports-related cervical spinal cord injuries to determine the presence of congenital spinal stenosis. A total of 13 children (9 male, 4 female) presented with cervical cord neurapraxia after a sports-related cervical spinal cord injury. Age ranged from 7 to 15 years (mean +/- SD, 11.5 +/- 2.7 years). The sports involved were football (n = 4), wrestling (n = 2), hockey (n = 2), and soccer, gymnastics, baseball, kickball, and pogosticking (n = 1 each). Lateral cervical spine radiographs were used to determine the sagittal canal diameter and the Torg ratio at C4. The sagittal canal diameter (mean +/- SD, 17.58 +/- 1.63 mm) and the Torg ratio (mean +/- SD, 1.20 +/- 0.24) were normal in all of these children. Using the sagittal canal diameter and the Torg ratio as a measurement of congenital spinal stenosis, the authors did not find evidence of congenital cervical spinal stenosis in a group of children with sports-related cervical spinal cord neurapraxia. The occurrence of cervical cord neurapraxia in pediatric patients can be attributed to the mobility of the pediatric spine rather than to congenital cervical spinal stenosis.

  8. International urinary tract imaging basic spinal cord injury data set.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M; Schick, E; Wyndaele, J-J

    2009-05-01

    To create an International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. An international working group. The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed by the Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the Data Set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested international organizations and societies (around 40), individual persons with specific expertise and the ISCoS Council. Endorsement of the Data Sets by relevant organizations and societies will be obtained. To make the Data Set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. The variables included in the International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic SCI Data Set are the results obtained using the following investigations: intravenous pyelography or computer tomography urogram or ultrasound, X-ray, renography, clearance, cystogram, voiding cystogram or micturition cystourogram or videourodynamics. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the websites of both ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org).

  9. International spinal cord injury endocrine and metabolic extended data set.

    PubMed

    Bauman, W A; Wecht, J M; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Extended Data Set (ISCIEMEDS) within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of endocrine and metabolic findings in the SCI population. This study was conducted in an international setting. The ISCIEMEDS was developed by a working group. The initial ISCIEMEDS was revised based on suggestions from members of the International SCI Data Sets Committee, the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations, societies and individual reviewers. The data set was posted for two months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. Variable names were standardized, and a suggested database structure for the ISCIEMEDS was provided by the Common Data Elements (CDEs) project at the National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the US National Institute of Health (NIH), and are available at https://commondataelements.ninds.nih.gov/SCI.aspx#tab=Data_Standards. The final ISCIEMEDS contains questions on the endocrine and metabolic conditions related to SCI. Because the information may be collected at any time, the date of data collection is important to determine the time after SCI. ISCIEMEDS includes information on carbohydrate metabolism (6 variables), calcium and bone metabolism (12 variables), thyroid function (9 variables), adrenal function (2 variables), gonadal function (7 variables), pituitary function (6 variables), sympathetic nervous system function (1 variable) and renin-aldosterone axis function (2 variables). The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the website of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk/international-sci-data-sets).

  10. Dental Apical Papilla as Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    De Berdt, P; Vanacker, J; Ucakar, B; Elens, L; Diogenes, A; Leprince, J G; Deumens, R; des Rieux, A

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) represent great promise regarding treatment of neural tissue damage, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). They derive from the neural crest, express numerous neurogenic markers, and mediate neurite outgrowth and axonal targeting. The goal of the present work was to investigate for the first time their potential to promote motor recovery after SCI in a rat hemisection model when delivered in their original stem cell niche-that is, by transplantation of the human apical papilla tissue itself into the lesion. Control groups consisted of animals subjected to laminectomy only (shams) and to lesion either untreated or injected with a fibrin hydrogel with or without human SCAP. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor scores at 1 and 3 d postsurgery confirmed early functional decline in all SCI groups. This significant impairment was reversed, as seen in CatWalk analyses, after transplantation of apical papilla into the injured spinal cord wound, whereas the other groups demonstrated persistent functional impairment. Moreover, tactile allodynia did not develop as an unwanted side effect in any of the groups, even though the SCAP hydrogel group showed higher expression of the microglial marker Iba-1, which has been frequently associated with allodynia. Notably, the apical papilla transplant group presented with reduced Iba-1 expression level. Masson trichrome and human mitochondria staining showed the preservation of the apical papilla integrity and the presence of numerous human cells, while human cells could no longer be detected in the SCAP hydrogel group at the 6-wk postsurgery time point. Altogether, our data suggest that the transplantation of a human apical papilla at the lesion site improves gait in spinally injured rats and reduces glial reactivity. It also underlines the potential interest for the application of delivering SCAP in their original niche, as compared with use of a fibrin hydrogel. © International & American

  11. Bimanual reach to grasp movements after cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Britten, Laura; Coats, Rachel; Ichiyama, Ronaldo; Raza, Wajid; Jamil, Firas; Astill, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Injury to the cervical spinal cord results in bilateral deficits in arm/hand function reducing functional independence and quality of life. To date little research has been undertaken to investigate control strategies of arm/hand movements following cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). This study aimed to investigate unimanual and bimanual coordination in patients with acute cSCI using 3D kinematic analysis as they performed naturalistic reach to grasp actions with one hand, or with both hands together (symmetrical task), and compare this to the movement patterns of uninjured younger and older adults. Eighteen adults with a cSCI (mean 61.61 years) with lesions at C4-C8, with an American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade B to D and 16 uninjured younger adults (mean 23.68 years) and sixteen uninjured older adults (mean 70.92 years) were recruited. Participants with a cSCI produced reach-to-grasp actions which took longer, were slower, and had longer deceleration phases than uninjured participants. These differences were exacerbated during bimanual reach-to-grasp tasks. Maximal grasp aperture was no different between groups, but reached earlier by people with cSCI. Participants with a cSCI were less synchronous than younger and older adults but all groups used the deceleration phase for error correction to end the movement in a synchronous fashion. Overall, this study suggests that after cSCI a level of bimanual coordination is retained. While there seems to be a greater reliance on feedback to produce both the reach to grasp, we observed minimal disruption of the more impaired limb on the less impaired limb. This suggests that bimanual movements should be integrated into therapy.

  12. Bimanual reach to grasp movements after cervical spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Wajid; Jamil, Firas

    2017-01-01

    Injury to the cervical spinal cord results in bilateral deficits in arm/hand function reducing functional independence and quality of life. To date little research has been undertaken to investigate control strategies of arm/hand movements following cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). This study aimed to investigate unimanual and bimanual coordination in patients with acute cSCI using 3D kinematic analysis as they performed naturalistic reach to grasp actions with one hand, or with both hands together (symmetrical task), and compare this to the movement patterns of uninjured younger and older adults. Eighteen adults with a cSCI (mean 61.61 years) with lesions at C4-C8, with an American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade B to D and 16 uninjured younger adults (mean 23.68 years) and sixteen uninjured older adults (mean 70.92 years) were recruited. Participants with a cSCI produced reach-to-grasp actions which took longer, were slower, and had longer deceleration phases than uninjured participants. These differences were exacerbated during bimanual reach-to-grasp tasks. Maximal grasp aperture was no different between groups, but reached earlier by people with cSCI. Participants with a cSCI were less synchronous than younger and older adults but all groups used the deceleration phase for error correction to end the movement in a synchronous fashion. Overall, this study suggests that after cSCI a level of bimanual coordination is retained. While there seems to be a greater reliance on feedback to produce both the reach to grasp, we observed minimal disruption of the more impaired limb on the less impaired limb. This suggests that bimanual movements should be integrated into therapy. PMID:28384247

  13. OPERANT CONDITIONING OF A SPINAL REFLEX CAN IMPROVE LOCOMOTION AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Aiko K.; Pomerantz, Ferne; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Operant conditioning protocols can modify the activity of specific spinal cord pathways and can thereby affect behaviors that use these pathways. To explore the therapeutic application of these protocols, we studied the impact of down-conditioning the soleus H-reflex in people with impaired locomotion caused by chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. After a baseline period in which soleus H-reflex size was measured and locomotion was assessed, subjects completed either 30 H-reflex down-conditioning sessions (DC subjects) or 30 sessions in which the H-reflex was simply measured (Unconditioned (UC) subjects), and locomotion was reassessed. Over the 30 sessions, the soleus H-reflex decreased in two-thirds of the DC subjects (a success rate similar to that in normal subjects) and remained smaller several months later. In these subjects, locomotion became faster and more symmetrical, and the modulation of EMG activity across the step-cycle increased bilaterally. Furthermore, beginning about halfway through the conditioning sessions, all of these subjects commented spontaneously that they were walking faster and farther in their daily lives, and several noted less clonus, easier stepping, and/or other improvements. The H-reflex did not decrease in the other DC subjects or in any of the UC subjects; and their locomotion did not improve. These results suggest that reflex conditioning protocols can enhance recovery of function after incomplete spinal cord injuries and possibly in other disorders as well. Because they are able to target specific spinal pathways, these protocols could be designed to address each individual’s particular deficits, and might thereby complement other rehabilitation methods. PMID:23392666

  14. The Spinal Cord Injury- Functional Index: Item Banks to Measure Physical Functioning of Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Jette, Alan; Kisala, Pamela A.; Kalpakjian, Claire; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Whiteneck, Gale; Ni, Pengsheng; Kirshblum, Steven; Charlifue, Susan; Heinemann, Allen W.; Forchheimer, Martin; Slavin, Mary; Houlihan, Bethlyn; Tate, Denise; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor; Fyffe, Denise; Williams, Steve; Zanca, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a comprehensive set of patient reported items to assess multiple aspects of physical functioning relevant to the lives of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to evaluate the underlying structure of physical functioning. Design Cross-sectional Setting Inpatient and community Participants Item pools of physical functioning were developed, refined and field tested in a large sample of 855 individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury stratified by diagnosis, severity, and time since injury Interventions None Main Outcome Measure SCI-FI measurement system Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a 5-factor model, including basic mobility, ambulation, wheelchair mobility, self care, and fine motor, had the best model fit and was most closely aligned conceptually with feedback received from individuals with SCI and SCI clinicians. When just the items making up basic mobility were tested in CFA, the fit statistics indicate strong support for a unidimensional model. Similar results were demonstrated for each of the other four factors indicating unidimensional models. Conclusions Though unidimensional or 2-factor (mobility and upper extremity) models of physical functioning make up outcomes measures in the general population, the underlying structure of physical function in SCI is more complex. A 5-factor solution allows for comprehensive assessment of key domain areas of physical functioning. These results informed the structure and development of the SCI-FI measurement system of physical functioning. PMID:22609299

  15. Coupling between the spinal cord and cervical vertebral column under tensile loading.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Shannon G; Ching, Randal P

    2013-02-22

    Current neck injury criteria are based on structural failure of the spinal (vertebral) column without consideration of injury to the spinal cord. Since one of the primary functions of the vertebral column is to protect the cord, it stands to reason that a more refined measure of neck injury threshold would be the onset of spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated the relationship between axial strains in the cervical vertebral column and the spinal cord using an in vitro primate model (n=10) under continuous tensile loading. Mean failure loads occurred at 1951.5±396N with failure strains in the vertebral column of 16±5% at the level of failure. Average tensile strains in the spinal cord at failure were 11±5% resulting in a mean coupling ratio of 0.54±0.17 between C1 and C7. The level of peak strain measured in the spinal cord did not always occur at the location of vertebral column failure. Spinal cord strains were less than spine strains and coupling ratios were not significantly different along the length of the spine. The largest coupling ratio was measured in the atlanto-occipital joint whereas the smallest coupling ratio occurred at the adjacent C1-C2 joint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Attempts at management of experimental spinal cord hemisection by complete immobilization of the spine in dogs].

    PubMed

    Renard, C

    1980-06-01

    This animal experimentation shows the results of a method aiming at proving the possibilities of medullar reconstruction, if the medullar surfaces are in firm contact ant if medullar tension is neutralized. After hemitransection of the spinal cord, a total spinal immobilization in extension is obtained by using an original orthopaedic prosthesis. Thus, we operated on five dogs, one of which, the reference dog, underwent hemitransection of the spinal cord but no spine immobilization. From a clinical point of view, this dog developed a spastic crural monoplegia, whereas recuperation of motricity by the other dogs was surprising. Histological studies allowed us to observe a certain re-establishment of the spinal cord continuity, suggesting the beginning of an organization of a regeneration mechanism. These statements show the harmful influence of intra-medullar tension for spinal cord reconstruction. In practice, tractions on the spine must be abandoned for they increase the intramedullar tension very much and compromise any eventual "recuperation" after a medullar traumatism.

  17. [Effect of local hypothermia on H- and M-responses after spinal cord contusion in dogs].

    PubMed

    Iafarova, G G; Tumakaev, R F; Khazieva, A R; Baltina, T V

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated a motor-neuronal functional state based on H- and M-responses from m. quadratus plantae in dogs before and after experimental spinal cord contusion with and without following local intraoperative hypothermia. H- and M-responses from m. quadratus plantae were recorded during stimulation of the tibial nerve and results were compared between the groups. Our results demonstrate that local hypothermia applied after spinal cord contusion reduces amplitude of both M- and H-responses and also H(max)/M(max) ratio that may indicate depression of motorneurons excitability. After spinal cord contusion without following hypothermia the excitability of the spinal motorneurons during post-traumatic period, in opposite, was significantly increased. These results support a conclusion that intraoperative hypothermia after spinal cord contusion can delay development of functional excitability of the motoneurons and protect from further changes in H- and M-responses.

  18. Phantom sensations in people with complete spinal cord lesions: a grounded theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, Daren G; Shem, Kazuko; Walbom, Agnes; Miner, Maureen D; Maclachlan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Phantom sensations are somatic phenomena arising from denervated parts of the body. There is very little research, and much diagnostic confusion, regarding such experiences in people with spinal cord injuries. In the case of 'complete' spinal cord lesions, phantom experiences may challenge, and indeed, contradict, the understanding that both clinicians and patients have of such injuries. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of such 'phantom' sensations in spinal cord injury. We used grounded theory methods to explore 'phantom' sensations as experienced by individuals with complete (ASIA A) spinal lesions. Eight people with complete lesions, who were selected through theoretical sampling, participated in a semi-structured interview. Emergent themes included injury context, sensations experienced, the meaning of sensations, body connectivity, attitude and communication about sensations. Our results provide an enhanced understanding of the embodied experience of phantom sensations, and important insights regarding self-construction and rehabilitative processes in people with spinal cord injury who experience such anomalous sensations.

  19. Novel aspects of spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEPs) in the evaluation of dorso-ventral and lateral mechanical impacts on the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rad, Iman; Kouhzaei, Sogolie; Mobasheri, Hamid; Saberi, Hooshang

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to mimic mechanical impacts on the spinal cord by manifesting the effects of dorsoventral (DVMP) and lateral (LMP) mechanical pressure on neural activity to address points to be considered during surgery for different purposes, including spinal cord decompression. Spinal cords of anesthetized rats were compressed at T13. Different characteristics of axons, including vulnerability, excitability, and conduction velocity (CV), in response to promptness, severity, and duration of pressure were assessed by spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEPs). Real-time SCEPs recorded at L4-5 revealed N1, N2, and N3 peaks that were used to represent the activity of injured sensory afferents, interneurons, and MN fibers. The averaged SCEP recordings were fitted by trust-region algorithm to find the equivalent Gaussian and polynomial equations. The pyramidal and extrapyramidal pathways possessed CVs of 3-11 and 16-80 m s(-1), respectively. DVMP decreased the excitability of myelinated neural fibers in antidromic and orthodromic pathways. The excitability of fibers in extrapyramidal and pyramidal pathways of lateral corticospinal (LCS) and anterior corticospinal (ACS) tracts decreased following LMP. A significant drop in the amplitude of N3 and its conduction velocity (CV) revealed higher susceptibility of less-myelinated fibers to both DVMP and LMP. The best parametric fitting model for triplet healthy spinal cord CAP was a six-term Gaussian equation (G6) that fell into a five-term equation (G5) at the complete compression stage. The spinal cord is more susceptible to dorsoventral than lateral mechanical pressures, and this should be considered in spinal cord operations. SCEPs have shown promising capabilities for evaluating the severity of SCI and thus can be applied for diagnostic or prognostic intraoperative monitoring (IOM).

  20. Novel aspects of spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEPs) in the evaluation of dorso-ventral and lateral mechanical impacts on the spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, Iman; Kouhzaei, Sogolie; Mobasheri, Hamid; Saberi, Hooshang

    2015-02-01

    Objectives. The aim of the current study was to mimic mechanical impacts on the spinal cord by manifesting the effects of dorsoventral (DVMP) and lateral (LMP) mechanical pressure on neural activity to address points to be considered during surgery for different purposes, including spinal cord decompression. Approaches. Spinal cords of anesthetized rats were compressed at T13. Different characteristics of axons, including vulnerability, excitability, and conduction velocity (CV), in response to promptness, severity, and duration of pressure were assessed by spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEPs). Real-time SCEPs recorded at L4-5 revealed N1, N2, and N3 peaks that were used to represent the activity of injured sensory afferents, interneurons, and MN fibers. The averaged SCEP recordings were fitted by trust-region algorithm to find the equivalent Gaussian and polynomial equations. Main results. The pyramidal and extrapyramidal pathways possessed CVs of 3-11 and 16-80 m s-1, respectively. DVMP decreased the excitability of myelinated neural fibers in antidromic and orthodromic pathways. The excitability of fibers in extrapyramidal and pyramidal pathways of lateral corticospinal (LCS) and anterior corticospinal (ACS) tracts decreased following LMP. A significant drop in the amplitude of N3 and its conduction velocity (CV) revealed higher susceptibility of less-myelinated fibers to both DVMP and LMP. The best parametric fitting model for triplet healthy spinal cord CAP was a six-term Gaussian equation (G6) that fell into a five-term equation (G5) at the complete compression stage. Significance. The spinal cord is more susceptible to dorsoventral than lateral mechanical pressures, and this should be considered in spinal cord operations. SCEPs have shown promising capabilities for evaluating the severity of SCI and thus can be applied for diagnostic or prognostic intraoperative monitoring (IOM).

  1. Fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method of spinal cord MR images at 3T applied to the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.

    PubMed

    El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir; Chen, Raphaël; Tiret, Brice; Villard, Noémie; Trunet, Stéphanie; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Pradat, Pierre-François; Benali, Habib

    2015-01-01

    To design a fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method for spinal cord 3T MR images and to construct a template of the cervical spinal cord. A semi-automated double threshold-based method (DTbM) was proposed enabling both cross-sectional and volumetric measures from 3D T2-weighted turbo spin echo MR scans of the spinal cord at 3T. Eighty-two healthy subjects, 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 10 with spinal muscular atrophy and 10 with spinal cord injuries were studied. DTbM was compared with active surface method (ASM), threshold-based method (TbM) and manual outlining (ground truth). Accuracy of segmentations was scored visually by a radiologist in cervical and thoracic cord regions. Accuracy was also quantified at the cervical and thoracic levels as well as at C2 vertebral level. To construct a cervical template from healthy subjects' images (n=59), a standardization pipeline was designed leading to well-centered straight spinal cord images and accurate probability tissue map. Visual scoring showed better performance for DTbM than for ASM. Mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was 95.71% for DTbM and 90.78% for ASM at the cervical level and 94.27% for DTbM and 89.93% for ASM at the thoracic level. Finally, at C2 vertebral level, mean DSC was 97.98% for DTbM compared with 98.02% for TbM and 96.76% for ASM. DTbM showed similar accuracy compared with TbM, but with the advantage of limited manual interaction. A semi-automated segmentation method with limited manual intervention was introduced and validated on 3T images, enabling the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.

  2. Fast and Accurate Semi-Automated Segmentation Method of Spinal Cord MR Images at 3T Applied to the Construction of a Cervical Spinal Cord Template

    PubMed Central

    El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir; Trunet, Stéphanie; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Pradat, Pierre-François; Benali, Habib

    2015-01-01

    Objective To design a fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method for spinal cord 3T MR images and to construct a template of the cervical spinal cord. Materials and Methods A semi-automated double threshold-based method (DTbM) was proposed enabling both cross-sectional and volumetric measures from 3D T2-weighted turbo spin echo MR scans of the spinal cord at 3T. Eighty-two healthy subjects, 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 10 with spinal muscular atrophy and 10 with spinal cord injuries were studied. DTbM was compared with active surface method (ASM), threshold-based method (TbM) and manual outlining (ground truth). Accuracy of segmentations was scored visually by a radiologist in cervical and thoracic cord regions. Accuracy was also quantified at the cervical and thoracic levels as well as at C2 vertebral level. To construct a cervical template from healthy subjects’ images (n=59), a standardization pipeline was designed leading to well-centered straight spinal cord images and accurate probability tissue map. Results Visual scoring showed better performance for DTbM than for ASM. Mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was 95.71% for DTbM and 90.78% for ASM at the cervical level and 94.27% for DTbM and 89.93% for ASM at the thoracic level. Finally, at C2 vertebral level, mean DSC was 97.98% for DTbM compared with 98.02% for TbM and 96.76% for ASM. DTbM showed similar accuracy compared with TbM, but with the advantage of limited manual interaction. Conclusion A semi-automated segmentation method with limited manual intervention was introduced and validated on 3T images, enabling the construction of a cervical spinal cord template. PMID:25816143

  3. Release of substance P from the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Go, V L; Yaksh, T L

    1987-01-01

    1. The present experiments examine the physiology and pharmacology of the release of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-l.i.), from the spinal cord in the halothane-anaesthetized, artificially ventilated cat. 2. Resting release of SP-l.i. was 36 +/- 4 fmol/30 min (mean +/- S.E.; n = 106). Bilateral stimulation of the sciatic nerves at intensities which evoked activity in fibres conducting at A beta conduction velocities (greater than 40 m/s), resulted in no change in blood pressure, pupil diameter or release of SP-l.i. Stimulation intensities which activate fibres conducting at velocities less than 2 m/s resulted in increased blood pressure, miosis and elevated release of SP-l.i. (278 +/- 16% of control). 3. The relationship between nerve-stimulation frequency and release was monotonic up to approximately 20 Hz. Higher stimulation frequencies did not increase the amounts of SP-l.i. released. At 200 Hz there was a reduction. 4. Capsaicin (0.1 mM) increased the release of SP-l.i. from the spinal cord and resulted in an acute desensitization to subsequent nerve stimulation. This acute effect was not accompanied by a reduction in spinal levels of SP-l.i. measured 2 h after stimulation. 5. Cold block of the cervical spinal cord resulted in an increase in the amounts of SP-l.i. released by nerve stimulation. 6. Pre-treatment with intrathecal 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine (300 micrograms) 7 days prior to the experiment caused a reduction in the dorsal and ventral horn stores of SP-l.i., but had no effect on the release of SP-l.i. evoked by nerve stimulation. Similar pre-treatment with intrathecal capsaicin (300 micrograms) resulted in depletion of SP-l.i. in the dorsal but not in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and diminished the release of SP-l.i. evoked by nerve stimulation. 7. Intense thermal stimulation of the flank resulted in small (20-35%), but reliable increases in the release of SP-l.i. above control. 8. Putative agonists for the opioid mu-receptor (morphine, 10

  4. Positioning and spinal bracing for pain relief in metastatic spinal cord compression in adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siew Hwa; Grant, Robin; Kennedy, Catriona; Kilbride, Lynn

    2015-09-24

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 3 (Lee 2012) on patient positioning (mobilisation) and bracing for pain relief and spinal stability in adults with metastatic spinal cord compression.Many patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) have spinal instability, but their clinician has determined that due to their advanced disease they are unsuitable for surgical internal fixation. Mobilising may be hazardous in the presence of spinal instability as further vertebral collapse can occur. Current guidance on positioning (whether a patient should be managed with bed rest or allowed to mobilise) and whether spinal bracing is helpful, is contradictory. To investigate the correct positioning and examine the effects of spinal bracing to relieve pain or to prevent further vertebral collapse in patients with MSCC. For this update, we searched for relevant studies from February 2012 to 31 March 2015. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, TRIP, SIGN, NICE, UK Clinical Research Network, National Guideline Clearinghouse and PEDro database. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), ClinicalTrials.gov, UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR).For the original version, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CANCERLIT, NICE, SIGN, AMED, TRIP, National Guideline Clearinghouse, and PEDro database, in February 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with MSCC of interventions on positioning (mobilisation) and bracing. Two review authors independently assessed each possible study for inclusion and quality. For the original version of the review, we screened 1611 potentially relevant studies. No studies met the inclusion criteria

  5. Discrete mitochondrial aberrations in the spinal cord of sporadic ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Delic, Vedad; Kurien, Crupa; Cruz, Josean; Zivkovic, Sandra; Barretta, Jennifer; Thomson, Avery; Hennessey, Daniel; Joseph, Jaheem; Ehrhart, Jared; Willing, Alison E; Bradshaw, Patrick; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana

    2018-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord leading to muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to motor neuron degeneration associated with ALS progression. Mitochondrial abnormalities have been determined in spinal cords of animal disease models and ALS patients. However, molecular mechanisms leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in sporadic ALS (sALS) patients remain unclear. Also, segmental or regional variation in mitochondrial activity in the spinal cord has not been extensively examined in ALS. In our study, the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex IV was examined in post-mortem gray and white matter of the cervical and lumbar spinal cords from male and female sALS patients and controls. Mitochondrial distribution and density in spinal cord motor neurons, lateral funiculus, and capillaries in gray and white matter were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that complex IV activity was significantly decreased only in gray matter in both cervical and lumbar spinal cords from ALS patients. In ALS cervical and lumbar spinal cords, significantly increased mitochondrial density and altered distribution were observed in motor neurons, lateral funiculus, and cervical white matter capillaries. Discrete decreased complex IV activity in addition to changes in mitochondria distribution and density determined in the spinal cord in sALS patients are novel findings. These explicit mitochondrial defects in the spinal cord may contribute to ALS pathogenesis and should be considered in development of therapeutic approaches for this disease. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Closed-loop neuromodulation of spinal sensorimotor circuits controls refined locomotion after complete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Bonizzato, Marco; DiGiovanna, Jack; Musienko, Pavel; Morari, Manfred; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2014-09-24

    Neuromodulation of spinal sensorimotor circuits improves motor control in animal models and humans with spinal cord injury. With common neuromodulation devices, electrical stimulation parameters are tuned manually and remain constant during movement. We developed a mechanistic framework to optimize neuromodulation in real time to achieve high-fidelity control of leg kinematics during locomotion in rats. We first uncovered relationships between neuromodulation parameters and recruitment of distinct sensorimotor circuits, resulting in predictive adjustments of leg kinematics. Second, we established a technological platform with embedded control policies that integrated robust movement feedback and feed-forward control loops in real time. These developments allowed us to conceive a neuroprosthetic system that controlled a broad range of foot trajectories during continuous locomotion in paralyzed rats. Animals with complete spinal cord injury performed more than 1000 successive steps without failure, and were able to climb staircases of various heights and lengths with precision and fluidity. Beyond therapeutic potential, these findings provide a conceptual and technical framework to personalize neuromodulation treatments for other neurological disorders. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Long-lasting involuntary motor activity after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    McKay, W B; Ovechkin, A V; Vitaz, T W; Terson de Paleville, D G L; Harkema, S J

    2011-01-01

    The study design used is prospective cohort study. This study was designed to neurophysiologically characterize spinal motor activity during recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI). University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Twenty-five consecutive acute SCI admissions were recruited for this study. The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) was used to categorize injury level and severity at onset. Surface EMG recording was carried out initially between the day of admission and 17 days post-onset (6.0 ± 4.3, mean ± s.d. days). Follow-up recordings were performed for up to 9 months after injury. Initial AIS distribution was 7 AIS-A; 3 AIS-B; 2 AIS-C; 13 AIS-D. Twelve subjects (48%) showed long-duration involuntary motor-unit activation during relaxation. This activity was seen on initial examination in nine and on follow-up by 3 months post-injury in three others. It was seen in muscles innervated from the injury zone in 11 and caudal to the lesion in 9 subjects. This activity was independent of the presence or absence of tendon reflexes and the ability to volitionally suppress plantar stimulation elicited reflex withdrawal. The form of involuntary activity described here is the likely result of the altered balance of excitation and inhibition reaching spinal motor neurons because of the loss of inhibitory interneurons or their reduced activation by damaged supraspinal drive and the synaptic reorganization that follows SCI. As such, this activity may be useful for monitoring the effects of neuroprotective and restorative intervention strategies in persons with SCI.

  8. Subcortical Control of Precision Grip after Human Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bunday, Karen L.; Tazoe, Toshiki; Rothwell, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The motor cortex and the corticospinal system contribute to the control of a precision grip between the thumb and index finger. The involvement of subcortical pathways during human precision grip remains unclear. Using noninvasive cortical and cervicomedullary stimulation, we examined motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the activity in intracortical and subcortical pathways targeting an intrinsic hand muscle when grasping a small (6 mm) cylinder between the thumb and index finger and during index finger abduction in uninjured humans and in patients with subcortical damage due to incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). We demonstrate that cortical and cervicomedullary MEP size was reduced during precision grip compared with index finger abduction in uninjured humans, but was unchanged in SCI patients. Regardless of whether cortical and cervicomedullary stimulation was used, suppression of the MEP was only evident 1–3 ms after its onset. Long-term (∼5 years) use of the GABAb receptor agonist baclofen by SCI patients reduced MEP size during precision grip to similar levels as uninjured humans. Index finger sensory function correlated with MEP size during precision grip in SCI patients. Intracortical inhibition decreased during precision grip and spinal motoneuron excitability remained unchanged in all groups. Our results demonstrate that the control of precision grip in humans involves premotoneuronal subcortical mechanisms, likely disynaptic or polysynaptic spinal pathways that are lacking after SCI and restored by long-term use of baclofen. We propose that spinal GABAb-ergic interneuronal circuits, which are sensitive to baclofen, are part of the subcortical premotoneuronal network shaping corticospinal output during human precision grip. PMID:24849366

  9. Long-lasting Involuntary Motor Activity After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    McKay, WB; Ovechkin, AV; Vitaz, TW; de Paleville, DGLTerson; Harkema, SJ

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study Objective This study was designed to neurophysiologically characterize spinal motor activity during recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Material Twenty five consecutive acute SCI admissions were recruited for this study. Methods The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) was used to categorize injury level and severity at onset. Surface EMG recording, was carried out initially between the day of admission and 17 days post onset (6.0 ± 4.3, mean ± SD days). Follow-up recordings were performed for up to 9 months after injury. Initial AIS distribution was: 7 AIS-A; 3 AIS-B; 2 AIS-C; 13 AIS-D. Results Twelve subjects (48%) showed long-duration involuntary motor unit activation during relaxation. This activity was seen on initial examination in nine and on follow-up by three months post-injury in three others. It was seen in muscles innervated from the injury zone in 11 and caudal to the lesion in 9 subjects. This activity was independent of the presence or absence of tendon reflexes and the ability to volitionally suppress plantar stimulation elicited reflex withdrawal. Conclusions The form of involuntary activity described here is the likely result of the altered balance of excitation and inhibition reaching spinal motor neurons due to the loss of inhibitory interneurons or their reduced activation by damaged supraspinal drive and the synaptic reorganization that follows SCI. As such, this activity may be useful for monitoring the effects of neuroprotective and restorative intervention strategies in persons with SCI. PMID:20585326

  10. Providers' perceptions of spinal cord injury pressure ulcer guidelines.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Susan S; Evitt, Celinda P; Harrow, Jeffrey J; Love, Linda; Moore, D Helen; Mullins, Maria A; Powell-Cope, Gail; Nelson, Audrey L

    2007-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are a serious complication for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine (CSCM) published clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that provided guidance for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment after SCI. The aim of this study was to assess providers' perceptions for each of the 32 CPG recommendations regarding their agreement with CPGs, degree of CPG implementation, and CPG implementation barriers and facilitators. This descriptive mixed-methods study included both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (survey) data collection approaches. The sample (n = 60) included 24 physicians and 36 nurses who attended the 2004 annual national conferences of the American Paraplegia Society or American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Nurses. This sample drew from two sources: a purposive sample from a list of preregistered participants and a convenience sample of conference attendee volunteers. We analyzed quantitative data using descriptive statistics and qualitative data using a coding scheme to capture barriers and facilitators. The focus groups agreed unanimously on the substance of 6 of the 32 recommendations. Nurse and physician focus groups disagreed on the degree of CGP implementation at their sites, with nurses as a group perceiving less progress in implementation of the guideline recommendations. The focus groups identified only one recommendation, complications of surgery, as being fully implemented at their sites. Categories of barriers and facilitators for implementation of CPGs that emerged from the qualitative analysis included (a) characteristics of CPGs: need for research/evidence, (b) characteristics of CPGs: complexity of design and wording, (c) organizational factors, (d) lack of knowledge, and (e) lack of resources. Although generally SCI physicians and nurses agreed with the CPG recommendations as written, they did not feel these recommendations were fully implemented in their respective clinical

  11. Identification of ghost artifact using texture analysis in pediatric spinal cord diffusion tensor images.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Mahdi; Conklin, Chris J; Middleton, Devon M; Shah, Pallav; Saksena, Sona; Krisa, Laura; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Faro, Scott H; Mulcahey, M J; Mohamed, Feroze B

    2018-04-01

    Ghost artifacts are a major contributor to degradation of spinal cord diffusion tensor images. A multi-stage post-processing pipeline was designed, implemented and validated to automatically remove ghost artifacts arising from reduced field of view diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the pediatric spinal cord. A total of 12 pediatric subjects including 7 healthy subjects (mean age=11.34years) with no evidence of spinal cord injury or pathology and 5 patients (mean age=10.96years) with cervical spinal cord injury were studied. Ghost/true cords, labeled as region of interests (ROIs), in non-diffusion weighted b0 images were segmented automatically using mathematical morphological processing. Initially, 21 texture features were extracted from each segmented ROI including 5 first-order features based on the histogram of the image (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis and entropy) and 16s-order feature vector elements, incorporating four statistical measures (contrast, correlation, homogeneity and energy) calculated from co-occurrence matrices in directions of 0°, 45°, 90° and 135°. Next, ten features with a high value of mutual information (MI) relative to the pre-defined target class and within the features were selected as final features which were input to a trained classifier (adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system) to separate the true cord from the ghost cord. The implemented pipeline was successfully able to separate the ghost artifacts from true cord structures. The results obtained from the classifier showed a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 79%, and accuracy of 84% in separating the true cord from ghost artifacts. The results show that the proposed method is promising for the automatic detection of ghost cords present in DTI images of the spinal cord. This step is crucial towards development of accurate, automatic DTI spinal cord post processing pipelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spinal cord injury below-level neuropathic pain relief with dorsal root entry zone microcoagulation performed caudal to level of complete spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    Falci, Scott; Indeck, Charlotte; Barnkow, Dave

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique somatotopic map of DREZ pain-generators. METHODS Three unique patients with both intractable SCI below-level central pain and complete spinal cord transection at the level of SCI were identified. All 3 patients had previously undergone surgical intervention to their spinal cords-only cephalad to the level of spinal cord transection-with either DREZ microcoagulation or cyst shunting, in failed attempts to relieve their SCI below-level central pain. Subsequent to these surgeries, DREZ lesioning of the spinal cord solely caudal to the level of complete spinal cord transection was performed using electrical intramedullary guidance. The follow-up period ranged from 1 1/2 to 11 years. RESULTS All 3 patients in this study had complete or near-complete relief of all below-level neuropathic pain. The analyzed electrical data confirmed and enhanced a previously proposed somatotopic map of SCI below-level DREZ pain generators. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support the following hypotheses. 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through SNS pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique

  13. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, Frederiek; Everaert, Karel

    2011-12-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) result in different lower urinary tract dysfunctions. Because of both the disease and the bladder drainage method, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent conditions seen in SCI patients. Diagnosis is not always easy due to lack of symptoms. Asymptomatic bacteriuria needs no treatment. If symptoms occur, antibiotherapy is indicated. Duration depends mainly on severity of illness and upper urinary tract or prostatic involvement. Choice of antibiotherapy should be based on local resistance profiles, but fluoroquinolones seems to be an adequate empirical treatment. Prevention of UTI is important, as lots of complications can be foreseen. Catheter care, permanent low bladder pressure and clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) with hydrophilic catheters are interventions that can prevent UTI. Probiotics might be useful, but data are limited.

  14. Spinal cord injuries due to close combat weapons.

    PubMed

    Fares, Youssef H; Fares, Jawad Y; Gebeily, Souheil E; Khazim, Rabi M

    2013-10-01

    A 17-year-old patient was aggressively attacked and stabbed in the dorsal region of his back by a knife. He was admitted to the emergency room of the Hammoud Hospital University Medical Center, Saida, Lebanon lying in the prone position. The neurological examination revealed that the stabbing object was fixed at the dorsal spine level at the T-7 level, where it was inserted inside the vertebral body. Luckily, the blade of the knife was parallel to the nervous tracts of the spinal cord; thus, he showed no neurological deficits. This case provides an overview of how neurosurgical principles can be applied to trauma patients with spine injuries due to close combat weapons.

  15. Experience of sleep in individuals with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Fogelberg, Donald J.; Leland, Natalie E.; Blanchard, Jeanine; Rich, Timothy J.; Clark, Florence A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor sleep contributes to adverse health outcomes making it important to understand sleep in medically vulnerable populations, including those with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little attention has been paid to circumstances specific to SCI that may negatively impact sleep, or to consequences of poor sleep in this population. Objectives To examine the experience of sleep among individuals with SCI. Methodology Secondary analysis using thematic coding of qualitative data from an ethnographic study of community-dwelling adults with SCI. Results Sleep-related data were found in transcripts for 90% of the sample. Participants described diminished sleep duration and irregular sleep patterns. Several factors contributing to poor sleep were identified, including SCI-related circumstances and sleep environment. Participants also discussed how poor sleep affected occupational engagement. Conclusion This study highlights the extent of sleep disturbance experienced after SCI, the subsequent impact on occupational performance, and provides direction for clinical practice. PMID:28196449

  16. Neuroprosthetic technology for individuals with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Collinger, Jennifer L.; Foldes, Stephen; Bruns, Tim M.; Wodlinger, Brian; Gaunt, Robert; Weber, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Context Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of function and sensation below the level of the lesion. Neuroprosthetic technology has been developed to help restore motor and autonomic functions as well as to provide sensory feedback. Findings This paper provides an overview of neuroprosthetic technology that aims to address the priorities for functional restoration as defined by individuals with SCI. We describe neuroprostheses that are in various stages of preclinical development, clinical testing, and commercialization including functional electrical stimulators, epidural and intraspinal microstimulation, bladder neuroprosthesis, and cortical stimulation for restoring sensation. We also discuss neural recording technologies that may provide command or feedback signals for neuroprosthetic devices. Conclusion/clinical relevance Neuroprostheses have begun to address the priorities of individuals with SCI, although there remains room for improvement. In addition to continued technological improvements, closing the loop between the technology and the user may help provide intuitive device control with high levels of performance. PMID:23820142

  17. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: "spinal cord injury".

    PubMed

    Albert, T; Beuret Blanquart, F; Le Chapelain, L; Fattal, C; Goossens, D; Rome, J; Yelnik, A P; Perrouin Verbe, B

    2012-09-01

    This document is part of a series of documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (SOFMER) and the French Federation of PRM (FEDMER). These documents describe the needs for or a specific type of patients; PRM care objectives, human and material resources to be implemented, chronology as well as expected outcomes. "Care pathways in PRM" is a short document designed to enable the reader (physicians, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer or finance manager) to quickly apprehend the needs of these patients and the available therapeutic care structures for proper organization and pricing of these activities. The patients after spinal cord injury are divided into five categories according to the severity of the impairments, each one being treated according to the same six parameters according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO), while taking into account personal and environmental factors that could influence the needs of these patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. RNA content in spinal cord motoneurons during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunova, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a diminished motor activity of rats upon the ribonucleic and (RNA) content in a single isolated motoneuron of frontal of their spinal cord was studied. Within a 1 to 30 day exposure of rats to the hypokinetic conditions, RNA content was found to decrease on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th day and to return to the initial level by the 7th day. No changes in RNA content were observed during the subsequent stages of the xperiments. The volume of the nerve cells declined on the 3rd and 5th day, whereas RNA concentration reduced on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 30th day.

  19. Assessments of sensory plasticity after spinal cord injury across species.

    PubMed

    Haefeli, Jenny; Huie, J Russell; Morioka, Kazuhito; Ferguson, Adam R

    2017-06-23

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a multifaceted phenomenon associated with alterations in both motor function and sensory function. A majority of patients with SCI report sensory disturbances, including not only loss of sensation, but in many cases enhanced abnormal sensation, dysesthesia and pain. Development of therapeutics to treat these abnormal sensory changes require common measurement tools that can enable cross-species translation from animal models to human patients. We review the current literature on translational nociception/pain measurement in SCI and discuss areas for further development. Although a number of tools exist for measuring both segmental and affective sensory changes, we conclude that there is a pressing need for better, integrative measurement of nociception/pain outcomes across species to enhance precise therapeutic innovation for sensory dysfunction in SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Restoring voluntary control of locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Rubia; Heutschi, Janine; Barraud, Quentin; DiGiovanna, Jack; Bartholdi, Kay; Huerlimann, Michèle; Friedli, Lucia; Vollenweider, Isabel; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Duis, Simone; Dominici, Nadia; Micera, Silvestro; Musienko, Pavel; Courtine, Grégoire

    2012-06-01

    Half of human spinal cord injuries lead to chronic paralysis. Here, we introduce an electrochemical neuroprosthesis and a robotic postural interface designed to encourage supraspinally mediated movements in rats with paralyzing lesions. Despite the interruption of direct supraspinal pathways, the cortex regained the capacity to transform contextual information into task-specific commands to execute refined locomotion. This recovery relied on the extensive remodeling of cortical projections, including the formation of brainstem and intraspinal relays that restored qualitative control over electrochemically enabled lumbosacral circuitries. Automated treadmill-restricted training, which did not engage cortical neurons, failed to promote translesional plasticity and recovery. By encouraging active participation under functional states, our training paradigm triggered a cortex-dependent recovery that may improve function after similar injuries in humans.

  1. Race-ethnicity and poverty after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Krause, J S; Dismuke, C E; Acuna, J; Sligh-Conway, C; Walker, E; Washington, K; Reed, K S

    2014-02-01

    Secondary analysis of existing data. Our objective was to examine the relationship between race-ethnicity and poverty status after spinal cord injury (SCI). A large specialty hospital in the southeastern United States. Participants were 2043 adults with traumatic SCI in the US. Poverty status was measured using criteria from the US Census Bureau. Whereas only 14% of non-Hispanic White participants were below the poverty level, 41.3% of non-Hispanic Blacks were in poverty. Logistic regression with three different models identified several significant predictors of poverty, including marital status, years of education, level of education, age and employment status. Non-Hispanic Blacks had 2.75 greater odds of living in poverty after controlling for other factors, including education and employment. We may need to consider quality of education and employment to better understand the elevated risk of poverty among non-Hispanic Blacks in the US.

  2. Anterior spinal artery syndrome. Paraplegia following segmental ischaemic injury to the spinal cord after oesophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Djurberg, H; Haddad, M

    1995-04-01

    A case of unexpected paraplegia after oesophageal resection under general anaesthesia combined with epidural analgesia and intra-operative intercostal block is described. Patients with compromised cardiovascular and respiratory function undergoing thoracic or major abdominal surgery can benefit significantly intra-operatively from a combination of general anaesthesia and regional analgesia. The continued use of regional analgesia into the postoperative period offers even more advantages. General anaesthesia administered before regional analgesia may, however, mask complications related to the regional technique and delay the instigation of corrective measures. The blood supply to the anterior part of the spinal cord, through the artery of Adamkiewicz, may be impaired intra-operatively leading to neurological sequelae known as the anterior spinal artery syndrome, characterised by loss of motor function with intact or partially intact sensory function. Patients at risk of developing the syndrome can be identified pre-operatively.

  3. MRI Atlas-Based Measurement of Spinal Cord Injury Predicts Outcome in Acute Flaccid Myelitis.

    PubMed

    McCoy, D B; Talbott, J F; Wilson, Michael; Mamlouk, M D; Cohen-Adad, J; Wilson, Mark; Narvid, J

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances in spinal cord imaging analysis have led to the development of a robust anatomic template and atlas incorporated into an open-source platform referred to as the Spinal Cord Toolbox. Using the Spinal Cord Toolbox, we sought to correlate measures of GM, WM, and cross-sectional area pathology on T2 MR imaging with motor disability in patients with acute flaccid myelitis. Spinal cord imaging for 9 patients with acute flaccid myelitis was analyzed by using the Spinal Cord Toolbox. A semiautomated pipeline using the Spinal Cord Toolbox measured lesion involvement in GM, WM, and total spinal cord cross-sectional area. Proportions of GM, WM, and cross-sectional area affected by T2 hyperintensity were calculated across 3 ROIs: 1) center axial section of lesion; 2) full lesion segment; and 3) full cord atlas volume. Spearman rank order correlation was calculated to compare MR metrics with clinical measures of disability. Proportion of GM metrics at the center axial section significantly correlated with measures of motor impairment upon admission ( r [9] = -0.78; P = .014) and at 3-month follow-up ( r [9] = -0.66; P = .05). Further, proportion of GM extracted across the full lesion segment significantly correlated with initial motor impairment ( r [9] = -0.74, P = .024). No significant correlation was found for proportion of WM or proportion of cross-sectional area with clinical disability. Atlas-based measures of proportion of GM T2 signal abnormality measured on a single axial MR imaging section and across the full lesion segment correlate with motor impairment and outcome in patients with acute flaccid myelitis. This is the first atlas-based study to correlate clinical outcomes with segmented measures of T2 signal abnormality in the spinal cord. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Right-sided vagus nerve stimulation inhibits induced spinal cord seizures.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Salter, E George; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Rollins, Dennis L; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that left-sided vagus nerve stimulation results in cessation of induced spinal cord seizures. To test our hypothesis that right-sided vagus nerve stimulation will also abort seizure activity, we have initiated seizures in the spinal cord and then performed right-sided vagus nerve stimulation in an animal model. Four pigs were anesthetized and placed in the lateral position and a small laminectomy performed in the lumbar region. Topical penicillin, a known epileptogenic drug to the cerebral cortex and spinal cord, was next applied to the dorsal surface of the exposed cord. With the exception of the control animal, once seizure activity was discernible via motor convulsion or increased electrical activity, the right vagus nerve previously isolated in the neck was stimulated. Following multiple stimulations of the vagus nerve and with seizure activity confirmed, the cord was transected in the midthoracic region and vagus nerve stimulation performed. Right-sided vagus nerve stimulation resulted in cessation of spinal cord seizure activity in all animals. Transection of the spinal cord superior to the site of seizure induction resulted in the ineffectiveness of vagus nerve stimulation in causing cessation of seizure activity in all study animals. As with left-sided vagus nerve stimulation, right-sided vagus nerve stimulation results in cessation of induced spinal cord seizures. Additionally, the effects of right-sided vagus nerve stimulation on induced spinal cord seizures involve descending spinal pathways. These data may aid in the development of alternative mechanisms for electrical stimulation for patients with medically intractable seizures and add to our knowledge regarding the mechanism for seizure cessation following peripheral nerve stimulation.

  5. Morphology of the caudal spinal cord in Rana (Ranidae) and Xenopus (Pipidae) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Wassersug, R

    1988-03-08

    Using a variety of neuroanatomical and histological techniques, we compare the spinal cord and peripheral nerve distribution in the tails of larvae from Xenopus laevis and three species of Rana. The relatively large, postsacral spinal cord of Xenopus contains abundant motoneurons and their axons. Spinal nerves exit from the spinal cord in a regular array, one nerve per myotome, from the cervical region to near the end of the tail. Somata of motoneurons innervating caudal myotomes are found along the entire length of the tail. In contrast, the caudal cord of Rana is reduced to a filum terminale consisting of little more than an ependymal tube; spinal nerves to all caudal myotomes leave the cord in the sacral region and reach their motor targets via a cauda equina and caudal plexus. Motoneuron cell bodies innervating caudal myotomes are found only in the sacral region. The Rana larval pattern is similar to that of adult frogs and mammals, whereas the Xenopus larval pattern is more like that of salamanders and reptiles. These gross neuroanatomical differences are not due to differences in the size or developmental stage of the tadpoles, but instead are associated with differences in the swimming behavior of the larvae. The presence of motoneurons in the caudal spinal cord of Xenopus may provide local intermyotomal control within the tail; the elongated topography of the cord appears to permit finer, rostral-to-caudal regulation of neuromuscular activity. The Rana spinal cord, on the other hand--with motoneurons clustered anteriorly--may produce concurrent firing of adjacent ipsilateral myotomes, but at the expense of fine intermyotomal regulation. The fact that nerves in the tail of Xenopus enter and exit from the spinal cord locally, as opposed to far anteriorly as in Rana, means that for tadpoles of the same size, reflex arc lengths are many times shorter in Xenopus.

  6. Dynamic Detection of Spinal Cord Position During Postural Changes Using Near-Infrared Reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Erich W

    2015-08-01

    Motion of the spinal cord relative to a spinal cord stimulator epidural electrode array can cause suboptimal stimulation: either noxious, inefficient, or insufficient. Adaptive stimulation attempts to mitigate these effects by modulating stimulation parameters in a position-dependent fashion. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectometry is demonstrated to provide real-time direct measurement of spinal cord position at the site of stimulation, which can facilitate closed-loop adaptive stimulation during static and dynamic motion states. A miniature sensor array consisting of an NIR light emitting diode flanked by phototransistors potted in epoxy was placed in the dorsal epidural space of a human cadaver at the T8 level via laminotomy. Turgor of the subarachnoid space was maintained by intrathecal infusion of saline. NIR reflectance was measured as the cadaver was rotated about its longitudinal axis on a gantry. NIR reflectance was correlated with gantry position and velocity. NIR reflectometry suggests gravitational force is the primary determinant of cord position in static, ordinal positions. Under dynamic motion conditions, there was statistically significant cross-correlation between reflectometry data and the tangential velocity squared, suggesting that centripetal force was the primary determinant of cord position as the gantry was rotated. Reflectometry data strongly correlated with a simple geometric model of anticipated spinal cord precession within the spinal canal. Spinal cord position during dynamic motion has been shown to differ from static predictions due to additional influences such as centripetal force. These findings underscore limitations in extrapolating spinal cord position from surrogates such as body position or body acceleration at sites remote from the stimulating electrodes. NIR reflectometry offers a real-time direct measure of spinal cord position in both static and dynamic motion states, which may facilitate closed-loop adaptive stimulation

  7. The changing nature of admissions to a spinal cord injury center: violence on the rise.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J C; Vaccaro, A R; Balderston, R A; Albert, T J; Cotler, J

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze changing etiologies for admission to a spinal cord injury center. This study was designed to retrospectively analyze the etiology of admissions to a spinal cord injury center during a 15-year period, specifically gunshot versus nongunshot wound injuries. Gunshot wounds are a well-recognized cause of spinal cord injury. In some centers, up to 52% of admissions are due to this, and these trends are believed to be increasing. All patients with spinal cord injury admitted to our center between 1979 and 1993 were analyzed. Frequencies of specific etiologies were determined and then comparisons were made between gunshot wound and nongunshot wound groups. Factors analyzed included age, male/female ratio, ethnic make-up, marital status, employment status, level of injury, and neurologic status. One thousand eight hundred seventeen patients were included. Overall, gunshot wound spinal cord injuries compromised 16.9% of injuries. A clear trend of increasing numbers of admissions was seen between 1984 and 1993 because of this. Gunshot wounds and nongunshot wounds differed dramatically in terms of age, ethnic make-up, marital status, employment status, and neurologic status. Cost attributed to treating gunshot wound injuries at our center for 1993 was 5.4 million dollars. Gunshot wounds as a cause of spinal cord injury are increasing at an alarming rate. The demographics of the gunshot wounds and nongunshot wound spine cord injuries differ significantly.

  8. "Low-intensity laser therapy effect on the recovery of traumatic spinal cord injury".

    PubMed

    Paula, Alecsandra Araujo; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Lima, Mario de Oliveira; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Cogo, José Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Scientific advances have been made to optimize the healing process in spinal cord injury. Studies have been developed to obtain effective treatments in controlling the secondary injury that occurs after spinal cord injury, which substantially changes the prognosis. Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been applied in neuroscience due to its anti-inflammatory effects on biological tissue in the repairing process. Few studies have been made associating LILT to the spinal cord injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the LILT (GaAlAs laser-780 nm) on the locomotor functional recovery, histomorphometric, and histopathological changes of the spinal cord after moderate traumatic injury in rats (spinal cord injury at T9 and T10). Thirty-one adult Wistar rats were used, which were divided into seven groups: control without surgery (n = 3), control surgery (n = 3), laser 6 h after surgery (n = 5), laser 48 h after surgery (n = 5), medullar lesion (n = 5) without phototherapy, medullar lesion + laser 6 h after surgery (n = 5), and medullar lesion + laser 48 h after surgery (n = 5). The assessment of the motor function was performed using Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale and adapted Sciatic Functional Index (aSFI). The assessment of urinary dysfunction was clinically performed. After 21 days postoperative, the animals were euthanized for histological and histomorphometric analysis of the spinal cord. The results showed faster motor evolution in rats with spinal contusion treated with LILT, maintenance of the effectiveness of the urinary system, and preservation of nerve tissue in the lesion area, with a notorious inflammation control and increased number of nerve cells and connections. In conclusion, positive effects on spinal cord recovery after moderate traumatic spinal cord injury were shown after LILT.

  9. The current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging: Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stroman, P.W.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.; Bacon, M.; Schwab, J.M.; Bosma, R.; Brooks, J.; Cadotte, D.; Carlstedt, T.; Ciccarelli, O.; Cohen-Adad, J.; Curt, A.; Evangelou, N.; Fehlings, M.G.; Filippi, M.; Kelley, B.J.; Kollias, S.; Mackay, A.; Porro, C.A.; Smith, S.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Summers, P.; Tracey, I.

    2015-01-01

    A first-ever spinal cord imaging meeting was sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust and the Wings for Life Foundation with the aim of identifying the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, the current greatest challenges, and greatest needs for future development. This meeting was attended by a small group of invited experts spanning all aspects of spinal cord imaging from basic research to clinical practice. The greatest current challenges for spinal cord imaging were identified as arising from the imaging environment itself; difficult imaging environment created by the bone surrounding the spinal canal, physiological motion of the cord and adjacent tissues, and small cross-sectional dimensions of the spinal cord, exacerbated by metallic implants often present in injured patients. Challenges were also identified as a result of a lack of “critical mass” of researchers taking on the development of spinal cord imaging, affecting both the rate of progress in the field, and the demand for equipment and software to manufacturers to produce the necessary tools. Here we define the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, discuss the underlying theory and challenges, and present the evidence for the current and potential power of these methods. In two review papers (part I and part II), we propose that the challenges can be overcome with advances in methods, improving availability and effectiveness of methods, and linking existing researchers to create the necessary scientific and clinical network to advance the rate of progress and impact of the research. PMID:23685159

  10. Surveillance and management of urologic complications after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kreydin, Evgeniy; Welk, Blayne; Chung, Doreen; Clemens, Quentin; Yang, Claire; Danforth, Teresa; Gousse, Angelo; Kielb, Stephanie; Kraus, Stephen; Mangera, Altaf; Reid, Sheilagh; Szell, Nicole; Cruz, Francisco; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Ginsberg, David A

    2018-05-29

    Neurogenic bladder due to spinal cord injury has significant consequences for patients' health and quality of life. Regular surveillance is required to assess the status of the upper and lower urinary lower urinary tracts and prevent their deterioration. In this review, we examine surveillance techniques in neurogenic bladder, describe common complications of this disease, and address strategies for their management. This work represents the efforts of SIU-ICUD joint consultation on Urologic Management of the Spinal Cord injury. For this specific topic, a workgroup was formed and comprehensive literature search of English language manuscripts regarding neurogenic bladder management was performed using key words of neurogenic bladder. Articles were compiled, and recommendations in the chapter are based on group discussion and follow the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system for Levels of Evidence (LOEs) and Grades of Recommendation (GORs). At a minimum, patients should undergo an annual history and physical examination, renal functional testing (e.g., serum creatinine), and upper tract imaging (e.g., renal ultrasonography). The existing evidence does not support the use of other modalities, such as cystoscopy or urodynamics, for routine surveillance. Urologic complications in neurogenic bladder patients are common and often more complex than in the general population. There is a shortage of high-quality evidence to support any particular neurogenic bladder surveillance protocol. However, there is consensus regarding certain aspects of regular genitourinary system evaluation in these patients. Proper surveillance allows the clinician to avoid or address common urological complications, and to guide, alter, or maintain appropriate therapeutic regimens for individual patients.

  11. How Do Iranian People with Spinal Cord Injury Understand Marriage?

    PubMed Central

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Maasoumi, Raziyeh; Zarei, Fatemeh; Laleh, Leila; Pasha, Yousofreza Yousofnia; Korte, Jeffrey E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-altering experience. There is little information about the perspectives of people with SCI toward marriage. Purpose: To explore the understandings of Iranian adults with SCI about marriage. Methods: In this qualitative inquiry, using a semi-structured interview guide, we collected data from 53 single adults with SCI (41 men and 12 women) who were referred to the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran. Barun and Clarke's thematic analysis approach was applied for data analysis. Results: “Marriage” was thematized in outer and inner scenarios. The outer scenario was explored in terms of physical disability identified as a seminal determinant in successful marriage. “Attractiveness,” “able body for breadwinning,” “sexually active,” and “reproduction” were dominant concepts extracted from the participants' narratives. The participants' inner scenarios revealed that marriage would be welcomed if a potential partner accepted them as a “whole person” regardless of their SCI condition. Conclusion: The findings suggest that adults with SCI do not ignore or reject marriage, however it was not their life priority due to major concerns that they had internalized. Considering the quality of care, people with SCI must be reassured about their potential to get married. SCI-based sexuality education and premarital counseling support the patients in their postmarital lives. Our findings will provide decision makers and health providers with significant insight for utilizing culturally appropriate services for people with SCI. PMID:29339879

  12. Spinal Cord Stimulation in Chronic Pain: Mode of Action.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Ricardo; Bradley, Kerry; Kapural, Leonardo

    2017-07-15

    Literature review. A review of the literature that presents a perspective on mechanisms of actions behind spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy for chronic pain. SCS is an effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of intractable chronic pain. Its application has been mostly based on the gate control theory of pain. Computational models have been fundamental on the understanding of clinical observations and the design of therapies that provide optimal neuromodulation. Research has provided insight into the involvement of specific neurotransmitters that support segmental and supraspinal mechanisms of action. A literature review was performed with emphasis on mechanisms of action for SCS including the effects of electrical fields on spinal cord structures based on computational models and preclinical and clinical explorations. This review provides background on the development of SCS, which has been driven around a paresthesia-based paradigm as a result of the gate control theory. A review of computational models emphasizes their importance on our current understanding of the mechanism of action and clinical optimization of therapy. Electrophysiology and molecular biology have provided a closer, yet narrow, view of the effect of SCS on neurotransmitters and their receptors, which have led to the formulation of segmental and supraspinal mechanisms. Literature supporting the involvement of glial cells in chronic pain and their characteristic response to electrical fields should motivate further investigation of mechanisms involving neuroglia. Finally, a review of recent results paresthesia-free strategies should encourage research on mechanisms of action. The mechanisms of SCS have been extensively studied and several consistent phenomena have emerged. The activation of A-beta fibers to induce paresthesia also involve neurotransmitter release via segmental and supraspinal pathways. Despite advancements, much remains to be understood, particularly as new

  13. Vocational reintegration following spinal cord injury: expectations, participation and interventions.

    PubMed

    Schönherr, M C; Groothoff, J W; Mulder, G A; Schoppen, T; Eisma, W H

    2004-03-01

    Survey. To explore the process of reintegration in paid work following a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), including the role of early expectations of individual patients regarding return to work, indicators of success of job reintegration and a description of reintegration interventions and barriers. Dutch rehabilitation centre with special department for patients with spinal cord injuries. Descriptive analysis of data gathered by a mailed questionnaire, which was returned by 57 persons (response 83%) with traumatic SCI, aged 18-60 years, and data of earlier expectations reported by the individual patients during the rehabilitation admission following SCI from 1990 to 1998. Of 49 respondents who were employed at the moment of the SCI, 45% expected to be able to resume work. These positive expectations were associated with a higher educational level. In 67%, return to work was successful. The chance to reintegrate successfully was better if the patient expected to resume work. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal other significant indicators. About one-third of the 49 respondents working preinjury followed vocational retraining, which was successful for most of them so far. In the majority of work situations modifications have been made, such as job adaptations and reduction of working hours. Several unmet needs regarding reintegration interventions were also reported. Positive expectations regarding resumption of work after a SCI are an important indicator of successful reintegration in work. An active role of the rehabilitation team is recommended in drawing up a vocational reintegration plan to prepare the patient, the employer and professionals involved in the reintegration process.

  14. An anatomical review of spinal cord blood supply.

    PubMed

    Melissano, G; Bertoglio, L; Rinaldi, E; Leopardi, M; Chiesa, R

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the spinal cord (SC) vascular supply is important in patients undergoing procedures that involve the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta. However, the SC vasculature has a complex anatomy, and teaching is often based only on anatomical sketches with highly variable accuracy; historically, this has required a "leap of faith" on the part of aortic surgeons. Fortunately, this "leap of faith" is no longer necessary given recent breakthroughs in imaging technologies and postprocessing software. Imaging methods have expanded the non-invasive diagnostic ability to determine a patient's SC vascular pattern, particularly in detecting the presence and location of the artery of Adamkiewicz. CT is the imaging modality of choice for most patients with thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic disease, proving especially useful in the determination of feasibility and planning of endovascular treatment. Thus the data set required for analysis of SC vascular anatomy is usually already available. We have concentrated our efforts on CT angiography, which offers particularly good imaging capabilities with state-of-the-art multidetector scanners. Multidetector row helical CT provides examinations of an extensive range in the craniocaudal direction with thin collimation in a short time interval, giving excellent temporal and spatial resolution. This paper provides examples of the SC vasculature imaging quality that can be obtained with 64 row scanners and appropriate postprocessing. Knowledge of the principal anatomical features of the SC blood supply of individual patients undergoing open or endovascular thoracoabdominal procedures has several potential benefits. For open surgery, analysis of the SC vasculature could tell us the aortic region that feeds the Adamkiewicz artery and thus needs to be reimplanted. For endovascular procedures, we can determine whether the stent-graft will cover the Adamkiewicz artery, thus avoiding unnecessary coverage. CT data can also be used to

  15. Psychosocial outcomes following spinal cord injury in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khazaeipour, Zahra; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Kaveh, Mahboobeh; Khanzadeh Mehrabani, Fatemeh; Kazazi, Elham; Emami-Razavi, Seyed-Hasan

    2014-05-01

    Objective/background In patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), SCI causes psychosocial complications that vary based on culture, conditions, and the amenities of each community. Health planners and social services should have full knowledge of these issues in order to plan schedules that address them. In this study, we aimed to understand the psychosocial problems of persons with SCI in Iran and to explore the requirements for minimizing these difficulties. Design This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research (BASIR) Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Participants One hundred nineteen persons with SCI referred to BASIR clinic to receive outpatient rehabilitation. Methods In this study, trained interviewers administered a questionnaire to the participants. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic variables and psychosocial questions about finances, employment, housing, education, and social communication problems. Results Psychosocial problems for persons with SCI are mainly associated with financial hardship due to unemployment and the high cost of living, followed by difficulties with transportation, house modification, education, marriage, social communication, sports, and entertainment. Psychological problems include sadness, depression, irritability/anger, suicidal thoughts, and a lack of self-confidence. The levels of the aforementioned problems differ with respect to sex. Conclusion Persons suffering from SCI can face some serious psychosocial problems that may vary according to sex. For example, transportation difficulties can lead to problems such as unsociability. After recognizing these problems, the next step would be providing services to facilitate a productive lifestyle, enhancing social communication and psychological health, and ultimately creating a higher quality of life.

  16. Worldwide Steroid Prescription for Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Quadros, Francine W.; Teles, Alisson R.; Wong, Chung Chek; Barbagallo, Giuseppe; Brodke, Darrel; Al-Mutair, Abdulaziz; Riew, K. Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: To continue the line of a previous publication using steroid for acute spinal cord injury (SCI) by spine surgeons from Latin America (LA) and assess the current status of methylprednisolone (MP) prescription in Europe (EU), Asia Pacific (AP), North America (NA), and Middle East (ME) to determine targets for educational activities suitable for each region. Methods: The English version of a previously published questionnaire was used to evaluate opinions about MP administration in acute SCI in LA, EU, AP, NA, and ME. This Internet-based survey was conducted by members of AOSpine. The questionnaire asked about demographic features, background with management of spine trauma patients, routine administration of MP in acute SCI, and reasons for MP administration. Results: A total of 2659 responses were obtained for the electronic questionnaire from LA, EU, AP, NA, and ME. The number of spine surgeons that treat SCI was 2206 (83%). The steroid was used by 1198 (52.9%) surgeons. The uses of MP were based predominantly on the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study III study (n = 595, 50%). The answers were most frequently given by spine surgeons from AP, ME, and LA. These regions presented a statistically significant difference from North America (P < .001). The number of SCI patients treated per year inversely influenced the use of MP. The higher the number of patients treated, the lower the administration rates of MP observed. Conclusions: The study identified potential targets for educational campaigns, aiming to reduce inappropriate practices of MP administration. PMID:29796379

  17. The benefits of hydrotherapy to patients with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Ellapen, Terry J; Hammill, Henriëtte V; Swanepoel, Mariëtte; Strydom, Gert L

    2018-01-01

    Many patients with spinal cord injury (PWSCI) lead sedentary lifestyles, experiencing poor quality of life and medical challenges. PWSCI don't like to participate in land-based-exercises because it's tedious to perform the same exercises, decreasing their rehabilitative compliance and negatively impacting their well-being. An alternative exercise environment and exercises may alleviate boredom, enhancing compliance. Discuss the benefits of hydrotherapy to PWSCI concerning underwater gait-kinematics, thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and spasticity. A literature surveillance was conducted between 1998 and 2017, through the Crossref meta-database and Google Scholar, according to the PRISMA procedures. Key search words were water-therapy, aquatic-therapy, hydrotherapy, spinal cord injury, rehabilitation, human, kinematics, underwater gait, cardiorespiratory, thermoregulation and spasticity. The quality of each paper was evaluated using a modified Downs and Black Appraisal Scale. The participants were records pertaining to PWSCI and hydrotherapy. The outcomes of interest were: hydrotherapy interventions, the impact of hydrotherapy on gait-kinematics, thermoregulation during water submersion and cardiorespiratory function of PWSCI. Omitted records included: non-English publications from before 1998 or unrelated to hydrotherapy and PWSCI. The record screening admissibility was performed as follows: the title screen, the abstract screen and the full text screen. Literature search identified 1080 records. Upon application of the exclusion criteria, 92 titles, 29 abstracts and 17 full text records were eligible. Only 15 records were selected to be included in this clinical commentary. Evidence shows a paucity of randomised control trials (RCT) conducted in this field. Hydrotherapy improves PWSCI underwater gait-kinematics, cardiorespiratory and thermoregulatory responses and reduces spasticity.

  18. The benefits of hydrotherapy to patients with spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Strydom, Gert L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Many patients with spinal cord injury (PWSCI) lead sedentary lifestyles, experiencing poor quality of life and medical challenges. PWSCI don’t like to participate in land-based-exercises because it’s tedious to perform the same exercises, decreasing their rehabilitative compliance and negatively impacting their well-being. An alternative exercise environment and exercises may alleviate boredom, enhancing compliance. Objectives Discuss the benefits of hydrotherapy to PWSCI concerning underwater gait-kinematics, thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and spasticity. Methodology A literature surveillance was conducted between 1998 and 2017, through the Crossref meta-database and Google Scholar, according to the PRISMA procedures. Key search words were water-therapy, aquatic-therapy, hydrotherapy, spinal cord injury, rehabilitation, human, kinematics, underwater gait, cardiorespiratory, thermoregulation and spasticity. The quality of each paper was evaluated using a modified Downs and Black Appraisal Scale. The participants were records pertaining to PWSCI and hydrotherapy. The outcomes of interest were: hydrotherapy interventions, the impact of hydrotherapy on gait-kinematics, thermoregulation during water submersion and cardiorespiratory function of PWSCI. Omitted records included: non-English publications from before 1998 or unrelated to hydrotherapy and PWSCI. The record screening admissibility was performed as follows: the title screen, the abstract screen and the full text screen. Results Literature search identified 1080 records. Upon application of the exclusion criteria, 92 titles, 29 abstracts and 17 full text records were eligible. Only 15 records were selected to be included in this clinical commentary. Evidence shows a paucity of randomised control trials (RCT) conducted in this field. Conclusion Hydrotherapy improves PWSCI underwater gait-kinematics, cardiorespiratory and thermoregulatory responses and reduces spasticity. PMID

  19. Positive and negative affect in individuals with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Salter, J E; Smith, S D; Ethans, K D

    2013-03-01

    Participants with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) and healthy controls completed standardized questionnaires assessing depression level, positive and negative affect, and personality traits. To identify the specific characteristics of emotional experiences affected by spinal cord injury. A Canadian rehabilitation center. Individuals with SCIs were recruited from a list of patients who had volunteered to participate in studies being conducted by the SCI clinic. Healthy controls were recruited from the community, but tested in the SCI clinic. Thirty-six individuals with complete (ASIA A) SCIs and 36 age-, gender- and education-matched controls participated in this study. SCI participants were classified as cervical (C1-C7), upper thoracic (T1-T5) or lower thoracic/upper lumbar (T6-L2). All participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedules, the NEO Neuroticism Questionnaire, and the harm avoidance scale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent-samples t-tests (when contrasting SCI and controls) and analysis of variance (when comparing across SCI groups). Participants with SCIs experienced significantly less positive affect than controls. The two groups did not differ in their experience of negative affect. Participants with SCIs also reported greater levels of depression. Depression scores improved with an increasing number of years post injury. Individuals with SCIs are characterized by specific emotional dysfunction related to the experience of positive emotions, rather than a tendency to ruminate on negative emotions. The results suggest that these individuals would benefit from rehabilitation programs that include training in positive psychology.

  20. Patterns of morbidity and rehospitalisation following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J W; Lim, K; Taylor, L; Soden, R; Rutkowski, S

    2004-06-01

    Longitudinal, descriptive design. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, cause and duration of rehospitalisations in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in the community. Australian spinal cord injury unit in collaboration with State Health Department. A data set was created by linking records from the NSW Department of Health Inpatient Statistics Collection between 1989-1990 and 1999-2000 with data from the Royal North Shore Hospital (RNSH) Spinal Cord Injuries Database using probabilistic record linkage techniques. Records excluded were nontraumatic injuries, age <16 years, spinal column injury without neurological deficit, full recovery (ASIA Grade E) and index admission not at RNSH. Descriptive statistics and time to readmission using survival analysis, stratified by ASIA impairment grade, were calculated. Over the 10-year period, 253 persons (58.6%) required one or more spinal-related readmissions, accounting for 977 rehospitalisations and 15,127 bed-days (average length of stay (ALOS) 15.5 days; median 5 days). The most frequent causes for rehospitalisation were genitourinary (24.1% of readmissions), gastrointestinal (11.0%), further rehabilitation (11.0%), skin-related (8.9%), musculoskeletal (8.6%) and psychiatric disorders (6.8%). Pressure sores accounted for only 6.6% of all readmissions, however, contributed a disproportionate number of bed-days (27.9%), with an ALOS of 65.9 (median 49) days and over 50% of readmissions (33 out of 64) occurred in only nine individuals aged under 30 years. Age, level and completeness of neurological impairment, all influenced differential rates of readmission depending on the type of complication. Overall rehospitalisation rates were high in the first 4 years after initial treatment episode, averaging 0.64 readmissions (12.6 bed-days) per person at risk in the first year and fluctuating between 0.52 and 0.61 readmissions (5.1-8.3 bed-days) per person at risk per year between the second to

  1. The change tendency of PI3K/Akt pathway after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peixun; Zhang, Luping; Zhu, Lei; Chen, Fangmin; Zhou, Shuai; Tian, Ting; Zhang, Yuqiang; Jiang, Xiaorui; Li, Xuekun; Zhang, Chuansen; Xu, Lin; Huang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) refers to the damage of spinal cord’s structure and function due to a variety of causes. At present, many scholars have confirmed that apoptosis is the main method of secondary injury in spinal cord injury. In view of understanding the function of PI3K/Akt pathway on spinal cord injury, this study observed the temporal variation of key molecules (PI3K, Akt, p-Akt) in the PI3K/Akt pathway after spinal cord injury by immunohistochemistry and Western-blot. The results showed that the expression of PI3K, Akt and p-Akt display a sharp increase one day after the spinal cord injury, and then it decreased gradually with the time passing by, but the absolute expression was certainly higher than the normal group. These results indicate that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the spinal cord injury and the mechanism may be related to apoptosis. PMID:26807170

  2. Sexuality and sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akman, Ramazan Yavuz; Coşkun Çelik, Evrim; Karataş, Metin

    2015-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive evaluation of sexual function and dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men based on self-reports of patients. Forty-seven spinal cord-injured men who completed the spinal shock and rehabilitation period were included. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire developed to assess social status, sexual activities, abilities, and sexuality education after injury. Neurologic levels of patients were classified according to American Spinal Cord Injury Association protocol. Erectile function was evaluated by International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Patients were aged between 20 and 62 years (mean: 35.2). Twenty-eight patients had T10 and above, 15 between T11 and L2, and 4 cauda conus injury. While 61.7% of the patients declared sexual activity, 93.6% declared some degree of erection. Mean IIEF-5 score was 5.3 and 87.3% of the patients had moderate to severe erectile dysfunction. Continuation of sexual activity after injury is very important and has a great impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships for spinal cord-injured men. More attention must be given to sexuality after spinal cord injury. A very high rate of sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured patients was found and the importance of sexual education was emphasized in this study.

  3. Rehabilitation outcomes following traumatic spinal cord injury in a tertiary spinal cord injury centre: a comparison with an international standard.

    PubMed

    Chan, S C C; Chan, A P S

    2005-08-01

    Retrospective descriptive analysis of data of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in a tertiary SCI centre. To identify the characteristics of the rehabilitation outcomes of patients with different levels of traumatic SCI and to compare the results with data reported in the American Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. A newly established tertiary SCI centre in Tai Po Hospital, Tai Po, Hong Kong. A total of 33 patients with traumatic SCI admitted in 2002 were included in the study. They were classified into different ASIA subgroups based on their levels and completeness of injury. The functional status changes measured by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) (on admission, placement and upon discharge, and at 1 and 3 months post discharge) and discharge placement were recorded as rehabilitation outcomes. A total, 24 patients were tetraplegic while nine were paraplegic. Seven and two from tetraplegic and paraplegic groups were readmitted with late complications due to urinary tract infection, spasticity and/or occurrence of pressure sores. The mean age was found to be 48.36 (SD=15.64) years. In all, 16 (48.48%) sustained the injury from falling from height. The trend of FIM motor scores at discharge across different ASIA subgroups appeared to be comparable to those reported in the American Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine with scores generally lower. Significant functional improvements during the hospital phase were found in the two tetraplegic and paraplegic ASIA D subgroups (t3=3.430, P<0.05; t2=4.083, P=0.55, respectively). Significant differences were also revealed among subgroups (F(7,32)=6.625, P<0.0005) with lower level tetraplegic groups appearing to stay much longer in the rehabilitation centre. In all, 64.5% of newly diagnosed patients returned to live in the community. This report gives a preliminary overview on the characteristics of rehabilitation outcomes in one of the SCI centres in Hong Kong in relation to the international

  4. Evaluation of the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II (WISCI-II) in children with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Calhoun Thielen, C; Sadowsky, C; Vogel, L C; Taylor, H; Davidson, L; Bultman, J; Gaughan, J; Mulcahey, M J

    2017-05-01

    Mixed methods were used in this study. The appropriateness of the levels of the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II (WISCI-II) for application in children was critically reviewed by physical therapists using the Modified Delphi Technique, and the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the WISCI-II in children was evaluated. To examine the construct validity, and to establish reliability of the WISCI-II related to its use in children with spinal cord injury (SCI). United States of America. Using a Modified Delphi Technique, physical therapists critically reviewed the WISCI-II levels for pediatric utilization. Concurrently, ambulatory children under age 18 years with SCI were evaluated using the WISCI-II on two occasions by the same therapist to establish intra-rater reliability. One trial was photographed and de-identified. Each photograph was reviewed by four different physical therapists who gave WISCI-II scores to establish inter-rater reliability. Summary and descriptive statistics were used to calculate the frequency of yes/no responses for each WISCI-II level question and to determine the percent agreement for each question. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was calculated using interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Construct validity was confirmed after one Delphi round during which at least 80% agreement was established by 51 physical therapists on the appropriateness of the WISCI-II levels for children. Fifty-two children with SCI aged 2-17 years completed repeated WISCI-II assessments and 40 de-identified photographs were scored by four physical therapists. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was high (ICC=0.997, CI=0.995-0.998 and ICC=0.97, CI=0.95-0.98, respectively). This study demonstrates support for the use of the WISCI-II in ambulatory children with SCI. This study was funded by the Craig H Neilsen Foundation, Spinal Cord Injury Research on the Translation Spectrum, Senior Research Award #282592 (Mulcahey

  5. Significance of fixation of the vertebral column for spinal cord injury experiments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Luo, Zhuo-Jin; You, Si-Wei; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Meng, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Ming; Wang, Chun-Ting; Ju, Gong

    2003-08-01

    Thoracic spinal cord transections were performed in adult rats. The animals were divided into two groups, with or without internal fixation of the involved vertebral column. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies were performed to compare the effect of internal fixation of the vertebral column. To find out the aspects and extent of beneficial effects of vertebral column fixation for spinal cord repair. Vertebral column fixation is a routine procedure in clinical spinal cord surgery. Paradoxically, most, if not all, animal spinal cord experiments seem to have ignored the importance of vertebral column fixation. During trunk movements, the vertebral column flexes to different directions, accompanied by bending of the spinal cord. Following spinal cord lesions, with frequent bending of the cord there will be repeated bleeding, inflammation, and other pathologic processes at the lesion site. Thus, the healing process will be hampered. The severity of the damages that will be brought about by bending of the cord is, to a certain degree, unpredictable. There will be rather big individual variations in injury and repair among the same type of experiments, rendering quantification and conclusion difficult. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The thoracic spinal cord was transected. Strong stainless steel wires were used for internal fixation of the vertebral column. The histology of the horizontal sections of the spinal cord segment, which included the lesion site, was examined at the 14th postoperative day. The volumes of the secondary degeneration and meningeal scar, the gap between the borders of the proximal and distal stumps of the transected spinal cord, the thickness of the meningeal scar, the astrocytic reaction, and the abundance of regenerating nerve fibers at the lesion site were compared between the vertebral column fixed and nonfixed groups. Whenever possible, the results were evaluated quantitatively. In all these aspects, the internally fixed group was

  6. Survey of spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder studies using the Web of Science.

    PubMed

    Zou, Benjing; Zhang, Yongli; Li, Yucheng; Wang, Zantao; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Xiyin; Wang, Bingdong; Long, Zhixin; Wang, Feng; Song, Guo; Wang, Yan

    2012-08-15

    To identify global trends in research on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder, through a bibliometric analysis using the Web of Science. We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder using the Web of Science. Data retrieval was performed using key words "spinal cord injury", "spinal injury", "neurogenic bladder", "neuropathic bladder", "neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction", "neurogenic voiding dysfunction", "neurogenic urination disorder" and "neurogenic vesicourethral dysfunction". (a) published peer-reviewed articles on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles and reviews; (c) year of publication: no limitation. (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) Corrected papers and book chapters. (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to journals; (3) distribution according to subject areas; (4) distribution according to country; (5) distribution according to institution; and (6) top cited publications. There were 646 research articles addressing spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder in the Web of Science. Research on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder was found in the Science Citation Index-Expanded as of 1946. The United States, Ireland and Switzerland were the three major countries contributing to studies in spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder in the 1970s. However, in the 1990s, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany and Japan published more papers on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder than Switzerland, and Ireland fell off the top ten countries list. In this century, the United States ranks first in spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder studies, followed by France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland and Japan. Subject categories including urology, nephrology and clinical neurology, as well as

  7. Restoring walking after spinal cord injury: operant conditioning of spinal reflexes can help.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aiko K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    People with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer motor disabilities due to spasticity and poor muscle control, even after conventional therapy. Abnormal spinal reflex activity often contributes to these problems. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes, which can target plasticity to specific reflex pathways, can enhance recovery. In rats in which a right lateral column lesion had weakened right stance and produced an asymmetrical gait, up-conditioning of the right soleus H-reflex, which increased muscle spindle afferent excitation of soleus, strengthened right stance and eliminated the asymmetry. In people with hyperreflexia due to incomplete SCI, down-conditioning of the soleus H-reflex improved walking speed and symmetry. Furthermore, modulation of electromyographic activity during walking improved bilaterally, indicating that a protocol that targets plasticity to a specific pathway can trigger widespread plasticity that improves recovery far beyond that attributable to the change in the targeted pathway. These improvements were apparent to people in their daily lives. They reported walking faster and farther, and noted less spasticity and better balance. Operant conditioning protocols could be developed to modify other spinal reflexes or corticospinal connections; and could be combined with other therapies to enhance recovery in people with SCI or other neuromuscular disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. A PET/CT approach to spinal cord metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marini, Cecilia; Cistaro, Angelina; Campi, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Caponnetto, Claudia; Nobili, Flavio Mariano; Fania, Piercarlo; Beltrametti, Mauro C; Moglia, Cristina; Novi, Giovanni; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Perasso, Annalisa; Canosa, Antonio; Scialò, Carlo; Pomposelli, Elena; Massone, Anna Maria; Bagnara, Maria Caludia; Cammarosano, Stefania; Bruzzi, Paolo; Morbelli, Silvia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Piana, Michele; Chiò, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, functional alterations within the brain have been intensively assessed, while progression of lower motor neuron damage has scarcely been defined. The aim of the present study was to develop a computational method to systematically evaluate spinal cord metabolism as a tool to monitor disease mechanisms. A new computational three-dimensional method to extract the spinal cord from (18)F-FDG PET/CT images was evaluated in 30 patients with spinal onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 30 controls. The algorithm identified the skeleton on the CT images by using an extension of the Hough transform and then extracted the spinal canal and the spinal cord. In these regions, (18)F-FDG standardized uptake values were measured to estimate the metabolic activity of the spinal canal and cord. Measurements were performed in the cervical and dorsal spine and normalized to the corresponding value in the liver. Uptake of (18)F-FDG in the spinal cord was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p < 0.05). By contrast, no significant differences were observed in spinal cord and spinal canal volumes between the two groups. (18)F-FDG uptake was completely independent of age, gender, degree of functional impairment, disease duration and riluzole treatment. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher mortality rate in patients with standardized uptake values above the fifth decile at the 3-year follow-up evaluation (log-rank test, p < 0.01). The independence of this value was confirmed by multivariate Cox analysis. Our computational three-dimensional method enabled the evaluation of spinal cord metabolism and volume and might represent a potential new window onto the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  9. Minimally Invasive Drainage of a Post-Laminectomy Subfascial Seroma with Cervical Spinal Cord Compression.

    PubMed

    Kitshoff, Adriaan Mynhardt; Van Goethem, Bart; Cornelis, Ine; Combes, Anais; Dvm, Ingeborgh Polis; Gielen, Ingrid; Vandekerckhove, Peter; de Rooster, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    A 14 mo old female neutered Doberman pinscher was evaluated for difficulty in rising, a wide based stance, pelvic limb gait abnormalities, and cervical pain of 2 mo duration. Neurologic examination revealed pelvic limb ataxia and cervical spinal hyperesthesia. Spinal reflexes and cranial nerve examination were normal. The pathology was localized to the C1-C5 or C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Computed tomography (CT) findings indicated bony proliferation of the caudal articular processes of C6 and the cranial articular processes of C7, resulting in bilateral dorsolateral spinal cord compression that was more pronounced on the left side. A limited dorsal laminectomy was performed at C6-C7. Due to progressive neurological deterioration, follow-up CT examination was performed 4 days postoperatively. At the level of the laminectomy defect, a subfacial seroma had developed, entering the spinal canal and causing significant spinal cord compression. Under ultrasonographic guidance a closed-suction wound catheter was placed. Drainage of the seroma successfully relieved its compressive effects on the spinal cord and the patient's neurological status improved. CT was a valuable tool in assessing spinal cord compression as a result of a postoperative subfascial seroma. Minimally invasive application of a wound catheter can be successfully used to manage this condition.

  10. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Spinal Cord Schwannoma Presenting Findings Mimicking Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Yin-Xi; Zhang, Qing; Song, Shui-Jiang; Liu, Zhi-Rong

    2016-08-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) of spinal origin is uncommon in clinical practice, and spinal schwannomas associated with SAH are even more rarely reported. We report an unusual case of spinal SAH mimicking meningitis with normal brain computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and negative CT angiography. Cerebrospinal fluid examination results were consistent with the manifestation of SAH. Spinal MRI performed subsequently showed an intradural extramedullary mass. The patient received surgery and was finally diagnosed with spinal cord schwannoma. A retrospective chart review of the patient was performed. We describe a case of SAH due to spinal cord schwannoma. Our case highlights the importance of careful history taking and complete evaluation. We emphasize that spinal causes should always be ruled out in patients with angionegative SAH and that schwannoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of SAH etiologies even though rare. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Painful Spinal Tumors Adjacent to the Spinal Cord with Real-Time Monitoring of Spinal Canal Temperature: A Prospective Study

    SciT

    Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro, E-mail: nakatuka@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki

    2009-01-15

    PurposeTo prospectively evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical utility of bone radiofrequency (RF) ablation with real-time monitoring of the spinal canal temperature for the treatment of spinal tumors adjacent to the spinal cord.Materials and MethodsOur Institutional Review Board approved this study. Patients gave informed consent. The inclusion criteria were (a) a painful spinal metastasis and (b) a distance of 1 cm or less between the metastasis and the spinal cord. The thermocouple was placed in the spinal canal under CT fluoroscopic guidance. When the spinal canal temperature reached 45{sup o}C, RF application was immediately stopped. RF ablation was considered technicallymore » successful when the procedure was performed without major complications. Clinical success was defined as a fall in the visual analogue scale score of at least 2 points.ResultsTen patients with spinal tumors measuring 3-8 cm (mean, 4.9 {+-} 1.5 cm) were enrolled. The distance between the tumor and the spinal cord was 1-6 mm (mean, 2.4 {+-} 1.6 mm). All procedures were judged technically successful (100%). The spinal canal temperature did not exceed 45{sup o}C in 9 of the 10 patients (90%). In the remaining patient, the temperature rose to 48{sup o}C, resulting in transient neural damage, although RF application was immediately stopped when the temperature reached 45{sup o}C. Clinical success was achieved within 1 week in all patients (100%).ConclusionBone RF ablation with real-time monitoring of the spinal canal temperature is feasible, safe, and clinically useful for the treatment of painful spinal metastases adjacent to the spinal cord.« less

  12. Rugby union injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Cantu, Robert C; Chalmers, David J

    2002-01-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine are among the most serious injuries occurring as a result of participation in rugby. Outcomes of such injuries range from complete recovery to death, depending on the degree of spinal cord damage sustained. Much information has been gained regarding the mechanisms and frequency of such injuries, from case reports and case series studies. The most commonly reported mechanism of injury has been hyperflexion of the cervical spine, resulting in fracture dislocation of C4-C5 or C5-C6. Tracking both the trends of incidence of spinal injuries, and the effectiveness of injury prevention initiatives has proved difficult because of a lack of properly conducted epidemiological studies. Within the constraints of the research published to date, it appears that hookers and props have been at disproportionate risk of cervical spine injury, predominantly because of injuries sustained during scrummaging. While the scrum was the phase of play most commonly associated with spinal injuries throughout the 1980s in most rugby playing countries, there has been a trend through the 1990s of an increasing proportion of spinal injuries occurring in the tackle situation. The majority of injuries have occurred early in the season, when grounds tend to be harder, and players are lacking both practice and physical conditioning for the physical contact phases of the sport. A number of injury prevention measures have been launched, including changes to the laws of the game regarding scrummaging, and education programmes aimed at enforcing safe techniques and eliminating illegal play. Calls for case-registers and effective epidemiological studies have been made by researchers and physicians in most countries where rugby is widespread, but it appears to be only recently that definite steps have been made towards this goal. Well-designed epidemiological studies will be able to provide more accurate information about potential risk factors for injury such as age, grade

  13. An exploration of cognitive appraisals following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Sally; Kennedy, Paul

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the cognitive appraisals that people make following spinal cord injury (SCI) about their situation and their ability to cope with it. Appraisals are thought to be important in determining individual responses to different events and have been shown to predict psychological well-being following injury. A cross-sectional interview study was used. Ten individuals who had recently started rehabilitation at the National Spinal Injuries Centre following an SCI were interviewed. Eight men and two women with a variety of injury level and completeness participated. Interviews were semi-structured and aimed to elicit participants' appraisals of their experiences and their ability to cope. Interviews were analysed qualitatively using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four super-ordinate themes emerged from the interviews. These were making sense of a traumatic experience, impact of the SCI, coping and altered view of self and life. The interviews revealed that appraisals following SCI are complex and relate not only to the individual but also to their context, life stage, roles and relationships. The study adds to the theoretical understanding of the appraisal process following SCI. Ideas for further research are generated and clinical implications for improving patient experiences and developing appraisal-focused interventions are considered.

  14. Return to work after spinal cord injury in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, K; Chung, T Y; Hasnan, N; Abdullah, S J F

    2011-07-01

    Cross-sectional survey. To determine the employment outcomes of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to investigate the impact of various demographic, injury-related and work-related variables on these outcomes. People living with SCI in Malaysia who are members of a disability support organization. A total of 84 members of the Malaysian Spinal Injury Association, who have had traumatic SCI for at least 2 years and were between 15 and 64 years of age at the time of study, were interviewed through phone using a questionnaire to identify the association between demographic, injury-related and work-related variables and employment outcomes. The return to work rate in this study was 57.1% (employed at the time of study). The overall employment rate after SCI was 76.2% (worked at some point after injury). Those who were younger at time of injury (<20 years of age), able to drive a modified vehicle, independent in personal care and mobility were positively related to being employed. On the other hand, being hospitalized in the preceding 1 year and receiving financial incentives were negatively related to employment. Functional independence, especially ability to drive, was strongly associated with return to work and should be one of the priority goals of comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with SCI. The negative impact of recent hospitalization as well as financial compensation needs to be probed further.

  15. Carbachol excites sublaterodorsal nucleus neurons projecting to the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Weng, F J; Williams, R H; Hawryluk, J M; Lu, J; Scammell, T E; Saper, C B; Arrigoni, E

    2014-01-01

    Considerable electrophysiological and pharmacological evidence has long suggested an important role for acetylcholine in the regulation of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. For example, injection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the dorsomedial pons produces an REM sleep-like state with muscle atonia and cortical activation, both of which are cardinal features of REM sleep. Located within this region of the pons is the sublaterodorsal nucleus (SLD), a structure thought to be both necessary and sufficient for generating REM sleep muscle atonia. Subsets of glutamatergic SLD neurons potently contribute to motor inhibition during REM sleep through descending projections to motor-related glycinergic/GABAergic neurons in the spinal cord and ventromedial medulla. Prior electrophysiological and pharmacological studies examining the effects of acetylcholine on SLD neurons have, however, produced conflicting results. In the present study, we sought to clarify how acetylcholine influences the activity of spinally projecting SLD (SLDsp) neurons. We used retrograde tracing in combination with patch-clamp recordings and recorded pre-and postsynaptic effects of carbachol on SLDsp neurons. Carbachol acted presynaptically by increasing the frequency of glutamatergic miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. We also found that carbachol directly excited SLDsp neurons by activating an Na+–Ca2+ exchanger. Both pre-and postsynaptic effects were mediated by co-activation of M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors. These observations suggest that acetylcholine produces synergistic, excitatory pre-and postsynaptic responses on SLDsp neurons that, in turn, probably serve to promote muscle atonia during REM sleep. PMID:24344163

  16. Carbachol excites sublaterodorsal nucleus neurons projecting to the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Weng, F J; Williams, R H; Hawryluk, J M; Lu, J; Scammell, T E; Saper, C B; Arrigoni, E

    2014-04-01

    Considerable electrophysiological and pharmacological evidence has long suggested an important role for acetylcholine in the regulation of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. For example, injection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the dorsomedial pons produces an REM sleep-like state with muscle atonia and cortical activation, both of which are cardinal features of REM sleep. Located within this region of the pons is the sublaterodorsal nucleus (SLD), a structure thought to be both necessary and sufficient for generating REM sleep muscle atonia. Subsets of glutamatergic SLD neurons potently contribute to motor inhibition during REM sleep through descending projections to motor-related glycinergic/GABAergic neurons in the spinal cord and ventromedial medulla. Prior electrophysiological and pharmacological studies examining the effects of acetylcholine on SLD neurons have, however, produced conflicting results. In the present study, we sought to clarify how acetylcholine influences the activity of spinally projecting SLD (SLDsp) neurons. We used retrograde tracing in combination with patch-clamp recordings and recorded pre- and postsynaptic effects of carbachol on SLDsp neurons. Carbachol acted presynaptically by increasing the frequency of glutamatergic miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. We also found that carbachol directly excited SLDsp neurons by activating an Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger. Both pre- and postsynaptic effects were mediated by co-activation of M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors. These observations suggest that acetylcholine produces synergistic, excitatory pre- and postsynaptic responses on SLDsp neurons that, in turn, probably serve to promote muscle atonia during REM sleep.

  17. The action of chlorphenesin carbamate on the frog spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Aihara, H; Kurachi, M; Nakane, S; Sasajima, M; Ohzeki, M

    1980-02-01

    Studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanism of action of chlorphenesin carbamate (CPC) and to compare the effect of the drug with that of mephenesin on the isolated bullfrog spinal cord. Ventral and dorsal root potentials were recorded by means of the sucrose-gap method. CPC caused marked hyperpolarizations and depressed spontaneous activities in both of the primary afferent terminals (PAT) and motoneurons (MN). These hyperpolarizations were observed even in high-Mg2+ and Ca2+-free Ringer's solution, suggesting that CPC has direct actions on PAT and MN. Various reflex potentials (dorsal and ventral root potentials elicited by stimulating dorsal and ventral root, respectively) tended to be depressed by CPC as well as by mephenesin. Excitatory amino acids (L-aspartic acid and L-glutamic acid) caused marked depolarizations in PAT and MN, and increased the firing rate in MN. CPC did not modify the depolarization but abolished the motoneuron firing induced by these amino acids. However, mephenesin reduced both the depolarization and the motoneuron firing. The dorsal and ventral root potentials evoked by tetanic stimulation (40 Hz) of the dorsal root were depressed by the drugs. These results indicate that CPC has an apparent depressing action on the spinal neuron, and this action may be ascribed to the slight hyperpolarization and/or the prolongation of refractory period.

  18. Spinal Cord Infarction in Clinical Neurology: A Review of Characteristics and Long-Term Prognosis in Comparison to Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Romi, Fredrik; Naess, Halvor

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord stroke is rare accounting for 0.3-1% of all strokes and is classified into upper (cervical) and lower (thoracolumbar) strokes. Patients present with severe deficits but later often show good functional improvement. On admission, younger age, male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and elevated blood glucose indicate more severe spinal cord strokes. Treatment of these risk factors is essential in the acute phase. Biphasic spinal cord strokes are seen in one-fifth of the patients. These present with acute or transient sensory spinal cord deficits often preceded by radiating pain between the shoulders, and should be considered and treated as imminent spinal cord strokes. Spinal cord infarction patients are younger and more often women compared to cerebral infarction patients. Traditional cerebrovascular risk factors are less relevant in spinal cord infarction. Spinal cord infarction patients are more likely to be discharged home and show better improvement after initial treatment compared to cerebral infarction patients. On long-term follow-up, spinal cord infarction patients have lower mortality and higher emotional well-being scores than cerebral infarction patients. Despite more chronic pain, the frequency of re-employment is higher among spinal cord infarction patients compared to cerebral infarction patients who are more often afflicted with cognitive function deficits. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. 76 FR 56504 - Proposed Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA... satisfaction with VA rehabilitation and health care. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the...

  20. Low-Grade Inflammation and Spinal Cord Injury: Exercise as Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury. PMID:23533315

  1. How Do I Deal with Depression and Adjustment to My Spinal Cord Injury?

    ... helplessness and confusion is to arm yourself with information on what a spinal cord injury is, and ... Karp Resources If you are looking for more information on how to manage depression or have a ...

  2. U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  3. Clinical interpretation of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index (SCI-FI).

    PubMed

    Fyffe, Denise; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Slavin, Mary; Kisala, Pamela; Ni, Pengsheng; Kirshblum, Steven C; Tulsky, David S; Jette, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    To provide validation of functional ability levels for the Spinal Cord Injury - Functional Index (SCI-FI). Cross-sectional. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital and community settings. A sample of 855 individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury enrolled in 6 rehabilitation centers participating in the National Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems Network. Not Applicable. Spinal Cord Injury-Functional Index (SCI-FI). Cluster analyses identified three distinct groups that represent low, mid-range and high SCI-FI functional ability levels. Comparison of clusters on personal and other injury characteristics suggested some significant differences between groups. These results strongly support the use of SCI-FI functional ability levels to document the perceived functional abilities of persons with SCI. Results of the cluster analysis suggest that the SCI-FI functional ability levels capture function by injury characteristics. Clinical implications regarding tracking functional activity trajectories during follow-up visits are discussed.

  4. Effects of glycine on motor performance in rats after traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Piña, Rigoberto; Nuño-Licona, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that glycine improves some functions lost after spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to assess the effects of glycine administration on motor performance after SCI, we used fifteen male Wistar rats distributed into three groups: sham (n = 3), spinal-cord injury (n = 6,) and spinal cord injury + glycine (n = 6). Motor performance was assessed using the beam-walking paradigm and footprint analysis. Results showed that for all animals with spinal-cord injury, scores in the beam-walking increased, which is an indication of increased motor deficit. In addition, footprint analysis showed a decrease in stride length and an increase in stride angle, additional indicators of motor deficit. These effects trended towards recovery after 8 weeks of recording and trended toward improvement by glycine administration; the effect was not significant. These results suggest that glycine replacement alone is not sufficient to improve the motor deficits that occur after SCI.

  5. Anaplastic astrocytoma in the spinal cord of an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Gibson, C J; Parry, N M A; Jakowski, R M; Eshar, D

    2008-11-01

    A 2-year-old, female hedgehog presented with an 8-month history of progressive, ascending paresis/paralysis and was tentatively diagnosed with wobbly hedgehog syndrome. She died awaiting further diagnostic tests, and the owners consented to postmortem examination. Grossly, the bladder was large and flaccid and the cervical and lumbar spinal cord were regionally enlarged, light grey, and friable with multifocal hemorrhages. The thoracic spinal cord was grossly normal. Microscopically all regions of the spinal cord had similar changes, although the cervical and lumbar sections were most severely affected. These regions were completely effaced by a moderately cellular infiltration of highly pleomorphic polygonal to spindle shaped cells, mineralization, and necrosis, which were most consistent with anaplastic astrocytoma. The thoracic spinal cord white matter was similarly infiltrated by the neoplastic cells, with perivascular extension into the otherwise normal grey matter. A diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma was confirmed using immunohistochemical stains that were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100.

  6. Spinal cord lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Cano, F; Joseph, J T; Koralnik, I J

    2007-10-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a deadly demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. This disease is caused by a reactivation of the polyomavirus JC (JCV). Clinical presentation can be variable from patient to patient as lesions can occur anywhere in the CNS white matter; however, they appear to spare the optic nerves and the spinal cord. The authors present a case of PML in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who developed PML lesions in the spinal cord, discovered during the postmortem examination. This finding is significant because PML has recently been diagnosed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with the novel immunomodulatory medication natalizumab. Indeed, spinal cord lesions are frequent in MS. Therefore clinicians should be aware that in addition to the brain, PML may also affect the spinal cord white matter.

  7. Neurobiological Effects of Morphine after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Woller, Sarah A.; Bancroft, Eric; Aceves, Miriam; Funk, Mary Katherine; Hartman, John; Garraway, Sandra M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used commonly to manage pain in the early phase of spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite its analgesic efficacy, however, our studies suggest that intrathecal morphine undermines locomotor recovery and increases lesion size in a rodent model of SCI. Similarly, intravenous (IV) morphine attenuates locomotor recovery. The current study explores whether IV morphine also increases lesion size after a spinal contusion (T12) injury and quantifies the cell types that are affected by early opioid administration. Using an experimenter-administered escalating dose of IV morphine across the first seven days post-injury, we quantified the expression of neuron, astrocyte, and microglial markers at the injury site. SCI decreased NeuN expression relative to shams. In subjects with SCI treated with IV morphine, virtually no NeuN+ cells remained across the rostral-caudal extent of the lesion. Further, whereas SCI per se increased the expression of astrocyte and microglial markers (glial fibrillary acidic protein and OX-42, respectively), morphine treatment decreased the expression of these markers. These cellular changes were accompanied by attenuation of locomotor recovery (Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan scores), decreased weight gain, and the development of opioid-induced hyperalgesia (increased tactile reactivity) in morphine-treated subjects. These data suggest that morphine use is contraindicated in the acute phase of a spinal injury. Faced with a lifetime of intractable pain, however, simply removing any effective analgesic for the management of SCI pain is not an ideal option. Instead, these data underscore the critical need for further understanding of the molecular pathways engaged by conventional medications within the pathophysiological context of an injury. PMID:27762659

  8. Locomotor training improves premotoneuronal control after chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Knikou, Maria; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K

    2014-06-01

    Spinal inhibition is significantly reduced after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. In this work, we examined if locomotor training can improve spinal inhibition exerted at a presynaptic level. Sixteen people with chronic SCI received an average of 45 training sessions, 5 days/wk, 1 h/day. The soleus H-reflex depression in response to low-frequency stimulation, presynaptic inhibition of soleus Ia afferent terminals following stimulation of the common peroneal nerve, and bilateral EMG recovery patterns were assessed before and after locomotor training. The soleus H reflexes evoked at 1.0, 0.33, 0.20, 0.14, and 0.11 Hz were normalized to the H reflex evoked at 0.09 Hz. Conditioned H reflexes were normalized to the associated unconditioned H reflex evoked with subjects seated, while during stepping both H reflexes were normalized to the maximal M wave evoked after the test H reflex at each bin of the step cycle. Locomotor training potentiated homosynaptic depression in all participants regardless the type of the SCI. Presynaptic facilitation of soleus Ia afferents remained unaltered in motor complete SCI patients. In motor incomplete SCIs, locomotor training either reduced presynaptic facilitation or replaced presynaptic facilitation with presynaptic inhibition at rest. During stepping, presynaptic inhibition was modulated in a phase-dependent manner. Locomotor training changed the amplitude of locomotor EMG excitability, promoted intralimb and interlimb coordination, and altered cocontraction between knee and ankle antagonistic muscles differently in the more impaired leg compared with the less impaired leg. The results provide strong evidence that locomotor training improves premotoneuronal control after SCI in humans at rest and during walking. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Compressive mechanical characterization of non-human primate spinal cord white matter.

    PubMed

    Jannesar, Shervin; Allen, Mark; Mills, Sarah; Gibbons, Anne; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Salegio, Ernesto A; Sparrey, Carolyn J

    2018-05-02

    The goal of developing computational models of spinal cord injury (SCI) is to better understand the human injury condition. However, finite element models of human SCI have used rodent spinal cord tissue properties due to a lack of experimental data. Central nervous system tissues in non human primates (NHP) closely resemble that of humans and therefore, it is expected that material constitutive models obtained from NHPs will increase the fidelity and the accuracy of human SCI models. Human SCI most often results from compressive loading and spinal cord white matter properties affect FE predicted patterns of injury; therefore, the objectives of this study were to characterize the unconfined compressive response of NHP spinal cord white matter and present an experimentally derived, finite element tractable constitutive model for the tissue. Cervical spinal cords were harvested from nine male adult NHPs (Macaca mulatta). White matter biopsy samples (3 mm in diameter) were taken from both lateral columns of the spinal cord and were divided into four strain rate groups for unconfined dynamic compression and stress relaxation (post-mortem <1-hour). The NHP spinal cord white matter compressive response was sensitive to strain rate and showed substantial stress relaxation confirming the viscoelastic behavior of the material. An Ogden 1st order model best captured the non-linear behavior of NHP white matter in a quasi-linear viscoelastic material model with 4-term Prony series. This study is the first to characterize NHP spinal cord white matter at high (>10/sec) strain rates typical of traumatic injury. The finite element derived material constitutive model of this study will increase the fidelity of SCI computational models and provide important insights for transferring pre-clinical findings to clinical treatments. Spinal cord injury (SCI) finite element (FE) models provide an important tool to bridge the gap between animal studies and human injury, assess injury

  10. Developing a data sharing community for spinal cord injury research.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Alison; Anderson, Kim D; Beattie, Michael S; Bixby, John L; Ferguson, Adam R; Fouad, Karim; Jakeman, Lyn B; Nielson, Jessica L; Popovich, Phillip G; Schwab, Jan M; Lemmon, Vance P

    2017-09-01

    The rapid growth in data sharing presents new opportunities across the spectrum of biomedical research. Global efforts are underway to develop practical guidance for implementation of data sharing and open data resources. These include the recent recommendation of 'FAIR Data Principles', which assert that if data is to have broad scientific value, then digital representations of that data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (FAIR). The spinal cord injury (SCI) research field has a long history of collaborative initiatives that include sharing of preclinical research models and outcome measures. In addition, new tools and resources are being developed by the SCI research community to enhance opportunities for data sharing and access. With this in mind, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) hosted a workshop on October 5-6, 2016 in Bethesda, MD, in collaboration with the Open Data Commons for Spinal Cord Injury (ODC-SCI) titled "Preclinical SCI Data: Creating a FAIR Share Community". Workshop invitees were nominated by the workshop steering committee (co-chairs: ARF and VPL; members: AC, KDA, MSB, KF, LBJ, PGP, JMS), to bring together junior and senior level experts including preclinical and basic SCI researchers from academia and industry, data science and bioinformatics experts, investigators with expertise in other neurological disease fields, clinical researchers, members of the SCI community, and program staff representing federal and private funding agencies. The workshop and ODC-SCI efforts were sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust (ISRT), the Rick Hansen Institute, Wings for Life, the Craig H. Neilsen Foundation and NINDS. The number of attendees was limited to ensure active participation and feedback in small groups. The goals were to examine the current landscape for data sharing in SCI research and provide a path to its future. Below are

  11. Differences in Affect, Life Satisfaction, and Depression between Successfully and Unsuccessfully Rehabilitated Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Martha H.; Holbert, Donald

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether persons with spinal cord injuries who were successfully rehabilitated differed from those who were not with regard to positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and depression. An ex post facto research design compared persons with spinal cord injuries who were previously employed with persons with spinal cord…

  12. Current pregnancy among women with spinal cord injury: findings from the US national spinal cord injury database.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, L I; Chen, Y; McLain, A B J

    2015-11-01

    Cross-sectional study. To examine the prevalence of pregnancy and associations with sociodemographic and clinical factors among women with spinal cord injury (SCI). US National Spinal Cord Injury Database, an SCI registry that interviews participants 1, 5 and then every 5 years post injury. Data include SCI clinical details, functional impairments, participation measures, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Women aged 18-49 are asked about hospitalizations in the last year relating to pregnancy or its complications. Data represent 1907 women, who completed 3054 interviews. We used generalized estimating equations to examine bivariable associations between pregnancy and clinical and psychosocial variables and to perform multivariable regressions predicting pregnancy. Across all women, 2.0% reported pregnancy during the prior 12 months. This annual prevalence differed significantly by the years elapsed since injury; the highest rate occurred 15 years post injury (3.7%). Bivariable analyses found that younger age at injury was significantly associated with current pregnancy (P<0.0001). Compared with nonpregnant women, those reporting current pregnancy were significantly more likely to be married or partnered, have sport-related SCI, have higher motor scores and have more positive psychosocial status scores. Multivariable analyses found significant associations between current pregnancy and age, marital status, motor score and mobility and occupation scale scores. Current pregnancy rates among reproductive-aged women with SCI are similar to rates of other US women with chronic mobility impairments. More information is needed about pregnancy experiences and outcomes to inform both women with SCI seeking childbearing and clinicians providing their care.

  13. Current Pregnancy Among Women with Spinal Cord Injury: Findings from the U.S. National Spinal Cord Injury Database

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, Lisa I.; Chen, Yuying; McLain, Aime B. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Study design Cross-sectional study Objective To examine prevalence of pregnancy and associations with sociodemographic and clinical factors among women with spinal cord injury (SCI) Setting U.S. National Spinal Cord Injury Database, an SCI registry that interviews participants 1, 5, and then every 5 years post-injury. Data include SCI clinical details, functional impairments, participation measures, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. Women ages 18-49 are asked about hospitalizations in the last year relating to pregnancy or its complications. Data represent 1,907 women, who completed 3,054 interviews. Methods We used generalized estimating equations to examine bivariable associations between pregnancy and clinical and psychosocial variables and to perform multivariable regressions predicting pregnancy. Results Across all women, 2.0% reported pregnancy during the prior 12 months. This annual prevalence differed significantly by years elapsed since injury; the highest rate occurred 15 years post-injury (3.7%). Bivariable analyses found that younger age at injury was significantly associated with current pregnancy (P < 0.0001). Compared with nonpregnant women, those reporting current pregancy were significantly more likely to be married or partnered, have sport-related SCI, have higher motor scores, and have more positive psychosocial status scores. Multivariable analyses found significant associations between current pregnancy and age, marital status, motor score, and mobility and occupation scale scores. Conclusions Current pregnancy rates among reproductive-aged women with SCI are similar to rates of other U.S. women with chronic mobility impairments. More information is needed about pregnancy experiences and outcomes to inform both women with SCI seeking childbearing and clinicians providing their care. PMID:25987000

  14. Fluoxetine and vitamin C synergistically inhibits blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Y; Choi, Hae Y; Yune, Tae Y

    2016-10-01

    Recently we reported that fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) improves functional recovery by attenuating blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we investigated whether a low-dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and vitamin C (100 mg/kg), separately not possessing any protective effect, prevents BSCB disruption and improves functional recovery when combined. After a moderate contusion injury at T9 in rat, a low-dose of fluoxetine and vitamin C, or the combination of both was administered intraperitoneally immediately after SCI and further treated once a day for 14 d. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C significantly attenuated BSCB permeability at 1 d after SCI. When only fluoxetine or vitamin C was treated after injury, however, there was no effect on BSCB disruption. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C also significantly inhibited the expression and activation of MMP-9 at 8 h and 1 d after injury, respectively, and the infiltration of neutrophils (at 1 d) and macrophages (at 5 d) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (at 2 h, 6 h, 8 h or 24 h after injury) were significantly inhibited by co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C. Furthermore, the combination of fluoxetine and vitamin C attenuated apoptotic cell death at 1 d and 5 d and improved locomotor function at 5 weeks after SCI. These results demonstrate the synergistic effect combination of low-dose fluoxetine and vitamin C on BSCB disruption after SCI and furthermore support the effectiveness of the combination treatment regimen for the management of acute SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Secondary damage in the spinal cord after motor cortex injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Weishaupt, Nina; Silasi, Gergely; Colbourne, Frederick; Fouad, Karim

    2010-08-01

    When neurons within the motor cortex are fatally injured, their axons, many of which project into the spinal cord, undergo wallerian degeneration. Pathological processes occurring downstream of the cortical damage have not been extensively studied. We created a focal forelimb motor cortex injury in rats and found that axons from cell bodies located in the hindlimb motor cortex (spared by the cortical injury) become secondarily damaged in the spinal cord. To assess axonal degeneration in the spinal cord, we quantified silver staining in the corticospinal tract (CST) at 1 week and 4 weeks after the injury. We found a significant increase in silver deposition at the thoracic spinal cord level at 4 weeks compared to 1 week post-injury. At both time points, no degenerating neurons could be found in the hindlimb motor cortex. In a separate experiment, we showed that direct injury of neurons within the hindlimb motor cortex caused marked silver deposition in the thoracic CST at 1 week post-injury, and declined thereafter. Therefore, delayed axonal degeneration in the thoracic spinal cord after a focal forelimb motor cortex injury is indicative of secondary damage at the spinal cord level. Furthermore, immunolabeling of spinal cord sections showed that a local inflammatory response dominated by partially activated Iba-1-positive microglia is mounted in the CST, a viable mechanism to cause the observed secondary degeneration of fibers. In conclusion, we demonstrate that following motor cortex injury, wallerian degeneration of axons in the spinal cord leads to secondary damage, which is likely mediated by inflammatory processes.

  16. Effects of Enhanced Oxygen Delivery by Perfluorocarbons in Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    been established, linking post- traumatic ischemia to axonal dysfunction.8 Decreased oxygen level in severe traumatic injuries appears to be implicated...rodent weight drop traumatic spinal cord injury model; ( 2 ) determine if enhanced oxygen delivery in spinal cord injury spares cellular elements, white...shown that ischemia /hypoxia play crucial role in the devastating effects of the secondary injury following SCI which translates into worse neurological

  17. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (p<0.05). Catalase and superoxide dismutase levels of the kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (p<0.05). In histopathological samples, the kefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (p<0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, hipoxia-inducible factor-1α and caspase 3 immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in kefir group compared with ischemia group (p<0.05). The neurological deficit scores of kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study revealed that kefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future. PMID:26113960

  18. The Process of Adjustment among Caregivers of Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Paralyzed Veterans of America Summit highlighting caregiver quality of life and social support. 10 What was the...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0621 TITLE: The Process of Adjustment among Caregivers of Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Study...among Caregivers of Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Study 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0621 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  19. Regeneration of Xenopus laevis spinal cord requires Sox2/3 expressing cells

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Rosana; Edwards-Faret, Gabriela; Moreno, Mauricio; Zuñiga, Nikole; Cline, Hollis; Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord regeneration is very inefficient in humans, causing paraplegia and quadriplegia. Studying model organisms that can regenerate the spinal cord in response to injury could be useful for understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain why this process fails in humans. Here, we use Xenopus laevis as a model organism to study spinal cord repair. Histological and functional analyses showed that larvae at pre-metamorphic stages restore anatomical continuity of the spinal cord and recover swimming after complete spinal cord transection. These regenerative capabilities decrease with onset of metamorphosis. The ability to study regenerative and non-regenerative stages in Xenopus laevis makes it a unique model system to study regeneration. We studied the response of Sox2/3 expressing cells to spinal cord injury and their function in the regenerative process. We found that cells expressing Sox2 and/or Sox3 are present in the ventricular zone of regenerative animals and decrease in non-regenerative froglets. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) experiments and in vivo time-lapse imaging studies using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Sox3 promoter showed a rapid, transient and massive proliferation of Sox2/3+ cells in response to injury in the regenerative stages. The in vivo imaging also demonstrated that Sox2/3+ neural progenitor cells generate neurons in response to injury. In contrast, these cells showed a delayed and very limited response in non-regenerative froglets. Sox2 knockdown and overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 disrupts locomotor and anatomical-histological recovery. We also found that neurogenesis markers increase in response to injury in regenerative but not in non-regenerative animals. We conclude that Sox2 is necessary for spinal cord regeneration and suggest a model whereby spinal cord injury activates proliferation of Sox2/3 expressing cells and their differentiation into neurons, a mechanism that is

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy Improves Lower Limb Movement After Spinal Cord Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shinya; Nakagawa, Kei; Tomiyasu, Mayumi; Nakashima, Ayumu; Katayama, Keijiro; Imura, Takeshi; Herlambang, Bagus; Okubo, Tomoe; Arihiro, Koji; Kawahara, Yumi; Yuge, Louis; Sueda, Taijiro

    2018-05-01

    Spinal cord ischemia is a devastating complication after thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic operations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have regenerative capability and exert paracrine actions on damaged tissues, injected into rat models of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and MSC groups. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in the latter two groups by balloon occlusion of the thoracic aorta. MSCs and PBS were then immediately injected into the left carotid artery of the MSC and PBS groups, respectively. Hindlimb motor function was evaluated at 6 and 24 hours. The spinal cord was removed at 24 hours after ischemia-reperfusion injury, and histologic and immunohistochemical analyses and real-time polymerase chain reaction assessments were performed. Rats in the MSC and PBS groups showed flaccid paraparesis/paraplegia postoperatively. Hindlimb function was significantly better at 6 and 24 hours after ischemia-reperfusion injury in the MSC group than in the PBS group (p < 0.05). The number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive neuron cells in the spinal cord and the ratio of Bax to Bcl2 were significantly larger (p < 0.05) in the PBS group than in the MSC group. The injected MSCs were observed in the spinal cord 24 hours after ischemia-reperfusion injury. The MSC therapy by transarterial injection immediately after spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury may improve lower limb function by preventing apoptosis of neuron cells in the spinal cord. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited higher motor score after cryogenic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkoski, Marcelo; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira; Del-Bel, Elaine

    2012-04-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, has been reported to induce neuroprotective effects in several experimental models of brain injury. We aimed at investigating whether this drug could also improve locomotor recovery of rats submitted to spinal cord cryoinjury. Rats were distributed into five experimental groups. Animals were submitted to laminectomy in vertebral segment T10 followed or not by application of liquid nitrogen for 5 s into the spinal cord at the same level to cause cryoinjury. The animals received injections of vehicle or CBD (20 mg/kg) immediately before, 3 h after and daily for 6 days after surgery. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan motor evaluation test was used to assess motor function post-lesion one day before surgery and on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. The extent of injury was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin histology and FosB expression. Cryogenic lesion of the spinal cord resulted in a significant motor deficit. Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited a higher Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor score at the end of the first week after spinal cord injury: lesion + vehicle, day 1: zero, day 7: four, and lesion + Cannabidiol 20 mg/kg, day 1: zero, day 7: seven. Moreover, at this moment there was a significant reduction in the extent of tissue injury and FosB expression in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The present study confirmed that application of liquid nitrogen to the spinal cord induces reproducible and quantifiable spinal cord injury associated with locomotor function impairments. Cannabidiol improved locomotor functional recovery and reduced injury extent, suggesting that it could be useful in the treatment of spinal cord lesions.

  2. Overcoming the Practical Barriers to Spinal Cord Cell Transplantation for ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT: This grant will provide critical data on tolerance and toxicity of cell dosing and numbers of permissible spinal cord injections. Rigorous...Surgical Technique) will provide critical data on tolerance and toxicity of cell dosing and numbers of permissible spinal cord injections. Aim 2 (Graft...connected to a rigid needle of the same gauge as the floating cannula one – Figure 7) using the maximum volume/number of injections could result in

  3. Targeting L-Selectin to Improve Neurologic and Urologic Function After Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    demonstrated locomotor recovery in mice receiving 40mg/kg DFA up to 3 hours following spinal cord injury -We demonstrated improved locomotor recovery...health, as evaluated by body weight -We identified no added locomotor recovery due to multiple, successive doses of DFA. Moreover, additional doses...bladder function Significance: We have identified robust locomotor recovery in both mild and severe spinal cord injured mice that received DFA up

  4. Retained differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle satellite cells from spinal cord-injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Savikj, Mladen; Ruby, Maxwell A; Kostovski, Emil; Iversen, Per O; Zierath, Juleen R; Krook, Anna; Widegren, Ulrika

    2018-06-01

    Despite the well-known role of satellite cells in skeletal muscle plasticity, the effect of spinal cord injury on their function in humans remains unknown. We determined whether spinal cord injury affects the intrinsic ability of satellite cells to differentiate and produce metabolically healthy myotubes. We obtained vastus lateralis biopsies from eight spinal cord-injured and six able-bodied individuals. Satellite cells were isolated, grown and differentiated in vitro. Gene expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Abundance of differentiation markers and regulatory proteins was determined by Western blotting. Protein synthesis and fatty acid oxidation were measured by radioactive tracer-based assays. Activated satellite cells (myoblasts) and differentiated myotubes derived from skeletal muscle of able-bodied and spinal cord-injured individuals expressed similar (P > 0.05) mRNA levels of myogenic regulatory factors. Myogenic differentiation factor 1 expression was higher in myoblasts from spinal cord-injured individuals. Desmin and myogenin protein content was increased upon differentiation in both groups, while myotubes from spinal cord-injured individuals contained more type I and II myosin heavy chain. Phosphorylated and total protein levels of Akt-mechanistic target of rapamycin and forkhead box protein O signalling axes and protein synthesis rate in myotubes were similar (P > 0.05) between groups. Additionally, fatty acid oxidation of myotubes from spinal cord-injured individuals was unchanged (P > 0.05) compared to able-bodied controls. Our results indicate that the intrinsic differentiation capacity of satellite cells and metabolic characteristics of myotubes are preserved following spinal cord injury. This may inform potential interventions targeting satellite cell activation to alleviate skeletal muscle atrophy. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  5. Spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome enhances infection susceptibility dependent on lesion level

    PubMed Central

    Brommer, Benedikt; Engel, Odilo; Kopp, Marcel A.; Watzlawick, Ralf; Müller, Susanne; Prüss, Harald; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J.; Finkenstaedt, Felix W.; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Liebscher, Thomas; Meisel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death after acute spinal cord injury and is associated with poor neurological outcome. In contrast to the current understanding, attributing enhanced infection susceptibility solely to the patient’s environment and motor dysfunction, we investigate whether a secondary functional neurogenic immune deficiency (spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome, SCI-IDS) may account for the enhanced infection susceptibility. We applied a clinically relevant model of experimental induced pneumonia to investigate whether the systemic SCI-IDS is functional sufficient to cause pneumonia dependent on spinal cord injury lesion level and investigated whether findings are mirrored in a large prospective cohort study after human spinal cord injury. In a mouse model of inducible pneumonia, high thoracic lesions that interrupt sympathetic innervation to major immune organs, but not low thoracic lesions, significantly increased bacterial load in lungs. The ability to clear the bacterial load from the lung remained preserved in sham animals. Propagated immune susceptibility depended on injury of central pre-ganglionic but not peripheral postganglionic sympathetic innervation to the spleen. Thoracic spinal cord injury level was confirmed as an independent increased risk factor of pneumonia in patients after motor complete spinal cord injury (odds ratio = 1.35, P < 0.001) independently from mechanical ventilation and preserved sensory function by multiple regression analysis. We present evidence that spinal cord injury directly causes increased risk for bacterial infection in mice as well as in patients. Besides obvious motor and sensory paralysis, spinal cord injury also induces a functional SCI-IDS (‘immune paralysis’), sufficient to propagate clinically relevant infection in an injury level dependent manner. PMID:26754788

  6. Neuroprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Emre Cemal; Kahveci, Ramazan; Atanur, Osman Malik; Gürer, Bora; Aksoy, Nurkan; Gokce, Aysun; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Cemil, Berker; Erdogan, Bulent; Kahveci, Ozan

    2015-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a mushroom belonging to the polyporaceae family of Basidiomycota and has widely been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. G. lucidum has never been studied in traumatic spinal cord injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) can protect the spinal cord after experimental spinal cord injury. Rats were randomized into five groups of eight animals each: control, sham, trauma, GLPS, and methylprednisolone. In the control group, no surgical intervention was performed. In the sham group, only a laminectomy was performed. In all the other groups, the spinal cord trauma model was created by the occlusion of the spinal cord with an aneurysm clip. In the spinal cord tissue, caspase-3 activity, tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, nitric oxide levels, and superoxide dismutase levels were analysed. Histopathological and ultrastructural evaluations were also performed. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined-plane test. After traumatic spinal cord injury, increases in caspase-3 activity, tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide levels were detected. After the administration of GLPS, decreases were observed in tissue caspase-3 activity, tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, GLPS treatment showed improved results in histopathological scores, ultrastructural scores, and functional tests. Biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural analyses and functional tests reveal that GLPS exhibits meaningful neuroprotective effects against spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (p<0.05). Catalase and superoxide dismutase levels of the kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (p<0.05). In histopathological samples, the kefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (p<0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, hipoxia-inducible factor-1α and caspase 3 immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in kefir group compared with ischemia group (p<0.05). The neurological deficit scores of kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (p<0.05). Our study revealed that kefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future.

  8. Chronic spinal cord injury in the cervical spine of a young soccer player.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoshihiko; Koga, Michiaki; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2010-05-12

    A 17-year-old male soccer player presented with numbness in the upper- and lower-left extremities of 6 months' duration. He had no apparent history of trauma but experienced neck pain during heading of the ball 5 years prior. A high-signal intensity area was seen on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine. No muscle weakness was observed. Hypoesthesia was observed in bilateral forearms, hands, and extremities below the inguinal region. Plain radiographs in the neutral position showed local kyphosis at C3/4. A small protrusion of the C3/4 disk was observed on T1-weighted MRI. A high-signal area in the spinal cord at the C3/4 level was observed on T2-weighted MRI, but this was not enhanced by gadolinium. Multiple sclerosis, intramedullary spinal cord tumor, sarcoidosis and malignant lymphoma, and spinal cord injury were all considered in the differential diagnosis. However, in view of the clinical, laboratory, and radiological investigations, we concluded that repeated impacts to the neck caused by heading of the ball during soccer induced a chronic, minor spinal cord injury. This contributed to the high-signal intensity change of the spinal cord in T2-weighted MRI. The present case demonstrates that repeated impact may cause chronic spinal cord injury. Soccer, American football, or rugby players presenting with neck or extremity symptoms should not be overlooked for the possibility of latent spinal cord injury, as this could present later development of more severe or unrecoverable spinal cord injuries. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Effects of spinal cord stimulation in angina pectoris induced by pacing and possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed Central

    Mannheimer, C; Eliasson, T; Andersson, B; Bergh, C H; Augustinsson, L E; Emanuelsson, H; Waagstein, F

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects of spinal cord stimulation on myocardial ischaemia, coronary blood flow, and myocardial oxygen consumption in angina pectoris induced by atrial pacing. DESIGN--The heart was paced to angina during a control phase and treatment with spinal cord stimulation. Blood samples were drawn from a peripheral artery and the coronary sinus. SETTING--Multidisciplinary pain centre, department of medicine, Ostra Hospital, and Wallenberg Research Laboratory, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. SUBJECTS--Twenty patients with intractable angina pectoris, all with a spinal cord stimulator implanted before the study. RESULTS--Spinal cord stimulation increased patients' tolerance to pacing (p < 0.001). At the pacing rate comparable to that producing angina during the control recording, myocardial lactate production during control session turned into extraction (p = 0.003) and, on the electrocardiogram, ST segment depression decreased, time to ST depression increased, and time to recovery from ST depression decreased (p = 0.01; p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). Spinal cord stimulation also reduced coronary sinus blood flow (p = 0.01) and myocardial oxygen consumption (p = 0.02). At the maximum pacing rate during treatment, all patients experienced anginal pain. Myocardial lactate extraction reverted to production (p < 0.01) and the magnitude and duration of ST segment depression increased to the same values as during control pacing, indicating that myocardial ischaemia during treatment with spinal cord stimulation gives rise to anginal pain. CONCLUSIONS--Spinal cord stimulation has an anti-anginal and anti-ischaemic effect in severe coronary artery disease. These effects seem to be secondary to a decrease in myocardial oxygen consumption. Furthermore, myocardial ischemia during treatment gives rise to anginal pain. Thus, spinal cord stimulation does not deprive the patient of a warning signal. PMID:8400930

  10. Development of an Animal Model of Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture-Induced Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for...MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12...subjected to spinal cord impact with a custom-made controlled spinal cord impactor and balloon compression. Neurological function was assessed for

  11. Chronic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury: The Role of Immunogenetics and Time of Injury Pain Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    collection in underway. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal Cord Injury, Immunogenetics, Chronic pain, Opioids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...prototypic opioid , morphine, is capable of TLR4-mediated proinflammation6-8 . As such, exposure to morphine at the time of injury may result in...fashion to the spinal cord injury and/or to experience inflammation in response to opioid exposure. Critically, this genetic variability may

  12. Chronic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury: The Role of Immunogenetics and Time of Injury Pain Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    collection in underway. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal Cord Injury, Immunogenetics, Chronic pain, Opioids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...The prototypic opioid , morphine, is capable of TLR4-mediated proinflammation6-8. As such, exposure to morphine at the time of injury may result in...proinflammatory fashion to the spinal cord injury, and/or to experience inflammation in response to opioid exposure. Critically, this genetic variability

  13. Comparison of sprotte and Quincke needles with respect to spinal fluid leakage using artificial spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Amaki, Yoshikiyo; Moriyama, Michihiko; Kuzuta, Toshimichi; Yabe, Keiko; Kaneko, Misato

    1997-12-01

    This research investigated whether the Sprotte needle causes less leakage of CSF than the Quincke needle in the artificial spinal cord. The changes in intradural pressure, extradural pressure, and leaked volume of CSF were evaluated following puncture with Sprotte and Quincke needles in the artificial spinal cord. The decrease in intradural pressure was 9.7±1.8 mm H 2 O with the Sprotte needle and 20.5±2.7 mm H 2 O with the Quincke needle (P<0.05). The volume of leakage of artificial CSF was 2.0±0.3 ml with the Sprotte needle and 3.3 ±0.3 ml with the Quincke needle (P<0.01). The extradural pressure increase was 166.1±8.2 mm H 2 O with the Sprotte needle and 186.8±13.2 mm H 2 O with the Quincke needle (P<0.05). The Sprotte needle produces less CSF leakage than the Quincke needle.

  14. Design and testing of a controlled electromagnetic spinal cord impactor for use in large animal models of acute traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Petteys, Rory J; Spitz, Steven M; Syed, Hasan; Rice, R Andrew; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Goodwin, C Rory; Sciubba, Daniel M; Freedman, Brett A

    2017-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes debilitating neurological dysfunction and has been observed in warfighters injured in IED blasts. Clinical benefit of SCI treatment remains elusive and better large animal models are needed to assess treatment options. Here, we describe a controlled electromagnetic spinal cord impactor for use in large animal models of SCI. A custom spinal cord impactor and platform were fabricated for large animals (e.g., pig, sheep, dog, etc.). Impacts were generated by a voice coil actuator; force and displacement were measured with a load cell and potentiometer respectively. Labview (National Instruments, Austin, TX) software was used to control the impact cycle and import force and displacement data. Software finite impulse response (FIR) filtering was employed for all input data. Silicon tubing was used a surrogate for spinal cord in order to test the device; repeated impacts were performed at 15, 25, and 40 Newtons. Repeated impacts demonstrated predictable results at each target force. The average duration of impact was 71.2 ±6.1ms. At a target force of 40N, the output force was 41.5 ±0.7N. With a target of 25N, the output force was 23.5 ±0.6N; a target of 15Newtons revealed an output force of 15.2 ±1.4N. The calculated acceleration range was 12.5-21.2m/s 2 . This custom spinal cord impactor reliably delivers precise impacts to the spinal cord and will be utilized in future research to study acute traumatic SCI in a large animal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Reduction of microhemorrhages in the spinal cord of symptomatic ALS mice after intravenous human bone marrow stem cell transplantation accompanies repair of the blood-spinal cord barrier.

    PubMed

    Eve, David J; Steiner, George; Mahendrasah, Ajay; Sanberg, Paul R; Kurien, Crupa; Thomson, Avery; Borlongan, Cesar V; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana

    2018-02-13

    Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) alterations, including capillary rupture, have been demonstrated in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS patients. To date, treatment to restore BSCB in ALS is underexplored. Here, we evaluated whether intravenous transplantation of human bone marrow CD34 + (hBM34 + ) cells into symptomatic ALS mice leads to restoration of capillary integrity in the spinal cord as determined by detection of microhemorrhages. Three different doses of hBM34 + cells (5 × 10 4 , 5 × 10 5 or 1 × 10 6 ) or media were intravenously injected into symptomatic G93A SOD1 mice at 13 weeks of age. Microhemorrhages were determined in the cervical and lumbar spinal cords of mice at 4 weeks post-treatment, as revealed by Perls' Prussian blue staining for ferric iron. Numerous microhemorrhages were observed in the gray and white matter of the spinal cords in media-treated mice, with a greater number of capillary ruptures within the ventral horn of both segments. In cell-treated mice, microhemorrhage numbers in the cervical and lumbar spinal cords were inversely related to administered cell doses. In particular, the pervasive microvascular ruptures determined in the spinal cords in late symptomatic ALS mice were significantly decreased by the highest cell dose, suggestive of BSCB repair by grafted hBM34 + cells. The study results provide translational outcomes supporting transplantation of hBM34 + cells at an optimal dose as a potential therapeutic strategy for BSCB repair in ALS patients.

  16. Acquisition of Involuntary Spinal Locomotion (Spinal Walking) in Dogs with Irreversible Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Lesion: 81 Dogs.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, A; Dragone, L; Menchetti, M; Gagliardo, T; Pietra, M; Cardinali, M; Gandini, G

    2017-03-01

    Spinal walking (SW) is described as the acquisition of an involuntary motor function in paraplegic dogs and cats without pain perception affected by a thoracolumbar lesion. Whereas spinal locomotion is well described in cats that underwent training trials after experimental spinal cord resection, less consistent information is available for dogs. Paraplegic dogs affected by a thoracolumbar complete spinal cord lesion undergoing intensive physical rehabilitation could acquire an autonomous SW gait under field conditions. Eighty-one acute paraplegic thoracolumbar dogs without pelvic limb pain perception. Retrospective study of medical records of dogs selected for intensive rehabilitation treatment in paraplegic dogs with absence of pain perception on admission and during the whole treatment. Binary regression and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze potential associations with the development of SW. Autonomous SW was achieved in 48 dogs (59%). Median time to achieve SW was of 75.5 days (range: 16-350 days). On univariate analysis, SW gait was associated with younger age (P = .002) and early start of physiotherapy (P = .024). Multivariate logistic regression showed that younger age (≤60 months) and lightweight (≤7.8 kg) were positively associated with development of SW (P = .012 and P < .001, respectively). BCS, full-time hospitalization, and type and site of the lesion were not significantly associated with development of SW. Dogs with irreversible thoracolumbar lesion undergoing intensive physiotherapic treatment can acquire SW. Younger age and lightweight are positively associated with the development of SW gait. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Spinal Interneurons and Forelimb Plasticity after Incomplete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rombola, Angela M.; Rousseau, Celeste A.; Mercier, Lynne M.; Fitzpatrick, Garrett M.; Reier, Paul J.; Fuller, David D.; Lane, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) disrupts bulbospinal projections to motoneurons controlling the upper limbs, resulting in significant functional impairments. Ongoing clinical and experimental research has revealed several lines of evidence for functional neuroplasticity and recovery of upper extremity function after SCI. The underlying neural substrates, however, have not been thoroughly characterized. The goals of the present study were to map the intraspinal motor circuitry associated with a defined upper extremity muscle, and evaluate chronic changes in the distribution of this circuit following incomplete cSCI. Injured animals received a high cervical (C2) lateral hemisection (Hx), which compromises supraspinal input to ipsilateral spinal motoneurons controlling the upper extremities (forelimb) in the adult rat. A battery of behavioral tests was used to characterize the time course and extent of forelimb motor recovery over a 16 week period post-injury. A retrograde transneuronal tracer – pseudorabies virus – was used to define the motor and pre-motor circuitry controlling the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) muscle in spinal intact and injured animals. In the spinal intact rat, labeling was observed unilaterally within the ECRL motoneuron pool and within spinal interneurons bilaterally distributed within the dorsal horn and intermediate gray matter. No changes in labeling were observed 16 weeks post-injury, despite a moderate degree of recovery of forelimb motor function. These results suggest that recovery of the forelimb function assessed following C2Hx injury does not involve recruitment of new interneurons into the ipsilateral ECRL motor pathway. However, the functional significance of these existing interneurons to motor recovery requires further exploration. PMID:25625912

  18. Monitoring somatosensory evoked potentials in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yiming; Meng, Bin; Yuan, Chenxi; Yang, Huilin; Zou, Jun

    2013-01-01

    It remains unclear whether spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury caused by ischemia and other non-mechanical factors can be monitored by somatosensory evoked potentials. Therefore, we monitored spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits using somatosensory evoked potential detection technology. The results showed that the somatosensory evoked potential latency was significantly prolonged and the amplitude significantly reduced until it disappeared during the period of spinal cord ischemia. After reperfusion for 30–180 minutes, the amplitude and latency began to gradually recover; at 360 minutes of reperfusion, the latency showed no significant difference compared with the pre-ischemic value, while the somatosensory evoked potential amplitude in-creased, and severe hindlimb motor dysfunctions were detected. Experimental findings suggest that changes in somatosensory evoked potential latency can reflect the degree of spinal cord ischemic injury, while the amplitude variations are indicators of the late spinal cord reperfusion injury, which provide evidence for the assessment of limb motor function and avoid iatrogenic spinal cord injury. PMID:25206629

  19. Effects of wheelchair propulsion on neuropathic pain and resting electroencephalography after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Sato, Gosuke; Osumi, Michihiro; Morioka, Shu

    2017-01-31

    To investigate the effects of wheelchair propulsion on neuropathic pain and to examine resting electroencephalography pre- and post-wheelchair propulsion after spinal cord injury. Cross-sectional study. Eleven individuals with spinal cord injury and pain and 10 healthy controls. Single-session 15-min wheelchair propulsion and measurement of resting electroence-phalography. Effects of wheelchair propulsion were investigated using numerical rating scale (NRS) for neuropathic pain and short-form Profile of Mood States-Brief for mood. Peak alpha frequency on electroencephalography was calculated in 4 regions of interest; frontal, central, parietal and occipital areas. These outcomes were compared between pre- and post-wheelchair propulsion. Ten participants with spinal cord injury and all healthy controls completed the wheelchair propulsion exercise. NRS scores and negative mood were significantly improved following the wheelchair propulsion exercise. Pre-wheelchair propulsion, parietal and occipital peak alpha frequencies were significantly lower in the spinal cord injury group compared with the healthy controls group. Post-wheelchair propulsion, central peak alpha frequency increased in the spinal cord injury group. Wheelchair propulsion exercise temporarily decreased neuropathic pain intensity, improved negative mood, and modified alpha activity in spinal cord injury.

  20. Exploration of Spinal Cord Aging-Related Proteins Using a Proteomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koshiro; Furuya, Takeo; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Mannoji, Chikato; Inada, Taigo; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Maki, Satoshi; Ijima, Yasushi; Saito, Junya; Kitamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Inage, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Masashi; Koda, Masao

    2017-01-01

    How aging affects the spinal cord at a molecular level is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore spinal cord aging-related proteins that may be involved in pathological mechanisms of age-related changes in the spinal cord. Spinal cords of 2-year-old and 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were dissected from the animals. Protein samples were subjected to 2-dimentional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Screened proteins were further investigated with immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Among the screened proteins, we selected α-crystallin B-subunit (αB-crystallin) and peripherin for further investigation because these proteins were previously reported to be related to central nervous system pathologies. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting revealed significant upregulation of αB-crystallin and peripherin expression in aged rat spinal cord. Further exploration is needed to elucidate the precise mechanism and potential role of these upregulated proteins in spinal cord aging processes.

  1. Exploration of Spinal Cord Aging–Related Proteins Using a Proteomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Koshiro; Furuya, Takeo; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Mannoji, Chikato; Inada, Taigo; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Maki, Satoshi; Ijima, Yasushi; Saito, Junya; Kitamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Inage, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Masashi; Koda, Masao

    2017-01-01

    How aging affects the spinal cord at a molecular level is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore spinal cord aging–related proteins that may be involved in pathological mechanisms of age-related changes in the spinal cord. Spinal cords of 2-year-old and 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were dissected from the animals. Protein samples were subjected to 2-dimentional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Screened proteins were further investigated with immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Among the screened proteins, we selected α-crystallin B-subunit (αB-crystallin) and peripherin for further investigation because these proteins were previously reported to be related to central nervous system pathologies. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting revealed significant upregulation of αB-crystallin and peripherin expression in aged rat spinal cord. Further exploration is needed to elucidate the precise mechanism and potential role of these upregulated proteins in spinal cord aging processes. PMID:28634429

  2. Resilience and the rehabilitation of adult spinal cord injury survivors: A qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kornhaber, Rachel; Mclean, Loyola; Betihavas, Vasiliki; Cleary, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    To synthesize the qualitative research evidence that explored how survivors of adult spinal cord injury experience and make sense of resilience. Spinal cord injury is often a sudden and unexpected life-changing event requiring complex and long-term rehabilitation. The development of resilience is essential in determining how spinal cord injury survivors negotiate this injury and rehabilitation. A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis of the research evidence. CINAHL, PubMed, Embase, Scopus and PsycINFO were searched, no restriction dates were used. Methodological quality was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Thematic synthesis focused on how survivors of adult spinal cord injury experience and make sense of resilience. Six qualitative research articles reported the experiences of 84 spinal cord injury survivors. Themes identified were: uncertainty and regaining independence; prior experiences of resilience; adopting resilient thinking; and strengthening resilience through supports. Recovery and rehabilitation following